Sample records for broadband noise prediction

  1. CAA broadband noise prediction for aeroacoustic design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewert, R.; Dierke, J.; Siebert, J.; Neifeld, A.; Appel, C.; Siefert, M.; Kornow, O.

    2011-08-01

    The current status of a computational aeroacoustics (CAA) approach to simulate broadband noise is reviewed. The method rests on the use of steady Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulation to describe the time-averaged motion of turbulent flow. By means of synthetic turbulence the steady one-point statistics (e.g. turbulence kinetic energy) and turbulent length- and time-scales of RANS are translated into fluctuations having statistics that very accurately reproduce the initial RANS target-setting. The synthetic fluctuations are used to prescribe sound sources which drive linear perturbation equations. The whole approach represents a methodology to solve statistical noise theory with state-of-the-art CAA tools in the time-domain. A brief overview of the synthetic turbulence model and its numerical discretization in terms of the random particle-mesh (RPM) and fast random particle-mesh (FRPM) method is given. Results are presented for trailing-edge noise, slat noise, and jet noise. Some problems related to the formulation of vortex sound sources are discussed.

  2. Rotor Broadband Noise Prediction with Comparison to Model Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Thomas F.; Burley, Casey L.

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports an analysis and prediction development of rotor broadband noise. The two primary components of this noise are Blade-Wake Interaction (BWI) noise, due to the blades' interaction with the turbulent wakes of the preceding blades, and "Self" noise, due to the development and shedding of turbulence within the blades' boundary layers. Emphasized in this report is the new code development for Self noise. The analysis and validation employs data from the HART program, a model BO-105 rotor wind tunnel test conducted in the German-Dutch Wind Tunnel (DNW). The BWI noise predictions are based on measured pressure response coherence functions using cross-spectral methods. The Self noise predictions are based on previously reported semiempirical modeling of Self noise obtained from isolated airfoil sections and the use of CAMRAD.Modl to define rotor performance and local blade segment flow conditions. Both BWI and Self noise from individual blade segments are Doppler shifted and summed at the observer positions. Prediction comparisons with measurements show good agreement for a range of rotor operating conditions from climb to steep descent. The broadband noise predictions, along with those of harmonic and impulsive Blade-Vortex Interaction (BVI) noise predictions, demonstrate a significant advance in predictive capability for main rotor noise.

  3. Broadband noise - Its prediction and likely importance for advanced propfans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Knowles

    1986-01-01

    A comparison of published experimental results and analytical results on broadband noise evaluations for rotating many-bladed propellers has been conducted to assess the importance of broadband noise in the perceived noise (PN) level of propfans. It is concluded that, in cruise conditions, the tone noise dominates the broadband noise of typical propfans by 8 dB. As the speed is reduced,

  4. The Prediction of Scattered Broadband Shock-Associated Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Steven A. E.

    2015-01-01

    A mathematical model is developed for the prediction of scattered broadband shock-associated noise. Model arguments are dependent on the vector Green's function of the linearized Euler equations, steady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes solutions, and the two-point cross-correlation of the equivalent source. The equivalent source is dependent on steady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes solutions of the jet flow, that capture the nozzle geometry and airframe surface. Contours of the time-averaged streamwise velocity component and turbulent kinetic energy are examined with varying airframe position relative to the nozzle exit. Propagation effects are incorporated by approximating the vector Green's function of the linearized Euler equations. This approximation involves the use of ray theory and an assumption that broadband shock-associated noise is relatively unaffected by the refraction of the jet shear layer. A non-dimensional parameter is proposed that quantifies the changes of the broadband shock-associated noise source with varying jet operating condition and airframe position. Scattered broadband shock-associated noise possesses a second set of broadband lobes that are due to the effect of scattering. Presented predictions demonstrate relatively good agreement compared to a wide variety of measurements.

  5. A survey of the broadband shock associated noise prediction methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Chan M.; Krejsa, Eugene A.; Khavaran, Abbas

    1992-01-01

    Several different prediction methods to estimate the broadband shock associated noise of a supersonic jet are introduced and compared with experimental data at various test conditions. The nozzle geometries considered for comparison include a convergent and a convergent-divergent nozzle, both axisymmetric. Capabilities and limitations of prediction methods in incorporating the two nozzle geometries, flight effect, and temperature effect are discussed. Predicted noise field shows the best agreement for a convergent nozzle geometry under static conditions. Predicted results for nozzles in flight show larger discrepancies from data and more dependable flight data are required for further comparison. Qualitative effects of jet temperature, as observed in experiment, are reproduced in predicted results.

  6. Broadband trailing edge noise predictions in the time domain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Casper; F. Farassat

    2004-01-01

    A recently developed analytic result in acoustics, “Formulation 1B,” is used to compute broadband trailing edge noise from an unsteady surface pressure distribution on a thin airfoil in the time domain. This formulation is a new solution of the Ffowcs Williams–Hawkings equation with the loading source term, and has been shown in previous research to provide time domain predictions of

  7. Broadband Noise Control Using Predictive Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eure, Kenneth W.; Juang, Jer-Nan

    1997-01-01

    Predictive controllers have found applications in a wide range of industrial processes. Two types of such controllers are generalized predictive control and deadbeat control. Recently, deadbeat control has been augmented to include an extended horizon. This modification, named deadbeat predictive control, retains the advantage of guaranteed stability and offers a novel way of control weighting. This paper presents an application of both predictive control techniques to vibration suppression of plate modes. Several system identification routines are presented. Both algorithms are outlined and shown to be useful in the suppression of plate vibrations. Experimental results are given and the algorithms are shown to be applicable to non- minimal phase systems.

  8. Broadband Noise Predictions Based on a New Aeroacoustic Formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casper, J.; Farassat, F.

    2002-01-01

    A new analytic result in acoustics called 'Formulation 1B,' proposed by Farassat, is used to compute the loading noise from an unsteady surface pressure distribution on a thin airfoil in the time domain. This formulation is a new solution of the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equation with the loading source term. The formulation contains a far-field surface integral that depends on the time derivative and the surface gradient of the pressure on the airfoil, as well as a contour integral on the boundary of the airfoil surface. As a first test case, the new formulation is used to compute the noise radiated from a flat plate, moving through a sinusoidal gust of constant frequency. The unsteady surface pressure for this test case is specified analytically from a result that is based on linear airfoil theory. This test case is used to examine the velocity scaling properties of Formulation 1B, and to demonstrate its equivalence to Formulation 1A, of Farassat. The new acoustic formulation, again with an analytic surface pressure, is then used to predict broadband noise radiated from an airfoil immersed in homogeneous turbulence. The results are compared with experimental data previously reported by Paterson and Amiet. Good agreement between predictions and measurements is obtained. The predicted results also agree very well with those of Paterson and Amiet, who used a frequency-domain approach. Finally, an alternative form of Formulation 1B is described for statistical analysis of broadband noise.

  9. A New Time Domain Formulation for Broadband Noise Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casper, Jay H.; Farassat, Fereidoun

    2002-01-01

    A new analytic result in acoustics called "Formulation 1B," proposed by Farassat, is used to compute the loading noise from an unsteady surface pressure distribution on a thin airfoil in the time domain. This formulation is a new solution of the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equation with the loading source term. The formulation contains a far field surface integral that depends on the time derivative and the surface gradient of the pressure on the airfoil, as well as a contour integral on the boundary of the airfoil surface. As a first test case, the new formulation is used to compute the noise radiated from a flat plate, moving through a sinusoidal gust of constant frequency. The unsteady surface pressure for this test case is analytically specied from a result based on linear airfoil theory. This test case is used to examine the velocity scaling properties of Formulation 1B and to demonstrate its equivalence to Formulation 1A of Farassat. The new acoustic formulation, again with an analytic surface pressure, is then used to predict broadband noise radiated from an airfoil immersed in homogeneous, isotropic turbulence. The results are compared with experimental data previously reported by Paterson and Amiet. Good agreement between predictions and measurements is obtained. Finally, an alternative form of Formulation 1B is described for statistical analysis of broadband noise.

  10. A New Time Domain Formulation for Broadband Noise Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casper, J.; Farassat, F.

    2002-01-01

    A new analytic result in acoustics called "Formulation 1B," proposed by Farassat, is used to compute the loading noise from an unsteady surface pressure distribution on a thin airfoil in the time domain. This formulation is a new solution of the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equation with the loading source term. The formulation contains a far field surface integral that depends on the time derivative and the surface gradient of the pressure on the airfoil, as well as a contour integral on the boundary of the airfoil surface. As a first test case, the new formulation is used to compute the noise radiated from a flat plate, moving through a sinusoidal gust of constant frequency. The unsteady surface pressure for this test case is analytically specified from a result based on linear airfoil theory. This test case is used to examine the velocity scaling properties of Formulation 1B and to demonstrate its equivalence to Formulation 1A of Farassat. The new acoustic formulation, again with an analytic surface pressure, is then used to predict broadband noise radiated from an airfoil immersed in homogeneous, isotropic turbulence. The results are compared with experimental data previously reported by Paterson and Amiet. Good agreement between predictions and measurements is obtained. Finally, an alternative form of Formulation 1B is described for statistical analysis of broadband noise.

  11. Broadband rotor noise predictions using a time domain approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glegg, Stewart A. L.; Devenport, William; Alexander, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes how broadband rotor noise can be predicted directly from measurements of turbulent velocity correlation functions upstream of a rotor without the need for turbulence modeling. The method is based on a time domain formulation and uses the turbulence velocity correlation function in the plane of the rotor to describe the inflow velocity statistics. The application of this theory to a rotor mounted near a hard wall is described. It is shown that rotor noise measurements are well predicted using this approach. It is also shown that to calculate the blade response correctly the time step of the numerical computation must be less than the time it takes for an acoustic wave to travel from the leading edge to the trailing edge of the blade section.

  12. The Prediction of Broadband Shock-Associated Noise from Dualstream and Rectangular Jets Using RANS CFD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Steven A.; Morris, Philip J.

    2010-01-01

    Supersonic jets operating off-design produce broadband shock-associated noise. Broadband shock-associated noise is characterized by multiple broadband peaks in the far-field and is often the dominant source of noise towards the sideline and upstream direction relative to the jet axis. It is due to large scale coherent turbulence structures in the jet shear layers interacting with the shock cell structure. A broadband shock-associated noise model recently developed by the authors predicts this noise component from solutions to the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations using a two-equation turbulence model. The broadband shock-associated noise model is applied to dualstream and rectangular nozzles operating supersonically, heated, and off-design. The dualstream jet broadband shock-associated noise predictions are conducted for cases when the core jet is supersonic and the fan jet is subsonic, the core jet is subsonic and the fan jet is supersonic, and when both jet streams operate supersonically. Rectangular jet predictions are shown for a convergent-divergent nozzle operating both over- and under-expanded for cold and heated conditions. The original model implementation has been heavily modified to make accurate predictions for the dualstream jets. It is also argued that for over-expanded jets the oblique shock wave attached to the nozzle lip contributes little to broadband shock-associated noise. All predictions are compared with experiments.

  13. Broadband Noise Predictions for an Airfoil in a Turbulent Stream

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casper, J.; Farassat, F.; Mish, P. F.; Devenport, W. J.

    2003-01-01

    Loading noise is predicted from unsteady surface pressure measurements on a NACA 0015 airfoil immersed in grid-generated turbulence. The time-dependent pressure is obtained from an array of synchronized transducers on the airfoil surface. Far field noise is predicted by using the time-dependent surface pressure as input to Formulation 1A of Farassat, a solution of the Ffowcs Williams - Hawkings equation. Acoustic predictions are performed with and without the effects of airfoil surface curvature. Scaling rules are developed to compare the present far field predictions with acoustic measurements that are available in the literature.

  14. Prediction of broadband noise from large horizontal axis wind turbine generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grosveld, F. W.

    1984-01-01

    A method is presented for predicting the broadband noise spectra of large horizontal axis wind turbine generators. It includes contributions from such noise sources as the inflow turbulence to the rotor, the interactions between the turbulent boundary layers on the blade surfaces with their trailing edges and the wake due to a blunt trailing edge. The method is partly empirical and is based on acoustic measurements of large wind turbines and airfoil models. The predicted frequency spectra are compared with measured data from several machines including the MOD-OA, the MOD-2, the WTS-4 and the U.S. Wind-power Inc. machine. Also included is a broadband noise prediction for the proposed MOD-5B. The significance of the effects of machine size, power output, trailing edge bluntness and distance to the receiver is illustrated. Good agreement is obtained between the predicted and measured far field noise spectra.

  15. Prediction of broadband noise from large horizontal axis wind turbine generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosveld, F. W.

