Science.gov

Sample records for broadband noise prediction

  1. CAA broadband noise prediction for aeroacoustic design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewert, R.; Dierke, J.; Siebert, J.; Neifeld, A.; Appel, C.; Siefert, M.; Kornow, O.

    2011-08-01

    The current status of a computational aeroacoustics (CAA) approach to simulate broadband noise is reviewed. The method rests on the use of steady Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulation to describe the time-averaged motion of turbulent flow. By means of synthetic turbulence the steady one-point statistics (e.g. turbulence kinetic energy) and turbulent length- and time-scales of RANS are translated into fluctuations having statistics that very accurately reproduce the initial RANS target-setting. The synthetic fluctuations are used to prescribe sound sources which drive linear perturbation equations. The whole approach represents a methodology to solve statistical noise theory with state-of-the-art CAA tools in the time-domain. A brief overview of the synthetic turbulence model and its numerical discretization in terms of the random particle-mesh (RPM) and fast random particle-mesh (FRPM) method is given. Results are presented for trailing-edge noise, slat noise, and jet noise. Some problems related to the formulation of vortex sound sources are discussed.

  2. Broadband trailing edge noise predictions in the time domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casper, J.; Farassat, F.

    2004-03-01

    A recently developed analytic result in acoustics, "Formulation 1B," is used to compute broadband trailing edge noise from an unsteady surface pressure distribution on a thin airfoil in the time domain. This formulation is a new solution of the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equation with the loading source term, and has been shown in previous research to provide time domain predictions of broadband noise that are in excellent agreement with experimental results. Furthermore, this formulation lends itself readily to rotating reference frames and statistical analysis of broadband trailing edge noise. In the present work, Formulation 1B is used to calculate the farfield noise radiated from the trailing edge of a NACA 0012 airfoil in a low Mach number flow, using both analytical and experimental data on the airfoil surface. The acoustic predictions are compared with analytical results and experimental measurements that are available in the literature. Good agreement between predictions and measurements is obtained.

  3. Broadband Trailing Edge Noise Predictions in the Time Domain. Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casper, Jay; Farassat, Fereidoun

    2003-01-01

    A recently developed analytic result in acoustics, "Formulation 1B," is used to compute broadband trailing edge noise from an unsteady surface pressure distribution on a thin airfoil in the time domain. This formulation is a new solution of the Ffowcs Willliams-Hawkings equation with the loading source term, and has been shown in previous research to provide time domain predictions of broadband noise that are in excellent agreement with experimental results. Furthermore, this formulation lends itself readily to rotating reference frames and statistical analysis of broadband trailing edge noise. Formulation 1B is used to calculate the far field noise radiated from the trailing edge of a NACA 0012 airfoil in low Mach number flows, by using both analytical and experimental data on the airfoil surface. The acoustic predictions are compared with analytical results and experimental measurements that are available in the literature. Good agreement between predictions and measurements is obtained.

  4. Rotor Broadband Noise Prediction with Comparison to Model Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Thomas F.; Burley, Casey L.

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports an analysis and prediction development of rotor broadband noise. The two primary components of this noise are Blade-Wake Interaction (BWI) noise, due to the blades' interaction with the turbulent wakes of the preceding blades, and "Self" noise, due to the development and shedding of turbulence within the blades' boundary layers. Emphasized in this report is the new code development for Self noise. The analysis and validation employs data from the HART program, a model BO-105 rotor wind tunnel test conducted in the German-Dutch Wind Tunnel (DNW). The BWI noise predictions are based on measured pressure response coherence functions using cross-spectral methods. The Self noise predictions are based on previously reported semiempirical modeling of Self noise obtained from isolated airfoil sections and the use of CAMRAD.Modl to define rotor performance and local blade segment flow conditions. Both BWI and Self noise from individual blade segments are Doppler shifted and summed at the observer positions. Prediction comparisons with measurements show good agreement for a range of rotor operating conditions from climb to steep descent. The broadband noise predictions, along with those of harmonic and impulsive Blade-Vortex Interaction (BVI) noise predictions, demonstrate a significant advance in predictive capability for main rotor noise.

  5. The Prediction of Scattered Broadband Shock-Associated Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Steven A. E.

    2015-01-01

    A mathematical model is developed for the prediction of scattered broadband shock-associated noise. Model arguments are dependent on the vector Green's function of the linearized Euler equations, steady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes solutions, and the two-point cross-correlation of the equivalent source. The equivalent source is dependent on steady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes solutions of the jet flow, that capture the nozzle geometry and airframe surface. Contours of the time-averaged streamwise velocity component and turbulent kinetic energy are examined with varying airframe position relative to the nozzle exit. Propagation effects are incorporated by approximating the vector Green's function of the linearized Euler equations. This approximation involves the use of ray theory and an assumption that broadband shock-associated noise is relatively unaffected by the refraction of the jet shear layer. A non-dimensional parameter is proposed that quantifies the changes of the broadband shock-associated noise source with varying jet operating condition and airframe position. Scattered broadband shock-associated noise possesses a second set of broadband lobes that are due to the effect of scattering. Presented predictions demonstrate relatively good agreement compared to a wide variety of measurements.

  6. The prediction of broadband noise from wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glegg, S. A. L.; Baxter, S. M.; Glendinning, A. G.

    1987-10-01

    This paper describes a broadband noise prediction scheme for wind turbines. The source mechanisms included in the method are unsteady lift noise, unsteady thickness noise, trailing edge noise and the noise from separated flow. Special methods have been developed to model the inflow turbulence from the atmospheric boundary layer and acoustic radiation to the geometric near field of the rotor. Predictions are compared with measurements on 20 m and 80 m diameter wind turbines. The results show that the turbulence length scale in the atmospheric boundary layer is too large to give the measured noise levels. Very good agreement is obtained between predictions and measurements if the turbulence length scale is taken to be equal to the blade chord.

  7. Broadband Noise Control Using Predictive Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eure, Kenneth W.; Juang, Jer-Nan

    1997-01-01

    Predictive controllers have found applications in a wide range of industrial processes. Two types of such controllers are generalized predictive control and deadbeat control. Recently, deadbeat control has been augmented to include an extended horizon. This modification, named deadbeat predictive control, retains the advantage of guaranteed stability and offers a novel way of control weighting. This paper presents an application of both predictive control techniques to vibration suppression of plate modes. Several system identification routines are presented. Both algorithms are outlined and shown to be useful in the suppression of plate vibrations. Experimental results are given and the algorithms are shown to be applicable to non- minimal phase systems.

  8. Program Predicts Broadband Noise from a Turbofan Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morin, Bruce L.

    2004-01-01

    Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System (BFaNS) is a computer program that, as its name indicates, predicts the broadband noise generated by the fan stage of a turbofan engine. This noise is the sum of (1) turbulent-inflow noise, which is caused by turbulence impinging on leading edges of the fan and the fan exit guide vane and (2) self noise, which is caused by turbulence convecting past the corresponding trailing edges. The user provides input data on the fan-blade, vane, and flow-path geometries and on the mean and turbulent components of the flow field. BFaNS then calculates the turbulent-inflow noise by use of D. B. Hanson's theory, which relates sound power to the inflow turbulence characteristics and the cascade geometry. Hanson s program, BBCASCADE, is incorporated into BFaNS, wherein it is applied to the rotor and stator in a stripwise manner. The spectra of upstream and downstream sound powers radiated by each strip are summed to obtain the total upstream and downstream sound-power spectra. The self-noise contributions are calculated by S. A. L. Glegg's theory, which is also applied in a stripwise manner. The current version of BFaNS is limited to fans with subsonic tip speeds.

  9. Broadband Noise Predictions Based on a New Aeroacoustic Formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casper, J.; Farassat, F.

    2002-01-01

    A new analytic result in acoustics called 'Formulation 1B,' proposed by Farassat, is used to compute the loading noise from an unsteady surface pressure distribution on a thin airfoil in the time domain. This formulation is a new solution of the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equation with the loading source term. The formulation contains a far-field surface integral that depends on the time derivative and the surface gradient of the pressure on the airfoil, as well as a contour integral on the boundary of the airfoil surface. As a first test case, the new formulation is used to compute the noise radiated from a flat plate, moving through a sinusoidal gust of constant frequency. The unsteady surface pressure for this test case is specified analytically from a result that is based on linear airfoil theory. This test case is used to examine the velocity scaling properties of Formulation 1B, and to demonstrate its equivalence to Formulation 1A, of Farassat. The new acoustic formulation, again with an analytic surface pressure, is then used to predict broadband noise radiated from an airfoil immersed in homogeneous turbulence. The results are compared with experimental data previously reported by Paterson and Amiet. Good agreement between predictions and measurements is obtained. The predicted results also agree very well with those of Paterson and Amiet, who used a frequency-domain approach. Finally, an alternative form of Formulation 1B is described for statistical analysis of broadband noise.

  10. A New Time Domain Formulation for Broadband Noise Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casper, J.; Farassat, F.

    2002-01-01

    A new analytic result in acoustics called "Formulation 1B," proposed by Farassat, is used to compute the loading noise from an unsteady surface pressure distribution on a thin airfoil in the time domain. This formulation is a new solution of the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equation with the loading source term. The formulation contains a far field surface integral that depends on the time derivative and the surface gradient of the pressure on the airfoil, as well as a contour integral on the boundary of the airfoil surface. As a first test case, the new formulation is used to compute the noise radiated from a flat plate, moving through a sinusoidal gust of constant frequency. The unsteady surface pressure for this test case is analytically specified from a result based on linear airfoil theory. This test case is used to examine the velocity scaling properties of Formulation 1B and to demonstrate its equivalence to Formulation 1A of Farassat. The new acoustic formulation, again with an analytic surface pressure, is then used to predict broadband noise radiated from an airfoil immersed in homogeneous, isotropic turbulence. The results are compared with experimental data previously reported by Paterson and Amiet. Good agreement between predictions and measurements is obtained. Finally, an alternative form of Formulation 1B is described for statistical analysis of broadband noise.

  11. A New Time Domain Formulation for Broadband Noise Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casper, Jay H.; Farassat, Fereidoun

    2002-01-01

    A new analytic result in acoustics called "Formulation 1B," proposed by Farassat, is used to compute the loading noise from an unsteady surface pressure distribution on a thin airfoil in the time domain. This formulation is a new solution of the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equation with the loading source term. The formulation contains a far field surface integral that depends on the time derivative and the surface gradient of the pressure on the airfoil, as well as a contour integral on the boundary of the airfoil surface. As a first test case, the new formulation is used to compute the noise radiated from a flat plate, moving through a sinusoidal gust of constant frequency. The unsteady surface pressure for this test case is analytically specied from a result based on linear airfoil theory. This test case is used to examine the velocity scaling properties of Formulation 1B and to demonstrate its equivalence to Formulation 1A of Farassat. The new acoustic formulation, again with an analytic surface pressure, is then used to predict broadband noise radiated from an airfoil immersed in homogeneous, isotropic turbulence. The results are compared with experimental data previously reported by Paterson and Amiet. Good agreement between predictions and measurements is obtained. Finally, an alternative form of Formulation 1B is described for statistical analysis of broadband noise.

  12. The Prediction of Broadband Shock-Associated Noise from Dualstream and Rectangular Jets Using RANS CFD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Steven A.; Morris, Philip J.

    2010-01-01

    Supersonic jets operating off-design produce broadband shock-associated noise. Broadband shock-associated noise is characterized by multiple broadband peaks in the far-field and is often the dominant source of noise towards the sideline and upstream direction relative to the jet axis. It is due to large scale coherent turbulence structures in the jet shear layers interacting with the shock cell structure. A broadband shock-associated noise model recently developed by the authors predicts this noise component from solutions to the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations using a two-equation turbulence model. The broadband shock-associated noise model is applied to dualstream and rectangular nozzles operating supersonically, heated, and off-design. The dualstream jet broadband shock-associated noise predictions are conducted for cases when the core jet is supersonic and the fan jet is subsonic, the core jet is subsonic and the fan jet is supersonic, and when both jet streams operate supersonically. Rectangular jet predictions are shown for a convergent-divergent nozzle operating both over- and under-expanded for cold and heated conditions. The original model implementation has been heavily modified to make accurate predictions for the dualstream jets. It is also argued that for over-expanded jets the oblique shock wave attached to the nozzle lip contributes little to broadband shock-associated noise. All predictions are compared with experiments.

  13. Broadband Noise Predictions for an Airfoil in a Turbulent Stream

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casper, J.; Farassat, F.; Mish, P. F.; Devenport, W. J.

    2003-01-01

    Loading noise is predicted from unsteady surface pressure measurements on a NACA 0015 airfoil immersed in grid-generated turbulence. The time-dependent pressure is obtained from an array of synchronized transducers on the airfoil surface. Far field noise is predicted by using the time-dependent surface pressure as input to Formulation 1A of Farassat, a solution of the Ffowcs Williams - Hawkings equation. Acoustic predictions are performed with and without the effects of airfoil surface curvature. Scaling rules are developed to compare the present far field predictions with acoustic measurements that are available in the literature.

  14. Prediction of broadband noise from large horizontal axis wind turbine generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grosveld, F. W.

    1984-01-01

    A method is presented for predicting the broadband noise spectra of large horizontal axis wind turbine generators. It includes contributions from such noise sources as the inflow turbulence to the rotor, the interactions between the turbulent boundary layers on the blade surfaces with their trailing edges and the wake due to a blunt trailing edge. The method is partly empirical and is based on acoustic measurements of large wind turbines and airfoil models. The predicted frequency spectra are compared with measured data from several machines including the MOD-OA, the MOD-2, the WTS-4 and the U.S. Wind-power Inc. machine. Also included is a broadband noise prediction for the proposed MOD-5B. The significance of the effects of machine size, power output, trailing edge bluntness and distance to the receiver is illustrated. Good agreement is obtained between the predicted and measured far field noise spectra.

  15. Prediction of broadband noise from large horizontal axis wind turbine generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosveld, F. W.

    1984-10-01

    A method is presented for predicting the broadband noise spectra of large horizontal axis wind turbine generators. It includes contributions from such noise sources as the inflow turbulence to the rotor, the interactions between the turbulent boundary layers on the blade surfaces with their trailing edges and the wake due to a blunt trailing edge. The method is partly empirical and is based on acoustic measurements of large wind turbines and airfoil models. The predicted frequency spectra are compared with measured data from several machines including the MOD-OA, the MOD-2, the WTS-4 and the U.S. Wind-power Inc. machine. Also included is a broadband noise prediction for the proposed MOD-5B. The significance of the effects of machine size, power output, trailing edge bluntness and distance to the receiver is illustrated. Good agreement is obtained between the predicted and measured far field noise spectra.

  16. Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System for Turbofan Engines. Volume 3; Validation and Test Cases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morin, Bruce L.

    2010-01-01

    Pratt & Whitney has developed a Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System (BFaNS) for turbofan engines. This system computes the noise generated by turbulence impinging on the leading edges of the fan and fan exit guide vane, and noise generated by boundary-layer turbulence passing over the fan trailing edge. BFaNS has been validated on three fan rigs that were tested during the NASA Advanced Subsonic Technology Program (AST). The predicted noise spectra agreed well with measured data. The predicted effects of fan speed, vane count, and vane sweep also agreed well with measurements. The noise prediction system consists of two computer programs: Setup_BFaNS and BFaNS. Setup_BFaNS converts user-specified geometry and flow-field information into a BFaNS input file. From this input file, BFaNS computes the inlet and aft broadband sound power spectra generated by the fan and FEGV. The output file from BFaNS contains the inlet, aft and total sound power spectra from each noise source. This report is the third volume of a three-volume set documenting the Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System: Volume 1: Setup_BFaNS User s Manual and Developer s Guide; Volume 2: BFaNS User s Manual and Developer s Guide; and Volume 3: Validation and Test Cases. The present volume begins with an overview of the Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System, followed by validation studies that were done on three fan rigs. It concludes with recommended improvements and additional studies for BFaNS.

  17. A frequency domain numerical method for airfoil broadband self-noise prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Qidou; Joseph, Phillip

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a numerical approach, based in the frequency domain, for predicting the broadband self-noise radiation due to an airfoil situated in a smooth mean flow. Noise is generated by the interaction between the boundary layer turbulence on the airfoil surface and the airfoil trailing edge. Thin airfoil theory is used to deduce the unsteady blade loading. In this paper, the important difference with much of the previous work dealing with trailing edge noise is that the integration of the surface sources for computation of the radiated sound field is evaluated on the actual airfoil surface rather than in the mean-chord plane. The assumption of flat plate geometry in the calculation of radiation is therefore avoided. Moreover, the solution is valid in both near and far fields and reduces to the analytic solution due to Amiet when the airfoil collapses to a flat plate with large span, and the measurement point is taken to the far field. Predictions of the airfoil broadband self-noise radiation presented here are shown to be in reasonable agreement with the predictions obtained using the Brooks approach, which are based on a comprehensive database of experimental data. Also investigated in this paper is the effect on the broadband noise prediction of relaxing the 'frozen-gust' assumption, whereby the turbulence at each frequency comprises a continuous spectrum of streamwise wavenumber components. It is shown that making the frozen gust assumption yields an under-prediction of the noise spectrum by approximately 2dB compared with that obtained when this assumption is relaxed, with the largest occurring at high frequencies. This paper concludes with a comparison of the broadband noise directivity for a flat-plat, a NACA 0012 and a NACA 0024 airfoil at non-zero angle of attack. Differences of up to 20 dB are predicted, with the largest difference occurring at a radiation angle of zero degrees relative to the airfoil mean centre line.

  18. Broadband rotor noise analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, A. R.; Chou, S. T.

    1984-01-01

    The various mechanisms which generate broadband noise on a range of rotors studied include load fluctuations due to inflow turbulence, due to turbulent boundary layers passing the blades' trailing edges, and due to tip vortex formation. Existing analyses are used and extensions to them are developed to make more accurate predictions of rotor noise spectra and to determine which mechanisms are important in which circumstances. Calculations based on the various prediction methods in existing experiments were compared. The present analyses are adequate to predict the spectra from a wide variety of experiments on fans, full scale and model scale helicopter rotors, wind turbines, and propellers to within about 5 to 10 dB. Better knowledge of the inflow turbulence improves the accuracy of the predictions. Results indicate that inflow turbulence noise depends strongly on ambient conditions and dominates at low frequencies. Trailing edge noise and tip vortex noise are important at higher frequencies if inflow turbulence is weak. Boundary layer trailing edge noise, important, for large sized rotors, increases slowly with angle of attack but not as rapidly as tip vortex noise.

  19. Broadband rotor noise analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, A. R.; Chou, S. T.

    1984-04-01

    The various mechanisms which generate broadband noise on a range of rotors studied include load fluctuations due to inflow turbulence, due to turbulent boundary layers passing the blades' trailing edges, and due to tip vortex formation. Existing analyses are used and extensions to them are developed to make more accurate predictions of rotor noise spectra and to determine which mechanisms are important in which circumstances. Calculations based on the various prediction methods in existing experiments were compared. The present analyses are adequate to predict the spectra from a wide variety of experiments on fans, full scale and model scale helicopter rotors, wind turbines, and propellers to within about 5 to 10 dB. Better knowledge of the inflow turbulence improves the accuracy of the predictions. Results indicate that inflow turbulence noise depends strongly on ambient conditions and dominates at low frequencies. Trailing edge noise and tip vortex noise are important at higher frequencies if inflow turbulence is weak. Boundary layer trailing edge noise, important, for large sized rotors, increases slowly with angle of attack but not as rapidly as tip vortex noise.

  20. Measurement and prediction of broadband noise from large horizontal axis wind turbine generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosveld, F. W.; Shepherd, K. P.; Hubbard, H. H.

    1995-05-01

    A method is presented for predicting the broadband noise spectra of large wind turbine generators. It includes contributions from such noise sources as the inflow turbulence to the rotor, the interactions between the turbulent boundary layers on the blade surfaces with their trailing edges and the wake due to a blunt trailing edge. The method is partly empirical and is based on acoustic measurements of large wind turbines and airfoil models. Spectra are predicted for several large machines including the proposed MOD-5B. Measured data are presented for the MOD-2, the WTS-4, the MOD-OA, and the U.S. Windpower Inc. machines. Good agreement is shown between the predicted and measured far field noise spectra.

  1. Measurement and prediction of broadband noise from large horizontal axis wind turbine generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grosveld, F. W.; Shepherd, K. P.; Hubbard, H. H.

    1995-01-01

    A method is presented for predicting the broadband noise spectra of large wind turbine generators. It includes contributions from such noise sources as the inflow turbulence to the rotor, the interactions between the turbulent boundary layers on the blade surfaces with their trailing edges and the wake due to a blunt trailing edge. The method is partly empirical and is based on acoustic measurements of large wind turbines and airfoil models. Spectra are predicted for several large machines including the proposed MOD-5B. Measured data are presented for the MOD-2, the WTS-4, the MOD-OA, and the U.S. Windpower Inc. machines. Good agreement is shown between the predicted and measured far field noise spectra.

  2. Prediction of Broadband Shock-Associated Noise Including Propagation Effects Originating NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Steven; Morris, Philip J.

    2012-01-01

    An acoustic analogy is developed based on the Euler equations for broadband shock-associated noise (BBSAN) that directly incorporates the vector Green s function of the linearized Euler equations and a steady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes solution (SRANS) to describe the mean flow. The vector Green s function allows the BBSAN propagation through the jet shear layer to be determined. The large-scale coherent turbulence is modeled by two-point second order velocity cross-correlations. Turbulent length and time scales are related to the turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation rate. An adjoint vector Green s function solver is implemented to determine the vector Green s function based on a locally parallel mean flow at different streamwise locations. The newly developed acoustic analogy can be simplified to one that uses the Green s function associated with the Helmholtz equation, which is consistent with a previous formulation by the authors. A large number of predictions are generated using three different nozzles over a wide range of fully-expanded jet Mach numbers and jet stagnation temperatures. These predictions are compared with experimental data from multiple jet noise experimental facilities. In addition, two models for the so-called fine-scale mixing noise are included in the comparisons. Improved BBSAN predictions are obtained relative to other models that do not include propagation effects.

  3. Frequency-domain prediction of broadband trailing edge noise from a blunt flat plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Gwang-Se; Cheong, Cheolung

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study is to develop an efficient methodology for frequency-domain prediction of broadband trailing edge noise from a blunt flat plate where non-zero pressure gradient may exist in its boundary layer. This is achieved in two ways: (i) by developing new models for point pressure spectra within the boundary layer over a flat plate, and (ii) by deriving a simple formula to approximate the effect of convective velocity on the radiated noise spectrum. Firstly, two types of point pressure spectra-required as input data to predict the trailing edge noise in the frequency domain-are used. One is determined using the semi-analytic (S-A) models based on the boundary-layer theory combined with existing empirical models. It is shown that the prediction using these models show good agreements with the measurements where zero-pressure gradient assumption is valid. However, the prediction show poor agreement with that obtained from large eddy simulation results where negative (favorable) pressure gradient is observed with the boundary layer. Based on boundary layer characteristics predicted using the large eddy simulations, new model for point wall pressure spectra is proposed to account for the effect of favorable pressure gradient over the blunt flat plate on the wall pressure spectra. Sound spectra that were predicted using these models are compared with measurements to validate the proposed prediction scheme. The advantage of the semi-analytic model is that it can be applied to problems at Reynolds numbers for which the empirical model is not available. In addition, it is expected that the current models can be applied to the cases where favorable pressure gradient exists in the boundary layer over a blunt flat plate. Secondly, in order to quantitatively analyze contributions of the pressure field within the turbulent boundary layer on the flat plate to trailing edge noise, total pressure over the surface of airfoil is decomposed into its two constituents: incident pressure generated in the boundary layer without a trailing edge and the pressure formed by the scattering of the incident pressure at the trailing edge. The predictions made using each of the incident and scattered pressures reveal that the convective velocity of turbulence in the boundary layer dominantly affects the radiated sound pressure spectrum, both in terms of the gross behavior of the overall acoustic pressure spectrum through the scattered pressure and in terms of the narrow band small fluctuations of the spectrum through the incident pressure. The interaction term between the incident and the scattered is defined and the incident is shown to contribute to the radiated acoustic pressure through the interaction term. Based on this finding, a simple model to effectively compute the effects of convection velocities of the turbulence on the radiated sound pressure spectrum is proposed. It is shown that the proposed method can effectively and accurately predict the broadband trailing edge noise from the plate with considering both the incident and the scattered contributions.

  4. Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System for Turbofan Engines. Volume 2; BFaNS User's Manual and Developer's Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morin, Bruce L.

    2010-01-01

    Pratt & Whitney has developed a Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System (BFaNS) for turbofan engines. This system computes the noise generated by turbulence impinging on the leading edges of the fan and fan exit guide vane, and noise generated by boundary-layer turbulence passing over the fan trailing edge. BFaNS has been validated on three fan rigs that were tested during the NASA Advanced Subsonic Technology Program (AST). The predicted noise spectra agreed well with measured data. The predicted effects of fan speed, vane count, and vane sweep also agreed well with measurements. The noise prediction system consists of two computer programs: Setup_BFaNS and BFaNS. Setup_BFaNS converts user-specified geometry and flow-field information into a BFaNS input file. From this input file, BFaNS computes the inlet and aft broadband sound power spectra generated by the fan and FEGV. The output file from BFaNS contains the inlet, aft and total sound power spectra from each noise source. This report is the second volume of a three-volume set documenting the Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System: Volume 1: Setup_BFaNS User s Manual and Developer s Guide; Volume 2: BFaNS User s Manual and Developer s Guide; and Volume 3: Validation and Test Cases. The present volume begins with an overview of the Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System, followed by step-by-step instructions for installing and running BFaNS. It concludes with technical documentation of the BFaNS computer program.

  5. Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System for Turbofan Engines. Volume 1; Setup_BFaNS User's Manual and Developer's Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morin, Bruce L.

    2010-01-01

    Pratt & Whitney has developed a Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System (BFaNS) for turbofan engines. This system computes the noise generated by turbulence impinging on the leading edges of the fan and fan exit guide vane, and noise generated by boundary-layer turbulence passing over the fan trailing edge. BFaNS has been validated on three fan rigs that were tested during the NASA Advanced Subsonic Technology Program (AST). The predicted noise spectra agreed well with measured data. The predicted effects of fan speed, vane count, and vane sweep also agreed well with measurements. The noise prediction system consists of two computer programs: Setup_BFaNS and BFaNS. Setup_BFaNS converts user-specified geometry and flow-field information into a BFaNS input file. From this input file, BFaNS computes the inlet and aft broadband sound power spectra generated by the fan and FEGV. The output file from BFaNS contains the inlet, aft and total sound power spectra from each noise source. This report is the first volume of a three-volume set documenting the Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System: Volume 1: Setup_BFaNS User s Manual and Developer s Guide; Volume 2: BFaNS User's Manual and Developer s Guide; and Volume 3: Validation and Test Cases. The present volume begins with an overview of the Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System, followed by step-by-step instructions for installing and running Setup_BFaNS. It concludes with technical documentation of the Setup_BFaNS computer program.

  6. The Prediction of Broadband Shock-Associated Noise Including Propagation Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Steven; Morris, Philip J.

    2011-01-01

    An acoustic analogy is developed based on the Euler equations for broadband shock- associated noise (BBSAN) that directly incorporates the vector Green's function of the linearized Euler equations and a steady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes solution (SRANS) as the mean flow. The vector Green's function allows the BBSAN propagation through the jet shear layer to be determined. The large-scale coherent turbulence is modeled by two-point second order velocity cross-correlations. Turbulent length and time scales are related to the turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation. An adjoint vector Green's function solver is implemented to determine the vector Green's function based on a locally parallel mean flow at streamwise locations of the SRANS solution. However, the developed acoustic analogy could easily be based on any adjoint vector Green's function solver, such as one that makes no assumptions about the mean flow. The newly developed acoustic analogy can be simplified to one that uses the Green's function associated with the Helmholtz equation, which is consistent with the formulation of Morris and Miller (AIAAJ 2010). A large number of predictions are generated using three different nozzles over a wide range of fully expanded Mach numbers and jet stagnation temperatures. These predictions are compared with experimental data from multiple jet noise labs. In addition, two models for the so-called 'fine-scale' mixing noise are included in the comparisons. Improved BBSAN predictions are obtained relative to other models that do not include the propagation effects, especially in the upstream direction of the jet.

  7. On the use of a uniformly valid analytical cascade response function for fan broadband noise predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posson, H.; Moreau, S.; Roger, M.

    2010-08-01

    The present paper extends an existing analytical model of the aeroacoustic response of a rectilinear cascade of flat-plate blades to three-dimensional incident vortical gusts, to the prediction of the noise generated by a three-dimensional annular blade-row. The extended formulation is meant to be implemented in a fan broadband noise prediction tool. The intended applications include the modern turbofan engines, for which analytical modelling is believed to be a good alternative to more expensive numerical techniques. The prediction noise model resorts to a strip theory approach based on a three-dimensional rectilinear cascade model. The latter is based on the Wiener-Hopf technique, and yields the pressure field in the blade passage and the unsteady blade loading. The analytical pressure solution is derived by making an extensive use of the residue theorem. The obtained unsteady blade loading distribution over the blades is then used as a dipole source distribution in an acoustic analogy applied in the annular rigid duct with uniform mean flow. The new achievements are then tested on three-dimensional annular-benchmark configurations and compared with three-dimensional lifting-surface models and three-dimensional Euler linearized codes available in the literature. The accuracy of the model is shown for high hub-to-tip ratio cases. When used as such in a true rectilinear-cascade configuration, it also reproduces the exact radiated field that can be derived directly. For low hub-to-tip ratio configurations, the model departs from three-dimensional computations, both regarding the blade loading and the acoustic radiation. A correction is proposed to account for the actual annular dispersion relation in the rectilinear-cascade response function. The results suggest that the proposed correction is necessary to get closer to the underlying physics of the annular-space wave equation, but that it is yet not sufficient to fully reproduce three-dimensional results.

  8. Assessment of Geometry and In-Flow Effects on Contra-Rotating Open Rotor Broadband Noise Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zawodny, Nikolas S.; Nark, Douglas M.; Boyd, D. Douglas, Jr.

    2015-01-01

    Application of previously formulated semi-analytical models for the prediction of broadband noise due to turbulent rotor wake interactions and rotor blade trailing edges is performed on the historical baseline F31/A31 contra-rotating open rotor configuration. Simplified two-dimensional blade element analysis is performed on cambered NACA 4-digit airfoil profiles, which are meant to serve as substitutes for the actual rotor blade sectional geometries. Rotor in-flow effects such as induced axial and tangential velocities are incorporated into the noise prediction models based on supporting computational fluid dynamics (CFD) results and simplified in-flow velocity models. Emphasis is placed on the development of simplified rotor in-flow models for the purpose of performing accurate noise predictions independent of CFD information. The broadband predictions are found to compare favorably with experimental acoustic results.

  9. Broadband noise prediction of fan outlet guide vane using a cascade response function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posson, H.; Moreau, S.; Roger, M.

    2011-12-01

    An analytical model of the broadband noise produced by both the interaction of ingested turbulence with a fan rotor blades and the rotor-wake impingement on downstream stator vanes is proposed and detailed. The noise prediction methodology is a strip-theory approach based on a previously published formulation of the three-dimensional unsteady blade loading for a rectilinear cascade. This three-dimensional cascade response applied in each strip combined with an acoustic analogy in an annular duct have been chosen to account for the main three-dimensional effects. To further improve some of the identified limitations of this approach, a correction is added to mitigate the effects of the non-coincidence of the cut-on frequencies of the annular duct modes and of the modes of the rectilinear cascade. A correction of the unsteady blade loading formulation, previously developed in a tonal configuration, is also introduced to account for the dispersion relation of annular duct modes in the rectilinear-cascade model. The model is compared with experimental results of the 22-in source diagnostic test (SDT) fan rig of the NASA Glenn Research Center. A numerical assessment of the simplifications proposed in the model and of the convergence of the truncated sums in spanwise wavenumbers and azimuthal orders of the incident perturbation is carried out. The subcritical gusts are shown to have a crucial effect at low frequencies, whereas they become negligible at higher frequencies. Furthermore, alternative high-frequency formulations lead to a satisfactory accuracy above a Helmholtz number based on the duct radius of 20. The strong reduction in computational time associated with these formulations could justify their use for parametric studies in industrial context. The effect of the turbulence model is also investigated showing the relevance of Liepmann's isotropic model in the SDT case, and a possible strong effect of anisotropy in static tests. Finally, the model is compared with NASA's experimental results for two outlet guide vanes at approach condition, showing a very good agreement upstream, whereas an underestimate of 3-5 dB is observed downstream in the middle frequency range.

  10. Progress in rotor broadband noise research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, T. F.; Schlinker, R. H.

    1983-01-01

    The current status of research on various rotor broadband noise sources is reviewed. Theoretical modeling techniques which appear to have the most promise in the development of successful noise prediction capabilities are emphasized. The types of noise considered include: turbulence ingestion noise, blade self-noise due to turbulence passing the trailing edge, blade self-noise due to separated flow, and blade self-noise due to vortex shedding. Comparisons with experimental results are given, and present theoretical and experimental limitations are delineated to help identify areas of needed research.

  11. Broadband Noise Prediction When Turbulence Simulation Is Available - Derivation of Formulation 2B and Its Statistical Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farassat, Fereidoun; Casper, Jay H.

    2012-01-01

    We show that a simple modification of Formulation 1 of Farassat results in a new analytic expression that is highly suitable for broadband noise prediction when extensive turbulence simulation is available. This result satisfies all the stringent requirements, such as permitting the use of the exact geometry and kinematics of the moving body, that we have set as our goal in the derivation of useful acoustic formulas for the prediction of rotating blade and airframe noise. We also derive a simple analytic expression for the autocorrelation of the acoustic pressure that is valid in the near and far fields. Our analysis is based on the time integral of the acoustic pressure that can easily be obtained at any resolution for any observer time interval and digitally analyzed for broadband noise prediction. We have named this result as Formulation 2B of Farassat. One significant consequence of Formulation 2B is the derivation of the acoustic velocity potential for the thickness and loading terms of the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FW-H) equation. This will greatly enhance the usefulness of the Fast Scattering Code (FSC) by providing a high fidelity boundary condition input for scattering predictions.

  12. Broadband noise prediction when turbulence simulation is available—Derivation of Formulation 2B and its statistical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farassat, F.; Casper, J.

    2012-05-01

    We show that a simple modification of Formulation 1 of Farassat results in a new analytic expression that is highly suitable for broadband noise prediction when extensive turbulence simulation is available. This result satisfies all the stringent requirements, such as permitting the use of the exact geometry and kinematics of the moving body, which we have set as our goal in the derivation of useful acoustic formulas for the prediction of rotating blade and airframe noise. We also derive a simple analytic expression for the autocorrelation of the acoustic pressure that is valid in the near and far fields. Our analysis is based on the time integral of the acoustic pressure that can easily be obtained at any resolution for any observer time interval and digitally analyzed for broadband noise prediction. We have named this result as Formulation 2B of Farassat. One significant consequence of Formulation 2B is the derivation of the acoustic velocity potential for the thickness and loading terms of the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FW-H) equation. This will greatly enhance the usefulness of the Fast Scattering Code (FSC) by providing a high-fidelity boundary condition input for scattering predictions.

  13. Unsteady Fast Random Particle Mesh method for efficient prediction of tonal and broadband noises of a centrifugal fan unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heo, Seung; Cheong, Cheolung; Kim, Taehoon

    2015-09-01

    In this study, efficient numerical method is proposed for predicting tonal and broadband noises of a centrifugal fan unit. The proposed method is based on Hybrid Computational Aero-Acoustic (H-CAA) techniques combined with Unsteady Fast Random Particle Mesh (U-FRPM) method. The U-FRPM method is developed by extending the FRPM method proposed by Ewert et al. and is utilized to synthesize turbulence flow field from unsteady RANS solutions. The H-CAA technique combined with U-FRPM method is applied to predict broadband as well as tonal noises of a centrifugal fan unit in a household refrigerator. Firstly, unsteady flow field driven by a rotating fan is computed by solving the RANS equations with Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) techniques. Main source regions around the rotating fan are identified by examining the computed flow fields. Then, turbulence flow fields in the main source regions are synthesized by applying the U-FRPM method. The acoustic analogy is applied to model acoustic sources in the main source regions. Finally, the centrifugal fan noise is predicted by feeding the modeled acoustic sources into an acoustic solver based on the Boundary Element Method (BEM). The sound spectral levels predicted using the current numerical method show good agreements with the measured spectra at the Blade Pass Frequencies (BPFs) as well as in the high frequency range. On the more, the present method enables quantitative assessment of relative contributions of identified source regions to the sound field by comparing predicted sound pressure spectrum due to modeled sources.

  14. Broadband noise of propellers and rotors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, A. R.; Chou, S.-T.

    Three categories of rotor noise (discrete frequency noise, impulsive noise, and broadband noise) are described and a study made of broadband noise is reported. Broadband noise has a continuous spectrum and is caused by disturbances which are not precisely repeated at each blade revolution but are basically due to some sort of turbulence-blade interactions. Source mechanisms include: inflow turbulence noise, boundary layer trailing edge noise, tip vortex noise, and several uncommon mechanisms. Broadband noise analyses are reviewed and calculations based on various analyses are compared to each other and to some available experimental data. Several satisfactory analyses are discussed and their limitations are delineated. Twenty-two references are cited.

  15. CFD Computation of Broadband Fan Interaction Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grace, Sheryl M.; Sondak, Douglas L.; Dorney, Daniel J.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, a 3-D, unsteady, Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes CFD code coupled to an acoustic calculation is used to predict the contribution of the exit guide vanes to broadband fan noise. The configuration investigated is that corresponding to the NASA Source Diagnostic Test (SDT) 22-in fan rig. Then an acoustic model introduced by Nallasamy which is based on 2-D strip theory is used to compute the broadband rotor-stator interaction noise. One configuration from the SDT matrix is considered here: the fan speed correlating to approach, and outlet guide vane count designed for cut-off of the blade passage frequency. Thus, in the chosen configuration, there are 22 rotor blades and 54 stator blades. The stators are located 2.5 tip chords downstream of the rotor trailing edge. The RANS computations are used to obtain the spectra of the unsteady surface pressure on the exit guide vanes. This surface pressure is then integrated together with the Green's function for and infinite cylindrical duct to obtain the acoustic field. The results from this investigation validate the use of the CFD code along with the acoustic model for broadband fan noise predictions. The validation enables future investigations such as the determination of rotor tip clearance and stator solidity effects on fan rotor-stator interaction noise.

  16. Predicting Noise From Wind Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grosveld, Ferdinand W.

    1990-01-01

    Computer program WINDY predicts broadband noise spectra of horizontal-axis wind-turbine generators. Enables adequate assessment of impact of broadband wind-turbine noise. Effects of turbulence, trailing-edge wakes, and bluntness taken into account. Program has practical application in design and siting of wind-turbine machines acceptable to community. Written in GW-Basic.

  17. Predicting broadband noise from a stator vane of a gas turbine engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, Donald B. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A computer-implemented model of fan section of a gas turbine engine accounts for the turbulence in the gas flow emanating from the rotor assembly and impinging upon an inlet to the stator vane cascade. The model allows for user-input variations in the sweep and/or lean angles for the stator vanes. The model determines the resulting acoustic response of the fan section as a function of the turbulence and the lean and/or sweep angles of the vanes. The model may be embodied in software that is rapidly executed in a computer. This way, an optimum arrangement in terms of fan noise reduction is quickly determined for the stator vane lean and sweep physical positioning in the fan section of a gas turbine engine.

  18. Analyses of broadband noise mechanisms of rotors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, A. R.

    The various source mechanisms which generate broadband noise on a range of rotors are reviewed. Analyses of these mechanisms are presented and compared to existing experimental data. The sources considered are load fluctuations due to inflow turbulence, due to turbulent blade boundary layers passing the trailing edge, and due to tip vortex formation turbulence. Vortex shedding noise due to laminar boundary layers and blunt trailing edges is not considered in detail as it can be avoided in most cases. Present analyses are adequate to predict the spectra from a wide variety of experiments on fans, helicopter rotors, and wind turbines to within about 5 to 10 dB. Better knowledge of the inflow turbulence improves the accuracy of the predictions. Inflow turbulence noise depends strongly on ambient conditions and dominates at low frequencies. Trailing edge and tip vortex noise are important at higher frequencies if inflow turbulence is weak. Boundary layer trailing edge noise increases slowly with angle of attack but not as rapidly as tip vortex formation noise. Tip noise can be important at high angles of attack for wide chord, square edge tips.

  19. Analyses of broadband noise mechanisms of rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, A. R.

    1986-01-01

    The various source mechanisms which generate broadband noise on a range of rotors are reviewed. Analyses of these mechanisms are presented and compared to existing experimental data. The sources considered are load fluctuations due to inflow turbulence, due to turbulent blade boundary layers passing the trailing edge, and due to tip vortex formation turbulence. Vortex shedding noise due to laminar boundary layers and blunt trailing edges is not considered in detail as it can be avoided in most cases. Present analyses are adequate to predict the spectra from a wide variety of experiments on fans, helicopter rotors, and wind turbines to within about 5 to 10 dB. Better knowledge of the inflow turbulence improves the accuracy of the predictions. Inflow turbulence noise depends strongly on ambient conditions and dominates at low frequencies. Trailing edge and tip vortex noise are important at higher frequencies if inflow turbulence is weak. Boundary layer trailing edge noise increases slowly with angle of attack but not as rapidly as tip vortex formation noise. Tip noise can be important at high angles of attack for wide chord, square edge tips.

  20. Noise Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-01-01

    Through COSMIC, United Information Services, Inc., (UIS) in Raleigh, NC, purchased a software package consisting of two computer programs--NOIZ and RAYTR. These programs, enhanced by UIS for its particular applications, are used to provide computer analysis of noise level predictions for clients. Predictions are then used in design of new buildings or in remodeling existing plants.

  1. A study of rotor broadband noise mechanisms and helicopter tail rotor noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Shau-Tak Rudy

    1990-01-01

    The rotor broadband noise mechanisms considered are the following: (1) lift fluctuation due to turbulence ingestion; (2) boundary layer/trailing edge interaction; (3) tip vortex formation; and (4) turbulent vortex shedding from blunt trailing edge. Predictions show good agreement with available experimental data. The study shows that inflow turbulence is the most important broadband noise source for typical helicopters' main rotors at low- and mid-frequencies. Due to the size difference, isolated helicopter tail rotor broadband noise is not important compared to the much louder main rotor broadband noise. However, the inflow turbulence noise from a tail rotor can be very significant because it is operating in a highly turbulent environment, ingesting wakes from upstream components of the helicopter. The study indicates that the main rotor turbulent wake is the most important source of tail rotor broadband noise. The harmonic noise due to ingestion of main rotor tip vortices is studied.

  2. Localization of aerial broadband noise by pinnipeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, Marla M.; Schusterman, Ronald J.; Southall, Brandon L.; Kastak, David

    2004-05-01

    Although many pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, and walruses) emit broadband calls on land as part of their communication system, few studies have addressed these animals' ability to localize aerial broadband sounds. In this study, the aerial sound localization acuities of a female northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris), a male harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), and a female California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) were measured in the horizontal plane. The stimulus was broadband white noise that was band pass filtered between 1.2 and 15 kHz. Testing was conducted in a hemi-anechoic chamber using a left/right forced choice procedure to measure the minimum audible angle (MAA) for each subject. MAAs were defined as half the angular separation of two sound sources bisected by a subject's midline that corresponded to 75% correct discrimination. MAAs were 4.7°, 3.6°, and 4.2° for the northern elephant seal, harbor seal, and California sea lion, respectively. These results demonstrate that individuals of these pinniped species have sound localization abilities comparable to the domestic cat and rhesus macaque. The acuity differences between our subjects were small and not predicted by head size. These results likely reflect the relatively acute general abilities of pinnipeds to localize aerial broadband signals.

  3. UHB Engine Fan Broadband Noise Reduction Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gliebe, Philip R.; Ho, Patrick Y.; Mani, Ramani

    1995-01-01

    A study has been completed to quantify the contribution of fan broadband noise to advanced high bypass turbofan engine system noise levels. The result suggests that reducing fan broadband noise can produce 3 to 4 EPNdB in engine system noise reduction, once the fan tones are eliminated. Further, in conjunction with the elimination of fan tones and an increase in bypass ratio, a potential reduction of 7 to 10 EPNdB in system noise can be achieved. In addition, an initial assessment of engine broadband noise source mechanisms has been made, concluding that the dominant source of fan broadband noise is the interaction of incident inlet boundary layer turbulence with the fan rotor. This source has two contributors, i.e., unsteady life dipole response and steady loading quadrupole response. The quadrupole contribution was found to be the most important component, suggesting that broadband noise reduction can be achieved by the reduction of steady loading field-turbulence field quadrupole interaction. Finally, for a controlled experimental quantification and verification, the study recommends that further broadband noise tests be done on a simulated engine rig, such as the GE Aircraft Engine Universal Propulsion Simulator, rather than testing on an engine statically in an outdoor arena The rig should be capable of generating forward and aft propagating fan noise, and it needs to be tested in a large freejet or a wind tunnel.

  4. Model helicopter rotor low frequency broadband noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humbad, N. G.; Harris, W. L.

    1982-01-01

    The results of an experimental investigation of low frequency broadband noise (LFBN) radiated from model helicopter rotors are presented. The results up to tip Mach number of 0.50 suggest that the peak sound pressure level (SPL) of LFBN appears to follow tip Mach number to a fourth power law and rms velocity of turbulence to a second power law. The experimental results on the effect of tip speed and advance ratio on the peak SPL of LFBN can be explained on the basis of a simple scaling law. However, the experimental results on the effect of blade loading on the peak SPL of LFBN is still not clearly understood. A simple peak SPL scaling law for noise from a helicopter in forward flight encountering a sinusoidal gust is also developed. The trends predicted by the scaling law with the experimental results are found satisfactory for the cases of variation of the peak SPL of LFBN with tip speed and advance ratio.

  5. On helicopter rotor low frequency broadband noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Morgan; Harris, Wesley L.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of shear-layer-type inflow turbulence on the low-frequency broadband noise of a model helicopter rotor is experimentally studied. The measurements and the one-dimensional energy spectral density indicate that the upstream airfoil wake turbulence is nonisotropic, but approaches isotropy at high wavenumbers. Turbulence measurements also indicate that the wake turbulence is weak. The effect of the inflow turbulence intensity on the peak sound pressure level follows an intensity-velocity squared scaling law. A number of length scales and turbulence intensities exist which can be measured in the airfoil wake depending on the position at which the measurements are taken. Comparison of experimental and theoretical sound pressure power spectral densities indicates that the initial anisotropy of the inflow turbulence does not invalidate the isotropic turbulence assumption made in noise prediction models as long as measured turbulence intensities and length scales are used.

  6. Propeller noise prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zorumski, W. E.

    1983-01-01

    Analytic propeller noise prediction involves a sequence of computations culminating in the application of acoustic equations. The prediction sequence currently used by NASA in its ANOPP (aircraft noise prediction) program is described. The elements of the sequence are called program modules. The first group of modules analyzes the propeller geometry, the aerodynamics, including both potential and boundary layer flow, the propeller performance, and the surface loading distribution. This group of modules is based entirely on aerodynamic strip theory. The next group of modules deals with the actual noise prediction, based on data from the first group. Deterministic predictions of periodic thickness and loading noise are made using Farassat's time-domain methods. Broadband noise is predicted by the semi-empirical Schlinker-Amiet method. Near-field predictions of fuselage surface pressures include the effects of boundary layer refraction and (for a cylinder) scattering. Far-field predictions include atmospheric and ground effects. Experimental data from subsonic and transonic propellers are compared and NASA's future direction is propeller noise technology development are indicated.

  7. Broadband Shock Noise Reduction in Turbulent Jets by Water Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandula, Max

    2008-01-01

    The concept of effective jet properties introduced by the author (AIAA-2007-3 645) has been extended to the estimation of broadband shock noise reduction by water injection in supersonic jets. Comparison of the predictions with the test data for cold underexpanded supersonic nozzles shows a satisfactory agreement. The results also reveal the range of water mass flow rates over which saturation of mixing noise reduction and existence of parasitic noise are manifest.

  8. Random particle methods applied to broadband fan interaction noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dieste, M.; Gabard, G.

    2012-10-01

    Predicting broadband fan noise is key to reduce noise emissions from aircraft and wind turbines. Complete CFD simulations of broadband fan noise generation remain too expensive to be used routinely for engineering design. A more efficient approach consists in synthesizing a turbulent velocity field that captures the main features of the exact solution. This synthetic turbulence is then used in a noise source model. This paper concentrates on predicting broadband fan noise interaction (also called leading edge noise) and demonstrates that a random particle mesh method (RPM) is well suited for simulating this source mechanism. The linearized Euler equations are used to describe sound generation and propagation. In this work, the definition of the filter kernel is generalized to include non-Gaussian filters that can directly follow more realistic energy spectra such as the ones developed by Liepmann and von Kármán. The velocity correlation and energy spectrum of the turbulence are found to be well captured by the RPM. The acoustic predictions are successfully validated against Amiet's analytical solution for a flat plate in a turbulent stream. A standard Langevin equation is used to model temporal decorrelation, but the presence of numerical issues leads to the introduction and validation of a second-order Langevin model.

  9. Aircraft noise prediction program theoretical manual: Rotorcraft System Noise Prediction System (ROTONET), part 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weir, Donald S.; Jumper, Stephen J.; Burley, Casey L.; Golub, Robert A.

    1995-01-01

    This document describes the theoretical methods used in the rotorcraft noise prediction system (ROTONET), which is a part of the NASA Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP). The ANOPP code consists of an executive, database manager, and prediction modules for jet engine, propeller, and rotor noise. The ROTONET subsystem contains modules for the prediction of rotor airloads and performance with momentum theory and prescribed wake aerodynamics, rotor tone noise with compact chordwise and full-surface solutions to the Ffowcs-Williams-Hawkings equations, semiempirical airfoil broadband noise, and turbulence ingestion broadband noise. Flight dynamics, atmosphere propagation, and noise metric calculations are covered in NASA TM-83199, Parts 1, 2, and 3.

  10. Effect of blunt trailing edge on rotor broadband noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, S.-T.; George, A. R.

    1986-01-01

    The production of high-frequency broadband noise by turbulent vortex shedding from rotor blades with blunt trailing edges is investigated analytically. The derivation of the governing equations, analogous to that of Kim and George (1982) for boundary-layer/trailing-edge noise, is explained, and numerical results are compared with the experimental data of Hubbard et al. (1981) and Lowson et al. (1972) in graphs. It is shown that vortex-shedding noise is a significant component of blunt-trailing-edge rotor broadband noise and that the analytical method employed gives reasonable predictions. The need for a better empirical expression for the normalized spectrum and for more measurements of surface pressure fluctuations near blunt trailing edges is indicated.

  11. An analytical parametric study of the broadband noise from axial-flow fans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Shau-Tak; George, Albert R.

    1987-01-01

    The rotating dipole analysis of Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings (1969) is used to predict the far field noise radiation due to various rotor broadband noise mechanisms. Consideration is given to inflow turbulence noise, attached boundary layer/trailing-edge interaction noise, tip-vortex formation noise, and trailing-edge thickness noise. The parametric dependence of broadband noise from unducted axial-flow fans on several critical variables is studied theoretically. The angle of attack of the rotor blades, which is related to the rotor performance, is shown to be important to the trailing-edge noise and to the tip-vortex formation noise.

  12. Broadband Fan Noise Generated by Small Scale Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glegg, Stewart A. L.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes the development of prediction methods for broadband fan noise from aircraft engines. First, experimental evidence of the most important source mechanisms is reviewed. It is found that there are a number of competing source mechanism involved and that there is no single dominant source to which noise control procedures can be applied. Theoretical models are then developed for: (1) ducted rotors and stator vanes interacting with duct wall boundary layers, (2) ducted rotor self noise, and (3) stator vanes operating in the wakes of rotors. All the turbulence parameters required for these models are based on measured quantities. Finally the theoretical models are used to predict measured fan noise levels with some success.

  13. Aircraft flyover noise prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zorumski, W. E.

    1977-01-01

    A review is conducted of the prediction techniques for CTOL aircraft noise sources which are presently implemented in the NASA Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP). The sources considered include jet noise, fan noise, combination noise, and airframe noise. Questions related to propagation prediction methods, source shielding, atmospheric attenuation, and ground attenuation are also described. It is pointed out that ANOPP is designed to make predictions of varying degrees of complexity, or amounts of detail, depending on the needs of the user. These different degrees of complexity are called levels of prediction. The prediction methods being used imply a similarity law for aircraft noise. Propulsion noise is proportional to mass flow for a selected engine cycle and, since thrust is also proportional to mass flow, aircraft with a fixed thrust-to-weight ratio will have their propulsion noise proportional to weight.

  14. Predicting Aircraft Noise Levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, B. J.

    1983-01-01

    Computer program developed for predicting aircraft noise levels either in flight or in ground tests. Noise sources include fan inlet and exhaust jet flap (for powered lift), core (combustor), turbine and airframe. Program written in FORTRAN IV.

  15. Prediction of airframe noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardin, J. C.; Fratello, D. J.; Hayden, R. E.; Kadman, Y.; Africk, S.

    1975-01-01

    Methods of predicting airframe noise generated by aircraft in flight under nonpowered conditions are discussed. Approaches to predictions relying on flyover data and component theoretical analyses are developed. A nondimensional airframe noise spectrum of various aircraft is presented. The spectrum was obtained by smoothing all the measured spectra to remove any peculiarities due to airframe protrusions, normalizing each spectra by its overall sound pressure level and a characteristics frequency, and averaging the spectra together. A chart of airframe noise sources is included.

  16. Low-frequency broadband noise generated by a model rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aravamudan, K. S.; Harris, W. L.

    1979-01-01

    Low-frequency broadband noise generated by model rotors is attributed to the interaction of ingested turbulence with the rotor blades. The influence of free-stream turbulence in the low-frequency broadband noise radiation from model rotors has been experimentally investigated. The turbulence was generated in the M.I.T. anechoic wind tunnel facility with the aid of bipolar grids of various sizes. The spectra and the intensity of the low-frequency broadband noise have been studied as a function of parameters which characterize the turbulence and of helicopter performance parameters. The location of the peak intensity was observed to be strongly dependent on the rotor-tip velocity and on the longitudinal integral scale of turbulence. The size scale of turbulence had negligible effect on the intensity of low-frequency broadband noise. The experimental data show good agreement with an ad hoc model based on unsteady aerodynamics.

  17. Sound localization of aerial broadband noise in pinnipeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, Marla M.; Schusterman, Ronald J.; Kastak, David; Southall, Brandon L.

    2003-04-01

    Pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, and walruses) emit broadband calls on land as part of their communication system in order to coordinate their reproductive activities. How well do they localize these types of signals? In this study, the aerial sound localization acuities of a harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus), and a northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris) were measured in the horizontal plane with a broadband white noise stimulus. Testing was conducted in a hemi-anechoic chamber using a left/right forced choice procedure to measure the minimum audible angle (MAA) for each subject. MAAs were defined as half the angular separation of two sound sources relative to a subject's midline that corresponded to 75% correct discrimination. MAAs were 3.6, 4.2, and 4.7 deg for the harbor seal, California sea lion, and northern elephant seal, respectively. These results demonstrate that these pinniped species had sound localization abilities comparable to the domestic cat and rhesus macaques. The acuity differences between our subjects were small, were not predicted by head size, and therefore likely reflect the relatively acute abilities of other pinniped species to localize aerial broadband signals.

  18. Comparison of broadband noise mechanisms, analyses, and experiments on helicopters, propellers, and wind turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, A. R.; Chou, S.-T.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental data on broadband noise from airfoils are compared, together with analytical methods, in order to identify the mechanisms of noise emission. Rotor noise is categorized into discrete frequency, impulsive, and broadband components, the last having a continuous spectrum originating from a random source. The results of computer simulations of different rotor blade types which produce broadband noise were compared with experimental data and among themselves in terms of predictions of the spectra obtained. Consideration was given to the overall sound pressure level, unsteady turbulence forces, rotational forces, inflow turbulence, self-generated turbulence, and turbulence in the flow. Data are presented for a helicopter rotor and light aircraft propeller. The most significant source was found to be inflow turbulence induced lift fluctuations in helicopter rotors and boundary layer trailing edge noise on large wind energy conversion systems

  19. Comparison of broadband noise mechanisms, analyses, and experiments on helicopters, propellers, and wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, A. R.; Chou, S.-T.

    1983-04-01

    Experimental data on broadband noise from airfoils are compared, together with analytical methods, in order to identify the mechanisms of noise emission. Rotor noise is categorized into discrete frequency, impulsive, and broadband components, the last having a continuous spectrum originating from a random source. The results of computer simulations of different rotor blade types which produce broadband noise were compared with experimental data and among themselves in terms of predictions of the spectra obtained. Consideration was given to the overall sound pressure level, unsteady turbulence forces, rotational forces, inflow turbulence, self-generated turbulence, and turbulence in the flow. Data are presented for a helicopter rotor and light aircraft propeller. The most significant source was found to be inflow turbulence induced lift fluctuations in helicopter rotors and boundary layer trailing edge noise on large wind energy conversion systems

  20. Predicted airframe noise levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raney, J. P.

    1980-01-01

    Calculated values of airframe noise levels corresponding to FAA noise certification conditions for six aircraft are presented. The aircraft are: DC-9-30; Boeing 727-200; A300-B2 Airbus; Lockheed L-1011; DC-10-10; and Boeing 747-200B. The prediction methodology employed is described and discussed.

  1. Predicted airframe noise levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raney, J. P.

    1980-09-01

    Calculated values of airframe noise levels corresponding to FAA noise certification conditions for six aircraft are presented. The aircraft are: DC-9-30; Boeing 727-200; A300-B2 Airbus; Lockheed L-1011; DC-10-10; and Boeing 747-200B. The prediction methodology employed is described and discussed.

  2. Airfoil self-noise and prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Thomas F.; Pope, D. Stuart; Marcolini, Michael A.

    1989-01-01

    A prediction method is developed for the self-generated noise of an airfoil blade encountering smooth flow. The prediction methods for the individual self-noise mechanisms are semiempirical and are based on previous theoretical studies and data obtained from tests of two- and three-dimensional airfoil blade sections. The self-noise mechanisms are due to specific boundary-layer phenomena, that is, the boundary-layer turbulence passing the trailing edge, separated-boundary-layer and stalled flow over an airfoil, vortex shedding due to laminar boundary layer instabilities, vortex shedding from blunt trailing edges, and the turbulent vortex flow existing near the tip of lifting blades. The predictions are compared successfully with published data from three self-noise studies of different airfoil shapes. An application of the prediction method is reported for a large scale-model helicopter rotor, and the predictions compared well with experimental broadband noise measurements. A computer code of the method is given.

  3. Estimation of Broadband Shock Noise Reduction in Turbulent Jets by Water Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandula, Max; Lonerjan, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    The concept of effective jet properties introduced by the authors (AIAA-2007-3645) has been extended to the estimation of broadband shock noise reduction by water injection in supersonic jets. Comparison of the predictions with the test data for cold underexpanded supersonic nozzles shows a satisfactory agreement. The results also reveal the range of water mass flow rates over which saturation of mixing noise reduction and existence of parasitic noise are manifest.

  4. Aircraft Noise Prediction Program theoretical manual: Propeller aerodynamics and noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zorumski, W. E. (Editor); Weir, D. S. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    The prediction sequence used in the aircraft noise prediction program (ANOPP) is described. The elements of the sequence are called program modules. The first group of modules analyzes the propeller geometry, the aerodynamics, including both potential and boundary-layer flow, the propeller performance, and the surface loading distribution. This group of modules is based entirely on aerodynamic strip theory. The next group of modules deals with the first group. Predictions of periodic thickness and loading noise are determined with time-domain methods. Broadband noise is predicted by a semiempirical method. Near-field predictions of fuselage surface pressrues include the effects of boundary layer refraction and scattering. Far-field predictions include atmospheric and ground effects.

  5. Wave propagation effects of broadband electrostatic noise in the magnetotail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grabbe, Crockett

    1989-01-01

    An analysis of the wave and particle data from ISEE 1 for 1978 yielded several examples of crossings between the lobe and the plasma sheet boundary layer (PSBL) which exhibited the signatures predicted by the theoretical analysis of the generation of broadband electrostatic noise (BEN) by ion beam instabilities. These signatures are a gradual rise in the upper frequency of BEN as the spacecraft approaches the plasma boundary layer, and a very rapid rise in the upper frequency near the crossing into the PSBL from the lobe. Several examples of crossings are presented that exhibit both signatures, as well as a case of crossings in which the gradual frequency rise signature is absent but the rapid rise is present. This case exhibits a BEN in the range expected for the low-frequency ion-ion two-stream and the high-frequency Buneman instability.

  6. Rocket Noise Prediction Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margasahayam, Ravi; Caimi, Raoul

    1999-01-01

    A comprehensive, automated, and user-friendly software program was developed to predict the noise and ignition over-pressure environment generated during the launch of a rocket. The software allows for interactive modification of various parameters affecting the generated noise environment. Predictions can be made for different launch scenarios and a variety of vehicle and launch mount configurations. Moreover, predictions can be made for both near-field and far-field locations on the ground and any position on the vehicle. Multiple engine and fuel combinations can be addressed, and duct geometry can be incorporated efficiently. Applications in structural design are addressed.

  7. Airframe noise prediction evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamamoto, Kingo J.; Donelson, Michael J.; Huang, Shumei C.; Joshi, Mahendra C.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the accuracy and adequacy of current airframe noise prediction methods using available airframe noise measurements from tests of a narrow body transport (DC-9) and a wide body transport (DC-10) in addition to scale model test data. General features of the airframe noise from these aircraft and models are outlined. The results of the assessment of two airframe prediction methods, Fink's and Munson's methods, against flight test data of these aircraft and scale model wind tunnel test data are presented. These methods were extensively evaluated against measured data from several configurations including clean, slat deployed, landing gear-deployed, flap deployed, and landing configurations of both DC-9 and DC-10. They were also assessed against a limited number of configurations of scale models. The evaluation was conducted in terms of overall sound pressure level (OASPL), tone corrected perceived noise level (PNLT), and one-third-octave band sound pressure level (SPL).

  8. Experimental characterization of broadband electrostatic noise due to plasma compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DuBois, Ami M.; Thomas, Edward; Amatucci, William E.; Ganguli, Gurudas

    2014-07-01

    For a wide variety of laboratory and space plasma environments, theoretical predictions state that plasmas are unstable to inhomogeneous flows over a very broad frequency range. Such sheared flows are generated in the Earth's magnetosphere and intensify during active periods. Specifically, for a velocity shear oriented perpendicular to a uniform background magnetic field, the shear scale length (LE) compared to the ion gyroradius (ρi) determines the character of the shear-driven instability that may prevail. An interpenetrating plasma configuration is used to create a transverse velocity shear profile in a magnetized plasma column, a condition similar to that found in the natural boundary layers. The continuous variation of ρi/LE and the associated transition of the instability regimes driven by the shear flow mechanism are demonstrated in a single laboratory experiment. Broadband wave emission correlated to increasing/decreasing stress (i.e., ρi/LE), a characteristic signature of a boundary layer crossing, is found under controlled and repeatable conditions. This result holds out the promise for understanding the cause and effect of the in situ observation of broadband electrostatic noise.

  9. Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP) Fan Noise Prediction for Small Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hough, Joe W.; Weir, Donald S.

    1996-01-01

    The Fan Noise Module of ANOPP is used to predict the broadband noise and pure tones for axial flow compressors or fans. The module, based on the method developed by M. F. Heidmann, uses empirical functions to predict fan noise spectra as a function of frequency and polar directivity. Previous studies have determined the need to modify the module to better correlate measurements of fan noise from engines in the 3000- to 6000-pound thrust class. Additional measurements made by AlliedSignal have confirmed the need to revise the ANOPP fan noise method for smaller engines. This report describes the revisions to the fan noise method which have been verified with measured data from three separate AlliedSignal fan engines. Comparisons of the revised prediction show a significant improvement in overall and spectral noise predictions.

  10. Broadband shock-associated noise of moderately imperfectly expanded supersonic jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tam, C. K. W.

    1990-01-01

    Recently a stochastic model theory of broadband shock-associated noise from supersonic jets was developed. The theory is capable of predicting the near and far field noise spectra of slightly imperfectly expanded jets. In this paper, the noise prediction formulas are extended to the moderately imperfectly expanded Mach number range. It is found that the shock noise intensity depends only on the amplitude of the quasi-periodic shock cell structure and not on the strong first shock. This makes it possible to extend the noise prediction formulas by simply modifying the shock cell strength in the original formulas. Here this step is implemented semiempirically, and a set of shock noise prediction formulas are developed.

  11. Sub-projection-noise sensitivity in broadband atomic magnetometry.

    PubMed

    Koschorreck, M; Napolitano, M; Dubost, B; Mitchell, M W

    2010-03-01

    We demonstrate sub-projection-noise sensitivity of a broadband atomic magnetometer using quantum nondemolition spin measurements. A cold, dipole-trapped sample of rubidium atoms provides a long-lived spin system in a nonmagnetic environment, and is probed nondestructively by paramagnetic Faraday rotation. The calibration procedure employs as known reference state, the maximum-entropy or "thermal" spin state, and quantitative imaging-based atom counting to identify electronic, quantum, and technical noise in both the probe and spin system. The measurement achieves a sensitivity 1.6 dB (2.8 dB) better than projection-noise (thermal state quantum noise) and will enable squeezing-enhanced broadband magnetometry. PMID:20366983

  12. Model rotor low frequency broadband noise at moderate tip speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humbad, N. G.; Harris, W. L.

    1980-01-01

    The results of an experimental investigation of low frequency broadband noise (LFBN) radiated from model helicopter rotors are presented. The results are for a range of tip Mach numbers (Mt) up to 0.50. The effect of rotor blade loading, advance ratio, tip speed, number of blades and free stream turbulence on the sound pressure level (SPL) and the spectrum of LFBN have been investigated. The peak SPL of LFBN appears to follow an M(4) law if the effect of rms turbulence velocity is removed. The peak SPL of LFBN seems to saturate with increases in advance ratio and with blade loading, and is proportional to the square of the turbulence integral scale when the effect of rms turbulence velocity and Mt are removed. Also, a simple peak SPL scaling law for noise from a helicopter rotor in forward flight due to convected sinusoidal gust is developed. The trend predicted by this scaling law is found to be satisfactory for the variation of the peak SPL of LFBN with tip speed.

  13. Aircraft noise prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippone, Antonio

    2014-07-01

    This contribution addresses the state-of-the-art in the field of aircraft noise prediction, simulation and minimisation. The point of view taken in this context is that of comprehensive models that couple the various aircraft systems with the acoustic sources, the propagation and the flight trajectories. After an exhaustive review of the present predictive technologies in the relevant fields (airframe, propulsion, propagation, aircraft operations, trajectory optimisation), the paper addresses items for further research and development. Examples are shown for several airplanes, including the Airbus A319-100 (CFM engines), the Bombardier Dash8-Q400 (PW150 engines, Dowty R408 propellers) and the Boeing B737-800 (CFM engines). Predictions are done with the flight mechanics code FLIGHT. The transfer function between flight mechanics and the noise prediction is discussed in some details, along with the numerical procedures for validation and verification. Some code-to-code comparisons are shown. It is contended that the field of aircraft noise prediction has not yet reached a sufficient level of maturity. In particular, some parametric effects cannot be investigated, issues of accuracy are not currently addressed, and validation standards are still lacking.

  14. Suppression of Spin Projection Noise in Broadband Atomic Magnetometry

    SciTech Connect

    Geremia, J.M.; Stockton, John K.; Mabuchi, Hideo

    2005-05-27

    We demonstrate that quantum nondemolition measurement, combined with a suitable parameter estimation procedure, can improve the sensitivity of a broadband atomic magnetometer by reducing uncertainty due to spin projection noise. Furthermore, we provide evidence that real-time quantum feedback control offers robustness to classical uncertainties, including shot-to-shot atom number fluctuations, that would otherwise prevent quantum-limited performance.

  15. Suppression of spin projection noise in broadband atomic magnetometry.

    PubMed

    Geremia, J M; Stockton, John K; Mabuchi, Hideo

    2005-05-27

    We demonstrate that quantum nondemolition measurement, combined with a suitable parameter estimation procedure, can improve the sensitivity of a broadband atomic magnetometer by reducing uncertainty due to spin projection noise. Furthermore, we provide evidence that real-time quantum feedback control offers robustness to classical uncertainties, including shot-to-shot atom number fluctuations, that would otherwise prevent quantum-limited performance. PMID:16090242

  16. Airframe Noise Prediction by Acoustic Analogy: Revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farassat, F.; Casper, Jay H.; Tinetti, A.; Dunn, M. H.

    2006-01-01

    The present work follows a recent survey of airframe noise prediction methodologies. In that survey, Lighthill s acoustic analogy was identified as the most prominent analytical basis for current approaches to airframe noise research. Within this approach, a problem is typically modeled with the Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings (FW-H) equation, for which a geometry-independent solution is obtained by means of the use of the free-space Green function (FSGF). Nonetheless, the aeroacoustic literature would suggest some interest in the use of tailored or exact Green s function (EGF) for aerodynamic noise problems involving solid boundaries, in particular, for trailing edge (TE) noise. A study of possible applications of EGF for prediction of broadband noise from turbulent flow over an airfoil surface and the TE is, therefore, the primary topic of the present work. Typically, the applications of EGF in the literature have been limited to TE noise prediction at low Mach numbers assuming that the normal derivative of the pressure vanishes on the airfoil surface. To extend the application of EGF to higher Mach numbers, the uniqueness of the solution of the wave equation when either the Dirichlet or the Neumann boundary condition (BC) is specified on a deformable surface in motion. The solution of Lighthill s equation with either the Dirichlet or the Neumann BC is given for such a surface using EGFs. These solutions involve both surface and volume integrals just like the solution of FW-H equation using FSGF. Insight drawn from this analysis is evoked to discuss the potential application of EGF to broadband noise prediction. It appears that the use of a EGF offers distinct advantages for predicting TE noise of an airfoil when the normal pressure gradient vanishes on the airfoil surface. It is argued that such an approach may also apply to an airfoil in motion. However, for the prediction of broadband noise not directly associated with a trailing edge, the use of EGF does not appear to offer any advantages over the use of FSGF at the present stage of development. It is suggested here that the applications of EGF for airframe noise analysis be continued. As an example pertinent to airframe noise prediction, the Fast Scattering Code of NASA Langley is utilized to obtain the EGF numerically on the surface of a three dimensional wing with a flap and leading edge slat in uniform rectilinear motion. The interpretation and use of these numerical Green functions are then discussed.

  17. Fan noise prediction assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bent, Paul H.

    1995-01-01

    This report is an evaluation of two techniques for predicting the fan noise radiation from engine nacelles. The first is a relatively computational intensive finite element technique. The code is named ARC, an abbreviation of Acoustic Radiation Code, and was developed by Eversman. This is actually a suite of software that first generates a grid around the nacelle, then solves for the potential flowfield, and finally solves the acoustic radiation problem. The second approach is an analytical technique requiring minimal computational effort. This is termed the cutoff ratio technique and was developed by Rice. Details of the duct geometry, such as the hub-to-tip ratio and Mach number of the flow in the duct, and modal content of the duct noise are required for proper prediction.

  18. Helicopter rotor trailing edge noise. [noise prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlinker, R. H.; Amier, R. K.

    1981-01-01

    A two dimensional section of a helicopter main rotor blade was tested in an acoustic wind tunnel at close to full-scale Reynolds numbers to obtain boundary layer data and acoustic data for use in developing an acoustic scaling law and testing a first principles trailing edge noise theory. Results were extended to the rotating frame coordinate system to develop a helicopter rotor trailing edge noise prediction. Comparisons of the calculated noise levels with helicopter flyover spectra demonstrate that trailing edge noise contributes significantly to the total helicopter noise spectrum at high frequencies. This noise mechanism is expected to control the minimum rotor noise. In the case of noise radiation from a local blade segment, the acoustic directivity pattern is predicted by the first principles trailing edge noise theory. Acoustic spectra are predicted by a scaling law which includes Mach number, boundary layer thickness and observer position. Spectrum shape and sound pressure level are also predicted by the first principles theory but the analysis does not predict the Strouhal value identifying the spectrum peak.

  19. Improved Broadband Liner Optimization Applied to the Advanced Noise Control Fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nark, Douglas M.; Jones, Michael G.; Sutliff, Daniel L.; Ayle, Earl; Ichihashi, Fumitaka

    2014-01-01

    The broadband component of fan noise has grown in relevance with the utilization of increased bypass ratio and advanced fan designs. Thus, while the attenuation of fan tones remains paramount, the ability to simultaneously reduce broadband fan noise levels has become more desirable. This paper describes improvements to a previously established broadband acoustic liner optimization process using the Advanced Noise Control Fan rig as a demonstrator. Specifically, in-duct attenuation predictions with a statistical source model are used to obtain optimum impedance spectra over the conditions of interest. The predicted optimum impedance information is then used with acoustic liner modeling tools to design liners aimed at producing impedance spectra that most closely match the predicted optimum values. Design selection is based on an acceptance criterion that provides the ability to apply increased weighting to specific frequencies and/or operating conditions. Constant-depth, double-degree of freedom and variable-depth, multi-degree of freedom designs are carried through design, fabrication, and testing to validate the efficacy of the design process. Results illustrate the value of the design process in concurrently evaluating the relative costs/benefits of these liner designs. This study also provides an application for demonstrating the integrated use of duct acoustic propagation/radiation and liner modeling tools in the design and evaluation of novel broadband liner concepts for complex engine configurations.

  20. Boeing 18-Inch Fan Rig Broadband Noise Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganz, Ulrich W.; Joppa, Paul D.; Patten, Timothy J.; Scharpf, Daniel F.

    1998-01-01

    The purposes of the subject test were to identify and quantify the mechanisms by which fan broadband noise is produced, and to assess the validity of such theoretical models of those mechanisms as may be available. The test was conducted with the Boeing 18-inch fan rig in the Boeing Low-Speed Aeroacoustic Facility (LSAF). The rig was designed to be particularly clean and geometrically simple to facilitate theoretical modeling and to minimize sources of interfering noise. The inlet is cylindrical and is equipped with a boundary layer suction system. The fan is typical of modern high-by-pass ratio designs but is capable of operating with or without fan exit guide vanes (stators), and there is only a single flow stream. Fan loading and tip clearance are adjustable. Instrumentation included measurements of fan performance, the unsteady flow field incident on the fan and stators, and far-field and in-duct acoustic fields. The acoustic results were manipulated to estimate the noise generated by different sources. Significant fan broadband noise was found to come from the rotor self-noise as measured with clean inflow and no boundary layer. The rotor tip clearance affected rotor self-noise somewhat. The interaction of the rotor with inlet boundary layer turbulence is also a significant source, and is strongly affected by rotor tip clearance. High level noise can be generated by a high-order nonuniform rotating at a fraction of the fan speed, at least when tip clearance and loading are both large. Stator-generated noise is the loudest of the significant sources, by a small margin, at least on this rig. Stator noise is significantly affected by propagation through the fan.

  1. Modeling of Broadband Liners Applied to the Advanced Noise Control Fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nark, Douglas M.; Jones, Michael G.; Sutliff, Daniel L.

    2015-01-01

    The broadband component of fan noise has grown in relevance with an increase in bypass ratio and incorporation of advanced fan designs. Therefore, while the attenuation of fan tones remains a major factor in engine nacelle acoustic liner design, the simultaneous reduction of broadband fan noise levels has received increased interest. As such, a previous investigation focused on improvements to an established broadband acoustic liner optimization process using the Advanced Noise Control Fan (ANCF) rig as a demonstrator. Constant-depth, double-degree of freedom and variable-depth, multi-degree of freedom liner designs were carried through design, fabrication, and testing. This paper addresses a number of areas for further research identified in the initial assessment of the ANCF study. Specifically, incident source specification and uncertainty in some aspects of the predicted liner impedances are addressed. This information is incorporated in updated predictions of the liner performance and comparisons with measurement are greatly improved. Results illustrate the value of the design process in concurrently evaluating the relative costs/benefits of various liner designs. This study also provides further confidence in the integrated use of duct acoustic propagation/radiation and liner modeling tools in the design and evaluation of novel broadband liner concepts for complex engine configurations.

  2. On Theoretical Broadband Shock-Associated Noise Near-Field Cross-Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Steven A. E.

    2015-01-01

    The cross-spectral acoustic analogy is used to predict auto-spectra and cross-spectra of broadband shock-associated noise in the near-field and far-field from a range of heated and unheated supersonic off-design jets. A single equivalent source model is proposed for the near-field, mid-field, and far-field terms, that contains flow-field statistics of the shock wave shear layer interactions. Flow-field statistics are modeled based upon experimental observation and computational fluid dynamics solutions. An axisymmetric assumption is used to reduce the model to a closed-form equation involving a double summation over the equivalent source at each shock wave shear layer interaction. Predictions are compared with a wide variety of measurements at numerous jet Mach numbers and temperature ratios from multiple facilities. Auto-spectral predictions of broadband shock-associated noise in the near-field and far-field capture trends observed in measurement and other prediction theories. Predictions of spatial coherence of broadband shock-associated noise accurately capture the peak coherent intensity, frequency, and spectral width.

  3. Broadband near-to-shot-noise suppression of arbitrary cw-laser excess intensity noise in the gigahertz range.

    PubMed

    Michael, Ernest A; Pallanca, Laurent

    2015-04-01

    Broadband near-to-shot-noise suppression of the intensity noise from a continuous-wave (cw) fiber laser at 1550 nm is demonstrated at GHz-frequencies using feed-forward phase-matched destructive noise interference impressed onto the optical signal with a fiber electro-optic power modulator. The scheme is independent of the laser frequency and therefore is suitable for tunable lasers. It can be used with some modifications after an optical fiber-amplifier boosting a cw laser signal. A noise residual of down to 2 dB above the shot-noise was measured, which is about 2 dB below the prediction with a rigorous noise model. While the total laser noise can be removed, inclusive shot noise, because the latter is still 10 dB above the thermal noise, the power splitter introduces some partition noise above the shot level. In that case, a sub-shot-noise suppression scheme should be possible by replacing the photon anti-correlation of the power splitter by the co-correlation obtained from a paired photon or twin beam source. PMID:25831326

  4. Noise predictions of a high bypass turbofan engine using the Lockheed Near-Field Noise Prediction Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawls, J. W., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The prediction of engine noise during cruise using the Near-Field Noise Prediction Program developed by Lockheed is examined. Test conditions were established which simulate the operation of a high bypass turbofan engine under a wide range of operating conditions. These test conditions include variations in altitude, flight Mach number and thrust setting. Based on the results of noise prediction made using the Lockheed program, an evaluation of the impact of these test conditions on the overall sound pressure level(OASPL)and the one-third octave band spectra is made. An evaluation of the sensitivity of flight condition parameters is also made. The primary noise source from a high bypass turbofan was determined to be fan broadband shock noise. This noise source can be expected to be present during normal cruising conditions. When present, fan broadband shock noise usually dominates at all frequencies and all directivity angles. Other noise sources of importance are broadband shock noise from the primary jet, fan noise, fan mixing noise and turbine noise.

  5. Broadband Noise Reduction of a Low-Speed Fan Noise Using Trailing Edge Blowing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutliff, Daniel L.

    2005-01-01

    An experimental proof-of-concept test was conducted to demonstrate reduction of rotor-stator interaction noise through the use of rotor-trailing edge blowing. The velocity deficit from the viscous wake of the rotor blades was reduced by injecting air into the wake from a continuous trailing edge slot. Hollow blades with interior guide vanes create flow channels through which externally supplied air flows from the blade root to the trailing edge. A previous paper documented the substantial tonal reductions of this Trailing Edge Rotor Blowing (TERB) fan. This report documents the broadband characteristics of TERB. The Active Noise Control Fan (ANCF), located at the NASA Glenn Research Center, was used as the proof-of-concept test bed. Two-component hotwire data behind the rotor, unsteady surface pressures on the stator vane, and farfield directivity acoustic data were acquired at blowing rates of 1.1, 1.5, and 1.8 percent of the total fan mass flow. The results indicate a substantial reduction in the rotor wake turbulent velocity and in the stator vane unsteady surface pressures. Based on the physics of the noise generation, these indirect measurements indicate the prospect of broadband noise reduction. However, since the broadband noise generated by the ANCF is rotor-dominated, any change in the rotor-stator interaction broadband noise levels is barely distinguishable in the farfield measurements.

  6. Trailing Edge Noise Prediction Based on a New Acoustic Formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casper, J.; Farassat, F.

    2002-01-01

    A new analytic result in acoustics called 'Formulation 1B,' proposed by Farassat, is used to compute broadband trailing edge noise from an unsteady surface pressure distribution on a thin airfoil in the time domain. This formulation is a new solution of the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equation with the loading source term, and has been shown in previous research to provide time domain predictions of broadband noise that are in excellent agreement with experiment. Furthermore, this formulation lends itself readily to rotating reference frames and statistical analysis of broadband trailing edge noise. Formulation 1B is used to calculate the far field noise radiated from the trailing edge of a NACA 0012 airfoil in low Mach number flows, using both analytical and experimental data on the airfoil surface. The results are compared to analytical results and experimental measurements that are available in the literature. Good agreement between predictions and measurements is obtained.

  7. Drive-noise-tolerant broadband silicon electro-optic switch.

    PubMed

    Van Campenhout, Joris; Green, William M J; Assefa, Solomon; Vlasov, Yurii A

    2011-06-01

    We report a broadband digital electro-optical switch, based upon a multi-stage Mach-Zehnder lattice design in silicon-on-insulator. A digital switching response is demonstrated, engineered through apodization of the coupling coefficients between stages. The digital switching behavior results in crosstalk lower than -15 dB for drive-voltage noise levels in excess of 300 mV(pp), which exceeds the noise tolerance of a conventional single-stage Mach-Zehnder switch by more than six-fold. In addition, the digital design enables a larger maximum 'on'-state extinction (below -26 dB) and lower 'on'-state free-carrier-induced insertion loss (less than 0.45 dB) than that of the single-stage switch. The noise-tolerant, low-crosstalk switch can thus play a key role within CMOS-integrated reconfigurable optical networks operating under noisy on-chip conditions. PMID:21716388

  8. Overview of Aircraft Noise Prediction Tools Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahl, Milo D.

    2007-01-01

    The acoustic assessment task for both the Subsonic Fixed Wing and the Supersonic projects under NASA s Fundamental Aeronautics Program was designed to assess the current state-of-the-art in noise prediction capability and to establish baselines for gauging future progress. The documentation of our current capabilities included quantifying the differences between predictions of noise from computer codes and measurements of noise from experimental tests. Quantifying the accuracy of both the computed and experimental results further enhanced the credibility of the assessment. This presentation gives sample results from codes representative of NASA s capabilities in aircraft noise prediction at the system level and at the component level. These include semi-empirical, statistical, analytical, and numerical codes. An example of system level results is shown for an aircraft. Component level results are shown for airframe flaps and landing gear, for jet noise from a variety of nozzles, and for broadband fan noise. Additional results are shown for modeling of the acoustic behavior of duct acoustic lining and the attenuation of sound in lined ducts with flow.

  9. Airframe noise prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-11-01

    This Data Item 90023, an addition to the Noise Sub-series, provides the FORTRAN listing of a computer program for a semi-empirical method that calculates the far-field airframe aerodynamic noise generated by turbo-fan powered transport aircraft or gliders in one-third octave bands over a frequency range specified by the user. The overall sound pressure level is also output. The results apply for a still, lossless atmosphere; other ESDU methods may be used to correct for atmospheric attenuation, ground reflection, lateral attenuation, and wind and temperature gradients. The position of the aircraft relative to the observer is input in terms of the height at minimum range, and the elevation and azimuthal angles to the aircraft; if desired the user may obtain results over a range of those angles in 10 degree intervals. The method sums the contributions made by various components, results for which can also be output individually. The components are: the wind (conventional or delta), tailplane, fin, flaps (single/double slotted or triple slotted), leading-edge slats, and undercarriage legs and wheels (one/two wheel or four wheel units). The program requires only geometric data for each component (area and span in the case of lifting elements, flap deflection angle, and leg length and wheel diameter for the undercarriage). The program was validated for aircraft with take-off masses from 42,000 to 390,000 kg (92,000 to 860,000 lb) at airspeeds from 70 to 145 m/s (135 to 280 kn). Comparisons with available experimental data suggest a prediction rms accuracy of 1 dB at minimum range, rising to between 2 and 3 dB at 60 degrees to either side.

  10. Transonic Tones and Excess Broadband Noise in Overexpanded Supersonic Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaman, Khairul B. M. Q.

    2009-01-01

    Noise characteristics of convergent-divergent (C-D) nozzles in the overexpanded regime are the focus of this paper. The flow regime is encountered during takeoff and landing of certain airplanes and also with rocket nozzles in launch-pad environment. Experimental results from laboratory-scale single nozzles are discussed. The flow often undergoes a resonance accompanied by emission of tones (referred to as transonic tones). The phenomenon is different from the well-known screech tones. Unlike screech, the frequency increases with increasing supply pressure. There is a staging behavior odd harmonic stages occur at lower pressures while the fundamental occurs in a range of relatively higher pressures. A striking feature is that tripping of the nozzle s internal boundary layer tends to suppress the resonance. However, even in the absence of tones the broadband levels are found to be high. That is, relative to a convergent case and at same pressure ratio, the C-D nozzles are found to be noisier, often by more than 10dB. This excess broadband noise (referred to as EBBN) is further explored. Its characteristics are found to be different from the well-known broadband shockassociated noise ( BBSN ). For example, while the frequency of the BBSN peak varies with observation angle no such variation is noted with EBBN. The mechanisms of the transonic tone and the EBBN are not completely understood yet. They appear to be due to unsteady shock motion inside the nozzle. The shock drives the flow downstream like a vibrating diaphragm, and resonance takes place similarly as with acoustic resonance of a conical section having one end closed and the other end open. When the boundary layer is tripped, apparently a breakdown of azimuthal coherence suppresses the resonance. However, there is still unsteady shock motion albeit with superimposed randomness. Such random motion of the internal shock and its interaction with the separated boundary layer produces the EBBN.

  11. Turbulence Associated With Broadband Shock Noise in Hot Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, James E.; Wernet, Mark P.

    2008-01-01

    Time-Resolved Particle Image Velocimetry (TRPIV) has been applied to a series of jet flows to measure turbulence statistics associated with broadband shock associated noise (BBSN). Data were acquired in jets of Mach numbers 1.05, 1.185, and 1.4 at different temperatures. Both convergent and ideally expanded nozzles were tested, along with a convergent nozzle modified to minimize screech. Key findings include the effect of heat on shock structure and jet decay, the increase in turbulent velocity when screech is present, and the relative lack of spectral detail associated with the enhanced turbulence.

  12. The emissions of broadband electrostatic noise in the near vicinity of the Shuttle Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, K. S.; Stone, N. H.; Wright, K. H., Jr.; Samir, U.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements of the Space Shuttle environment from the STS-3 and Spacelab 2 missions indicate the presence of oblique ion streams and broadband electrostatic noise. A two-dimensional theoretical model is applied to study a possible causal relationship between the ion streams and the broadband noise, especially in terms of the ion acoustic wave and ion-ion wave modes. This model predicts the generation of waves with frequencies ranging from the ion cyclotron frequency up to values greater than the ion plasma frequency, with the maximum growth rate occurring in the 10-kHz range. These results are consistent with the observational data from the STS-3 mission. The model also shows that these two wave modes can coexist only when the wave vectors of the two wave modes are nearly perpendicular. The parametric dependence of the wave instabilities on the plasma parameters and the inclination of the wave propagation vector is also studied.

  13. An Excess Broadband Noise Observed with Overexpanded Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaman, K.B.M.Q.; Bridges, James E.; Brown, C.A.

    2009-01-01

    Results of an experiment on the characteristics of an excess noise occurring with convergent-divergent (C-D) nozzles in the overexpanded regime are presented in this paper. Data are obtained with five C-D nozzles and a convergent nozzle, all having the same exit diameter. The results clearly establish that the C-D nozzles are noisier in the low Mach number range of the overexpanded regime. This is evidenced from the directivity patterns as well as overall radiated sound power calculations. The excess noise is broadband in nature and is found to be more pronounced with nozzles having a larger half-angle of the divergent section. It appears to occur when a shock resides within the divergent section and results from random unsteady motion of the shock.

  14. Evaluation of Variable-Depth Liner Configurations for Increased Broadband Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, M. G.; Watson, W. R.; Nark, D. M.; Howerton, B. M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the effects of variable-depth geometry on the amount of noise reduction that can be achieved with acoustic liners. Results for two variable-depth liners tested in the NASA Langley Grazing Flow Impedance Tube demonstrate significant broadband noise reduction. An impedance prediction model is combined with two propagation codes to predict corresponding sound pressure level profiles over the length of the Grazing Flow Impedance Tube. The comparison of measured and predicted sound pressure level profiles is sufficiently favorable to support use of these tools for investigation of a number of proposed variable-depth liner configurations. Predicted sound pressure level profiles for these proposed configurations reveal a number of interesting features. Liner orientation clearly affects the sound pressure level profile over the length of the liner, but the effect on the total attenuation is less pronounced. The axial extent of attenuation at an individual frequency continues well beyond the location where the liner depth is optimally tuned to the quarter-wavelength of that frequency. The sound pressure level profile is significantly affected by the way in which variable-depth segments are distributed over the length of the liner. Given the broadband noise reduction capability for these liner configurations, further development of impedance prediction models and propagation codes specifically tuned for this application is warranted.

  15. Noise Characteristics of a Four-Jet Impingement Device Inside a Broadband Engine Noise Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brehm, Christoph; Housman, Jeffrey A.; Kiris, Cetin C.; Hutcheson, Florence V.

    2015-01-01

    The noise generation mechanisms for four directly impinging supersonic jets are investigated employing implicit large eddy simulations with a higher-order accurate weighted essentially non-oscillatory shock-capturing scheme. Impinging jet devices are often used as an experimental apparatus to emulate a broadband noise source. Although such devices have been used in many experiments, a detailed investigation of the noise generation mechanisms has not been conducted before. Thus, the underlying physical mechanisms that are responsible for the generation of sound waves are not well understood. The flow field is highly complex and contains a wide range of temporal and spatial scales relevant for noise generation. Proper orthogonal decomposition of the flow field is utilized to characterize the unsteady nature of the flow field involving unsteady shock oscillations, large coherent turbulent flow structures, and the sporadic appearance of vortex tubes in the center of the impingement region. The causality method based on Lighthill's acoustic analogy is applied to link fluctuations of flow quantities inside the source region to the acoustic pressure in the far field. It will be demonstrated that the entropy fluctuation term in the Lighthill's stress tensor plays a vital role in the noise generation process. Consequently, the understanding of the noise generation mechanisms is employed to develop a reduced-order linear acoustic model of the four-jet impingement device. Finally, three linear acoustic FJID models are used as broadband noise sources inside an engine nacelle and the acoustic scattering results are validated against far-field acoustic experimental data.

  16. Helicopter noise prediction - The current status and future direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brentner, Kenneth S.; Farassat, F.

    The paper takes stock of the progress, assesses the current prediction capabilities, and forecasts the direction of future helicopter noise prediction research. The acoustic analogy approach, specifically, theories based on the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equations, are the most widely used for deterministic noise sources. Thickness and loading noise can be routinely predicted given good plane motion and blade loading inputs. Blade-vortex interaction noise can also be predicted well with measured input data, but prediction of airloads with the high spatial and temporal resolution required for BVI is still difficult. Current semiempirical broadband noise predictions are useful and reasonably accurate. New prediction methods based on a Kirchhoff formula and direct computation appear to be very promising, but are currently very demanding computationally.

  17. Helicopter noise prediction - The current status and future direction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brentner, Kenneth S.; Farassat, F.

    1992-01-01

    The paper takes stock of the progress, assesses the current prediction capabilities, and forecasts the direction of future helicopter noise prediction research. The acoustic analogy approach, specifically, theories based on the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equations, are the most widely used for deterministic noise sources. Thickness and loading noise can be routinely predicted given good plane motion and blade loading inputs. Blade-vortex interaction noise can also be predicted well with measured input data, but prediction of airloads with the high spatial and temporal resolution required for BVI is still difficult. Current semiempirical broadband noise predictions are useful and reasonably accurate. New prediction methods based on a Kirchhoff formula and direct computation appear to be very promising, but are currently very demanding computationally.

  18. Tandem Cylinder Noise Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockhard, David P.; Khorrami, Mehdi R.; CHoudhari, Meelan M.; Hutcheson, Florence V.; Brooks, Thomas F.; Stead, Daniel J.

    2007-01-01

    In an effort to better understand landing-gear noise sources, we have been examining a simplified configuration that still maintains some of the salient features of landing-gear flow fields. In particular, tandem cylinders have been studied because they model a variety of component level interactions. The present effort is directed at the case of two identical cylinders spatially separated in the streamwise direction by 3.7 diameters. Experimental measurements from the Basic Aerodynamic Research Tunnel (BART) and Quiet Flow Facility (QFF) at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) have provided steady surface pressures, detailed off-surface measurements of the flow field using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), hot-wire measurements in the wake of the rear cylinder, unsteady surface pressure data, and the radiated noise. The experiments were conducted at a Reynolds number of 166 105 based on the cylinder diameter. A trip was used on the upstream cylinder to insure a fully turbulent shedding process and simulate the effects of a high Reynolds number flow. The parallel computational effort uses the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver CFL3D with a hybrid, zonal turbulence model that turns off the turbulence production term everywhere except in a narrow ring surrounding solid surfaces. The current calculations further explore the influence of the grid resolution and spanwise extent on the flow and associated radiated noise. Extensive comparisons with the experimental data are used to assess the ability of the computations to simulate the details of the flow. The results show that the pressure fluctuations on the upstream cylinder, caused by vortex shedding, are smaller than those generated on the downstream cylinder by wake interaction. Consequently, the downstream cylinder dominates the noise radiation, producing an overall directivity pattern that is similar to that of an isolated cylinder. Only calculations based on the full length of the model span were able to capture the complete decay in the spanwise correlation, thereby producing reasonable noise radiation levels.

  19. Acoustic Environment of Admiralty Inlet: Broadband Noise Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Jinshan; Deng, Zhiqun; Martinez, Jayson J.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Myers, Joshua R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Jones, Mark E.

    2011-09-30

    Admiralty Inlet has been selected as a potential tidal energy site. It is located near shipping lanes, is a highly variable acoustic environment, and is frequented by the highly endangered southern resident killer whale (SRKW). Resolving environmental impacts is the first step to receiving approval to deploy tidal turbines at Admiralty Inlet. Of particular concern is the potential for blade strike or other negative interactions between the SRKW and the tidal turbine. A variety of technologies including passive and active monitoring systems are being considered as potential tools to determine the presence of SRKW in the vicinity of the turbines. Broadband noise level measurements are critical for the determination of design and operation specifications of all marine and hydrokinetic energy capture technologies. Acoustic environment data at the proposed site was acquired at different depths using a cabled vertical line array (VLA) with four calibrated hydrophones. The sound pressure level (SPL) power spectrum density was estimated based on the fast Fourier transform. This study describes the first broadband SPL measurements for this site at different depths with frequency ranging from 10 kHz to 480 kHz in combination with other information. To understand the SPL caused by this bedload transport, three different pressure sensors with temperature and conductivity were also assembled on the VLA to measure the conditions at the hydrophone deployment depth. The broadband SPL levels at frequency ranges of 3 kHz to 7 kHz as a function of depth were estimated. Only the hydrophone at an average depth of 40 m showed the strong dependence of SPL with distance from the bottom, which was possibly caused by the cobbles shifting on the seabed. Automatic Identification System data were also studied to understand the SPL measurements.

  20. Experimental characterization of broadband electrostatic noise due to plasma compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubois, Ami M.; Thomas, Edward, Jr.; Amatucci, William E.; Ganguli, Gurudas

    2015-11-01

    For a wide variety of laboratory and space plasma environments, theory states that plasmas are unstable to transverse shear flows over a very broad frequency range, where the shear scale length (LE) compared to the ion gyro-radius (ρi) determines the character of the shear-driven instability that may prevail. During active periods in the Earth's magnetosphere, such sheared flows are intensified and broadband electrostatic noise (BEN) is often observed by satellites traversing natural boundary layers. An interpenetrating magnetized plasma configuration is used to create a transverse velocity shear profile similar to that found at natural space plasma boundary layers. The continuous variation and the associated transition of the instability regimes driven by the shear flow mechanism are demonstrated in a single laboratory experiment. For the first time, broadband wave emission, which is correlated to increasing/decreasing stress (i.e., ρi/LE) on a plasma boundary layer, is found under controlled and repeatable conditions. This result provides evidence that the compression/relaxation of a plasma boundary layer leads to a BEN signature and holds out the promise for understanding the cause and effect of the in situ observation of BEN by satellites. This project was supported with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy, the Defense Threat Reduction Agency, and NRL Base Funds.

  1. Generation of broadband electrostatic noise by ion beam instabilities in the magnetotail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grabbe, C. L.; Eastman, T. E.

    1984-01-01

    Particle data from ISEE 1 sampled in the earth's magnetotail show the presence of energetic ion beams in the boundary layer of the plasma sheet. A theory of instabilities driven by the beams is developed and compared with wave data sampled simultaneously to the particle data. It is concluded that the ion beams generate broadband electrostatic bursts of noise. The electrostatic noise correlates well with the occurrence of the beams, and the spectrum is consistent with that predicted from a negative energy beam instability under magnetotail conditions. The theory predicts that a spectrum of growing waves can be driven for frequencies from 0.001 omega(pe) up to omega(pe), the electron plasma frequency, with a spectral peak typically near 0.01 omega(pe) or lower, in agreement with the wave data. Furthermore, as one moves away from the source region perpendicular to the magnetic field, the high frequency components of the observed wave spectra are predicted to disappear gradually, leaving the low frequency part of the spectrum, also as is observed. Evidence is given for significant pitch angle scattering of the beams by the broadband electrostatic noise, leading to more isotropic ion distributions.

  2. Broadband jet noise amplification by a pure tone excitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, P. J.

    1980-01-01

    A model is proposed for the change in turbulent structure of a round jet in the presence of an acoustic excitation. The excitation is initial amplitude at the jet exit. As these waves propagate downstream they extract energy from the mean flow and transfer it to the random turbulence. This results in an increase in the levels of the turbulence and a resulting increase in the radiated broadband noise. An examination is made of the effect of excitation level and frequency on the jet flow. The numerical procedure allows for radial as well as axial variations in the averaged properties of jet to be calculated. The results indicate that the presence of a finite amplitude instability wave increases the spreading of the jet.

  3. Noise Prediction for Maneuvering Rotorcraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brentner, Kenneth S.; Jones, Henry E.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the initial work toward first-principles noise prediction for maneuvering rotors. Both the aeromechanical and acoustics aspects of the maneuver noise problem are discussed. The comprehensive analysis code, CAMRAD 2. was utilized to predict the time-dependent aircraft position and attitude, along - with the rotor blade airloads and motion. The major focus of this effort was the enhancement of the acoustic code WOPWOP necessary to compute the noise from a maneuvering rotorcraft. Full aircraft motion, including arbitrary transient motion, is modeled together with arbitrary rotor blade motions. Noise from a rotorcraft in turning and descending flight is compared to level flight. A substantial increase in the rotor noise is found both for turning flight and during a transient maneuver. Additional enhancements to take advantage of parallel computers and clusters of workstations, in addition to a new compact-chordwise loading formulation, are also described.

  4. Turbulence Measurements and Computations for the Predication of Broadband Noise in High Bypass Ratio Fans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devenport, William J.; Ragab, Saad A.

    2000-01-01

    Work was performed under this grant with a view to providing the experimental and computational results needed to improve the prediction of broadband stator noise in large bypass ratio aircraft engines. The central hypothesis of our study was that a large fraction of this noise was generated by the fan tip leakage vortices. More specifically, that these vortices are a significant component of the fan wake turbulence and they contain turbulent eddies of a type that can produce significant broadband noise. To test this hypothesis we originally proposed experimental work and computations with the following objectives: (1) to build a large scale two-dimensional cascade with a tip gap and a stationary endwall that, as far as possible, simulates the fan tip geometry, (2) to build a moving endwall for use with the large scale cascade, (3) to measure, in detail, the turbulence structure and spectrum generated by the blade wake and tip leakage vortex, for both endwall configurations, (4) to use the CFD to compute the flow and turbulence distributions for both the experimental configurations and the ADP fan, (5) to provide the experimental and CFD results for the cascades and the physical understanding gained from their study as a basis for improving the broadband noise prediction method. In large part these objectives have been achieved. The most important achievements and findings of our experimental and computational efforts are summarized below. The bibliography at the end of this report includes a list of all publications produced to date under this project. Note that this list is necessarily incomplete the task of publication (particularly in journal papers) continues.

  5. PREDICTION OF AIRCRAFT NOISE LEVELS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, B. J.

    1994-01-01

    Methods developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center for predicting the noise contributions from various aircraft noise sources have been incorporated into a computer program for predicting aircraft noise levels either in flight or in ground test. The noise sources accounted for include fan inlet and exhaust, jet, flap (for powered lift), core (combustor), turbine, and airframe. Noise propagation corrections are available in the program for atmospheric attenuation, ground reflections, extra ground attenuation, and shielding. The capacity to solve the geometrical relationships between an aircraft in flight and an observer on the ground has been included in the program to make it useful in evaluating noise estimates and footprints for various proposed engine installations. The program contains two main routines for employing the noise prediction routines. The first main routine consists of a procedure to calculate at various observer stations the time history of the noise from an aircraft flying at a specified set of speeds, orientations, and space coordinates. The various components of the noise are computed by the program. For each individual source, the noise levels are free field with no corrections for propagation losses other than spherical divergence. The total spectra may then be corrected for the usual effects of atmospheric attenuation, extra ground attenuation, ground reflection, and aircraft shielding. Next, the corresponding values of overall sound pressure level, perceived noise level, and tone-weighted perceived noise level are calculated. From the time history at each point, true effective perceived noise levels are calculated. Thus, values of effective perceived noise levels, maximum perceived noise levels, and tone-weighted perceived noise levels are found for a grid of specified points on the ground. The second main routine is designed to give the usual format of one-third octave sound pressure level values at a fixed radius for a number of user-selected angles, such as would simulate the ground acoustic testing of an engine. This computer program is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution and has been implemented on an IBM 360 series computer with a central memory requirement of approximately 120K of 8 bit bytes. This program was developed in 1981.

  6. A Theoretical Basis for the Scaling Law of Broadband Shock Noise Intensity in Supersonic Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandula, Max

    2011-01-01

    A theoretical basis for the scaling of broadband shock noise intensity In supersonic jets was formulated considering linear shock-shear wave interaction. Modeling of broadband shock noise with the aid of shock-turbulence interaction with special reference to linear theories is briefly reviewed. An hypothesis has been postulated that the peak angle of incidence (closer to the critical angle) for the shear wave primarily governs the generation of sound in the interaction process with the noise generation contribution from off-peak incident angles being relatively unimportant. The proposed hypothesis satisfactorily explains the well-known scaling law for the broadband shock-associated noise in supersonic jets.

  7. The prediction of STOVL noise - Current semiempirical methods and comparisons with jet noise data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soderman, Paul T.

    1990-04-01

    The prediction of conventional or STOVL turbojet propulsion system-using aircraft noise is presently undertaken by means of a method incorporating empirical models for jet-mixing noise, engine core noise, and broadband shock noise. The free-jet noise is coupled with a novel empirical equation for ground-interaction noise generated by a vertically impinging jet, and supplemented with the out-of-ground-effect free-jet acoustic directivity pattern of a Harrier-type vectoring nozzle installation. This acoustic-prediction method yielded reasonable agreement with measured far-field Harrier noise during hover in and out of ground effect. Unlike small-scale studies of jet impingement on a hard surface, no tones were found in the present Harrier nozzle spectra.

  8. Fan broadband interaction noise modeling using a low-order method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grace, S. M.

    2015-06-01

    A low-order method for simulating broadband interaction noise downstream of the fan stage in a turbofan engine is explored in this paper. The particular noise source of interest is due to the interaction of the fan rotor wake with the fan exit guide vanes (FEGVs). The vanes are modeled as flat plates and the method utilizes strip theory relying on unsteady aerodynamic cascade theory at each strip. This paper shows predictions for 6 of the 9 cases from NASA's Source Diagnostic Test (SDT) and all 4 cases from the 2014 Fan Broadband Workshop Fundamental Case 2 (FC2). The turbulence in the rotor wake is taken from hot-wire data for the low speed SDT cases and the FC2 cases. Additionally, four different computational simulations of the rotor wake flow for all of the SDT rotor speeds have been used to determine the rotor wake turbulence parameters. Comparisons between predictions based on the different inputs highlight the possibility of a potential effect present in the hot-wire data for the SDT as well as the importance of accurately describing the turbulence length scale when using this model. The method produces accurate predictions of the spectral shape for all of the cases. It also predicts reasonably well all of the trends that can be considered based on the included cases such as vane geometry, vane count, turbulence level, and rotor speed.

  9. Semi-Empirical Modelling of Broadband Noise for Aerofoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Gennaro, Michele; Kuehnelt, Helmut

    2011-09-01

    Turbulence related noise is widely recognized to be one of the most important aerodynamic noise sources for many applications and the development of computational tools for its modelling and prediction is an even more important target in many areas of applied engineering. On a general basis the noise generation mechanisms that can occur on an aerofoil surface can be classified in three main categories: Turbulent Boundary Layer-Trailing Edge noise (TBL-TE), the Laminar Boundary Layer—Vortex Shedding (LBL-VS) noise and the Separation Stall (S-S) noise, respectively related to the boundary layer turbulent eddies, to the boundary layer laminar instabilities and to the large vorticity that can be experienced for different Angle of Attacks, Reynolds and Mach numbers. Despite of the recent improvements of Computational Fluid Dynamics in the frame of turbulence modelling, the numerical computation of high Reynolds flow field turbulence for acoustic purposes is still a hard task to perform as it requires a time-dependant, fully-resolved Large Eddy Simulation often resulting in a prohibitive computational cost. Furthermore in most of the cases it is of fundamental importance to have fast and reliable tools able to capture the driving phenomena and noise sources, in order to be able to perform a large number of simulations embedded in an optimization cycle. The target of this paper is testing the Brooks, Pope and Marcolini semi-empirical model for noise prediction of the NACA 0012 aerofoil on the DU96 geometry in a range of Angle of Attacks from 3 to 10 degrees and Reynolds numbers from 1.5 to 3.1 M. The semi-empirical model input parameters (boundary layer, displacement and momentum thickness) on the suction and pressure side of the aerofoil at the trailing edge location are computed with a steady RANS simulation while the BPM approach has been implemented as an external tool. Computed noise spectra show a good agreement with experimental data from literature in terms of both Sound Pressure Levels (SPLs) and spectra envelope.

  10. Multiple pure tone noise prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Fei; Sharma, Anupam; Paliath, Umesh; Shieh, Chingwei

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a fully numerical method for predicting multiple pure tones, also known as “Buzzsaw” noise. It consists of three steps that account for noise source generation, nonlinear acoustic propagation with hard as well as lined walls inside the nacelle, and linear acoustic propagation outside the engine. Noise generation is modeled by steady, part-annulus computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. A linear superposition algorithm is used to construct full-annulus shock/pressure pattern just upstream of the fan from part-annulus CFD results. Nonlinear wave propagation is carried out inside the duct using a pseudo-two-dimensional solution of Burgers' equation. Scattering from nacelle lip as well as radiation to farfield is performed using the commercial solver ACTRAN/TM. The proposed prediction process is verified by comparing against full-annulus CFD simulations as well as against static engine test data for a typical high bypass ratio aircraft engine with hardwall as well as lined inlets. Comparisons are drawn against nacelle unsteady pressure transducer measurements at two axial locations as well as against near- and far-field microphone array measurements outside the duct. This is the first fully numerical approach (no experimental or empirical input is required) to predict multiple pure tone noise generation, in-duct propagation and far-field radiation. It uses measured blade coordinates to calculate MPT noise.

  11. Supersonic coaxial jet noise predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahl, Milo D.; Morris, Philip J.

    1995-01-01

    Predictions are made for the noise radiation from supersonic, coaxial jets. These predictions are based on the assumption that the noise radiation in the downstream direction of supersonic jets is dominated by sound generated by instability waves with supersonic phase velocities relative to ambient. Since the analysis requires a known mean flow and the coaxial jet mean flow is not described easily in terms of analytical functions, a numerical prediction is made for its development. The compressible, Reynolds averaged, boundary layer equations are solved with a modified mixing length turbulence model. The model has been calibrated to account for compressibility and temperature effects on the rate of mixing. Both normal and inverted velocity profile jets are considered. Predictions are made for the differences between the noise radiated by coaxial jets with difference operating conditions and a single reference jet with the same thrust, mass flow, and exit area. The effects of area ratio changes and simulated enhanced mixing on noise radiation are also considered.

  12. Comparative Noise Performance of Portable Broadband Sensor Emplacements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweet, Justin; Arias-Dotson, Eliana; Beaudoin, Bruce; Anderson, Kent

    2015-04-01

    IRIS PASSCAL has supported portable broadband seismic experiments for close to 30 years. During that time we have seen a variety of sensor vaults deployed. The vaults deployed fall into two broad categories, a PASSCAL style vault and a Flexible Array style vault. The PASSCAL vault is constructed of materials available in-county and it is the Principle Investigator (PI) who establishes the actual field deployed design. These vaults generally are a large barrel placed in a ~1 m deep hole. A small pier, decoupled from the barrel, is fashioned in the bottom of the vault (either cement, paving stone or tile) for the sensor placement. The sensor is insulated and protected. Finally the vault is sealed and buried under ~30 cm of soil. The Flexible Array vault is provided to PIs by the EarthScope program, offering a uniform portable vault for these deployments. The vault consists of a 30 cm diameter by 0.75 cm tall piece of plastic sewage pipe buried with ~10 cm of pipe above grade. A rubber membrane covers the bottom and cement was poured into the bottom, coupling the pier to the pipe. The vault is sealed and buried under ~30 cm of soil. Cost, logistics, and the availability of materials in-country are usually the deciding factors for PIs when choosing a vault design and frequently trades are made given available resources. Recently a third type of portable broadband installation, direct burial, is being tested. In this case a sensor designed for shallow, direct burial is installed in a ~20 cm diameter by ~1 m deep posthole. Direct burial installation costs are limited to the time and effort required to dig the posthole and emplace the sensor. Our initial analyses suggest that direct burial sensors perform as well and at times better than sensor in vaults on both horizontal and vertical channels across a range of periods (<1 s to 100 s). Moving towards an instrument pool composed entirely of direct burial sensors (some with integrated digitizers) could yield higher-quality data at lower cost. Until recently vault performance for portable installations supported by the PASSCAL program was anecdotal. A formal comparison of these various installation techniques is the subject of this poster. We've selected a suite of experiments that are representative of the three installation techniques and compare their noise performance by using PSD probability density functions (McNamara and Buland, 2004).

  13. Broadband noise characteristics of a model counter-rotating shrouded propfan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boettcher, Jan; Dobrzynski, Werner; Gehlhar, Burkhard

    In recent years counter-rotating propfan aeroengines were developed since they promise significant fuel savings compared to conventional fan engines. The German manufacturer MTU has developed the CRISP (Counter-Rotating Integrated Shrouded Propfan) 1:6.25-scale model engine which has been tested in the German Dutch Wind Tunnel (DNW). The present study concentrates on the broadband noise component and its relative importance to the total sound emission. While single-propeller/propfan noise emission is dominated by rotational noise, a counter-rotating propfan may constitute a significant source of broadband noise.

  14. Material loss angles from direct measurements of broadband thermal noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Principe, Maria; Pinto, Innocenzo M.; Pierro, Vincenzo; DeSalvo, Riccardo; Taurasi, Ilaria; Villar, Akira E.; Black, Eric D.; Libbrecht, Kenneth G.; Michel, Christophe; Morgado, Nazario; Pinard, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    We estimate the loss angles of the materials currently used in the highly reflective test-mass coatings of interferometric detectors of gravitational waves, namely Silica, Tantala, and Ti-doped Tantala, from direct measurement of coating thermal noise in an optical interferometer testbench, the Caltech TNI. We also present a simple predictive theory for the material properties of amorphous glassy oxide mixtures, which gives results in good agreement with our measurements on Ti-doped Tantala. Alternative measurement methods and results are reviewed, and some critical issues are discussed.

  15. Stochastic model theory of broadband shock associated noise from supersonic jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tam, C. K. W.

    1987-01-01

    A method based on the work of Tam and Tanna (1982) for calculating the near field noise spectrum and the spatial distribution of broadband shock associated noise from supersonic jets is proposed. Multiple-scales expansion is used to decompose the quasi-periodic shock cells into time-independent waveguide modes of the jet flow, and the interaction of the instability waves with each of the waveguide modes is shown to generate unsteady disturbances which become part of the broadband shock associated noise when radiated to the far field. The observed broadband shock associated noise is composed of a superposition of the various distinct spectra of the different waveguide modes, and the multispectra can be easily identified in many of the existing far and near field noise measurements.

  16. On the Scaling Law for Broadband Shock Noise Intensity in Supersonic Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanudula, Max

    2009-01-01

    A theoretical model for the scaling of broadband shock noise intensity in supersonic jets was formulated on the basis of linear shock-shear wave interaction. An hypothesis has been postulated that the peak angle of incidence (closer to the critical angle) for the shear wave primarily governs the generation of sound in the interaction process rather than the noise generation contribution from off-peak incident angles. The proposed theory satisfactorily explains the well-known scaling law for the broadband shock -associated noise in supersonic jets.

  17. NASA progress in aircraft noise prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raney, J. P.; Padula, S. L.; Zorumski, W. E.

    1981-03-01

    Langley Research Center efforts to develop a methodology for predicting the effective perceived noise level (EPNL) produced by jet-powered CTOL aircraft to an accuracy of + or - 1.5 dB are summarized with emphasis on the aircraft noise prediction program (ANOPP) which contains a complete set of prediction methods for CTOL aircraft including propulsion system noise sources, aerodynamic or airframe noise sources, forward speed effects, a layered atmospheric model with molecular absorption, ground impedance effects including excess ground attenuation, and a received noise contouring capability. The present state of ANOPP is described and its accuracy and applicability to the preliminary aircraft design process is assessed. Areas are indicated where further theoretical and experimental research on noise prediction are needed. Topics covered include the elements of the noise prediction problem which are incorporated in ANOPP, results of comparisons of ANOPP calculations with measured noise levels, and progress toward treating noise as a design constraint in aircraft system studies.

  18. NASA progress in aircraft noise prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raney, J. P.; Padula, S. L.; Zorumski, W. E.

    1981-01-01

    Langley Research Center efforts to develop a methodology for predicting the effective perceived noise level (EPNL) produced by jet-powered CTOL aircraft to an accuracy of + or - 1.5 dB are summarized with emphasis on the aircraft noise prediction program (ANOPP) which contains a complete set of prediction methods for CTOL aircraft including propulsion system noise sources, aerodynamic or airframe noise sources, forward speed effects, a layered atmospheric model with molecular absorption, ground impedance effects including excess ground attenuation, and a received noise contouring capability. The present state of ANOPP is described and its accuracy and applicability to the preliminary aircraft design process is assessed. Areas are indicated where further theoretical and experimental research on noise prediction are needed. Topics covered include the elements of the noise prediction problem which are incorporated in ANOPP, results of comparisons of ANOPP calculations with measured noise levels, and progress toward treating noise as a design constraint in aircraft system studies.

  19. Discrete-frequency and broadband noise radiation from diesel engine cooling fans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Geon-Seok

    This effort focuses on measuring and predicting the discrete-frequency and broadband noise radiated by diesel engine cooling fans. Unsteady forces developed by the interaction of the fan blade with inlet flow are the dominant source for both discrete-frequency and broadband noise of the subject propeller fan. In many cases, a primary source of discrepancy between fan noise prediction and measurement is due to incomplete description of the fan inflow. Particularly, in such engine cooling systems where space is very limited, it would be very difficult, if not, impossible to measure the fan inflow velocity field using the conventional, stationary hot-wire method. Instead, the fan inflow was measured with two-component x-type hot-film probes attached very close to the leading edge of a rotating blade. One of the advantages of the blade-mounted-probe measurement technique is that it measures velocities relative to the rotating probe, which enables the acquired data to be applied directly in many aerodynamic theories that have been developed for the airfoil fixed-coordinate system. However, the velocity time data measured by this technique contains the spatially non-uniform mean velocity field along with the temporal fluctuations. A phase-locked averaging technique was successfully employed to decompose the velocity data into time-invariant flow distortions and fluctuations due to turbulence. The angles of attack of the fan blades, obtained from inlet flow measurements, indicate that the blades are stalled. The fan's radiated noise was measured without contamination from the engine noise by driving the fan with an electric motor. The motor operated at a constant speed while a pair of speed controllable pulleys controlled the fan speed. Narrowband and 1/3-octave band sound power of the cooling fan was measured by using the comparison method with a reference sound source in a reverberant room. The spatially non-uniform mean velocity field was used in axial-flow fan noise theory to predict the discrete-frequency noise at the blade passing frequency (BPF) and harmonics. The unsteady lift was predicted by considering transverse and longitudinal velocity fluctuations. The influences due to an upstream finger guard were also investigated. The radiated sound power spectra that were measured for the fan are shown to be in excellent agreement with those predicted. The agreement between prediction and measurement is only fair at the fundamental BPF tone. Further experimental investigations revealed that the interaction noise between the fan blades and a shroud surrounding the fan might be the dominant source for the radiation at the first harmonic. The space-time correlation functions of the inflow velocity fluctuations were measured and utilized in stochastic lifting surface theory to calculate the unsteady blade lift and resulting broadband fan noise. The integral length scale of the inlet flow was found to be much smaller than the blade-to-blade separate distance of the fan. Therefore, contributions from blade-to-blade correlations of the various elements on different blades were found to be negligible and hence ignored; only the correlations between the strip elements on a given blade were considered. The cross-correlations measured between elements separated by more than the integral length scale were also found to be negligibly small. The predicted broadband sound power spectra agree well with those measured for frequencies greater than 400 Hz. There are deviations between the predictions and measurements at lower frequencies. These are likely due to fan blade stall, and possibly, anomalies in the noise measurement environment. In order to reduce the sound radiation at the blade rate tones, the baseline fan was replaced with a skewed fan. The backward skew angle of 30° was found to effectively reduce the 2nd and higher harmonics of the blade rate tone. The interaction of the shroud opening and the blade tips dominates the sound level at the fundamental tone. This tone was successfully reduced by incorporating a serrated shroud opening. Overall, a 2.8 dB sound power level reduction was achieved by applying the skewed fan and the serrated shroud opening simultaneously. Almost all blade rate tone levels were reduced without adversely affecting the flow performance of the system.

  20. Interim prediction method for jet noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    A method is provided for predicting jet noise for a wide range of nozzle geometries and operating conditions of interest for aircraft engines. Jet noise theory, data and existing prediction methods was reviewed, and based on this information a interim method of jet noise prediction is proposed. Problem areas are idenified where further research is needed to improve the prediction method. This method predicts only the noise generated by the exhaust jets mixing with the surrounding air and does not include other noises emanating from the engine exhaust, such as combustion and machinery noise generated inside the engine (i.e., core noise). It does, however, include thrust reverser noise. Prediction relations are provided for conical nozzles, plug nozzles, coaxial nozzles and slot nozzles.

  1. Sub-harmonic broadband humps and tip noise in low-speed ring fans.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Stéphane; Sanjose, Marlène

    2016-01-01

    A joint experimental and numerical study has been achieved on a low-speed axial ring fan in clean inflow. Experimental evidence shows large periodic broadband humps at lower frequencies than the blade passing frequencies and harmonics even at design conditions. These sub-harmonic humps are also found to be sensitive to the fan process and consequently to its tip geometry. Softer fans yield more intense humps more shifted to lower frequencies with respect to the fan harmonics. Unsteady turbulent flow simulations of this ring fan mounted on a test plenum have been achieved by four different methods that have been validated by comparing with overall performances and detailed hot-wire velocity measurements in the wake. Noise predictions are either obtained directly or are obtained through Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings' analogy, and compared with narrowband and third-octave power spectra. All unsteady simulations correctly capture the low flow rates, the coherent vortex dynamics in the tip clearance and consequently the noise radiation dominated by the tip noise in the low- to mid-frequency range. Yet, only the scale-adaptive simulation and the lattice Boltzmann method simulations which can describe most of the turbulent structures accurately provide the proper spectral shape and levels, and consequently the overall sound power level. PMID:26827010

  2. Research needs in aircraft noise prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raney, J. P.

    1975-01-01

    Progress needed in understanding the mechanisms of aircraft noise generation and propagation is outlined using the focus provided by the need to predict accurately the noise produced and received at the ground by an aircraft operating in the vicinity of an airport. The components of internal engine noise generation, jet exhaust, airframe noise and shielding and configuration effects, and the roles of atmospheric propagation and ground noise attenuation are presented and related to the prediction problem. The role of NASA in providing the focus and direction for needed advances is discussed, and possible contributions of the academic community in helping to fulfill the needs for accurate aircraft noise prediction methods are suggested.

  3. Anechoic wind tunnel study of turbulence effects on wind turbine broadband noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loyd, B.; Harris, W. L.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes recent results obtained at MIT on the experimental and theoretical modelling of aerodynamic broadband noise generated by a downwind rotor horizontal axis wind turbine. The aerodynamic broadband noise generated by the wind turbine rotor is attributed to the interaction of ingested turbulence with the rotor blades. The turbulence was generated in the MIT anechoic wind tunnel facility with the aid of biplanar grids of various sizes. The spectra and the intensity of the aerodynamic broadband noise have been studied as a function of parameters which characterize the turbulence and of wind turbine performance parameters. Specifically, the longitudinal integral scale of turbulence, the size scale of turbulence, the number of turbine blades, and free stream velocity were varied. Simultaneous measurements of acoustic and turbulence signals were made. The sound pressure level was found to vary directly with the integral scale of the ingested turbulence but not with its intensity level. A theoretical model based on unsteady aerodynamics is proposed.

  4. Very broadband seismic background noise analysis of permanent good vaulted seismic stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd el-aal, Abd el-aziz Khairy

    2013-04-01

    This paper describes the results of a preliminary study conducted to analyze seismic background noise at sites of recently deployed very broadband stations of the Egyptian National Seismological Network (ENSN). The main purpose of the study is to assess the effects of permanent seismic vault construction and also to establish characteristics and origin of seismic noise at those sites. Another goal of this study is to determine the time needed for noise at those sites to stabilize. The power spectral densities of background noise at short period band (SP), very broadband (VBB), and ultra long period band (ULP) for each component of each broadband seismometer deployed in the different investigated sites are calculated. A MATLAB code has been developed that manages data processing and data analysis and compares the results with the high-noise model (NHNM) and low-noise model (NLNM) of Peterson (1993). Based on the obtained analysis, the noise stability and the efficiency of each station to record regional and teleseismic events are measured. The results of this study could be used in the future to evaluate station quality, to improve those processes that require background noise values, such as automatic association, and to improve the estimation of station and network detection and location thresholds.

  5. Broadband mag-noise of patterned permalloy thin films.

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, H.; Li, C.; Divan, R.; Hoffmann, A.; Wang, P.; Clemson Univ.

    2010-06-01

    A Y-factor noise figure (NF) measurement method is developed to characterize high-frequency mag-noise of a 550 nm wide Permalloy strip array under different dc bias currents. The noise voltage density is obtained. The proposed lumped element transmission line model describes noise properties of the patterned Py array well. Measurement data show that rapid ferromagnetic resonance frequencies (FMR) shift induced by dc bias current is related to the excess magnetization fluctuation thermally created by the combined dc current Joule heating effects and orthogonal Oersted fields.

  6. Broadband Shock Noise in Internally-Mixed Dual-Stream Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, James E.

    2009-01-01

    Broadband shock noise (BBSN) has been studied in some detail in single-flow jets and recently in dual-stream jets with separate flow exhaust systems. Shock noise is of great concern in these latter cases because of the noise created for the aircraft cabin by the underexpanded nozzle flow at cruise. Another case where shock noise is of concern is in the case of future supersonic aircraft that are expected to have bypass ratios small enough to justify internally mixed exhaust systems, and whose mission will push cycles to the point of imperfectly expanded flows. Dual-stream jets with internally mixed plume have some simplifying aspects relative to the separate flow jets, having a single shock structure given by the common nozzle pressure. This is used to separate the contribution of the turbulent shear layer to the broadband shock noise. Shock structure is held constant while the geometry and strength of the inner and merged shear layers are varying by changing splitter area ratio and core stream temperature. Flow and noise measurements are presented which document the efforts at separating the contribution of the inner shear layer to the broadband shock noise.

  7. Prediction of Externally Blown Flap Noise and Turbomachinery Strut Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, M. R.

    1975-01-01

    Methods were developed for predicting externally blown flap (EBF) noise and turbomachinery strut noise. Noise radiated by under-the-wing and upper-surface-blowing EBF configurations is calculated as a sum of lift dipole noise, trailing edge noise, and jet quadrupole noise. Resulting predictions of amplitudes and spectra generally were in good agreement with data from small-scale models. These data cover a range of exhaust velocity, flap deflection, exhaust nozzle position, exhaust nozzle shape, and ratio of exhaust nozzle diameter to wing chord. A semi-empirical method for predicting dipole noise radiation from a strut with incident turbulence was in good agreement with data. Leading-edge regions made of perforated plate backed by a bulk acoustic absorber achieved up to 7 db reduction of strut noise caused by incident turbulence at high frequencies. Radial turbulence in a turbofan exit duct was found to have a relatively high level associated with the mean velocity defect in the rotor blade wakes. Use of these turbulence spectra and a dipole noise radiation equation gave general prediction of measured aft-radiated sound power caused by a splitter ring in a full-scale fan exit duct.

  8. Computer program to predict aircraft noise levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, B. J.

    1981-09-01

    Methods developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center for predicting the noise contributions from various aircraft noise sources were programmed to predict aircraft noise levels either in flight or in ground tests. The noise sources include fan inlet and exhaust, jet, flap (for powered lift), core (combustor), turbine, and airframe. Noise propagation corrections are available for atmospheric attenuation, ground reflections, extra ground attenuation, and shielding. Outputs can include spectra, overall sound pressure level, perceived noise level, tone-weighted perceived noise level, and effective perceived noise level at locations specified by the user. Footprint contour coordinates and approximate footprint areas can also be calculated. Inputs and outputs can be in either System International or U.S. customary units. The subroutines for each noise source and propagation correction are described. A complete listing is given.

  9. Computer program to predict aircraft noise levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, B. J.

    1981-01-01

    Methods developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center for predicting the noise contributions from various aircraft noise sources were programmed to predict aircraft noise levels either in flight or in ground tests. The noise sources include fan inlet and exhaust, jet, flap (for powered lift), core (combustor), turbine, and airframe. Noise propagation corrections are available for atmospheric attenuation, ground reflections, extra ground attenuation, and shielding. Outputs can include spectra, overall sound pressure level, perceived noise level, tone-weighted perceived noise level, and effective perceived noise level at locations specified by the user. Footprint contour coordinates and approximate footprint areas can also be calculated. Inputs and outputs can be in either System International or U.S. customary units. The subroutines for each noise source and propagation correction are described. A complete listing is given.