    1984-10-01

    A method is presented for predicting the broadband noise spectra of large horizontal axis wind turbine generators. It includes contributions from such noise sources as the inflow turbulence to the rotor, the interactions between the turbulent boundary layers on the blade surfaces with their trailing edges and the wake due to a blunt trailing edge. The method is partly empirical and is based on acoustic measurements of large wind turbines and airfoil models. The predicted frequency spectra are compared with measured data from several machines including the MOD-OA, the MOD-2, the WTS-4 and the U.S. Wind-power Inc. machine. Also included is a broadband noise prediction for the proposed MOD-5B. The significance of the effects of machine size, power output, trailing edge bluntness and distance to the receiver is illustrated. Good agreement is obtained between the predicted and measured far field noise spectra.

  16. Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System for Turbofan Engines. Volume 3; Validation and Test Cases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morin, Bruce L.

    2010-01-01

    Pratt & Whitney has developed a Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System (BFaNS) for turbofan engines. This system computes the noise generated by turbulence impinging on the leading edges of the fan and fan exit guide vane, and noise generated by boundary-layer turbulence passing over the fan trailing edge. BFaNS has been validated on three fan rigs that were tested during the NASA Advanced Subsonic Technology Program (AST). The predicted noise spectra agreed well with measured data. The predicted effects of fan speed, vane count, and vane sweep also agreed well with measurements. The noise prediction system consists of two computer programs: Setup_BFaNS and BFaNS. Setup_BFaNS converts user-specified geometry and flow-field information into a BFaNS input file. From this input file, BFaNS computes the inlet and aft broadband sound power spectra generated by the fan and FEGV. The output file from BFaNS contains the inlet, aft and total sound power spectra from each noise source. This report is the third volume of a three-volume set documenting the Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System: Volume 1: Setup_BFaNS User s Manual and Developer s Guide; Volume 2: BFaNS User s Manual and Developer s Guide; and Volume 3: Validation and Test Cases. The present volume begins with an overview of the Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System, followed by validation studies that were done on three fan rigs. It concludes with recommended improvements and additional studies for BFaNS.

  17. Broadband rotor noise analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, A. R.; Chou, S. T.

    1984-01-01

    The various mechanisms which generate broadband noise on a range of rotors studied include load fluctuations due to inflow turbulence, due to turbulent boundary layers passing the blades' trailing edges, and due to tip vortex formation. Existing analyses are used and extensions to them are developed to make more accurate predictions of rotor noise spectra and to determine which mechanisms are important in which circumstances. Calculations based on the various prediction methods in existing experiments were compared. The present analyses are adequate to predict the spectra from a wide variety of experiments on fans, full scale and model scale helicopter rotors, wind turbines, and propellers to within about 5 to 10 dB. Better knowledge of the inflow turbulence improves the accuracy of the predictions. Results indicate that inflow turbulence noise depends strongly on ambient conditions and dominates at low frequencies. Trailing edge noise and tip vortex noise are important at higher frequencies if inflow turbulence is weak. Boundary layer trailing edge noise, important, for large sized rotors, increases slowly with angle of attack but not as rapidly as tip vortex noise.

  18. Broadband rotor noise analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, A. R.; Chou, S. T.

    1984-04-01

    The various mechanisms which generate broadband noise on a range of rotors studied include load fluctuations due to inflow turbulence, due to turbulent boundary layers passing the blades' trailing edges, and due to tip vortex formation. Existing analyses are used and extensions to them are developed to make more accurate predictions of rotor noise spectra and to determine which mechanisms are important in which circumstances. Calculations based on the various prediction methods in existing experiments were compared. The present analyses are adequate to predict the spectra from a wide variety of experiments on fans, full scale and model scale helicopter rotors, wind turbines, and propellers to within about 5 to 10 dB. Better knowledge of the inflow turbulence improves the accuracy of the predictions. Results indicate that inflow turbulence noise depends strongly on ambient conditions and dominates at low frequencies. Trailing edge noise and tip vortex noise are important at higher frequencies if inflow turbulence is weak. Boundary layer trailing edge noise, important, for large sized rotors, increases slowly with angle of attack but not as rapidly as tip vortex noise.

  19. Measurement and prediction of broadband noise from large horizontal axis wind turbine generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosveld, F. W.; Shepherd, K. P.; Hubbard, H. H.

    1995-05-01

    A method is presented for predicting the broadband noise spectra of large wind turbine generators. It includes contributions from such noise sources as the inflow turbulence to the rotor, the interactions between the turbulent boundary layers on the blade surfaces with their trailing edges and the wake due to a blunt trailing edge. The method is partly empirical and is based on acoustic measurements of large wind turbines and airfoil models. Spectra are predicted for several large machines including the proposed MOD-5B. Measured data are presented for the MOD-2, the WTS-4, the MOD-OA, and the U.S. Windpower Inc. machines. Good agreement is shown between the predicted and measured far field noise spectra.

  20. Measurement and prediction of broadband noise from large horizontal axis wind turbine generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grosveld, F. W.; Shepherd, K. P.; Hubbard, H. H.

    1995-01-01

    A method is presented for predicting the broadband noise spectra of large wind turbine generators. It includes contributions from such noise sources as the inflow turbulence to the rotor, the interactions between the turbulent boundary layers on the blade surfaces with their trailing edges and the wake due to a blunt trailing edge. The method is partly empirical and is based on acoustic measurements of large wind turbines and airfoil models. Spectra are predicted for several large machines including the proposed MOD-5B. Measured data are presented for the MOD-2, the WTS-4, the MOD-OA, and the U.S. Windpower Inc. machines. Good agreement is shown between the predicted and measured far field noise spectra.

  1. Prediction of Broadband Shock-Associated Noise Including Propagation Effects Originating NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Steven; Morris, Philip J.

    2012-01-01

    An acoustic analogy is developed based on the Euler equations for broadband shock-associated noise (BBSAN) that directly incorporates the vector Green s function of the linearized Euler equations and a steady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes solution (SRANS) to describe the mean flow. The vector Green s function allows the BBSAN propagation through the jet shear layer to be determined. The large-scale coherent turbulence is modeled by two-point second order velocity cross-correlations. Turbulent length and time scales are related to the turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation rate. An adjoint vector Green s function solver is implemented to determine the vector Green s function based on a locally parallel mean flow at different streamwise locations. The newly developed acoustic analogy can be simplified to one that uses the Green s function associated with the Helmholtz equation, which is consistent with a previous formulation by the authors. A large number of predictions are generated using three different nozzles over a wide range of fully-expanded jet Mach numbers and jet stagnation temperatures. These predictions are compared with experimental data from multiple jet noise experimental facilities. In addition, two models for the so-called fine-scale mixing noise are included in the comparisons. Improved BBSAN predictions are obtained relative to other models that do not include propagation effects.

  2. Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System for Turbofan Engines. Volume 2; BFaNS User's Manual and Developer's Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morin, Bruce L.

    2010-01-01

    Pratt & Whitney has developed a Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System (BFaNS) for turbofan engines. This system computes the noise generated by turbulence impinging on the leading edges of the fan and fan exit guide vane, and noise generated by boundary-layer turbulence passing over the fan trailing edge. BFaNS has been validated on three fan rigs that were tested during the NASA Advanced Subsonic Technology Program (AST). The predicted noise spectra agreed well with measured data. The predicted effects of fan speed, vane count, and vane sweep also agreed well with measurements. The noise prediction system consists of two computer programs: Setup_BFaNS and BFaNS. Setup_BFaNS converts user-specified geometry and flow-field information into a BFaNS input file. From this input file, BFaNS computes the inlet and aft broadband sound power spectra generated by the fan and FEGV. The output file from BFaNS contains the inlet, aft and total sound power spectra from each noise source. This report is the second volume of a three-volume set documenting the Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System: Volume 1: Setup_BFaNS User s Manual and Developer s Guide; Volume 2: BFaNS User s Manual and Developer s Guide; and Volume 3: Validation and Test Cases. The present volume begins with an overview of the Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System, followed by step-by-step instructions for installing and running BFaNS. It concludes with technical documentation of the BFaNS computer program.

  3. The Prediction of Broadband Shock-Associated Noise Including Propagation Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Steven; Morris, Philip J.

    2011-01-01

    An acoustic analogy is developed based on the Euler equations for broadband shock- associated noise (BBSAN) that directly incorporates the vector Green's function of the linearized Euler equations and a steady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes solution (SRANS) as the mean flow. The vector Green's function allows the BBSAN propagation through the jet shear layer to be determined. The large-scale coherent turbulence is modeled by two-point second order velocity cross-correlations. Turbulent length and time scales are related to the turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation. An adjoint vector Green's function solver is implemented to determine the vector Green's function based on a locally parallel mean flow at streamwise locations of the SRANS solution. However, the developed acoustic analogy could easily be based on any adjoint vector Green's function solver, such as one that makes no assumptions about the mean flow. The newly developed acoustic analogy can be simplified to one that uses the Green's function associated with the Helmholtz equation, which is consistent with the formulation of Morris and Miller (AIAAJ 2010). A large number of predictions are generated using three different nozzles over a wide range of fully expanded Mach numbers and jet stagnation temperatures. These predictions are compared with experimental data from multiple jet noise labs. In addition, two models for the so-called 'fine-scale' mixing noise are included in the comparisons. Improved BBSAN predictions are obtained relative to other models that do not include the propagation effects, especially in the upstream direction of the jet.

  4. Broadband noise prediction when turbulence simulation is available—Derivation of Formulation 2B and its statistical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farassat, F.; Casper, J.

    2012-05-01

    We show that a simple modification of Formulation 1 of Farassat results in a new analytic expression that is highly suitable for broadband noise prediction when extensive turbulence simulation is available. This result satisfies all the stringent requirements, such as permitting the use of the exact geometry and kinematics of the moving body, which we have set as our goal in the derivation of useful acoustic formulas for the prediction of rotating blade and airframe noise. We also derive a simple analytic expression for the autocorrelation of the acoustic pressure that is valid in the near and far fields. Our analysis is based on the time integral of the acoustic pressure that can easily be obtained at any resolution for any observer time interval and digitally analyzed for broadband noise prediction. We have named this result as Formulation 2B of Farassat. One significant consequence of Formulation 2B is the derivation of the acoustic velocity potential for the thickness and loading terms of the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FW-H) equation. This will greatly enhance the usefulness of the Fast Scattering Code (FSC) by providing a high-fidelity boundary condition input for scattering predictions.

  5. Broadband Noise Prediction When Turbulence Simulation Is Available - Derivation of Formulation 2B and Its Statistical Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farassat, Fereidoun; Casper, Jay H.

    2012-01-01

    We show that a simple modification of Formulation 1 of Farassat results in a new analytic expression that is highly suitable for broadband noise prediction when extensive turbulence simulation is available. This result satisfies all the stringent requirements, such as permitting the use of the exact geometry and kinematics of the moving body, that we have set as our goal in the derivation of useful acoustic formulas for the prediction of rotating blade and airframe noise. We also derive a simple analytic expression for the autocorrelation of the acoustic pressure that is valid in the near and far fields. Our analysis is based on the time integral of the acoustic pressure that can easily be obtained at any resolution for any observer time interval and digitally analyzed for broadband noise prediction. We have named this result as Formulation 2B of Farassat. One significant consequence of Formulation 2B is the derivation of the acoustic velocity potential for the thickness and loading terms of the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FW-H) equation. This will greatly enhance the usefulness of the Fast Scattering Code (FSC) by providing a high fidelity boundary condition input for scattering predictions.

  6. Predicting Noise From Wind Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grosveld, Ferdinand W.

    1990-01-01

    Computer program WINDY predicts broadband noise spectra of horizontal-axis wind-turbine generators. Enables adequate assessment of impact of broadband wind-turbine noise. Effects of turbulence, trailing-edge wakes, and bluntness taken into account. Program has practical application in design and siting of wind-turbine machines acceptable to community. Written in GW-Basic.

  7. CFD Computation of Broadband Fan Interaction Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grace, Sheryl M.; Sondak, Douglas L.; Dorney, Daniel J.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, a 3-D, unsteady, Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes CFD code coupled to an acoustic calculation is used to predict the contribution of the exit guide vanes to broadband fan noise. The configuration investigated is that corresponding to the NASA Source Diagnostic Test (SDT) 22-in fan rig. Then an acoustic model introduced by Nallasamy which is based on 2-D strip theory is used to compute the broadband rotor-stator interaction noise. One configuration from the SDT matrix is considered here: the fan speed correlating to approach, and outlet guide vane count designed for cut-off of the blade passage frequency. Thus, in the chosen configuration, there are 22 rotor blades and 54 stator blades. The stators are located 2.5 tip chords downstream of the rotor trailing edge. The RANS computations are used to obtain the spectra of the unsteady surface pressure on the exit guide vanes. This surface pressure is then integrated together with the Green's function for and infinite cylindrical duct to obtain the acoustic field. The results from this investigation validate the use of the CFD code along with the acoustic model for broadband fan noise predictions. The validation enables future investigations such as the determination of rotor tip clearance and stator solidity effects on fan rotor-stator interaction noise.