  10. Suppression of broadband noise radiated by a low-speed fan in a duct.

    PubMed

    Huang, L; Ma, X; Feng, L G

    2010-07-01

    Attenuation of ducted fan noise remains a technical challenge in the low frequency range as traditional duct lining becomes ineffective. This study proposes a reactive method to suppress the sound radiation from an axial-flow fan. The method is particularly effective in the low frequency region and covers a broad band. Its effect is derived from two mechanisms. One is the reduction in the confining effects of duct walls when the duct radius is increased; the other is the acoustic interference between the direct radiation from the fan and reflections by the duct junctions. This interference is always destructive for axial dipoles when the frequency approaches zero. This performance differs from normal passive control methods, which become totally ineffective toward zero frequency. An approximate plane-wave theory explains the essential physics of the method, and its quantitative prediction is found to agree well with a full numerical simulation using a spectral method of Chebyshev collocation. The latter is validated by experiment using an axial-flow fan in a duct of finite length. Broadband noise reduction is achieved while the flow speed is kept unchanged. Practical difficulties of implementation for a fan with high pressure increase are discussed. PMID:20649210

  11. Forward flight effects on broadband shock associated noise of supersonic jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tam, Christopher K. W.

    1989-01-01

    The stochastic model theory of TAM (1987, 1989) for broadband shock associated noise was extended to include the effects of forward flight. The theory was applied to the forward flight simulation experiments of Norum and Shearin (1984, 1986, and 1988). Good agreement is found between calculated and measured far-field noise spectra over the flight Mach number range of 0.0 to 0.4.

  12. Fan Noise Prediction: Status and Needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Dennis L.

    1997-01-01

    The prediction of fan noise is an important part to the prediction of overall turbofan engine noise. Advances in computers and better understanding of the flow physics have allowed researchers to compute sound generation from first principles and rely less on empirical correlations. While progress has been made, there are still many aspects of the problem that need to be explored. This paper presents some recent advances in fan noise prediction and suggests areas that still need further development. Fan noise predictions that support the recommendations are taken from existing publications.

  13. Fan Noise Prediction with Applications to Aircraft System Noise Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nark, Douglas M.; Envia, Edmane; Burley, Casey L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an assessment of current fan noise prediction tools by comparing measured and predicted sideline acoustic levels from a benchmark fan noise wind tunnel test. Specifically, an empirical method and newly developed coupled computational approach are utilized to predict aft fan noise for a benchmark test configuration. Comparisons with sideline noise measurements are performed to assess the relative merits of the two approaches. The study identifies issues entailed in coupling the source and propagation codes, as well as provides insight into the capabilities of the tools in predicting the fan noise source and subsequent propagation and radiation. In contrast to the empirical method, the new coupled computational approach provides the ability to investigate acoustic near-field effects. The potential benefits/costs of these new methods are also compared with the existing capabilities in a current aircraft noise system prediction tool. The knowledge gained in this work provides a basis for improved fan source specification in overall aircraft system noise studies.

  14. Flyover-noise measurement and prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peart, Noel A.

    1991-01-01

    Details are presented for the measurement and prediction of aircraft flyover noise to be used for certification, research and development, community noise surveys, airport monitors, and pass fail criteria. Test details presented are applicable to all types of aircraft, both large and small, and the use of Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR) Part 36 (ref. 1) is emphasized. Accuracy of noise measurements is important. Thus, a pass-fail criterion should be used for all noise measurements. Finally, factors which influence the sound propagation and noise prediction procedures, such as atmospheric and ground effects, are also presented.

  15. Fan broadband noise shielding for over-wing engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, Stephen; Sóbester, András; Joseph, Phillip

    2012-11-01

    Increasingly demanding community noise targets are promoting noise performance ever higher on the list of airliner design drivers. In response, significant noise reductions are being made, though at a declining rate—it appears that a whole airframe approach is now needed to achieve significant further gains. As a possible step in this direction, over-wing engine installations are considered here, which use the airframe itself as a noise shield. The paper is the account of an experimental investigation of the comparative shielding performances of a range of relative engine positions on such a layout. Using the statistical modelling technique Kriging, we build an approximation of the noise shielding metric as a function of the position of the engines above the wing—this can serve as the input to multi-disciplinary design trade-off studies. We then compare the results found with the results of applying simple half-barrier diffraction theory to the same problem. We conclude that the latter could be considered as a first order, conceptual design tool, though it misses certain features of the design merit landscape identified by the experiment presented here.

  16. Empirical Prediction of Aircraft Landing Gear Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, Robert A. (Technical Monitor); Guo, Yue-Ping

    2005-01-01

    This report documents a semi-empirical/semi-analytical method for landing gear noise prediction. The method is based on scaling laws of the theory of aerodynamic noise generation and correlation of these scaling laws with current available test data. The former gives the method a sound theoretical foundation and the latter quantitatively determines the relations between the parameters of the landing gear assembly and the far field noise, enabling practical predictions of aircraft landing gear noise, both for parametric trends and for absolute noise levels. The prediction model is validated by wind tunnel test data for an isolated Boeing 737 landing gear and by flight data for the Boeing 777 airplane. In both cases, the predictions agree well with data, both in parametric trends and in absolute noise levels.

  17. Numerical Prediction of Laminar Instability Noise for NACA 0012 Aerofoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Gennaro, Michele; Hueppe, Andreas; Kuehnelt, Helmut; Kaltenbacher, Manfred

    2011-09-01

    Aerofoil self-generated noise is recognized to be of fundamental importance in the frame of applied aeroacoustics and the use of computational methods to assess the acoustic behaviour of airframe components challenges an even larger community of engineers and scientists. Several noise generation mechanisms can be found which are mainly related to the physical development of turbulence over the boundary layer. They can be classified in 3 main categories: the Turbulent Boundary Layer—Trailing Edge noise (TBL-TE), the Laminar Boundary Layer—Vortex Shedding (LBL-VS) noise and the Separation Stall (S-S) noise. The TBL-TE is mainly related to the noise generated by turbulent eddies which develop into the boundary layer and usually exhibits a broadband spectrum. The LBL-VS is related to laminar instabilities that can occur within the boundary layer which are responsible for a very late transition and generate a typical peaked tonal noise, while the S-S noise mainly results from the development of large vortices after the separation point. In this paper we propose a numerical analysis targeted to the simulation the LBL-VS noise mechanisms on a NACA 0012 aerofoil, tested at a Reynolds number of 1.1 M and Mach number of 0.2. The aerodynamic simulation is performed with a 2D transient RANS approach using the k-ω transitional turbulence model, while the acoustic computations are performed with the FfowcsWilliams-Hawkings (FW-H) acoustic analogy and with a Finite Element (FE) approach solving Lighthill's wave equation. Computed noise spectra are compared with experimental data published by NASA showing a good agreement both for peak location as well as for the predicted noise level.

  18. A review of propeller noise prediction methodology: 1919-1994

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metzger, F. Bruce

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes a review of the literature regarding propeller noise prediction methods. The review is divided into six sections: (1) early methods; (2) more recent methods based on earlier theory; (3) more recent methods based on the Acoustic Analogy; (4) more recent methods based on Computational Acoustics; (5) empirical methods; and (6) broadband methods. The report concludes that there are a large number of noise prediction procedures available which vary markedly in complexity. Deficiencies in accuracy of methods in many cases may be related, not to the methods themselves, but the accuracy and detail of the aerodynamic inputs used to calculate noise. The steps recommended in the report to provide accurate and easy to use prediction methods are: (1) identify reliable test data; (2) define and conduct test programs to fill gaps in the existing data base; (3) identify the most promising prediction methods; (4) evaluate promising prediction methods relative to the data base; (5) identify and correct the weaknesses in the prediction methods, including lack of user friendliness, and include features now available only in research codes; (6) confirm the accuracy of improved prediction methods to the data base; and (7) make the methods widely available and provide training in their use.

  19. Analysis of a Shock-Associated Noise Prediction Model Using Measured Jet Far-Field Noise Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahl, Milo D.; Sharpe, Jacob A.

    2014-01-01

    A code for predicting supersonic jet broadband shock-associated noise was assessed using a database containing noise measurements of a jet issuing from a convergent nozzle. The jet was operated at 24 conditions covering six fully expanded Mach numbers with four total temperature ratios. To enable comparisons of the predicted shock-associated noise component spectra with data, the measured total jet noise spectra were separated into mixing noise and shock-associated noise component spectra. Comparisons between predicted and measured shock-associated noise component spectra were used to identify deficiencies in the prediction model. Proposed revisions to the model, based on a study of the overall sound pressure levels for the shock-associated noise component of the measured data, a sensitivity analysis of the model parameters with emphasis on the definition of the convection velocity parameter, and a least-squares fit of the predicted to the measured shock-associated noise component spectra, resulted in a new definition for the source strength spectrum in the model. An error analysis showed that the average error in the predicted spectra was reduced by as much as 3.5 dB for the revised model relative to the average error for the original model.

  20. Analysis of a Shock-Associated Noise Prediction Model Using Measured Jet Far-Field Noise Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahl, Milo D.; Sharpe, Jacob A.

    2014-01-01

    A code for predicting supersonic jet broadband shock-associated noise was assessed us- ing a database containing noise measurements of a jet issuing from a convergent nozzle. The jet was operated at 24 conditions covering six fully expanded Mach numbers with four total temperature ratios. To enable comparisons of the predicted shock-associated noise component spectra with data, the measured total jet noise spectra were separated into mixing noise and shock-associated noise component spectra. Comparisons between predicted and measured shock-associated noise component spectra were used to identify de ciencies in the prediction model. Proposed revisions to the model, based on a study of the overall sound pressure levels for the shock-associated noise component of the mea- sured data, a sensitivity analysis of the model parameters with emphasis on the de nition of the convection velocity parameter, and a least-squares t of the predicted to the mea- sured shock-associated noise component spectra, resulted in a new de nition for the source strength spectrum in the model. An error analysis showed that the average error in the predicted spectra was reduced by as much as 3.5 dB for the revised model relative to the average error for the original model.

  1. Shielding of Turbomachinery Broadband Noise from a Hybrid Wing Body Aircraft Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutcheson, Florence V.; Brooks, Thomas F.; Burley, Casey L.; Bahr, Christopher J.; Stead, Daniel J.; Pope, D. Stuart

    2014-01-01

    The results of an experimental study on the effects of engine placement and vertical tail configuration on shielding of exhaust broadband noise radiation are presented. This study is part of the high fidelity aeroacoustic test of a 5.8% scale Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) aircraft configuration performed in the 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center. Broadband Engine Noise Simulators (BENS) were used to determine insertion loss due to shielding by the HWB airframe of the broadband component of turbomachinery noise for different airframe configurations and flight conditions. Acoustics data were obtained from flyover and sideline microphones traversed to predefined streamwise stations. Noise measurements performed for different engine locations clearly show the noise benefit associated with positioning the engine nacelles further upstream on the HWB centerbody. Positioning the engine exhaust 2.5 nozzle diameters upstream (compared to 0.5 nozzle diameters downstream) of the HWB trailing edge was found of particular benefit in this study. Analysis of the shielding performance obtained with and without tunnel flow show that the effectiveness of the fuselage shielding of the exhaust noise, although still significant, is greatly reduced by the presence of the free stream flow compared to static conditions. This loss of shielding is due to the turbulence in the model near-wake/boundary layer flow. A comparison of shielding obtained with alternate vertical tail configurations shows limited differences in level; nevertheless, overall trends regarding the effect of cant angle and vertical location are revealed. Finally, it is shown that the vertical tails provide a clear shielding benefit towards the sideline while causing a slight increase in noise below the aircraft.

  2. Modeling and Prediction of Fan Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Envia, Ed

    2008-01-01

    Fan noise is a significant contributor to the total noise signature of a modern high bypass ratio aircraft engine and with the advent of ultra high bypass ratio engines like the geared turbofan, it is likely to remain so in the future. As such, accurate modeling and prediction of the basic characteristics of fan noise are necessary ingredients in designing quieter aircraft engines in order to ensure compliance with ever more stringent aviation noise regulations. In this paper, results from a comprehensive study aimed at establishing the utility of current tools for modeling and predicting fan noise will be summarized. It should be emphasized that these tools exemplify present state of the practice and embody what is currently used at NASA and Industry for predicting fan noise. The ability of these tools to model and predict fan noise is assessed against a set of benchmark fan noise databases obtained for a range of representative fan cycles and operating conditions. Detailed comparisons between the predicted and measured narrowband spectral and directivity characteristics of fan nose will be presented in the full paper. General conclusions regarding the utility of current tools and recommendations for future improvements will also be given.

  3. The Scaling of Broadband Shock-Associated Noise with Increasing Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Steven A. E.

    2013-01-01

    A physical explanation for the saturation of broadband shock-associated noise (BBSAN) intensity with increasing jet stagnation temperature has eluded investigators. An explanation is proposed for this phenomenon with the use of an acoustic analogy. To isolate the relevant physics, the scaling of BBSAN peak intensity level at the sideline observer location is examined. The equivalent source within the framework of an acoustic analogy for BBSAN is based on local field quantities at shock wave shear layer interactions. The equivalent source combined with accurate calculations of the propagation of sound through the jet shear layer, using an adjoint vector Green's function solver of the linearized Euler equations, allows for predictions that retain the scaling with respect to stagnation pressure and allows for saturation of BBSAN with increasing stagnation temperature. The sources and vector Green's function have arguments involving the steady Reynolds- Averaged Navier-Stokes solution of the jet. It is proposed that saturation of BBSAN with increasing jet temperature occurs due to a balance between the amplication of the sound propagation through the shear layer and the source term scaling.

  4. Landing gear and cavity noise prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bliss, D. B.; Hayden, R. E.

    1976-01-01

    Prediction of airframe noise radiation from the landing gear and wheel wells of commercial aircraft is examined. Measurements of these components on typical aircraft are presented and potential noise sources identified. Semiempirical expressions for the sound generation by these sources are developed from available experimental data and theoretical analyses. These expressions are employed to estimate the noise radiation from the landing gear and wheel wells for a typical aircraft and to rank order the component sources.

  5. Assessment of NASA's Aircraft Noise Prediction Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahl, Milo D. (Editor)

    2012-01-01

    A goal of NASA s Fundamental Aeronautics Program is the improvement of aircraft noise prediction. This document provides an assessment, conducted from 2006 to 2009, on the current state of the art for aircraft noise prediction by carefully analyzing the results from prediction tools and from the experimental databases to determine errors and uncertainties and compare results to validate the predictions. The error analysis is included for both the predictions and the experimental data and helps identify where improvements are required. This study is restricted to prediction methods and databases developed or sponsored by NASA, although in many cases they represent the current state of the art for industry. The present document begins with an introduction giving a general background for and a discussion on the process of this assessment followed by eight chapters covering topics at both the system and the component levels. The topic areas, each with multiple contributors, are aircraft system noise, engine system noise, airframe noise, fan noise, liner physics, duct acoustics, jet noise, and propulsion airframe aeroacoustics.

  6. Aircraft noise prediction program theoretical manual, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zorumski, W. E.

    1982-01-01

    Detailed prediction methods for specific aircraft noise sources are given. These sources are airframe noise, combustion noise, fan noise, single and dual stream jet noise, and turbine noise. Modifications to the NASA methods which comply with the International Civil Aviation Organization standard method for aircraft noise prediction are given.

  7. Aircraft noise prediction program theoretical manual, part 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorumski, W. E.

    1982-02-01

    Detailed prediction methods for specific aircraft noise sources are given. These sources are airframe noise, combustion noise, fan noise, single and dual stream jet noise, and turbine noise. Modifications to the NASA methods which comply with the International Civil Aviation Organization standard method for aircraft noise prediction are given.

  8. The use of plasma actuators for bluff body broadband noise control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yong; Zhang, Xin; Huang, Xun

    2010-08-01

    Experiments were conducted using plasma actuators to control broadband noise generated by a bluff body flow. The motivation behind the study was to explore the potential of plasma actuators to reduce landing gear noise during approach phase of an aircraft. The control effectiveness of both dielectric barrier discharge and sliding discharge plasma actuators were tested in laboratory environment, using a representative bluff body consisting of a circular cylinder and an oblique strut. Noise measurements were taken in an anechoic chamber using a phased microphone array and far-field microphones. Results showed that the upstream directed plasma forcing, located at ±90 deg on the upstream cylinder with respect to the approaching flow, could effectively attenuate the broadband noise radiated from the wake flow interaction with the downstream strut. With the same AC electrical power consumption, the sliding discharge with additional DC voltage was found to be more effective due to its elongated plasma distribution and higher induced flow momentum. Measurements using particle image velocimetry suggested that the flow speed impinging on the downstream strut was reduced by the upstream plasma forcing, contributing to the reduced noise.

  9. Assessment of Current Jet Noise Prediction Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Craid A.; Bridges, James E.; Khavaran, Abbas

    2008-01-01

    An assessment was made of the capability of jet noise prediction codes over a broad range of jet flows, with the objective of quantifying current capabilities and identifying areas requiring future research investment. Three separate codes in NASA s possession, representative of two classes of jet noise prediction codes, were evaluated, one empirical and two statistical. The empirical code is the Stone Jet Noise Module (ST2JET) contained within the ANOPP aircraft noise prediction code. It is well documented, and represents the state of the art in semi-empirical acoustic prediction codes where virtual sources are attributed to various aspects of noise generation in each jet. These sources, in combination, predict the spectral directivity of a jet plume. A total of 258 jet noise cases were examined on the ST2JET code, each run requiring only fractions of a second to complete. Two statistical jet noise prediction codes were also evaluated, JeNo v1, and Jet3D. Fewer cases were run for the statistical prediction methods because they require substantially more resources, typically a Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes solution of the jet, volume integration of the source statistical models over the entire plume, and a numerical solution of the governing propagation equation within the jet. In the evaluation process, substantial justification of experimental datasets used in the evaluations was made. In the end, none of the current codes can predict jet noise within experimental uncertainty. The empirical code came within 2dB on a 1/3 octave spectral basis for a wide range of flows. The statistical code Jet3D was within experimental uncertainty at broadside angles for hot supersonic jets, but errors in peak frequency and amplitude put it out of experimental uncertainty at cooler, lower speed conditions. Jet3D did not predict changes in directivity in the downstream angles. The statistical code JeNo,v1 was within experimental uncertainty predicting noise from cold subsonic jets at all angles, but did not predict changes with heating of the jet and did not account for directivity changes at supersonic conditions. Shortcomings addressed here give direction for future work relevant to the statistical-based prediction methods. A full report will be released as a chapter in a NASA publication assessing the state of the art in aircraft noise prediction.

  10. An Assessment of Current Fan Noise Prediction Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Envia, Edmane; Woodward, Richard P.; Elliott, David M.; Fite, E. Brian; Hughes, Christopher E.; Podboy, Gary G.; Sutliff, Daniel L.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the results of an extensive assessment exercise carried out to establish the current state of the art for predicting fan noise at NASA are presented. Representative codes in the empirical, analytical, and computational categories were exercised and assessed against a set of benchmark acoustic data obtained from wind tunnel tests of three model scale fans. The chosen codes were ANOPP, representing an empirical capability, RSI, representing an analytical capability, and LINFLUX, representing a computational aeroacoustics capability. The selected benchmark fans cover a wide range of fan pressure ratios and fan tip speeds, and are representative of modern turbofan engine designs. The assessment results indicate that the ANOPP code can predict fan noise spectrum to within 4 dB of the measurement uncertainty band on a third-octave basis for the low and moderate tip speed fans except at extreme aft emission angles. The RSI code can predict fan broadband noise spectrum to within 1.5 dB of experimental uncertainty band provided the rotor-only contribution is taken into account. The LINFLUX code can predict interaction tone power levels to within experimental uncertainties at low and moderate fan tip speeds, but could deviate by as much as 6.5 dB outside the experimental uncertainty band at the highest tip speeds in some case.

  11. Predicting Anthropogenic Noise Contributions to US Waters.

    PubMed

    Gedamke, Jason; Ferguson, Megan; Harrison, Jolie; Hatch, Leila; Henderson, Laurel; Porter, Michael B; Southall, Brandon L; Van Parijs, Sofie

    2016-01-01

    To increase understanding of the potential effects of chronic underwater noise in US waters, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) organized two working groups in 2011, collectively called "CetSound," to develop tools to map the density and distribution of cetaceans (CetMap) and predict the contribution of human activities to underwater noise (SoundMap). The SoundMap effort utilized data on density, distribution, acoustic signatures of dominant noise sources, and environmental descriptors to map estimated temporal, spatial, and spectral contributions to background noise. These predicted soundscapes are an initial step toward assessing chronic anthropogenic noise impacts on the ocean's varied acoustic habitats and the animals utilizing them. PMID:26610977

  12. Numerical assessment for a broadband and tuned noise using hybrid mufflers and a simulated annealing method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Min-Chie

    2013-06-01

    A broadband noise hybridized with pure tones often occurs in practical engineering work. However, assessments of a muffler's optimal shape design that would simultaneously overcome a broadband noise hybridized with multiple tones within a constrained space were rarely addressed. In order to promote the best acoustical performance in mufflers, five kinds of the hybrid mufflers composed of a reactive unit, a dissipative unit, and Helmholtz resonator (HR) units will be proposed. Moreover, to strengthen the noise elimination at the pure tone, mufflers having parallel multiple-sectioned HRs or having multiple HR connections in series (muffler D and muffler E) will be also presented in the noise abatement. On the basis of the plane wave theory, the four-pole system matrix used to evaluate the acoustic performance of a multi-tone hybrid Helmholtz muffler will be presented. A numerical case for eliminating broadband noise hybridized with a pure tone emitted from a machine room using five kinds of mufflers (muffler A-E) will also be introduced. To find the best acoustical performance of a space-constrained muffler, a numerical assessment using a simulated annealing (SA) method is adopted. To verify the availability of the SA optimization, a numerical optimization of muffler A at a pure tone (280 Hz) is exemplified. Before the SA operation can be carried out, the accuracy of the mathematical model will be checked using the experimental data. The influences of the sound transmission loss (STL) with respect to N1-array HR and the STL with respect to one-array HR sectioned in N2 divisions have also been assessed. Also, the influence of the STL with respect to the design parameters such as the ratio of d1/d2, the diameter of the perforated hole (dH), the porosity (p%) of the perforated plate, and the outer diameter (d2) of the dissipative unit has been analyzed. Consequently, a successful approach in eliminating a broadband noise hybridized with a pure tone using optimally shaped hybrid mufflers and a simulated annealing method within a constrained space has been demonstrated.

  13. Advances in tilt rotor noise prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, A. R.; Coffen, C. D.; Ringler, T. D.

    1992-01-01

    The two most serious tilt rotor external noise problems, hover noise and blade-vortex interaction noise, are studied. The results of flow visualization and inflow velocity measurements document a complex, recirculating highly unsteady and turbulent flow due to the rotor-wing-body interactions characteristic of tilt rotors. The wing under the rotor is found to obstruct the inflow, causing a deficit in the inflow velocities over the inboard region of the rotor. Discrete frequency harmonic thickness and loading noise mechanisms in hover are examined by first modeling tilt rotor hover aerodynamics and then applying various noise prediction methods using the WOPWOP code. The analysis indicates that the partial ground plane created by the wing below the rotor results in a primary sound source for hover.

  14. The Scaling of Broadband Shock-Associated Noise with Increasing Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Steven A.

    2012-01-01

    A physical explanation for the saturation of broadband shock-associated noise (BBSAN) intensity with increasing jet stagnation temperature has eluded investigators. An explanation is proposed for this phenomenon with the use of an acoustic analogy. For this purpose the acoustic analogy of Morris and Miller is examined. To isolate the relevant physics, the scaling of BBSAN at the peak intensity level at the sideline ( = 90 degrees) observer location is examined. Scaling terms are isolated from the acoustic analogy and the result is compared using a convergent nozzle with the experiments of Bridges and Brown and using a convergent-divergent nozzle with the experiments of Kuo, McLaughlin, and Morris at four nozzle pressure ratios in increments of total temperature ratios from one to four. The equivalent source within the framework of the acoustic analogy for BBSAN is based on local field quantities at shock wave shear layer interactions. The equivalent source combined with accurate calculations of the propagation of sound through the jet shear layer, using an adjoint vector Green s function solver of the linearized Euler equations, allows for predictions that retain the scaling with respect to stagnation pressure and allows for the accurate saturation of BBSAN with increasing stagnation temperature. This is a minor change to the source model relative to the previously developed models. The full development of the scaling term is shown. The sources and vector Green s function solver are informed by steady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes solutions. These solutions are examined as a function of stagnation temperature at the first shock wave shear layer interaction. It is discovered that saturation of BBSAN with increasing jet stagnation temperature occurs due to a balance between the amplification of the sound propagation through the shear layer and the source term scaling.A physical explanation for the saturation of broadband shock-associated noise (BBSAN) intensity with increasing jet stagnation temperature has eluded investigators. An explanation is proposed for this phenomenon with the use of an acoustic analogy. For this purpose the acoustic analogy of Morris and Miller is examined. To isolate the relevant physics, the scaling of BBSAN at the peak intensity level at the sideline psi = 90 degrees) observer location is examined. Scaling terms are isolated from the acoustic analogy and the result is compared using a convergent nozzle with the experiments of Bridges and Brown and using a convergent-divergent nozzle with the experiments of Kuo, McLaughlin, and Morris at four nozzle pressure ratios in increments of total temperature ratios from one to four. The equivalent source within the framework of the acoustic analogy for BBSAN is based on local field quantities at shock wave shear layer interactions. The equivalent source combined with accurate calculations of the propagation of sound through the jet shear layer, using an adjoint vector Green s function solver of the linearized Euler equations, allows for predictions that retain the scaling with respect to stagnation pressure and allows for the accurate saturation of BBSAN with increasing stagnation temperature. This is a minor change to the source model relative to the previously developed models. The full development of the scaling term is shown. The sources and vector Green s function solver are informed by steady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes solutions. These solutions are examined as a function of stagnation temperature at the first shock wave shear layer interaction. It is discovered that saturation of BBSAN with increasing jet stagnation temperature occurs due to a balance between the amplification of the sound propagation through the shear layer and the source term scaling.

  15. Validation of helicopter noise prediction techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Succi, G. P.

    1981-01-01

    The current techniques of helicopter rotor noise prediction attempt to describe the details of the noise field precisely and remove the empiricisms and restrictions inherent in previous methods. These techniques require detailed inputs of the rotor geometry, operating conditions, and blade surface pressure distribution. The purpose of this paper is to review those techniques in general and the Farassat/Nystrom analysis in particular. The predictions of the Farassat/Nystrom noise computer program, using both measured and calculated blade surface pressure data, are compared to measured noise level data. This study is based on a contract from NASA to Bolt Beranek and Newman Inc. with measured data from the AH-1G Helicopter Operational Loads Survey flight test program supplied by Bell Helicopter Textron.

  16. Jet Aeroacoustics: Noise Generation Mechanism and Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tam, Christopher

    1998-01-01

    This report covers the third year research effort of the project. The research work focussed on the fine scale mixing noise of both subsonic and supersonic jets and the effects of nozzle geometry and tabs on subsonic jet noise. In publication 1, a new semi-empirical theory of jet mixing noise from fine scale turbulence is developed. By an analogy to gas kinetic theory, it is shown that the source of noise is related to the time fluctuations of the turbulence kinetic theory. On starting with the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations, a formula for the radiated noise is derived. An empirical model of the space-time correlation function of the turbulence kinetic energy is adopted. The form of the model is in good agreement with the space-time two-point velocity correlation function measured by Davies and coworkers. The parameters of the correlation are related to the parameters of the k-epsilon turbulence model. Thus the theory is self-contained. Extensive comparisons between the computed noise spectrum of the theory and experimental measured have been carried out. The parameters include jet Mach number from 0.3 to 2.0 and temperature ratio from 1.0 to 4.8. Excellent agreements are found in the spectrum shape, noise intensity and directivity. It is envisaged that the theory would supercede all semi-empirical and totally empirical jet noise prediction methods in current use.

  17. Prediction of light aircraft interior noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howlett, J. T.; Morales, D. A.

    1976-01-01

    At the present time, predictions of aircraft interior noise depend heavily on empirical correction factors derived from previous flight measurements. However, to design for acceptable interior noise levels and to optimize acoustic treatments, analytical techniques which do not depend on empirical data are needed. This paper describes a computerized interior noise prediction method for light aircraft. An existing analytical program (developed for commercial jets by Cockburn and Jolly in 1968) forms the basis of some modal analysis work which is described. The accuracy of this modal analysis technique for predicting low-frequency coupled acoustic-structural natural frequencies is discussed along with trends indicating the effects of varying parameters such as fuselage length and diameter, structural stiffness, and interior acoustic absorption.

  18. Aircraft noise prediction program theoretical manual, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zorumski, W. E.

    1982-01-01

    Aircraft noise prediction theoretical methods are given. The prediction of data which affect noise generation and propagation is addressed. These data include the aircraft flight dynamics, the source noise parameters, and the propagation effects.

  19. Aircraft noise prediction program user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillian, R. E.

    1982-01-01

    The Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP) predicts aircraft noise with the best methods available. This manual is designed to give the user an understanding of the capabilities of ANOPP and to show how to formulate problems and obtain solutions by using these capabilities. Sections within the manual document basic ANOPP concepts, ANOPP usage, ANOPP functional modules, ANOPP control statement procedure library, and ANOPP permanent data base. appendixes to the manual include information on preparing job decks for the operating systems in use, error diagnostics and recovery techniques, and a glossary of ANOPP terms.

  20. Predictions of Supersonic Jet Mixing and Shock-Associated Noise Compared With Measured Far-Field Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahl, Milo D.

    2010-01-01

    Codes for predicting supersonic jet mixing and broadband shock-associated noise were assessed using a database containing noise measurements of a jet issuing from a convergent nozzle. Two types of codes were used to make predictions. Fast running codes containing empirical models were used to compute both the mixing noise component and the shock-associated noise component of the jet noise spectrum. One Reynolds-averaged, Navier-Stokes-based code was used to compute only the shock-associated noise. To enable the comparisons of the predicted component spectra with data, the measured total jet noise spectra were separated into mixing noise and shock-associated noise components. Comparisons were made for 1/3-octave spectra and some power spectral densities using data from jets operating at 24 conditions covering essentially 6 fully expanded Mach numbers with 4 total temperature ratios.

  1. Tip geometry effects on the model helicopter rotor low frequency broadband noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humbad, N. G.; Harris, W. L.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of rotor blade tip shapes and performance parameters on the low frequency broadband noise (LFBN) is investigated experimentally. The experimental results show 2 to 5 dB reductions for swept geometries compared with square tip blades at constant blade loading. A theoretical model is formulated which includes a detailed lift response function. For the square tip blades, theoretical results are found to be in good agreement with the experimental results. While the effects of advance ratio and tip speed on the LFBN are explicable, those of blade loading are not clearly understood.

  2. Prediction of noise constrained optimum takeoff procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padula, S. L.

    1980-01-01

    An optimization method is used to predict safe, maximum-performance takeoff procedures which satisfy noise constraints at multiple observer locations. The takeoff flight is represented by two-degree-of-freedom dynamical equations with aircraft angle-of-attack and engine power setting as control functions. The engine thrust, mass flow and noise source parameters are assumed to be given functions of the engine power setting and aircraft Mach number. Effective Perceived Noise Levels at the observers are treated as functionals of the control functions. The method is demonstrated by applying it to an Advanced Supersonic Transport aircraft design. The results indicate that automated takeoff procedures (continuously varying controls) can be used to significantly reduce community and certification noise without jeopardizing safety or degrading performance.

  3. Further analysis of broadband noise measurements for a rotating blade operating with and without its shed wake blown downstream

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheiman, J.

    1974-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been conducted to investigate the broadband noise generated by a rotating-blade system. Tests were made with circular and NACA 0012 rotor-blade sections. The blades were operated only with zero lift at each radial station. Tests were made both with zero axial velocity, so that the blades operated in their own turbulent wake, and with a small axial velocity imposed by the wind tunnel to blow the wake of one blade away before the passage of the next blade. The rotor with cylindrical blades generally radiated more noise throughout the noise spectrum than did the rotor with airfoil blades. Blowing the blade wake away from the rotor with cylindrical blades did not have any appreciable effect on the amplitude frequency spectrum, and the predominant noise was broadband, either with tunnel wind on or off. For the rotor with airfoil blades, however, blowing the blade wake away changed the character of the noise spectrum completely in that broadband noise was eliminated or diminished to such an extent as to be indistinguishable. The broadband noise of the airfoil-bladed rotor with zero axial velocity is apparently caused by lift fluctuations due to velocity components of the turbulence normal to the plane of rotation.

  4. Flow and noise predictions for the tandem cylinder aeroacoustic benchmarka)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brès, Guillaume A.; Freed, David; Wessels, Michael; Noelting, Swen; Pérot, Franck

    2012-03-01

    Flow and noise predictions for the tandem cylinder benchmark are performed using lattice Boltzmann and Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings methods. The numerical results are compared to experimental measurements from the Basic Aerodynamic Research Tunnel and Quiet Flow Facility (QFF) at NASA Langley Research Center. The present study focuses on two configurations: the first configuration corresponds to the typical setup with uniform inflow and spanwise periodic boundary condition. To investigate installation effects, the second configuration matches the QFF setup and geometry, including the rectangular open jet nozzle, and the two vertical side plates mounted in the span to support the test models. For both simulations, the full span of 16 cylinder diameters is simulated, matching the experimental dimensions. Overall, good agreement is obtained with the experimental surface data, flow field, and radiated noise measurements. In particular, the presence of the side plates significantly reduces the excessive spanwise coherence observed with periodic boundary conditions and improves the predictions of the tonal peak amplitude in the far-field noise spectra. Inclusion of the contributions from the side plates in the calculation of the radiated noise shows an overall increase in the predicted spectra and directivity, leading to a better match with the experimental measurements. The measured increase is about 1 to 2 dB at the main shedding frequency and harmonics, and is likely caused by reflections on the spanwise side plates. The broadband levels are also slightly higher by about 2 to 3 dB, likely due to the shear layers from the nozzle exit impacting the side plates.

  5. Broadband noise-free optical quantum memory with neutral nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poem, E.; Weinzetl, C.; Klatzow, J.; Kaczmarek, K. T.; Munns, J. H. D.; Champion, T. F. M.; Saunders, D. J.; Nunn, J.; Walmsley, I. A.

    2015-05-01

    It is proposed that the ground-state manifold of the neutral nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond could be used as a quantum two-level system in a solid-state-based implementation of a broadband noise-free quantum optical memory. The proposal is based on the same-spin Λ -type three-level system created between the two E orbital ground states and the A1 orbital excited state of the center, and the cross-linear polarization selection rules obtained with the application of a transverse electric field or uniaxial stress. Possible decay and decoherence mechanisms of this system are discussed, and it is shown that high-efficiency, noise-free storage of photons as short as a few tens of picoseconds for at least a few nanoseconds could be possible at low temperature.

  6. Jet Noise Diagnostics Supporting Statistical Noise Prediction Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, James E.

    2006-01-01

    The primary focus of my presentation is the development of the jet noise prediction code JeNo with most examples coming from the experimental work that drove the theoretical development and validation. JeNo is a statistical jet noise prediction code, based upon the Lilley acoustic analogy. Our approach uses time-average 2-D or 3-D mean and turbulent statistics of the flow as input. The output is source distributions and spectral directivity. NASA has been investing in development of statistical jet noise prediction tools because these seem to fit the middle ground that allows enough flexibility and fidelity for jet noise source diagnostics while having reasonable computational requirements. These tools rely on Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solutions as input for computing far-field spectral directivity using an acoustic analogy. There are many ways acoustic analogies can be created, each with a series of assumptions and models, many often taken unknowingly. And the resulting prediction can be easily reverse-engineered by altering the models contained within. However, only an approach which is mathematically sound, with assumptions validated and modeled quantities checked against direct measurement will give consistently correct answers. Many quantities are modeled in acoustic analogies precisely because they have been impossible to measure or calculate, making this requirement a difficult task. The NASA team has spent considerable effort identifying all the assumptions and models used to take the Navier-Stokes equations to the point of a statistical calculation via an acoustic analogy very similar to that proposed by Lilley. Assumptions have been identified and experiments have been developed to test these assumptions. In some cases this has resulted in assumptions being changed. Beginning with the CFD used as input to the acoustic analogy, models for turbulence closure used in RANS CFD codes have been explored and compared against measurements of mean and rms velocity statistics over a range of jet speeds and temperatures. Models for flow parameters used in the acoustic analogy, most notably the space-time correlations of velocity, have been compared against direct measurements, and modified to better fit the observed data. These measurements have been extremely challenging for hot, high speed jets, and represent a sizeable investment in instrumentation development. As an intermediate check that the analysis is predicting the physics intended, phased arrays have been employed to measure source distributions for a wide range of jet cases. And finally, careful far-field spectral directivity measurements have been taken for final validation of the prediction code. Examples of each of these experimental efforts will be presented. The main result of these efforts is a noise prediction code, named JeNo, which is in middevelopment. JeNo is able to consistently predict spectral directivity, including aft angle directivity, for subsonic cold jets of most geometries. Current development on JeNo is focused on extending its capability to hot jets, requiring inclusion of a previously neglected second source associated with thermal fluctuations. A secondary result of the intensive experimentation is the archiving of various flow statistics applicable to other acoustic analogies and to development of time-resolved prediction methods. These will be of lasting value as we look ahead at future challenges to the aeroacoustic experimentalist.

  7. Improved NASA-ANOPP Noise Prediction Computer Code for Advanced Subsonic Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kontos, K. B.; Janardan, B. A.; Gliebe, P. R.

    1996-01-01

    Recent experience using ANOPP to predict turbofan engine flyover noise suggests that it over-predicts overall EPNL by a significant amount. An improvement in this prediction method is desired for system optimization and assessment studies of advanced UHB engines. An assessment of the ANOPP fan inlet, fan exhaust, jet, combustor, and turbine noise prediction methods is made using static engine component noise data from the CF6-8OC2, E(3), and QCSEE turbofan engines. It is shown that the ANOPP prediction results are generally higher than the measured GE data, and that the inlet noise prediction method (Heidmann method) is the most significant source of this overprediction. Fan noise spectral comparisons show that improvements to the fan tone, broadband, and combination tone noise models are required to yield results that more closely simulate the GE data. Suggested changes that yield improved fan noise predictions but preserve the Heidmann model structure are identified and described. These changes are based on the sets of engine data mentioned, as well as some CFM56 engine data that was used to expand the combination tone noise database. It should be noted that the recommended changes are based on an analysis of engines that are limited to single stage fans with design tip relative Mach numbers greater than one.

  8. Broadband noise exposure does not affect hearing sensitivity in big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus).

    PubMed

    Simmons, Andrea Megela; Hom, Kelsey N; Warnecke, Michaela; Simmons, James A

    2016-04-01

    In many vertebrates, exposure to intense sounds under certain stimulus conditions can induce temporary threshold shifts that reduce hearing sensitivity. Susceptibility to these hearing losses may reflect the relatively quiet environments in which most of these species have evolved. Echolocating big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) live in extremely intense acoustic environments in which they navigate and forage successfully, both alone and in company with other bats. We hypothesized that bats may have evolved a mechanism to minimize noise-induced hearing losses that otherwise could impair natural echolocation behaviors. The hearing sensitivity of seven big brown bats was measured in active echolocation and passive hearing tasks, before and after exposure to broadband noise spanning their audiometric range (10-100 kHz, 116 dB SPL re. 20 µPa rms, 1 h duration; sound exposure level 152 dB). Detection thresholds measured 20 min, 2 h or 24 h after exposure did not vary significantly from pre-exposure thresholds or from thresholds in control (sham exposure) conditions. These results suggest that big brown bats may be less susceptible to temporary threshold shifts than are other terrestrial mammals after exposure to similarly intense broadband sounds. These experiments provide fertile ground for future research on possible mechanisms employed by echolocating bats to minimize hearing losses while orienting effectively in noisy biological soundscapes. PMID:27030779

  9. Comparison of two transonic noise prediction formulations using the aircraft noise prediction program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spence, Peter L.

    1987-01-01

    This paper addresses recently completed work on using Farassat's Formulation 3 noise prediction code with the Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP). Software was written to link aerodynamic loading generated by the Propeller Loading (PLD) module within ANOPP with formulation 3. Included are results of comparisons between Formulation 3 with ANOPP's existing noise prediction modules, Subsonic Propeller Noise (SPN) and Transonic Propeller Noise (TPN). Four case studies are investigated. Results of the comparison studies show excellent agreement for the subsonic cases. Differences found in the comparisons made under transonic conditions are strictly numerical and can be explained by the way in which the time derivative is calculated in Formulation 3. Also included is a section on how to execute Formulation 3 with ANOPP.

  10. Investigation of computational aeroacoustic tools for noise predictions of wind turbine aerofoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humpf, A.; Ferrer, E.; Munduate, X.

    2007-07-01

    In this work trailing edge noise levels of a research aerofoil have been computed and compared to aeroacoustic measurements using two different approaches. On the other hand, aerodynamic and aeroacoustic calculations were performed with the full Navier-Stokes CFD code Fluent [Fluent Inc 2005 Fluent 6.2 Users Guide, Lebanon, NH, USA] on the basis of a steady RANS simulation. Aerodynamic characteristics were computed by the aid of various turbulence models. By the combined usage of implemented broadband noise source models, it was tried to isolate and determine the trailing edge noise level. Throughout this work two methods of different computational cost have been tested and quantitative and qualitative results obtained. On the one hand, the semi-empirical noise prediction tool NAFNoise [Moriarty P 2005 NAFNoise User's Guide. Golden, Colorado, July. http://wind.nrel.gov/designcodes/ simulators/NAFNoise] was used to directly predict trailing edge noise by taking into consideration the nature of the experiments.

  11. Helicopter Rotor Noise Prediction: Background, Current Status, and Future Direction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brentner, Kenneth S.

    1997-01-01

    Helicopter noise prediction is increasingly important. The purpose of this viewgraph presentation is to: 1) Put into perspective the recent progress; 2) Outline current prediction capabilities; 3) Forecast direction of future prediction research; 4) Identify rotorcraft noise prediction needs. The presentation includes an historical perspective, a description of governing equations, and the current status of source noise prediction.

  12. Railway Noise Prediction Models: a Comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VAN LEEUWEN, H. J. A.

    2000-03-01

    This paper represents a comparison between some European prediction models for rail traffic noise. These models are from Austria, Denmark, France, Germany, The Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland and the U.K. In the propagation part the ISO 9613-2 is also considered. The comparison of the noise emission gives results for disc- and block-braked passenger trains and for freight trains. For purposes of comparison the propagation model is divided according to the usual attenuation elements including geometrical spreading, atmospheric attenuation, ground attenuation, screening attenuation and reflections. These attenuation effects are compared separately.

  13. Noise Prediction Module for Offset Stream Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Brenda S.

    2011-01-01

    A Modern Design of Experiments (MDOE) analysis of data acquired for an offset stream technology was presented. The data acquisition and concept development were funded under a Supersonics NRA NNX07AC62A awarded to Dimitri Papamoschou at University of California, Irvine. The technology involved the introduction of airfoils in the fan stream of a bypass ratio (BPR) two nozzle system operated at transonic exhaust speeds. The vanes deflected the fan stream relative to the core stream and resulted in reduced sideline noise for polar angles in the peak jet noise direction. Noise prediction models were developed for a range of vane configurations. The models interface with an existing ANOPP module and can be used or future system level studies.

  14. Source localization of turboshaft engine broadband noise using a three-sensor coherence method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blacodon, Daniel; Lewy, Serge

    2015-03-01

    Turboshaft engines can become the main source of helicopter noise at takeoff. Inlet radiation mainly comes from the compressor tones, but aft radiation is more intricate: turbine tones usually are above the audible frequency range and do not contribute to the weighted sound levels; jet is secondary and radiates low noise levels. A broadband component is the most annoying but its sources are not well known (it is called internal or core noise). Present study was made in the framework of the European project TEENI (Turboshaft Engine Exhaust Noise Identification). Its main objective was to localize the broadband sources in order to better reduce them. Several diagnostic techniques were implemented by the various TEENI partners. As regards ONERA, a first attempt at separating sources was made in the past with Turbomeca using a three-signal coherence method (TSM) to reject background non-acoustic noise. The main difficulty when using TSM is the assessment of the frequency range where the results are valid. This drawback has been circumvented in the TSM implemented in TEENI. Measurements were made on a highly instrumented Ardiden turboshaft engine in the Turbomeca open-air test bench. Two engine powers (approach and takeoff) were selected to apply TSM. Two internal pressure probes were located in various cross-sections, either behind the combustion chamber (CC), the high-pressure turbine (HPT), the free-turbine first stage (TL), or in four nozzle sections. The third transducer was a far-field microphone located around the maximum of radiation, at 120° from the intake centerline. The key result is that coherence increases from CC to HPT and TL, then decreases in the nozzle up to the exit. Pressure fluctuations from HPT and TL are very coherent with the far-field acoustic spectra up to 700 Hz. They are thus the main acoustic source and can be attributed to indirect combustion noise (accuracy decreases above 700 Hz because coherence is lower, but far-field sound spectra also are much lower above 700 Hz).

  15. Airframe Noise Prediction Using the Sngr Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Rongqian; Wu, Yizhao; Xia, Jian

    In this paper, the Stochastic Noise Generation and Radiation method (SNGR) is used to predict airframe noise. The SNGR method combines a stochastic model with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), and it can give acceptable noise results while the computation cost is relatively low. In the method, the time-averaged mean flow field is firstly obtained by solving Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations (RANS), and a stochastic velocity is generated based on the obtained information. Then the turbulent field is used to generate the source for the Acoustic Perturbation Equations (APEs) that simulate the noise propagation. For numerical methods, timeaveraged RANS equations are solved by finite volume method, and the turbulent model is K - ɛ model; APEs are solved by finite difference method, and the numerical scheme is the Dispersion-Relation-Preserving (DRP) scheme, with explicit optimized 5-stage Rung-Kutta scheme time step. In order to test the APE solver, propagation of a Gaussian pulse in a uniform mean flow is firstly simulated and compared with the analytical solution. Then, using the method, the trailing edge noise of NACA0012 airfoil is calculated. The results are compared with reference data, and good agreements are demonstrated.

  16. A Process for Assessing NASA's Capability in Aircraft Noise Prediction Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahl, Milo D.

    2008-01-01

    An acoustic assessment is being conducted by NASA that has been designed to assess the current state of the art in NASA s capability to predict aircraft related noise and to establish baselines for gauging future progress in the field. The process for determining NASA s current capabilities includes quantifying the differences between noise predictions and measurements of noise from experimental tests. The computed noise predictions are being obtained from semi-empirical, analytical, statistical, and numerical codes. In addition, errors and uncertainties are being identified and quantified both in the predictions and in the measured data to further enhance the credibility of the assessment. The content of this paper contains preliminary results, since the assessment project has not been fully completed, based on the contributions of many researchers and shows a select sample of the types of results obtained regarding the prediction of aircraft noise at both the system and component levels. The system level results are for engines and aircraft. The component level results are for fan broadband noise, for jet noise from a variety of nozzles, and for airframe noise from flaps and landing gear parts. There are also sample results for sound attenuation in lined ducts with flow and the behavior of acoustic lining in ducts.

  17. Interim prediction method for low frequency core engine noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, R. G.; Clark, B. J.; Dorsch, R. G.

    1974-01-01

    A literature survey on low-frequency core engine noise is presented. Possible sources of low frequency internally generated noise in core engines are discussed with emphasis on combustion and component scrubbing noise. An interim method is recommended for predicting low frequency core engine noise that is dominant when jet velocities are low. Suggestions are made for future research on low frequency core engine noise that will aid in improving the prediction method and help define possible additional internal noise sources.

  18. Initial noise predictions for rudimentary landing gear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spalart, Philippe R.; Shur, Mikhail L.; Strelets, Mikhail Kh.; Travin, Andrey K.

    2011-08-01

    A four-wheel "rudimentary" landing gear (RLG) truck was designed for public-domain research, with a level of complexity which is manageable in current numerical simulations, and a weak Reynolds-number sensitivity. Experimental measurements of wall-pressure fluctuations are allowing a meaningful test of unsteady simulations with emphasis on noise generation. We present three Detached-Eddy Simulations (DES) using up to 18 million points in the high-order NTS code. The first is incompressible with the model placed in the wind tunnel, as requested for the 2010 workshop on Benchmark problems for Airframe Noise Computations (BANC-I), intended for force and surface-pressure studies. The second and third are at Mach 0.115 and Mach 0.23, with only one wall, a "ceiling" analogous to a wing (but infinite and inviscid), and are used to exercise far-field noise prediction by coupling the Detached-Eddy Simulations and a Ffowcs-Williams/Hawkings calculation. The results include wall-pressure, and far-field-noise intensities and spectra. The wall pressure signals in the three simulations are very similar and, in a comparison published separately, agree well with experiment and other simulations. In the absence of experimental noise data, the attention is focused on internal quality checks, by varying the permeable Ffowcs-Williams/Hawkings calculation surface and then by using only the solid surface. An unexpected finding at these Mach numbers is an apparent strong role for quadrupoles, revealed by a typical deficit of 3 dB in the solid-surface results, relative to the permeable-surface results. The solid-surface approach has variants, related to the presence of the ceiling (a plane of symmetry), which can increase this error further; there is little consensus on the exact configuration of the solid surfaces in the Ffowcs-Williams/Hawkings calculation procedure. Tentative theoretical arguments suggest that a balance somewhat in favor of quadrupoles over dipoles is plausible at Mach 0.115. However, the scaling of sound with Mach number does not follow the eighth power, as quadrupoles do in theory: it is closer to the sixth power. This trend gives a muddled theoretical picture, but agrees with the scaling observed in experiments. If it is confirmed, this finding will complicate airframe-noise calculations, and prevent the attribution of noise to a given component of the aircraft. Progress in airframe-noise simulations appears real, but systematic grid-refinement studies and noise comparisons with experiment or other simulations have yet to occur, and the theoretical uncertainty is high.

  19. Theory for broadband Noise of Rotor and Stator Cascades with Inhomogeneous Inflow Turbulence Including Effects of Lean and Sweep

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, Donald B.

    2001-01-01

    The problem of broadband noise generated by turbulence impinging on a downstream blade row is examined from a theoretical viewpoint. Equations are derived for sound power spectra in terms of 3 dimensional wavenumber spectra of the turbulence. Particular attention is given to issues of turbulence inhomogeneity associated with the near field of the rotor and variations through boundary layers. Lean and sweep of the rotor or stator cascade are also handled rigorously with a full derivation of the relevant geometry and definitions of lean and sweep angles. Use of the general theory is illustrated by 2 simple theoretical spectra for homogeneous turbulence. Limited comparisons are made with data from model fans designed by Pratt & Whitney, Allison, and Boeing. Parametric studies for stator noise are presented showing trends with Mach number, vane count, turbulence scale and intensity, lean, and sweep. Two conventions are presented to define lean and sweep. In the "cascade system" lean is a rotation out of its plane and sweep is a rotation of the airfoil in its plane. In the "duct system" lean is the leading edge angle viewing the fan from the front (along the fan axis) and sweep is the angle viewing the fan from the side (,perpendicular to the axis). It is shown that the governing parameter is sweep in the plane of the airfoil (which reduces the chordwise component of Mach number). Lean (out of the plane of the airfoil) has little effect. Rotor noise predictions are compared with duct turbulence/rotor interaction noise data from Boeing and variations, including blade tip sweep and turbulence axial and transverse scales are explored.

  20. Prediction of nonlinear jet noise propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gee, Kent L.

    The role of nonlinearity in the propagation of noise radiated from high-performance jet aircraft has not been a well-understood phenomenon in the past. To address the problem of finite-amplitude noise propagation, a hybrid time-frequency domain model has been developed to numerically solve the generalized Mendousse-Burgers equation, which is a parabolic model equation that includes effects of quadratic nonlinearity, atmospheric absorption and dispersion, and geometrical spreading. The algorithm has been compared against analytical theory and numerical issues have been discussed. Three sets of experimental data have been used to evaluate the model: model-scale laboratory jet data, field data using a large loudspeaker, and static engine run-up measurements of the F/A-22 Raptor. Comparison of linearly- and nonlinearly-predicted spectra demonstrates that nonlinearity does, in fact, impact the noise propagation in all three sets of data. Additionally, the extensive comparison with the Raptor data shows that the model is successful in predicting the measured spectrum over multiple angles and engine conditions, demonstrating that the model captures much of the physics of the propagation, despite its current neglect of multipath interference and atmospheric refraction and turbulence effects. Two additional studies have been carried out in order to address fundamental questions relevant to the nonlinear propagation of jet noise: ''What is the impact of nonlinearity on perceived levels?" and ''At what point does the propagation become linear?" An investigation of the perceived impact of nonlinearity shows that there are only minor differences between nonlinear and linear predictions in calculations of power-based, single-number metrics, such as A-weighted overall sound pressure level. On the other hand, the actual perceived differences between nonlinear and linear waveforms are substantially greater and consequently do not correlate well with calculated metrics. This investigation suggests the need for further research in order to better quantify the perceptual differences between nonlinear and linear propagation. Study of the additional generation of nonlinearity in the long-range propagation of a noise waveform suggests that the high-frequency energy decays very slowly and the spatial rate of change of the difference between nonlinearly- and linearly-predicted sound pressure levels does not go to zero, which would indicate linear propagation, but appears to asymptotically approach nonzero constant behavior. This implies that a finite-amplitude noise waveform may never truly decay as linear theory would indicate, which could be important from a human-perception standpoint.

  1. Interior noise prediction methodology: ATDAC theory and validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathur, Gopal P.; Gardner, Bryce K.

    1992-01-01

    The Acoustical Theory for Design of Aircraft Cabins (ATDAC) is a computer program developed to predict interior noise levels inside aircraft and to evaluate the effects of different aircraft configurations on the aircraft acoustical environment. The primary motivation for development of this program is the special interior noise problems associated with advanced turboprop (ATP) aircraft where there is a tonal, low frequency noise problem. Prediction of interior noise levels requires knowledge of the energy sources, the transmission paths, and the relationship between the energy variable and the sound pressure level. The energy sources include engine noise, both airborne and structure-borne; turbulent boundary layer noise; and interior noise sources such as air conditioner noise and auxiliary power unit noise. Since propeller and engine noise prediction programs are widely available, they are not included in ATDAC. Airborne engine noise from any prediction or measurement may be input to this program. This report describes the theory and equations implemented in the ATDAC program.

  2. Higher-order corrections to broadband electrostatic shock noise in auroral zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelwahed, H. G.

    2015-09-01

    Nonlinear shock wave structures in collisionless unmagnetized viscous plasma comprised of fluid of cold electron and nonisothermal hot electrons obeying superthermal electron distribution and ions in stationary state are examined. For nonlinear electron acoustic shock waves, a reductive perturbation method was applied to deduce the Burger equation in terms of first order potential. When the shock wave amplitude was enlarged, the steepness and the velocity of the wave sidetrack from Burger equation. We have to resume our calculations to obtain the Burger-type equation with higher order dissipation. The collective solution for the resulting equations has been given by the renormalization method. The effects of spectral index κ, the ratio of the initial equilibrium density of cold electron to hot electrons β, and the kinematic viscosity coefficient η on the broadband electrostatic shock noise in aurora are also argued.

  3. Supersonic Coaxial Jets: Noise Predictions and Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahl, Milo D.; Papamoschou, Dimitri; Hixon, Ray

    1998-01-01

    The noise from perfectly expanded coaxial jets was measured in an anechoic chamber for different operating conditions with the same total thrust, mass flow, and exit area. The shape of the measured noise spectrum at different angles to the jet axis was found to agree with spectral shapes for single, axisymmetric jets. Based on these spectra, the sound was characterized as being generated by large turbulent structures or fine-scale turbulence. Modeling the large scale structures as instability waves, a stability analysis was conducted for the coaxial jets to identify the growing and decaying instability waves in each shear layer and predict their noise radiation pattern outside the jet. When compared to measured directivity, the analysis identified the region downstream of the outer potential core, where the two shear layers were merging, as the source of the peak radiated noise where instability waves, with their origin in the inner shear layer, reach their maximum amplitude. Numerical computations were also performed using a linearized Euler equation solver. Those results were compared to both the results from the instability wave analysis and to measured data.

  4. A noise assessment and prediction system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, Robert O.; Noble, John M.

    1990-01-01

    A system has been designed to provide an assessment of noise levels that result from testing activities at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md. The system receives meteorological data from surface stations and an upper air sounding system. The data from these systems are sent to a meteorological model, which provides forecasting conditions for up to three hours from the test time. The meteorological data are then used as input into an acoustic ray trace model which projects sound level contours onto a two-dimensional display of the surrounding area. This information is sent to the meteorological office for verification, as well as the range control office, and the environmental office. To evaluate the noise level predictions, a series of microphones are located off the reservation to receive the sound and transmit this information back to the central display unit. The computer models are modular allowing for a variety of models to be utilized and tested to achieve the best agreement with data. This technique of prediction and model validation will be used to improve the noise assessment system.

  5. The application of experimental data to blade wake interaction noise prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glegg, Stewart A. L.; Devenport, William J.

    1991-01-01

    Blade wake interaction noise (BWI) has been defined as the broadband noise generated by the ingestion of turbulent trailing tip vortices by helicopter rotors. This has been shown to be the dominant contributor to the subjectively important part of the acoustic spectrum for the approach stage of a helicopter flyover. A prediction method for BWI noise based on the calculated trailing vortex trajectories has been developed and estimates of the vortex turbulence have been made. These measurements were made on a trailing vortex from a split wing arrangement and did not give the spectrum of the velocity fluctuations. A recent experiment carried out to measure the turbulence associated with a trailing vortex and the application of the results to BWI noise prediction is described.

  6. Data analysis and noise prediction for the QF-1B experimental fan stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bliss, D. B.; Chandiramani, K. L.; Piersol, A. G.

    1976-01-01

    The results of a fan noise data analysis and prediction effort using experimental data obtained from tests on the QF-1B research fan are described. Surface pressure measurements were made with flush mounted sensors installed on selected rotor blades and stator vanes and noise measurements were made by microphones located at the far field. Power spectral density analysis, time history studies, and calculation of coherence functions were made. The emphasis of these studies was on the characteristics of tones in the spectra. The amplitude behavior of spectral tones was found to have a large, often predominant, random component, suggesting that turbulent processes play an important role in the generation of tonal as well as broadband noise. Inputs from the data analysis were used in a prediction method which assumes that acoustic dipoles, produced by unsteady blade and van forces, are the important source of fan noise.

  7. Trailing edge noise prediction using Amiet's method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, T. F.

    1981-01-01

    Amiet's (1976, 1978) solution to the problem of airfoil trailing edge noise prediction is discussed in light of the results of evanescent wave theory's application to the measured surface pressure behavior near the trailing edge of an airfoil with a turbulent boundary layer. The method employed by Amiet has the advantage of incorporating the effect of finite chord in its solution. The assumed form of the pressure distribution is examined as well as the constant turbulent boundary layer convection assumption, which is found to be unnecessarily restrictive.

  8. Hybrid methods for airframe noise numerical prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terracol, M.; Manoha, E.; Herrero, C.; Labourasse, E.; Redonnet, S.; Sagaut, P.

    2005-07-01

    This paper describes some significant steps made towards the numerical simulation of the noise radiated by the high-lift devices of a plane. Since the full numerical simulation of such configuration is still out of reach for present supercomputers, some hybrid strategies have been developed to reduce the overall cost of such simulations. The proposed strategy relies on the coupling of an unsteady nearfield CFD with an acoustic propagation solver based on the resolution of the Euler equations for midfield propagation in an inhomogeneous field, and the use of an integral solver for farfield acoustic predictions.

  9. New approach to time domain classification of broadband noise in gravitational wave data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, S.; Rizwan, P.; Biswas, R.

    2012-07-01

    Transient broadband noise in gravitational wave (GW) detectors—also known as noise triggers (referred to as triggers for brevity)—can often be a deterrant to the efficiency with which astrophysical search pipelines detect sources. It is important to understand their instrumental or environmental origin so that they could be eliminated or accounted for in the data. Since the number of triggers is large, data mining approaches such as clustering and classification are useful tools for this task. Classification of triggers based on a handful of discrete properties has been done in the past. A rich information content is available in the waveform or “shape” of the triggers that has had a rather restricted exploration so far. This paper presents a new way to classify triggers deriving information from both trigger waveforms as well as their discrete physical properties, using a sequential combination of the longest common subsequence (LCSS) and LCSS coupled with Fast Time Series Evaluation (FTSE) for waveform classification, and the multidimensional hierarchical classification (MHC) analysis for the grouping based on physical properties. A generalized k-means algorithm is used with the LCSS (and LCSS+FTSE) for clustering the triggers using a validity measure to determine the correct number of clusters in absence of any prior knowledge. The results have been demonstrated by simulations and by application to a segment of real LIGO data from the sixth science run.

  10. Pairing broadband noise with cortical stimulation induces extensive suppression of ascending sensory activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markovitz, Craig D.; Hogan, Patrick S.; Wesen, Kyle A.; Lim, Hubert H.

    2015-04-01

    Objective. The corticofugal system can alter coding along the ascending sensory pathway. Within the auditory system, electrical stimulation of the auditory cortex (AC) paired with a pure tone can cause egocentric shifts in the tuning of auditory neurons, making them more sensitive to the pure tone frequency. Since tinnitus has been linked with hyperactivity across auditory neurons, we sought to develop a new neuromodulation approach that could suppress a wide range of neurons rather than enhance specific frequency-tuned neurons. Approach. We performed experiments in the guinea pig to assess the effects of cortical stimulation paired with broadband noise (PN-Stim) on ascending auditory activity within the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (CNIC), a widely studied region for AC stimulation paradigms. Main results. All eight stimulated AC subregions induced extensive suppression of activity across the CNIC that was not possible with noise stimulation alone. This suppression built up over time and remained after the PN-Stim paradigm. Significance. We propose that the corticofugal system is designed to decrease the brain’s input gain to irrelevant stimuli and PN-Stim is able to artificially amplify this effect to suppress neural firing across the auditory system. The PN-Stim concept may have potential for treating tinnitus and other neurological disorders.

  11. Unsteady jet flow computation towards noise prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soh, Woo-Yung

    1994-01-01

    An attempt has been made to combine a wave solution method and an unsteady flow computation to produce an integrated aeroacoustic code to predict far-field jet noise. An axisymmetric subsonic jet is considered for this purpose. A fourth order space accurate Pade compact scheme is used for the unsteady Navier-Stokes solution. A Kirchhoff surface integral for the wave equation is employed through the use of an imaginary surface which is a circular cylinder enclosing the jet at a distance. Information such as pressure and its time and normal derivatives is provided on the surface. The sound prediction is performed side by side with the jet flow computation. Retarded time is also taken into consideration since the cylinder body is not acoustically compact. The far-field sound pressure has the directivity and spectra show that low frequency peaks shift toward higher frequency region as the observation angle increases from the jet flow axis.

  12. Frequency-domain method for discrete frequency noise prediction of rotors in arbitrary steady motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gennaretti, M.; Testa, C.; Bernardini, G.

    2012-12-01

    A novel frequency-domain formulation for the prediction of the tonal noise emitted by rotors in arbitrary steady motion is presented. It is derived from Farassat's 'Formulation 1A', that is a time-domain boundary integral representation for the solution of the Ffowcs-Williams and Hawkings equation, and represents noise as harmonic response to body kinematics and aerodynamic loads via frequency-response-function matrices. The proposed frequency-domain solver is applicable to rotor configurations for which sound pressure levels of discrete tones are much higher than those of broadband noise. The numerical investigation concerns the analysis of noise produced by an advancing helicopter rotor in blade-vortex interaction conditions, as well as the examination of pressure disturbances radiated by the interaction of a marine propeller with a non-uniform inflow.

  13. Noise performance of IRIS/IDA broadband seismic stations AAK and TLY in the USSR. Semi-Annual technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Given, H.K.

    1992-01-15

    Averaged ambient ground noise power spectra are found two broadband IRIS/IDA seismic stations deployed at Talaya (TLY) near Lake Baikal in Russia and Ala-Archa (AAK) near Bishkek in Kirghizia, central Asia. Site descriptions are also provided for these two stations, as well as major episodes up to mid 1991 in their operational history that are relevant to potential data users. Findings can be summarized as follows: AAK shows among the lowest average absolute nighttime noise levels above I Hz documented to date for IRIS/IDA stations in the former USSR; its night-averaged noise levels above 1 Hz are very similar to those observed at GAR. Ground noise increases during the day over night levels at AAK, with the maximum increase (7-9 dB) occurring between 2-3 Hz. Below .7 Hz, day and night noise levels are the same at AAK. TLY average nighttime ground noise levels are about 6- 1 0 dB higher than AAK levels above 1 Hz; its night-averaged noise levels above 1 Hz are very similar to those observed at IRIS/IDA station KIV. Below .6 Hz, nighttime levels at AAK and TLY are comparable, except that TLY has lower horizontal noise levels (4-5 dB) at periods longer than 25 s. Almost no difference between night and day noise levels was observed at TLY; in this sense it is unique among the IRIS/IDA broadband stations in the USSR. microseism peaks at both stations are comparable (between - 135 to - 140 dB relative to (1 m/s2)2/Hz) at both stations. High-frequency noise levels appear to be fairly constant between 10 - 50 Hz, at between - 150 to - 140 dB relative to (I m/s2)2/Hz.

  14. Prediction and reduction of aircraft noise in outdoor environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Bao N.

    This dissertation investigates the noise due to an en-route aircraft cruising at high altitudes. It offers an improved understanding into the combined effects of atmospheric propagation, ground reflection, and source motion on the impact of en-route aircraft noise. A numerical model has been developed to compute pressure time-histories due to a uniformly moving source above a flat ground surface in the presence of a horizontally stratified atmosphere. For a moving source at high elevations, contributions from a direct and specularly reflected wave are sufficient in predicting the sound field close to the ground. In the absence of wind effects, the predicted sound field from a single overhead flight trajectory can be used to interpolate pressure time histories at all other receiver locations via a simplified ray model for the incoherent sound field. This approach provides an efficient method for generating pressure time histories in a three-dimensional space for noise impact studies. A variety of different noise propagation methods are adapted to a uniformly moving source to evaluate the accuracy and efficiency of their predictions. The techniques include: analytical methods, the Fast Field Program (FFP), and asymptotic analysis methods (e.g., ray tracing and more advanced formulations). Source motion effects are introduced via either a retarded time analysis or a Lorentz transform approach depending on the complexity of the problem. The noise spectrum from a single emission frequency, moving source has broadband characteristics. This is a consequence of the Doppler shift which continuously modifies the perceived frequency of the source as it moves relative to a stationary observer on the ground. Thus, the instantaneous wavefronts must be considered in both the frequency dependent ground impedance model and the atmospheric absorption model. It can be shown that the Doppler factor is invariant along each ray path. This gives rise to a path dependent atmospheric absorption mechanism due to the source's motion. To help mitigate the noise that propagates to the ground, multi-layered acoustic treatments can be applied to provide good performance over a wide range of frequencies. An accurate representation of material properties for each of the constituent layers is needed in the design of such treatments. The parameter of interest is the specific acoustic impedance, which can be obtained via inversion of acoustic transfer function measurements. However, several different impedance values can correspond to the same sound field predictions. The boundary loss factor F (associated with spherical wave reflection) is the source of this ambiguity. A method for identifying the family of solutions and selecting the physically meaningful branch is proposed to resolve this non-uniqueness issue. Accurate deduction of the acoustic impedance depends on precise measurements of the acoustic transfer function. However, measurement uncertainties exists in both the magnitude and the phase of the acoustic transfer function. The ASA/ANSI S1.18 standard impedance deduction method uses phase information, which can be unreliable in many outdoor environments. An improved technique which only relies on magnitude information is developed in this dissertation. A selection of optimal geometries become necessary to reduce the sensitivity of the deduced impedance to small variations in the measured data. A graphical approach is provided which offers greater insight into the optimization problem. A downhill simplex algorithm has been implemented to automate the impedance deduction procedure. Physical constraints are applied to limit the search region and to eliminate rogue solutions. Several case studies consisting of both indoor and outdoor acoustical measurements are presented to validate the proposed technique. The current analysis is limited to locally reacting materials where the acoustic impedance does not depend on the incidence angle of the reflected wave.

  15. Broadband Noise of Fans - With Unsteady Coupling Theory to Account for Rotor and Stator Reflection/Transmission Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, Donald B.

    2001-01-01

    This report examines the effects on broadband noise generation of unsteady coupling between a rotor and stator in the fan stage of a turbofan engine. Whereas previous acoustic analyses treated the blade rows as isolated cascades, the present work accounts for reflection and transmission effects at both blade rows by tracking the mode and frequency scattering of pressure and vortical waves. The fan stage is modeled in rectilinear geometry to take advantage of a previously existing unsteady cascade theory for 3D perturbation waves and thereby use a realistic 3D turbulence spectrum. In the analysis, it was found that the set of participating modes divides itself naturally into "independent mode subsets" that couple only among themselves and not to the other such subsets. This principle is the basis for the analysis and considerably reduces computational effort. It also provides a simple, accurate scheme for modal averaging for further efficiency. Computed results for a coupled fan stage are compared with calculations for isolated blade rows. It is found that coupling increases downstream noise by 2 to 4 dB. Upstream noise is lower for isolated cascades and is further reduced by including coupling effects. In comparison with test data, the increase in the upstream/downstream differential indicates that broadband noise from turbulent inflow at the stator dominates downstream noise but is not a significant contributor to upstream noise.

  16. Urban daytime traffic noise prediction models.

    PubMed

    da Paz, Elaine Carvalho; Zannin, Paulo Henrique Trombetta

    2010-04-01

    An evaluation was made of the acoustic environment generated by an urban highway using in situ measurements. Based on the data collected, a mathematical model was designed for the main sound levels (L (eq), L (10), L (50), and L (90)) as a function of the correlation between sound levels and between the equivalent sound pressure level and traffic variables. Four valid groups of mathematical models were generated to calculate daytime sound levels, which were statistically validated. It was found that the new models can be considered as accurate as other models presented in the literature to assess and predict daytime traffic noise, and that they stand out and differ from the existing models described in the literature thanks to two characteristics, namely, their linearity and the application of class intervals. PMID:19353296

  17. Prediction of helicopter rotor noise in hover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusyumov, A. N.; Mikhailov, S. A.; Garipova, L. I.; Batrakov, A. S.; Barakos, G.

    2015-05-01

    Two mathematical models are used in this work to estimate the acoustics of a hovering main rotor. The first model is based on the Ffowcs Williams-Howkings equations using the formulation of Farassat. An analytical approach is followed for this model, to determine the thickness and load noise contributions of the rotor blade in hover. The second approach allows using URANS and RANS CFD solutions and based on numerical solution of the Ffowcs Williams-Howkings equations. The employed test cases correspond to a model rotor available at the KNRTUKAI aerodynamics laboratory. The laboratory is equipped with a system of acoustic measurements, and comparisons between predictions and measurements are to be attempted as part of this work.

  18. Generation of high-frequency broadband electrostatic noise - The role of cold electrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schriver, David; Ashour-Abdalla, Maha

    1987-01-01

    Broadband electrostatic noise (BEN) is commonly observed in the plasma sheet boundary layer in association with ion beams. The generation of these waves in a plasma consisting of an ion beam and a background of hot ions, hot electrons, and cold electrons is investigated. The cold electrons are of ionospheric origin. A complete, systematic study of electrostatic ion beam instabilities, including cold electrons, has been done, and it is shown that for the plasma configuration described, four instabilities can be excited: (1) ion acoustic, (2) Buneman, (3) beam resonant, and (4) electron acoustic instabilities. A low and high beam temperature division is shown to exist that separates when different instabilities can be excited. For typically observed parameters in the plasma sheet boundary layer, the ion beams lie in the high-temperature regime. In this regime, the beam resonant and electron acoustic instabilities are excited, and these instabilities can account for the high-frequency (higher than 500 Hz), low-power portion of the BEN spectrum. In the absence of cold electrons, no such wave growth occurs.

  19. Raman-scattering-assistant broadband noise-like pulse generation in all-normal-dispersion fiber lasers.

    PubMed

    Li, Daojing; Shen, Deyuan; Li, Lei; Chen, Hao; Tang, Dingyuan; Zhao, Luming

    2015-10-01

    We report on the observation of both stable dissipative solitons and noise-like pulses with the presence of strong Raman scattering in a relatively short all-normal-dispersion Yb-doped fiber laser. We show that Raman scattering can be filtered out by intracavity filter. Furthermore, by appropriate intracavity polarization control, the Raman effect can be utilized to generate broadband noise-like pulses (NLPs) with bandwidth up to 61.4 nm. To the best of our knowledge, this is the broadest NLP achieved in all-normal-dispersion fiber lasers. PMID:26480103

  20. Comparison of predicted engine core noise with current and proposed aircraft noise certification requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Von Glahn, U. H.; Groesbeck, D. E.

    1981-01-01

    Predicted engine core noise levels for subsonic CTOL aircraft engines are compared with measured total aircraft noise levels and to current and proposed federal noise certification requirements. Comparisons are made at FAR-36 measuring stations and take into consideration both full and cutback power operations at takeoff. The spectral shape used for the prediction of core noise is identified as the spectral envelope, with a peak at 400 Hz which is assumed to be shifted in flight by a Doppler shift in frequency. Preceived noise levels are computed for appropriate engine power settings at desired flight conditions, and reductions in sideline noise levels are made to account for jet and airframe shielding effects. Results indicate that core noise can provide a barrier to the proposed EPA stage 4 and 5 federal noise rules for wide-body aircraft, with the most severe core noise problem occurring at takeoff and sideline measuring stations.

  1. Some Analytic Results for the Study of Broadband Noise Radiation from Wings, Propellers and Jets in Uniform Motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farassat, F.; Casper, J.

    2003-01-01

    Alan Powell has made significant contributions to the understanding of many aeroacoustic problems, in particular, the problems of broadband noise from jets and boundary layers. In this paper, some analytic results are presented for the calculation of the correlation function of the broadband noise radiated from a wing, a propeller, and a jet in uniform forward motion. It is shown that, when the observer (or microphone) motion is suitably chosen, the geometric terms of the radiation formula become time independent. The time independence of these terms leads to a significant simplification of the statistical analysis of the radiated noise, even when the near field terms are included. For a wing in forward motion, if the observer is in the moving reference frame, then the correlation function of the near and far field noise can be related to a space-time cross-correlation function of the pressure on the wing surface. A similar result holds for a propeller in forward flight if the observer is in a reference frame that is attached to the propeller and rotates at the shaft speed. For a jet in motion, it is shown that the correlation function of the radiated noise can be related to the space-time crosscorrelation of the Lighthill stress tensor in the jet. Exact analytical results are derived for all three cases. For the cases under present consideration, the inclusion of the near field terms does not introduce additional complexity, as compared to existing formulations that are limited to the far field.

  2. The Effect of Nondeterministic Parameters on Shock-Associated Noise Prediction Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahl, Milo D.; Khavaran, Abbas

    2010-01-01

    Engineering applications for aircraft noise prediction contain models for physical phenomenon that enable solutions to be computed quickly. These models contain parameters that have an uncertainty not accounted for in the solution. To include uncertainty in the solution, nondeterministic computational methods are applied. Using prediction models for supersonic jet broadband shock-associated noise, fixed model parameters are replaced by probability distributions to illustrate one of these methods. The results show the impact of using nondeterministic parameters both on estimating the model output uncertainty and on the model spectral level prediction. In addition, a global sensitivity analysis is used to determine the influence of the model parameters on the output, and to identify the parameters with the least influence on model output.

  3. The Prediction of Airframe Noise and Comparison with Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LILLEY, G. M.

    2001-01-01

    The success of the high bypass ratio turbofan engine in reducing the external noise of civil transport aircraft at take-off and landing, while improving the economics of air travel, has opened up the debate as to how much further it will be possible to reduce aircraft noise by the introduction of new aircraft or existing aircraft retrofitted with new engines. Irrespective of what new technology can offer in respect of further engine noise reduction for no loss of performance, it is now clear that all future aircraft will require airframe noise to be reduced on the approach, since today it is comparable with engine noise. This paper discusses the major components of airframe noise and reviews the present state of airframe noise prediction. Finally, a comparison is made between prediction and experimental data and the prospects for airframe noise reduction.

  4. Aircraft system noise prediction: Past, present, and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golub, Robert A.; Posey, Joe W.

    2003-04-01

    Aircraft system noise prediction is necessary to estimate the community noise impact of future aircraft and to estimate the noise impacts of changes in propulsion systems, airframes, or operations of current aircraft. Aircraft system noise is the sum of noise generated by various components of the propulsion system and the various components of the airframe including the landing gear. Predicting noise on the ground from an aircraft flyover requires estimating the noise generated by the many contributing sources during the flyover as the flight conditions change, summing these sources as a function of time, and propagating the resultant combined source through the atmosphere to the observer location. NASA introduced the Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP) about 30 years ago and continually upgraded and extended the code prediction capability. The history of ANOPP will be reviewed along with current efforts to make it more useful as a design tool. A proposed new systems prediction program, AVATAR, will be less empirical and capable of predicting community noise from unconventional aircraft planforms. Innovative/unconventional aircraft configurations will be required to meet aggressive noise goals in the future.

  5. Supersonic Jet Noise Reductions Predicted with Increased Jet Spreading Rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahl, Milo D.; Morris, Philip J.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, predictions are made of noise radiation from single, supersonic, axisymmetric jets. We examine the effects of changes in operating conditions and the effects of simulated enhanced mixing that would increase the spreading rate of the jet shear layer on radiated noise levels. The radiated noise in the downstream direction is dominated by mixing noise and it is well described by the instability wave noise radiation analysis. A numerical prediction scheme is used for the mean flow providing an efficient method to obtain the mean flow development for various operating conditions and to simulate the enhanced mixing. Using far field radiated noise measurements as a reference, the calculations predict that enhanced jet spreading results in a reduction of radiated noise.

  6. Relative Noise Level Comparison Of Portable Broadband Seismometer Installation Techniques Used By PASSCAL And Flexible Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias, E. Y.; Beaudoin, B. C.; Woodward, R.; Anderson, K. E.; Reusch, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    Multiple methods of broadband seismometer emplacement are used on portable experiments. Techniques range from a typical IRIS PASSCAL vault (~1-m deep vault with a decoupled pier), to an EarthScope USArray Flexible Array (FA) vault (~1-m deep narrow vault with a cement plug in the bottom coupled to the vault), both using traditional vault (pier) sensors, as well as direct burial emplacement of both sensors purpose-built for direct burial and standard vault sensors. The selection of the appropriate sensor emplacement technique for a given environment has often relied on anecdotal assessment or personal preference. We have performed an inter-comparison of these various emplacement techniques, for diverse environments. Our goal is to provide quantitative information that will facilitate choosing deployment strategies that best meet an experiment's scientific goals and logistical constraints. For our analysis, a total of 15 networks (781 stations) from PASSCAL and FA are analyzed using SQLX, which utilizes the ambient noise analysis methods of McNamara and Buland*. Using this analysis, a comparison of the mean of the monthly mode (MMM) of each component of the networks is performed to evaluate the various emplacement methods currently used. We have used a total of 182 PASSCAL stations (5 networks using PASSCAL vaults and 1 network using direct burial installs) and 365 FA stations (5 networks with FA vaults, 2 networks using direct burial installs, and 2 networks with a mix of installation types). The installations span a variety of environments. For our analysis the MMM has been calculated for each component separately (Z, N and E) and these results are compared to similar results already computed for EarthScope USArray Transportable Array (TA) stations. To evaluate the relative network performance, we use three separate period bands: short period (< 1 s), microseism band (1-10 s) and long period (10 -100 s). Using the TA baseline as a reference, each network is ranked from quietest to noisiest. Results of this comparison will be presented. * (McNamara, D.E. and R.P. Buland, Ambient Noise Levels in the Continental United States, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 94, 4, 1517-1527, 2004). 1 - Independent Contractor for IRIS
2- IRIS/PASSCAL 2- IRIS/PASSCAL 3- IRIS

  7. Prediction of Landing Gear Noise Reduction and Comparison to Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopes, Leonard V.

    2010-01-01

    Noise continues to be an ongoing problem for existing aircraft in flight and is projected to be a concern for next generation designs. During landing, when the engines are operating at reduced power, the noise from the airframe, of which landing gear noise is an important part, is equal to the engine noise. There are several methods of predicting landing gear noise, but none have been applied to predict the change in noise due to a change in landing gear design. The current effort uses the Landing Gear Model and Acoustic Prediction (LGMAP) code, developed at The Pennsylvania State University to predict the noise from landing gear. These predictions include the influence of noise reduction concepts on the landing gear noise. LGMAP is compared to wind tunnel experiments of a 6.3%-scale Boeing 777 main gear performed in the Quiet Flow Facility (QFF) at NASA Langley. The geometries tested in the QFF include the landing gear with and without a toboggan fairing and the door. It is shown that LGMAP is able to predict the noise directives and spectra from the model-scale test for the baseline configuration as accurately as current gear prediction methods. However, LGMAP is also able to predict the difference in noise caused by the toboggan fairing and by removing the landing gear door. LGMAP is also compared to far-field ground-based flush-mounted microphone measurements from the 2005 Quiet Technology Demonstrator 2 (QTD 2) flight test. These comparisons include a Boeing 777-300ER with and without a toboggan fairing that demonstrate that LGMAP can be applied to full-scale flyover measurements. LGMAP predictions of the noise generated by the nose gear on the main gear measurements are also shown.

  8. Semi-empirical airframe noise prediction model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hersh, A. S.; Putnam, T. W.; Lasagna, P. L.; Burcham, F. W., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A semi-empirical maximum overall sound pressure level (OASPL) airframe noise model was derived. The noise radiated from aircraft wings and flaps was modeled by using the trailing-edge diffracted quadrupole sound theory derived by Ffowcs Williams and Hall. The noise radiated from the landing gear was modeled by using the acoustic dipole sound theory derived by Curle. The model was successfully correlated with maximum OASPL flyover noise measurements obtained at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center for three jet aircraft - the Lockheed JetStar, the Convair 990, and the Boeing 747 aircraft.

  9. Limits on the prediction of helicopter rotor noise using thickness and loading sources: Validation of helicopter noise prediction techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Succi, G. P.

    1983-01-01

    The techniques of helicopter rotor noise prediction attempt to describe precisely the details of the noise field and remove the empiricisms and restrictions inherent in previous methods. These techniques require detailed inputs of the rotor geometry, operating conditions, and blade surface pressure distribution. The Farassat noise prediction techniques was studied, and high speed helicopter noise prediction using more detailed representations of the thickness and loading noise sources was investigated. These predictions were based on the measured blade surface pressures on an AH-1G rotor and compared to the measured sound field. Although refinements in the representation of the thickness and loading noise sources improve the calculation, there are still discrepancies between the measured and predicted sound field. Analysis of the blade surface pressure data indicates shocks on the blades, which are probably responsible for these discrepancies.

  10. Noise prediction of counter rotation propeller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, T.; Kawachi, K.; Nakamura, Y.

    1987-10-01

    An analytical study has been conducted in order to make clear the sensitivity of the various design parameters to the sound pressure level. The airloading is calculated by using the newly extended Local Circulation Method. By using the calculated distribution of the airloading as the noise source term, the acoustic field is calculated by integrating it at the retarded time. The results quantitatively indicates that the wake caused by the profile drag of the front rotor becomes the appreciable noise source especially when the distance between the front and rear rotors is small. The wake from the pylon also causes the additional noise, which has the strong azimuthal directivity. The angle of attack of the aircraft leads to increased noise level, which is sensitive to the observer position just under the aircraft. Finally, the sensitivity of the rotor-rotor spacing to the noise level is presented.

  11. Contra-Rotating Open Rotor Tone Noise Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Envia, Edmane

    2014-01-01

    Reliable prediction of contra-rotating open rotor (CROR) noise is an essential element of any strategy for the development of low-noise open rotor propulsion systems that can meet both the community noise regulations and the cabin noise limits. Since CROR noise spectra typically exhibits a preponderance of tones, significant efforts have been directed towards predicting their tone spectra. To that end, there has been an ongoing effort at NASA to assess various in-house open rotor tone noise prediction tools using a benchmark CROR blade set for which significant aerodynamic and acoustic data had been acquired in wind tunnel tests. In the work presented here, the focus is on the near-field noise of the benchmark open rotor blade set at the cruise condition. Using an analytical CROR tone noise model with input from high-fidelity aerodynamic simulations, detailed tone noise spectral predictions have been generated and compared with the experimental data. Comparisons indicate that the theoretical predictions are in good agreement with the data, especially for the dominant CROR tones and their overall sound pressure level. The results also indicate that, whereas individual rotor tones are well predicted by the linear sources (i.e., thickness and loading), for the interaction tones it is essential that the quadrupole sources be included in the analysis.

  12. Contra-Rotating Open Rotor Tone Noise Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Envia, Edmane

    2014-01-01

    Reliable prediction of contra-rotating open rotor (CROR) noise is an essential element of any strategy for the development of low-noise open rotor propulsion systems that can meet both the community noise regulations and cabin noise limits. Since CROR noise spectra exhibit a preponderance of tones, significant efforts have been directed towards predicting their tone content. To that end, there has been an ongoing effort at NASA to assess various in-house open rotor tone noise prediction tools using a benchmark CROR blade set for which significant aerodynamic and acoustic data have been acquired in wind tunnel tests. In the work presented here, the focus is on the nearfield noise of the benchmark open rotor blade set at the cruise condition. Using an analytical CROR tone noise model with input from high-fidelity aerodynamic simulations, tone noise spectra have been predicted and compared with the experimental data. Comparisons indicate that the theoretical predictions are in good agreement with the data, especially for the dominant tones and for the overall sound pressure level of tones. The results also indicate that, whereas the individual rotor tones are well predicted by the combination of the thickness and loading sources, for the interaction tones it is essential that the quadrupole source is also included in the analysis.

  13. Vortical gust boundary condition for realistic rotor wake/stator interaction noise prediction using computational aeroacoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hixon, Ray; Sescu, Adrian; Sawyer, Scott

    2011-08-01

    In this work, the NASA Glenn Research Center Broadband Aeroacoustic Stator Simulation (BASS) code is extended for use in the prediction of noise produced by realistic three-dimensional rotor wakes impinging on a downstream stator row. In order to accurately simulate such a flow using a nonlinear time-accurate solver, the inflow and outflow boundary conditions must simultaneously maintain the desired mean flow, allow outgoing vortical, entropic, and acoustic waves to cleanly exit the domain, and accurately impose the desired incoming flow disturbances. This work validates a new method for the acoustics-free imposition of three-dimensional vortical disturbances using benchmark test cases.

  14. Basilar-Membrane Responses to Broadband Noise Modeled Using Linear Filters With Rational Transfer Functions

    PubMed Central

    Recio-Spinoso, Alberto; Fan, Yun-Hui

    2013-01-01

    Basilar-membrane responses to white Gaussian noise were recorded using laser velocimetry at basal sites of the chinchilla cochlea with characteristic frequencies near 10 kHz and first-order Wiener kernels were computed by cross correlation of the stimuli and the responses. The presence or absence of minimum-phase behavior was explored by fitting the kernels with discrete linear filters with rational transfer functions. Excellent fits to the kernels were obtained with filters with transfer functions including zeroes located outside the unit circle, implying nonminimum-phase behavior. These filters accurately predicted basilar-membrane responses to other noise stimuli presented at the same level as the stimulus for the kernel computation. Fits with all-pole and other minimum-phase discrete filters were inferior to fits with nonminimum-phase filters. Minimum-phase functions predicted from the amplitude functions of the Wiener kernels by Hilbert transforms were different from the measured phase curves. These results, which suggest that basilar-membrane responses do not have the minimum-phase property, challenge the validity of models of cochlear processing, which incorporate minimum-phase behavior. PMID:20542757

  15. Supersonic Jet Noise Reductions Predicted With Increased Jet Spreading Rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahl, Milo D.; Morris, Philip J.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, predictions are made of noise radiation from single, supersonic, axisymmetric jets. We examine the effects of changes in operating conditions and the effects of simulated enhanced mixing that would increase the spreading rate of jet shear layer on radiated noise levels. The radiated noise in the downstream direction is dominated by mixing noise and, at higher speeds, it is well described by the instability wave noise radiation model. Further analysis with the model shows a relationship between changes in spreading rate due to enhanced mixing and changes in the far field radiated peak noise levels. The calculations predict that enhanced jet spreading results in a reduction of the radiated peak noise level.

  16. Aeroacoustics: Acoustic wave propagation; Aircraft noise prediction; Aeroacoustic instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, I. R.

    1976-01-01

    The papers in this volume deal with recent research into acoustic-wave propagation through the atmosphere and progress in aeroacoustic instrumentation, facilities, and test techniques. Topics include the propagation of aircraft noise over long distances in the lower atmosphere, measured effects of turbulence on the rise time of a weak shock, sound scattering from atmospheric turbulence, saturation effects associated with sound propagation in a turbulent medium, and a computer model of the lightning-thunder process. Other papers discuss the development of a computer system for aircraft noise prediction; aircraft flyover noise measurements; and theories and methods for the prediction of ground effects on aircraft noise propagation, for the prediction of airframe aerodynamic noise, for turbine noise prediction, and for combustion noise prediction. Attention is also given to the use of Hartmann generators as sources of high-intensity sound in a large absorption flow-duct facility, an outdoor jet noise facility, factors in the design and performance of free-jet acoustic wind tunnels, and the use of a laser shadowgraph for jet noise diagnosis.

  17. Application of indoor noise prediction in the real world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, David N.

    2002-11-01

    Predicting indoor noise in industrial workrooms is an important part of the process of designing industrial plants. Predicted levels are used in the design process to determine compliance with occupational-noise regulations, and to estimate levels inside the walls in order to predict community noise radiated from the building. Once predicted levels are known, noise-control strategies can be developed. In this paper an overview of over 20 years of experience is given with the use of various prediction approaches to manage noise in Unilever plants. This work has applied empirical and ray-tracing approaches separately, and in combination, to design various packaging and production plants and other facilities. The advantages of prediction methods in general, and of the various approaches in particular, will be discussed. A case-study application of prediction methods to the optimization of noise-control measures in a food-packaging plant will be presented. Plans to acquire a simplified prediction model for use as a company noise-screening tool will be discussed.

  18. Prediction of Acoustic Noise in Switched Reluctance Motor Drives

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, CJ; Fahimi, B

    2014-03-01

    Prediction of acoustic noise distribution generated by electric machines has become an integral part of design and control in noise sensitive applications. This paper presents a fast and precise acoustic noise imaging technique for switched reluctance machines (SRMs). This method is based on distribution of radial vibration in the stator frame of the SRM. Radial vibration of the stator frame, at a network of probing points, is computed using input phase current and phase voltage waveforms. Sequentially, the acceleration of the probing network will be expanded to predict full acceleration on the stator frame surface, using which acoustic noise emission caused by the stator can be calculated using the boundary element method.

  19. Experimental validation of boundary element methods for noise prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seybert, A. F.; Oswald, Fred B.

    1992-01-01

    Experimental validation of methods to predict radiated noise is presented. A combined finite element and boundary element model was used to predict the vibration and noise of a rectangular box excited by a mechanical shaker. The predicted noise was compared to sound power measured by the acoustic intensity method. Inaccuracies in the finite element model shifted the resonance frequencies by about 5 percent. The predicted and measured sound power levels agree within about 2.5 dB. In a second experiment, measured vibration data was used with a boundary element model to predict noise radiation from the top of an operating gearbox. The predicted and measured sound power for the gearbox agree within about 3 dB.

  20. Modular Engine Noise Component Prediction System (MCP) Technical Description and Assessment Document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herkes, William H.; Reed, David H.

    2005-01-01

    This report describes an empirical prediction procedure for turbofan engine noise. The procedure generates predicted noise levels for several noise components, including inlet- and aft-radiated fan noise, and jet-mixing noise. This report discusses the noise source mechanisms, the development of the prediction procedures, and the assessment of the accuracy of these predictions. Finally, some recommendations for future work are presented.

  1. Application of large-eddy simulation for trailing-edge noise prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Meng; Moin, Parviz

    Turbulent boundary layers near the trailing-edge of a lifting surface are known to generate intense, broadband scattering noise as well as surface pressure fluctuations. To numerically predict the trailing-edge noise requires that the noise-generating eddies over a wide range of length scales be adequately represented. Large-eddy simulation technique provides a promising tool for obtaining the unsteady wall-pressure fields and the acoustic source functions. In the present work, a large-eddy simulation is carried out for turbulent boundary layer flow past an asymmetrically beveled trailing-edge of a flat strut at a chord Reynolds number of 2.15 × 106. The computed velocity and surface pressure statistics compare reasonably well with the experimental measurements of Blake. The far-field acoustic calculation is facilitated by the integral solution to the Lighthill equation derived by Ffowcs Williams & Hall. Computations have been carried out to determine the far-field noise spectra, the source-term characteristics, and the requirement for the integration domain size. It is found that the present LES is adequate for predicting noise radiation over a wide frequency range. At the low frequency end, however, the spanwise source coherence estimated based on surface pressure fluctuations does not decay sufficiently, suggesting the need for a wider computational domain.

  2. Modular Engine Noise Component Prediction System (MCP) Program Users' Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, Robert A. (Technical Monitor); Herkes, William H.; Reed, David H.

    2004-01-01

    This is a user's manual for Modular Engine Noise Component Prediction System (MCP). This computer code allows the user to predict turbofan engine noise estimates. The program is based on an empirical procedure that has evolved over many years at The Boeing Company. The data used to develop the procedure include both full-scale engine data and small-scale model data, and include testing done by Boeing, by the engine manufacturers, and by NASA. In order to generate a noise estimate, the user specifies the appropriate engine properties (including both geometry and performance parameters), the microphone locations, the atmospheric conditions, and certain data processing options. The version of the program described here allows the user to predict three components: inlet-radiated fan noise, aft-radiated fan noise, and jet noise. MCP predicts one-third octave band noise levels over the frequency range of 50 to 10,000 Hertz. It also calculates overall sound pressure levels and certain subjective noise metrics (e.g., perceived noise levels).

  3. Aircraft cabin noise prediction and optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaicaitis, R.

    1985-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental studies were conducted to determine the noise transmission into acoustic enclosures ranging from simple rectangular box models to full scale light aircraft in flight. The structural models include simple, stiffened, curved stiffened, and orthotropic panels and double wall windows. The theoretical solutions were obtained by model analysis. Transfer matrix and finite element procedures were utilized. Good agreement between theory and experiment has been achieved. An efficient acoustic add-on treatment was developed for interior noise control in a twin engine light aircraft.

  4. Predicting tonal noise from a high rotational speed centrifugal fan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khelladi, S.; Kouidri, S.; Bakir, F.; Rey, R.

    2008-06-01

    Prediction of noise generated by centrifugal fans is much more complex than prediction noise generated by axial fans. A complete, aerodynamic and aeroacoustic, investigation of the tonal noise of a high rotational speed centrifugal fan is proposed in this paper. The studied fan is made up of an impeller, a diffuser and a return channel. The purpose of this work is to understand the nature of noise generated within this type of machine. An aeroacoustic model based on the Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings equation is used to predict dipole and monopole tonal noises in the frequency domain. Showing the importance of the monopole source in this kind of fans constitutes the main contribution in these research tasks. A numerical simulation of the fluid flow validated by experiments, enables to obtain the fluctuating forces and normal velocity on the impeller and diffuser blades needed for the aeroacoustic computation.

  5. High Speed Jet Noise Prediction Using Large Eddy Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lele, Sanjiva K.

    2002-01-01

    Current methods for predicting the noise of high speed jets are largely empirical. These empirical methods are based on the jet noise data gathered by varying primarily the jet flow speed, and jet temperature for a fixed nozzle geometry. Efforts have been made to correlate the noise data of co-annular (multi-stream) jets and for the changes associated with the forward flight within these empirical correlations. But ultimately these emipirical methods fail to provide suitable guidance in the selection of new, low-noise nozzle designs. This motivates the development of a new class of prediction methods which are based on computational simulations, in an attempt to remove the empiricism of the present day noise predictions.

  6. Sound quality prediction for engine-radiated noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hai; Zhang, Junhong; Guo, Peng; Bi, Fengrong; Yu, Hanzhengnan; Ni, Guangjian

    2015-05-01

    Diesel engine-radiated noise quality prediction is an important topic because engine noise has a significant impact on the overall vehicle noise. Sound quality prediction is based on subjective and objective evaluation of engine noise. The integrated satisfaction index (ISI) is proposed as a criterion for differentiate noise quality in the subjective evaluation, and five psychoacoustic parameters are selected for characterizing and analyzing the noise quality of the diesel engine objectively. The combination of support vector machines (SVM) and genetic algorithm (GA) is proposed in order to establish a model for predicting the diesel engine-radiated noise quality for all operation conditions. The performance of the GA-SVM model is compared with the BP neural network model, and the results show that the mean relative error of the GA-SVM model is smaller than the BP neural network model. The importance rank of the sound quality metrics to the ISI is indicated by the non-parametric correlation analysis. This study suggests that the GA-SVM model is very useful for accurately predicting the diesel engine-radiated noise quality.

  7. A theoretical analysis of the effect of thrust-related turbulence distortion on helicopter rotor low-frequency broadband noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, M.; Harris, W. L.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of the analysis is to determine if inflow turbulence distortion may be a cause of experimentally observed changes in sound pressure levels when the rotor mean loading is varied. The effect of helicopter rotor mean aerodynamics on inflow turbulence is studied within the framework of the turbulence rapid distortion theory developed by Pearson (1959) and Deissler (1961). The distorted inflow turbulence is related to the resultant noise by conventional broadband noise theory. A comparison of the distortion model with experimental data shows that the theoretical model is unable to totally explain observed increases in model rotor sound pressures with increased rotor mean thrust. Comparison of full scale rotor data with the theoretical model shows that a shear-type distortion may explain decreasing sound pressure levels with increasing thrust.

  8. Study on Noise Prediction Model and Control Schemes for Substation

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yang; Liu, Songtao

    2014-01-01

    With the government's emphasis on environmental issues of power transmission and transformation project, noise pollution has become a prominent problem now. The noise from the working transformer, reactor, and other electrical equipment in the substation will bring negative effect to the ambient environment. This paper focuses on using acoustic software for the simulation and calculation method to control substation noise. According to the characteristics of the substation noise and the techniques of noise reduction, a substation's acoustic field model was established with the SoundPLAN software to predict the scope of substation noise. On this basis, 4 reasonable noise control schemes were advanced to provide some helpful references for noise control during the new substation's design and construction process. And the feasibility and application effect of these control schemes can be verified by using the method of simulation modeling. The simulation results show that the substation always has the problem of excessive noise at boundary under the conventional measures. The excess noise can be efficiently reduced by taking the corresponding noise reduction methods. PMID:24672356

  9. Study on noise prediction model and control schemes for substation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chuanmin; Gao, Yang; Liu, Songtao

    2014-01-01

    With the government's emphasis on environmental issues of power transmission and transformation project, noise pollution has become a prominent problem now. The noise from the working transformer, reactor, and other electrical equipment in the substation will bring negative effect to the ambient environment. This paper focuses on using acoustic software for the simulation and calculation method to control substation noise. According to the characteristics of the substation noise and the techniques of noise reduction, a substation's acoustic field model was established with the SoundPLAN software to predict the scope of substation noise. On this basis, 4 reasonable noise control schemes were advanced to provide some helpful references for noise control during the new substation's design and construction process. And the feasibility and application effect of these control schemes can be verified by using the method of simulation modeling. The simulation results show that the substation always has the problem of excessive noise at boundary under the conventional measures. The excess noise can be efficiently reduced by taking the corresponding noise reduction methods. PMID:24672356

  10. Efficient Modelling and Prediction of Meshing Noise from Chain Drives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ZHENG, H.; WANG, Y. Y.; LIU, G. R.; LAM, K. Y.; QUEK, K. P.; ITO, T.; NOGUCHI, Y.

    2001-08-01

    This paper presents a practical approach for predicting the meshing noise due to the impact of chain rollers against the sprocket of chain drives. An acoustical model relating dynamic response of rollers and its induced sound pressure is developed based on the fact that the acoustic field is mainly created by oscillating rigid cylindrical rollers. Finite element techniques and numerical software codes are employed to model and simulate the acceleration response of each chain roller which is necessary for noise level prediction of a chain drive under varying operation conditions and different sprocket configurations. The predicted acoustic pressure levels of meshing noise are compared with the available experimental measurements. It is shown that the predictions are in reasonable agreement with the experiments and the approach enables designers to obtain required information on the noise level of a selected chain drive in a time- and cost-efficient manner.

  11. Tone and Broadband Noise Separation from Acoustic Data of a Scale-Model Counter-Rotating Open Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sree, David; Stephens, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Renewed interest in contra-rotating open rotor technology for aircraft propulsion application has prompted the development of advanced diagnostic tools for better design and improved acoustical performance. In particular, the determination of tonal and broadband components of open rotor acoustic spectra is essential for properly assessing the noise control parameters and also for validating the open rotor noise simulation codes. The technique of phase averaging has been employed to separate the tone and broadband components from a single rotor, but this method does not work for the two-shaft contra-rotating open rotor. A new signal processing technique was recently developed to process the contra-rotating open rotor acoustic data. The technique was first tested using acoustic data taken of a hobby aircraft open rotor propeller, and reported previously. The intent of the present work is to verify and validate the applicability of the new technique to a realistic one-fifth scale open rotor model which has 12 forward and 10 aft contra-rotating blades operating at realistic forward flight Mach numbers and tip speeds. The results and discussions of that study are presented in this paper.

  12. Tone and Broadband Noise Separation from Acoustic Data of a Scale-Model Contra-Rotating Open Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sree, Dave; Stephens, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Renewed interest in contra-rotating open rotor technology for aircraft propulsion application has prompted the development of advanced diagnostic tools for better design and improved acoustical performance. In particular, the determination of tonal and broadband components of open rotor acoustic spectra is essential for properly assessing the noise control parameters and also for validating the open rotor noise simulation codes. The technique of phase averaging has been employed to separate the tone and broadband components from a single rotor, but this method does not work for the two-shaft contra-rotating open rotor. A new signal processing technique was recently developed to process the contra-rotating open rotor acoustic data. The technique was first tested using acoustic data taken of a hobby aircraft open rotor propeller, and reported previously. The intent of the present work is to verify and validate the applicability of the new technique to a realistic one-fifth scale open rotor model which has 12 forward and 10 aft contra-rotating blades operating at realistic forward flight Mach numbers and tip speeds. The results and discussions of that study are presented in this paper.

  13. Jet Measurements for Development of Jet Noise Prediction Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, James E.

    2006-01-01

    The primary focus of my presentation is the development of the jet noise prediction code JeNo with most examples coming from the experimental work that drove the theoretical development and validation. JeNo is a statistical jet noise prediction code, based upon the Lilley acoustic analogy. Our approach uses time-average 2-D or 3-D mean and turbulent statistics of the flow as input. The output is source distributions and spectral directivity.

  14. Measurement, analysis, and prediction of aircraft interior noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howlett, J. T.; Williams, L. H.; Catherines, J. J.; Jha, S. K.

    1976-01-01

    Considerations of comfort of passengers and crew in light aircraft and helicopters indicate substantial benefits may be obtained by the reduction of interior noise levels. This paper discusses an ongoing research effort to reduce interior noise in such vehicles. Data from both field and laboratory studies for a light aircraft are presented. The laboratory data indicate that structural vibration is an efficient source of interior noise and should be considered in the reduction of interior noise. Flight data taken on a helicopter before and after installation of acoustic treatment demonstrate that over 30 dB of noise reduction can be obtained in certain portions of the spectra. However, subjective evaluations of the treated vehicle indicate that further reductions in interior noise are desirable. An existing interior noise prediction method which was developed for large jet transports was applied to study low-frequency noise in a light aircraft fuselage. The results indicate that improvements in the analytical model may be necessary for the prediction of interior noise of light aircraft.

  15. Initial Integration of Noise Prediction Tools for Acoustic Scattering Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nark, Douglas M.; Burley, Casey L.; Tinetti, Ana; Rawls, John W.

    2008-01-01

    This effort provides an initial glimpse at NASA capabilities available in predicting the scattering of fan noise from a non-conventional aircraft configuration. The Aircraft NOise Prediction Program, Fast Scattering Code, and the Rotorcraft Noise Model were coupled to provide increased fidelity models of scattering effects on engine fan noise sources. The integration of these codes led to the identification of several keys issues entailed in applying such multi-fidelity approaches. In particular, for prediction at noise certification points, the inclusion of distributed sources leads to complications with the source semi-sphere approach. Computational resource requirements limit the use of the higher fidelity scattering code to predict radiated sound pressure levels for full scale configurations at relevant frequencies. And, the ability to more accurately represent complex shielding surfaces in current lower fidelity models is necessary for general application to scattering predictions. This initial step in determining the potential benefits/costs of these new methods over the existing capabilities illustrates a number of the issues that must be addressed in the development of next generation aircraft system noise prediction tools.

  16. Increased Fidelity in Prediction Methods For Landing Gear Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopes, Leonard V.; Brentner, Kenneth S.; Morris, Philip J.; Lockhard, David P.

    2006-01-01

    An aeroacoustic prediction scheme has been developed for landing gear noise. The method is designed to handle the complex landing gear geometry of current and future aircraft. The gear is represented by a collection of subassemblies and simple components that are modeled using acoustic elements. These acoustic elements are generic, but generate noise representative of the physical components on a landing gear. The method sums the noise radiation from each component of the undercarriage in isolation accounting for interference with adjacent components through an estimate of the local upstream and downstream flows and turbulence intensities. The acoustic calculations are made in the code LGMAP, which computes the sound pressure levels at various observer locations. The method can calculate the noise from the undercarriage in isolation or installed on an aircraft for both main and nose landing gear. Comparisons with wind tunnel and flight data are used to initially calibrate the method, then it may be used to predict the noise of any landing gear. In this paper, noise predictions are compared with wind tunnel data for model landing gears of various scales and levels of fidelity, as well as with flight data on fullscale undercarriages. The present agreement between the calculations and measurements suggests the method has promise for future application in the prediction of airframe noise.

  17. A new approach to complete aircraft landing gear noise prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, Leonard V.

    This thesis describes a new landing gear noise prediction system developed at The Pennsylvania State University, called Landing Gear Model and Acoustic Prediction code (LGMAP). LGMAP is used to predict the noise of an isolated or installed landing gear geometry. The predictions include several techniques to approximate the aeroacoustic and aerodynamic interactions of landing gear noise generation. These include (1) a method for approximating the shielding of noise caused by the landing gear geometry, (2) accounting for local flow variations due to the wing geometry, (3) the interaction of the landing gear wake with high-lift devices, and (4) a method for estimating the effect of gross landing gear design changes on local flow and acoustic radiation. The LGMAP aeroacoustic prediction system has been created to predict the noise generated by a given landing gear. The landing gear is modeled as a set of simple components that represent individual parts of the structure. Each component, ranging from large to small, is represented by a simple geometric shape and the unsteady flow on the component is modeled based on an individual characteristic length, local flow velocity, and the turbulent flow environment. A small set of universal models is developed and applied to a large range of similar components. These universal models, combined with the actual component geometry and local environment, give a unique loading spectrum and acoustic field for each component. Then, the sum of all the individual components in the complete configuration is used to model the high level of geometric complexity typical of current aircraft undercarriage designs. A line of sight shielding algorithm based on scattering by a two-dimensional cylinder approximates the effect of acoustic shielding caused by the landing gear. Using the scattering from a cylinder in two-dimensions at an observer position directly behind the cylinder, LGMAP is able to estimate the reduction in noise due to shielding by the landing gear geometry. This thesis compares predictions with data from a recent wind tunnel experiment conducted at NASA Langley Research Center, and demonstrates that including the acoustic scattering can improve the predictions by LGMAP at all observer positions. In this way, LGMAP provides more information about the actual noise propagation than simple empirical schemes. Two-dimensional FLUENT calculations of approximate wing cross-sections are used by LGMAP to compute the change in noise due to the change in local flow velocity in the vicinity of the landing gear due to circulation around the wing. By varying angle of attack and flap deflection angle in the CFD calculations, LGMAP is able to predict the noise level change due to the change in local flow velocity in the landing gear vicinity. A brief trade study is performed on the angle of attack of the wing and flap deflection angle of the flap system. It is shown that increasing the angle of attack or flap deflection angle reduces the flow velocity in the vicinity of the landing gear, and therefore the predicted noise. Predictions demonstrate the ability of the prediction system to quickly estimate the change in landing gear noise caused by a change in wing configuration. A three-dimensional immersed boundary CFD calculation of simplified landing gear geometries provides relatively quick estimates of the mean flow around the landing gear. The mean flow calculation provides the landing gear wake geometry for the prediction of trailing edge noise associated with the interaction of the landing gear wake with the high lift devices. Using wind tunnel experiments that relate turbulent intensity to wake size and the Ffowcs Williams and Hall trailing edge noise equation for the acoustic calculation, LGMAP is able to predict the landing gear wake generated trailing edge noise. In this manner, LGMAP includes the effect of the interaction of the landing gear's wake with the wing/flap system on the radiated noise. The final prediction technique implemented includes local flow calculations of a landing gear with various truck angles using the immersed boundary scheme. Using the mean flow calculation, LGMAP is able to predict noise changes caused by gross changes in landing gear design. Calculations of the mean flow around the landing gear show that the rear wheels of a six-wheel bogie experience significantly reduced mean flow velocity when the truck is placed in a toe-down configuration. This reduction in the mean flow results is a lower noise signature from the rear wheel. Since the noise from a six-wheel bogie at flyover observer positions is primarily composed of wheel noise, the reduced local flow velocity results in a reduced noise signature from the entire landing gear geometry. Comparisons with measurements show the accuracy of the predictions of landing gear noise levels and directivity. Airframe noise predictions for the landing gear of a complete aircraft are described including all of the above mentioned developments and prediction techniques. These show that the nose gear noise and the landing gear wake/flap interaction noise, while not significantly changing the overall shape of the radiated noise, do contribute to the overall noise from the installed landing gear.

  18. Broadband noise limit in the photodetection of ultralow jitter optical pulses.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wenlu; Quinlan, Franklyn; Fortier, Tara M; Deschenes, Jean-Daniel; Fu, Yang; Diddams, Scott A; Campbell, Joe C

    2014-11-14

    Applications with optical atomic clocks and precision timing often require the transfer of optical frequency references to the electrical domain with extremely high fidelity. Here we examine the impact of photocarrier scattering and distributed absorption on the photocurrent noise of high-speed photodiodes when detecting ultralow jitter optical pulses. Despite its small contribution to the total photocurrent, this excess noise can determine the phase noise and timing jitter of microwave signals generated by detecting ultrashort optical pulses. A Monte Carlo simulation of the photodetection process is used to quantitatively estimate the excess noise. Simulated phase noise on the 10 GHz harmonic of a photodetected pulse train shows good agreement with previous experimental data, leading to the conclusion that the lowest phase noise photonically generated microwave signals are limited by photocarrier scattering well above the quantum limit of the optical pulse train. PMID:25432042

  19. A Hybrid RANS/LES Approach for Predicting Jet Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, Marvin E.

    2006-01-01

    Hybrid acoustic prediction methods have an important advantage over the current Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) based methods in that they only involve modeling of the relatively universal subscale motion and not the configuration dependent larger scale turbulence. Unfortunately, they are unable to account for the high frequency sound generated by the turbulence in the initial mixing layers. This paper introduces an alternative approach that directly calculates the sound from a hybrid RANS/LES flow model (which can resolve the steep gradients in the initial mixing layers near the nozzle lip) and adopts modeling techniques similar to those used in current RANS based noise prediction methods to determine the unknown sources in the equations for the remaining unresolved components of the sound field. The resulting prediction method would then be intermediate between the current noise prediction codes and previously proposed hybrid noise prediction methods.

  20. State of Jet Noise Prediction-NASA Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, James E.

    2008-01-01

    This presentation covers work primarily done under the Airport Noise Technical Challenge portion of the Supersonics Project in the Fundamental Aeronautics Program. To provide motivation and context, the presentation starts with a brief overview of the Airport Noise Technical Challenge. It then covers the state of NASA s jet noise prediction tools in empirical, RANS-based, and time-resolved categories. The empirical tools, requires seconds to provide a prediction of noise spectral directivity with an accuracy of a few dB, but only for axisymmetric configurations. The RANS-based tools are able to discern the impact of three-dimensional features, but are currently deficient in predicting noise from heated jets and jets with high speed and require hours to produce their prediction. The time-resolved codes are capable of predicting resonances and other time-dependent phenomena, but are very immature, requiring months to deliver predictions without unknown accuracies and dependabilities. In toto, however, when one considers the progress being made it appears that aeroacoustic prediction tools are soon to approach the level of sophistication and accuracy of aerodynamic engineering tools.

  1. Prediction and analysis of infra and low-frequency noise of upwind horizontal axis wind turbine using statistical wind speed model

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Gwang-Se; Cheong, Cheolung

    2014-12-15

    Despite increasing concern about low-frequency noise of modern large horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWTs), few studies have focused on its origin or its prediction methods. In this paper, infra- and low-frequency (the ILF) wind turbine noise are closely examined and an efficient method is developed for its prediction. Although most previous studies have assumed that the ILF noise consists primarily of blade passing frequency (BPF) noise components, these tonal noise components are seldom identified in the measured noise spectrum, except for the case of downwind wind turbines. In reality, since modern HAWTs are very large, during rotation, a single blade of the turbine experiences inflow with variation in wind speed in time as well as in space, breaking periodic perturbations of the BPF. Consequently, this transforms acoustic contributions at the BPF harmonics into broadband noise components. In this study, the ILF noise of wind turbines is predicted by combining Lowson’s acoustic analogy with the stochastic wind model, which is employed to reproduce realistic wind speed conditions. In order to predict the effects of these wind conditions on pressure variation on the blade surface, unsteadiness in the incident wind speed is incorporated into the XFOIL code by varying incident flow velocities on each blade section, which depend on the azimuthal locations of the rotating blade. The calculated surface pressure distribution is subsequently used to predict acoustic pressure at an observing location by using Lowson’s analogy. These predictions are compared with measured data, which ensures that the present method can reproduce the broadband characteristics of the measured low-frequency noise spectrum. Further investigations are carried out to characterize the IFL noise in terms of pressure loading on blade surface, narrow-band noise spectrum and noise maps around the turbine.

  2. Prediction and analysis of infra and low-frequency noise of upwind horizontal axis wind turbine using statistical wind speed model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Gwang-Se; Cheong, Cheolung

    2014-12-01

    Despite increasing concern about low-frequency noise of modern large horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWTs), few studies have focused on its origin or its prediction methods. In this paper, infra- and low-frequency (the ILF) wind turbine noise are closely examined and an efficient method is developed for its prediction. Although most previous studies have assumed that the ILF noise consists primarily of blade passing frequency (BPF) noise components, these tonal noise components are seldom identified in the measured noise spectrum, except for the case of downwind wind turbines. In reality, since modern HAWTs are very large, during rotation, a single blade of the turbine experiences inflow with variation in wind speed in time as well as in space, breaking periodic perturbations of the BPF. Consequently, this transforms acoustic contributions at the BPF harmonics into broadband noise components. In this study, the ILF noise of wind turbines is predicted by combining Lowson's acoustic analogy with the stochastic wind model, which is employed to reproduce realistic wind speed conditions. In order to predict the effects of these wind conditions on pressure variation on the blade surface, unsteadiness in the incident wind speed is incorporated into the XFOIL code by varying incident flow velocities on each blade section, which depend on the azimuthal locations of the rotating blade. The calculated surface pressure distribution is subsequently used to predict acoustic pressure at an observing location by using Lowson's analogy. These predictions are compared with measured data, which ensures that the present method can reproduce the broadband characteristics of the measured low-frequency noise spectrum. Further investigations are carried out to characterize the IFL noise in terms of pressure loading on blade surface, narrow-band noise spectrum and noise maps around the turbine.

  3. Effects of broadband noise on cortical evoked auditory responses at different loudness levels in young adults.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Mridula; Purdy, Suzanne C; Munro, Kevin J; Sawaya, Kathleen; Peter, Varghese

    2014-03-26

    Young adults with no history of hearing concerns were tested to investigate their /da/-evoked cortical auditory evoked potentials (P1-N1-P2) recorded from 32 scalp electrodes in the presence and absence of noise at three different loudness levels (soft, comfortable, and loud), at a fixed signal-to-noise ratio (+3 dB). P1 peak latency significantly increased at soft and loud levels, and N1 and P2 latencies increased at all three levels in the presence of noise, compared with the quiet condition. P1 amplitude was significantly larger in quiet than in noise conditions at the loudest level. N1 amplitude was larger in quiet than in noise for the soft level only. P2 amplitude was reduced in the presence of noise to a similar degree at all loudness levels. The differential effects of noise on P1, N1, and P2 suggest differences in auditory processes underlying these peaks. The combination of level and signal-to-noise ratio should be considered when using cortical auditory evoked potentials as an electrophysiological indicator of degraded speech processing. PMID:24323122

  4. The Acoustic Analogy and Alternative Theories for Jet Noise Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Philip J.; Farassat, F.; Morris, Philip J.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes several methods for the prediction of jet noise. All but one of the noise prediction schemes are based on Lighthill's or Lilley's acoustic analogy while the other is the jet noise generation model recently proposed by Tam and Auriault. In all the approaches some assumptions must be made concerning the statistical properties of the turbulent sources. In each case the characteristic scales of the turbulence are obtained from a solution of the Reynolds-averaged Navier Stokes equation using a k-epsilon turbulence model. It is shown that, for the same level of empiricism, Tam and Auriault's model yields better agreement with experimental noise measurements than the acoustic analogy. It is then shown that this result is not because of some fundamental flaw in the acoustic analogy approach: but, is associated with the assumptions made in the approximation of the turbulent source statistics. If consistent assumptions are made, both the acoustic analogy and Tam and Auriault's model yield identical noise predictions. The paper concludes with a proposal for an acoustic analogy that provides a clearer identification of the equivalent source mechanisms and a discussion of noise prediction issues that remain to be resolved.

  5. The Acoustic Analogy and Alternative Theories for Jet Noise Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Philip J.; Farassat, F.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes several methods for the prediction of jet noise. All but one of the noise prediction schemes are based on Lighthill's or Lilley's acoustic analogy while the other is the jet noise generation model recently proposed by Tam and Auriault. In all the approaches some assumptions must be made concerning the statistical properties of the turbulent sources. In each case the characteristic scales of the turbulence are obtained from a solution of the Reynolds-averaged Navier Stokes equation using a k - epsilon turbulence model. It is shown that, for the same level of empiricism, Tam and Auriault's model yields better agreement with experimental noise measurements than the acoustic analogy. It is then shown that this result is not because of some fundamental flaw in the acoustic analogy approach: but, is associated with the assumptions made in the approximation of the turbulent source statistics. If consistent assumptions are made, both the acoustic analogy and Tam and Auriault's model yield identical noise predictions. The paper concludes with a proposal for an acoustic analogy that provides a clearer identification of the equivalent source mechanisms and a discussion of noise prediction issues that remain to be resolved.

  6. Acoustic Analogy and Alternative Theories for Jet Noise Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Philip J.; Farassat, F.

    2002-01-01

    Several methods for the prediction of jet noise are described. All but one of the noise prediction schemes are based on Lighthill's or Lilley's acoustic analogy, whereas the other is the jet noise generation model recently proposed by Tam and Auriault. In all of the approaches, some assumptions must be made concerning the statistical properties of the turbulent sources. In each case the characteristic scales of the turbulence are obtained from a solution of the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equation using a kappa-sigma turbulence model. It is shown that, for the same level of empiricism, Tam and Auriault's model yields better agreement with experimental noise measurements than the acoustic analogy. It is then shown that this result is not because of some fundamental flaw in the acoustic analogy approach, but instead is associated with the assumptions made in the approximation of the turbulent source statistics. If consistent assumptions are made, both the acoustic analogy and Tam and Auriault's model yield identical noise predictions. In conclusion, a proposal is presented for an acoustic analogy that provides a clearer identification of the equivalent source mechanisms, as is a discussion of noise prediction issues that remain to be resolved.

  7. A computational method to predict and study underwater noise due to pile driving.

    PubMed

    Schecklman, Scott; Laws, Nathan; Zurk, Lisa M; Siderius, Martin

    2015-07-01

    A hybrid modeling approach that uses the parabolic equation (PE) with an empirical source model is presented to study and predict the underwater noise due to pile driving in shallow, inhomogeneous environments over long propagation ranges. The empirical source model uses a phased point source array to simulate the time-dependent pile source. The pile source is coupled with a broadband application of a PE wave propagation model that includes range dependent geoacoustic properties and bathymetry. Simulation results are shown to be in good agreement with several acoustic observations of pile driving in the Columbia River between Portland, OR and Vancouver, WA. The model is further applied to predict sound levels in the Columbia River and study the effects of variable bathymetry and sediment configurations on underwater sound levels. PMID:26233025

  8. Stability Assessment and Quantitative Evaluation of H/ V Spectral Ratios for Site Response Studies in Kumaon Himalaya, India Using Ambient Noise Recorded by a Broadband Seismograph Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivaram, K.; Mahesh, P.; Rai, S. S.

    2012-10-01

    The Kumaon Himalaya region in India has accumulated considerable seismic risk potential from moderate to high seismicity due to ongoing tectonic evolutionary processes. To assess conditions of high seismic risk arising from local site effects at populated locations, we applied the empirical horizontal to vertical ( H/ V) spectral amplitude ratio method ( Nakamura in Quarterly Reports of the Railway Technical Research Institute Tokyo, 30:25-33, 1989) using ambient seismic noise recorded by a network of 32 digital broadband seismographs from June 2005 to June 2008. The data and the estimated parameters were subjected to stability tests to assess the effect of seasonal variations. Seasonal variations in the ambient noise data seemed to show a lesser effect on fundamental frequency estimates and a slightly greater effect on the peak H/ V amplitudes. Validation of the ambient noise results was done by complementary tests using H/ V ratios of local and regional earthquakes. The `peak' corresponding to the fundamental resonance frequency is prominently present in both the ambient noise and the earthquake datasets. The study locations showed distinct H/ V curve topologies, corresponding to the effects of both velocity contrast at well-defined frequencies and characteristic topographic effect around a certain frequency range. The clearly indicated `peaks' in the H/ V curves possibly correspond to velocity contrasts created by weathered sediments overlying hard rock basements in rocky hills. Our study indicates high site responses at many populated locations near the surface trace of the seismically active Main Central Thrust (MCT) and other fault boundaries. The fundamental resonance frequencies estimated from the site response studies at the 32 locations could be useful in preliminary site characterization, ground motion prediction and seismic hazard analysis.

  9. Prediction of aerodynamic tonal noise from open rotors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Anupam; Chen, Hsuan-nien

    2013-08-01

    A numerical approach for predicting tonal aerodynamic noise from "open rotors" is presented. "Open rotor" refers to an engine architecture with a pair of counter-rotating propellers. Typical noise spectra from an open rotor consist of dominant tones, which arise due to both the steady loading/thickness and the aerodynamic interaction between the two bladerows. The proposed prediction approach utilizes Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations to obtain near-field description of the noise sources. The near-to-far-field propagation is then carried out by solving the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equation. Since the interest of this paper is limited to tone noise, a linearized, frequency domain approach is adopted to solve the wake/vortex-blade interaction problem.This paper focuses primarily on the speed scaling of the aerodynamic tonal noise from open rotors. Even though there is no theoretical mode cut-off due to the absence of nacelle in open rotors, the far-field noise is a strong function of the azimuthal mode order. While the steady loading/thickness noise has circumferential modes of high order, due to the relatively large number of blades (?10-12), the interaction noise typically has modes of small orders. The high mode orders have very low radiation efficiency and exhibit very strong scaling with Mach number, while the low mode orders show a relatively weaker scaling. The prediction approach is able to capture the speed scaling (observed in experiment) of the overall aerodynamic noise very well.

  10. Broad-band Gaussian noise is most effective in improving motor performance and is most pleasant

    PubMed Central

    Trenado, Carlos; Mikulić, Areh; Manjarrez, Elias; Mendez-Balbuena, Ignacio; Schulte-Mönting, Jürgen; Huethe, Frank; Hepp-Reymond, Marie-Claude; Kristeva, Rumyana

    2014-01-01

    Modern attempts to improve human performance focus on stochastic resonance (SR). SR is a phenomenon in non-linear systems characterized by a response increase of the system induced by a particular level of input noise. Recently, we reported that an optimum level of 0–15 Hz Gaussian noise applied to the human index finger improved static isometric force compensation. A possible explanation was a better sensorimotor integration caused by increase in sensitivity of peripheral receptors and/or of internal SR. The present study in 10 subjects compares SR effects in the performance of the same motor task and on pleasantness, by applying three Gaussian noises chosen on the sensitivity of the fingertip receptors (0–15 Hz mostly for Merkel receptors, 250–300 Hz for Pacini corpuscles and 0–300 Hz for all). We document that only the 0–300 Hz noise induced SR effect during the transitory phase of the task. In contrast, the motor performance was improved during the stationary phase for all three noise frequency bandwidths. This improvement was stronger for 0–300 Hz and 250–300 Hz than for 0–15 Hz noise. Further, we found higher degree of pleasantness for 0–300 Hz and 250–300 Hz noise bandwidths than for 0–15 Hz. Thus, we show that the most appropriate Gaussian noise that could be used in haptic gloves is the 0–300 Hz, as it improved motor performance during both stationary and transitory phases. In addition, this noise had the highest degree of pleasantness and thus reveals that the glabrous skin can also forward pleasant sensations. PMID:24550806

  11. The NASA aircraft noise prediction program improved propeller analysis system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, L. Cathy

    1991-01-01

    The improvements and the modifications of the NASA Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP) and the Propeller Analysis System (PAS) are described. Comparisons of the predictions and the test data are included in the case studies for the flat plate model in the Boundary Layer Module, for the effects of applying compressibility corrections to the lift and pressure coefficients, for the use of different weight factors in the Propeller Performance Module, for the use of the improved retarded time equation solution, and for the effect of the number grids in the Transonic Propeller Noise Module. The DNW tunnel test data of a propeller at different angles of attack and the Dowty Rotol data are compared with ANOPP predictions. The effect of the number of grids on the Transonic Propeller Noise Module predictions and the comparison of ANOPP TPN and DFP-ATP codes are studied. In addition to the above impact studies, the transonic propeller noise predictions for the SR-7, the UDF front rotor, and the support of the enroute noise test program are included.

  12. Predicting the responses of repetitively firing neurons to current noise.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Charles J; Barraza, David; Troyer, Todd; Farries, Michael A

    2014-05-01

    We used phase resetting methods to predict firing patterns of rat subthalamic nucleus (STN) neurons when their rhythmic firing was densely perturbed by noise. We applied sequences of contiguous brief (0.5-2 ms) current pulses with amplitudes drawn from a Gaussian distribution (10-100 pA standard deviation) to autonomously firing STN neurons in slices. Current noise sequences increased the variability of spike times with little or no effect on the average firing rate. We measured the infinitesimal phase resetting curve (PRC) for each neuron using a noise-based method. A phase model consisting of only a firing rate and PRC was very accurate at predicting spike timing, accounting for more than 80% of spike time variance and reliably reproducing the spike-to-spike pattern of irregular firing. An approximation for the evolution of phase was used to predict the effect of firing rate and noise parameters on spike timing variability. It quantitatively predicted changes in variability of interspike intervals with variation in noise amplitude, pulse duration and firing rate over the normal range of STN spontaneous rates. When constant current was used to drive the cells to higher rates, the PRC was altered in size and shape and accurate predictions of the effects of noise relied on incorporating these changes into the prediction. Application of rate-neutral changes in conductance showed that changes in PRC shape arise from conductance changes known to accompany rate increases in STN neurons, rather than the rate increases themselves. Our results show that firing patterns of densely perturbed oscillators cannot readily be distinguished from those of neurons randomly excited to fire from the rest state. The spike timing of repetitively firing neurons may be quantitatively predicted from the input and their PRCs, even when they are so densely perturbed that they no longer fire rhythmically. PMID:24809636

  13. Measuring the speed of electromagnetic waves using the cross correlation function of broadband noise at the ends of a transmission line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prez, Alberto T.