  8. Predicting broadband noise from a stator vane of a gas turbine engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, Donald B. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A computer-implemented model of fan section of a gas turbine engine accounts for the turbulence in the gas flow emanating from the rotor assembly and impinging upon an inlet to the stator vane cascade. The model allows for user-input variations in the sweep and/or lean angles for the stator vanes. The model determines the resulting acoustic response of the fan section as a function of the turbulence and the lean and/or sweep angles of the vanes. The model may be embodied in software that is rapidly executed in a computer. This way, an optimum arrangement in terms of fan noise reduction is quickly determined for the stator vane lean and sweep physical positioning in the fan section of a gas turbine engine.

  9. A study of rotor broadband noise mechanisms and helicopter tail rotor noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Shau-Tak Rudy

    1990-01-01

    The rotor broadband noise mechanisms considered are the following: (1) lift fluctuation due to turbulence ingestion; (2) boundary layer/trailing edge interaction; (3) tip vortex formation; and (4) turbulent vortex shedding from blunt trailing edge. Predictions show good agreement with available experimental data. The study shows that inflow turbulence is the most important broadband noise source for typical helicopters' main rotors at low- and mid-frequencies. Due to the size difference, isolated helicopter tail rotor broadband noise is not important compared to the much louder main rotor broadband noise. However, the inflow turbulence noise from a tail rotor can be very significant because it is operating in a highly turbulent environment, ingesting wakes from upstream components of the helicopter. The study indicates that the main rotor turbulent wake is the most important source of tail rotor broadband noise. The harmonic noise due to ingestion of main rotor tip vortices is studied.

  10. Analyses of broadband noise mechanisms of rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, A. R.

    1986-01-01

    The various source mechanisms which generate broadband noise on a range of rotors are reviewed. Analyses of these mechanisms are presented and compared to existing experimental data. The sources considered are load fluctuations due to inflow turbulence, due to turbulent blade boundary layers passing the trailing edge, and due to tip vortex formation turbulence. Vortex shedding noise due to laminar boundary layers and blunt trailing edges is not considered in detail as it can be avoided in most cases. Present analyses are adequate to predict the spectra from a wide variety of experiments on fans, helicopter rotors, and wind turbines to within about 5 to 10 dB. Better knowledge of the inflow turbulence improves the accuracy of the predictions. Inflow turbulence noise depends strongly on ambient conditions and dominates at low frequencies. Trailing edge and tip vortex noise are important at higher frequencies if inflow turbulence is weak. Boundary layer trailing edge noise increases slowly with angle of attack but not as rapidly as tip vortex formation noise. Tip noise can be important at high angles of attack for wide chord, square edge tips.

  11. Analyses of broadband noise mechanisms of rotors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, A. R.

    The various source mechanisms which generate broadband noise on a range of rotors are reviewed. Analyses of these mechanisms are presented and compared to existing experimental data. The sources considered are load fluctuations due to inflow turbulence, due to turbulent blade boundary layers passing the trailing edge, and due to tip vortex formation turbulence. Vortex shedding noise due to laminar boundary layers and blunt trailing edges is not considered in detail as it can be avoided in most cases. Present analyses are adequate to predict the spectra from a wide variety of experiments on fans, helicopter rotors, and wind turbines to within about 5 to 10 dB. Better knowledge of the inflow turbulence improves the accuracy of the predictions. Inflow turbulence noise depends strongly on ambient conditions and dominates at low frequencies. Trailing edge and tip vortex noise are important at higher frequencies if inflow turbulence is weak. Boundary layer trailing edge noise increases slowly with angle of attack but not as rapidly as tip vortex formation noise. Tip noise can be important at high angles of attack for wide chord, square edge tips.

  12. Localization of aerial broadband noise by pinnipeds.

    PubMed

    Holt, Marla M; Schusterman, Ronald J; Southall, Brandon L; Kastak, David

    2004-05-01

    Although many pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, and walruses) emit broadband calls on land as part of their communication system, few studies have addressed these animals' ability to localize aerial broadband sounds. In this study, the aerial sound localization acuities of a female northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris), a male harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), and a female California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) were measured in the horizontal plane. The stimulus was broadband white noise that was band pass filtered between 1.2 and 15 kHz. Testing was conducted in a hemi-anechoic chamber using a left/right forced choice procedure to measure the minimum audible angle (MAA) for each subject. MAAs were defined as half the angular separation of two sound sources bisected by a subject's midline that corresponded to 75% correct discrimination. MAAs were 4.7 degrees, 3.6 degrees, and 4.2 degrees for the northern elephant seal, harbor seal, and California sea lion, respectively. These results demonstrate that individuals of these pinniped species have sound localization abilities comparable to the domestic cat and rhesus macaque. The acuity differences between our subjects were small and not predicted by head size. These results likely reflect the relatively acute general abilities of pinnipeds to localize aerial broadband signals. PMID:15139647

  13. UHB Engine Fan Broadband Noise Reduction Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gliebe, Philip R.; Ho, Patrick Y.; Mani, Ramani

    1995-01-01

    A study has been completed to quantify the contribution of fan broadband noise to advanced high bypass turbofan engine system noise levels. The result suggests that reducing fan broadband noise can produce 3 to 4 EPNdB in engine system noise reduction, once the fan tones are eliminated. Further, in conjunction with the elimination of fan tones and an increase in bypass ratio, a potential reduction of 7 to 10 EPNdB in system noise can be achieved. In addition, an initial assessment of engine broadband noise source mechanisms has been made, concluding that the dominant source of fan broadband noise is the interaction of incident inlet boundary layer turbulence with the fan rotor. This source has two contributors, i.e., unsteady life dipole response and steady loading quadrupole response. The quadrupole contribution was found to be the most important component, suggesting that broadband noise reduction can be achieved by the reduction of steady loading field-turbulence field quadrupole interaction. Finally, for a controlled experimental quantification and verification, the study recommends that further broadband noise tests be done on a simulated engine rig, such as the GE Aircraft Engine Universal Propulsion Simulator, rather than testing on an engine statically in an outdoor arena The rig should be capable of generating forward and aft propagating fan noise, and it needs to be tested in a large freejet or a wind tunnel.

  14. On helicopter rotor low frequency broadband noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Morgan; Harris, Wesley L.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of shear-layer-type inflow turbulence on the low-frequency broadband noise of a model helicopter rotor is experimentally studied. The measurements and the one-dimensional energy spectral density indicate that the upstream airfoil wake turbulence is nonisotropic, but approaches isotropy at high wavenumbers. Turbulence measurements also indicate that the wake turbulence is weak. The effect of the inflow turbulence intensity on the peak sound pressure level follows an intensity-velocity squared scaling law. A number of length scales and turbulence intensities exist which can be measured in the airfoil wake depending on the position at which the measurements are taken. Comparison of experimental and theoretical sound pressure power spectral densities indicates that the initial anisotropy of the inflow turbulence does not invalidate the isotropic turbulence assumption made in noise prediction models as long as measured turbulence intensities and length scales are used.

  15. Discrete-frequency and broadband noise radiation from diesel engine cooling fans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geon-Seok Kim

    2007-01-01

    This effort focuses on measuring and predicting the discrete-frequency and broadband noise radiated by diesel engine cooling fans. Unsteady forces developed by the interaction of the fan blade with inlet flow are the dominant source for both discrete-frequency and broadband noise of the subject propeller fan. In many cases, a primary source of discrepancy between fan noise prediction and measurement

  16. Broadband Shock Noise Reduction in Turbulent Jets by Water Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandula, Max

    2008-01-01

    The concept of effective jet properties introduced by the author (AIAA-2007-3 645) has been extended to the estimation of broadband shock noise reduction by water injection in supersonic jets. Comparison of the predictions with the test data for cold underexpanded supersonic nozzles shows a satisfactory agreement. The results also reveal the range of water mass flow rates over which saturation of mixing noise reduction and existence of parasitic noise are manifest.

  17. Aircraft noise prediction program theoretical manual: Rotorcraft System Noise Prediction System (ROTONET), part 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weir, Donald S.; Jumper, Stephen J.; Burley, Casey L.; Golub, Robert A.

    1995-01-01

    This document describes the theoretical methods used in the rotorcraft noise prediction system (ROTONET), which is a part of the NASA Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP). The ANOPP code consists of an executive, database manager, and prediction modules for jet engine, propeller, and rotor noise. The ROTONET subsystem contains modules for the prediction of rotor airloads and performance with momentum theory and prescribed wake aerodynamics, rotor tone noise with compact chordwise and full-surface solutions to the Ffowcs-Williams-Hawkings equations, semiempirical airfoil broadband noise, and turbulence ingestion broadband noise. Flight dynamics, atmosphere propagation, and noise metric calculations are covered in NASA TM-83199, Parts 1, 2, and 3.

  18. Random particle methods applied to broadband fan interaction noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dieste, M.; Gabard, G.

    2012-10-01

    Predicting broadband fan noise is key to reduce noise emissions from aircraft and wind turbines. Complete CFD simulations of broadband fan noise generation remain too expensive to be used routinely for engineering design. A more efficient approach consists in synthesizing a turbulent velocity field that captures the main features of the exact solution. This synthetic turbulence is then used in a noise source model. This paper concentrates on predicting broadband fan noise interaction (also called leading edge noise) and demonstrates that a random particle mesh method (RPM) is well suited for simulating this source mechanism. The linearized Euler equations are used to describe sound generation and propagation. In this work, the definition of the filter kernel is generalized to include non-Gaussian filters that can directly follow more realistic energy spectra such as the ones developed by Liepmann and von Kármán. The velocity correlation and energy spectrum of the turbulence are found to be well captured by the RPM. The acoustic predictions are successfully validated against Amiet's analytical solution for a flat plate in a turbulent stream. A standard Langevin equation is used to model temporal decorrelation, but the presence of numerical issues leads to the introduction and validation of a second-order Langevin model.

  19. Effect of blunt trailing edge on rotor broadband noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, S.-T.; George, A. R.

    1986-08-01

    The production of high-frequency broadband noise by turbulent vortex shedding from rotor blades with blunt trailing edges is investigated analytically. The derivation of the governing equations, analogous to that of Kim and George (1982) for boundary-layer/trailing-edge noise, is explained, and numerical results are compared with the experimental data of Hubbard et al. (1981) and Lowson et al. (1972) in graphs. It is shown that vortex-shedding noise is a significant component of blunt-trailing-edge rotor broadband noise and that the analytical method employed gives reasonable predictions. The need for a better empirical expression for the normalized spectrum and for more measurements of surface pressure fluctuations near blunt trailing edges is indicated.

  20. Broadband Fan Noise Generated by Small Scale Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glegg, Stewart A. L.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes the development of prediction methods for broadband fan noise from aircraft engines. First, experimental evidence of the most important source mechanisms is reviewed. It is found that there are a number of competing source mechanism involved and that there is no single dominant source to which noise control procedures can be applied. Theoretical models are then developed for: (1) ducted rotors and stator vanes interacting with duct wall boundary layers, (2) ducted rotor self noise, and (3) stator vanes operating in the wakes of rotors. All the turbulence parameters required for these models are based on measured quantities. Finally the theoretical models are used to predict measured fan noise levels with some success.

  1. Broadband ambient noise surface wave tomography across the United States

    E-print Network

    Ritzwolle, Mike

    Broadband ambient noise surface wave tomography across the United States G. D. Bensen,1 M. H States determined using seismic ambient noise. Two years of ambient noise data are used from March 2003 implying that ambient noise in the frequency band of this study (5­100 s period) is sufficiently

  2. Prediction of airframe noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardin, J. C.; Fratello, D. J.; Hayden, R. E.; Kadman, Y.; Africk, S.

    1975-01-01

    Methods of predicting airframe noise generated by aircraft in flight under nonpowered conditions are discussed. Approaches to predictions relying on flyover data and component theoretical analyses are developed. A nondimensional airframe noise spectrum of various aircraft is presented. The spectrum was obtained by smoothing all the measured spectra to remove any peculiarities due to airframe protrusions, normalizing each spectra by its overall sound pressure level and a characteristics frequency, and averaging the spectra together. A chart of airframe noise sources is included.