    2011-10-01

    When one end of a transmission line is connected to a broadband noise generator, sharp peaks are visible in the cross-correlation function of the signals at both ends of the line. The speed of the electromagnetic waves can be deduced from the time when the peaks appear. The method is suitable for introducing the concepts of cross-correlation functions and noise analysis in an undergraduate physics laboratory.

  14. Downwind rotor horizontal axis wind turbine noise prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metzger, F. B.; Klatte, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    NASA and industry are currently cooperating in the conduct of extensive experimental and analytical studies to understand and predict the noise of large, horizontal axis wind turbines. This effort consists of (1) obtaining high quality noise data under well controlled and documented test conditions, (2) establishing the annoyance criteria for impulse noise of the type generated by horizontal axis wind turbines with rotors downwind of the support tower, (3) defining the wake characteristics downwind of the axial location of the plane of rotation, (4) comparing predictions with measurements made by use of wake data, and (5) comparing predictions with annoyance criteria. The status of work by Hamilton Standard in the above areas which was done in support of the cooperative NASA and industry studies is briefly summarized.

  15. Frequency Dependent Polarization Analysis of Ambient Seismic Noise Recorded at Broadband Seismometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koper, K.; Hawley, V.

    2010-12-01

    Analysis of ambient seismic noise is becoming increasingly relevant to modern seismology. Advances in computational speed and storage have made it feasible to analyze years and even decades of continuous seismic data in short amounts of time. Therefore, it is now possible to perform longitudinal studies of station performance in order to identify degradation or mis-installation of seismic equipment. Long-term noise analysis also provides insight into the evolution of the ocean wave climate, specifically whether the frequency and intensity of storms have changed as global temperatures have changed. Here we present a new approach to polarization analysis of seismic noise recorded by three-component seismometers. Essentially, eigen-decomposition of the 3-by-3 Hermitian spectral matrix associated with a sliding window of data is applied to yield various polarization attributes as a function of time and frequency. This in turn yields fundamental information about the composition of seismic noise, such as the extent to which it is polarized, its mode of propagation, and the direction from which it arrives at the seismometer. The polarization attributes can be viewed as function of time or binned over 2D frequency-time space to deduce regularities in the ambient noise that are unbiased by transient signals from earthquakes and explosions. We applied the algorithm to continuous data recorded in 2009 by the seismic station SLM, located in central North America. A rich variety of noise sources was observed. At low frequencies (<0.05 Hz) we observed a tilt-related signal that showed some elliptical motion in the horizontal plane. In the microseism band of 0.05-0.25 Hz, we observed Rayleigh energy arriving from the northeast, but with three distinct peaks instead of the classic single and double frequency peaks. At intermediate frequencies of 0.5-2.0 Hz, the noise was dominated by non-fundamental-mode Rayleigh energy, most likely P and Lg waves. At the highest frequencies (>3 Hz), Rayleigh-type energy was again dominant, in the form of Rg waves created by nearby cultural activities. Analysis of the time dependence of noise power shows that a frequency range of at least 0.02-1.0 Hz (much larger than the microseism band) is sensitive to annual, meteorologically induced sources of noise. We are currently applying our technique to selected seismometers from USArray and the University of Utah Seismic Network.

  16. A Stochastic Simulation Framework for the Prediction of Strategic Noise Mapping and Occupational Noise Exposure Using the Random Walk Approach

    PubMed Central

    Haron, Zaiton; Bakar, Suhaimi Abu; Dimon, Mohamad Ngasri

    2015-01-01

    Strategic noise mapping provides important information for noise impact assessment and noise abatement. However, producing reliable strategic noise mapping in a dynamic, complex working environment is difficult. This study proposes the implementation of the random walk approach as a new stochastic technique to simulate noise mapping and to predict the noise exposure level in a workplace. A stochastic simulation framework and software, namely RW-eNMS, were developed to facilitate the random walk approach in noise mapping prediction. This framework considers the randomness and complexity of machinery operation and noise emission levels. Also, it assesses the impact of noise on the workers and the surrounding environment. For data validation, three case studies were conducted to check the accuracy of the prediction data and to determine the efficiency and effectiveness of this approach. The results showed high accuracy of prediction results together with a majority of absolute differences of less than 2 dBA; also, the predicted noise doses were mostly in the range of measurement. Therefore, the random walk approach was effective in dealing with environmental noises. It could predict strategic noise mapping to facilitate noise monitoring and noise control in the workplaces. PMID:25875019

  17. A stochastic simulation framework for the prediction of strategic noise mapping and occupational noise exposure using the random walk approach.

    PubMed

    Han, Lim Ming; Haron, Zaiton; Yahya, Khairulzan; Bakar, Suhaimi Abu; Dimon, Mohamad Ngasri

    2015-01-01

    Strategic noise mapping provides important information for noise impact assessment and noise abatement. However, producing reliable strategic noise mapping in a dynamic, complex working environment is difficult. This study proposes the implementation of the random walk approach as a new stochastic technique to simulate noise mapping and to predict the noise exposure level in a workplace. A stochastic simulation framework and software, namely RW-eNMS, were developed to facilitate the random walk approach in noise mapping prediction. This framework considers the randomness and complexity of machinery operation and noise emission levels. Also, it assesses the impact of noise on the workers and the surrounding environment. For data validation, three case studies were conducted to check the accuracy of the prediction data and to determine the efficiency and effectiveness of this approach. The results showed high accuracy of prediction results together with a majority of absolute differences of less than 2 dBA; also, the predicted noise doses were mostly in the range of measurement. Therefore, the random walk approach was effective in dealing with environmental noises. It could predict strategic noise mapping to facilitate noise monitoring and noise control in the workplaces. PMID:25875019

  18. Simulation and Development of Improved Acoustic Damping Systems for Broadband Noise Attention in Payload Fairings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eaton, Nick

    2012-07-01

    RUAG Space specialise in payload fairings which must achieve set requirements for structural, jettisoning, mass and other functions and provide a safe acoustic environment for the satellite during launch. Protecting the satellite from acoustic induced vibration is achieved by a defined Noise Reduction spectrum performance, typically covering the 31 - 2000 Hz octave band frequency range. RUAG recently undertook an R&D program to optimise acoustic performance by i) understanding of the sound transmission mechanisms ii) modelling of fairing noise reduction iii) new acoustic treatments iv) reduction of sound leakage through vents v) combination of these elements in a possible future fairing design to assess the overall effectiveness at fairing system level.

  19. Empirical source noise prediction method with application to subsonic coaxial jet mixing noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zorumski, W. E.; Weir, D. S.

    1982-01-01

    A general empirical method, developed for source noise predictions, uses tensor splines to represent the dependence of the acoustic field on frequency and direction and Taylor's series to represent the dependence on source state parameters. The method is applied to prediction of mixing noise from subsonic circular and coaxial jets. A noise data base of 1/3-octave-band sound pressure levels (SPL's) from 540 tests was gathered from three countries: United States, United Kingdom, and France. The SPL's depend on seven variables: frequency, polar direction angle, and five source state parameters: inner and outer nozzle pressure ratios, inner and outer stream total temperatures, and nozzle area ratio. A least-squares seven-dimensional curve fit defines a table of constants which is used for the prediction method. The resulting prediction has a mean error of 0 dB and a standard deviation of 1.2 dB. The prediction method is used to search for a coaxial jet which has the greatest coaxial noise benefit as compared with an equivalent single jet. It is found that benefits of about 6 dB are possible.

  20. Auditory brainstem responses of Japanese house bats (Pipistrellus abramus) after exposure to broadband ultrasonic noise.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Andrea Megela; Boku, Shokei; Riquimaroux, Hiroshi; Simmons, James A

    2015-10-01

    Echolocating bats forage and navigate within an intense soundscape containing their own sonar sounds as well as sounds from other bats. To determine how the bat's auditory system copes with these high noise levels, auditory brainstem responses (ABR) were measured in the Japanese house bat, Pipistrellus abramus, before and after exposure to ultrasonic noise (30 min duration). Noise spectral content (10-80 kHz) and level (90 dB sound pressure level) are within the ranges these bats experience in their natural environment. ABR thresholds to test frequencies of 20, 40, and 80 kHz did not vary significantly between pre-exposure and post-exposure times of 0 and 30 min. Amplitudes and latencies of the P3 wave at suprathreshold were not significantly affected by noise exposure. These data show that the bat's hearing is not compromised when exposed to background sounds similar in wideband frequency content and sound level to what the animal encounters naturally. These results provide a baseline for examining how the bat's auditory system deals with other intense sounds, such as those emitted by anthropogenic sources or those producing temporary threshold shifts in other mammals. PMID:26520325

  1. NASTRAN application for the prediction of aircraft interior noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marulo, Francesco; Beyer, Todd B.

    1987-01-01

    The application of a structural-acoustic analogy within the NASTRAN finite element program for the prediction of aircraft interior noise is presented. Some refinements of the method, which reduce the amount of computation required for large, complex structures, are discussed. Also, further improvements are proposed and preliminary comparisons with structural and acoustic modal data obtained for a large, composite cylinder are presented.

  2. 23 CFR 772.9 - Traffic noise prediction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... title 1, CFR, and are on file at the National Archives and Record Administration (NARA). For information... 20590, as provided in part 7 of title 49, CFR. These documents are also available on the FHWA's Traffic... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Traffic noise prediction. 772.9 Section 772.9...

  3. 23 CFR 772.9 - Traffic noise prediction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... title 1, CFR, and are on file at the National Archives and Record Administration (NARA). For information... 20590, as provided in part 7 of title 49, CFR. These documents are also available on the FHWA's Traffic... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Traffic noise prediction. 772.9 Section 772.9...

  4. 23 CFR 772.9 - Traffic noise prediction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... title 1, CFR, and are on file at the National Archives and Record Administration (NARA). For information... 20590, as provided in part 7 of title 49, CFR. These documents are also available on the FHWA's Traffic... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Traffic noise prediction. 772.9 Section 772.9...

  5. MJO empirical modeling and improved prediction by "Past Noise Forecasting"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondrashov, D. A.; Chekroun, M.; Robertson, A. W.; Ghil, M.

    2011-12-01

    The Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) is the dominant mode of intraseasonal variability in tropics and plays an important role in global climate. Here we presents modeling and prediction study of MJO by using Empirical Model Reduction (EMR). EMR is a methodology for constructing stochastic models based on the observed evolution of selected climate fields; these models represent unresolved processes as multivariate, spatially correlated stochastic forcing. In EMR, multiple polynomial regression is used to estimate the nonlinear, deterministic propagator of the dynamics, as well as multi-level additive stochastic forcing -"noise", directly from the observational dataset. The EMR approach has been successfully applied on the seasonal-to-interannual time scale for real-time ENSO prediction (Kondrashov et al. 2005), as well as atmospheric midlatitude intraseasonal variability (Kondrashov et al. 2006,2010). In this study nonlinear (quadratic) with annual cycle, three-level EMR model was developed to model and predict leading pair of real-time multivariate Madden-Julian oscillation (RMM1,2) daily indices (June 1974- January 2009, http://cawcr.gov.au/staff/mwheeler/maproom/RMM/). The EMR model captures essential MJO statistical features, such as seasonal dependence, RMM1,2 autocorrelations and spectra. By using the "Past Noise Forecasting" (PNF) approach developed and successfully applied to improve long-term ENSO prediction in Chekroun et al. (2011), we are able to notably improve the cross-validated prediction skill of RMM indices- especially at lead times of 15-to-30 days. The EMR/PNF method has two steps: (i) select noise samples - or "snippets" - from the past noise, which have forced the EMR model to yield the MJO phase resembling the one at the the currently observed state; and (ii) use these "noise" snippets to create ensemble forecast of EMR model. The MJO phase identification is based on Singular Spectrum Analysis reconstruction of 30-60 day MJO cycle.

  6. Predicting Noise From Aircraft Turbine-Engine Combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gliebe, P.; Mani, R.; Salamah, S.; Coffin, R.; Mehta, Jayesh

    2005-01-01

    COMBUSTOR and CNOISE are computer codes that predict far-field noise that originates in the combustors of modern aircraft turbine engines -- especially modern, low-gaseous-emission engines, the combustors of which sometimes generate several decibels more noise than do the combustors of older turbine engines. COMBUSTOR implements an empirical model of combustor noise derived from correlations between engine-noise data and operational and geometric parameters, and was developed from databases of measurements of acoustic emissions of engines. CNOISE implements an analytical and computational model of the propagation of combustor temperature fluctuations (hot spots) through downstream turbine stages. Such hot spots are known to give rise to far-field noise. CNOISE is expected to be helpful in determining why low-emission combustors are sometimes noisier than older ones, to provide guidance for refining the empirical correlation model embodied in the COMBUSTOR code, and to provide insight on how to vary downstream turbinestage geometry to reduce the contribution of hot spots to far-field noise.

  7. Supersonic jet noise prediction and noise source investigation for realistic baseline and chevron nozzles based on hybrid RANS/LES simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Yongle

    Jet noise simulations have been performed for a military-style baseline nozzle and a chevron nozzle with design Mach numbers of Md = 1:5 operating at several off-design conditions. The objective of the current numerical study is to provide insight into the noise generation mechanisms of shock-containing supersonic hot jets and the noise reduction mechanisms of chevron nozzles. A hybrid methodology combining advanced CFD technologies and the acoustic analogy is used for supersonic jet noise simulations. Unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) equations are solved to predict the turbulent noise sources in the jet flows. A modified version of the Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) approach is used to avoid excessive damping of fine scale turbulent fluctuations. A multiblock structured mesh topology is used to represent complex nozzle geometries, including the faceted inner contours and finite nozzle thickness. A block interface condition is optimized for the complex multiblock mesh topology to avoid the centerline singularity. A fourth-order Dispersion-Relation-Preserving (DRP) scheme is used for spatial discretization. To enable efficient calculations, a dual time-stepping method is used in addition to parallel computation using MPI. Both multigrid and implicit residual smoothing are used to accelerate the convergence rate of sub-iterations in the fictitious time domain. Noise predictions are made with the permeable surface Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings (FWH) solution. All the numerical methods have been implemented in the jet flow simulation code "CHOPA" and the noise prediction code "PSJFWH". The computer codes have been validated with several benchmark cases. A preliminary study has been performed for an under-expanded baseline nozzle jet with Mj = 1:56 to validate the accuracy of the jet noise simulations. The results show that grid refinement around the jet potential core and the use of a lower artificial dissipation improve the resolution of the predicted high frequency noise spectra. The results also show that the predicted low frequency noise spectra are sensitive to the axial extent of the acoustic data surface, and the high frequency noise spectra are affected by the radial size of the acoustic data surface. The baseline nozzle has been studied at several off-design conditions with Mj = 1:36, 1.47 and 1.56. Although the noise levels at mid to high frequencies are over-predicted at several shallow polar angles, the predicted noise spectra in the peak noise radiation direction and upstream directions agree very well with the experimental measurements. More encouraging is that the frequencies and amplitudes of the broadband shock-associated noise (BBSAN) are captured accurately at all three operating conditions. Three techniques are used to examine the noise source characteristics. The two-point space-time correlation method is used to analyze the statistical characteristics of the turbulent eddies. The direct flow-acoustic correlation technique and the beamformed acoustic pressures are used to reveal the different noise generation mechanisms of the large-scale and fine-scale turbulent fluctuations. The chevron nozzle simulations have been performed at the same operating conditions to evaluate the noise reduction effects. Special treatments are proposed to address the numerical difficulties caused by the chevrons. The impact of chevrons on the near-field noise sources and far-field noise radiation is simulated using the immersed boundary method (IBM) to overcome the great difficulties in grid generation. A non-matching block interface condition is developed to allow the grids to be greatly refined around chevrons for a higher accuracy of simulations without increasing the mesh size significantly. The predicted noise spectra agree very well with the acoustic measurements of the baseline nozzle, considering the small noise reductions of the chevrons at the given operating conditions. No apparent over-prediction is observed. However, the noise reductions are over-predicted because of the over-prediction of the baseline nozzle noise level at some polar angles. Analysis shows that the chevrons generate strong streamwise vorticies and induce strong lateral secondary flows near the nozzle exit. The enhanced turbulent mixing increases the noise source intensity and efficiency near the nozzle exit, and creates a high frequency noise penalty. But it reduces the turbulence intensity in the main jet potential core, and decreases the low frequency noise level. Both the flow and noise results show that the effects of chevrons on the jet flow and noise reduction depend highly on the operating conditions.

  8. Jet Engine Noise Generation, Prediction and Control. Chapter 86

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Dennis L.; Envia, Edmane

    2004-01-01

    Aircraft noise has been a problem near airports for many years. It is a quality of life issue that impacts millions of people around the world. Solving this problem has been the principal goal of noise reduction research that began when commercial jet travel became a reality. While progress has been made in reducing both airframe and engine noise, historically, most of the aircraft noise reduction efforts have concentrated on the engines. This was most evident during the 1950 s and 1960 s when turbojet engines were in wide use. This type of engine produces high velocity hot exhaust jets during takeoff generating a great deal of noise. While there are fewer commercial aircraft flying today with turbojet engines, supersonic aircraft including high performance military aircraft use engines with similar exhaust flow characteristics. The Pratt & Whitney F100-PW-229, pictured in Figure la, is an example of an engine that powers the F-15 and F-16 fighter jets. The turbofan engine was developed for subsonic transports, which in addition to better fuel efficiency also helped mitigate engine noise by reducing the jet exhaust velocity. These engines were introduced in the late 1960 s and power most of the commercial fleet today. Over the years, the bypass ratio (that is the ratio of the mass flow through the fan bypass duct to the mass flow through the engine core) has increased to values approaching 9 for modern turbofans such as the General Electric s GE-90 engine (Figure lb). The benefits to noise reduction for high bypass ratio (HPBR) engines are derived from lowering the core jet velocity and temperature, and lowering the tip speed and pressure ratio of the fan, both of which are the consequences of the increase in bypass ratio. The HBPR engines are typically very large in diameter and can produce over 100,000 pounds of thrust for the largest engines. A third type of engine flying today is the turbo-shaft which is mainly used to power turboprop aircraft and helicopters. An example of this type of engine is shown in Figure IC, which is a schematic of the Honeywell T55 engine that powers the CH-47 Chinook helicopter. Since the noise from the propellers or helicopter rotors is usually dominant for turbo-shaft engines, less attention has been paid to these engines in so far as community noise considerations are concerned. This chapter will concentrate mostly on turbofan engine noise and will highlight common methods for their noise prediction and reduction.

  9. Evaluation of approximate methods for the prediction of noise shielding by airframe components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahtye, W. F.; Mcculley, G.

    1980-01-01

    An evaluation of some approximate methods for the prediction of shielding of monochromatic sound and broadband noise by aircraft components is reported. Anechoic-chamber measurements of the shielding of a point source by various simple geometric shapes were made and the measured values compared with those calculated by the superposition of asymptotic closed-form solutions for the shielding by a semi-infinite plane barrier. The shields used in the measurements consisted of rectangular plates, a circular cylinder, and a rectangular plate attached to the cylinder to simulate a wing-body combination. The normalized frequency, defined as a product of the acoustic wave number and either the plate width or cylinder diameter, ranged from 4.6 to 114. Microphone traverses in front of the rectangular plates and cylinders generally showed a series of diffraction bands that matched those predicted by the approximate methods, except for differences in the magnitudes of the attenuation minima which can be attributed to experimental inaccuracies. The shielding of wing-body combinations was predicted by modifications of the approximations used for rectangular and cylindrical shielding. Although the approximations failed to predict diffraction patterns in certain regions, they did predict the average level of wing-body shielding with an average deviation of less than 3 dB.

  10. Structural Acoustic Prediction and Interior Noise Control Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathur, G. P.; Chin, C. L.; Simpson, M. A.; Lee, J. T.; Palumbo, Daniel L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This report documents the results of Task 14, "Structural Acoustic Prediction and Interior Noise Control Technology". The task was to evaluate the performance of tuned foam elements (termed Smart Foam) both analytically and experimentally. Results taken from a three-dimensional finite element model of an active, tuned foam element are presented. Measurements of sound absorption and sound transmission loss were taken using the model. These results agree well with published data. Experimental performance data were taken in Boeing's Interior Noise Test Facility where 12 smart foam elements were applied to a 757 sidewall. Several configurations were tested. Noise reductions of 5-10 dB were achieved over the 200-800 Hz bandwidth of the controller. Accelerometers mounted on the panel provided a good reference for the controller. Configurations with far-field error microphones outperformed near-field cases.

  11. Modelling Aerodynamically Generated Sound: Recent Advances in Rotor Noise Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brentner, Kenneth S.

    2000-01-01

    A great deal of progress has been made in the modeling of aerodynamically generated sound for rotors over the past decade. The Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FW-H ) equation has been the foundation for much of the development. Both subsonic and supersonic quadrupole noise formulations have been developed for the prediction of high-speed impulsive noise. In an effort to eliminate the need to compute the quadrupole contribution, the FW-H has also been utilized on permeable surfaces surrounding all physical noise sources. Comparison of the Kirchhoff formulation for moving surfaces with the FW-H equation have shown that the Kirchhoff formulation for moving surfaces can give erroneous results for aeroacoustic problems.

  12. System Noise Prediction of the DGEN 380 Turbofan Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berton, Jeffrey J.

    2015-01-01

    The DGEN 380 is a small, separate-flow, geared turbofan. Its manufacturer, Price Induction, is promoting it for a small twinjet application in the emerging personal light jet market. Smaller, and producing less thrust than other entries in the industry, Price Induction is seeking to apply the engine to a 4- to 5-place twinjet designed to compete in an area currently dominated by propeller-driven airplanes. NASA is considering purchasing a DGEN 380 turbofan to test new propulsion noise reduction technologies in a relevant engine environment. To explore this possibility, NASA and Price Induction have signed a Space Act Agreement and have agreed to cooperate on engine acoustic testing. Static acoustic measurements of the engine were made by NASA researchers during July, 2014 at the Glenn Research Center. In the event that a DGEN turbofan becomes a NASA noise technology research testbed, it is in the interest of NASA to develop procedures to evaluate engine system noise metrics. This report documents the procedures used to project the DGEN static noise measurements to flight conditions and the prediction of system noise of a notional airplane powered by twin DGEN engines.

  13. Cortical activity patterns predict robust speech discrimination ability in noise.

    PubMed

    Shetake, Jai A; Wolf, Jordan T; Cheung, Ryan J; Engineer, Crystal T; Ram, Satyananda K; Kilgard, Michael P

    2011-12-01

    The neural mechanisms that support speech discrimination in noisy conditions are poorly understood. In quiet conditions, spike timing information appears to be used in the discrimination of speech sounds. In this study, we evaluated the hypothesis that spike timing is also used to distinguish between speech sounds in noisy conditions that significantly degrade neural responses to speech sounds. We tested speech sound discrimination in rats and recorded primary auditory cortex (A1) responses to speech sounds in background noise of different intensities and spectral compositions. Our behavioral results indicate that rats, like humans, are able to accurately discriminate consonant sounds even in the presence of background noise that is as loud as the speech signal. Our neural recordings confirm that speech sounds evoke degraded but detectable responses in noise. Finally, we developed a novel neural classifier that mimics behavioral discrimination. The classifier discriminates between speech sounds by comparing the A1 spatiotemporal activity patterns evoked on single trials with the average spatiotemporal patterns evoked by known sounds. Unlike classifiers in most previous studies, this classifier is not provided with the stimulus onset time. Neural activity analyzed with the use of relative spike timing was well correlated with behavioral speech discrimination in quiet and in noise. Spike timing information integrated over longer intervals was required to accurately predict rat behavioral speech discrimination in noisy conditions. The similarity of neural and behavioral discrimination of speech in noise suggests that humans and rats may employ similar brain mechanisms to solve this problem. PMID:22098331

  14. Cortical activity patterns predict robust speech discrimination ability in noise

    PubMed Central

    Shetake, Jai A.; Wolf, Jordan T.; Cheung, Ryan J.; Engineer, Crystal T.; Ram, Satyananda K.; Kilgard, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    The neural mechanisms that support speech discrimination in noisy conditions are poorly understood. In quiet conditions, spike timing information appears to be used in the discrimination of speech sounds. In this study, we evaluated the hypothesis that spike timing is also used to distinguish between speech sounds in noisy conditions that significantly degrade neural responses to speech sounds. We tested speech sound discrimination in rats and recorded primary auditory cortex (A1) responses to speech sounds in background noise of different intensities and spectral compositions. Our behavioral results indicate that rats, like humans, are able to accurately discriminate consonant sounds even in the presence of background noise that is as loud as the speech signal. Our neural recordings confirm that speech sounds evoke degraded but detectable responses in noise. Finally, we developed a novel neural classifier that mimics behavioral discrimination. The classifier discriminates between speech sounds by comparing the A1 spatiotemporal activity patterns evoked on single trials with the average spatiotemporal patterns evoked by known sounds. Unlike classifiers in most previous studies, this classifier is not provided with the stimulus onset time. Neural activity analyzed with the use of relative spike timing was well correlated with behavioral speech discrimination in quiet and in noise. Spike timing information integrated over longer intervals was required to accurately predict rat behavioral speech discrimination in noisy conditions. The similarity of neural and behavioral discrimination of speech in noise suggests that humans and rats may employ similar brain mechanisms to solve this problem. PMID:22098331

  15. Broad-band ambient noise surface wave tomography: Technique development and application across the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bensen, Gregory David

    2007-05-01

    In recent years, it has been shown that surface wave signals can be extracted from high-quality empirical Green functions (EGF) obtained through cross-correlation of long ambient noise timeseries. Early work showed that Rayleigh wave components of EGFs could be created in a narrow period band under certain background noise characteristics. Such Rayleigh wave signals were used to develop shear wave tomography models of several geographic regions with unprecedented high resolution. However, questions remained regarding the robustness of these signals and their range of applicability. My work focuses on two problems. The first is researching the best method for computing, measuring and selecting high-quality EGFs. The second is to use this new technique to create a three-dimensional (3D) velocity model of the continental United States. Testing a variety of temporal and spectral normalization techniques yields an optimal method of creating EGFs. These signals are evaluated for robustness in a variety of noise environments effectively broadening the bandwidth from 7.5-20 s period to 6-100 s period. An automated dispersion measurement technique is presented as well as a preferred method of measurement selection and certain "best practices" are proposed for future study. Applying this method across the continental United States I develop Rayleigh and Love wave group and phase speed dispersion maps from 8-70 s period. The resulting set of dispersion maps possesses unprecedented high resolution and bandwidth for continental scale surface wave investigations and unites diverse tectonic regions into a coherent model. I invert the dispersion maps for a 3D shear velocity model with resolution from the surface to 150 km depth using a two-step procedure. First is a linearized inversion for the best fitting velocity model. Second is a Monte-Carlo re-sampling to develop an ensemble of models of sufficient quality and to generate uncertainty estimates at all points. The resulting velocity model allows identification of prominent features in the crust and mantle and sheds light on topics such as topographic compensation, crustal heterogeneity and radial anisotropy in the crust.

  16. Broadband Seismic Analyses of the Crust and Noise Sources in Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Luyi

    Cross-correlation of continuous seismic recordings has been proven effective in extracting the Green's function between two seismic stations. Travel-time and waveform source migration calculations jointly suggest a persistent noise source near Lesser Slave Lake (LSL), a large ice-covered lake in Alberta, Canada, during winter months. Subspace inversions of effective Green's functions from five narrow frequency bands (0.002-0.2 Hz) reveal low velocities in the upper crust beneath Alberta basin, which indicates strong effects from the thick platform sedimentary cover. Consistently low velocities are also observed beneath Wabamun domain but the areal coverage is considerably smaller than the published domain boundaries. The lower-crustal velocities beneath southern Loverna Block is 10% faster than the regional average. As the possible remnant cratonic core of the Hearne province, this northeast-striking anomaly extends to the western part of Medicine Hat Block and contributes to a strong east-west structural gradient in the latter domain.

  17. Near-field noise predictions of an aircraft in cruise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawls, John W., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The physics of the coupling of sound waves with the boundary layer is not yet well understood. It is believed, however, that for effective coupling of the sound waves and instability waves in the boundary layer, a matching of both frequency and wave number must occur. This requires that the sound field be accurately defined in both space and time. Currently analytical prediction methods lack sufficient accuracy to predict the noise levels from components of a turbofan engine. Although empirical methods do not yield the detail required for an analysis of the receptivity of sound by a boundary layer, valuable insight can be gained as to the changes in noise levels that might be expected under various operating conditions and aircraft configurations.

  18. Directivity and prediction of low frequency rotor noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, C. L.; Marcolini, M. A.; Jones, H. E.; Splettstoesser, W. R.

    1991-01-01

    Acoustic data obtained over a large horizontal plane under the model rotor and digitally filtered in order to determine the low-frequency content near the blade passage frequency is analyzed. Focus is placed on the directivity of low-frequency noise, and the changes in directivity as a function of the descent glide slope angle and advance ratio are presented and compared with predicted directivity results. The differences between the data and prediction are discussed for two observer positions, one below and on the rotor axis, and the other 60 degrees down from the horizontal. It is demonstrated that for the latter position, blade-vortex interaction noise is strong when it occurs, and the loading at the low frequencies is significantly affected during blade-vortex interactions.

  19. Predicting Rocket or Jet Noise in Real Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frendi, Kader

    2007-01-01

    A semi-empirical theoretical model and a C++ computer program that implements the model have been developed for use in predicting the noise generated by a rocket or jet engine. The computer program, entitled the Realtime Rocket and Jet Engine Noise Analysis and Prediction Software, is one of two main subsystems of the Acoustic Prediction/Measurement Tool, which comprises software, acoustic instrumentation, and electronic hardware combined to afford integrated capabilities for real-time prediction and measurement of noise emitted by rocket and jet engines. [The other main subsystem, consisting largely of acoustic instrumentation and electronic hardware, is described in Wireless Acoustic Measurement System, which appears elsewhere in this section.] The theoretical model was derived from the fundamental laws of fluid mechanics, as first was done by M. J. Lighthill in his now famous theory of aerodynamically generated sound. The far-field approximation of the Lighthill theory is incorporated into this model. Many other contributions from various researchers have also been introduced into the model. The model accounts for two noise components: shear noise and self noise. The final result of the model is expressed in terms of a volume integral of the acoustic intensities attributable to these two components, subject to various directivity coefficients. The computer program was written to solve the volume integral. The inputs required by the program are two data files from a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of the flow of interest: the computational-grid file and the solution file. The CFD solution should be one that has been obtained for conditions that closely approximate those of an experimental test that is yet to be performed. In the current state of development of the model and software, it is recommended that the observation points lie along a radius at an angle >60 from the jet axis. The software provides, and is driven via, a graphical user interface, which facilitates its use. Optionally, the program accepts additional input in the form of data on the measured sound pressure level as a function of frequency at a given far-field location, preferably at an angle of 90 from the jet axis. The user is prompted to use default empirical constants or to choose constants based the measurement data. The user can view the results and compare them with other computational or experimental data. Once satisfied with the results, the user can save a graph of the results in a file that can be imported into documents.

  20. Upper mantle structure of the Congo Craton and the East African Rift from broadband ambient noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emry, Erica; Shen, Yang; Nyblade, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    The relationship between lithospheric structure, mantle flow, and continental rifting in Africa is the subject of ongoing discussion. Distinct regions within the African continent have been seismically imaged individually following the deployment of several temporary regional arrays, especially throughout South Africa and sections of the East African Rift System. However, many questions remain regarding the basic structure of the upper mantle beneath some regions where seismic coverage is sparse. We use the temporal overlap of several temporary and permanent seismic arrays located throughout Africa and the surrounding regions in order to better image the upper mantle beneath portions of sub-Saharan Africa where regional seismic arrays have not yet been placed. We do this by seismic ambient noise tomography using the recently developed frequency-time normalization (FTN) method to extract empirical Green's functions (EGFs) over a broad frequency range. We cross correlate the normalized continuous records and stack the cross correlations to obtain EGFs for each temporally coincident station-station pair. We invert EGFs using recently developed full-waveform inversion methods in order to obtain the upper mantle structure of several regions within sub-Saharan Africa, in particular the Congo Craton and key regions beneath the East African Rift. We will present results from preliminary inversions that highlight these regions of focus.

  1. Maximum entropy inference of seabed attenuation parameters using ship radiated broadband noise.

    PubMed

    Knobles, D P

    2015-12-01

    The received acoustic field generated by a single passage of a research vessel on the New Jersey continental shelf is employed to infer probability distributions for the parameter values representing the frequency dependence of the seabed attenuation and the source levels of the ship. The statistical inference approach employed in the analysis is a maximum entropy methodology. The average value of the error function, needed to uniquely specify a conditional posterior probability distribution, is estimated with data samples from time periods in which the ship-receiver geometry is dominated by either the stern or bow aspect. The existence of ambiguities between the source levels and the environmental parameter values motivates an attempt to partially decouple these parameter values. The main result is the demonstration that parameter values for the attenuation (α and the frequency exponent), the sediment sound speed, and the source levels can be resolved through a model space reduction technique. The results of this multi-step statistical inference developed for ship radiated noise is then tested by processing towed source data over the same bandwidth and source track to estimate continuous wave source levels that were measured independently with a reference hydrophone on the tow body. PMID:26723313

  2. Computer program to predict noise of general aviation aircraft: User's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, J. A.; Barton, C. K.; Kisner, L. S.; Lyon, C. A.

    1982-01-01

    Program NOISE predicts General Aviation Aircraft far-field noise levels at FAA FAR Part 36 certification conditions. It will also predict near-field and cabin noise levels for turboprop aircraft and static engine component far-field noise levels.

  3. Chaotic Time Series Analysis: Prediction and Noise Reduction.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorowich, John J.

    1990-01-01

    Time series generated by chaotic dynamical systems confront the analyst with a new challenge. A chaotic system does not allow for long-term predictability, but the underlying determinism of its dynamics can be exploited to augment traditional statistical analysis. This dissertation describes new modelling procedures for chaotic time series, motivated by the geometrical perspective that comes from analyzing the evolution of state space trajectories of nonlinear dynamical systems. Techniques for learning an approximate form of the system dynamics are discussed and demonstrated. Data is embedded in a state space using delay coordinates, and an ad hoc nonlinear representation of the dynamics is constructed. It is shown that local approximation schemes produce effective short-term predictions, and that the iteration of short forecasts is generally superior to computing a single estimate for long predictions. Error estimates are derived for the accuracy of approximation in terms of attractor dimension and Lyapunov exponents, the number of data points, and the extrapolation time. The techniques are demonstrated on both computer generated and real world data. Several procedures for reducing noise in chaotic signals are presented. One method is a nonlinear averaging scheme based on the maximum likelihood principle, and another method is based on an optimal least squares solution of the shadowing problem. If the dynamical system is known exactly the noise can be reduced to the level of machine precision; if the dynamics must be learned from the data the noise reduction is limited by the accuracy of the learned representation. These noise reduction algorithms are demonstrated on several model dynamical systems, and our methods are compared to several other techniques that have been introduced by other groups.

  4. Jet Mixing Noise Scaling Laws SHJAR Data Vs. Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khavaran, Abbas; Bridges, James

    2008-01-01

    High quality jet noise spectral data measured at the anechoic dome at the NASA Glenn Research Center is used to examine a number of jet noise scaling laws. Configurations considered in the present study consist of convergent as well as convergent-divergent axisymmetric nozzles. The spectral measurements are shown in narrow band and cover 8193 equally spaced points in a typical Strouhal number range of (0.01 10.0). Measurements are reported as lossless (i.e. atmospheric attenuation is added to as-measured data), and at 24 equally spaced angles (50deg to 165deg) on a 100-diameter arc. Following the work of Viswanathan [Ref. 1], velocity power laws are derived using a least square fit on spectral power density as a function of jet temperature and observer angle. The goodness of the fit is studied at each angle, and alternative relationships are proposed to improve the spectral collapse when certain conditions are met. On the application side, power laws are extremely useful in identifying components from various noise generation mechanisms. From this analysis, jet noise prediction tools can be developed with physics derived from the different spectral components.

  5. Prediction of Turbulent Jet Mixing Noise Reduction by Water Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandula, Max

    2008-01-01

    A one-dimensional control volume formulation is developed for the determination of jet mixing noise reduction due to water injection. The analysis starts from the conservation of mass, momentum and energy for the confrol volume, and introduces the concept of effective jet parameters (jet temperature, jet velocity and jet Mach number). It is shown that the water to jet mass flow rate ratio is an important parameter characterizing the jet noise reduction on account of gas-to-droplet momentum and heat transfer. Two independent dimensionless invariant groups are postulated, and provide the necessary relations for the droplet size and droplet Reynolds number. Results are presented illustrating the effect of mass flow rate ratio on the jet mixing noise reduction for a range of jet Mach number and jet Reynolds number. Predictions from the model show satisfactory comparison with available test data on perfectly expanded hot supersonic jets. The results suggest that significant noise reductions can be achieved at increased flow rate ratios.

  6. Noise prediction of a subsonic turbulent round jet using the lattice-Boltzmann method

    PubMed Central

    Lew, Phoi-Tack; Mongeau, Luc; Lyrintzis, Anastasios

    2010-01-01

    The lattice-Boltzmann method (LBM) was used to study the far-field noise generated from a Mach, Mj=0.4, unheated turbulent axisymmetric jet. A commercial code based on the LBM kernel was used to simulate the turbulent flow exhausting from a pipe which is 10 jet radii in length. Near-field flow results such as jet centerline velocity decay rates and turbulence intensities were in agreement with experimental results and results from comparable LES studies. The predicted far field sound pressure levels were within 2 dB from published experimental results. Weak unphysical tones were present at high frequency in the computed radiated sound pressure spectra. These tones are believed to be due to spurious sound wave reflections at boundaries between regions of varying voxel resolution. These “VR tones” did not appear to bias the underlying broadband noise spectrum, and they did not affect the overall levels significantly. The LBM appears to be a viable approach, comparable in accuracy to large eddy simulations, for the problem considered. The main advantages of this approach over Navier–Stokes based finite difference schemes may be a reduced computational cost, ease of including the nozzle in the computational domain, and ease of investigating nozzles with complex shapes. PMID:20815448

  7. An unsteady aerodynamic formulation for efficient rotor tonal noise prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gennaretti, M.; Testa, C.; Bernardini, G.

    2013-12-01

    An aerodynamic/aeroacoustic solution methodology for predction of tonal noise emitted by helicopter rotors and propellers is presented. It is particularly suited for configurations dominated by localized, high-frequency inflow velocity fields as those generated by blade-vortex interactions. The unsteady pressure distributions are determined by the sectional, frequency-domain Küssner-Schwarz formulation, with downwash including the wake inflow velocity predicted by a three-dimensional, unsteady, panel-method formulation suited for the analysis of rotors operating in complex aerodynamic environments. The radiated noise is predicted through solution of the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equation. The proposed approach yields a computationally efficient solution procedure that may be particularly useful in preliminary design/multidisciplinary optimization applications. It is validated through comparisons with solutions that apply the airloads directly evaluated by the time-marching, panel-method formulation. The results are provided in terms of blade loads, noise signatures and sound pressure level contours. An estimation of the computational efficiency of the proposed solution process is also presented.

  8. Unstructured CFD and Noise Prediction Methods for Propulsion Airframe Aeroacoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pao, S. Paul; Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S.; Campbell, Richard L.; Hunter, Craig A.; Massey, Steven J.; Elmiligui, Alaa A.

    2006-01-01

    Using unstructured mesh CFD methods for Propulsion Airframe Aeroacoustics (PAA) analysis has the distinct advantage of precise and fast computational mesh generation for complex propulsion and airframe integration arrangements that include engine inlet, exhaust nozzles, pylon, wing, flaps, and flap deployment mechanical parts. However, accurate solution values of shear layer velocity, temperature and turbulence are extremely important for evaluating the usually small noise differentials of potential applications to commercial transport aircraft propulsion integration. This paper describes a set of calibration computations for an isolated separate flow bypass ratio five engine nozzle model and the same nozzle system with a pylon. These configurations have measured data along with prior CFD solutions and noise predictions using a proven structured mesh method, which can be used for comparison to the unstructured mesh solutions obtained in this investigation. This numerical investigation utilized the TetrUSS system that includes a Navier-Stokes solver, the associated unstructured mesh generation tools, post-processing utilities, plus some recently added enhancements to the system. New features necessary for this study include the addition of two equation turbulence models to the USM3D code, an h-refinement utility to enhance mesh density in the shear mixing region, and a flow adaptive mesh redistribution method. In addition, a computational procedure was developed to optimize both solution accuracy and mesh economy. Noise predictions were completed using an unstructured mesh version of the JeT3D code.

  9. Prediction of the far field noise from wind energy farms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, K. P.; Hubbard, H. H.

    1986-01-01

    The basic physical factors involved in making predictions of wind turbine noise and an approach which allows for differences in the machines, the wind energy farm configurations and propagation conditions are reviewed. Example calculations to illustrate the sensitivity of the radiated noise to such variables as machine size, spacing and numbers, and such atmosphere variables as absorption and wind direction are presented. It is found that calculated far field distances to particular sound level contours are greater for lower values of atmospheric absorption, for a larger total number of machines, for additional rows of machines and for more powerful machines. At short and intermediate distances, higher sound pressure levels are calculated for closer machine spacings, for more powerful machines, for longer row lengths and for closer row spacings.

  10. Prediction, Measurement, and Suppression of High Temperature Supersonic Jet Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seiner, John M.; Bhat, T. R. S.; Jansen, Bernard J.

    1999-01-01

    The photograph in figure 1 displays a water cooled round convergent-divergent supersonic nozzle operating slightly overexpanded near 2460 F. The nozzle is designed to produce shock free flow near this temperature at Mach 2. The exit diameter of this nozzle is 3.5 inches. This nozzle is used in the present study to establish properties of the sound field associated with high temperature supersonic jets operating fully pressure balanced (i.e. shock free) and to evaluate capability of the compressible Rayleigh model to account for principle physical features of the observed sound emission. The experiment is conducted statically (i.e. M(sub f) = 0.) in the NASA/LaRC Jet Noise Laboratory. Both aerodynamic and acoustic measurements are obtained in this study along with numerical plume simulation and theoretical prediction of jet noise. Detailed results from this study are reported previously by Seiner, Ponton, Jansen, and Lagen.

  11. Helicopter rotor trailing edge noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlinker, R. H.; Amiet, R. K.

    1981-01-01

    An experimental and theoretical study was conducted to assess the importance of trailing edge noise as a helicopter main rotor broadband noise source. The noise mechanism was isolated by testing a rotor blade segment in an open jet acoustic wind tunnel at close to full scale Reynolds numbers. Boundary layer data and acoustic data were used to develop scaling laws and assess a first principles trailing edge noise theory. Conclusions from the isolated blade study were analytically transformed to the rotating frame coordinate system to develop a generalized rotor noise prediction. Trailing edge noise was found to contribute significantly to the total helicopter noise spectrum at high frequencies.

  12. Helicopter rotor trailing edge noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlinker, R. H.; Amiet, R. K.

    1981-10-01

    An experimental and theoretical study was conducted to assess the importance of trailing edge noise as a helicopter main rotor broadband noise source. The noise mechanism was isolated by testing a rotor blade segment in an open jet acoustic wind tunnel at close to full scale Reynolds numbers. Boundary layer data and acoustic data were used to develop scaling laws and assess a first principles trailing edge noise theory. Conclusions from the isolated blade study were analytically transformed to the rotating frame coordinate system to develop a generalized rotor noise prediction. Trailing edge noise was found to contribute significantly to the total helicopter noise spectrum at high frequencies.

  13. Towards Full Aircraft Airframe Noise Prediction: Lattice Boltzmann Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Fares, Ehab; Casalino, Damiano

    2014-01-01

    Computational results for an 18%-scale, semi-span Gulfstream aircraft model are presented. Exa Corporation's lattice Boltzmann PowerFLOW(trademark) solver was used to perform time-dependent simulations of the flow field associated with this high-fidelity aircraft model. The simulations were obtained for free-air at a Mach number of 0.2 with the flap deflected at 39 deg (landing configuration). We focused on accurately predicting the prominent noise sources at the flap tips and main landing gear for the two baseline configurations, namely, landing flap setting without and with gear deployed. Capitalizing on the inherently transient nature of the lattice Boltzmann formulation, the complex time-dependent flow features associated with the flap were resolved very accurately and efficiently. To properly simulate the noise sources over a broad frequency range, the tailored grid was very dense near the flap inboard and outboard tips. Extensive comparison of the computed time-averaged and unsteady surface pressures with wind tunnel measurements showed excellent agreement for the global aerodynamic characteristics and the local flow field at the flap inboard and outboard tips and the main landing gear. In particular, the computed fluctuating surface pressure field for the flap agreed well with the measurements in both amplitude and frequency content, indicating that the prominent airframe noise sources at the tips were captured successfully. Gear-flap interaction effects were remarkably well predicted and were shown to affect only the inboard flap tip, altering the steady and unsteady pressure fields in that region. The simulated farfield noise spectra for both baseline configurations, obtained using a Ffowcs-Williams and Hawkings acoustic analogy approach, were shown to be in close agreement with measured values.

  14. Modeling for Airframe Noise Prediction Using Vortex Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Z. Charlie

    2002-12-01

    Various components of the airframe are known to be a significant source of noise. With the advent of technology in quieting modern engines, airframe generated noise competes and, in certain instances, surpasses the engine noise. Airframe noise is most pronounced during aircraft approach when the engines are operating at reduced thrust, and airframe components such as high-lift devices and landing gears are in deployed conditions. Recent experimental studies have reaffirmed that the most significant sources of high-lift noise are from the leading-edge slat and the side edges of flaps. Studies of flow field around these structures have consistently shown that there are complicated unsteady vortical flows such as vortex shedding, secondary vortices and vortex breakdown, which are susceptible to far-field radiated sound. The near-field CFD computational data have been used to calculate the far-field acoustics by employing Ffowcs-Williams/Hawkings equation using Lighthill's analogy. However, because of the limit of current computing capacity, it is very time consuming to generate unsteady Navier-Stokes (N-S) computational data for aeroacoustics. Although the N-S simulations are probably necessary to reveal many complex flow phenomena that are unsteady and fully nonlinear, these simulations are not feasible to be used for parametric design. purposes. The objective of this study is thus to develop theoretical models for airframe noise predictions which have quick turn-around computing time. Since it is known that vorticity is a major mechanism responsible for noise generation on high-lift devices, vortex methods have been chosen as modeling tools. Vortex methods are much faster in comparison with other numerical methods, yet they are able to incorporate nonlinear interactions between vortices. Obviously, as with any theoretical model, assumptions have to be made and justified when such models are used in complex flow. The merit and applicability of the models for aeroacoustics applications will be investigated. Issues related with conservation of vorticity, unsteady Kutta conditions and nonlinear frequency response to vortex shedding will be addressed.

  15. Near-field noise prediction for aircraft in cruising flight: Methods manual. [laminar flow control noise effects analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tibbetts, J. G.

    1979-01-01

    Methods for predicting noise at any point on an aircraft while the aircraft is in a cruise flight regime are presented. Developed for use in laminar flow control (LFC) noise effects analyses, they can be used in any case where aircraft generated noise needs to be evaluated at a location on an aircraft while under high altitude, high speed conditions. For each noise source applicable to the LFC problem, a noise computational procedure is given in algorithm format, suitable for computerization. Three categories of noise sources are covered: (1) propulsion system, (2) airframe, and (3) LFC suction system. In addition, procedures are given for noise modifications due to source soundproofing and the shielding effects of the aircraft structure wherever needed. Sample cases, for each of the individual noise source procedures, are provided to familiarize the user with typical input and computed data.

  16. A jet exhaust noise prediction procedure for inverted velocity profile coannular nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, R. S.

    1979-01-01

    Acoustic model tests have demonstrated that significant noise suppression can be obtained from inverted velocity profile coannular nozzles. An acoustic prediction procedure was developed for inverted velocity profile coannular nozzles that can be used to predict SPL spectra as a function of nozzle geometry and flow conditions. In the development of this prediction procedure, the noise spectrum at a given angle was decomposed into four noise components: a low frequency mixing noise component, a high frequency mixing noise component, an outer stream shock noise component, and an inner stream shock noise component. The physics of the inverted velocity flow field development was used to formulate noise generation models. Scaling laws for each noise component were defined based on these models. Comparisons of predictions from this procedure with experimental data were conducted to verify the prediction procedure.

  17. Jet transport noise - A comparison of predicted and measured noise for ILS and two-segment approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, K. C.; Bourquin, K. R.

    1974-01-01

    Centerline noise measured during standard ILS and two-segment approaches in DC-8-61 aircraft were compared with noise predicted for these procedures using an existing noise prediction technique. Measured data is considered to be in good agreement with predicted data. Ninety EPNdB sideline locations were calculated from flight data obtained during two-segment approaches and were compared with predicted 90 EPNdB contours that were computed using three different models for excess ground attenuation and a contour with no correction for ground attenuation. The contour not corrected for ground attenuation was in better agreement with the measured data.

  18. Interim prediction method for externally blown flap noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorsch, R. G.; Clark, B. J.; Reshotko, M.

    1975-01-01

    An interim procedure for predicting externally blown flap (EBF) noise spectra anywhere below a powered lift aircraft is presented. Both engine-under-the-wing and engine-over-the-wing EBF systems are included. The method uses data correlations for the overall sound pressure level based on nozzle exit area and exhaust velocity along with OASPL directivity curves and normalized one-third-octave spectra. Aircraft motion effects are included by taking into account the relative motion of the source with respect to the observer and the relative velocity effects on source strength.

  19. The Role of Instability Waves in Predicting Jet Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, Marvin E.; Handler, Louis M.

    2003-01-01

    Debate over whether linear instability waves play a role in the prediction of jet noise has been going on for many years. Parallel mean flow models, such as the one proposed by Lilley, usually neglect these waves because they cause the solution to become infinite. The present paper solves the true non-parallel acoustic equations for a two-dimensional shear layer by using a vector Greens function and assuming small mean flow spread rate. The results show that linear instability waves must be accounted for in order to construct a proper causal solution to the problem.

  20. The New Nordic Prediction Method for Railway Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ringheim, M.

    1996-05-01

    The existing Nordic Prediction Method for Railway Noise is more than 10 years old [1]. It was developed as a manual method for fairly simple geometries. During 1993-4 it became clear that a complete revision was necessary. The method is primarily intended to serve as a planning tool. It can be used to calculate the 24 hour energy equivalent level, Leq(24) and the maximum level, Lmax, of individual trains. The main results are given as A-weighted levels, but octave band levels can also determined.

  1. Method for predicting impulsive noise generated by wind turbine rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viterna, L. A.

    1982-01-01

    Large wind turbines can generate both broad band and impulsive noises. These noises can be controlled by proper choice of rotor design parameters such as rotor location with respect to the supporting tower, tower geometry and tip speed. A method was developed to calculate the impulsive noise generated when the wind turbine blade experiences air forces that are periodic functions of the rotational frequency. This phenomenon can occur when the blades operate in the wake of the support tower and the nonuniform velocity field near the ground due to wind shear. Results from this method were compared with measured sound spectra taken at locations of one to two rotor diameters from the DOE/NASA Mod-1 wind turbine. The calculated spectra generally agreed with the measured data in both the amplitude of the predominant harmonics and the roll of rate with frequency. Measured sound pressure levels far from the Mod-1 (15 rotor diameters), however, were higher than predicted. Simultaneous measurements in the near and far field indicated that the propagation effects could enhance the sound levels by more than 10 dB above that expected by spherical dispersion. These propagation effects are believed to be due to terrain and atmospheric characteristics of the Mod-1 site.

  2. Noise from Supersonic Coaxial Jets. Part 1; Mean Flow Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahl, Milo D.; Morris, Philip J.

    1997-01-01

    Recent theories for supersonic jet noise have used an instability wave noise generation model to predict radiated noise. This model requires a known mean flow that has typically been described by simple analytic functions for single jet mean flows. The mean flow of supersonic coaxial jets is not described easily in terms of analytic functions. To provide these profiles at all axial locations, a numerical scheme is developed to calculate the mean flow properties of a coaxial jet. The Reynolds-averaged, compressible, parabolic boundary layer equations are solved using a mixing length turbulence model. Empirical correlations are developed to account for the effects of velocity and temperature ratios and Mach number on the shear layer spreading. Both normal velocity profile and inverted velocity profile coaxial jets are considered. The mixing length model is modified in each case to obtain reasonable results when the two stream jet merges into a single fully developed jet. The mean flow calculations show both good qualitative and quantitative agreement with measurements in single and coaxial jet flows.

  3. Computational AeroAcoustics for Fan Noise Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Envia, Ed; Hixon, Ray; Dyson, Rodger; Huff, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    An overview of the current state-of-the-art in computational aeroacoustics as applied to fan noise prediction at NASA Glenn is presented. Results from recent modeling efforts using three dimensional inviscid formulations in both frequency and time domains are summarized. In particular, the application of a frequency domain method, called LINFLUX, to the computation of rotor-stator interaction tone noise is reviewed and the influence of the background inviscid flow on the acoustic results is analyzed. It has been shown that the noise levels are very sensitive to the gradients of the mean flow near the surface and that the correct computation of these gradients for highly loaded airfoils is especially problematic using an inviscid formulation. The ongoing development of a finite difference time marching code that is based on a sixth order compact scheme is also reviewed. Preliminary results from the nonlinear computation of a gust-airfoil interaction model problem demonstrate the fidelity and accuracy of this approach. Spatial and temporal features of the code as well as its multi-block nature are discussed. Finally, latest results from an ongoing effort in the area of arbitrarily high order methods are reviewed and technical challenges associated with implementing correct high order boundary conditions are discussed and possible strategies for addressing these challenges ore outlined.

  4. Auralization of Hybrid Wing Body Aircraft Flyover Noise from System Noise Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rizzi, Stephen A.; Aumann, Aric R.; Lopes, Leonvard V.; Burley, Casey L.

    2013-01-01

    System noise assessments of a state-of-the-art reference aircraft (similar to a Boeing 777-200ER with GE90-like turbofan engines) and several hybrid wing body (HWB) aircraft configurations were recently performed using NASA engine and aircraft system analysis tools. The HWB aircraft were sized to an equivalent mission as the reference aircraft and assessments were performed using measurements of airframe shielding from a series of propulsion airframe aeroacoustic experiments. The focus of this work is to auralize flyover noise from the reference aircraft and the best HWB configuration using source noise predictions and shielding data based largely on the earlier assessments. For each aircraft, three flyover conditions are auralized. These correspond to approach, sideline, and cutback operating states, but flown in straight and level flight trajectories. The auralizations are performed using synthesis and simulation tools developed at NASA. Audio and visual presentations are provided to allow the reader to experience the flyover from the perspective of a listener in the simulated environment.

  5. MPT Prediction of Aircraft-Engine Fan Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, Stuart D.

    2004-01-01

    A collection of computer programs has been developed that implements a procedure for predicting multiple-pure-tone (MPT) noise generated by fan blades of an aircraft engine (e.g., a turbofan engine). MPT noise arises when the fan is operating with supersonic relative tip Mach No. Under this flow condition, there is a strong upstream running shock. The strength and position of this shock are very sensitive to blade geometry variations. For a fan where all the blades are identical, the primary tone observed upstream of the fan will be the blade passing frequency. If there are small variations in geometry between blades, then tones below the blade passing frequency arise MPTs. Stagger angle differences as small as 0.1 can give rise to significant MPT. It is also noted that MPT noise is more pronounced when the fan is operating in an unstarted mode. Computational results using a three-dimensional flow solver to compute the complete annulus flow with non-uniform fans indicate that MPT noise can be estimated in a relatively simple way. Hence, once the effect of a typical geometry variation of one blade in an otherwise uniform blade row is known, the effect of all the blades being different can be quickly computed via superposition. Two computer programs that were developed as part of this work are used in conjunction with a user s computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code to predict MPT spectra for a fan with a specified set of geometric variations: (1) The first program ROTBLD reads the users CFD solution files for a single blade passage via an API (Application Program Interface). There are options to replicate and perturb the geometry with typical variations stagger, camber, thickness, and pitch. The multi-passage CFD solution files are then written in the user s file format using the API. (2) The second program SUPERPOSE requires two input files: the first is the circumferential upstream pressure distribution extracted from the CFD solution on the multi-passage mesh, the second file defines the geometry variations of each blade in a complete fan. Superposition is used to predict the spectra resulting from the geometric variations.

  6. Frequency-domain prediction of turbofan noise radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özyörük, Y.; Alpman, E.; Ahuja, V.; Long, L. N.

    2004-03-01

    This paper describes a frequency-domain numerical method for predicting noise radiation from ducted fans, including acoustic treatment and non-uniform background flow effects. The method solves the Euler equations linearized about a mean flow in the frequency domain. A pseudo-time derivative term is added to the frequency-domain equations so that a time marching technique can be employed to drive the acoustic field to steady state explicitly. This approach makes distributed parallel computing more viable for equations of this type and will allow for future use of well-known convergence acceleration techniques, such as multigrid, to obtain the solutions efficiently. Simulations of the JT15D static test inlet are performed including the effects of liners, and the results are compared with experimental data. A generic engine geometry is used for demonstrating further the prediction capability of the code, calculating the attenuation effects of different liner impedances and liner installation locations on the radiated sound fields.

  7. Predictability of the coherent-noise model and its applications.

    PubMed

    Sarlis, N V; Christopoulos, S-R G

    2012-05-01

    We study the threshold distribution function of the coherent-noise model for the case of infinite number of agents. This function is piecewise constant with a finite number of steps n. The latter exhibits a 1/f behavior as a function of the order of occurrence of an avalanche and hence versus natural time. An analytic expression of the expectation value E(S) for the size S of the next avalanche is obtained and used for the prediction of the next avalanche. Apart from E(S), the number of steps n can also serve for this purpose. This enables the construction of a similar prediction scheme which can be applied to real earthquake aftershock data. PMID:23004732

  8. Progress Toward Improving Jet Noise Predictions in Hot Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khavaran, Abbas; Kenzakowski, Donald C.

    2007-01-01

    An acoustic analogy methodology for improving noise predictions in hot round jets is presented. Past approaches have often neglected the impact of temperature fluctuations on the predicted sound spectral density, which could be significant for heated jets, and this has yielded noticeable acoustic under-predictions in such cases. The governing acoustic equations adopted here are a set of linearized, inhomogeneous Euler equations. These equations are combined into a single third order linear wave operator when the base flow is considered as a locally parallel mean flow. The remaining second-order fluctuations are regarded as the equivalent sources of sound and are modeled. It is shown that the hot jet effect may be introduced primarily through a fluctuating velocity/enthalpy term. Modeling this additional source requires specialized inputs from a RANS-based flowfield simulation. The information is supplied using an extension to a baseline two equation turbulence model that predicts total enthalpy variance in addition to the standard parameters. Preliminary application of this model to a series of unheated and heated subsonic jets shows significant improvement in the acoustic predictions at the 90 degree observer angle.

  9. High Speed Research Noise Prediction Code (HSRNOISE) User's and Theoretical Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, Robert (Technical Monitor); Rawls, John W., Jr.; Yeager, Jessie C.

    2004-01-01

    This report describes a computer program, HSRNOISE, that predicts noise levels for a supersonic aircraft powered by mixed flow turbofan engines with rectangular mixer-ejector nozzles. It fully documents the noise prediction algorithms, provides instructions for executing the HSRNOISE code, and provides predicted noise levels for the High Speed Research (HSR) program Technology Concept (TC) aircraft. The component source noise prediction algorithms were developed jointly by Boeing, General Electric Aircraft Engines (GEAE), NASA and Pratt & Whitney during the course of the NASA HSR program. Modern Technologies Corporation developed an alternative mixer ejector jet noise prediction method under contract to GEAE that has also been incorporated into the HSRNOISE prediction code. Algorithms for determining propagation effects and calculating noise metrics were taken from the NASA Aircraft Noise Prediction Program.

  10. Broadband Liner Optimization for the Source Diagnostic Test Fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nark, Douglas M.; Jones, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    The broadband component of fan noise has grown in relevance with the utilization of increased bypass ratio and advanced fan designs. Thus, while the attenuation of fan tones remains paramount, the ability to simultaneously reduce broadband fan noise levels has become more appealing. This paper describes a broadband acoustic liner optimization study for the scale model Source Diagnostic Test fan. Specifically, in-duct attenuation predictions with a statistical fan source model are used to obtain optimum impedance spectra over a number of flow conditions for three liner locations in the bypass duct. The predicted optimum impedance information is then used with acoustic liner modeling tools to design liners aimed at producing impedance spectra that most closely match the predicted optimum values. Design selection is based on an acceptance criterion that provides the ability to apply increased weighting to specific frequencies and/or operating conditions. Typical tonal liner designs targeting single frequencies at one operating condition are first produced to provide baseline performance information. These are followed by multiple broadband design approaches culminating in a broadband liner targeting the full range of frequencies and operating conditions. The broadband liner is found to satisfy the optimum impedance objectives much better than the tonal liner designs. In addition, the broadband liner is found to provide better attenuation than the tonal designs over the full range of frequencies and operating conditions considered. Thus, the current study successfully establishes a process for the initial design and evaluation of novel broadband liner concepts for complex engine configurations.

  11. Climb to Cruise Noise Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joshi, M. C.; Yamamoto, K. J.; Donelson, M. J.; Golub, R. A.; Rawls, J. W.

    1999-01-01

    A semi-empirical formula for the prediction of the broadband shock associated noise from rectangular supersonic jets in the fly-over plane has been developed. The predicted noise spectra compared very favorable with the measurement of Ponton, Manning and Seiner. Extension to side-line directions will be carried out.

  12. Broadband ocean bottom seismometer in the Gulf of Cadiz (offshore SW Iberia and NW of Moroccan margin): Characterization of ambient noise and tomographic model of the crustal structure.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corela, C. J.; Silveira, G. M.; Matias, L. M.; Geissler, W. H.; Schimmel, M.

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we use the continuous data recorded by 24 broadband ocean bottom seismometers (OBS-BB) deployed in the Gulf of Cadiz, in the framework of the NEAREST project, from September 2007 to July of 2008. Our goals are: i) to understand the instrument and the environmental conditions that control the observed seismic noise; and ii) to obtain reliable broadband surface wave dispersion measurements.The noise sources are investigated through the probability density functions (PDFs) of power spectral density (PSDs), which provides insights on the generation and propagating of seismic noise in the Gulf of Cadiz.We show the results of the Rayleigh wave group velocity tomography performed using ambient seismic noise observed on the 24 broadband OBS and on 7 broadband land stations located in the south of Portugal. The time-series, for the 11 months, were cross-correlated to obtain the empirical Green's functions between all vertical sensors pairs, namely the OBS-vertical, the OBS-hydrophone and the vertical component of the land seismic stations. To improve the signal-to-noise ratio, the individual cross-correlograms were summed using a time-frequency domain phase weighted stack.The stacked cross-correlograms enabled us to compute short-period surface-wave group-velocity measurements for all the interstation paths. We used these measurements to construct maps of Rayleigh-wave group-velocity lateral perturbations, at different periods. Despite the great difference in the crustal structure below the OBS (thin continental or oceanic type) and the land stations (typical continental crust, 30 km thick) we were able to derive high S/N cross-correlations between these different types of sensors.This study was co-sponsored by several projects namely the QuakeLoc-PT (PTDC/GEO-FIQ/3522/2012), AQUAREL (PTDC/CTE-GIX/116819/2010), NEAREST FP6-2005-GLOBAL-4 (OJ 2005 C177/15), WILAS (PTDC/CTE-GIX/097946/2008), and PEST-OE/CTE/LA-0019/2013-2014.

  13. Three-dimensional effects on pure tone fan noise due to inflow distortion. [rotor blade noise prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayashi, H.

    1978-01-01

    Two dimensional, quasi three dimensional and three dimensional theories for the prediction of pure tone fan noise due to the interaction of inflow distortion with a subsonic annular blade row were studied with the aid of an unsteady three dimensional lifting surface theory. The effects of compact and noncompact source distributions on pure tone fan noise in an annular cascade were investigated. Numerical results show that the strip theory and quasi three-dimensional theory are reasonably adequate for fan noise prediction. The quasi three-dimensional method is more accurate for acoustic power and model structure prediction with an acoustic power estimation error of about plus or minus 2db.

  14. Broadband ocean bottom seismometer in the Gulf of Cadiz (offshore SW Iberia and NW of Moroccan margin): Characterization of ambient noise and tomographic model of the crustal structure.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corela, Carlos; Silveira, Graça; Matias, Luis; Schimmel, Martin; Geissler, Wolfram

    2013-04-01

    In this study we use the continuous data recording performed by 24 ocean bottom seismometers (OBS), wide band (BB), deployed in the Gulf of Cadiz in the framework of the NEAREST project from September 2007 to July of 2008 to study the ambient seismic noise recorded in the bottom of the ocean. Our goals are: i) to understand the instrument and the environmental conditions that control the observed seismic noise; ii) and to obtain reliable broadband surface wave dispersion measurements. The noise sources are investigated through the probability density functions (PDFs) of power spectral density (PSDs) which provides insights on the generation and propagating of seismic noise in the Gulf of Cadiz. We show the results of the Rayleigh wave group velocity tomography performed using ambient seismic noise observed on 24 broadband OBS in the Gulf of Cadiz and 7 broadband land stations south of Portugal. The time-series for the 11 months were cross-correlated to obtain empirical Rayleigh wave green's functions between the components OBS vertical-OBS vertical, OBS vertical-land station vertical, OBS hydrophone-OBS hydrophone and between OBS hydrophone-Land station vertical. The results are based on the analysis of two spectral bands corresponding to the primary (10-20s) and secondary (5-10s) microseism peak. The stack of the station-to-station cross correlograms was done to increase the signal-to-noise ratio. In addition to the usual stack, we have also have applied a phase-weighted stack to avoid local noise contamination and so enable the detection of weak coherent signals. These cross-correlograms enabled us to compute short-period surface-wave group-velocity measurements on interstation paths. We used these measurements to construct maps of Rayleigh-wave group-velocity lateral variations at different periods at the Gulf of Cadiz and south of Portugal. Despite the great difference in the crustal structure below the OBS (thin continental or oceanic type) and the land stations (typical continental crust, 30 km thick) we were able to derive high S/N cross-correlations between these two types of sensors. This study was co-sponsored by several projects namely the NEAREST FP6-2005-GLOBAL-4 (OJ 2005 C177/15), WILAS (PTDC/CTE-GIX/097946/2008), TOPOMED (TOPOEUROPE/0001/2007) and Pest OE/CTE/LA0019/2011.

  15. An introduction to high speed aircraft noise prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Mark R.

    1992-01-01

    The Aircraft Noise Prediction Program's High Speed Research prediction system (ANOPP-HSR) is introduced. This mini-manual is an introduction which gives a brief overview of the ANOPP system and the components of the HSR prediction method. ANOPP information resources are given. Twelve of the most common ANOPP-HSR control statements are described. Each control statement's purpose and format are stated and relevant examples are provided. More detailed examples of the use of the control statements are presented in the manual along with ten ANOPP-HSR templates. The purpose of the templates is to provide the user with working ANOPP-HSR programs which can be modified to serve particular prediction requirements. Also included in this manual is a brief discussion of common errors and how to solve these problems. The appendices include the following useful information: a summary of all ANOPP-HSR functional research modules, a data unit directory, a discussion of one of the more complex control statements, and input data unit and table examples.

  16. Broadband sub-millimeter wave amplifer module with 38dB gain and 8.3dB noise figure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkozy, S.; Leong, K.; Lai, R.; Leakey, R.; Yoshida, W.; Mei, X.; Lee, J.; Liu, P.-H.; Gorospe, B.; Deal, W. R.

    2011-05-01

    Broadband sub-millimeter wave technology has received significant attention for potential applications in security, medical, and military imaging. Despite theoretical advantages of reduced size, weight, and power compared to current millimeter-wave systems, sub-millimeter-wave systems are hampered by a fundamental lack of amplification with sufficient gain and noise figure properties. We report on the development of a sub-millimeter wave amplifier module as part of a broadband pixel operating from 300-350 GHz, biased off of a single 2V power supply. Over this frequency range, > 38 dB gain and < 8.3 dB noise figure are obtained and represent the current state-of-art performance capabilities. The prototype pixel chain consists of two WR3 waveguide amplifier blocks, and a horn antenna and diode detector. The low noise amplifier Sub-Millimeter-wave Monolithic Integrated Circuit (SMMIC) was originally developed under the DARPA SWIFT and THz Electronics programs and is based on sub 50 nm Indium Arsenide Composite Channel (IACC) transistor technology with a projected maximum oscillation frequency fmax > 1.0 THz. This development and demonstration may bring to life future sub-millimeter-wave and THz applications such as solutions to brown-out problems, ultra-high bandwidth satellite communication cross-links, and future planetary exploration missions.

  17. Development of a shock noise prediction code for high-speed helicopters - The subsonically moving shock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tadghighi, H.; Holz, R.; Farassat, F.; Lee, Yung-Jang

    1991-01-01

    A previously defined airfoil subsonic shock-noise prediction formula whose result depends on a mapping of the time-dependent shock surface to a time-independent computational domain is presently coded and incorporated in the NASA-Langley rotor-noise prediction code, WOPWOP. The structure and algorithms used in the shock-noise prediction code are presented; special care has been taken to reduce computation time while maintaining accuracy. Numerical examples of shock-noise prediction are presented for hover and forward flight. It is confirmed that shock noise is an important component of the quadrupole source.

  18. A Superior Kirchhoff Method for Aeroacoustic Noise Prediction: The Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings Equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brentner, Kenneth S.

    1997-01-01

    The prediction of aeroacoustic noise is important; all new aircraft must meet noise certification requirements. Local noise standards can be even more stringent. The NASA noise reduction goal is to reduce perceived noise levels by a factor of two in 10 years. The objective of this viewgraph presentation is to demonstrate the superiority of the FW-H approach over the Kirchoff method for aeroacoustics, both analytically and numerically.

  19. The Role of Instability Waves in Predicting Jet Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, M. E.; Leib, S. J.

    2004-01-01

    There has been an ongoing debate about the role of linear instability waves in the prediction of jet noise. Parallel mean flow models, such as the one proposed by Lilley, usually neglect these waves because they cause the solution to become infinite. The resulting solution is then non-causal and can, therefore, be quite different from the true causal solution for the chaotic flows being considered here. The present paper solves the relevant acoustic equations for a non-parallel mean flow by using a vector Green s function approach and assuming the mean flow to be weakly non-parallel, i.e., assuming the spread rate to be small. It demonstrates that linear instability waves must be accounted for in order to construct a proper causal solution to the jet noise problem. . Recent experimental results (e.g., see Tam, Golebiowski, and Seiner,1996) show that the small angle spectra radiated by supersonic jets are quite different from those radiated at larger angles (say, at 90deg) and even exhibit dissimilar frequency scalings (i.e., they scale with Helmholtz number as opposed to Strouhal number). The present solution is (among other things )able to explain this rather puzzling experimental result.

  20. Investigation of the Jet Noise Prediction Theory and Application Utilizing the PAO Formulation. [mathematical model for calculating noise radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Application of the Phillips theory to engineering calculations of rocket and high speed jet noise radiation is reported. Presented are a detailed derivation of the theory, the composition of the numerical scheme, and discussions of the practical problems arising in the application of the present noise prediction method. The present method still contains some empirical elements, yet it provides a unified approach in the prediction of sound power, spectrum, and directivity.

  1. Towards an Airframe Noise Prediction Methodology: Survey of Current Approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farassat, Fereidoun; Casper, Jay H.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present a critical survey of the current airframe noise (AFN) prediction methodologies. Four methodologies are recognized. These are the fully analytic method, CFD combined with the acoustic analogy, the semi-empirical method and fully numerical method. It is argued that for the immediate need of the aircraft industry, the semi-empirical method based on recent high quality acoustic database is the best available method. The method based on CFD and the Ffowcs William- Hawkings (FW-H) equation with penetrable data surface (FW-Hpds ) has advanced considerably and much experience has been gained in its use. However, more research is needed in the near future particularly in the area of turbulence simulation. The fully numerical method will take longer to reach maturity. Based on the current trends, it is predicted that this method will eventually develop into the method of choice. Both the turbulence simulation and propagation methods need to develop more for this method to become useful. Nonetheless, the authors propose that the method based on a combination of numerical and analytical techniques, e.g., CFD combined with FW-H equation, should also be worked on. In this effort, the current symbolic algebra software will allow more analytical approaches to be incorporated into AFN prediction methods.

  2. Transmission of gear noise to aircraft interiors prediction methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berman, A.

    1985-01-01

    Prediction of interior noise of helicopters due to drive train vibration ideally requires an analytical model of the entire dynamic system including airframe, transmission, and all attachments. The development of such a model is beset with numerous difficulties. The need for such model is addressed, as is certain of the critical issues involved: the inadequacy of finite element modeling in the acoustic frequency range; the costs associated with assessment of parametric variations; the difficulty of incorporating new technology into existing computer programs. Potential solutions to these problems are discussed: use of combined test and analysis (system identification) to obtain better models; component synthesis using frequency domain reduced models; a computer program known as DYSCO. This program has a general capability to modify and couple components in the time or frequency domain and can act as a repository for the latest analytical developments.

  3. The prediction of en route noise levels for a DC-9 aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weir, Donald S.

    1988-01-01

    En route noise for advanced propfan powered aircraft has become an issue of concern for the Federal Aviation Administration. The NASA Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP) is used to demonstrate the source noise and propagation effects for an aircraft in level flight up to 35,000 feet altitude. One-third octave band spectra of the source noise, atmospheric absorption loss, and received noise are presented. The predicted maximum A-weighted sound pressure level is compared to measured data from the Aeronautical Research Institute of Sweden. ANOPP is shown to be an effective tool in evaluating the en route noise characteristics of a DC-9 aircraft.

  4. A Study on Predicting Shinkansen Noise Levels Using the Sound Intensity Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Tadashi

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate a new method developed to predict track wayside noise levels resulting from the passage of high-speed trains. The method calculates noise levels based on data acquired by the sound intensity method developed by the Central Japan Railway Company. This measurement method allows one to identify each sound source and its characteristics as well as identify how much each source contributes to the overall resulting noise level. Structure borne noise and multiple reflected noise between train car bodies and noise barriers are also studied. As a result of this study, a prediction method was created which can calculate and predict noise levels resulting from such various factors as structure, train type, train speed and noise barrier. Noise levels predicted during this study agreed well with those actually measured under various conditions, thus indicating the prediction method model resulting from the study is a useful tool to verify noise levels occurring at receiver positions. Furthermore, it can also verify in advance how much effect noise barriers or train source noise level reduction devices would have on noise reduction.

  5. Auralization Architectures for NASA?s Next Generation Aircraft Noise Prediction Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rizzi, Stephen A.; Lopes, Leonard V.; Burley, Casey L.; Aumann, Aric R.

    2013-01-01

    Aircraft community noise is a significant concern due to continued growth in air traffic, increasingly stringent environmental goals, and operational limitations imposed by airport authorities. The assessment of human response to noise from future aircraft can only be afforded through laboratory testing using simulated flyover noise. Recent work by the authors demonstrated the ability to auralize predicted flyover noise for a state-of-the-art reference aircraft and a future hybrid wing body aircraft concept. This auralization used source noise predictions from NASA's Aircraft NOise Prediction Program (ANOPP) as input. The results from this process demonstrated that auralization based upon system noise predictions is consistent with, and complementary to, system noise predictions alone. To further develop and validate the auralization process, improvements to the interfaces between the synthesis capability and the system noise tools are required. This paper describes the key elements required for accurate noise synthesis and introduces auralization architectures for use with the next-generation ANOPP (ANOPP2). The architectures are built around a new auralization library and its associated Application Programming Interface (API) that utilize ANOPP2 APIs to access data required for auralization. The architectures are designed to make the process of auralizing flyover noise a common element of system noise prediction.

  6. Fan Noise Source Diagnostic Test Computation of Rotor Wake Turbulence Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nallasamy, M.; Envia, E.; Thorp, S. A.; Shabbir, A.

    2002-01-01

    An important source mechanism of fan broadband noise is the interaction of rotor wake turbulence with the fan outlet guide vanes. A broadband noise model that utilizes computed rotor flow turbulence from a RANS code is used to predict fan broadband noise spectra. The noise model is employed to examine the broadband noise characteristics of the 22-inch Source Diagnostic Test fan rig for which broadband noise data were obtained in wind tunnel tests at the NASA Glenn Research Center. A 9-case matrix of three outlet guide vane configurations at three representative fan tip speeds are considered. For all cases inlet and exhaust acoustic power spectra are computed and compared with the measured spectra where possible. In general, the acoustic power levels and shape of the predicted spectra are in good agreement with the measured data. The predicted spectra show the experimentally observed trends with fan tip speed, vane count, and vane sweep. The results also demonstrate the validity of using CFD-based turbulence information for fan broadband noise calculations.

  7. Ultra-broadband dissipative soliton and noise-like pulse generation from a normal dispersion mode-locked Tm-doped all-fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Sobon, Grzegorz; Sotor, Jaroslaw; Martynkien, Tadeusz; Abramski, Krzysztof M

    2016-03-21

    We report generation of ultra-broadband dissipative solitons and noise-like pulses from a simple, fully fiberized mode-locked Tm-doped fiber laser. The oscillator operates in the normal net dispersion regime and is mode-locked via nonlinear polarization evolution. Depending on the cavity dispersion, the laser was capable of generating 60 nm or 100 nm broad dissipative solitons. These are the broadest spectra generated from a normal dispersion mode-locked Tm-doped fiber laser so far. The same oscillator might also operate in the noise-like pulse regime with extremely broad emission spectra (over 300 nm), which also significantly outperforms the previous reports. PMID:27136809

  8. A study of the prediction of cruise noise and laminar flow control noise criteria for subsonic air transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swift, G.; Mungur, P.

    1979-01-01

    General procedures for the prediction of component noise levels incident upon airframe surfaces during cruise are developed. Contributing noise sources are those associated with the propulsion system, the airframe and the laminar flow control (LFC) system. Transformation procedures from the best prediction base of each noise source to the transonic cruise condition are established. Two approaches to LFC/acoustic criteria are developed. The first is a semi-empirical extension of the X-21 LFC/acoustic criteria to include sensitivity to the spectrum and directionality of the sound field. In the second, the more fundamental problem of how sound excites boundary layer disturbances is analyzed by deriving and solving an inhomogeneous Orr-Sommerfeld equation in which the source terms are proportional to the production and dissipation of sound induced fluctuating vorticity. Numerical solutions are obtained and compared with corresponding measurements. Recommendations are made to improve and validate both the cruise noise prediction methods and the LFC/acoustic criteria.

  9. Small Engine Technology (SET) - Task 13 ANOPP Noise Prediction for Small Engines: Jet Noise Prediction Module, Wing Shielding Module, and System Studies Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lieber, Lysbeth; Golub, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This Final Report has been prepared by AlliedSignal Engines and Systems, Phoenix, Arizona, documenting work performed during the period May 1997 through June 1999, under the Small Engines Technology Program, Contract No. NAS3-27483, Task Order 13, ANOPP Noise Prediction for Small Engines. The report specifically covers the work performed under Subtasks 4, 5 and 6. Subtask 4 describes the application of a semi-empirical procedure for jet noise prediction, subtask 5 describes the development of a procedure to predict the effects of wing shielding, and subtask 6 describes the results of system studies of the benefits of the new noise technology on business and regional aircraft.

  10. Semiempirical airframe noise prediction model and evaluation with flight data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hersh, A. S.; Burcham, F. W., Jr.; Putnam, T. W.; Lasagna, P. L.

    1976-01-01

    A semiempirical maximum overall sound pressure level (OASPL) airframe noise model was derived. Noise radiated from aircraft wings was modeled on the trailing edge diffractes quadrupole sound theory. The acoustic dipole sound theory was used to model noise from the landing gear. The model was correlated with maximum OASPL flyover noise measurements obtained for three jet aircraft. One third octave band sound pressure level flyover data was correlated and interpreted.

  11. A prediction of high-speed rotor noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purcell, Timothy W.

    1989-01-01

    A combined computational (CFD) and integral approach solves the acoustic pressure fields of two high-speed helicopter rotors. A CFD code supplies boundary data to a non-linear type of Kirchhoff integral formulation to find the far-field pressures. Direct calculations of pressures are given by the CFD code up to the sonic cylinder where the Kirchhoff method takes over. This paper shows predictions and measurements of High-Speed Impulsive (HSI) noise in hover for two different rotor geometries. One rotor has a conventional rectangular planform, while the other rotor is highly swept and tapered. The swept rotor analysis forms the majority of this paper. Test data from both rotors are shown and compared with predictions for a range of tip Mach numbers from .85 to .95 (including delocalization). The correlation with the near-field pressures from the straight bladed experiment is excellent and good to excellent correlation is seen for the far-field pressures from both experiments.

  12. Estimation and prediction of noise power based on variational Bayesian and adaptive ARMA time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jingyi; Li, Yonggui; Zhu, Yonggang; Li, Binwu

    2014-04-01

    Estimation and prediction of noise power are very important for communication anti-jamming and efficient allocation of spectrum resources in adaptive wireless communication and cognitive radio. In order to estimate and predict the time-varying noise power caused by natural factors and jamming in the high frequency channel, Variational Bayesian algorithm and adaptive ARMA time series are proposed. Through establishing the time-varying noise power model, which controlled by the noise variance rate, the noise power can be estimated with Variational Bayesian algorithm, and the results show that the estimation error is related to observation interval. What's more, through the analysis of the correlation characteristics of the estimation power, noise power can be predicted based on adaptive ARMA time series, and the results show that it will be available to predict the noise power in next 5 intervals with the proportional error less than 0.2.

  13. Prediction of acoustic scattering in the time domain and its applications to rotorcraft noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seongkyu

    This work aims at the development of a numerical method for the analysis of acoustic scattering in the time domain and its applications to rotorcraft noise. This purpose is achieved by developing two independent methods: (1) an analytical formulation of the pressure gradient for an arbitrary moving source and (2) a time-domain moving equivalent source method. First, the analytical formulation for the pressure gradient is developed to fulfill the boundary condition on a scattering surface to account for arbitrary moving incident sources. A semi-analytical formulation was derived from the gradient of the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FW-H) equation. This formulation needs to calculate the observer time differentiation outside the integrals numerically. A numerical algorithm is developed to implement this formulation in an aeroacoustic prediction code. A new analytical formulation is presented in the thesis. In this formulation, the time differentiation is taken inside the integrals analytically. This formulation avoids the numerical time differentiation with respect to the observer time, which is computationally more efficient. The acoustic pressure gradient predicted by these two formulations is validated through comparison with available exact solutions for a stationary and moving monopole sources. The agreement between the predictions and exact solutions is excellent. One of the advantages of this analytic formulation is that it efficiently provides the boundary condition for the acoustic scattering of sound generated from an arbitrary moving source, such as rotating blades, which undergoes rotation, flapping and lead-lag motions. The formulation is applied to the rotor noise problems for two model rotors (UH-1H and HART-I). For HART-I rotor, CFD/CSD coupling was used to provide unsteady aerodynamics and trim solutions of the blade motion. A purely numerical approach is compared with the analytical formulations. The agreement between the analytical formulations and the numerical method is excellent for both stationary and moving observer cases. The formulation for the pressure gradient is first used to predict acoustic scattering in the frequency domain. The prediction is validated with the exact solution for acoustic scattering generated by a monopole source by a stationary sphere. A Bo105 helicopter and a notional heavy lift quad tilt rotor are considered to demonstrate a potential significance of acoustic scattering of rotorcraft noise. NASA's Fast Scattering Code is used for the frequency-domain scattering solver. Secondly, a new and efficient time domain acoustic scattering method using a moving equivalent source is developed to predict acoustic scattering in the time domain efficiently. The time-domain method provides entire frequency solutions in a single computation and is able to predict acoustic scattering of aperiodic signals. The method assumes an acoustically rigid surface for a scattering body and neglects the refraction effect by non-uniform flow around the scattering body. The pressure-gradient boundary condition is determined on a scattering surface and then the scattered field is calculated by using equivalent sources located within the scattering surface. Linear shape functions are used to discretize the strength of the equivalent sources in time and singular value decomposition is used to overcome potential numerical instability. The detailed numerical algorithm is addressed in the thesis. The method is more efficient numerically and easier to implement than other time-domain methods using a finite difference scheme or boundary integral equations because it is not necessary to find the solution in the entire domain, it uses a fewer number of equivalent sources than the surface mesh points, and it does not involve surface integrals. The method is validated against exact solutions for various cases including a single frequency monopole source, a dipole source, multiple sources, beat, and broadband noise sources. The predictions are found to be in excellent agreement with the exact solutions. The effect of the computational parameters including the number of surface mesh points, the number of equivalent sources, and the position of equivalent sources, etc, on the prediction is investigated and optimum parameters are presented. Acoustic scattering of sound from a moving source by a stationary body is studied to demonstrate scattering of an aperiodic signal. Acoustic scattering of sound produced by a moving source by a moving body is analyzed and the effect of the moving body on the scattered field is shown. The numerical method is used to predict acoustic scattering of Bo105 helicopter rotor noise in the time domain. The time-domain code results of SPL are validated against the results obtained by the FSC. The effect of the geometry of the scattering body on the scattering of rotor noise is presented. Acoustic scattering of an impulsive noise is investigated to simulate main rotor BVI noise and its significance is addressed. From the computation of a range of frequencies in a single computation, computational time saving was achieved by a factor of about 200 compared to the frequency-domain approach.

  14. Comparison of classical statistical methods and artificial neural network in traffic noise prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Nedic, Vladimir; Despotovic, Danijela; Cvetanovic, Slobodan; Despotovic, Milan; Babic, Sasa

    2014-11-15

    Traffic is the main source of noise in urban environments and significantly affects human mental and physical health and labor productivity. Therefore it is very important to model the noise produced by various vehicles. Techniques for traffic noise prediction are mainly based on regression analysis, which generally is not good enough to describe the trends of noise. In this paper the application of artificial neural networks (ANNs) for the prediction of traffic noise is presented. As input variables of the neural network, the proposed structure of the traffic flow and the average speed of the traffic flow are chosen. The output variable of the network is the equivalent noise level in the given time period L{sub eq}. Based on these parameters, the network is modeled, trained and tested through a comparative analysis of the calculated values and measured levels of traffic noise using the originally developed user friendly software package. It is shown that the artificial neural networks can be a useful tool for the prediction of noise with sufficient accuracy. In addition, the measured values were also used to calculate equivalent noise level by means of classical methods, and comparative analysis is given. The results clearly show that ANN approach is superior in traffic noise level prediction to any other statistical method. - Highlights: • We proposed an ANN model for prediction of traffic noise. • We developed originally designed user friendly software package. • The results are compared with classical statistical methods. • The results are much better predictive capabilities of ANN model.

  15. Towards Full Aircraft Airframe Noise Prediction: Detached Eddy Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Mineck, Raymond E.

    2014-01-01

    Results from a computational study on the aeroacoustic characteristics of an 18%-scale, semi-span Gulf-stream aircraft model are presented in this paper. NASA's FUN3D unstructured compressible Navier-Stokes solver was used to perform steady and unsteady simulations of the flow field associated with this high-fidelity aircraft model. Solutions were obtained for free-air at a Mach number of 0.2 with the flap deflected at 39 deg, with the main gear off and on (the two baseline configurations). Initially, the study focused on accurately predicting the prominent noise sources at both flap tips for the baseline configuration with deployed flap only. Building upon the experience gained from this initial effort, subsequent work involved the full landing configuration with both flap and main landing gear deployed. For the unsteady computations, we capitalized on the Detached Eddy Simulation capability of FUN3D to capture the complex time-dependent flow features associated with the flap and main gear. To resolve the noise sources over a broad frequency range, the tailored grid was very dense near the flap inboard and outboard tips and the region surrounding the gear. Extensive comparison of the computed steady and unsteady surface pressures with wind tunnel measurements showed good agreement for the global aerodynamic characteristics and the local flow field at the flap inboard tip. However, the computed pressure coefficients indicated that a zone of separated flow that forms in the vicinity of the outboard tip is larger in extent along the flap span and chord than measurements suggest. Computed farfield acoustic characteristics from a FW-H integral approach that used the simulated pressures on the model solid surface were in excellent agreement with corresponding measurements.

  16. Acoustic loads prediction on jet aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, N. N.

    1992-07-01

    A nearfield aircraft noise prediction computer program is presented for the F-22 aircraft. The dominant sources of noise are jet turbulent mixing noise, jet broadband shock noise, and fluctuating pressure under the turbulent boundary layer. All results from this investigation are presented in viewgraph format.

  17. Acoustic loads prediction on jet aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, N. N.

    1992-01-01

    A nearfield aircraft noise prediction computer program is presented for the F-22 aircraft. The dominant sources of noise are jet turbulent mixing noise, jet broadband shock noise, and fluctuating pressure under the turbulent boundary layer. All results from this investigation are presented in viewgraph format.

  18. ANOPP Landing Gear Noise Prediction Comparisons to Model-scale Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, Casey L.; Brooks, Thomas F.; Humphreys, William M., Jr.; Rawls, John W., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Aircraft NOise Prediction Program (ANOPP) includes two methods for computing the noise from landing gear: the "Fink" method and the "Guo" method. Both methods have been predominately validated and used to predict full-scale landing gear noise. The two methods are compared, and their ability to predict the noise for model-scale landing gear is investigated. Predictions are made using both the Fink and Guo methods and compared to measured acoustic data obtained for a high-fidelity, 6.3%-scale, Boeing 777 main landing gear. A process is developed by which full-scale predictions can be scaled to compare with model-scale data. The measurements were obtained in the NASA Langley Quiet Flow Facility for a range of Mach numbers at a large number of observer polar (flyover) and azimuthal (sideline) observer angles. Spectra and contours of the measured sound pressure levels as a function of polar and azimuthal angle characterize the directivity of landing gear noise. Comparisons of predicted noise spectra and contours from each ANOPP method are made. Both methods predict comparable amplitudes and trends for the flyover locations, but deviate at the sideline locations. Neither method fully captures the measured noise directivity. The availability of these measured data provides the opportunity to further understand and advance noise prediction capabilities, particularly for noise directivity.

  19. Prediction of Tohoku Seismic Catastrophe by Microseismic Noise Multi-Fractal Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyubushin, A.

    2011-12-01

    The analysis of low-frequency seismic noise multi-fractal properties from broadband network F-net in Japan allowed a hypothesis about approaching Japan Islands to a future seismic catastrophe to be formulated at the middle of 2008. The base for such a hypothesis was statistically significant decreasing of multi-fractal singularity spectrum support width mean value. The peculiarities of correlation coefficient estimate within 1 year time window between median values of singularity spectra support width and generalized Hurst exponent allowed to make a decision that starting from July of 2010 Japan come to the state of waiting strong earthquake. This prediction of Tohoku earthquake, initially with estimate of lower magnitude as 8.3 only (at the middle of 2008) and further on with estimate of the time beginning of waiting earthquake (from the middle of 2010) was published in advance in a number of scientific articles and abstracts on international conferences. The analysis of data after Tohoku earthquake indicates increasing probability of the 2nd strong earthquake with magnitude more than 8.5 starting from the middle of August 2011 within the rectangular domain with longitudes range 137-142 degrees and latitudes range 30-34 degrees which is characterized by relatively low values of singularity spectrum support width. Plotting the maps of singularity spectra support width within moving time window based on the time series from monitoring systems presents a new method of dynamic seismic hazard estimate.
    When and Were the prediction of Tohoku 2011 seismic catastrophe was published

  20. Supersonic jet noise - Its generation, prediction and effects on people and structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Preisser, J. S.; Golub, R. A.; Seiner, J. M.; Powell, C. A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study aimed at quantifying the effects of jet source noise reduction, increases in aircraft lift, and reduced aircraft thrust on the take-off noise associated with supersonic civil transports. Supersonic jet noise sources are first described, and their frequency and directivity dependence are defined. The study utilizes NASA's Aircraft Noise Prediction Program in a parametric study to weigh the relative benefits of several approaches to low noise. The baseline aircraft concept used in these predictions is the AST-205-1 powered by GE21/J11-B14A scaled engines. Noise assessment is presented in terms of effective perceived noise levels at the FAA's centerline and sideline measuring locations for current subsonic aircraft, and in terms of audiologically perceived sound of people and other indirect effects. The results show that significant noise benefit can be achieved through proper understanding and utilization of all available approaches.

  1. Prediction of unsuppressed jet engine exhaust noise in flight from static data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    A methodology developed for predicting in-flight exhaust noise from static data is presented and compared with experimental data for several unsuppressed turbojet engines. For each engine, static data over a range of jet velocities are compared with the predicted jet mixing noise and shock-cell noise. The static engine noise over and above the jet and shock noises is identified as excess noise. The excess noise data are then empirically correlated to smooth the spectral and directivity relations and account for variations in test conditions. This excess noise is then projected to flight based on the assumption that the only effects of flight are a Doppler frequency shift and a level change given by 40 log (1 - m sub 0 cos theta), where M sub 0 is the flight Mach number and theta is the observer angle relative to the jet axis.

  2. Cyclostationary spectral analysis for the measurement and prediction of wind turbine swishing noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheong, Cheolung; Joseph, Phillip

    2014-07-01

    This paper introduces cyclostationary spectral analysis as a new approach to analyzing and predicting the aerodynamic noise generated by wind turbines. This method is able to reveal new insights into the periodic character of the noise signal and is therefore ideally suited to the study of wind turbine noise. A new formulation is presented for the time variation of the noise spectrum due to wind turbines thereby providing insight into the character of the periodic variation in noise referred to as 'swishing'. The character and mechanism of swishing noise is analyzed in detail.

  3. Comparison of predictions and under-the-wing EBF noise data. [Externally Blown Flaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, M. R.; Olsen, W. A.

    1976-01-01

    Detailed three-dimensional free field noise data were obtained by NASA for an under-the-wing externally blown model three-flap wing, and for a similar slotless wing. Spatial (polar and azimuthal) and spectral characteristics of these data are presented. These data are compared with predictions from some published EBF noise calculation methods. Methods include the totally empirical ANOPP and GELAC procedures, and a semi-empirical noise component method. The latter method adds the separately computed dipole noise due to fluctuating lift and drag, trailing edge noise, and quadrupole noise due to the deflected jet. Each of these components is calculated for the local geometry and flow conditions.

  4. RETRACTED: Flap side edge noise modeling and prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yueping

    2013-08-01

    This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal (http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy).This article has been retracted at the request of the first author because of the overlap with previously published papers. The first author takes full responsibility and sincerely apologizes for the error made.This article has been retracted at the request of the Editor-in-Chief.The article duplicates significant parts of an earlier paper by the same author, published in AIAA (Y.P. Guo, Aircraft flap side edge noise modeling and prediction. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, (2011), 10.2514/6.2011-2731). Prior to republication, conference papers should be comprehensively extended, and re-use of any data should be appropriately cited. As such this article represents a severe abuse of the scientific publishing system. The scientific community takes a very strong view on this matter and apologies are offered to readers of the journal that this was not detected during the submission process.

  5. Maneuvering Rotorcraft Noise Prediction: A New Code for a New Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brentner, Kenneth S.; Bres, Guillaume A.; Perez, Guillaume; Jones, Henry E.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the unique aspects of the development of an entirely new maneuver noise prediction code called PSU-WOPWOP. The main focus of the code is the aeroacoustic aspects of the maneuver noise problem, when the aeromechanical input data are provided (namely aircraft and blade motion, blade airloads). The PSU-WOPWOP noise prediction capability was developed for rotors in steady and transient maneuvering flight. Featuring an object-oriented design, the code allows great flexibility for complex rotor configuration and motion (including multiple rotors and full aircraft motion). The relative locations and number of hinges, flexures, and body motions can be arbitrarily specified to match the any specific rotorcraft. An analysis of algorithm efficiency is performed for maneuver noise prediction along with a description of the tradeoffs made specifically for the maneuvering noise problem. Noise predictions for the main rotor of a rotorcraft in steady descent, transient (arrested) descent, hover and a mild "pop-up" maneuver are demonstrated.

  6. New Computational Methods for the Prediction and Analysis of Helicopter Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strawn, Roger C.; Oliker, Leonid; Biswas, Rupak

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes several new methods to predict and analyze rotorcraft noise. These methods are: 1) a combined computational fluid dynamics and Kirchhoff scheme for far-field noise predictions, 2) parallel computer implementation of the Kirchhoff integrations, 3) audio and visual rendering of the computed acoustic predictions over large far-field regions, and 4) acoustic tracebacks to the Kirchhoff surface to pinpoint the sources of the rotor noise. The paper describes each method and presents sample results for three test cases. The first case consists of in-plane high-speed impulsive noise and the other two cases show idealized parallel and oblique blade-vortex interactions. The computed results show good agreement with available experimental data but convey much more information about the far-field noise propagation. When taken together, these new analysis methods exploit the power of new computer technologies and offer the potential to significantly improve our prediction and understanding of rotorcraft noise.

  7. Validation of Aircraft Noise Prediction Models at Low Levels of Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Page, Juliet A.; Hobbs, Christopher M.; Plotkin, Kenneth J.; Stusnick, Eric; Shepherd, Kevin P. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Aircraft noise measurements were made at Denver International Airport for a period of four weeks. Detailed operational information was provided by airline operators which enabled noise levels to be predicted using the FAA's Integrated Noise Model. Several thrust prediction techniques were evaluated. Measured sound exposure levels for departure operations were found to be 4 to 10 dB higher than predicted, depending on the thrust prediction technique employed. Differences between measured and predicted levels are shown to be related to atmospheric conditions present at the aircraft altitude.

  8. Assessment of Slat Noise Predictions for 30P30N High-Lift Configuration From BANC-III Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhari, Meelan; Lockard, David P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of the computational predictions and measurement data contributed to Category 7 of the 3rd AIAA Workshop on Benchmark Problems for Airframe Noise Computations (BANC-III), which was held in Atlanta, GA, on June 14-15, 2014. Category 7 represents the first slat-noise configuration to be investigated under the BANC series of workshops, namely, the 30P30N two-dimensional high-lift model (with a slat contour that was slightly modified to enable unsteady pressure measurements) at an angle of attack that is relevant to approach conditions. Originally developed for a CFD challenge workshop to assess computational fluid dynamics techniques for steady high-lift predictions, the 30P30N configurations has provided a valuable opportunity for the airframe noise community to collectively assess and advance the computational and experimental techniques for slat noise. The contributed solutions are compared with each other as well as with the initial measurements that became available just prior to the BANC-III Workshop. Specific features of a number of computational solutions on the finer grids compare reasonably well with the initial measurements from FSU and JAXA facilities and/or with each other. However, no single solution (or a subset of solutions) could be identified as clearly superior to the remaining solutions. Grid sensitivity studies presented by multiple BANC-III participants demonstrated a relatively consistent trend of reduced surface pressure fluctuations, higher levels of turbulent kinetic energy in the flow, and lower levels of both narrow band peaks and the broadband component of unsteady pressure spectra in the nearfield and farfield. The lessons learned from the BANC-III contributions have been used to identify improvements to the problem statement for future Category-7 investigations.

  9. Auditory Brainstem Response to Complex Sounds Predicts Self-Reported Speech-in-Noise Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Samira; Parbery-Clark, Alexandra; White-Schwoch, Travis; Kraus, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the ability of the auditory brainstem response to complex sounds (cABR) to predict subjective ratings of speech understanding in noise on the Speech, Spatial, and Qualities of Hearing Scale (SSQ; Gatehouse & Noble, 2004) relative to the predictive ability of the Quick Speech-in-Noise test (QuickSIN; Killion, Niquette,

  10. Auditory Brainstem Response to Complex Sounds Predicts Self-Reported Speech-in-Noise Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Samira; Parbery-Clark, Alexandra; White-Schwoch, Travis; Kraus, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the ability of the auditory brainstem response to complex sounds (cABR) to predict subjective ratings of speech understanding in noise on the Speech, Spatial, and Qualities of Hearing Scale (SSQ; Gatehouse & Noble, 2004) relative to the predictive ability of the Quick Speech-in-Noise test (QuickSIN; Killion, Niquette,…

  11. Prediction of jet exhaust noise on airframe surfaces during flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butzel, L. M.

    1981-01-01

    The behavior of pressure fluctuations measured on the airframe of a prototype high lift jet transport (YC-14) is presented. The data are characterized in terms of a particular jet exhaust flow field idealization, jet mixing noise, and exhaust shock noise. Generalized spectrum shapes and scaling relations for peak level and frequency of peak level are developed, and the frequency is found to depend on jet exhaust velocity and aircraft velocity. Comparisons are made with near-field engine exhaust noise of a conventional jet, and results suggest that the same two exhaust noises are important for both aircraft types. Surface fluctuating pressure data are assessed, and results suggest that the jet mixing and exhaust shock noise source characterizations for the YC-14 have useful applicability to conventionally configured jets.

  12. Broadband channel capacities

    SciTech Connect

    Giovannetti, Vittorio; Maccone, Lorenzo; Lloyd, Seth; Shor, Peter W.

    2003-12-01

    We study the communication capacities of bosonic broadband channels in the presence of different sources of noise. In particular we analyze lossy channels in the presence of white noise and thermal bath. In this context, we provide a solution for the entanglement-assisted capacity and upper and lower bounds for the classical and quantum capacities.

  13. Comparison of Predicted and Measured Attenuation of Turbine Noise from a Static Engine Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, Eugene W.; Ruiz, Marta; Yu, Jia; Morin, Bruce L.; Cicon, Dennis; Schwieger, Paul S.; Nark, Douglas M.

    2007-01-01

    Aircraft noise has become an increasing concern for commercial airlines. Worldwide demand for quieter aircraft is increasing, making the prediction of engine noise suppression one of the most important fields of research. The Low-Pressure Turbine (LPT) can be an important noise source during the approach condition for commercial aircraft. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Pratt & Whitney (P&W), and Goodrich Aerostructures (Goodrich) conducted a joint program to validate a method for predicting turbine noise attenuation. The method includes noise-source estimation, acoustic treatment impedance prediction, and in-duct noise propagation analysis. Two noise propagation prediction codes, Eversman Finite Element Method (FEM) code [1] and the CDUCT-LaRC [2] code, were used in this study to compare the predicted and the measured turbine noise attenuation from a static engine test. In this paper, the test setup, test configurations and test results are detailed in Section II. A description of the input parameters, including estimated noise modal content (in terms of acoustic potential), and acoustic treatment impedance values are provided in Section III. The prediction-to-test correlation study results are illustrated and discussed in Section IV and V for the FEM and the CDUCT-LaRC codes, respectively, and a summary of the results is presented in Section VI.

  14. Comparison of Noise Source Localization Data with Flow Field Data Obtained in Cold Supersonic Jets and Implications Regarding Broadband Shock Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podboy, Gary; Wernet, Mark; Clem, Michelle; Fagan, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Phased array noise source localization have been compared with 2 types of flow field data (BOS and PIV). The data show that: 1) the higher frequency noise in a BBSN hump is generated further downstream than the lower frequency noise. This is due to a) the shock spacing decreasing and b) the turbulent structure size increasing with distance downstream. 2) BBSN can be created by very weak shocks. 3) BBSN is not created by the strong shocks just downstream of the nozzle because the turbulent structures have not grown large enough to match the shock spacing. 4) The point in the flow where the shock spacing equals the average size of the turbulent structures is a hot spot for shock noise. 5) Some of the shocks responsible for producing the first hump also produce the second hump.

  15. Measurements and predictions of flyover and static noise of a TF30 afterburning turbofan engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, F. W., Jr.; Lasagna, P. L.; Oas, S. C.

    1978-01-01

    The noise of the TF30 afterburning turbofan engine in an F-111 airplane was determined from static (ground) and flyover tests. A survey was made to measure the exhaust temperature and velocity profiles for a range of power settings. Comparisons were made between predicted and measured jet mixing, internal, and shock noise. It was found that the noise produced at static conditions was dominated by jet mixing noise, and was adequately predicted by current methods. The noise produced during flyovers exhibited large contributions from internally generated noise in the forward arc. For flyovers with the engine at nonafterburning power, the internal noise, shock noise, and jet mixing noise were accurately predicted. During flyovers with afterburning power settings, however, additional internal noise believed to be due to the afterburning process was evident; its level was as much as 8 decibels above the nonafterburning internal noise. Power settings that produced exhausts with inverted velocity profiles appeared to be slightly less noisy than power settings of equal thrust that produced uniform exhaust velocity profiles both in flight and in static testing.

  16. Evaluation and prediction of blade-passing frequency noise generated by a centrifugal blower

    SciTech Connect

    Ohta, Y.; Outa, E.; Tajima, K.

    1996-07-01

    The blade-passing frequency noise, abbreviated to BPF noise, of a low-specific-speed centrifugal blower is analyzed by separating the frequency response of the transmission passage and the intensity of the noise source. Frequency response has previously been evaluated by the authors using a one-dimensional linear wave model, and the results have agreed well with the experimental response in a practical range of the blower speed. In the present study, the intensity of the noise source is estimated by introducing the quasi-steady model of the blade wake impingement on the scroll surface. The effective location of the noise source is determined by analyzing the cross-correlation between measured data of the blower suction noise and pressure fluctuation on the scroll surface. Then, the surface density distribution of a dipole noise source is determined from pressure fluctuations expressed in terms of quasi-steady dynamic pressure of the traveling blade wake. Finally, the free-field noise level is predicted by integrating the density spectrum of the noise source over the effective source area. The sound pressure level of the blower suction noise is easily predicted by multiplying the free-field noise level by the frequency-response characteristics of the noise transmission passage.

  17. Prediction of jet noise shielding with forward flight effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayoral, Salvador

    Aircraft noise continues to be a major concern among airport-neighboring communities. A strong component of aircraft noise is the jet noise that is generated from the turbulent mixing between the jet exhaust and ambient medium. The hybrid wing body aircraft suppresses jet noise by mounting the engines over-the-wing so that the airframe may shield ground observers from jet noise sources. Subscale jet noise shielding measurements of a scaled-down turbofan nozzle and a model of the hybrid wing body planform are taken with two 12-microphone polar arrays. Chevrons and wedge-type fan flow deflectors are integrated into the baseline bypass ratio 10 (BPR10) nozzle to modify the mean flow and alter the noise source behavior. Acoustic results indicate that the baseline BPR10 nozzle produces a long noise source region that the airframe has difficulty shielding, even when the nozzle is translated two fan diameters upstream of its nominal position. The integration of either chevrons or fan flow deflectors into the nozzle is essential for jet noise shielding because they translate peak intensities upstream, closer to the fan exit plane. The numerical counterpart of this study transforms the system of equations governing the acoustic diffraction with forward flight into the wave equation. Two forward flight formulations are considered: uniform flow over slender body; and non-uniform potential flow at low Mach number. The wave equation is solved numerically in the frequency domain using the boundary element method. The equivalent jet noise source is modeled using the combination of a wavepacket and a monopole. The wavepacket is parameterized using the experimental far-field acoustic autospectra of the BPR10 jets and knowledge of their peak noise locations. It is shown that the noise source compacts with increasing Mach number and consequently there is an increase in shielding. An assessment of the error associated with the non-uniform formulation for forward flight shows that the error is low for Mach numbers less than or equal to 0.2, but can be on the same scale as the acoustic scatter field when the Mach number is 0.6.

  18. Image discrimination models predict detection in fixed but not random noise.

    PubMed

    Ahumada, A J; Beard, B L

    1997-09-01

    By means of a two-interval forced-choice procedure, contrast detection thresholds for an aircraft positioned on a simulated airport runway scene were measured with fixed and random white-noise masks. The term fixed noise refers to a constant, or unchanging, noise pattern for each stimulus presentation. The random noise was either the same or different in the two intervals. Contrary to simple image discrimination model predictions, the same random noise condition produced greater masking than the fixed noise. This suggests that observers seem unable to hold a new noisy image for comparison. Also, performance appeared limited by internal process variability rather than by external noise variability, since similar masking was obtained for both random noise types. PMID:9291614

  19. Image discrimination models predict detection in fixed but not random noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahumada, A. J. Jr; Beard, B. L.; Watson, A. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    By means of a two-interval forced-choice procedure, contrast detection thresholds for an aircraft positioned on a simulated airport runway scene were measured with fixed and random white-noise masks. The term fixed noise refers to a constant, or unchanging, noise pattern for each stimulus presentation. The random noise was either the same or different in the two intervals. Contrary to simple image discrimination model predictions, the same random noise condition produced greater masking than the fixed noise. This suggests that observers seem unable to hold a new noisy image for comparison. Also, performance appeared limited by internal process variability rather than by external noise variability, since similar masking was obtained for both random noise types.

  20. On INM's Use of Corrected Net Thrust for the Prediction of Jet Aircraft Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McAninch, Gerry L.; Shepherd, Kevin P.

    2011-01-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration s (FAA) Integrated Noise Model (INM) employs a prediction methodology that relies on corrected net thrust as the sole correlating parameter between aircraft and engine operating states and aircraft noise. Thus aircraft noise measured for one set of atmospheric and aircraft operating conditions is assumed to be applicable to all other conditions as long as the corrected net thrust remains constant. This hypothesis is investigated under two primary assumptions: (1) the sound field generated by the aircraft is dominated by jet noise, and (2) the sound field generated by the jet flow is adequately described by Lighthill s theory of noise generated by turbulence.

  1. Prediction and Reduction of Noise in Pneumatic Bleed Valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taghavi Nezhad, Shervin

    This study investigates numerically the fluid mechanics and acoustics of pneumatic bleed valves used in turbofan engines. The goal is to characterized the fundamental processes of noise generation and devise strategies for noise reduction. Three different methods are employed for both analysis and redesign of the bleed valve to reduce noise. The bleed valve noise problem is carefully divided into multiple smaller problems. For large separations and tonal noises, the unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) method is utilized. This method is also applied in the re-designing of the bleed valve geometry. For the bleed valve muffler, which is comprised of perforated plates and a honeycomb, a Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) method combined with a simplified acoustic analogy is used. The original muffler design is modified to improve noise attenuation. Finally, for sound scattering through perforated plates, a fully implicit linearized Euler solver is developed. The problem of sound interaction with perforated plates is studied from two perspectives. In the first study the effect of high--speed mean flow is considered and it is shown that at Strouhal numbers of around 0.2-0.25 there is an increase in transmitted incident sound. In the second part, the interaction of holes in two--dimensional perforated plates is investigated using three different configurations. The study demonstrates that the hole interaction has a significant impact on sound attenuation, especially at high frequencies.

  2. A review and update of the NASA aircraft noise prediction program propeller analysis system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, Robert A.; Nguyen, L. Cathy

    1989-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP) Propeller Analysis System (PAS) is a set of computational modules for predicting the aerodynamics, performance, and noise of propellers. The ANOPP PAS has the capability to predict noise levels for propeller aircraft certification and produce parametric scaling laws for the adjustment of measured data to reference conditions. A technical overview of the prediction techniques incorporated into the system is presented. The prediction system has been applied to predict the noise signature of a variety of propeller configurations including the effects of propeller angle of attack. A summary of these validation studies is discussed with emphasis being placed on the wind tunnel and flight test programs sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) for the Piper Cherokee Lance aircraft. A number of modifications and improvements have been made to the system and both DEC VAX and IBM-PC versions of the system have been added to the original CDC NOS version.

  3. Validation of finite element and boundary element methods for predicting structural vibration and radiated noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seybert, A. F.; Wu, X. F.; Oswald, Fred B.

    1992-01-01

    Analytical and experimental validation of methods to predict structural vibration and radiated noise are presented. A rectangular box excited by a mechanical shaker was used as a vibrating structure. Combined finite element method (FEM) and boundary element method (BEM) models of the apparatus were used to predict the noise radiated from the box. The FEM was used to predict the vibration, and the surface vibration was used as input to the BEM to predict the sound intensity and sound power. Vibration predicted by the FEM model was validated by experimental modal analysis. Noise predicted by the BEM was validated by sound intensity measurements. Three types of results are presented for the total radiated sound power: (1) sound power predicted by the BEM modeling using vibration data measured on the surface of the box; (2) sound power predicted by the FEM/BEM model; and (3) sound power measured by a sound intensity scan. The sound power predicted from the BEM model using measured vibration data yields an excellent prediction of radiated noise. The sound power predicted by the combined FEM/BEM model also gives a good prediction of radiated noise except for a shift of the natural frequencies that are due to limitations in the FEM model.

  4. “Buzz-saw” noise: Prediction of the rotor-alone pressure field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAlpine, A.; Schwaller, P. J. G.; Fisher, M. J.; Tester, B. J.

    2012-10-01

    Public expectations of lower environmental noise levels, and increasingly stringent legislative limits on aircraft noise, result in noise being a critical technical issue in the development of jet engines. Noise at take-off, when the engines are at high-power operating conditions, is a key reference level for engine noise certification. "Buzz-saw" noise is the dominant fan tone noise from modern high-bypass-ratio turbofan aircraft engines during take-off. Rotor-alone tones are the key component of buzz-saw noise. The rotor-alone pressure field is cut-off at subsonic fan tip speeds; buzz-saw noise is associated with supersonic fan tip speeds, or equivalently, high power engine operating conditions. A recent series of papers has described new work concerning the prediction of buzz-saw noise. The prediction method is based on modelling the nonlinear propagation of one-dimensional sawtooth waveforms. A sawtooth waveform is a simplified representation of the rotor-alone pressure field. Previous validation of the prediction method focussed entirely on reproducing the spectral characteristics of buzz-saw noise; this was dictated at that time by the availability of spectral data only for comparison between measurement and prediction. In this paper, full validation of the method by comparing measurement and prediction of the rotor-alone pressure field is published for the first time. It is shown that results from the modelling based on a one-dimensional sawtooth waveform capture the essential features of the rotor-alone pressure field as it propagates upstream inside a hard-walled inlet duct. This verifies that predictions of the buzz-saw noise spectrum, which are in good agreement with the measured data, are based on a model which reproduces the key physics of the noise generation process. Validation results for the rotor-alone pressure field in an acoustically lined inlet duct are also shown. Comparisons of the measured and predicted rotor-alone pressure field are more difficult to interpret because the acoustic lining significantly modifies the sawtooth waveform, but there remains good agreement with the measured spectral data. The buzz-saw noise prediction code used to generate the simulations in this paper has been used by the Rolls-Royce Noise Department since 2004.

  5. Tyre/road interaction noiseNumerical noise prediction of a patterned tyre on a rough road surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Boy, D. J.; Dowling, A. P.

    2009-06-01

    The noise which results from the interaction of pneumatic tyres with a rough road surface is a significant contributor to an increasing local environmental problem. Above a steady forward vehicle speed of 40 km/h this is the dominant noise source of a modern car in good working condition, and is a significant contributor to the overall radiated noise during acceleration. In order to determine the noise produced by a patterned tyre rolling on a rough road surface, the vibration characteristics of the tyre must be known. A method has been presented by O'Boy and Dowling [Tyre/road interaction noise: a 3d viscoelastic multilayer model of a tyre belt, Journal of Sound and Vibration, volume 322, issues 4-5, 22 May 2009, pages 829-850] which provides these vibration characteristics for a tyre belt composed of multiple viscoelastic layers, each layer having a different thickness and material properties. In this paper, we use this model of the tyre belt to determine the parameters of an equivalent simple bending plate model which can be adapted to yield the response of a tyre which includes sidewalls. A method is then described which uses this response to determine the acceleration of the tyre surface as it rolls over a rough road. These accelerations are then used to predict the far-field radiated noise for a patterned tyre on two rough road surfaces. Comparisons with experimental data are provided at each stage.

  6. A new capability for predicting helicopter rotor and propeller noise including the effect of forward motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farassat, F.; Brown, T. J.

    1977-01-01

    The governing equation and computing technique for the prediction of helicopter rotor and propeller noise are described. The method which gives both the acoustic pressure time history and spectrum of the noise includes the thickness and the loading noise. It was adapted to computers resulting in a new capability in noise prediction by removing many of the restrictions and limitations of previous theories. The capability results from the fact that the theory is developed entirely in the time domain. The formulation and the technique used are not limited to compact sources, steady level flight or to the far-field. In addition, the inputs to the computer program are normally available or are amenable to experimental measurements. This program can be used to study rotor and propeller noise with the aim of minimizing the radiated noise to reduce annoyance to the public. Several examples demonstrating the features and capability of the computer program are presented.

  7. Understanding Slat Noise Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khorrami, Medhi R.

    2003-01-01

    Model-scale aeroacoustic tests of large civil transports point to the leading-edge slat as a dominant high-lift noise source in the low- to mid-frequencies during aircraft approach and landing. Using generic multi-element high-lift models, complementary experimental and numerical tests were carefully planned and executed at NASA in order to isolate slat noise sources and the underlying noise generation mechanisms. In this paper, a brief overview of the supporting computational effort undertaken at NASA Langley Research Center, is provided. Both tonal and broadband aspects of slat noise are discussed. Recent gains in predicting a slat s far-field acoustic noise, current shortcomings of numerical simulations, and other remaining open issues, are presented. Finally, an example of the ever-expanding role of computational simulations in noise reduction studies also is given.

  8. Prediction of free-field noise levels from pole microphone measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoerki, C. A.; Larson, R. S.

    1980-06-01

    A theoretical model was developed to predict free-field noise levels from static jet-engine acoustic data obtained with pole-mounted microphones. The free-field correction developed in this model includes the effects of scattering of sound by turbulence in the atmosphere, finite ground impedance, jet noise source location, and microphone directionality. Normal incidence ground impedance values for several surfaces were defined in an experimental study. A detailed comparison of predictions from this theory, using the experimentally measured impedance, and full scale jet engine data demonstrated the necessity of including these effects to accurately predict free-field noise levels from pole-microphone data.

  9. Evaluation of ride quality prediction methods for helicopter interior noise and vibration environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leatherwood, J. D.; Clevenson, S. A.; Hollenbaugh, D. D.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a simulator study conducted to compare and validate various ride quality prediction methods for use in assessing passenger/crew ride comfort within helicopters are presented. Included are results quantifying 35 helicopter pilots discomfort responses to helicopter interior noise and vibration typical of routine flights, assessment of various ride quality metrics including the NASA ride comfort model, and examination of possible criteria approaches. Results of the study indicated that crew discomfort results from a complex interaction between vibration and interior noise. Overall measures such as weighted or unweighted root-mean-square acceleration level and A-weighted noise level were not good predictors of discomfort. Accurate prediction required a metric incorporating the interactive effects of both noise and vibration. The best metric for predicting crew comfort to the combined noise and vibration environment was the NASA discomfort index.

  10. Blade-Vortex Interaction (BVI) Noise and Airload Prediction Using Loose Aerodynamic/Structural Coupling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sim, B. W.; Lim, J. W.

    2007-01-01

    Predictions of blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise, using blade airloads obtained from a coupled aerodynamic and structural methodology, are presented. This methodology uses an iterative, loosely-coupled trim strategy to cycle information between the OVERFLOW-2 (CFD) and CAMRAD-II (CSD) codes. Results are compared to the HART-II baseline, minimum noise and minimum vibration conditions. It is shown that this CFD/CSD state-of-the-art approach is able to capture blade airload and noise radiation characteristics associated with BVI. With the exception of the HART-II minimum noise condition, predicted advancing and retreating side BVI for the baseline and minimum vibration conditions agrees favorably with measured data. Although the BVI airloads and noise amplitudes are generally under-predicted, this CFD/CSD methodology provides an overall noteworthy improvement over the lifting line aerodynamics and free-wake models typically used in CSD comprehensive analysis codes.

  11. Toward high-fidelity subsonic jet noise prediction using petascale supercomputers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martha, Chandra Sekhar

    The field of jet noise has become one of most active areas of research due to increasingly stringent aircraft noise regulations. A petascalable noise prediction tool-set based on the large eddy simulation (LES) technique is designed and implemented to improve the fidelity of subsonic jet noise predictions. Such tools are needed to help drive the design of quieter jets. The focus is to target computational performance and improved noise prediction fidelity through better matching experimental jet conditions and/or inclusion of the nozzle as part of the simulation. A communication-efficient SPIKE solver is used for spatial operations in conjunction with a non-overlapping multi-block topology based on a new concept of superblocks. These two choices have resulted in efficient scalability tested on up to 91,125 processors (or a theoretical speed of ˜1 petaflop/s). Other important optimizations include parallel file I/O and data buffering while gathering the acoustics. The noise from a Mach-0.9, isothermal jet is studied without and with a round nozzle. Production runs with up to first-ever one-billion-point simple-block topology grids without the nozzle and 125-million-point multi-block topology grids with the nozzle are performed. A vortex ring is used to excite the shear layers in the cases without the nozzle. The fine grid simulations with thinner shear layers have predicted higher sideline noise levels caused by the vortex ring and hence, established the need for nozzle inclusion. The problems of the centerline singularity and smaller time step size due to cylindrical grids have been addressed. A new, faster method based on a sinc filter is discussed for the time step issue in cylindrical grids. Two approaches are considered for nozzle inclusion by: 1) fully resolving the boundary layers at a lower Reynolds number; and 2) using a wall model to model the inner layer at the experimental Reynolds number. The wall-modeled cases exhibited numerical instabilities behind the nozzle lip which contaminated the far-field noise data, whereas the wall-resolved cases showed no such problems. The latter cases predicted noise and spectra that are in better agreement with the experiments. Overall, the inclusion of the nozzle as part of the LES is found to improve the noise predictions. Various innovative noise analysis tools have been used to understand the jet noise to a better extent. Lastly, specific guidelines have been suggested to improve jet noise predictions. It is hoped that the predicted noise levels with improved fidelity will help drive the design of quieter nozzles.

  12. The Uses and Abuses of the Acoustic Analogy in Helicopter Rotor Noise Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farassat, F.; Brentner, Kenneth S.

    1987-01-01

    This paper is theoretical in nature and addresses applications of the acoustic analogy in helicopter rotor noise prediction. It is argued that in many instances the acoustic analogy has not been used with care in rotor noise studies. By this it is meant that approximate or inappropriate formulations have been used. By considering various mechanisms of noise generation, such abuses are identified and the remedy is suggested. The mechanisms discussed are thickness, loading, quadrupole, and blade-vortex interaction noise. The quadrupole term of the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equation is written in a new form which separates the contributions of regions of high gradients such as shock surfaces. It is shown by order of magnitude studies that such regions are capable of producing noise with the same directivity as the thickness noise. The inclusion of this part of quadrupole sources in current acoustic codes is quite practical. Some of the difficulties with the use of loading noise formulations of the first author in predictions of blade-vortex interaction noise are discussed. It appears that there is a need for development of new theoretical results based on the acoustic analogy in this area. Because of the impulsive character of the blade surface pressure, a time scale of integration different from that used in loading and thickness computations must he used in a computer code for prediction of blade-vortex interaction noise.

  13. Trailing edge noise prediction from measured surface pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, T. F.; Hodgson, T. H.

    1981-01-01

    Trailing edge (TE) noise is investigated for the case of a two-dimensional airfoil embedded in a uniform low Mach number flow, and the usefulness of several TE noise theories is examined by applying them to the measured data. The TE noise spectra and directivity are quantitatively determined for the case of a high Reynolds number and a fully turbulent boundary layer. Parameters include angle of attack, flow velocity and TE bluntness. Evanescent wave theories by Chase (1975) and Chandiramani (1974) are compared to the present results and show good agreement. Agreement of the near field pressure scatter phenomenon analysis with measurements implies that the basic assumptions used in the analysis are correct, i.e., the turbulent boundary layer (TBL) flow passes the trailing edge into the wake region. No hydrodynamic wake shedding activity is confirmed for the two-sided TBL flow, and a method incorporating the principles of the coherent output power method is used to determine the sound field. The near field edge scatter model is found to not only establish optimum sizing of edge treatment for noise control, but also to separate and identify the scattered field from the incident hydrodynamic field.

  14. Trailing edge noise prediction from measured surface pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, T. F.; Hodgson, T. H.

    1981-09-01

    Trailing edge (TE) noise is investigated for the case of a two-dimensional airfoil embedded in a uniform low Mach number flow, and the usefulness of several TE noise theories is examined by applying them to the measured data. The TE noise spectra and directivity are quantitatively determined for the case of a high Reynolds number and a fully turbulent boundary layer. Parameters include angle of attack, flow velocity and TE bluntness. Evanescent wave theories by Chase (1975) and Chandiramani (1974) are compared to the present results and show good agreement. Agreement of the near field pressure scatter phenomenon analysis with measurements implies that the basic assumptions used in the analysis are correct, i.e., the turbulent boundary layer (TBL) flow passes the trailing edge into the wake region. No hydrodynamic wake shedding activity is confirmed for the two-sided TBL flow, and a method incorporating the principles of the coherent output power method is used to determine the sound field. The near field edge scatter model is found to not only establish optimum sizing of edge treatment for noise control, but also to separate and identify the scattered field from the incident hydrodynamic field.

  15. 23 CFR 772.17 - Traffic noise prediction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... publications are incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51 and are on file... Federal Highway Administration, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE., Washington, DC 20590, as provided in 49 CFR... analysis required by this subpart must use the FHWA Traffic Noise Model (FHWA TNM), which is described...

  16. Evaluation of Turbulence-Model Performance as Applied to Jet-Noise Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodruff, S. L.; Seiner, J. M.; Hussaini, M. Y.; Erlebacher, G.

    1998-01-01

    The accurate prediction of jet noise is possible only if the jet flow field can be predicted accurately. Predictions for the mean velocity and turbulence quantities in the jet flowfield are typically the product of a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes solver coupled with a turbulence model. To evaluate the effectiveness of solvers and turbulence models in predicting those quantities most important to jet noise prediction, two CFD codes and several turbulence models were applied to a jet configuration over a range of jet temperatures for which experimental data is available.

  17. Low frequency noise impact from road traffic according to different noise prediction methods.

    PubMed

    Ascari, Elena; Licitra, Gaetano; Teti, Luca; Cerchiai, Mauro

    2015-02-01

    The European Noise Directive 2002/49/EC requires to draw up noise action plans. Most of the implemented solutions consist in using barriers, even if some studies evidenced that annoyance could increase after their installation. This action dumps the high frequencies, decreasing the masking effect on low ones. Therefore, people annoyance and complaints may increase despite the mitigation. This can happen even in pedestrian zones near main roads due to the screening effect of first buildings row. In this paper, the authors analyze the post-operam screening effects in terms of low frequency noise. The difference between C- and A-weighted levels is calculated as annoyance indicator (LC-A). Different methods able to map noise with octave bands detail are tested in order to establish differences in the estimates of annoyance exposure. In particular, a comparison is carried out between data from interim method NMPB 96, its updated version 2008, NORD 2000 and those provided by a customized procedure through ISO 9613 propagation and Statistical Pass By measurements. Test sites are simulated in order to validate each model results through measurements. Results are discussed for real locations in Pisa city center and virtual scenarios in a rising scale of complexity. PMID:25461069

  18. Design of the Next Generation Aircraft Noise Prediction Program: ANOPP2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopes, Leonard V., Dr.; Burley, Casey L.