  3. Fan Noise Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    France, Joshua I.

    2004-01-01

    Aircraft noise emission level restrictions in and around airports continue to grow more stringent every few years. Thus, it is important to predict noise emissions from aircraft accurately. Predicting noise from the engine(s) is an integral part of the efforts to characterize the noise signature of an aircraft. An important source of engine noise is the rotor-stator interaction noise produced as a result of impingement of fan rotor wakes on the fan exit guide vanes. Interaction noise propagates through the inlet and exhaust ducts of the engine and radiates to the far field. noise levels for a range of model fans stages that represent current aircraft engine designs. Eversman's radiation codes calculate both the inlet and exhaust noise radiation by propagating the internally measured rotor-stator interaction noise to the far field. Predicted far field sound pressure levels are then compared to the measured levels from wind tunnel tests. This effort's objective is to prove that the predicted levels actually describe the measured levels.

  4. Visual orienting in dynamic broadband (1/f) noise sequences.

    PubMed

    Rasche, Christoph; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2010-01-01

    Visual orienting has typically been characterized using simple displays--for example, displays with a static target placed on a homogeneous background. In the present study, visual orienting was investigated using a dynamic broadband (1/f) noise display that should mimic a more naturalistic setting and that should allow saccadic orienting experiments to be performed with fewer constraints. In Experiment 1, it was shown that the noise movie contains gaze-attracting features that are almost as distinct as the ones measured for (static) real-word scenes. The movie can therefore serve as a strong distractor. In Experiment 2, observers carried out a luminance target search that showed that saccadic amplitude errors were substantially higher (18%) than the ones measured in simple displays. That error is certainly one of the primary factors making gaze-fixation prediction in complex scenes difficult. Supplemental figures for this study may be downloaded from http://app.psychonomic-journals.org/content/supplemental. PMID:20045883

  5. Airfoil self-noise and prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Thomas F.; Pope, D. Stuart; Marcolini, Michael A.

    1989-01-01

    A prediction method is developed for the self-generated noise of an airfoil blade encountering smooth flow. The prediction methods for the individual self-noise mechanisms are semiempirical and are based on previous theoretical studies and data obtained from tests of two- and three-dimensional airfoil blade sections. The self-noise mechanisms are due to specific boundary-layer phenomena, that is, the boundary-layer turbulence passing the trailing edge, separated-boundary-layer and stalled flow over an airfoil, vortex shedding due to laminar boundary layer instabilities, vortex shedding from blunt trailing edges, and the turbulent vortex flow existing near the tip of lifting blades. The predictions are compared successfully with published data from three self-noise studies of different airfoil shapes. An application of the prediction method is reported for a large scale-model helicopter rotor, and the predictions compared well with experimental broadband noise measurements. A computer code of the method is given.

  6. Comparison of broadband noise mechanisms, analyses, and experiments on helicopters, propellers, and wind turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, A. R.; Chou, S.-T.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental data on broadband noise from airfoils are compared, together with analytical methods, in order to identify the mechanisms of noise emission. Rotor noise is categorized into discrete frequency, impulsive, and broadband components, the last having a continuous spectrum originating from a random source. The results of computer simulations of different rotor blade types which produce broadband noise were compared with experimental data and among themselves in terms of predictions of the spectra obtained. Consideration was given to the overall sound pressure level, unsteady turbulence forces, rotational forces, inflow turbulence, self-generated turbulence, and turbulence in the flow. Data are presented for a helicopter rotor and light aircraft propeller. The most significant source was found to be inflow turbulence induced lift fluctuations in helicopter rotors and boundary layer trailing edge noise on large wind energy conversion systems

  7. Comparison of broadband noise mechanisms, analyses, and experiments on helicopters, propellers, and wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, A. R.; Chou, S.-T.

    1983-04-01

    Experimental data on broadband noise from airfoils are compared, together with analytical methods, in order to identify the mechanisms of noise emission. Rotor noise is categorized into discrete frequency, impulsive, and broadband components, the last having a continuous spectrum originating from a random source. The results of computer simulations of different rotor blade types which produce broadband noise were compared with experimental data and among themselves in terms of predictions of the spectra obtained. Consideration was given to the overall sound pressure level, unsteady turbulence forces, rotational forces, inflow turbulence, self-generated turbulence, and turbulence in the flow. Data are presented for a helicopter rotor and light aircraft propeller. The most significant source was found to be inflow turbulence induced lift fluctuations in helicopter rotors and boundary layer trailing edge noise on large wind energy conversion systems

  8. Aircraft Noise Prediction Program theoretical manual: Propeller aerodynamics and noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zorumski, W. E. (editor); Weir, D. S. (editor)

    1986-01-01

    The prediction sequence used in the aircraft noise prediction program (ANOPP) is described. The elements of the sequence are called program modules. The first group of modules analyzes the propeller geometry, the aerodynamics, including both potential and boundary-layer flow, the propeller performance, and the surface loading distribution. This group of modules is based entirely on aerodynamic strip theory. The next group of modules deals with the first group. Predictions of periodic thickness and loading noise are determined with time-domain methods. Broadband noise is predicted by a semiempirical method. Near-field predictions of fuselage surface pressrues include the effects of boundary layer refraction and scattering. Far-field predictions include atmospheric and ground effects.

  9. Estimation of Broadband Shock Noise Reduction in Turbulent Jets by Water Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandula, Max; Lonerjan, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    The concept of effective jet properties introduced by the authors (AIAA-2007-3645) has been extended to the estimation of broadband shock noise reduction by water injection in supersonic jets. Comparison of the predictions with the test data for cold underexpanded supersonic nozzles shows a satisfactory agreement. The results also reveal the range of water mass flow rates over which saturation of mixing noise reduction and existence of parasitic noise are manifest.

  10. Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP) Fan Noise Prediction for Small Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hough, Joe W.; Weir, Donald S.

    1996-01-01

    The Fan Noise Module of ANOPP is used to predict the broadband noise and pure tones for axial flow compressors or fans. The module, based on the method developed by M. F. Heidmann, uses empirical functions to predict fan noise spectra as a function of frequency and polar directivity. Previous studies have determined the need to modify the module to better correlate measurements of fan noise from engines in the 3000- to 6000-pound thrust class. Additional measurements made by AlliedSignal have confirmed the need to revise the ANOPP fan noise method for smaller engines. This report describes the revisions to the fan noise method which have been verified with measured data from three separate AlliedSignal fan engines. Comparisons of the revised prediction show a significant improvement in overall and spectral noise predictions.

  11. Airframe noise prediction evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamamoto, Kingo J.; Donelson, Michael J.; Huang, Shumei C.; Joshi, Mahendra C.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the accuracy and adequacy of current airframe noise prediction methods using available airframe noise measurements from tests of a narrow body transport (DC-9) and a wide body transport (DC-10) in addition to scale model test data. General features of the airframe noise from these aircraft and models are outlined. The results of the assessment of two airframe prediction methods, Fink's and Munson's methods, against flight test data of these aircraft and scale model wind tunnel test data are presented. These methods were extensively evaluated against measured data from several configurations including clean, slat deployed, landing gear-deployed, flap deployed, and landing configurations of both DC-9 and DC-10. They were also assessed against a limited number of configurations of scale models. The evaluation was conducted in terms of overall sound pressure level (OASPL), tone corrected perceived noise level (PNLT), and one-third-octave band sound pressure level (SPL).

  12. Effects of secondary loudspeaker properties on broadband feedforward active duct noise control.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yum-Ji; Huang, Lixi; Lam, James

    2013-07-01

    Dependence of the performance of feedforward active duct noise control on secondary loudspeaker parameters is investigated. Noise reduction performance can be improved if the force factor of the secondary loudspeaker is higher. For example, broadband noise reduction improvement up to 1.6?dB is predicted by increasing the force factor by 50%. In addition, a secondary loudspeaker with a larger force factor was found to have quicker convergence in the adaptive algorithm in experiment. In simulations, noise reduction is improved in using an adaptive algorithm by using a secondary loudspeaker with a heavier moving mass. It is predicted that an extra broadband noise reduction of more than 7?dB can be gained using an adaptive filter if the force factor, moving mass and coil inductance of a commercially available loudspeaker are doubled. Methods to increase the force factor beyond those of commercially available loudspeakers are proposed. PMID:23862803

  13. Comparison of broadband noise mechanisms, analyses, and experiments on helicopters, propellers, and wind turbines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. R. George; S.-T. Chou

    1983-01-01

    Experimental data on broadband noise from airfoils are compared, together with analytical methods, in order to identify the mechanisms of noise emission. Rotor noise is categorized into discrete frequency, impulsive, and broadband components, the last having a continuous spectrum originating from a random source. The results of computer simulations of different rotor blade types which produce broadband noise were compared

  14. Aircraft noise prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippone, Antonio

    2014-07-01

    This contribution addresses the state-of-the-art in the field of aircraft noise prediction, simulation and minimisation. The point of view taken in this context is that of comprehensive models that couple the various aircraft systems with the acoustic sources, the propagation and the flight trajectories. After an exhaustive review of the present predictive technologies in the relevant fields (airframe, propulsion, propagation, aircraft operations, trajectory optimisation), the paper addresses items for further research and development. Examples are shown for several airplanes, including the Airbus A319-100 (CFM engines), the Bombardier Dash8-Q400 (PW150 engines, Dowty R408 propellers) and the Boeing B737-800 (CFM engines). Predictions are done with the flight mechanics code FLIGHT. The transfer function between flight mechanics and the noise prediction is discussed in some details, along with the numerical procedures for validation and verification. Some code-to-code comparisons are shown. It is contended that the field of aircraft noise prediction has not yet reached a sufficient level of maturity. In particular, some parametric effects cannot be investigated, issues of accuracy are not currently addressed, and validation standards are still lacking.

  15. Airframe Noise Prediction by Acoustic Analogy: Revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farassat, F.; Casper, Jay H.; Tinetti, A.; Dunn, M. H.

    2006-01-01

    The present work follows a recent survey of airframe noise prediction methodologies. In that survey, Lighthill s acoustic analogy was identified as the most prominent analytical basis for current approaches to airframe noise research. Within this approach, a problem is typically modeled with the Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings (FW-H) equation, for which a geometry-independent solution is obtained by means of the use of the free-space Green function (FSGF). Nonetheless, the aeroacoustic literature would suggest some interest in the use of tailored or exact Green s function (EGF) for aerodynamic noise problems involving solid boundaries, in particular, for trailing edge (TE) noise. A study of possible applications of EGF for prediction of broadband noise from turbulent flow over an airfoil surface and the TE is, therefore, the primary topic of the present work. Typically, the applications of EGF in the literature have been limited to TE noise prediction at low Mach numbers assuming that the normal derivative of the pressure vanishes on the airfoil surface. To extend the application of EGF to higher Mach numbers, the uniqueness of the solution of the wave equation when either the Dirichlet or the Neumann boundary condition (BC) is specified on a deformable surface in motion. The solution of Lighthill s equation with either the Dirichlet or the Neumann BC is given for such a surface using EGFs. These solutions involve both surface and volume integrals just like the solution of FW-H equation using FSGF. Insight drawn from this analysis is evoked to discuss the potential application of EGF to broadband noise prediction. It appears that the use of a EGF offers distinct advantages for predicting TE noise of an airfoil when the normal pressure gradient vanishes on the airfoil surface. It is argued that such an approach may also apply to an airfoil in motion. However, for the prediction of broadband noise not directly associated with a trailing edge, the use of EGF does not appear to offer any advantages over the use of FSGF at the present stage of development. It is suggested here that the applications of EGF for airframe noise analysis be continued. As an example pertinent to airframe noise prediction, the Fast Scattering Code of NASA Langley is utilized to obtain the EGF numerically on the surface of a three dimensional wing with a flap and leading edge slat in uniform rectilinear motion. The interpretation and use of these numerical Green functions are then discussed.

  16. Sources, control, and effects of noise from aircraft propellers and rotors. [noise prediction (aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mixson, J. S.; Greene, G. C.; Dempsey, T. K.

    1981-01-01

    Source noise predictions are compared with measurements for conventional low-speed propellers, for new high speed propellers (propfans), and for a helicopter. Results from a light aircraft demonstration program are described, indicating that about 5-dB reduction of flyover noise can be obtained without significant performance penalty. Sidewall design studies are described for interior noise control in light general aviation aircraft and in large transports using propfan propulsion. The weight of the added acoustic treatment is estimated and tradeoffs between weight and noise reduction are discussed. A laboratory study of passenger response to combined broadband and tonal propeller like noise is described. Subject discomfort ratings of combined tone broadband noises are compared with ratings of broadband (boundary layer) noise alone, and the relative importance of the propeller tones is examined.

  17. Sub-projection-noise sensitivity in broadband atomic magnetometry.

    PubMed

    Koschorreck, M; Napolitano, M; Dubost, B; Mitchell, M W

    2010-03-01

    We demonstrate sub-projection-noise sensitivity of a broadband atomic magnetometer using quantum nondemolition spin measurements. A cold, dipole-trapped sample of rubidium atoms provides a long-lived spin system in a nonmagnetic environment, and is probed nondestructively by paramagnetic Faraday rotation. The calibration procedure employs as known reference state, the maximum-entropy or "thermal" spin state, and quantitative imaging-based atom counting to identify electronic, quantum, and technical noise in both the probe and spin system. The measurement achieves a sensitivity 1.6 dB (2.8 dB) better than projection-noise (thermal state quantum noise) and will enable squeezing-enhanced broadband magnetometry. PMID:20366983

  18. Suppression of Spin Projection Noise in Broadband Atomic Magnetometry

    SciTech Connect

    Geremia, J.M.; Stockton, John K.; Mabuchi, Hideo [Physics and Control and Dynamical Systems, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena California 91125 (United States)

    2005-05-27

    We demonstrate that quantum nondemolition measurement, combined with a suitable parameter estimation procedure, can improve the sensitivity of a broadband atomic magnetometer by reducing uncertainty due to spin projection noise. Furthermore, we provide evidence that real-time quantum feedback control offers robustness to classical uncertainties, including shot-to-shot atom number fluctuations, that would otherwise prevent quantum-limited performance.

  19. Improved Broadband Liner Optimization Applied to the Advanced Noise Control Fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nark, Douglas M.; Jones, Michael G.; Sutliff, Daniel L.; Ayle, Earl; Ichihashi, Fumitaka

    2014-01-01

    The broadband component of fan noise has grown in relevance with the utilization of increased bypass ratio and advanced fan designs. Thus, while the attenuation of fan tones remains paramount, the ability to simultaneously reduce broadband fan noise levels has become more desirable. This paper describes improvements to a previously established broadband acoustic liner optimization process using the Advanced Noise Control Fan rig as a demonstrator. Specifically, in-duct attenuation predictions with a statistical source model are used to obtain optimum impedance spectra over the conditions of interest. The predicted optimum impedance information is then used with acoustic liner modeling tools to design liners aimed at producing impedance spectra that most closely match the predicted optimum values. Design selection is based on an acceptance criterion that provides the ability to apply increased weighting to specific frequencies and/or operating conditions. Constant-depth, double-degree of freedom and variable-depth, multi-degree of freedom designs are carried through design, fabrication, and testing to validate the efficacy of the design process. Results illustrate the value of the design process in concurrently evaluating the relative costs/benefits of these liner designs. This study also provides an application for demonstrating the integrated use of duct acoustic propagation/radiation and liner modeling tools in the design and evaluation of novel broadband liner concepts for complex engine configurations.

  20. Noise predictions of a high bypass turbofan engine using the Lockheed Near-Field Noise Prediction Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawls, J. W., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The prediction of engine noise during cruise using the Near-Field Noise Prediction Program developed by Lockheed is examined. Test conditions were established which simulate the operation of a high bypass turbofan engine under a wide range of operating conditions. These test conditions include variations in altitude, flight Mach number and thrust setting. Based on the results of noise prediction made using the Lockheed program, an evaluation of the impact of these test conditions on the overall sound pressure level(OASPL)and the one-third octave band spectra is made. An evaluation of the sensitivity of flight condition parameters is also made. The primary noise source from a high bypass turbofan was determined to be fan broadband shock noise. This noise source can be expected to be present during normal cruising conditions. When present, fan broadband shock noise usually dominates at all frequencies and all directivity angles. Other noise sources of importance are broadband shock noise from the primary jet, fan noise, fan mixing noise and turbine noise.

  1. Trailing Edge Noise Prediction Based on a New Acoustic Formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casper, J.; Farassat, F.

    2002-01-01

    A new analytic result in acoustics called 'Formulation 1B,' proposed by Farassat, is used to compute broadband trailing edge noise from an unsteady surface pressure distribution on a thin airfoil in the time domain. This formulation is a new solution of the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equation with the loading source term, and has been shown in previous research to provide time domain predictions of broadband noise that are in excellent agreement with experiment. Furthermore, this formulation lends itself readily to rotating reference frames and statistical analysis of broadband trailing edge noise. Formulation 1B is used to calculate the far field noise radiated from the trailing edge of a NACA 0012 airfoil in low Mach number flows, using both analytical and experimental data on the airfoil surface. The results are compared to analytical results and experimental measurements that are available in the literature. Good agreement between predictions and measurements is obtained.

  2. Analysis and prediction of tilt rotor hover noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffen, Charles D.; George, Albert R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents new and improved tilt rotor hover noise prediction methods. Calculations include both discrete frequency harmonic noise and broadband noise mechanisms due to the ground plane/fountain recirculating flow. The noise mechanisms studied are thickness, loading, and inflow turbulence noise. In each case aeroacoustic models are developed and compared to noise measurements obtained experimentally for the XV-15 experimental tilt rotor aircraft. Both the effects of the mean and the turbulent fountain flows are found to be important noise sources and have strongly directional radiation patterns toward the rear of the aircraft (the direction of the rotor motion through the fountain flow). Calculations also show that the noise generated by the inflow of ambient atmospheric turbulence can also be an important noise source in hover in some directions. Further development of the methods and models, and precise information about the fountain flow, are needed to improve the predictions and to initiate noise minimization studies.

  3. Boeing 18-Inch Fan Rig Broadband Noise Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganz, Ulrich W.; Joppa, Paul D.; Patten, Timothy J.; Scharpf, Daniel F.

    1998-01-01

    The purposes of the subject test were to identify and quantify the mechanisms by which fan broadband noise is produced, and to assess the validity of such theoretical models of those mechanisms as may be available. The test was conducted with the Boeing 18-inch fan rig in the Boeing Low-Speed Aeroacoustic Facility (LSAF). The rig was designed to be particularly clean and geometrically simple to facilitate theoretical modeling and to minimize sources of interfering noise. The inlet is cylindrical and is equipped with a boundary layer suction system. The fan is typical of modern high-by-pass ratio designs but is capable of operating with or without fan exit guide vanes (stators), and there is only a single flow stream. Fan loading and tip clearance are adjustable. Instrumentation included measurements of fan performance, the unsteady flow field incident on the fan and stators, and far-field and in-duct acoustic fields. The acoustic results were manipulated to estimate the noise generated by different sources. Significant fan broadband noise was found to come from the rotor self-noise as measured with clean inflow and no boundary layer. The rotor tip clearance affected rotor self-noise somewhat. The interaction of the rotor with inlet boundary layer turbulence is also a significant source, and is strongly affected by rotor tip clearance. High level noise can be generated by a high-order nonuniform rotating at a fraction of the fan speed, at least when tip clearance and loading are both large. Stator-generated noise is the loudest of the significant sources, by a small margin, at least on this rig. Stator noise is significantly affected by propagation through the fan.

  4. Broadband Photonic Signal Processing of LIDAR Noise Waveforms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zachary Cole; Randy R. Reibel; Daryn E. Benson; Kristian D. Merkel; W. Randall Babbitt; K. H. Wagner

    2005-01-01

    We present a novel broadband photonic signal processor, capable of sensing and processing a wide variety of waveforms including analog optical noise, for coherent LIDAR range processing. The device relies on the spectral and spatial sensing capabilities of rare-earth ion doped crystals to perform correlative signal processing. The processed results are extracted using a highly-coherent, actively-stabilized low - power frequency-swept

  5. Overview of Aircraft Noise Prediction Tools Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahl, Milo D.

    2007-01-01

    The acoustic assessment task for both the Subsonic Fixed Wing and the Supersonic projects under NASA s Fundamental Aeronautics Program was designed to assess the current state-of-the-art in noise prediction capability and to establish baselines for gauging future progress. The documentation of our current capabilities included quantifying the differences between predictions of noise from computer codes and measurements of noise from experimental tests. Quantifying the accuracy of both the computed and experimental results further enhanced the credibility of the assessment. This presentation gives sample results from codes representative of NASA s capabilities in aircraft noise prediction at the system level and at the component level. These include semi-empirical, statistical, analytical, and numerical codes. An example of system level results is shown for an aircraft. Component level results are shown for airframe flaps and landing gear, for jet noise from a variety of nozzles, and for broadband fan noise. Additional results are shown for modeling of the acoustic behavior of duct acoustic lining and the attenuation of sound in lined ducts with flow.

  6. New Seismic Noise Models Obtained Using Very Broadband Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd el-aal, Abd el-aziz Khairy; Soliman, Mahmoud Sami

    2013-11-01

    It has been two decades since the last comprehensive standard model of ambient earth noise was published Peterson (Observations and modelling of seismic background noise, US Geological Survey, open-file report 93-322, 1993). The PETERSON model was updated by analyzing the absolute quietest conditions for stations within the GSN ( Berger et al. in J Geophys Res 109, 2005; Mcnamara and Buland in Bull Seism Soc Am 94:1517-1527, 2004; Ringler et al. in Seismol Res Lett 81(4) doi:10.1785/gssrl.81.4.605, 2010). Unfortunately, both the original model and the updated models did not include any deployed station in North Africa and Middle East, which reflects the noise levels within the desert environment of those regions. In this study, a survey was conducted to create a new seismic noise model from very broadband stations which recently deployed in North Africa. For this purpose, 1 year of continuous recording of seismic noise data of the Egyptian National Seismic Network (ENSN) was analyzed in order to create a new noise model. Seasonal and diurnal variations in noise spectra were recorded at each station. Moreover, we constructed a new noise model for each individual station. Finally, we obtained a new cumulative noise model for all the stations. We compared the new high-noise model (EHNM) and new low-noise model (ELNM) with both the high-noise model (NHNM) and low-noise model (NLNM) of Peterson (Observations and modelling of seismic background noise, US Geological Survey, open-file report 93-322, 1993). The obtained noise levels are considerably lower than low-noise model of Peterson (Observations and modelling of seismic background noise, US Geological Survey, open-file report 93-322, 1993) at ultra long period band (ULP band), but they are still below the high-noise model of Peterson (Observations and modelling of seismic background noise, US Geological Survey, open-file report 93-322, 1993). The results of this study could be considered as a first step to create permanent seismic noise models for North Africa and Middle East regions.

  7. SemiEmpirical Modelling of Broadband Noise for Aerofoils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michele de Gennaro; Helmut Kuehnelt

    2011-01-01

    Turbulence related noise is widely recognized to be one of the most important aerodynamic noise sources for many applications and the development of computational tools for its modelling and prediction is an even more important target in many areas of applied engineering. On a general basis the noise generation mechanisms that can occur on an aerofoil surface can be classified

  8. Toward the prediction of low-speed fan noise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Moreau; M. Hennery; D. Casalinoz; J. Gullbrand; G. Iaccarino

    A rst attempt at computing the complete noise spectrum of a low-speed fan is presented. The tonal noise prediction relies on the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings acoustic analogy with the pressure uctuations on the blades computed from detailed Unsteady Reynolds- Averaged Navier-Stokes simulations (URANS). The broadband noise calculation relies on a strip theory, which describes the fan blade as a series of

  9. Broadband Noise Reduction of a Low-Speed Fan Noise Using Trailing Edge Blowing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutliff, Daniel L.

    2005-01-01

    An experimental proof-of-concept test was conducted to demonstrate reduction of rotor-stator interaction noise through the use of rotor-trailing edge blowing. The velocity deficit from the viscous wake of the rotor blades was reduced by injecting air into the wake from a continuous trailing edge slot. Hollow blades with interior guide vanes create flow channels through which externally supplied air flows from the blade root to the trailing edge. A previous paper documented the substantial tonal reductions of this Trailing Edge Rotor Blowing (TERB) fan. This report documents the broadband characteristics of TERB. The Active Noise Control Fan (ANCF), located at the NASA Glenn Research Center, was used as the proof-of-concept test bed. Two-component hotwire data behind the rotor, unsteady surface pressures on the stator vane, and farfield directivity acoustic data were acquired at blowing rates of 1.1, 1.5, and 1.8 percent of the total fan mass flow. The results indicate a substantial reduction in the rotor wake turbulent velocity and in the stator vane unsteady surface pressures. Based on the physics of the noise generation, these indirect measurements indicate the prospect of broadband noise reduction. However, since the broadband noise generated by the ANCF is rotor-dominated, any change in the rotor-stator interaction broadband noise levels is barely distinguishable in the farfield measurements.

  10. Helicopter noise prediction - The current status and future direction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brentner, Kenneth S.; Farassat, F.