    2011-01-01

    The requirements, constraints, and design of NASA's next generation Aircraft NOise Prediction Program (ANOPP2) are introduced. Similar to its predecessor (ANOPP), ANOPP2 provides the U.S. Government with an independent aircraft system noise prediction capability that can be used as a stand-alone program or within larger trade studies that include performance, emissions, and fuel burn. The ANOPP2 framework is designed to facilitate the combination of acoustic approaches of varying fidelity for the analysis of noise from conventional and unconventional aircraft. ANOPP2 integrates noise prediction and propagation methods, including those found in ANOPP, into a unified system that is compatible for use within general aircraft analysis software. The design of the system is described in terms of its functionality and capability to perform predictions accounting for distributed sources, installation effects, and propagation through a non-uniform atmosphere including refraction and the influence of terrain. The philosophy of mixed fidelity noise prediction through the use of nested Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings surfaces is presented and specific issues associated with its implementation are identified. Demonstrations for a conventional twin-aisle and an unconventional hybrid wing body aircraft configuration are presented to show the feasibility and capabilities of the system. Isolated model-scale jet noise predictions are also presented using high-fidelity and reduced order models, further demonstrating ANOPP2's ability to provide predictions for model-scale test configurations.

  19. Arrival angle anomalies of Rayleigh waves observed at a broadband array: a systematic study based on earthquake data, full waveform simulations and noise correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, H. A.; Boué, P.; Poli, P.; Colombi, A.

    2015-12-01

    Deviation of seismic surface waves from the great-circle between source and receiver is illustrated by the anomalies in the arrival angle, that is the difference between the observed backazimuth of the incident waves and the great-circle. Such arrival angle anomalies have been known for decades, but observations remain scattered. We present a systematic study of arrival angle anomalies of fundamental mode Rayleigh waves (20-100 s period interval) from 289 earthquakes and recorded by a broadband network LAPNET, located in northern Finland. These observations are compared with those of full waveform synthetic seismograms for the same events, calculated in a 3-D Earth and also compared with those of seismograms obtained by ambient noise correlation. The arrival angle anomalies for individual events are complex, and have significant variations with period. On average, the mean absolute deviation decreases from ˜9° at 20 s period to ˜3° at 100 s period. The synthetic seismograms show the same evolution, albeit with somewhat smaller deviations. While the arrival angle anomalies are fairly well simulated at long periods, the deviations at short periods are very poorly modelled, demonstrating the importance of the continuous improvement of global crustal models. At 20-30 s period, both event data and numerical simulations have strong multipathing, and relative amplitude changes between different waves will induced differences in deviations between very closely located events. The source mechanism has only limited influence on the deviations, demonstrating that they are directly linked to propagation effects, including near-field effects in the source area. This observation is confirmed by the comparison with seismic noise correlation records, that is where the surface waves correspond to those emitted by a point source at the surface, as the two types of observations are remarkably similar in the cases where earthquakes are located close to seismic stations. This agreement additionally confirms that the noise correlations capture the complex surface wave propagation.

  20. Prediction of XV-15 tilt rotor discrete frequency aeroacoustic noise with WOPWOP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffen, Charles D.; George, Albert R.

    1990-01-01

    The results, methodology, and conclusions of noise prediction calculations carried out to study several possible discrete frequency harmonic noise mechanisms of the XV-15 Tilt Rotor Aircraft in hover and helicopter mode forward flight are presented. The mechanisms studied were thickness and loading noise. In particular, the loading noise caused by flow separation and the fountain/ground plane effect were predicted with calculations made using WOPWOP, a noise prediction program developed by NASA Langley. The methodology was to model the geometry and aerodynamics of the XV-15 rotor blades in hover and steady level flight and then create corresponding FORTRAN subroutines which were used an input for WOPWOP. The models are described and the simplifying assumptions made in creating them are evaluated, and the results of the computations are presented. The computations lead to the following conclusions: The fountain/ground plane effect is an important source of aerodynamic noise for the XV-15 in hover. Unsteady flow separation from the airfoil passing through the fountain at high angles of attack significantly affects the predicted sound spectra and may be an important noise mechanism for the XV-15 in hover mode. The various models developed did not predict the sound spectra in helicopter forward flight. The experimental spectra indicate the presence of blade vortex interactions which were not modeled in these calculations. A need for further study and development of more accurate aerodynamic models, including unsteady stall in hover and blade vortex interactions in forward flight.

  1. Small Engine Technology (SET) Task 23 ANOPP Noise Prediction for Small Engines, Wing Reflection Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lieber, Lysbeth; Brown, Daniel; Golub, Robert A. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The work performed under Task 23 consisted of the development and demonstration of improvements for the NASA Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP), specifically targeted to the modeling of engine noise enhancement due to wing reflection. This report focuses on development of the model and procedure to predict the effects of wing reflection, and the demonstration of the procedure, using a representative wing/engine configuration.

  2. Advanced Computational Aeroacoustics Methods for Fan Noise Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Envia, Edmane (Technical Monitor); Tam, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    Direct computation of fan noise is presently not possible. One of the major difficulties is the geometrical complexity of the problem. In the case of fan noise, the blade geometry is critical to the loading on the blade and hence the intensity of the radiated noise. The precise geometry must be incorporated into the computation. In computational fluid dynamics (CFD), there are two general ways to handle problems with complex geometry. One way is to use unstructured grids. The other is to use body fitted overset grids. In the overset grid method, accurate data transfer is of utmost importance. For acoustic computation, it is not clear that the currently used data transfer methods are sufficiently accurate as not to contaminate the very small amplitude acoustic disturbances. In CFD, low order schemes are, invariably, used in conjunction with unstructured grids. However, low order schemes are known to be numerically dispersive and dissipative. dissipative errors are extremely undesirable for acoustic wave problems. The objective of this project is to develop a high order unstructured grid Dispersion-Relation-Preserving (DRP) scheme. would minimize numerical dispersion and dissipation errors. contains the results of the funded portion of the project. scheme on an unstructured grid has been developed. constructed in the wave number space. The characteristics of the scheme can be improved by the inclusion of additional constraints. Stability of the scheme has been investigated. Stability can be improved by adopting the upwinding strategy.

  3. Landing-gear noise prediction using high-order finite difference schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wen; Wook Kim, Jae; Zhang, Xin; Angland, David; Caruelle, Bastien

    2013-07-01

    Aerodynamic noise from a generic two-wheel landing-gear model is predicted by a CFD/FW-H hybrid approach. The unsteady flow-field is computed using a compressible Navier-Stokes solver based on high-order finite difference schemes and a fully structured grid. The calculated time history of the surface pressure data is used in an FW-H solver to predict the far-field noise levels. Both aerodynamic and aeroacoustic results are compared to wind tunnel measurements and are found to be in good agreement. The far-field noise was found to vary with the 6th power of the free-stream velocity. Individual contributions from three components, i.e. wheels, axle and strut of the landing-gear model are also investigated to identify the relative contribution to the total noise by each component. It is found that the wheels are the dominant noise source in general. Strong vortex shedding from the axle is the second major contributor to landing-gear noise. This work is part of Airbus LAnding Gear nOise database for CAA validatiON (LAGOON) program with the general purpose of evaluating current CFD/CAA and experimental techniques for airframe noise prediction.

  4. Interior noise control prediction study for high-speed propeller-driven aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rennison, D. C.; Wilby, J. F.; Marsh, A. H.; Wilby, E. G.

    1979-01-01

    An analytical model was developed to predict the noise levels inside propeller-driven aircraft during cruise at M = 0.8. The model was applied to three study aircraft with fuselages of different size (wide body, narrow body and small diameter) in order to determine the noise reductions required to achieve the goal of an A-weighted sound level which does not exceed 80 dB. The model was then used to determine noise control methods which could achieve the required noise reductions. Two classes of noise control treatments were investigated: add-on treatments which can be added to existing structures, and advanced concepts which would require changes to the fuselage primary structure. Only one treatment, a double wall with limp panel, provided the required noise reductions. Weight penalties associated with the treatment were estimated for the three study aircraft.

  5. Methods for Predicting Potential Impacts of Pile-Driving Noise on Endangered Sturgeon During Bridge Construction.

    PubMed

    Krebs, Justin; Jacobs, Fred; Conway, Robert; Popper, Arthur N; Moese, Mark; Rollino, John; Racca, Roberto; Martin, Bruce; MacGillivray, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The potential impacts of pile-driving noise on Hudson River sturgeon during construction of the New NY Bridge were predicted. Abundance data for shortnose and Atlantic sturgeon derived from fisheries sampling were combined with data about the spatial extent of pile-driving noise. This approach was used to calculate the number of sturgeon that could occur within sound level isopleths exceeding peak and cumulative noise criteria used by the National Marine Fisheries Service to determine the incidental take of sturgeon. The number of sturgeon subject to the potential onset of physiological effects during pile driving was predicted to be 35-41 fish for each species. PMID:26611005

  6. Analysis of impact/impulse noise for predicting noise induced hearing loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vipperman, Jeffrey S.; Prince, Mary M.; Flamm, Angela M.

    2003-04-01

    Studies indicate that the statistical properties and temporal structure of the sound signal are important in determining the extent of hearing hazard. As part of a pilot study to examine hearing conservation program effectiveness, NIOSH collected noise samples of impact noise sources in an automobile stamping plant, focusing on jobs with peak sound levels (Lpk) of greater than 120 dB. Digital tape recordings of sounds were collected using a Type I Precision Sound Level Meter and microphone connected to a DAT tape recorder. The events were archived and processed as .wav files to extract single events of interest on CD-R media and CD audio media. A preliminary analysis of sample wavelet files was conducted to characterize each event using metrics such as the number of impulses per unit time, the repetition rate or temporal pattern of these impulses, index of peakedness, crest factor, kurtosis, coefficient of kurtosis, rise time, fall time, and peak time. The spectrum, duration, and inverse of duration for each waveform were also computed. Finally, the data were evaluated with the Auditory Hazard Assessment Algorithm (AHAAH). Improvements to data collection for a future study examining different strategies for evaluating industrial noise exposure will be discussed.

  7. Application of a pattern recognition technique to the prediction of tire noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Jinn-Tong; Tu, Fu-Yuan

    2015-08-01

    Tire treads are one of the main sources of car noise. To meet the EU's tire noise regulation ECE-R117, a new method using a pattern recognition technique is adopted in this paper to predict noise from tire tread patterns, thus facilitating the design of low-noise tires. When tires come into contact with the road surface, air pumping may occur in the grooves of tire tread patterns. Using the image of a tread pattern, a matrix is constructed by setting the patterns of tire grooves and tread blocks. The length and width of the contact patch are multiplied by weight functions. The resulting sound pressure as a function of time is subjected to a Fourier transform to simulate a 1/3-octave-band sound pressure level. A particle swarm algorithm is adopted to optimize the weighting parameters for the sound pressure in the frequency domain so that simulated values approach the measured noise level. Two sets of optimal weighting parameters associated with the length and width of the contact patch are obtained. Finally, the weight function is used to predict the tread pattern noise of tires in the same series. A comparison of the prediction and experimental results reveals that, in the 1/3-octave band of frequency (800-2000 Hz), average errors in sound pressure are within 2.5 dB. The feasibility of the proposed application of the pattern recognition technique in predicting noise from tire treads is verified.

  8. Perpendicular blade vortex interaction and its implications for helicopter noise prediction: Wave-number frequency spectra in a trailing vortex for BWI noise prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devenport, William J.; Glegg, Stewart A. L.

    1993-01-01

    Perpendicular blade vortex interactions are a common occurrence in helicopter rotor flows. Under certain conditions they produce a substantial proportion of the acoustic noise. However, the mechanism of noise generation is not well understood. Specifically, turbulence associated with the trailing vortices shed from the blade tips appears insufficient to account for the noise generated. The hypothesis that the first perpendicular interaction experienced by a trailing vortex alters its turbulence structure in such a way as to increase the acoustic noise generated by subsequent interactions is examined. To investigate this hypothesis a two-part investigation was carried out. In the first part, experiments were performed to examine the behavior of a streamwise vortex as it passed over and downstream of a spanwise blade in incompressible flow. Blade vortex separations between +/- one eighth chord were studied for at a chord Reynolds number of 200,000. Three-component velocity and turbulence measurements were made in the flow from 4 chord lengths upstream to 15 chordlengths downstream of the blade using miniature 4-sensor hot wire probes. These measurements show that the interaction of the vortex with the blade and its wake causes the vortex core to loose circulation and diffuse much more rapidly than it otherwise would. Core radius increases and peak tangential velocity decreases with distance downstream of the blade. True turbulence levels within the core are much larger downstream than upstream of the blade. The net result is a much larger and more intense region of turbulent flow than that presented by the original vortex and thus, by implication, a greater potential for generating acoustic noise. In the second part, the turbulence measurements described above were used to derive the necessary inputs to a Blade Wake Interaction (BWI) noise prediction scheme. This resulted in significantly improved agreement between measurements and calculations of the BWI noise spectrum especially for the spectral peak at low frequencies, which previously was poorly predicted.

  9. The Acoustic Analogy: A Powerful Tool in Aeroacoustics with Emphasis on Jet Noise Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farassat, F.; Doty, Michael J.; Hunter, Craig A.

    2004-01-01

    The acoustic analogy introduced by Lighthill to study jet noise is now over 50 years old. In the present paper, Lighthill s Acoustic Analogy is revisited together with a brief evaluation of the state-of-the-art of the subject and an exploration of the possibility of further improvements in jet noise prediction from analytical methods, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) predictions, and measurement techniques. Experimental Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) data is used both to evaluate turbulent statistics from Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) CFD and to propose correlation models for the Lighthill stress tensor. The NASA Langley Jet3D code is used to study the effect of these models on jet noise prediction. From the analytical investigation, a retarded time correction is shown that improves, by approximately 8 dB, the over-prediction of aft-arc jet noise by Jet3D. In experimental investigation, the PIV data agree well with the CFD mean flow predictions, with room for improvement in Reynolds stress predictions. Initial modifications, suggested by the PIV data, to the form of the Jet3D correlation model showed no noticeable improvements in jet noise prediction.

  10. Development of a traffic noise prediction model on inland waterway of China using the FHWA.

    PubMed

    Dai, Ben-lin; He, Yu-long; Mu, Fei-hu; Xu, Ning; Wu, Zhen

    2014-06-01

    Based on the local environmental standards, vessels types and traffic conditions, an inland waterway traffic noise prediction model was developed for use in China. This model was modified from the US FHWA model by adding the ground absorption and water surface attenuation correction terms to the governing equations. The parameters that were input into the equations, including traffic flow, vessel speed, distance from the center of the inland waterway to the receiver, position and height of the barriers and buildings, location of the receiver, type of ground, percentage of soft ground cover within the segment, and water surface conditions were re-defined. The model was validated by comparing the measured noise levels obtained at 33 sampling sites from Shugang Channel, Yanhe Channel and Danjinlicaohe Channel in China with the predicted values. The deviation between the predicted and measured noise levels within the range of ±1.5dB(A) was 81.8%. The mean difference between the predicted and measured noise levels was 0.15±1.75dB(A). However, the noise levels predicted developed model are generally higher than the measured levels. Overall, the comparison has proved that the developed method is of a high precision, and that it can be applied to estimate the traffic noise exposure level on inland waterway in China. PMID:23810035

  11. Development and Validation of a Multidisciplinary Tool for Accurate and Efficient Rotorcraft Noise Prediction (MUTE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Yi; Anusonti-Inthra, Phuriwat; Diskin, Boris

    2011-01-01

    A physics-based, systematically coupled, multidisciplinary prediction tool (MUTE) for rotorcraft noise was developed and validated with a wide range of flight configurations and conditions. MUTE is an aggregation of multidisciplinary computational tools that accurately and efficiently model the physics of the source of rotorcraft noise, and predict the noise at far-field observer locations. It uses systematic coupling approaches among multiple disciplines including Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), Computational Structural Dynamics (CSD), and high fidelity acoustics. Within MUTE, advanced high-order CFD tools are used around the rotor blade to predict the transonic flow (shock wave) effects, which generate the high-speed impulsive noise. Predictions of the blade-vortex interaction noise in low speed flight are also improved by using the Particle Vortex Transport Method (PVTM), which preserves the wake flow details required for blade/wake and fuselage/wake interactions. The accuracy of the source noise prediction is further improved by utilizing a coupling approach between CFD and CSD, so that the effects of key structural dynamics, elastic blade deformations, and trim solutions are correctly represented in the analysis. The blade loading information and/or the flow field parameters around the rotor blade predicted by the CFD/CSD coupling approach are used to predict the acoustic signatures at far-field observer locations with a high-fidelity noise propagation code (WOPWOP3). The predicted results from the MUTE tool for rotor blade aerodynamic loading and far-field acoustic signatures are compared and validated with a variation of experimental data sets, such as UH60-A data, DNW test data and HART II test data.

  12. Improved NASA-ANOPP Noise Prediction Computer Code for Advanced Subsonic Propulsion Systems. Volume 2; Fan Suppression Model Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kontos, Karen B.; Kraft, Robert E.; Gliebe, Philip R.

    1996-01-01

    The Aircraft Noise Predication Program (ANOPP) is an industry-wide tool used to predict turbofan engine flyover noise in system noise optimization studies. Its goal is to provide the best currently available methods for source noise prediction. As part of a program to improve the Heidmann fan noise model, models for fan inlet and fan exhaust noise suppression estimation that are based on simple engine and acoustic geometry inputs have been developed. The models can be used to predict sound power level suppression and sound pressure level suppression at a position specified relative to the engine inlet.

  13. An empirical method for predicting the mixing noise levels of subsonic circular and coaxial jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    An empirical method for predicting the static free field source noise levels of subsonic circular and coaxial jet flow streams is presented. The method was developed from an extensive data base of 817 jet tests obtained from five different government and industry sources in three nations. The prediction method defines the jet noise in terms of four components which are overall power level, power spectrum level, directivity index, and relative spectrum level. The values of these noise level components are defined on a grid consisting of seven frequency parameter values (Strouhal numbers) and seven directivity angles. The value of the noise level at each of these grid points is called a noise level coordinate and was defined as a function of five jet exhaust flow state parameters which are equivalent jet velocity, equivalent jet total temperature, the velocity ratio (outer stream to inner stream), temperature ratio, and area ratio. The functions were obtained by curve fitting in a least squares sense the noise level coordinates from the data base in a five dimensional flow state space using a third order Taylor series. The noise level coordinates define the component noise levels for all frequencies and directivities through a bicubic spline function.

  14. Auditory brainstem measures predict reading and speech-in-noise perception in school-aged children

    PubMed Central

    Hornickel, Jane; Chandrasekaran, Bharath; Zecker, Steve; Kraus, Nina

    2010-01-01

    Reading and speech-in-noise perception, fundamental aspects of human communication, have been linked to neural indices of auditory brainstem function. However, how these factors interact is currently unclear. Multivariate analysis methods (structural equation modeling) were employed to delineate and quantify the relationships among factors that relate to successful reading and speech-in-noise perception in children. Neural measures of subcortical speech encoding that reflect the utilization of stimulus regularities, differentiation of stop consonants, and robustness of neural synchrony predicted 73% of the variance in reading scores. A different combination of neural measures, specifically, utilization of stimulus regularities, strength of encoding of lower harmonics, and the extent of noise-induced timing delays uniquely predicted 56% of the variance in speech-in-noise perception measures. The neural measures relating to reading and speech-in-noise perception were substantially non-overlapping and resulted in poor fitting models when substituted for each other, thereby suggesting distinct neural signatures for the two skills. When phonological processing and working memory measures were added to the models, brainstem measures still uniquely predicted variance in reading ability and speech-in-noise perception, highlighting the robustness of the relationship between subcortical auditory function and these skills. The current study suggests that objective neural markers may prove valuable in the assessment of reading or speech-in-noise abilities in children. PMID:20826187

  15. Development of an Empirical Methods for Predicting Jet Mixing Noise of Cold Flow Rectangular Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, James W.

    1999-01-01

    This report presents an empirical method for predicting the jet mixing noise levels of cold flow rectangular jets. The report presents a detailed analysis of the methodology used in development of the prediction method. The empirical correlations used are based on narrow band acoustic data for cold flow rectangular model nozzle tests conducted in the NASA Langley Jet Noise Laboratory. There were 20 separate nozzle test operating conditions. For each operating condition 60 Hz bandwidth microphone measurements were made over a frequency range from 0 to 60,000 Hz. Measurements were performed at 16 polar directivity angles ranging from 45 degrees to 157.5 degrees. At each polar directivity angle, measurements were made at 9 azimuth directivity angles. The report shows the methods employed to remove screech tones and shock noise from the data in order to obtain the jet mixing noise component. The jet mixing noise was defined in terms of one third octave band spectral content, polar and azimuth directivity, and overall power level. Empirical correlations were performed over the range of test conditions to define each of these jet mixing noise parameters as a function of aspect ratio, jet velocity, and polar and azimuth directivity angles. The report presents the method for predicting the overall power level, the average polar directivity, the azimuth directivity and the location and shape of the spectra for jet mixing noise of cold flow rectangular jets.

  16. ClassTalk system for predicting and auralizing speech in noise with reverberation in classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgson, Murray; Graves, Daniel

    2005-04-01

    This paper discusses and demonstrates the ClassTalk system for predicting, visualizing and auralizing speech in noise with reverberation in classrooms. The classroom can contain a speech-reinforcement system (SRS). Male or female speech sources, SRS loudspeakers and overhead, slide or digital projectors, or ventilation-noise sources, can have four output levels. Empirical models are used to predict speech and noise levels, and Early Decay Times, from which Speech Transmission Index (STI) and Speech Intelligibility (SI) are calculated. ClassTalk visualizes the floor-plan, speech- and noise-source positions, and the receiver position. The user can walk through the room at will. In real time five quantities, background-noise level, speech level, signal-to-noise difference, STI and SI, are displayed along with occupied and unoccupied reverberation times. The sound module auralizes male or female speech mixed with the relevant noise signals, with predicted, frequency-varying reverberation superimposed using MaxxVerb. Technical issues related to the development of the sound module are discussed. The potential of the systems auralization module for demonstrating the effects of the acoustical environment and its control on speech is discussed and demonstrated.

  17. Topology optimization of a suction muffler in a fluid machine to maximize energy efficiency and minimize broadband noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Seungjae; Wang, Semyung; Cho, Sungman

    2016-03-01

    A suction muffler used in a fluid machine has three functions: noise reduction; minimizing pressure drop and improving energy efficiency using acoustic effects. However, no method of suction muffler design considers all three of these functions concurrently. Therefore, in this study, we attempt to provide an integrated design method of a suction muffler in a fluid machine that considers all three functions. The topology optimization method for acoustic and fluid systems was applied to an integrated design. However, the interaction between fluid and acoustic was not considered. In addition, the acoustic input impedance of a suction muffler was used for a specific acoustical resonance frequency to improve the energy efficiency of a fluid machine. Finally, the sequential optimization method based on physical investigations was proposed to satisfy several design criteria. The proposed method was applied to the suction muffler in refrigerator's compressor.

  18. Measuring noise equivalent irradiance of a digital short-wave infrared imaging system using a broadband source to simulate the night spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, John R.; Robinson, Timothy

    2015-05-01

    There is a growing interest in developing helmet-mounted digital imaging systems (HMDIS) for integration into military aircraft cockpits. This interest stems from the multiple advantages of digital vs. analog imaging such as image fusion from multiple sensors, data processing to enhance the image contrast, superposition of non-imaging data over the image, and sending images to remote location for analysis. There are several properties an HMDIS must have in order to aid the pilot during night operations. In addition to the resolution, image refresh rate, dynamic range, and sensor uniformity over the entire Focal Plane Array (FPA); the imaging system must have the sensitivity to detect the limited night light available filtered through cockpit transparencies. Digital sensor sensitivity is generally measured monochromatically using a laser with a wavelength near the peak detector quantum efficiency, and is generally reported as either the Noise Equivalent Power (NEP) or Noise Equivalent Irradiance (NEI). This paper proposes a test system that measures NEI of Short-Wave Infrared (SWIR) digital imaging systems using a broadband source that simulates the night spectrum. This method has a few advantages over a monochromatic method. Namely, the test conditions provide spectrum closer to what is experienced by the end-user, and the resulting NEI may be compared directly to modeled night glow irradiance calculation. This comparison may be used to assess the Technology Readiness Level of the imaging system for the application. The test system is being developed under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with the Air Force Research Laboratory.

  19. Curved Duct Noise Prediction Using the Fast Scattering Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, M. H.; Tinetti, Ana F.; Farassat, F.

    2007-01-01

    Results of a study to validate the Fast Scattering Code (FSC) as a duct noise predictor, including the effects of curvature, finite impedance on the walls, and uniform background flow, are presented in this paper. Infinite duct theory was used to generate the modal content of the sound propagating within the duct. Liner effects were incorporated via a sound absorbing boundary condition on the scattering surfaces. Simulations for a rectangular duct of constant cross-sectional area have been compared to analytical solutions and experimental data. Comparisons with analytical results indicate that the code can properly calculate a given dominant mode for hardwall surfaces. Simulated acoustic behavior in the presence of lined walls (using hardwall duct modes as incident sound) is consistent with expected trends. Duct curvature was found to enhance weaker modes and reduce pressure amplitude. Agreement between simulated and experimental results for a straight duct with hard walls (no flow) was excellent.

  20. A Noise Level Prediction Method Based on Electro-Mechanical Frequency Response Function for Capacitors

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Lingyu; Ji, Shengchang; Shen, Qi; Liu, Yuan; Li, Jinyu; Liu, Hao

    2013-01-01

    The capacitors in high-voltage direct-current (HVDC) converter stations radiate a lot of audible noise which can reach higher than 100 dB. The existing noise level prediction methods are not satisfying enough. In this paper, a new noise level prediction method is proposed based on a frequency response function considering both electrical and mechanical characteristics of capacitors. The electro-mechanical frequency response function (EMFRF) is defined as the frequency domain quotient of the vibration response and the squared capacitor voltage, and it is obtained from impulse current experiment. Under given excitations, the vibration response of the capacitor tank is the product of EMFRF and the square of the given capacitor voltage in frequency domain, and the radiated audible noise is calculated by structure acoustic coupling formulas. The noise level under the same excitations is also measured in laboratory, and the results are compared with the prediction. The comparison proves that the noise prediction method is effective. PMID:24349105

  1. A noise level prediction method based on electro-mechanical frequency response function for capacitors.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lingyu; Ji, Shengchang; Shen, Qi; Liu, Yuan; Li, Jinyu; Liu, Hao

    2013-01-01

    The capacitors in high-voltage direct-current (HVDC) converter stations radiate a lot of audible noise which can reach higher than 100 dB. The existing noise level prediction methods are not satisfying enough. In this paper, a new noise level prediction method is proposed based on a frequency response function considering both electrical and mechanical characteristics of capacitors. The electro-mechanical frequency response function (EMFRF) is defined as the frequency domain quotient of the vibration response and the squared capacitor voltage, and it is obtained from impulse current experiment. Under given excitations, the vibration response of the capacitor tank is the product of EMFRF and the square of the given capacitor voltage in frequency domain, and the radiated audible noise is calculated by structure acoustic coupling formulas. The noise level under the same excitations is also measured in laboratory, and the results are compared with the prediction. The comparison proves that the noise prediction method is effective. PMID:24349105

  2. Prediction of noise field of a propfan at angle of attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Envia, Edmane

    1991-01-01

    A method for predicting the noise field of a propfan operating at an angle of attack to the oncoming flow is presented. The method takes advantage of the high-blade-count of the advanced propeller designs to provide an accurate and efficient formula for predicting their noise field. The formula, which is written in terms of the Airy function and its derivative, provides a very attractive alternative to the use of numerical integration. A preliminary comparison shows rather favorable agreement between the predictions from the present method and the experimental data.

  3. Prediction of noise field of a propfan at angle of attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Envia, Edmane

    1991-10-01

    A method for predicting the noise field of a propfan operating at an angle of attack to the oncoming flow is presented. The method takes advantage of the high-blade-count of the advanced propeller designs to provide an accurate and efficient formula for predicting their noise field. The formula, which is written in terms of the Airy function and its derivative, provides a very attractive alternative to the use of numerical integration. A preliminary comparison shows rather favorable agreement between the predictions from the present method and the experimental data.

  4. Comparison of Transmission Error Predictions with Noise Measurements for Several Spur and Helical Gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houser, Donald R.; Oswald, Fred B.; Valco, Mark J.; Drago, Raymond J.; Lenski, Joseph W., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Measured sound power data from eight different spur, single and double helical gear designs are compared with predictions of transmission error by the Load Distribution Program. The sound power data was taken from the recent Army-funded Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission project. Tests were conducted in the NASA gear noise rig. Results of both test data and transmission error predictions are made for each harmonic of mesh frequency at several operating conditions. In general, the transmission error predictions compare favorably with the measured noise levels.

  5. Air Force procedure for predicting aircraft noise around airbases: Noise Exposure Model (NOISEMAP). User's manual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moulton, Carey L.

    1990-02-01

    This report describes the NOISEMAP 6.0 Noise Exposure Model and is intended as a user's guide for these programs. The report provides operating details on the MCM, OMEGA 10 and 11, and NMAP60 computer programs (which are all encompassed by the term NOISEMAP 6.0). The BASEOPS and NMPLOT programs are also discussed but only in relation to their interaction with NOISEMAP 6.0. Information regarding the changes made between NOISEMAP 6.0 and older versions are listed and a methodology for converting older NOISEMAP decks to this new version is discussed. The limitations of NOISEMAP 6.0 are detailed. An example case is provided for a small joint-use airfield. Three general aviation categories are employed (single, twin, and jet) and one military designation. Appendix C provides a complete listing of all the military and civilian aircraft which are contained in NOISEFILE 6.0 including power settings and airspeeds.

  6. Development of a Prediction Scheme for High Aspect-Ratio Jet Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munro, Scott E.; Ahuja, K. K.

    2003-01-01

    Circulation control wings are a type of pneumatic high-lift device that have been extensively researched as to their aerodynamic benefits. However, there has been little research into the possible airframe noise reduction benefits of a circulation control wing. The key element of noise is the jet noise associated with the jet sheet emitted from the blowing slot. This jet sheet is essentially a high aspect-ratio rectangular jet. A recent study on high aspect-ratio jet noise was performed on a nozzle with aspect-ratios ranging from 100 to 3,000. In addition to the acoustic data, fluid dynamic measurements were made as well. This paper uses the results of these two studies and attempts to develop a prediction scheme for high aspect-ratio jet noise

  7. Prediction of the interior noise levels of high-speed propeller-driven aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rennison, D. C.; Wilby, J. F.; Wilby, E. G.

    1980-01-01

    The theoretical basis for an analytical model developed to predict the interior noise levels of high-speed propeller-driven airplanes is presented. Particular emphasis is given to modeling the transmission of discrete tones through a fuselage element into a cavity, estimates for the mean and standard deviation of the acoustic power flow, the coupling between a non-homogeneous excitation and the fuselage vibration response, and the prediction of maximum interior noise levels. The model allows for convenient examination of the various roles of the excitation and fuselage structural characteristics on the fuselage vibration response and the interior noise levels, as is required for the design of model or prototype noise control validation tests.

  8. Development and validation of a numerical acoustic analysis program for aircraft interior noise prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcea, Ralph; Leigh, Barry; Wong, R. L. M.

    Reduction of interior noise in propeller-driven aircraft, to levels comparable with those obtained in jet transports, has become a leading factor in the early design stages of the new generation turboprops- and may be essential if these new designs are to succeed. The need for an analytical capability to predict interior noise is accepted throughout the turboprop aircraft industry. To this end, an analytical noise prediction program, which incorporates the SYSNOISE numerical acoustic analysis software, is under development at de Havilland. The discussion contained herein looks at the development program and how it was used in a design sensitivity analysis to optimize the structural design of the aircraft cabin for the purpose of reducing interior noise levels. This report also summarizes the validation of the SYSNOISE package using numerous classical cases from the literature.

  9. TFaNS Tone Fan Noise Design/Prediction System. Volume 3; Evaluation of System Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Topol, David A.

    1999-01-01

    TFANS is the Tone Fan Noise Design/Prediction System developed by Pratt & Whitney under contract to NASA Lewis (presently NASA Glenn). The purpose of this system is to predict tone noise emanating from a fan stage including the effects of reflection and transmission by the rotor and stator and by the duct inlet and nozzle. These effects have been added to an existing annular duct/isolated stator noise prediction capability. TFANS consists of: The codes that compute the acoustic properties (reflection and transmission coefficients) of the various elements and write them to files. Cup3D: Fan Noise Coupling Code that reads these files, solves the coupling problem, and outputs the desired noise predictions. AWAKEN: CFD/Measured Wake Postprocessor which reformats CFD wake predictions and/or measured wake data so it can be used by the system. This volume of the report evaluates TFANS versus full-scale and ADP 22" fig data using the semi-empirical wake modelling in the system. This report is divided into three volumes: Volume 1: System Description, CUP3D Technical Documentation, and Manual for Code Developers; Volume II: User's Manual, TFANS Version 1.4; Volume III: Evaluation of System Codes.

  10. Experimental validation of finite element and boundary element methods for predicting structural vibration and radiated noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seybert, A. F.; Wu, T. W.; Wu, X. F.

    1994-01-01

    This research report is presented in three parts. In the first part, acoustical analyses were performed on modes of vibration of the housing of a transmission of a gear test rig developed by NASA. The modes of vibration of the transmission housing were measured using experimental modal analysis. The boundary element method (BEM) was used to calculate the sound pressure and sound intensity on the surface of the housing and the radiation efficiency of each mode. The radiation efficiency of each of the transmission housing modes was then compared to theoretical results for a finite baffled plate. In the second part, analytical and experimental validation of methods to predict structural vibration and radiated noise are presented. A rectangular box excited by a mechanical shaker was used as a vibrating structure. Combined finite element method (FEM) and boundary element method (BEM) models of the apparatus were used to predict the noise level radiated from the box. The FEM was used to predict the vibration, while the BEM was used to predict the sound intensity and total radiated sound power using surface vibration as the input data. Vibration predicted by the FEM model was validated by experimental modal analysis; noise predicted by the BEM was validated by measurements of sound intensity. Three types of results are presented for the total radiated sound power: sound power predicted by the BEM model using vibration data measured on the surface of the box; sound power predicted by the FEM/BEM model; and sound power measured by an acoustic intensity scan. In the third part, the structure used in part two was modified. A rib was attached to the top plate of the structure. The FEM and BEM were then used to predict structural vibration and radiated noise respectively. The predicted vibration and radiated noise were then validated through experimentation.

  11. Development of a Jet Noise Prediction Method for Installed Jet Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Craig A.; Thomas, Russell H.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes development of the Jet3D noise prediction method and its application to heated jets with complex three-dimensional flow fields and installation effects. Noise predictions were made for four separate flow bypass ratio five nozzle configurations tested in the NASA Langley Jet Noise Laboratory. These configurations consist of a round core and fan nozzle with and without pylon, and an eight chevron core nozzle and round fan nozzle with and without pylon. Predicted SPL data were in good agreement with experimental noise measurements up to 121 inlet angle, beyond which Jet3D under predicted low frequency levels. This is due to inherent limitations in the formulation of Lighthill's Acoustic Analogy used in Jet3D, and will be corrected in ongoing development. Jet3D did an excellent job predicting full scale EPNL for nonchevron configurations, and captured the effect of the pylon, correctly predicting a reduction in EPNL. EPNL predictions for chevron configurations were not in good agreement with measured data, likely due to the lower mixing and longer potential cores in the CFD simulations of these cases.

  12. Noise from interaction of flow with rigid surfaces: A review of current status of prediction techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayden, R. E.

    1972-01-01

    A brief review of some fundamental aspects of sound arising from turbulent boundary layers, noise due to flow past a single discontinuity (trailing edge), noise from airfoils operating in turbulent flow, and noise due to rigid flow discontinuities (spoilers) immersed in rigid ducts is presented. Emphasis is on dipole-like sound fields associated with turbulent flow past a trailing edge, rigid bodies in turbulence and in-duct spoilers. Representative available data are reviewed and evaluated in terms of theoretical considerations and, where possible, empirical prediction techniques are given in terms of convenient aerodynamic and geometric parameters. Limitations on current knowledge are discussed.

  13. Study on Prediction of Underwater Radiated Noise from Propeller Tip Vortex Cavitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Takuyoshi; Sato, Kei; Kawakita, Chiharu; Oshima, Akira

    2015-12-01

    The method to predict underwater radiated noise from tip vortex cavitation was studied. The growth of a single cavitation bubble in tip vortex was estimated by substituting the tip vortex to Rankine combined vortex. The ideal spectrum function for the sound pressure generated by a single cavitation bubble was used, also the empirical factor for the number of collapsed bubbles per unit time was introduced. The estimated noise data were compared with measured ship's ones and it was found out that this method can estimate noise data within 3dB difference.

  14. Prediction of airplane cabin noise due to engine shock cell excitation using statistical energy analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Steven E.

    As part of the effort in the 1980's to design fuel efficient propulsion systems (unducted fan engines) for large commercial airplanes, procedures were developed for predicting interior noise using statistical energy analysis (SEA). Due to stable fuel process and deregulation in the airline industry, the emphasis for propulsion systems on commercial airplanes shifted to higher thrust and lower operating costs. In order to preserve and enhance the knowledge acquired using SEA to predict cabin noise for propeller airplanes, potential noise control applications for more conventional airplane configurations were investigated. The present paper records an effort to extend the experience acquired using statistical energy analysis for unducted fan engines to noise generated by turbofan engine exhaust. The technique is applied to the generic case of a large commercial airplane with twin, wing-mounted engines. Results are presented from an evaluation of the noise source based on an uncommon set of flight test data. Model construction is decribed and prediction results compared to the flight test data. It is then demonstrated how SEA is used to prioritize the transmission paths and judge the merit of the common noise suppression techniques.

  15. The prediction of airborne and structure-borne noise potential for a tire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Nicholas Y.

    Tire/pavement interaction noise is a major component of both exterior pass-by noise and vehicle interior noise. The current testing methods for ranking tires from loud to quiet require expensive equipment, multiple tires, and/or long experimental set-up and run times. If a laboratory based off-vehicle test could be used to identify the airborne and structure-borne potential of a tire from its dynamic characteristics, a relative ranking of a large group of tires could be performed at relatively modest expense. This would provide a smaller sample set of tires for follow-up testing and thus save expense for automobile OEMs. The focus of this research was identifying key noise features from a tire/pavement experiment. These results were compared against a stationary tire test in which the natural response of the tire to a forced input was measured. Since speed was identified as having some effect on the noise, an input function was also developed to allow the tires to be ranked at an appropriate speed. A relative noise model was used on a second sample set of tires to verify if the ranking could be used against interior vehicle measurements. While overall level analysis of the specified spectrum had mixed success, important noise generating features were identified, and the methods used could be improved to develop a standard off-vehicle test to predict a tire's noise potential.

  16. Measurements and Predictions of the Noise from Three-Stream Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Brenda S.; Leib, Stewart J.; Wernet, Mark P.

    2015-01-01

    An experimental and numerical investigation of the noise produced by high-subsonic and supersonic three-stream jets was conducted. The exhaust system consisted of externally-mixed-convergent nozzles and an external plug. Bypass- and tertiary- to-core area ratios between 1.0 and 2.5, and 0.4 and 1.0, respectively, were studied. Axisymmetric and offset tertiary nozzles were investigated for heated and unheated conditions. For axisymmetric configurations, the addition of the third stream was found to reduce peak- and high-frequency acoustic levels in the peak-jet-noise direction, with greater reductions at the lower bypass-to-core area ratios. For the offset configurations, an offset duct was found to decrease acoustic levels on the thick side of the tertiary nozzle relative to those produced by the simulated two-stream jet with up to 8 dB mid-frequency noise reduction at large angles to the jet inlet axis. Noise reduction in the peak-jet-noise direction was greater for supersonic core speeds than for subsonic core speeds. The addition of a tertiary nozzle insert used to divert the third-stream jet to one side of the nozzle system provided no noise reduction. Noise predictions are presented for selected cases using a method based on an acoustic analogy with mean flow interaction effects accounted for using a Green's function, computed in terms of its coupled azimuthal modes for the offset cases, and a source model previously used for round and rectangular jets. Comparisons of the prediction results with data show that the noise model predicts the observed increase in low-frequency noise with the introduction of a third, axisymmetric stream, but not the high-frequency reduction. For an offset third stream, the model predicts the observed trend of decreased sound levels on the thick side of the jet compared with the thin side, but the predicted azimuthal variations are much less than those seen in the data. Also, the shift of the spectral peak to lower frequencies with increasing polar angle is over-predicted. For an offset third stream with a heated core, it is shown that including the enthalpy-flux source terms in the acoustic analogy model improves predictions compared with those obtained using only the momentum- flux.

  17. Measurements and Predictions of the Noise from Three-Stream Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Brenda S.; Leib, Stewart J.; Wernet, Mark P.

    2015-01-01

    An experimental and numerical investigation of the noise produced by high-subsonic and supersonic three-stream jets was conducted. The exhaust system consisted of externally-mixed-convergent nozzles and an external plug. Bypass- and tertiary-to-core area ratios between 1.0 and 2.5, and 0.4 and 1.0, respectively, were studied. Axisymmetric and offset tertiary nozzles were investigated for heated and unheated conditions. For axisymmetric configurations, the addition of the third stream was found to reduce peak- and high-frequency acoustic levels in the peak-jet-noise direction, with greater reductions at the lower bypass-to-core area ratios. For the offset configurations, an offset duct was found to decrease acoustic levels on the thick side of the tertiary nozzle relative to those produced by the simulated two-stream jet with up to 8 dB mid-frequency noise reduction at large angles to the jet inlet axis. Noise reduction in the peak-jet-noise direction was greater for supersonic core speeds than for subsonic core speeds. The addition of a tertiary nozzle insert used to divert the third-stream jet to one side of the nozzle system provided no noise reduction. Noise predictions are presented for selected cases using a method based on an acoustic analogy with mean flow interaction effects accounted for using a Green's function, computed in terms of its coupled azimuthal modes for the offset cases, and a source model previously used for round and rectangular jets. Comparisons of the prediction results with data show that the noise model predicts the observed increase in low-frequency noise with the introduction of a third, axisymmetric stream, but not the high-frequency reduction. For an offset third stream, the model predicts the observed trend of decreased sound levels on the thick side of the jet compared with the thin side, but the predicted azimuthal variations are much less than those seen in the data. Also, the shift of the spectral peak to lower frequencies with increasing polar angle is over-predicted. For an offset third stream with a heated core, it is shown that including the enthalpy-flux source terms in the acoustic analogy model improves predictions compared with those obtained using only the momentum flux.

  18. Advanced turboprop noise prediction: Development of a code at NASA Langley based on recent theoretical results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farassat, F.; Dunn, M. H.; Padula, S. L.

    1986-01-01

    The development of a high speed propeller noise prediction code at Langley Research Center is described. The code utilizes two recent acoustic formulations in the time domain for subsonic and supersonic sources. The structure and capabilities of the code are discussed. Grid size study for accuracy and speed of execution on a computer is also presented. The code is tested against an earlier Langley code. Considerable increase in accuracy and speed of execution are observed. Some examples of noise prediction of a high speed propeller for which acoustic test data are available are given. A brisk derivation of formulations used is given in an appendix.

  19. ANOPP programmer's reference manual for the executive System. [aircraft noise prediction program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillian, R. E.; Brown, C. G.; Bartlett, R. W.; Baucom, P. H.

    1977-01-01

    Documentation for the Aircraft Noise Prediction Program as of release level 01/00/00 is presented in a manual designed for programmers having a need for understanding the internal design and logical concepts of the executive system software. Emphasis is placed on providing sufficient information to modify the system for enhancements or error correction. The ANOPP executive system includes software related to operating system interface, executive control, and data base management for the Aircraft Noise Prediction Program. It is written in Fortran IV for use on CDC Cyber series of computers.

  20. International scale implementation of the CNOSSOS-EU road traffic noise prediction model for epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Morley, D W; de Hoogh, K; Fecht, D; Fabbri, F; Bell, M; Goodman, P S; Elliott, P; Hodgson, S; Hansell, A L; Gulliver, J

    2015-11-01

    The EU-FP7-funded BioSHaRE project is using individual-level data pooled from several national cohort studies in Europe to investigate the relationship of road traffic noise and health. The detailed input data (land cover and traffic characteristics) required for noise exposure modelling are not always available over whole countries while data that are comparable in spatial resolution between different countries is needed for harmonised exposure assessment. Here, we assess the feasibility using the CNOSSOS-EU road traffic noise prediction model with coarser input data in terms of model performance. Starting with a model using the highest resolution datasets, we progressively introduced lower resolution data over five further model runs and compared noise level estimates to measurements. We conclude that a low resolution noise model should provide adequate performance for exposure ranking (Spearman's rank = 0.75; p < 0.001), but with relatively large errors in predicted noise levels (RMSE = 4.46 dB(A)). PMID:26232738

  1. Noise produced by turbulent flow into a rotor: Users manual for atmospheric turbulence prediction and mean flow and turbulence contraction prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simonich, J. C.; Caplin, B.

    1989-01-01

    A users manual for a computer program for predicting atmospheric turbulence and mean flow and turbulence contraction as part of a noise prediction scheme for nonisotropic turbulence ingestion noise in helicopters is described. Included are descriptions of the various program modules and subroutines, their function, programming structure, and the required input and output variables. This routine is incorporated as one module of NASA's ROTONET helicopter noise prediction program.

  2. Chronic exposure to broadband noise at moderate sound pressure levels spatially shifts tone-evoked responses in the rat auditory midbrain.

    PubMed

    Lau, Condon; Pienkowski, Martin; Zhang, Jevin W; McPherson, Bradley; Wu, Ed X

    2015-11-15

    Noise-induced hearing disorders are a significant public health concern. One cause of such disorders is exposure to high sound pressure levels (SPLs) above 85 dBA for eight hours/day. High SPL exposures occur in occupational and recreational settings and affect a substantial proportion of the population. However, an even larger proportion is exposed to more moderate SPLs for longer durations. Therefore, there is significant need to better understand the impact of chronic, moderate SPL exposures on auditory processing, especially in the absence of hearing loss. In this study, we applied functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with tonal acoustic stimulation on an established broadband rat exposure model (65 dB SPL, 30 kHz low-pass, 60 days). The auditory midbrain response of exposed subjects to 7 kHz stimulation (within exposure bandwidth) shifts dorsolaterally to regions that typically respond to lower stimulation frequencies. This shift is quantified by a region of interest analysis that shows that fMRI signals are higher in the dorsolateral midbrain of exposed subjects and in the ventromedial midbrain of control subjects (p<0.05). Also, the center of the responsive region in exposed subjects shifts dorsally relative to that of controls (p<0.05). A similar statistically significant shift (p<0.01) is observed using 40 kHz stimulation (above exposure bandwidth). The results suggest that high frequency midbrain regions above the exposure bandwidth spatially expand due to exposure. This expansion shifts lower frequency regions dorsolaterally. Similar observations have previously been made in the rat auditory cortex. Therefore, moderate SPL exposures affect auditory processing at multiple levels, from the auditory cortex to the midbrain. PMID:26232718

  3. Noise Certification Predictions for FJX-2-Powered Aircraft Using Analytic Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berton, Jeffrey J.

    1999-01-01

    Williams International Co. is currently developing the 700-pound thrust class FJX-2 turbofan engine for the general Aviation Propulsion Program's Turbine Engine Element. As part of the 1996 NASA-Williams cooperative working agreement, NASA agreed to analytically calculate the noise certification levels of the FJX-2-powered V-Jet II test bed aircraft. Although the V-Jet II is a demonstration aircraft that is unlikely to be produced and certified, the noise results presented here may be considered to be representative of the noise levels of small, general aviation jet aircraft that the FJX-2 would power. A single engine variant of the V-Jet II, the V-Jet I concept airplane, is also considered. Reported in this paper are the analytically predicted FJX-2/V-Jet noise levels appropriate for Federal Aviation Regulation certification. Also reported are FJX-2/V-Jet noise levels using noise metrics appropriate for the propeller-driven aircraft that will be its major market competition, as well as a sensitivity analysis of the certification noise levels to major system uncertainties.

  4. Effective Jet Properties for the Prediction of Turbulent Mixing Noise Reduction by Water Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandula, Max; Lonergan, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    A one-dimensional control volume formulation is developed for the determination of jet mixing noise reduction due to water injection. The analysis starts from the conservation of mass, momentum and energy for the control volume, and introduces the concept of effective jet parameters (jet temperature, jet velocity and jet Mach number). It is shown that the water to jet mass flow rate ratio is an important parameter characterizing the jet noise reduction on account of gas-to-droplet momentum and heat transfer. Two independent dimensionless invariant groups are postulated, and provide the necessary relations for the droplet size and droplet Reynolds number. Results are presented illustrating the effect of mass flow rate ratio on the jet mixing noise reduction for a range of jet Mach number and jet Reynolds number. Predictions from the model show satisfactory comparison with available test data on supersonic jets. The results suggest that significant noise reductions can be achieved at increased flow rate ratios.

  5. Open Rotor Noise Prediction Methods at NASA Langley- A Technology Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farassat, F.; Dunn, Mark H.; Tinetti, Ana F.; Nark, Douglas M.

    2009-01-01

    Open rotors are once again under consideration for propulsion of the future airliners because of their high efficiency. The noise generated by these propulsion systems must meet the stringent noise standards of today to reduce community impact. In this paper we review the open rotor noise prediction methods available at NASA Langley. We discuss three codes called ASSPIN (Advanced Subsonic-Supersonic Propeller Induced Noise), FW - Hpds (Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings with penetrable data surface) and the FSC (Fast Scattering Code). The first two codes are in the time domain and the third code is a frequency domain code. The capabilities of these codes and the input data requirements as well as the output data are presented. Plans for further improvements of these codes are discussed. In particular, a method based on equivalent sources is outlined to get rid of spurious signals in the FW - Hpds code.

  6. Numerical Prediction of Combustion-induced Noise using a hybrid LES/CAA approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ihme, Matthias; Pitsch, Heinz; Kaltenbacher, Manfred

    2006-11-01

    Noise generation in technical devices is an increasingly important problem. Jet engines in particular produce sound levels that not only are a nuisance but may also impair hearing. The noise emitted by such engines is generated by different sources such as jet exhaust, fans or turbines, and combustion. Whereas the former acoustic mechanisms are reasonably well understood, combustion-generated noise is not. A methodology for the prediction of combustion-generated noise is developed. In this hybrid approach unsteady acoustic source terms are obtained from an LES and the propagation of pressure perturbations are obtained using acoustic analogies. Lighthill's acoustic analogy and a non-linear wave equation, accounting for variable speed of sound, have been employed. Both models are applied to an open diffusion flame. The effects on the far field pressure and directivity due to the variation of speed of sound are analyzed. Results for the sound pressure level will be compared with experimental data.

  7. Predictive model of the temporal noise correlations in HgCdTe array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubik, Bogna; Barbier, Remi; Castera, Alain; Chabanat, Eric; Ferriol, Sylvain; Smadja, Gerard

    2015-07-01

    We present the 1 / f noise response of an 2K×2K HgCdTe detector similar to the detectors that will be used in the Near Infrared Spectrometer Photometer - one of the instruments of the future ESA mission Euclid. A predictive model of the 1/f noise with a given frequency power spectrum is defined and compared to data taken in a wide range of sampling frequencies. In view of this model the definition of ad-hoc readout noises for different sampling can be avoided. We compare the relative contributions to the noise from the thermal and 1/f components and suggest that the 1/f component can be important in long exposures of spectroscopic types.

  8. The Prediction and Analysis of Jet Flows and Scattered Turbulent Mixing Noise about Flight Vehicle Airframes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Steven A. E.

    2014-01-01

    Jet flows interacting with nearby surfaces exhibit a complex behavior in which acoustic and aerodynamic characteristics are altered. The physical understanding and prediction of these characteristics are essential to designing future low noise aircraft. A new approach is created for predicting scattered jet mixing noise that utilizes an acoustic analogy and steady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes solutions. A tailored Green's function accounts for the propagation of mixing noise about the airframe and is calculated numerically using a newly developed ray tracing method. The steady aerodynamic statistics, associated unsteady sound source, and acoustic intensity are examined as jet conditions are varied about a large flat plate. A non-dimensional number is proposed to estimate the effect of the aerodynamic noise source relative to jet operating condition and airframe position.The steady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes solutions, acoustic analogy, tailored Green's function, non-dimensional number, and predicted noise are validated with a wide variety of measurements. The combination of the developed theory, ray tracing method, and careful implementation in a stand-alone computer program result in an approach that is more first principles oriented than alternatives, computationally efficient, and captures the relevant physics of fluid-structure interaction.

  9. The Prediction and Analysis of Jet Flows and Scattered Turbulent Mixing Noise About Flight Vehicle Airframes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Steven A.

    2014-01-01

    Jet flows interacting with nearby surfaces exhibit a complex behavior in which acoustic and aerodynamic characteristics are altered. The physical understanding and prediction of these characteristics are essential to designing future low noise aircraft. A new approach is created for predicting scattered jet mixing noise that utilizes an acoustic analogy and steady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes solutions. A tailored Green's function accounts for the propagation of mixing noise about the air-frame and is calculated numerically using a newly developed ray tracing method. The steady aerodynamic statistics, associated unsteady sound source, and acoustic intensity are examined as jet conditions are varied about a large at plate. A non-dimensional number is proposed to estimate the effect of the aerodynamic noise source relative to jet operating condition and airframe position. The steady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes solutions, acoustic analogy, tailored Green's function, non- dimensional number, and predicted noise are validated with a wide variety of measurements. The combination of the developed theory, ray tracing method, and careful implementation in a stand-alone computer program result in an approach that is more first principles oriented than alternatives, computationally efficient, and captures the relevant physics of fluid-structure interaction.

  10. Numerical Prediction of Chevron Nozzle Noise Reduction using Wind-MGBK Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engblom, W.A.; Bridges, J.; Khavarant, A.

    2005-01-01

    Numerical predictions for single-stream chevron nozzle flow performance and farfield noise production are presented. Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) solutions, produced via the WIND flow solver, are provided as input to the MGBK code for prediction of farfield noise distributions. This methodology is applied to a set of sensitivity cases involving varying degrees of chevron inward bend angle relative to the core flow, for both cold and hot exhaust conditions. The sensitivity study results illustrate the effect of increased chevron bend angle and exhaust temperature on enhancement of fine-scale mixing, initiation of core breakdown, nozzle performance, and noise reduction. Direct comparisons with experimental data, including stagnation pressure and temperature rake data, PIV turbulent kinetic energy fields, and 90 degree observer farfield microphone data are provided. Although some deficiencies in the numerical predictions are evident, the correct farfield noise spectra trends are captured by the WIND-MGBK method, including the noise reduction benefit of chevrons. Implications of these results to future chevron design efforts are addressed.

  11. Predicting short-period, wind-wave-generated seismic noise in coastal regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gimbert, Florent; Tsai, Victor C.

    2015-09-01

    Substantial effort has recently been made to predict seismic energy caused by ocean waves in the 4-10 s period range. However, little work has been devoted to predict shorter period seismic waves recorded in coastal regions. Here we present an analytical framework that relates the signature of seismic noise recorded at 0.6-2 s periods (0.5-1.5 Hz frequencies) in coastal regions with deep-ocean wave properties. Constraints on key model parameters such as seismic attenuation and ocean wave directionality are provided by jointly analyzing ocean-floor acoustic noise and seismic noise measurements. We show that 0.6-2 s seismic noise can be consistently predicted over the entire year. The seismic noise recorded in this period range is mostly caused by local wind-waves, i.e. by wind-waves occurring within about 2000 km of the seismic station. Our analysis also shows that the fraction of ocean waves traveling in nearly opposite directions is orders of magnitude smaller than previously suggested for wind-waves, does not depend strongly on wind speed as previously proposed, and instead may depend weakly on the heterogeneity of the wind field. This study suggests that wind-wave conditions can be studied in detail from seismic observations, including under specific conditions such as in the presence of sea ice.

  12. On Acoustic Source Specification for Rotor-Stator Interaction Noise Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nark, Douglas M.; Envia, Edmane; Burley, Caesy L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the use of measured source data to assess the effects of acoustic source specification on rotor-stator interaction noise predictions. Specifically, the acoustic propagation and radiation portions of a recently developed coupled computational approach are used to predict tonal rotor-stator interaction noise from a benchmark configuration. In addition to the use of full measured data, randomization of source mode relative phases is also considered for specification of the acoustic source within the computational approach. Comparisons with sideline noise measurements are performed to investigate the effects of various source descriptions on both inlet and exhaust predictions. The inclusion of additional modal source content is shown to have a much greater influence on the inlet results. Reasonable agreement between predicted and measured levels is achieved for the inlet, as well as the exhaust when shear layer effects are taken into account. For the number of trials considered, phase randomized predictions follow statistical distributions similar to those found in previous statistical source investigations. The shape of the predicted directivity pattern relative to measurements also improved with phase randomization, having predicted levels generally within one standard deviation of the measured levels.

  13. Computational methods in the prediction of advanced subsonic and supersonic propeller induced noise: ASSPIN users' manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, M. H.; Tarkenton, G. M.

    1992-01-01

    This document describes the computational aspects of propeller noise prediction in the time domain and the use of high speed propeller noise prediction program ASSPIN (Advanced Subsonic and Supersonic Propeller Induced Noise). These formulations are valid in both the near and far fields. Two formulations are utilized by ASSPIN: (1) one is used for subsonic portions of the propeller blade; and (2) the second is used for transonic and supersonic regions on the blade. Switching between the two formulations is done automatically. ASSPIN incorporates advanced blade geometry and surface pressure modelling, adaptive observer time grid strategies, and contains enhanced numerical algorithms that result in reduced computational time. In addition, the ability to treat the nonaxial inflow case has been included.

  14. Core-Noise Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.

    2012-01-01

    This presentation is a technical summary of and outlook for NASA-internal and NASA-sponsored external research on core noise funded by the Fundamental Aeronautics Program Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) Project. Sections of the presentation cover: the SFW system-level noise metrics for the 2015 (N+1), 2020 (N+2), and 2025 (N+3) timeframes; SFW strategic thrusts and technical challenges; SFW advanced subsystems that are broadly applicable to N+3 vehicle concepts, with an indication where further noise research is needed; the components of core noise (compressor, combustor and turbine noise) and a rationale for NASA's current emphasis on the combustor-noise component; the increase in the relative importance of core noise due to turbofan design trends; the need to understand and mitigate core-noise sources for high-efficiency small gas generators; and the current research activities in the core-noise area, with additional details given about forthcoming updates to NASA's Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP) core-noise prediction capabilities, two NRA efforts (Honeywell International, Phoenix, AZ and University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, respectively) to improve the understanding of core-noise sources and noise propagation through the engine core, and an effort to develop oxide/oxide ceramic-matrix-composite (CMC) liners for broadband noise attenuation suitable for turbofan-core application. Core noise must be addressed to ensure that the N+3 noise goals are met. Focused, but long-term, core-noise research is carried out to enable the advanced high-efficiency small gas-generator subsystem, common to several N+3 conceptual designs, needed to meet NASA's technical challenges. Intermediate updates to prediction tools are implemented as the understanding of the source structure and engine-internal propagation effects is improved. The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program has the principal objective of overcoming today's national challenges in air transportation. The SFW Quiet-Aircraft Subproject aims to develop concepts and technologies to reduce perceived community noise attributable to aircraft with minimal impact on weight and performance. This reduction of aircraft noise is critical to enabling the anticipated large increase in future air traffic.

  15. Prediction of Solar Proton Events and the Radio Type I Noise Storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Zhi-Guo,; Gao, Guan-Nan; Wang, Min; Lin, Jun

    2015-01-01

    The Sun is an extremely active celestial body, and its explosive processes can produce important effects on the space environment around the Earth. Commonly a single energetic proton may be enough to cause the abnormality of microelectronic devices in spacecraft, hence, the prediction of solar proton events is an important content of the prediction of space weather. The parameter selection in the prediction models still has something to be improved. The studies suggested that the radio type I noise storm is closely related to the coronal heating and magnetic reconnection, so it should be taken as a proper parameter for the prediction. With an analysis of two typical solar explosive events, the correlations of the radio type I noise storms with the solar proton events and coronal mass ejections have been demonstrated in this paper.

  16. Comparison of measured and predicted flight effects on high-bypass coaxial jet exhaust noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    A semi-empirical model for predicting the noise generated by conventional-velocity profile coaxial jets is compared with full scale flight data and model scale simulated flight data for high bypass nozzles. The prediction model was shown to agree with small scale static data for primary jet velocities from 215 to 795 m/s for a wide range of area, temperature, and velocity ratios between streams. However, there were insufficient model nozzle, simulated flight data available at that time to permit validation of the flight effects prediction. The comparisons presented demonstrate that the prediction method is also valid in flight.

  17. Fatigue Modeling via Mammalian Auditory System for Prediction of Noise Induced Hearing Loss.

    PubMed

    Sun, Pengfei; Qin, Jun; Campbell, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Noise induced hearing loss (NIHL) remains as a severe health problem worldwide. Existing noise metrics and modeling for evaluation of NIHL are limited on prediction of gradually developing NIHL (GDHL) caused by high-level occupational noise. In this study, we proposed two auditory fatigue based models, including equal velocity level (EVL) and complex velocity level (CVL), which combine the high-cycle fatigue theory with the mammalian auditory model, to predict GDHL. The mammalian auditory model is introduced by combining the transfer function of the external-middle ear and the triple-path nonlinear (TRNL) filter to obtain velocities of basilar membrane (BM) in cochlea. The high-cycle fatigue theory is based on the assumption that GDHL can be considered as a process of long-cycle mechanical fatigue failure of organ of Corti. Furthermore, a series of chinchilla experimental data are used to validate the effectiveness of the proposed fatigue models. The regression analysis results show that both proposed fatigue models have high corrections with four hearing loss indices. It indicates that the proposed models can accurately predict hearing loss in chinchilla. Results suggest that the CVL model is more accurate compared to the EVL model on prediction of the auditory risk of exposure to hazardous occupational noise. PMID:26691685

  18. Fatigue Modeling via Mammalian Auditory System for Prediction of Noise Induced Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Pengfei; Qin, Jun; Campbell, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Noise induced hearing loss (NIHL) remains as a severe health problem worldwide. Existing noise metrics and modeling for evaluation of NIHL are limited on prediction of gradually developing NIHL (GDHL) caused by high-level occupational noise. In this study, we proposed two auditory fatigue based models, including equal velocity level (EVL) and complex velocity level (CVL), which combine the high-cycle fatigue theory with the mammalian auditory model, to predict GDHL. The mammalian auditory model is introduced by combining the transfer function of the external-middle ear and the triple-path nonlinear (TRNL) filter to obtain velocities of basilar membrane (BM) in cochlea. The high-cycle fatigue theory is based on the assumption that GDHL can be considered as a process of long-cycle mechanical fatigue failure of organ of Corti. Furthermore, a series of chinchilla experimental data are used to validate the effectiveness of the proposed fatigue models. The regression analysis results show that both proposed fatigue models have high corrections with four hearing loss indices. It indicates that the proposed models can accurately predict hearing loss in chinchilla. Results suggest that the CVL model is more accurate compared to the EVL model on prediction of the auditory risk of exposure to hazardous occupational noise. PMID:26691685

  19. Computation of Large Turbulence Structures and Noise of Supersonic Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tam, Christopher

    1996-01-01

    Our research effort concentrated on obtaining an understanding of the generation mechanisms and the prediction of the three components of supersonic jet noise. In addition, we also developed a computational method for calculating the mean flow of turbulent high-speed jets. Below is a short description of the highlights of our contributions in each of these areas: (a) Broadband shock associated noise, (b) Turbulent mixing noise, (c) Screech tones and impingement tones, (d) Computation of the mean flow of turbulent jets.

  20. The prediction of jet noise ground effects using an acoustic analogy and a tailored Green's function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Steven A. E.