    1992-01-01

    The paper takes stock of the progress, assesses the current prediction capabilities, and forecasts the direction of future helicopter noise prediction research. The acoustic analogy approach, specifically, theories based on the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equations, are the most widely used for deterministic noise sources. Thickness and loading noise can be routinely predicted given good plane motion and blade loading inputs. Blade-vortex interaction noise can also be predicted well with measured input data, but prediction of airloads with the high spatial and temporal resolution required for BVI is still difficult. Current semiempirical broadband noise predictions are useful and reasonably accurate. New prediction methods based on a Kirchhoff formula and direct computation appear to be very promising, but are currently very demanding computationally.

  11. Ambient seismic noise cross-correlations at Romanian broadband stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grecu, Bogdan; Tataru, Dragos; Neagoe, Cristian; Panza, Giuliano; Raileanu, Victor; Radulian, Mircea; Popa, Mihaela; Ionescu, Constantin

    2010-05-01

    In the last years the National Institute for Earth Physics (NIEP), Romania, has developed its real-time broadband seismic network. At present, NIEP operates 34 stations with both broadband velocity sensors (CMG3ESP, CMG40T, KS2000, STS2) and accelerometer sensors (2gEpi). The data are continuously recorded and transmitted to the Romanian Data Centre where Antelope 4.11 is running for acquisition and processing. The density of the stations produces 560 inter-station pairs for ambient noise cross-correlation analysis. In this study, we used seismic data recorded during a period of 12 months, between January 2009 and December 2009. A nonlinear procedure is applied to lower the influence of the earthquake-related signals and to obtain a symmetric noise cross-correlation function (for details see Cho et al., 2007). The results show good cross-correlation functions for almost all pair of stations. As the vertical components of ambient noise are cross-correlated, only the fundamental mode of the Rayleigh wave is obtained. The FTAN analysis is used to extract the group velocities from the estimated dispersive waves at periods between 6 and 30 sec. This work provides very useful data for future tomographic studies in Romania at crustal level, considering that new data from other broadband stations deployed on the Romanian territory will become available. References: Cho, K.H., R. B. Herrmann, C. J. Ammon and K. Lee. Imaging the Upper Crust of the Korean Peninsula by Surface-Wave Tomography, Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America (2007) 97, 198-207.

  12. Turbulence Associated With Broadband Shock Noise in Hot Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, James E.; Wernet, Mark P.

    2008-01-01

    Time-Resolved Particle Image Velocimetry (TRPIV) has been applied to a series of jet flows to measure turbulence statistics associated with broadband shock associated noise (BBSN). Data were acquired in jets of Mach numbers 1.05, 1.185, and 1.4 at different temperatures. Both convergent and ideally expanded nozzles were tested, along with a convergent nozzle modified to minimize screech. Key findings include the effect of heat on shock structure and jet decay, the increase in turbulent velocity when screech is present, and the relative lack of spectral detail associated with the enhanced turbulence.

  13. On high frequency broadband noise from model helicopter rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humbad, N. G.; Harris, W. L.

    1983-01-01

    An experimental investigation was carried out to study high frequency broadband noise (HFBN) from model helicopter rotors at a range of tip Mach numbers up to 0.40. The type of HFBN in the present case was due to boundary layer self noise (BLSN). The effects of rotor advance ratio, tip speed, blade tip geometry, and free stream turbulence on the intensity and spectrum of BLSN have been investigated. Saturation or fall-off of the peak sound pressure level was observed as the tip Mach number was varied from 0.20 to 0.40. This result is different from measurements on square tip blades reported earlier by Aravamudan, Lee and Harris (1979). An explanation of this difference along with a discussion of the effects of blade tip geometry on BLSN are provided.

  14. An Excess Broadband Noise Observed with Overexpanded Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaman, K.B.M.Q.; Bridges, James E.; Brown, C.A.

    2009-01-01

    Results of an experiment on the characteristics of an excess noise occurring with convergent-divergent (C-D) nozzles in the overexpanded regime are presented in this paper. Data are obtained with five C-D nozzles and a convergent nozzle, all having the same exit diameter. The results clearly establish that the C-D nozzles are noisier in the low Mach number range of the overexpanded regime. This is evidenced from the directivity patterns as well as overall radiated sound power calculations. The excess noise is broadband in nature and is found to be more pronounced with nozzles having a larger half-angle of the divergent section. It appears to occur when a shock resides within the divergent section and results from random unsteady motion of the shock.

  15. Aircraft noise prediction program validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shivashankara, B. N.

    1980-01-01

    A modular computer program (ANOPP) for predicting aircraft flyover and sideline noise was developed. A high quality flyover noise data base for aircraft that are representative of the U.S. commercial fleet was assembled. The accuracy of ANOPP with respect to the data base was determined. The data for source and propagation effects were analyzed and suggestions for improvements to the prediction methodology are given.

  16. Tandem Cylinder Noise Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockhard, David P.; Khorrami, Mehdi R.; CHoudhari, Meelan M.; Hutcheson, Florence V.; Brooks, Thomas F.; Stead, Daniel J.

    2007-01-01

    In an effort to better understand landing-gear noise sources, we have been examining a simplified configuration that still maintains some of the salient features of landing-gear flow fields. In particular, tandem cylinders have been studied because they model a variety of component level interactions. The present effort is directed at the case of two identical cylinders spatially separated in the streamwise direction by 3.7 diameters. Experimental measurements from the Basic Aerodynamic Research Tunnel (BART) and Quiet Flow Facility (QFF) at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) have provided steady surface pressures, detailed off-surface measurements of the flow field using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), hot-wire measurements in the wake of the rear cylinder, unsteady surface pressure data, and the radiated noise. The experiments were conducted at a Reynolds number of 166 105 based on the cylinder diameter. A trip was used on the upstream cylinder to insure a fully turbulent shedding process and simulate the effects of a high Reynolds number flow. The parallel computational effort uses the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver CFL3D with a hybrid, zonal turbulence model that turns off the turbulence production term everywhere except in a narrow ring surrounding solid surfaces. The current calculations further explore the influence of the grid resolution and spanwise extent on the flow and associated radiated noise. Extensive comparisons with the experimental data are used to assess the ability of the computations to simulate the details of the flow. The results show that the pressure fluctuations on the upstream cylinder, caused by vortex shedding, are smaller than those generated on the downstream cylinder by wake interaction. Consequently, the downstream cylinder dominates the noise radiation, producing an overall directivity pattern that is similar to that of an isolated cylinder. Only calculations based on the full length of the model span were able to capture the complete decay in the spanwise correlation, thereby producing reasonable noise radiation levels.

  17. Noise Prediction for Maneuvering Rotorcraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brentner, Kenneth S.; Jones, Henry E.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the initial work toward first-principles noise prediction for maneuvering rotors. Both the aeromechanical and acoustics aspects of the maneuver noise problem are discussed. The comprehensive analysis code, CAMRAD 2. was utilized to predict the time-dependent aircraft position and attitude, along - with the rotor blade airloads and motion. The major focus of this effort was the enhancement of the acoustic code WOPWOP necessary to compute the noise from a maneuvering rotorcraft. Full aircraft motion, including arbitrary transient motion, is modeled together with arbitrary rotor blade motions. Noise from a rotorcraft in turning and descending flight is compared to level flight. A substantial increase in the rotor noise is found both for turning flight and during a transient maneuver. Additional enhancements to take advantage of parallel computers and clusters of workstations, in addition to a new compact-chordwise loading formulation, are also described.

  18. Simulation and measurement of loudspeaker nonlinearity with a broad-band noise excitation

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Simulation and measurement of loudspeaker nonlinearity with a broad-band noise excitation A as the excitation is presented. It consists in excitation of loudspeaker with an intensive broad-band noise with removed narrow frequency band using band-stop filter. The acoustic signal produced by the loudspeaker

  19. Anechoic wind tunnel study of turbulence effects on wind turbine broadband noise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Loyd; W. L. Harris

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes recent results obtained at MIT on the experimental and theoretical modelling of aerodynamic broadband noise generated by a downwind rotor horizontal axis wind turbine. The aerodynamic broadband noise generated by the wind turbine rotor is attributed to the interaction of ingested turbulence with the rotor blades. The turbulence was generated in the MIT anechoic wind tunnel facility

  20. Turbulence Measurements and Computations for the Predication of Broadband Noise in High Bypass Ratio Fans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devenport, William J.; Ragab, Saad A.

    2000-01-01

    Work was performed under this grant with a view to providing the experimental and computational results needed to improve the prediction of broadband stator noise in large bypass ratio aircraft engines. The central hypothesis of our study was that a large fraction of this noise was generated by the fan tip leakage vortices. More specifically, that these vortices are a significant component of the fan wake turbulence and they contain turbulent eddies of a type that can produce significant broadband noise. To test this hypothesis we originally proposed experimental work and computations with the following objectives: (1) to build a large scale two-dimensional cascade with a tip gap and a stationary endwall that, as far as possible, simulates the fan tip geometry, (2) to build a moving endwall for use with the large scale cascade, (3) to measure, in detail, the turbulence structure and spectrum generated by the blade wake and tip leakage vortex, for both endwall configurations, (4) to use the CFD to compute the flow and turbulence distributions for both the experimental configurations and the ADP fan, (5) to provide the experimental and CFD results for the cascades and the physical understanding gained from their study as a basis for improving the broadband noise prediction method. In large part these objectives have been achieved. The most important achievements and findings of our experimental and computational efforts are summarized below. The bibliography at the end of this report includes a list of all publications produced to date under this project. Note that this list is necessarily incomplete the task of publication (particularly in journal papers) continues.

  1. Acoustic Environment of Admiralty Inlet: Broadband Noise Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Jinshan; Deng, Zhiqun; Martinez, Jayson J.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Myers, Joshua R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Jones, Mark E.

    2011-09-30

    Admiralty Inlet has been selected as a potential tidal energy site. It is located near shipping lanes, is a highly variable acoustic environment, and is frequented by the highly endangered southern resident killer whale (SRKW). Resolving environmental impacts is the first step to receiving approval to deploy tidal turbines at Admiralty Inlet. Of particular concern is the potential for blade strike or other negative interactions between the SRKW and the tidal turbine. A variety of technologies including passive and active monitoring systems are being considered as potential tools to determine the presence of SRKW in the vicinity of the turbines. Broadband noise level measurements are critical for the determination of design and operation specifications of all marine and hydrokinetic energy capture technologies. Acoustic environment data at the proposed site was acquired at different depths using a cabled vertical line array (VLA) with four calibrated hydrophones. The sound pressure level (SPL) power spectrum density was estimated based on the fast Fourier transform. This study describes the first broadband SPL measurements for this site at different depths with frequency ranging from 10 kHz to 480 kHz in combination with other information. To understand the SPL caused by this bedload transport, three different pressure sensors with temperature and conductivity were also assembled on the VLA to measure the conditions at the hydrophone deployment depth. The broadband SPL levels at frequency ranges of 3 kHz to 7 kHz as a function of depth were estimated. Only the hydrophone at an average depth of 40 m showed the strong dependence of SPL with distance from the bottom, which was possibly caused by the cobbles shifting on the seabed. Automatic Identification System data were also studied to understand the SPL measurements.

  2. Global characterization of seismic noise with broadband seismometers

    E-print Network

    Coughlin, Michael William

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present an analysis of seismic spectra that were calculated from all broadband channels (BH?) made available through IRIS, NIED F-net and Orfeus servers covering the past five years and beyond. A general characterization of the data is given in terms of spectral histograms and data-availability plots. We show that the spectral information can easily be categorized in time and regions. Spectral histograms indicate that seismic stations exist in Africa, Australia and Antarctica that measure spectra significantly below the global low-noise models above 1 Hz. We investigate world-wide coherence between the seismic spectra and other data sets like proximity to cities, station elevation, earthquake frequency, and wind speeds. Elevation of seismic stations in the US is strongly anti-correlated with seismic noise near 0.2 Hz and again above 1.5 Hz. Urban settlements are shown to produce excess noise above 1 Hz, but correlation curves look very different depending on the region. It is shown that wind...

  3. A Theoretical Basis for the Scaling Law of Broadband Shock Noise Intensity in Supersonic Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandula, Max

    2011-01-01

    A theoretical basis for the scaling of broadband shock noise intensity In supersonic jets was formulated considering linear shock-shear wave interaction. Modeling of broadband shock noise with the aid of shock-turbulence interaction with special reference to linear theories is briefly reviewed. An hypothesis has been postulated that the peak angle of incidence (closer to the critical angle) for the shear wave primarily governs the generation of sound in the interaction process with the noise generation contribution from off-peak incident angles being relatively unimportant. The proposed hypothesis satisfactorily explains the well-known scaling law for the broadband shock-associated noise in supersonic jets.