    2014-02-01

    An assessment of an acoustic analogy for the mixing noise component of jet noise in the presence of an infinite surface is presented. The reflection of jet noise by the ground changes the distribution of acoustic energy and is characterized by constructive and destructive interference patterns. The equivalent sources are modeled based on the two-point cross-correlation of the turbulent velocity fluctuations and a steady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) solution. Propagation effects, due to reflection by the surface and refraction by the jet shear layer, are taken into account by calculating the vector Green's function of the linearized Euler equations (LEE). The vector Green's function of the LEE is written in relation to that of Lilley's equation; that is, it is approximated with matched asymptotic solutions and Green's function of the convective Helmholtz equation. The Green's function of the convective Helmholtz equation in the presence of an infinite flat plane with impedance is the Weyl-van der Pol equation. Predictions are compared with measurements from an unheated Mach 0.95 jet. Microphones are placed at various heights and distances from the nozzle exit in the peak jet noise direction above an acoustically hard and an asphalt surface. The predictions are shown to accurately capture jet noise ground effects that are characterized by constructive and destructive interference patterns in the mid- and far-field and capture overall trends in the near-field.

  1. The Prediction of Jet Noise Ground Effects Using an Acoustic Analogy and a Tailored Green's Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Steven A. E.

    2013-01-01

    An assessment of an acoustic analogy for the mixing noise component of jet noise in the presence of an infinite surface is presented. The reflection of jet noise by the ground changes the distribution of acoustic energy and is characterized by constructive and destructive interference patterns. The equivalent sources are modeled based on the two-point cross- correlation of the turbulent velocity fluctuations and a steady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) solution. Propagation effects, due to reflection by the surface and refaction by the jet shear layer, are taken into account by calculating the vector Green's function of the linearized Euler equations (LEE). The vector Green's function of the LEE is written in relation to Lilley's equation; that is, approximated with matched asymptotic solutions and the Green's function of the convective Helmholtz equation. The Green's function of the convective Helmholtz equation for an infinite flat plane with impedance is the Weyl-van der Pol equation. Predictions are compared with an unheated Mach 0.95 jet produced by a nozzle with an exit diameter of 0.3302 meters. Microphones are placed at various heights and distances from the nozzle exit in the peak jet noise direction above an acoustically hard and an asphalt surface. The predictions are shown to accurately capture jet noise ground effects that are characterized by constructive and destructive interference patterns in the mid- and far-field and capture overall trends in the near-field.

  2. Rotorcraft noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huston, R. J. (Compiler)

    1982-01-01

    The establishment of a realistic plan for NASA and the U.S. helicopter industry to develop a design-for-noise methodology, including plans for the identification and development of promising noise reduction technology was discussed. Topics included: noise reduction techniques, scaling laws, empirical noise prediction, psychoacoustics, and methods of developing and validing noise prediction methods.

  3. Aircraft noise synthesis system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccurdy, David A.; Grandle, Robert E.

    1987-01-01

    A second-generation Aircraft Noise Synthesis System has been developed to provide test stimuli for studies of community annoyance to aircraft flyover noise. The computer-based system generates realistic, time-varying, audio simulations of aircraft flyover noise at a specified observer location on the ground. The synthesis takes into account the time-varying aircraft position relative to the observer; specified reference spectra consisting of broadband, narrowband, and pure-tone components; directivity patterns; Doppler shift; atmospheric effects; and ground effects. These parameters can be specified and controlled in such a way as to generate stimuli in which certain noise characteristics, such as duration or tonal content, are independently varied, while the remaining characteristics, such as broadband content, are held constant. The system can also generate simulations of the predicted noise characteristics of future aircraft. A description of the synthesis system and a discussion of the algorithms and methods used to generate the simulations are provided. An appendix describing the input data and providing user instructions is also included.

  4. Open Rotor Noise Prediction at NASA Langley - Capabilities, Research and Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farassat, Fereidoun

    2010-01-01

    The high fuel prices of recent years have caused the operating cost of the airlines to soar. In an effort to bring down the fuel consumption, the major aircraft engine manufacturers are now taking a fresh look at open rotors for the propulsion of future airliners. Open rotors, also known as propfans or unducted fans, can offer up to 30 per cent improvement in efficiency compared to high bypass engines of 1980 vintage currently in use in most civilian aircraft. NASA Langley researchers have contributed significantly to the development of aeroacoustic technology of open rotors. This report discusses the current noise prediction technology at Langley and reviews the input data requirements, strengths and limitations of each method as well as the associated problems in need of attention by the researchers. We present a brief history of research on the aeroacoustics of rotating blade machinery at Langley Research Center. We then discuss the available noise prediction codes for open rotors developed at NASA Langley and their capabilities. In particular, we present the two useful formulations used for the computation of noise from subsonic and supersonic surfaces. Here we discuss the open rotor noise prediction codes ASSPIN and one based on Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equation with penetrable data surface (FW - Hpds). The scattering of sound from surfaces near the rotor are calculated using the fast scattering code (FSC) which is also discussed in this report. Plans for further improvements of these codes are given.

  5. A Noise-Filtering Method for Link Prediction in Complex Networks

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Link prediction plays an important role in both finding missing links in networked systems and complementing our understanding of the evolution of networks. Much attention from the network science community are paid to figure out how to efficiently predict the missing/future links based on the observed topology. Real-world information always contain noise, which is also the case in an observed network. This problem is rarely considered in existing methods. In this paper, we treat the existence of observed links as known information. By filtering out noises in this information, the underlying regularity of the connection information is retrieved and then used to predict missing or future links. Experiments on various empirical networks show that our method performs noticeably better than baseline algorithms. PMID:26788737

  6. Analysis of Acoustic Modeling and Sound Propagation in Aircraft Noise Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plotkin, Kenneth J.; Shepherd, Kevin P. (Technical Monitor)

    2006-01-01

    An analysis has been performed of measured and predicted aircraft noise levels around Denver International Airport. A detailed examination was made of 90 straight-out departures that yielded good measurements on multiple monitors. Predictions were made with INM 5, INM 6 and the simulation model NMSIM. Predictions were consistently lower than measurements, less so for the simulation model than for the integrated models. Lateral directivity ("installation effect") patterns were seen which are consistent with other recent measurements. Atmospheric absorption was determined to be a significant factor in the underprediction. Calculations of atmospheric attenuation were made over a full year of upper air data at seven locations across the United States. It was found that temperature/humidity effects could cause variations of up to +/-4 dB, depending on season, for the sites examined. It was concluded that local temperature and humidity should be accounted for in aircraft noise modeling.

  7. Mean Flow and Noise Prediction for a Separate Flow Jet With Chevron Mixers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, L. Danielle; Bridges, James; Khavaran, Abbas

    2004-01-01

    Experimental and numerical results are presented here for a separate flow nozzle employing chevrons arranged in an alternating pattern on the core nozzle. Comparisons of these results demonstrate that the combination of the WIND/MGBK suite of codes can predict the noise reduction trends measured between separate flow jets with and without chevrons on the core nozzle. Mean flow predictions were validated against Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), pressure, and temperature data, and noise predictions were validated against acoustic measurements recorded in the NASA Glenn Aeroacoustic Propulsion Lab. Comparisons are also made to results from the CRAFT code. The work presented here is part of an on-going assessment of the WIND/MGBK suite for use in designing the next generation of quiet nozzles for turbofan engines.

  8. Empirical prediction of peak pressure levels in anthropogenic impulsive noise. Part I: Airgun arrays signals.

    PubMed

    Galindo-Romero, Marta; Lippert, Tristan; Gavrilov, Alexander

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents an empirical linear equation to predict peak pressure level of anthropogenic impulsive signals based on its correlation with the sound exposure level. The regression coefficients are shown to be weakly dependent on the environmental characteristics but governed by the source type and parameters. The equation can be applied to values of the sound exposure level predicted with a numerical model, which provides a significant improvement in the prediction of the peak pressure level. Part I presents the analysis for airgun arrays signals, and Part II considers the application of the empirical equation to offshore impact piling noise. PMID:26723364

  9. Helicopter rotor rotational noise predictions based on measured high-frequency blade loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hosier, R. N.; Ramakrishnan, R.

    1974-01-01

    In tests conducted at the Langley helicopter rotor test facility, simultaneous measurements of up to 200 harmonics of the fluctuating aerodynamic blade surface pressures and far-field radiated noise were made on a full-scale nontranslating rotor system. After their characteristics were determined, the measured blade surface pressures were converted to loading coefficients and used in an existing theory to predict the far-field rotational noise. A comparison of the calculated and measured noise shows generally good agreement up to 300 to 600 Hz, depending on the discreteness of the loading spectrum. Specific attention is given to the effects of the blade loading coefficients, chordwise loading distributions, blade loading phases, and observer azimuthal position on the calculations.

  10. Predictive factors of occupational noise-induced hearing loss in Spanish workers: A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Pelegrin, Armando Carballo; Canuet, Leonides; Rodríguez, Ángeles Arias; Morales, Maria Pilar Arévalo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to identify the main factors associated with objective noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), as indicated by abnormal audiometric testing, in Spanish workers exposed to occupational noise in the construction industry. We carried out a prospective study in Tenerife, Spain, using 150 employees exposed to occupational noise and 150 age-matched controls who were not working in noisy environments. The variables analyzed included sociodemographic data, noise-related factors, types of hearing protection, self-report hearing loss, and auditory-related symptoms (e.g., tinnitus, vertigo). Workers with pathological audiograms had significantly longer noise-exposure duration (16.2 ± 11.4 years) relative to those with normal audiograms (10.2 ± 7.0 years; t = 3.99, P < 0.001). The vast majority of those who never used hearing protection measures had audiometric abnormalities (94.1%). Additionally, workers using at least one of the protection devices (earplugs or earmuffs) had significantly more audiometric abnormalities than those using both protection measures simultaneously (Chi square = 16.07; P < 0.001). The logistic regression analysis indicates that the use of hearing protection measures [odds ratio (OR) = 12.30, confidence interval (CI) = 4.36-13.81, P < 0.001], and noise-exposure duration (OR = 1.35, CI = 1.08-1.99, P = 0.040) are significant predictors of NIHL. This regression model correctly predicted 78.2% of individuals with pathological audiograms. The combined use of hearing protection measures, in particular earplugs and earmuffs, associates with a lower rate of audiometric abnormalities in subjects with high occupational noise exposure. The use of hearing protection measures at work and noise-exposure duration are best predictive factors of NIHL. Auditory-related symptoms and self-report hearing loss do not represent good indicators of objective NIHL. Routine monitoring of noise levels and hearing status are of great importance as part of effective hearing conservation programs. PMID:26356377

  11. Large Civil Tiltrotor (LCTR2) Interior Noise Predictions due to Turbulent Boundary Layer Excitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grosveld, Ferdinand W.

    2013-01-01

    The Large Civil Tiltrotor (LCTR2) is a conceptual vehicle that has a design goal to transport 90 passengers over a distance of 1800 km at a speed of 556 km/hr. In this study noise predictions were made in the notional LCTR2 cabin due to Cockburn/Robertson and Efimtsov turbulent boundary layer (TBL) excitation models. A narrowband hybrid Finite Element (FE) analysis was performed for the low frequencies (6-141 Hz) and a Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) was conducted for the high frequency one-third octave bands (125- 8000 Hz). It is shown that the interior sound pressure level distribution in the low frequencies is governed by interactions between individual structural and acoustic modes. The spatially averaged predicted interior sound pressure levels for the low frequency hybrid FE and the high frequency SEA analyses, due to the Efimtsov turbulent boundary layer excitation, were within 1 dB in the common 125 Hz one-third octave band. The averaged interior noise levels for the LCTR2 cabin were predicted lower than the levels in a comparable Bombardier Q400 aircraft cabin during cruise flight due to the higher cruise altitude and lower Mach number of the LCTR2. LCTR2 cabin noise due to TBL excitation during cruise flight was found not unacceptable for crew or passengers when predictions were compared to an acoustic survey on a Q400 aircraft.

  12. Phylogenetic signal and noise: predicting the power of a data set to resolve phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Jeffrey P; Su, Zhuo; Tekle, Yonas I

    2012-10-01

    A principal objective for phylogenetic experimental design is to predict the power of a data set to resolve nodes in a phylogenetic tree. However, proactively assessing the potential for phylogenetic noise compared with signal in a candidate data set has been a formidable challenge. Understanding the impact of collection of additional sequence data to resolve recalcitrant internodes at diverse historical times will facilitate increasingly accurate and cost-effective phylogenetic research. Here, we derive theory based on the fundamental unit of the phylogenetic tree, the quartet, that applies estimates of the state space and the rates of evolution of characters in a data set to predict phylogenetic signal and phylogenetic noise and therefore to predict the power to resolve internodes. We develop and implement a Monte Carlo approach to estimating power to resolve as well as deriving a nearly equivalent faster deterministic calculation. These approaches are applied to describe the distribution of potential signal, polytomy, or noise for two example data sets, one recent (cytochrome c oxidase I and 28S ribosomal rRNA sequences from Diplazontinae parasitoid wasps) and one deep (eight nuclear genes and a phylogenomic sequence for diverse microbial eukaryotes including Stramenopiles, Alveolata, and Rhizaria). The predicted power of resolution for the loci analyzed is consistent with the historic use of the genes in phylogenetics. PMID:22389443

  13. A survey of models for the prediction of ambient ocean noise: Circa 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Doolittle, R.

    1996-01-01

    The state of the art of model development for application to computer studies of undersea search systems utilizing acoustics is surveyed in this document. Due to the demands for surveillance of submarines operating in ocean basins, the development of noise models for application in deep oceans is fairly advanced and somewhat generic. This is due to the deep sound channel, discovered during World War II, which when present allows for long-range sound propagation with little or no interaction with the bottom. Exceptions to this channel, also well understood, are found in both the high latitudes where the sound is upward refracting and in tropical ocean areas with downward refracting sound transmission. The controlling parameter is the sound speed as a function of depth within the ocean, the sound speed profile. When independent of range, this profile may be converted to a noise-versus-depth profile with well-validated consequences for deep-ocean ambient noise. When considering ocean areas of shallow water, the littoral regions, the idea of a genenic ocean channel advisedly is abandoned. The locally unique nature of both the noise production mechanisms and of the channel carrying the sound, obviates the generic treatment. Nevertheless, idealizations of this case exist and promote the understanding if not the exact predictability of the statistics of shallow water ambient noise. Some examples of these models are given in this document.

  14. Acoustical, sensory, and psychological research data and procedures for their use in predicting effects of environmental noises.

    PubMed

    Kryter, Karl D

    2007-11-01

    A demonstration field-research study reveals that aircraft noise measured at two one-story houses is approximately 9 dB less attenuated from measured outdoor levels than is street traffic noise, and, found in other studies, approximately 14 dB less than railway noise. Comparable differences are found between these noises from the application of basic acoustical formulas for quantifying attenuations that occur on site of one- and two-story houses. Reasonably consistent with those findings are results from attitude surveys showing that daily exposure levels of aircraft must be approximately 8 dB less than levels of street traffic noise, and approximately 13 dB less than levels of railway noise to be perceived as an equal cause of annoyance and related adverse effects. However, USA government guidelines recommend that equal exposure levels of noise measured outdoors from vehicles of transportation should be considered as being equally annoying. Changes in present USA noise-measurement procedures and noise-control guidelines are proposed that provide more accurate predictions of annoyance, related adverse effects, and criteria for setting "tolerable" limits of noise exposure in residential areas. Key acoustical and psycho-acoustical principles and data pertaining to predicting correlations between dosages of environmental noises and its effects on people and land noise zoning in residential communities are examined. PMID:18189552

  15. The 136 MHz/400 MHz earth station antenna-noise temperature prediction program documentation for RAE-B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, M.

    1972-01-01

    A simulation study to determine the 136 MHz and 400 MHz noise temperature of the ground network antennas which will track the RAE-B satellite during data transmission periods is described. Since the noise temperature of the antenna effectively sets the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the received signal, a knowledge of SNR will be helpful in locating the optimum time windows for data transmission during low-noise periods. Antenna-noise temperatures at 136 MHz and 400 MHz will be predicted for selected earth-based ground stations which will support RAE-B. The antenna-noise temperature predictions will include the effects of galactic-brightness temperature, the sun, and the brightest radio stars. Predictions will cover the ten-month period from March 1, 1973 to December 31, 1973. The RAE-B mission will be expecially susceptible to SNR degradation during the two eclipses of the Sun occurring in this period.

  16. The 136 MHZ/400 MHz earth station antenna-noise temperature prediction program for RAE-B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, R. E.; Fee, J. J.; Chin, M.

    1972-01-01

    A simulation study was undertaken to determine the 136 MHz and 400 MHz noise temperature of the ground network antennas which will track the RAE-B satellite during data transmission periods. Since the noise temperature of the antenna effectively sets the signal-to-noise ratio of the received signal, a knowledge of SNR will be helpful in locating the optimum time windows for data transmission during low noise periods. Antenna noise temperatures will be predicted for selected earth-based ground stations which will support RAE-B. Telemetry data acquisition will be at 400 MHz; tracking support at 136 MHz will be provided by the Goddard Range and Range Rate (RARR) stations. The antenna-noise temperature predictions will include the effects of galactic-brightness temperature, the sun, and the brightest radio stars. Predictions will cover the ten-month period from March 1, 1973 to December 31, 1973.

  17. Prediction of the influence of reverberation on binaural speech intelligibility in noise and in quiet.

    PubMed

    Rennies, Jan; Brand, Thomas; Kollmeier, Birger

    2011-11-01

    Reverberation usually degrades speech intelligibility for spatially separated speech and noise sources since spatial unmasking is reduced and late reflections decrease the fidelity of the received speech signal. The latter effect could not satisfactorily be predicted by a recently presented binaural speech intelligibility model [Beutelmann et al. (2010). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 127, 2479-2497]. This study therefore evaluated three extensions of the model to improve its predictions: (1) an extension of the speech intelligibility index based on modulation transfer functions, (2) a correction factor based on the room acoustical quantity "definition," and (3) a separation of the speech signal into useful and detrimental parts. The predictions were compared to results of two experiments in which speech reception thresholds were measured in a reverberant room in quiet and in the presence of a noise source for listeners with normal hearing. All extensions yielded better predictions than the original model when the influence of reverberation was strong, while predictions were similar for conditions with less reverberation. Although model (3) differed substantially in the assumed interaction of binaural processing and early reflections, its predictions were very similar to model (2) that achieved the best fit to the data. PMID:22087928

  18. A computer program to predict rotor rotational noise of a stationary rotor from blade loading coefficient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramakrishnan, R.; Randall, D.; Hosier, R. N.

    1976-01-01

    The programing language used is FORTRAN IV. A description of all main and subprograms is provided so that any user possessing a FORTRAN compiler and random access capability can adapt the program to his facility. Rotor blade surface-pressure spectra can be used by the program to calculate: (1) blade station loading spectra, (2) chordwise and/or spanwise integrated blade-loading spectra, and (3) far-field rotational noise spectra. Any of five standard inline functions describing the chordwise distribution of the blade loading can be chosen in order to study parametrically the acoustic predictions. The program output consists of both printed and graphic descriptions of the blade-loading coefficient spectra and far-field acoustic spectrum. The results may also be written on binary file for future processing. Examples of the application of the program along with a description of the rotational noise prediction theory on which the program is based are also provided.

  19. Blade-vortex interaction noise predictions using measured blade surface pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziegenbein, Perry R.; Oh, Byung K.

    1987-01-01

    The generation of helicopter noise by blade-vortex interactions during descent under impulsive conditions is investigated analytically. A noise-prediction technique is developed on the basis of the dipole source term of the Ffowcs-Williams/Hawkings equation and applied to data from simultaneous blade-pressure and acoustic measurements obtained by Cowan et al. (1986) on a 10-ft-diameter 4-blade rotor model in a wind tunnel. Preliminary results show that input-blade-airload azimuth resolution of 1 deg or better and computational azimuth step size of 2 deg or less are required to achieve good agreement between predicted and recorded acoustic time histories. The need for more sophisticated methods to model chordwise input data and for a more extensive experimental data base is indicated.

  20. Users' manual for the Langley high speed propeller noise prediction program (DFP-ATP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, M. H.; Tarkenton, G. M.

    1989-01-01

    The use of the Dunn-Farassat-Padula Advanced Technology Propeller (DFP-ATP) noise prediction program which computes the periodic acoustic pressure signature and spectrum generated by propellers moving with supersonic helical tip speeds is described. The program has the capacity of predicting noise produced by a single-rotation propeller (SRP) or a counter-rotation propeller (CRP) system with steady or unsteady blade loading. The computational method is based on two theoretical formulations developed by Farassat. One formulation is appropriate for subsonic sources, and the other for transonic or supersonic sources. Detailed descriptions of user input, program output, and two test cases are presented, as well as brief discussions of the theoretical formulations and computational algorithms employed.

  1. Signal-to-Noise Ratio Prediction and Validation for Space Shuttle GPS Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwu, Shian U.; Adkins, Antha A.; Loh, Yin-Chung; Brown, Lisa C.; Sham, Catherine C.; Kroll, Quin D.

    2002-01-01

    A deterministic method for Space Station Global Positioning System (GPS) Signal-To- Noise Ratio (SNR) predictions is proposed. The complex electromagnetic interactions between GPS antennas and surrounding Space Station structures are taken into account by computational electromagnetic technique. This computer simulator is capable of taking into account multipath effects from dynamically changed solar panels and thermal radiators. A comparison with recent collected Space Station GPS system flight experiment data is presented. The simulation results are in close agreement with flight data.

  2. Availability of corona cage for predicting audible noise generated from HVDC transmission line

    SciTech Connect

    Nakano, Y.; Sunaga, Y.

    1989-04-01

    This paper describes a prospect that a corona cage is available for predicting audible noise (AN) generated from HVDC transmission line. This is based on the assumption that generation quantities of AN and corona current are determined by Fmax (the true maximum conductor surface gradient in the presence of space charge) regardless of the surrounding electrode arrangement. This assumption has been verified by tests using corona cages and a test line.

  3. The Application of a Boundary Integral Equation Method to the Prediction of Ducted Fan Engine Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, M. H.; Tweed, J.; Farassat, F.

    1999-01-01

    The prediction of ducted fan engine noise using a boundary integral equation method (BIEM) is considered. Governing equations for the BIEM are based on linearized acoustics and describe the scattering of incident sound by a thin, finite-length cylindrical duct in the presence of a uniform axial inflow. A classical boundary value problem (BVP) is derived that includes an axisymmetric, locally reacting liner on the duct interior. Using potential theory, the BVP is recast as a system of hypersingular boundary integral equations with subsidiary conditions. We describe the integral equation derivation and solution procedure in detail. The development of the computationally efficient ducted fan noise prediction program TBIEM3D, which implements the BIEM, and its utility in conducting parametric noise reduction studies are discussed. Unlike prediction methods based on spinning mode eigenfunction expansions, the BIEM does not require the decomposition of the interior acoustic field into its radial and axial components which, for the liner case, avoids the solution of a difficult complex eigenvalue problem. Numerical spectral studies are presented to illustrate the nexus between the eigenfunction expansion representation and BIEM results. We demonstrate BIEM liner capability by examining radiation patterns for several cases of practical interest.

  4. Measurement and prediction of noise from low-altitude military aircraft operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barry, Bernard F.; Payne, Richard C.; Harris, Anthony L.; Weston, Ralph J.

    1992-04-01

    In response to the rapid growth in demand for information on noise levels around military airfields in the UK, NPL developed AIRNOISE, a mathematical model for computing aircraft noise contours. Since its first applications in 1981, the model has been used to determine zones of eligibility within the MoD compensation scheme. The model has been subject to continuous development, e.g., the incorporation of Harrier V/STOL operations. We have now extended the model to include noise from high-speed, low-level operations. The model predicts not only maximum levels but the complete time-history, so that the time-onset rate can be estimated. To aid refinement and validation of the model, a special exercise has been conducted in which Tornado, Harrier, Jaguar, Hawk, F-15 and F-16 aircraft have flown straight and level at heights between about 100 and 400 feet, at various speeds and engine power settings over an array of microphones. This paper describes the trial and the results obtained. The prediction model is outlined and comparisons made between predictions and measurements.

  5. An efficient and robust method for predicting helicopter rotor high-speed impulsive noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brentner, Kenneth S.

    1996-01-01

    A new formulation for the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings quadrupole source, which is valid for a far-field in-plane observer, is presented. The far-field approximation is new and unique in that no further approximation of the quadrupole source strength is made and integrands with r(exp -2) and r(exp -3) dependence are retained. This paper focuses on the development of a retarded-time formulation in which time derivatives are analytically taken inside the integrals to avoid unnecessary computational work when the observer moves with the rotor. The new quadrupole formulation is similar to Farassat's thickness and loading formulation 1A. Quadrupole noise prediction is carried out in two parts: a preprocessing stage in which the previously computed flow field is integrated in the direction normal to the rotor disk, and a noise computation stage in which quadrupole surface integrals are evaluated for a particular observer position. Preliminary predictions for hover and forward flight agree well with experimental data. The method is robust and requires computer resources comparable to thickness and loading noise prediction.

  6. Interior Noise Predictions in the Preliminary Design of the Large Civil Tiltrotor (LCTR2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grosveld, Ferdinand W.; Cabell, Randolph H.; Boyd, David D.

    2013-01-01

    A prediction scheme was established to compute sound pressure levels in the interior of a simplified cabin model of the second generation Large Civil Tiltrotor (LCTR2) during cruise conditions, while being excited by turbulent boundary layer flow over the fuselage, or by tiltrotor blade loading and thickness noise. Finite element models of the cabin structure, interior acoustic space, and acoustically absorbent (poro-elastic) materials in the fuselage were generated and combined into a coupled structural-acoustic model. Fluctuating power spectral densities were computed according to the Efimtsov turbulent boundary layer excitation model. Noise associated with the tiltrotor blades was predicted in the time domain as fluctuating surface pressures and converted to power spectral densities at the fuselage skin finite element nodes. A hybrid finite element (FE) approach was used to compute the low frequency acoustic cabin response over the frequency range 6-141 Hz with a 1 Hz bandwidth, and the Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) approach was used to predict the interior noise for the 125-8000 Hz one-third octave bands.

  7. Development of Computational Aeroacoustics Code for Jet Noise and Flow Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keith, Theo G., Jr.; Hixon, Duane R.

    2002-07-01

    Accurate prediction of jet fan and exhaust plume flow and noise generation and propagation is very important in developing advanced aircraft engines that will pass current and future noise regulations. In jet fan flows as well as exhaust plumes, two major sources of noise are present: large-scale, coherent instabilities and small-scale turbulent eddies. In previous work for the NASA Glenn Research Center, three strategies have been explored in an effort to computationally predict the noise radiation from supersonic jet exhaust plumes. In order from the least expensive computationally to the most expensive computationally, these are: 1) Linearized Euler equations (LEE). 2) Very Large Eddy Simulations (VLES). 3) Large Eddy Simulations (LES). The first method solves the linearized Euler equations (LEE). These equations are obtained by linearizing about a given mean flow and the neglecting viscous effects. In this way, the noise from large-scale instabilities can be found for a given mean flow. The linearized Euler equations are computationally inexpensive, and have produced good noise results for supersonic jets where the large-scale instability noise dominates, as well as for the tone noise from a jet engine blade row. However, these linear equations do not predict the absolute magnitude of the noise; instead, only the relative magnitude is predicted. Also, the predicted disturbances do not modify the mean flow, removing a physical mechanism by which the amplitude of the disturbance may be controlled. Recent research for isolated airfoils' indicates that this may not affect the solution greatly at low frequencies. The second method addresses some of the concerns raised by the LEE method. In this approach, called Very Large Eddy Simulation (VLES), the unsteady Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations are solved directly using a high-accuracy computational aeroacoustics numerical scheme. With the addition of a two-equation turbulence model and the use of a relatively coarse grid, the numerical solution is effectively filtered into a directly calculated mean flow with the small-scale turbulence being modeled, and an unsteady large-scale component that is also being directly calculated. In this way, the unsteady disturbances are calculated in a nonlinear way, with a direct effect on the mean flow. This method is not as fast as the LEE approach, but does have many advantages to recommend it; however, like the LEE approach, only the effect of the largest unsteady structures will be captured. An initial calculation was performed on a supersonic jet exhaust plume, with promising results, but the calculation was hampered by the explicit time marching scheme that was employed. This explicit scheme required a very small time step to resolve the nozzle boundary layer, which caused a long run time. Current work is focused on testing a lower-order implicit time marching method to combat this problem.

  8. Development of Computational Aeroacoustics Code for Jet Noise and Flow Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keith, Theo G., Jr.; Hixon, Duane R.

    2002-01-01

    Accurate prediction of jet fan and exhaust plume flow and noise generation and propagation is very important in developing advanced aircraft engines that will pass current and future noise regulations. In jet fan flows as well as exhaust plumes, two major sources of noise are present: large-scale, coherent instabilities and small-scale turbulent eddies. In previous work for the NASA Glenn Research Center, three strategies have been explored in an effort to computationally predict the noise radiation from supersonic jet exhaust plumes. In order from the least expensive computationally to the most expensive computationally, these are: 1) Linearized Euler equations (LEE). 2) Very Large Eddy Simulations (VLES). 3) Large Eddy Simulations (LES). The first method solves the linearized Euler equations (LEE). These equations are obtained by linearizing about a given mean flow and the neglecting viscous effects. In this way, the noise from large-scale instabilities can be found for a given mean flow. The linearized Euler equations are computationally inexpensive, and have produced good noise results for supersonic jets where the large-scale instability noise dominates, as well as for the tone noise from a jet engine blade row. However, these linear equations do not predict the absolute magnitude of the noise; instead, only the relative magnitude is predicted. Also, the predicted disturbances do not modify the mean flow, removing a physical mechanism by which the amplitude of the disturbance may be controlled. Recent research for isolated airfoils' indicates that this may not affect the solution greatly at low frequencies. The second method addresses some of the concerns raised by the LEE method. In this approach, called Very Large Eddy Simulation (VLES), the unsteady Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations are solved directly using a high-accuracy computational aeroacoustics numerical scheme. With the addition of a two-equation turbulence model and the use of a relatively coarse grid, the numerical solution is effectively filtered into a directly calculated mean flow with the small-scale turbulence being modeled, and an unsteady large-scale component that is also being directly calculated. In this way, the unsteady disturbances are calculated in a nonlinear way, with a direct effect on the mean flow. This method is not as fast as the LEE approach, but does have many advantages to recommend it; however, like the LEE approach, only the effect of the largest unsteady structures will be captured. An initial calculation was performed on a supersonic jet exhaust plume, with promising results, but the calculation was hampered by the explicit time marching scheme that was employed. This explicit scheme required a very small time step to resolve the nozzle boundary layer, which caused a long run time. Current work is focused on testing a lower-order implicit time marching method to combat this problem.

  9. A semi-analytical model for the prediction of underwater noise from offshore pile driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsouvalas, A.; Metrikine, A. V.

    2013-06-01

    Underwater noise from offshore pile driving gained considerable attention in recent years mainly due to the large scale construction of offshore wind farms. The most common foundation type of a wind turbine is a monopile, upon which the wind tower rests. The pile is driven into place with the help of hydraulic hammers. During the hammering of the pile, high levels of noise are generated which are known to produce deleterious effects on both mammals and fish. In this work, a linear semi-analytical model is developed for predicting the levels of underwater noise for a wide range of system parameters. The model incorporates all major parts of the system. The hydraulic hammer is substituted by an external force, the pile is described as a thin circular cylindrical shell, the water is modelled as a compressible fluid and the water-saturated seabed is defined by distributed springs and dashpots in all directions. The solution of the coupled vibroacoustic problem is based on the representation of the response of the complete system on the modal basis of the in vacuo shell structure. The influence that the inter-modal coupling, the choice of the soil parameters and the acoustic impedance of the seabed have on the generated noise levels is studied in the frequency domain. Strong and weak points of the present model are discussed on the basis of a comparison with a set of available experimental data. The obtained results show the capability of the model to predict the underwater noise levels both qualitatively and quantitatively.

  10. Applications of the predictability of the Coherent Noise Model to aftershock sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christopoulos, Stavros-Richard; Sarlis, Nicholas

    2014-05-01

    A study [1] of the coherent noise model [2-4] in natural time [5-7] has shown that it exhibits predictability. Interestingly, one of the predictors suggested [1] for the coherent noise model can be generalized and applied to the case of (real) aftershock sequences. The results obtained [8] so far are beyond chance. Here, we apply this approach to several aftershock sequences of strong earthquakes with magnitudes Mw ≥6.9 in Indonesia, California and Greece, including the Mw9.2 earthquake that occurred on 26 December 2004 in Sumatra. References. [1] N. V. Sarlis and S.-R. G. Christopoulos, Predictability of the coherent-noise model and its applications, Physical Review E, 85, 051136, 2012. [2] M.E.J. Newman, Self-organized criticality, evolution and the fossil extinction record, Proc. R. Soc. London B, 263, 1605-1610, 1996. [3] M. E. J. Newman and K. Sneppen, Avalanches, scaling, and coherent noise, Phys. Rev. E, 54, 6226-6231, 1996. [4] K. Sneppen and M. Newman, Coherent noise, scale invariance and intermittency in large systems, Physica D, 110, 209 - 222. [5] P. Varotsos, N. Sarlis, and E. Skordas, Spatiotemporal complexity aspects on the interrelation between Seismic Electric Signals and seismicity, Practica of Athens Academy, 76, 294-321, 2001. [6] P.A. Varotsos, N.V. Sarlis, and E.S. Skordas, Long-range correlations in the electric signals that precede rupture, Phys. Rev. E, 66, 011902, 2002. [7] Varotsos P. A., Sarlis N. V. and Skordas E. S., Natural Time Analysis: The new view of time. Precursory Seismic Electric Signals, Earthquakes and other Complex Time-Series (Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg) 2011. [8] N. V. Sarlis and S.-R. G. Christopoulos, "Visualization of the significance of Receiver Operating Characteristics based on confidence ellipses", Computer Physics Communications, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cpc.2013.12.009

  11. Noise sampling issues for impact/impulse noise surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prince, Mary M.; Vipperman, Jeffrey S.

    2003-04-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) has been recognized as a serious health concern for decades. ISO Standard 1999:1990 provides a means to predict noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) based on LAeq measurements in the working environments of workers. This standard seems to work well for predicting hearing loss in continuous noise fields. However, it is possible that ISO 1999 does not apply well to impact, impulsive, or other transient noise fields. NIOSH and University of Pittsburgh are currently developing noise-sampling strategies to measure impact and impulse noise in a manufacturing environment with the aim of developing new impulsive noise metrics. As part of the study, broadband impact/impulse pressure measurements will be made. Issues such as instrumentation, data quality, repeatability, spatial sampling, equipment portability, and calibration are addressed. Also, the annotation, digitization, and editing of the waveforms will be discussed. As part of the project, an archival database of manufacturing impulse/impact will be created to support the future algorithmic development. The ultimate goal of the project is to develop new metrics to characterize the hazards of impact/impulse noise that will complement ISO 1999 for predicting NIHL.

  12. Comparison of methods of predicting community response to impulsive and nonimpulsive noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fidell, Sanford; Pearsons, Karl S.

    1994-01-01

    Several scientific, regulatory, and policy-coordinating bodies have developed methods for predicting community response to sonic booms. The best known of these is the dosage-response relationship of Working Group 84 of the National Academy of Science's Committee on Hearing, Bioacoustics and Biomechanics. This dosage-response relationship between C-weighted DayNight Average Sound Level and the prevalence of annoyance with high energy impulsive sounds was derived from limited amounts of information about community response to regular, prolonged, and expected exposure to artillery and sonic booms. U.S. Army Regulation 201 adapts this approach to predictions of the acceptability of impulsive noise exposure in communities. This regulation infers equivalent degrees of effect with respect to a well known dosage-response relationship for general (nonimpulsive) transportation noise. Differences in prevalence of annoyance predicted by various relationships lead to different predictions of the compatibility of land uses with sonic boom exposure. An examination of these differences makes apparent several unresolved issues in current practice for predicting and interpreting the prevalence of annoyance due to sonic boom exposure.

  13. The significance of parameter uncertainties for the prediction of offshore pile driving noise.

    PubMed

    Lippert, Tristan; von Estorff, Otto

    2014-11-01

    Due to the construction of offshore wind farms and its potential effect on marine wildlife, the numerical prediction of pile driving noise over long ranges has recently gained importance. In this contribution, a coupled finite element/wavenumber integration model for noise prediction is presented and validated by measurements. The ocean environment, especially the sea bottom, can only be characterized with limited accuracy in terms of input parameters for the numerical model at hand. Therefore the effect of these parameter uncertainties on the prediction of sound pressure levels (SPLs) in the water column is investigated by a probabilistic approach. In fact, a variation of the bottom material parameters by means of Monte-Carlo simulations shows significant effects on the predicted SPLs. A sensitivity analysis of the model with respect to the single quantities is performed, as well as a global variation. Based on the latter, the probability distribution of the SPLs at an exemplary receiver position is evaluated and compared to measurements. The aim of this procedure is to develop a model to reliably predict an interval for the SPLs, by quantifying the degree of uncertainty of the SPLs with the MC simulations. PMID:25373948

  14. Development of Jet Noise Power Spectral Laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khavaran, Abbas; Bridges, James

    2011-01-01

    High-quality jet noise spectral data measured at the Aero-Acoustic Propulsion Laboratory (AAPL) at NASA Glenn is used to develop jet noise scaling laws. A FORTRAN algorithm was written that provides detailed spectral prediction of component jet noise at user-specified conditions. The model generates quick estimates of the jet mixing noise and the broadband shock-associated noise (BBSN) in single-stream, axis-symmetric jets within a wide range of nozzle operating conditions. Shock noise is emitted when supersonic jets exit a nozzle at imperfectly expanded conditions. A successful scaling of the BBSN allows for this noise component to be predicted in both convergent and convergent-divergent nozzles. Configurations considered in this study consisted of convergent and convergent- divergent nozzles. Velocity exponents for the jet mixing noise were evaluated as a function of observer angle and jet temperature. Similar intensity laws were developed for the broadband shock-associated noise in supersonic jets. A computer program called sJet was developed that provides a quick estimate of component noise in single-stream jets at a wide range of operating conditions. A number of features have been incorporated into the data bank and subsequent scaling in order to improve jet noise predictions. Measurements have been converted to a lossless format. Set points have been carefully selected to minimize the instability-related noise at small aft angles. Regression parameters have been scrutinized for error bounds at each angle. Screech-related amplification noise has been kept to a minimum to ensure that the velocity exponents for the jet mixing noise remain free of amplifications. A shock-noise-intensity scaling has been developed independent of the nozzle design point. The computer program provides detailed narrow-band spectral predictions for component noise (mixing noise and shock associated noise), as well as the total noise. Although the methodology is confined to single streams, efforts are underway to generate a data bank and algorithm applicable to dual-stream jets. Shock-associated noise in high-powered jets such as military aircraft can benefit from these predictions.

  15. The Prediction of Noise Due to Jet Turbulence Convecting Past Flight Vehicle Trailing Edges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Steven A. E.

    2014-01-01

    High intensity acoustic radiation occurs when turbulence convects past airframe trailing edges. A mathematical model is developed to predict this acoustic radiation. The model is dependent on the local flow and turbulent statistics above the trailing edge of the flight vehicle airframe. These quantities are dependent on the jet and flight vehicle Mach numbers and jet temperature. A term in the model approximates the turbulent statistics of single-stream heated jet flows and is developed based upon measurement. The developed model is valid for a wide range of jet Mach numbers, jet temperature ratios, and flight vehicle Mach numbers. The model predicts traditional trailing edge noise if the jet is not interacting with the airframe. Predictions of mean-flow quantities and the cross-spectrum of static pressure near the airframe trailing edge are compared with measurement. Finally, predictions of acoustic intensity are compared with measurement and the model is shown to accurately capture the phenomenon.

  16. Experimental study of tyre/road contact forces in rolling conditions for noise prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cesbron, Julien; Anfosso-Lde, Fabienne; Duhamel, Denis; Ping Yin, Hai; Le Houdec, Donatien

    2009-02-01

    This paper deals with the experimental study of dynamical tyre/road contact for noise prediction. In situ measurements of contact forces and close proximity noise levels were carried out for a slick tyre rolling on six different road surfaces between 30 and 50 km/h. Additional texture profiles of the tested surfaces were taken on the wheel track. Normal contact stresses were measured at a sampling frequency of 10752 Hz using a line of pressure sensitive cells placed both along and perpendicular to the rolling direction. The contact areas obtained during rolling were smaller than in static conditions. This is mainly explained by the dynamical properties of tyre compounds, like the viscoelastic behaviour of the rubber. Additionally the root-mean-square of the resultant contact forces at various speeds was in the same order for a given road surface, while their spectra were quite different. This is certainly due to a spectral influence of bending waves propagating in the tyre during rolling, especially when the wavelength is small in comparison with the size of the contact patch. Finally, the levels of contact forces and close proximity noise measured at 30 km/h were correlated. Additional correlations with texture levels were performed. The results show that the macro-texture generates contact forces linearly around 800 Hz and consequently noise levels between 500 and 1000 Hz via the vibrations transmitted to the tyre.

  17. Prediction of interior noise due to random acoustic or turbulent boundary layer excitation using statistical energy analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grosveld, Ferdinand W.

    1990-01-01

    The feasibility of predicting interior noise due to random acoustic or turbulent boundary layer excitation was investigated in experiments in which a statistical energy analysis model (VAPEPS) was used to analyze measurements of the acceleration response and sound transmission of flat aluminum, lucite, and graphite/epoxy plates exposed to random acoustic or turbulent boundary layer excitation. The noise reduction of the plate, when backed by a shallow cavity and excited by a turbulent boundary layer, was predicted using a simplified theory based on the assumption of adiabatic compression of the fluid in the cavity. The predicted plate acceleration response was used as input in the noise reduction prediction. Reasonable agreement was found between the predictions and the measured noise reduction in the frequency range 315-1000 Hz.

  18. Effect of higher harmonic control on helicopter rotor blade-vortex interaction noise: Prediction and initial validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaumier, P.; Prieur, J.; Rahier, G.; Spiegel, P.; Demargne, A.; Tung, C.; Gallman, J. M.; Yu, Y. H.; Kube, R.; Vanderwall, B. G.

    1995-01-01

    The paper presents a status of theoretical tools of AFDD, DLR, NASA and ONERA for prediction of the effect of HHC on helicopter main rotor BVI noise. Aeroacoustic predictions from the four research centers, concerning a wind tunnel simulation of a typical descent flight case without and with HHC are presented and compared. The results include blade deformation, geometry of interacting vortices, sectional loads and noise. Acoustic predictions are compared to experimental data. An analysis of the results provides a first insight of the mechanisms by which HHC may affect BVI noise.

  19. Source Methodology for Turbofan Noise Prediction (SOURCE3D Technical Documentation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Harold D.

    1999-01-01

    This report provides the analytical documentation for the SOURCE3D Rotor Wake/Stator Interaction Code. It derives the equations for the rotor scattering coefficients and stator source vector and scattering coefficients that are needed for use in the TFANS (Theoretical Fan Noise Design/Prediction System). SOURCE3D treats the rotor and stator as isolated source elements. TFANS uses this information, along with scattering coefficients for inlet and exit elements, and provides complete noise solutions for turbofan engines. SOURCE3D is composed of a collection of FORTRAN programs that have been obtained by extending the approach of the earlier V072 Rotor Wake/Stator Interaction Code. Similar to V072, it treats the rotor and stator as a collection of blades and vanes having zero thickness and camber contained in an infinite, hardwall annular duct. SOURCE3D adds important features to the V072 capability-a rotor element, swirl flow and vorticity waves, actuator disks for flow turning, and combined rotor/actuator disk and stator/actuator disk elements. These items allow reflections from the rotor, frequency scattering, and mode trapping, thus providing more complete noise predictions than previously. The code has been thoroughly verified through comparison with D.B. Hanson's CUP2D two- dimensional code using a narrow annulus test case.

  20. Predicting the Noise of High Power Fluid Targets Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Michael; Covrig Dusa, Silviu

    The 2.5 kW liquid hydrogen (LH2) target used in the Qweak parity violation experiment is the highest power LH2 target in the world and the first to be designed with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) at Jefferson Lab. The Qweak experiment determined the weak charge of the proton by measuring the parity-violating elastic scattering asymmetry of longitudinally polarized electrons from unpolarized liquid hydrogen at small momentum transfer (Q2 = 0 . 025 GeV2). This target satisfied the design goals of < 1 % luminosity reduction and < 5 % contribution to the total asymmetry width (the Qweak target achieved 2 % or 55ppm). State of the art time dependent CFD simulations are being developed to improve the predictions of target noise on the time scale of the electron beam helicity period. These predictions will be bench-marked with the Qweak target data. This work is an essential component in future designs of very high power low noise targets like MOLLER (5 kW, target noise asymmetry contribution < 25 ppm) and MESA (4.5 kW).

  1. Rotor Wake/Stator Interaction Noise Prediction Code Technical Documentation and User's Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Topol, David A.; Mathews, Douglas C.

    2010-01-01

    This report documents the improvements and enhancements made by Pratt & Whitney to two NASA programs which together will calculate noise from a rotor wake/stator interaction. The code is a combination of subroutines from two NASA programs with many new features added by Pratt & Whitney. To do a calculation V072 first uses a semi-empirical wake prediction to calculate the rotor wake characteristics at the stator leading edge. Results from the wake model are then automatically input into a rotor wake/stator interaction analytical noise prediction routine which calculates inlet aft sound power levels for the blade-passage-frequency tones and their harmonics, along with the complex radial mode amplitudes. The code allows for a noise calculation to be performed for a compressor rotor wake/stator interaction, a fan wake/FEGV interaction, or a fan wake/core stator interaction. This report is split into two parts, the first part discusses the technical documentation of the program as improved by Pratt & Whitney. The second part is a user's manual which describes how input files are created and how the code is run.

  2. The NASA/AHS Rotorcraft Noise Reduction Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Childress, Otis S., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Research of the NASA/AHS noise reduction program is discussed, stressing work in four areas: noise prediction, testing and data base, noise reduction, and criteria development. A program called ROTONET has been developed, using a code structure divided into four main parts; main- and tail-rotor blade geometry, rotor performance, noise calculations, and noise propagation. Wind tunnel tests on individual rotors, and flight tests on a helicopter built specifically to generate a broadband main rotor noise data base have been conducted. In the field of noise reduction, researchers have performed analytical evaluations of low noise rotor concepts, and small-scale wind tunnel evaluations of noise reduction concepts. Under the supervision of the FAA, the program in conducting tests to develop criteria for helicopters and heliports.

  3. Analysis of the PTA external noise data and comparison with predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spence, P. L.; Block, P. J. W.

    1990-10-01

    Analyses of the Propfan Test Assessment external fuselage noise data and external boom data are presented. Data analysis was focused on an array of 45 microphones located on the external fuselage surface that are arranged into two line arrays, one around the fuselage at the plane of rotation, and the other along the fuselage side nearest to the propeller. A third group comprises a surface array of 39 microphones covering from top to bottom of the fuselage and from one diameter upstream to one diameter downstream of the plane of rotation. The data obtained from this surface array and the developed color contours of the noise intensity on the fuselage are presented. Also included are two flight test predictions and the comparison with measured data.

  4. Prediction of high-speed rotor noise with a Kirchhoff formula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purcell, Timothy W.; Strawn, Roger C.; Yu, Yung H.

    1987-01-01

    A new methodology has been developed to predict the impulsive noise generated by a transonic rotor blade. The formulation uses a full-potential finite-difference method to obtain the pressure field close to the blade. A Kirchhoff integral formulation is then used to extend these finite-difference results into the far-field. This Kirchhoff formula is written in a blade-fixed coordinate system. It requires initial data across a plane at the sonic radius. This data is provided by the finite-difference solution. Acoustic pressure predictions show excellent agreement with hover experimental data for two hover cases of 0.88 and 0.90 tip Mach number, the latter of which has delocalized transonic flow. These results represent the first successful prediction technique for peak pressure amplitudes using a computational code.

  5. A prediction procedure for propeller aircraft flyover noise based on empirical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. H.

    1981-04-01

    Forty-eight different flyover noise certification tests are analyzed using multiple linear regression methods. A prediction model is presented based on this analysis, and the results compared with the test data and two other prediction methods. The aircraft analyzed include 30 single engine aircraft, 16 twin engine piston aircraft, and two twin engine turboprops. The importance of helical tip Mach number is verified and the relationship of several other aircraft, engine, and propeller parameters is developed. The model shows good agreement with the test data and is at least as accurate as the other prediction methods. It has the advantage of being somewhat easier to use since it is in the form of a single equation.

  6. Predicted and measured boundary layer refraction for advanced turboprop propeller noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dittmar, James H.; Krejsa, Eugene A.

    1990-01-01

    Currently, boundary layer refraction presents a limitation to the measurement of forward arc propeller noise measured on an acoustic plate in the NASA Lewis 8- by 6-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel. The use of a validated boundary layer refraction model to adjust the data could remove this limitation. An existing boundary layer refraction model is used to predict the refraction for cases where boundary layer refraction was measured. In general, the model exhibits the same qualitative behavior as the measured refraction. However, the prediction method does not show quantitative agreement with the data. In general, it overpredicts the amount of refraction for the far forward angles at axial Mach number of 0.85 and 0.80 and underpredicts the refraction at axial Mach numbers of 0.75 and 0.70. A more complete propeller source description is suggested as a way to improve the prediction method.

  7. Predicting the wind noise from the pantograph cover of a train

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Bayard S.; Dias, Joo B.; Jaroux, Belgacem A.; Sassa, Takamitsu; Ban, Yasuhiro

    1997-06-01

    Finite element and boundary element calculations are combined to predict the flow noise radiated from a 1/10th-scale model of an aerodynamic cover used around the pantograph on a train at 250 km h-1. The solutions of the unsteady air flow over the cover and the resulting sound propagation are divided into two parts in order to keep the problem tractable. First the unsteady fluid flow is solved using large-eddy simulation (LES). The pressure histories on the cover are then used to predict the radiated sound, using a boundary element method to solve the Helmholtz equation. The result thus leans heavily on assumptions about the coupling of the two solutions, the propagation of sound in a disturbed medium and the efficacy of LES. The predicted sound pressure levels are compared with experimental measurements made in an anechoic wind tunnel.

  8. Experimental characterization of vertical-axis wind turbine noise.

    PubMed

    Pearson, C E; Graham, W R

    2015-01-01

    Vertical-axis wind turbines are wind-energy generators suitable for use in urban environments. Their associated noise thus needs to be characterized and understood. As a first step, this work investigates the relative importance of harmonic and broadband contributions via model-scale wind-tunnel experiments. Cross-spectra from a pair of flush-mounted wall microphones exhibit both components, but further analysis shows that the broadband dominates at frequencies corresponding to the audible range in full-scale operation. This observation has detrimental implications for noise-prediction reliability and hence also for acoustic design optimization. PMID:25618090

  9. Broadband radiometer

    DOEpatents

    Cannon, T.W.

    1994-07-26

    A broadband radiometer is disclosed including (a) an optical integrating sphere having generally spherical integrating chamber and an entry port for receiving light (e.g., having visible and ultraviolet fractions), (b) a first optical radiation detector for receiving light from the sphere and producing an electrical output signal corresponding to broadband radiation, (c) a second optical radiation detector for receiving light from the sphere and producing an electrical output signal corresponding to a predetermined wavelength fraction of the broadband radiation, and (d) an output for producing an electrical signal which is proportional to the difference between the two electrical output signals. The radiometer is very useful, for example, in measuring the absolute amount of ultraviolet light present in a given light sample. 8 figs.

  10. Predicting the Inflow Distortion Tone Noise of the NASA Glenn Advanced Noise Control Fan with a Combined Quadrupole-Dipole Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, L. Danielle

    2012-01-01

    A combined quadrupole-dipole model of fan inflow distortion tone noise has been extended to calculate tone sound power levels generated by obstructions arranged in circumferentially asymmetric locations upstream of a rotor. Trends in calculated sound power level agreed well with measurements from tests conducted in 2007 in the NASA Glenn Advanced Noise Control Fan. Calculated values of sound power levels radiated upstream were demonstrated to be sensitive to the accuracy of the modeled wakes from the cylindrical rods that were placed upstream of the fan to distort the inflow. Results indicate a continued need to obtain accurate aerodynamic predictions and measurements at the fan inlet plane as engineers work towards developing fan inflow distortion tone noise prediction tools.

  11. Modeling and Prediction of the Noise from Non-Axisymmetric Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leib, Stewart J.

    2014-01-01

    The new source model was combined with the original sound propagation model developed for rectangular jets to produce a new version of the rectangular jet noise prediction code. This code was validated using a set of rectangular nozzles whose geometries were specified by NASA. Nozzles of aspect ratios two, four and eight were studied at jet exit Mach numbers of 0.5, 0.7 and 0.9, for a total of nine cases. Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes solutions for these jets were provided to the contactor for use as input to the code. Quantitative comparisons of the predicted azimuthal and polar directivity of the acoustic spectrum were made with experimental data provided by NASA. The results of these comparisons, along with a documentation of the propagation and source models, were reported in a journal article publication (Ref. 4). The complete set of computer codes and computational modules that make up the prediction scheme, along with a user's guide describing their use and example test cases, was provided to NASA as a deliverable of this task. The use of conformal mapping, along with simplified modeling of the mean flow field, for noise propagation modeling was explored for other nozzle geometries, to support the task milestone of developing methods which are applicable to other geometries and flow conditions of interest to NASA. A model to represent twin round jets using this approach was formulated and implemented. A general approach to solving the equations governing sound propagation in a locally parallel nonaxisymmetric jet was developed and implemented, in aid of the tasks and milestones charged with selecting more exact numerical methods for modeling sound propagation, and developing methods that have application to other nozzle geometries. The method is based on expansion of both the mean-flowdependent coefficients in the governing equation and the Green's function in series of orthogonal functions. The method was coded and tested on two analytically prescribed mean flows which were meant to represent noise reduction concepts being considered by NASA. Testing (Ref. 5) showed that the method was feasible for the types of mean flows of interest in jet noise applications. Subsequently, this method was further developed to allow use of mean flow profiles obtained from a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) solution of the flow. Preliminary testing of the generalized code was among the last tasks completed under this contract. The stringent noise-reduction goals of NASA's Fundamental Aeronautics Program suggest that, in addition to potentially complex exhaust nozzle geometries, next generation aircraft will also involve tighter integration of the engine with the airframe. Therefore, noise generated and propagated by jet flows in the vicinity of solid surfaces is expected to be quite significant, and reduced-order noise prediction tools will be needed that can deal with such geometries. One important source of noise is that generated by the interaction of a turbulent jet with the edge of a solid surface (edge noise). Such noise is generated, for example, by the passing of the engine exhaust over a shielding surface, such as a wing. Work under this task supported an effort to develop a RANS-based prediction code for edge noise based on an extension of the classical Rapid Distortion Theory (RDT) to transversely sheared base flows (Refs. 6 and 7). The RDT-based theoretical analysis was applied to the generic problem of a turbulent jet interacting with the trailing edge of a flat plate. A code was written to evaluate the formula derived for the spectrum of the noise produced by this interaction and results were compared with data taken at NASA Glenn for a variety of jet/plate configurations and flow conditions (Ref. 8). A longer-term goal of this task was to work toward the development of a high-fidelity model of sound propagation in spatially developing non-axisymmetric jets using direct numerical methods for solving the relevant equations. Working with NASA Glenn Acoustics Branch personnel, numerical methods and boundary conditions appropriate for use in a high-resolution calculation of the full equations governing sound propagation in a steady base flow were identified. Computer codes were then written (by NASA) and tested (by OAI) for an increasingly complex set of flow conditions to validate the methods. The NASA-supplied codes were ported to the High-End Computing resources of the NASA Advanced Supercomputing facility for testing and validation against analytical (where possible) and independent numerical solutions. The cases which were completed during the course of this contract were solutions of the two-dimensional linearized Euler equations with no mean flow, a uniform mean flow and a nonuniform mean flow representative of a parallel flow jet.

  12. Development of computer program ENMASK for prediction of residual environmental masking-noise spectra, from any three independent environmental parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Y.-S.; Liebich, R. E.; Chun, K. C.

    2000-03-31

    Residual environmental sound can mask intrusive4 (unwanted) sound. It is a factor that can affect noise impacts and must be considered both in noise-impact studies and in noise-mitigation designs. Models for quantitative prediction of sensation level (audibility) and psychological effects of intrusive noise require an input with 1/3 octave-band spectral resolution of environmental masking noise. However, the majority of published residual environmental masking-noise data are given with either octave-band frequency resolution or only single A-weighted decibel values. A model has been developed that enables estimation of 1/3 octave-band residual environmental masking-noise spectra and relates certain environmental parameters to A-weighted sound level. This model provides a correlation among three environmental conditions: measured residual A-weighted sound-pressure level, proximity to a major roadway, and population density. Cited field-study data were used to compute the most probable 1/3 octave-band sound-pressure spectrum corresponding to any selected one of these three inputs. In turn, such spectra can be used as an input to models for prediction of noise impacts. This paper discusses specific algorithms included in the newly developed computer program ENMASK. In addition, the relative audibility of the environmental masking-noise spectra at different A-weighted sound levels is discussed, which is determined by using the methodology of program ENAUDIBL.

  13. Prediction of broadband ground-motion time histories: Hybrid low/high-frequency method with correlated random source parameters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liu, P.; Archuleta, R.J.; Hartzell, S.H.

    2006-01-01

    We present a new method for calculating broadband time histories of ground motion based on a hybrid low-frequency/high-frequency approach with correlated source parameters. Using a finite-difference method we calculate low- frequency synthetics (< ∼1 Hz) in a 3D velocity structure. We also compute broadband synthetics in a 1D velocity model using a frequency-wavenumber method. The low frequencies from the 3D calculation are combined with the high frequencies from the 1D calculation by using matched filtering at a crossover frequency of 1 Hz. The source description, common to both the 1D and 3D synthetics, is based on correlated random distributions for the slip amplitude, rupture velocity, and rise time on the fault. This source description allows for the specification of source parameters independent of any a priori inversion results. In our broadband modeling we include correlation between slip amplitude, rupture velocity, and rise time, as suggested by dynamic fault modeling. The method of using correlated random source parameters is flexible and can be easily modified to adjust to our changing understanding of earthquake ruptures. A realistic attenuation model is common to both the 3D and 1D calculations that form the low- and high-frequency components of the broadband synthetics. The value of Q is a function of the local shear-wave velocity. To produce more accurate high-frequency amplitudes and durations, the 1D synthetics are corrected with a randomized, frequency-dependent radiation pattern. The 1D synthetics are further corrected for local site and nonlinear soil effects by using a 1D nonlinear propagation code and generic velocity structure appropriate for the site’s National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) site classification. The entire procedure is validated by comparison with the 1994 Northridge, California, strong ground motion data set. The bias and error found here for response spectral acceleration are similar to the best results that have been published by others for the Northridge rupture.

  14. Observations from varying the lift and drag inputs to a noise prediction method for supersonic helical tip speed propellers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dittmar, J. H.

    1984-01-01

    Previous comparisons between calculated and measured supersonic helical tip speed propeller noise show them to have different trends of peak blade passing tone versus helical tip Mach number. It was postulated that improvements in this comparison could be made first by including the drag force terms in the prediction and then by reducing the blade lift terms at the tip to allow the drag forces to dominate the noise prediction. Propeller hub to tip lift distributions were varied, but they did not yield sufficient change in the predicted lift noise to improve the comparison. This result indicates that some basic changes in the theory may be needed. In addition, the noise predicted by the drag forces did not exhibit the same curve shape as the measured data. So even if the drag force terms were to dominate, the trends with helical tip Mach number for theory and experiment would still not be the same. The effect of the blade shock wave pressure rise was approxmated by increasing the drag coefficient at the blade tip. Predictions using this shock wdave approximation did have a curve shape similar to the measured data. This result indicates that the shock pressure rise probably controls the noise at supersonic tip speed and that the linear prediction method can give the proper noise trend with Mach number.

  15. A complex of analytical models for predicting noise in an aircraft cabin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efimtsov, B. M.; Lazarev, L. A.

    2012-07-01

    A series of analytical calculated models for predicting the noise in an aircraft cabin is developed: an orthotropic model, a model with discrete frames, a model with discrete stringers, a model with isolated cells, and a model with a cross system of discrete ribs. The analytical solution is constructed on the basis of the method of space harmonic expansion. Vibrations are represented in the form of double trigonometric series. Strict periodicity allows dividing the series into a large number of independent groups, which makes it possible to effectively perform calculations for large fragments of the fuselage in the entire frequency region both for deterministic and random external force fields.

  16. Analytical prediction of the interior noise for cylindrical models of aircraft fuselages for prescribed exterior noise fields. Phase 1: Development and validation of preliminary analytical models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pope, L. D.; Rennison, D. C.; Wilby, E. G.

    1980-01-01

    The basic theoretical work required to understand sound transmission into an enclosed space (that is, one closed by the transmitting structure) is developed for random pressure fields and for harmonic (tonal) excitation. The analysis is used to predict the noise reducton of unpressurized unstiffened cylinder, and also the interior response of the cylinder given a tonal (plane wave) excitation. Predictions and measurements are compared and the transmission is analyzed. In addition, results for tonal (harmonic) mechanical excitation are considered.

  17. Enhanced Fan Noise Modeling for Turbofan Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krejsa, Eugene A.; Stone, James R.

    2014-01-01

    This report describes work by consultants to Diversitech Inc. for the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) to revise the fan noise prediction procedure based on fan noise data obtained in the 9- by 15 Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel at GRC. The purpose of this task is to begin development of an enhanced, analytical, more physics-based, fan noise prediction method applicable to commercial turbofan propulsion systems. The method is to be suitable for programming into a computational model for eventual incorporation into NASA's current aircraft system noise prediction computer codes. The scope of this task is in alignment with the mission of the Propulsion 21 research effort conducted by the coalition of NASA, state government, industry, and academia to develop aeropropulsion technologies. A model for fan noise prediction was developed based on measured noise levels for the R4 rotor with several outlet guide vane variations and three fan exhaust areas. The model predicts the complete fan noise spectrum, including broadband noise, tones, and for supersonic tip speeds, combination tones. Both spectra and directivity are predicted. Good agreement with data was achieved for all fan geometries. Comparisons with data from a second fan, the ADP fan, also showed good agreement.

  18. A computer program for the prediction of near field noise of aircraft in cruising flight: User's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tibbetts, J. G.

    1980-01-01

    Detailed instructions for using the near field cruise noise prediction program, a program listing, and a sample case with output are presented. The total noise for free field lossless conditions at selected observer locations is obtained by summing the contributions from up to nine acoustic sources. These noise sources, selected at the user's option, include the fan/compressor, turbine, core (combustion), jet, shock, and airframe (trailing edge and turbulent boundary layers). The effects of acoustic suppression materials such as engine inlet treatment may also be included in the noise prediction. The program is available for use on the NASA/Langley Research Center CDC computer. Comparisons of the program predictions with measured data are also given, and some possible reasons for their lack of agreement presented.

  19. A computer program for the prediction of near field noise of aircraft in cruising flight: User's guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tibbetts, J. G.

    1980-06-01

    Detailed instructions for using the near field cruise noise prediction program, a program listing, and a sample case with output are presented. The total noise for free field lossless conditions at selected observer locations is obtained by summing the contributions from up to nine acoustic sources. These noise sources, selected at the user's option, include the fan/compressor, turbine, core (combustion), jet, shock, and airframe (trailing edge and turbulent boundary layers). The effects of acoustic suppression materials such as engine inlet treatment may also be included in the noise prediction. The program is available for use on the NASA/Langley Research Center CDC computer. Comparisons of the program predictions with measured data are also given, and some possible reasons for their lack of agreement presented.

  20. Development of nonlinear acoustic propagation analysis tool toward realization of loud noise environment prediction in aeronautics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanamori, Masashi; Takahashi, Takashi; Aoyama, Takashi

    2015-10-01

    Shown in this paper is an introduction of a prediction tool for the propagation of loud noise with the application to the aeronautics in mind. The tool, named SPnoise, is based on HOWARD approach, which can express almost exact multidimensionality of the diffraction effect at the cost of back scattering. This paper argues, in particular, the prediction of the effect of atmospheric turbulence on sonic boom as one of the important issues in aeronautics. Thanks to the simple and efficient modeling of the atmospheric turbulence, SPnoise successfully re-creates the feature of the effect, which often emerges in the region just behind the front and rear shock waves in the sonic boom signature.