  4. Noise prediction technology for CTOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raney, J. P.

    1978-01-01

    The application of a new aircraft noise prediction program to CTOL noise prediction is outlined. Noise prediction is based on semiempirical methods for each of the propulsive system noise sources, such as the fan, the combustor, the turbine, and jet mixing, with noise-critical parameter values derived from the thermodynamic cycle of the engine. Comparisons of measured and predicted noise levels for existing CTOL aircraft indicate an acceptable level of accuracy.

  5. Civil tiltrotor noise impact prediction methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, Richard G., Jr.

    This paper describes the early development of a methodology to predict the noise impact of tiltrotor aircraft. Existing XV-15 and V-22 tiltrotor noise data are used, in conjunction with the FAA's Heliport Noise Model (HNM), to predict noise contours and the effects of operating modes on approach noise. Results of these predictions illustrate the tiltrotor's effectiveness in minimizing noise impact through proper selection of airspeed and nacelle angle. In addition to noise contour predictions of the two tiltrotor aircraft, the paper demonstrates the capability to make predictions for new designs, showing the effects of gross weight and tip speed on noise.

  6. Slat noise modeling and prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yueping

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents a model for aircraft slat noise prediction, based on the theory of aerodynamic sound generation and the first principles of source flow physics. Starting from the theory of acoustic analogy, the noise from the high Reynolds number and low Mach number flows in the slat cove region is formulated as a general solution by the method of dimensional analysis, far-field asymptotic expansion and statistical modeling. The solution relates the far-field noise spectrum to the surface pressure statistics, the characteristic length and time scales in the surface pressure statistics and Green's function that accounts for the sound-flow coupling and propagation effects. The general solution is then used to extract scaling laws and correlation models for the individual functional dependences between the far-field noise and various parameters, including the slat noise spectral shape, its Mach number dependence and its far-field directivity. The simple scaling laws and correlation models are validated by test data and serve as building blocks to construct a slat noise prediction model.

  7. The prediction of blade wake interaction noise based on a turbulent vortex model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glegg, Stewart A. L.

    1989-01-01

    Blade wake interaction is defined as the broadband noise generated by the interaction of helicopter rotor blades with their own wake. Experimental observations have shown that this is a strong function of advance ratio and tip path plane angle. This paper describes how this noise source can be associated with the blade vortex interactions in the forward sector of the rotor. Measured levels of turbulence in the vortex core are used to predict the broadband noise levels with some success. However, more detailed information on the turbulence spectrum and the trajectory of the shed vortices is required before more accurate noise predictions can be made.

  8. Semi-Empirical Modelling of Broadband Noise for Aerofoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Gennaro, Michele; Kuehnelt, Helmut

    2011-09-01

    Turbulence related noise is widely recognized to be one of the most important aerodynamic noise sources for many applications and the development of computational tools for its modelling and prediction is an even more important target in many areas of applied engineering. On a general basis the noise generation mechanisms that can occur on an aerofoil surface can be classified in three main categories: Turbulent Boundary Layer-Trailing Edge noise (TBL-TE), the Laminar Boundary Layer—Vortex Shedding (LBL-VS) noise and the Separation Stall (S-S) noise, respectively related to the boundary layer turbulent eddies, to the boundary layer laminar instabilities and to the large vorticity that can be experienced for different Angle of Attacks, Reynolds and Mach numbers. Despite of the recent improvements of Computational Fluid Dynamics in the frame of turbulence modelling, the numerical computation of high Reynolds flow field turbulence for acoustic purposes is still a hard task to perform as it requires a time-dependant, fully-resolved Large Eddy Simulation often resulting in a prohibitive computational cost. Furthermore in most of the cases it is of fundamental importance to have fast and reliable tools able to capture the driving phenomena and noise sources, in order to be able to perform a large number of simulations embedded in an optimization cycle. The target of this paper is testing the Brooks, Pope and Marcolini semi-empirical model for noise prediction of the NACA 0012 aerofoil on the DU96 geometry in a range of Angle of Attacks from 3 to 10 degrees and Reynolds numbers from 1.5 to 3.1 M. The semi-empirical model input parameters (boundary layer, displacement and momentum thickness) on the suction and pressure side of the aerofoil at the trailing edge location are computed with a steady RANS simulation while the BPM approach has been implemented as an external tool. Computed noise spectra show a good agreement with experimental data from literature in terms of both Sound Pressure Levels (SPLs) and spectra envelope.

  9. Passive geoacoustic inversion with a single hydrophone using broadband ship noise

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Passive geoacoustic inversion with a single hydrophone using broadband ship noise C. Gervaisea) An inversion scheme is proposed, relying upon the inversion of the noise of a moving ship meas- ured. Sound is ubiquitous in the ocean. Ship noise and marine mammal calls can be recorded over great

  10. Broadband noise characteristics of a model counter-rotating shrouded propfan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boettcher, Jan; Dobrzynski, Werner; Gehlhar, Burkhard

    In recent years counter-rotating propfan aeroengines were developed since they promise significant fuel savings compared to conventional fan engines. The German manufacturer MTU has developed the CRISP (Counter-Rotating Integrated Shrouded Propfan) 1:6.25-scale model engine which has been tested in the German Dutch Wind Tunnel (DNW). The present study concentrates on the broadband noise component and its relative importance to the total sound emission. While single-propeller/propfan noise emission is dominated by rotational noise, a counter-rotating propfan may constitute a significant source of broadband noise.

  11. Material loss angles from direct measurements of broadband thermal noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Principe, Maria; Pinto, Innocenzo M.; Pierro, Vincenzo; DeSalvo, Riccardo; Taurasi, Ilaria; Villar, Akira E.; Black, Eric D.; Libbrecht, Kenneth G.; Michel, Christophe; Morgado, Nazario; Pinard, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    We estimate the loss angles of the materials currently used in the highly reflective test-mass coatings of interferometric detectors of gravitational waves, namely Silica, Tantala, and Ti-doped Tantala, from direct measurement of coating thermal noise in an optical interferometer testbench, the Caltech TNI. We also present a simple predictive theory for the material properties of amorphous glassy oxide mixtures, which gives results in good agreement with our measurements on Ti-doped Tantala. Alternative measurement methods and results are reviewed, and some critical issues are discussed.

  12. Material loss angles from direct measurements of broadband thermal noise

    E-print Network

    Principe, Maria; Pierro, Vincenzo; DeSalvo, Riccardo; Taurasi, Ilaria; Villar, Akira E; Black, Eric D; Libbrecht, Kenneth G; Michel, Christophe; Morgado, Nazario; Pinard, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    We estimate the loss angles of the materials currently used in the highly reflective test-mass coatings of interferometric detectors of gravitational waves, namely Silica, Tantala, and Ti-dop ed Tantala, from direct measurement of coating thermal noise in an optical interferometer testbench, the Caltech TNI. We also present a simple predictive theory for the material properties of amorphous glassy oxide mixtures, which gives results in good agreement with our measurements on Ti-doped Tantala. Alternative measure ment methods and results are reviewed, and some critical issues are discussed.

  13. NASA progress in aircraft noise prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raney, J. P.; Padula, S. L.; Zorumski, W. E.

    1981-01-01

    Langley Research Center efforts to develop a methodology for predicting the effective perceived noise level (EPNL) produced by jet-powered CTOL aircraft to an accuracy of + or - 1.5 dB are summarized with emphasis on the aircraft noise prediction program (ANOPP) which contains a complete set of prediction methods for CTOL aircraft including propulsion system noise sources, aerodynamic or airframe noise sources, forward speed effects, a layered atmospheric model with molecular absorption, ground impedance effects including excess ground attenuation, and a received noise contouring capability. The present state of ANOPP is described and its accuracy and applicability to the preliminary aircraft design process is assessed. Areas are indicated where further theoretical and experimental research on noise prediction are needed. Topics covered include the elements of the noise prediction problem which are incorporated in ANOPP, results of comparisons of ANOPP calculations with measured noise levels, and progress toward treating noise as a design constraint in aircraft system studies.

  14. Tiltrotor ground noise reduction from rotor parametric changes as predicted by ROTONET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jumper, Stephen J.; Prichard, Devon; Golub, Robert A.

    A simple acoustic footprint trend study has been performed to determine the sensitivity of a tiltrotor aircraft to simple rotor design variations. Using the XV-15 aircraft as a baseline, the effects of blade number, rotor RPM, and chord on tone and broadband noise were predicted with the ROTONET noise code. Effects on EPNL, PNLT, and OASPL for level forward flight were considered.

  15. Emergence of broadband Rayleigh waves from correlations of the ambient seismic noise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. M. Shapiro; M. Campillo

    2004-01-01

    We demonstrate that the coherent information about the Earth structure can be extracted from the ambient seismic noise. We compute cross-correlations of vertical component records of several days of seismic noise at different pairs of stations separated by distances from about one hundred to more than two thousand kilometers. Coherent broadband dispersive wavetrains clearly emerge with group velocities similar to

  16. Gain and noise ripple reduction in broadband Raman amplifiers using HNLF spectral broadening

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Kalavally; R. Karuntu; T. Win; M. Premaratne

    2010-01-01

    The effects of using spectrally broadened pumps on the gain and noise ripple in broadband Raman amplifiers are investigated. Pump spectral broadening, achieved by initiating modulation instability in a highly nonlinear fiber (HNLF) using a continuous-wave input is shown to reduce the number of pumps required in addition to improving the flatness of the gain and noise profile. Optimal broadening

  17. Broadband squeezing of quantum noise in a Michelson interferometer with Twin-Signal-Recycling

    E-print Network

    André Thüring; Christian Gräf; Henning Vahlbruch; Moritz Mehmet; Karsten Danzmann; Roman Schnabel

    2010-05-25

    Twin-Signal-Recycling (TSR) builds on the resonance doublet of two optically coupled cavities and efficiently enhances the sensitivity of an interferometer at a dedicated signal frequency. We report on the first experimental realization of a Twin-Signal-Recycling Michelson interferometer and also its broadband enhancement by squeezed light injection. The complete setup was stably locked and a broadband quantum noise reduction of the interferometers shot noise by a factor of up to 4\\,dB was demonstrated. The system was characterized by measuring its quantum noise spectra for several tunings of the TSR cavities. We found good agreement between the experimental results and numerical simulations.

  18. On the Scaling Law for Broadband Shock Noise Intensity in Supersonic Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanudula, Max

    2009-01-01

    A theoretical model for the scaling of broadband shock noise intensity in supersonic jets was formulated on the basis of linear shock-shear wave interaction. An hypothesis has been postulated that the peak angle of incidence (closer to the critical angle) for the shear wave primarily governs the generation of sound in the interaction process rather than the noise generation contribution from off-peak incident angles. The proposed theory satisfactorily explains the well-known scaling law for the broadband shock -associated noise in supersonic jets.

  19. Discrete-frequency and broadband noise radiation from diesel engine cooling fans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Geon-Seok

    This effort focuses on measuring and predicting the discrete-frequency and broadband noise radiated by diesel engine cooling fans. Unsteady forces developed by the interaction of the fan blade with inlet flow are the dominant source for both discrete-frequency and broadband noise of the subject propeller fan. In many cases, a primary source of discrepancy between fan noise prediction and measurement is due to incomplete description of the fan inflow. Particularly, in such engine cooling systems where space is very limited, it would be very difficult, if not, impossible to measure the fan inflow velocity field using the conventional, stationary hot-wire method. Instead, the fan inflow was measured with two-component x-type hot-film probes attached very close to the leading edge of a rotating blade. One of the advantages of the blade-mounted-probe measurement technique is that it measures velocities relative to the rotating probe, which enables the acquired data to be applied directly in many aerodynamic theories that have been developed for the airfoil fixed-coordinate system. However, the velocity time data measured by this technique contains the spatially non-uniform mean velocity field along with the temporal fluctuations. A phase-locked averaging technique was successfully employed to decompose the velocity data into time-invariant flow distortions and fluctuations due to turbulence. The angles of attack of the fan blades, obtained from inlet flow measurements, indicate that the blades are stalled. The fan's radiated noise was measured without contamination from the engine noise by driving the fan with an electric motor. The motor operated at a constant speed while a pair of speed controllable pulleys controlled the fan speed. Narrowband and 1/3-octave band sound power of the cooling fan was measured by using the comparison method with a reference sound source in a reverberant room. The spatially non-uniform mean velocity field was used in axial-flow fan noise theory to predict the discrete-frequency noise at the blade passing frequency (BPF) and harmonics. The unsteady lift was predicted by considering transverse and longitudinal velocity fluctuations. The influences due to an upstream finger guard were also investigated. The radiated sound power spectra that were measured for the fan are shown to be in excellent agreement with those predicted. The agreement between prediction and measurement is only fair at the fundamental BPF tone. Further experimental investigations revealed that the interaction noise between the fan blades and a shroud surrounding the fan might be the dominant source for the radiation at the first harmonic. The space-time correlation functions of the inflow velocity fluctuations were measured and utilized in stochastic lifting surface theory to calculate the unsteady blade lift and resulting broadband fan noise. The integral length scale of the inlet flow was found to be much smaller than the blade-to-blade separate distance of the fan. Therefore, contributions from blade-to-blade correlations of the various elements on different blades were found to be negligible and hence ignored; only the correlations between the strip elements on a given blade were considered. The cross-correlations measured between elements separated by more than the integral length scale were also found to be negligibly small. The predicted broadband sound power spectra agree well with those measured for frequencies greater than 400 Hz. There are deviations between the predictions and measurements at lower frequencies. These are likely due to fan blade stall, and possibly, anomalies in the noise measurement environment. In order to reduce the sound radiation at the blade rate tones, the baseline fan was replaced with a skewed fan. The backward skew angle of 30° was found to effectively reduce the 2nd and higher harmonics of the blade rate tone. The interaction of the shroud opening and the blade tips dominates the sound level at the fundamental tone. This tone was successfully reduced by incorporating a serrated shroud ope

  20. Anechoic wind tunnel study of turbulence effects on wind turbine broadband noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loyd, B.; Harris, W. L.

    1995-05-01

    This paper describes recent results obtained at MIT on the experimental and theoretical modelling of aerodynamic broadband noise generated by a downwind rotor horizontal axis wind turbine. The aerodynamic broadband noise generated by the wind turbine rotor is attributed to the interaction of ingested turbulence with the rotor blades. The turbulence was generated in the MIT anechoic wind tunnel facility with the aid of biplanar grids of various sizes. The spectra and the intensity of the aerodynamic broadband noise have been studied as a function of parameters which characterize the turbulence and of wind turbine performance parameters. Specifically, the longitudinal integral scale of turbulence, the size scale of turbulence, the number of turbine blades, and free stream velocity were varied. Simultaneous measurements of acoustic and turbulence signals were made. The sound pressure level was found to vary directly with the integral scale of the ingested turbulence but not with its intensity level. A theoretical model based on unsteady aerodynamics is proposed.

  1. Anechoic wind tunnel study of turbulence effects on wind turbine broadband noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loyd, B.; Harris, W. L.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes recent results obtained at MIT on the experimental and theoretical modelling of aerodynamic broadband noise generated by a downwind rotor horizontal axis wind turbine. The aerodynamic broadband noise generated by the wind turbine rotor is attributed to the interaction of ingested turbulence with the rotor blades. The turbulence was generated in the MIT anechoic wind tunnel facility with the aid of biplanar grids of various sizes. The spectra and the intensity of the aerodynamic broadband noise have been studied as a function of parameters which characterize the turbulence and of wind turbine performance parameters. Specifically, the longitudinal integral scale of turbulence, the size scale of turbulence, the number of turbine blades, and free stream velocity were varied. Simultaneous measurements of acoustic and turbulence signals were made. The sound pressure level was found to vary directly with the integral scale of the ingested turbulence but not with its intensity level. A theoretical model based on unsteady aerodynamics is proposed.

  2. Computer program to predict aircraft noise levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, B. J.

    1981-01-01

    Methods developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center for predicting the noise contributions from various aircraft noise sources were programmed to predict aircraft noise levels either in flight or in ground tests. The noise sources include fan inlet and exhaust, jet, flap (for powered lift), core (combustor), turbine, and airframe. Noise propagation corrections are available for atmospheric attenuation, ground reflections, extra ground attenuation, and shielding. Outputs can include spectra, overall sound pressure level, perceived noise level, tone-weighted perceived noise level, and effective perceived noise level at locations specified by the user. Footprint contour coordinates and approximate footprint areas can also be calculated. Inputs and outputs can be in either System International or U.S. customary units. The subroutines for each noise source and propagation correction are described. A complete listing is given.

  3. Wind turbine noise: Prediction tools and design parameter dependence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Meijer

    1984-01-01

    Wind turbine aerodynamic noise sources are described, and noise predictions and measurements are compared. The influence of design parameters and variable running speed on noise emission is discussed. Results show that prediction tools for blade tower passage noise predict noise emission reasonably well. Prediction tools for high frequency noise are not sufficient. Reliable noise measurements for different machines are needed.

  4. Fan Noise Prediction: Status and Needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Dennis L.

    1997-01-01

    The prediction of fan noise is an important part to the prediction of overall turbofan engine noise. Advances in computers and better understanding of the flow physics have allowed researchers to compute sound generation from first principles and rely less on empirical correlations. While progress has been made, there are still many aspects of the problem that need to be explored. This paper presents some recent advances in fan noise prediction and suggests areas that still need further development. Fan noise predictions that support the recommendations are taken from existing publications.

  5. Prediction of Traffic Noise: A Screening Technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. Barboza; P. E. DEE; Sharon Paul Carpenter; Leslie E. Roche

    1995-01-01

    Traffic noise is ubiquitous in many communities and is an important environmental concern, especially for persons located near major roadways. Several different methods are available to estimate noise levels resulting from roadway traffic. These include computational, graphical, and computer modeling techniques.The prediction methodology presented here is a simplified technique that can be used for estimating noise resulting from traffic and

  6. Broadband noise masks suppress neural responses to narrowband stimuli.

    PubMed

    Baker, Daniel H; Vilidait?, Greta

    2014-01-01

    White pixel noise is widely used to estimate the level of internal noise in a system by injecting external variance into the detecting mechanism. Recent work (Baker and Meese, 2012) has provided psychophysical evidence that such noise masks might also cause suppression that could invalidate estimates of internal noise. Here we measure neural population responses directly, using steady-state visual evoked potentials, elicited by target stimuli embedded in different mask types. Sinusoidal target gratings of 1 c/deg flickered at 5 Hz, and were shown in isolation, or with superimposed orthogonal grating masks or 2D white noise masks, flickering at 7 Hz. Compared with responses to a blank screen, the Fourier amplitude at the target frequency increased monotonically as a function of target contrast when no mask was present. Both orthogonal and white noise masks caused rightward shifts of the contrast response function, providing evidence of contrast gain control suppression. We also calculated within-observer amplitude variance across trials. This increased in proportion to the target response, implying signal-dependent (i.e., multiplicative) noise at the system level, the implications of which we discuss for behavioral tasks. This measure of variance was reduced by both mask types, consistent with the changes in mean target response. An alternative variety of noise, which we term zero-dimensional noise, involves trial-by-trial jittering of the target contrast. This type of noise produced no gain control suppression, and increased the amplitude variance across trials. PMID:25076930

  7. Broadband noise masks suppress neural responses to narrowband stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Daniel H.; Vilidait?, Greta

    2014-01-01

    White pixel noise is widely used to estimate the level of internal noise in a system by injecting external variance into the detecting mechanism. Recent work (Baker and Meese, 2012) has provided psychophysical evidence that such noise masks might also cause suppression that could invalidate estimates of internal noise. Here we measure neural population responses directly, using steady-state visual evoked potentials, elicited by target stimuli embedded in different mask types. Sinusoidal target gratings of 1 c/deg flickered at 5 Hz, and were shown in isolation, or with superimposed orthogonal grating masks or 2D white noise masks, flickering at 7 Hz. Compared with responses to a blank screen, the Fourier amplitude at the target frequency increased monotonically as a function of target contrast when no mask was present. Both orthogonal and white noise masks caused rightward shifts of the contrast response function, providing evidence of contrast gain control suppression. We also calculated within-observer amplitude variance across trials. This increased in proportion to the target response, implying signal-dependent (i.e., multiplicative) noise at the system level, the implications of which we discuss for behavioral tasks. This measure of variance was reduced by both mask types, consistent with the changes in mean target response. An alternative variety of noise, which we term zero-dimensional noise, involves trial-by-trial jittering of the target contrast. This type of noise produced no gain control suppression, and increased the amplitude variance across trials. PMID:25076930

  8. Some analytic results for the study of broadband noise radiation from wings, propellers and jets in uniform motion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Farassat; J. Casper

    2003-01-01

    Alan Powell has made significant contributions to t he understanding of many aeroacoustic problems, in particular, the problems of broadband noise from jets and boundary layers. In this paper, some analytic resu lts are presented for the calculation of the correlation function of the broadband noise rad iated from a wing, a propeller, and a jet in uniform forward motion.

  9. Fan Noise Prediction with Applications to Aircraft System Noise Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nark, Douglas M.; Envia, Edmane; Burley, Casey L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an assessment of current fan noise prediction tools by comparing measured and predicted sideline acoustic levels from a benchmark fan noise wind tunnel test. Specifically, an empirical method and newly developed coupled computational approach are utilized to predict aft fan noise for a benchmark test configuration. Comparisons with sideline noise measurements are performed to assess the relative merits of the two approaches. The study identifies issues entailed in coupling the source and propagation codes, as well as provides insight into the capabilities of the tools in predicting the fan noise source and subsequent propagation and radiation. In contrast to the empirical method, the new coupled computational approach provides the ability to investigate acoustic near-field effects. The potential benefits/costs of these new methods are also compared with the existing capabilities in a current aircraft noise system prediction tool. The knowledge gained in this work provides a basis for improved fan source specification in overall aircraft system noise studies.

  10. A review of propeller noise prediction methodology: 1919-1994

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metzger, F. Bruce

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes a review of the literature regarding propeller noise prediction methods. The review is divided into six sections: (1) early methods; (2) more recent methods based on earlier theory; (3) more recent methods based on the Acoustic Analogy; (4) more recent methods based on Computational Acoustics; (5) empirical methods; and (6) broadband methods. The report concludes that there are a large number of noise prediction procedures available which vary markedly in complexity. Deficiencies in accuracy of methods in many cases may be related, not to the methods themselves, but the accuracy and detail of the aerodynamic inputs used to calculate noise. The steps recommended in the report to provide accurate and easy to use prediction methods are: (1) identify reliable test data; (2) define and conduct test programs to fill gaps in the existing data base; (3) identify the most promising prediction methods; (4) evaluate promising prediction methods relative to the data base; (5) identify and correct the weaknesses in the prediction methods, including lack of user friendliness, and include features now available only in research codes; (6) confirm the accuracy of improved prediction methods to the data base; and (7) make the methods widely available and provide training in their use.

  11. Empirical Prediction of Aircraft Landing Gear Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, Robert A. (Technical Monitor); Guo, Yue-Ping

    2005-01-01

    This report documents a semi-empirical/semi-analytical method for landing gear noise prediction. The method is based on scaling laws of the theory of aerodynamic noise generation and correlation of these scaling laws with current available test data. The former gives the method a sound theoretical foundation and the latter quantitatively determines the relations between the parameters of the landing gear assembly and the far field noise, enabling practical predictions of aircraft landing gear noise, both for parametric trends and for absolute noise levels. The prediction model is validated by wind tunnel test data for an isolated Boeing 737 landing gear and by flight data for the Boeing 777 airplane. In both cases, the predictions agree well with data, both in parametric trends and in absolute noise levels.

  12. Numerical Prediction of Laminar Instability Noise for NACA 0012 Aerofoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Gennaro, Michele; Hueppe, Andreas; Kuehnelt, Helmut; Kaltenbacher, Manfred

    2011-09-01

    Aerofoil self-generated noise is recognized to be of fundamental importance in the frame of applied aeroacoustics and the use of computational methods to assess the acoustic behaviour of airframe components challenges an even larger community of engineers and scientists. Several noise generation mechanisms can be found which are mainly related to the physical development of turbulence over the boundary layer. They can be classified in 3 main categories: the Turbulent Boundary Layer—Trailing Edge noise (TBL-TE), the Laminar Boundary Layer—Vortex Shedding (LBL-VS) noise and the Separation Stall (S-S) noise. The TBL-TE is mainly related to the noise generated by turbulent eddies which develop into the boundary layer and usually exhibits a broadband spectrum. The LBL-VS is related to laminar instabilities that can occur within the boundary layer which are responsible for a very late transition and generate a typical peaked tonal noise, while the S-S noise mainly results from the development of large vortices after the separation point. In this paper we propose a numerical analysis targeted to the simulation the LBL-VS noise mechanisms on a NACA 0012 aerofoil, tested at a Reynolds number of 1.1 M and Mach number of 0.2. The aerodynamic simulation is performed with a 2D transient RANS approach using the k-? transitional turbulence model, while the acoustic computations are performed with the FfowcsWilliams-Hawkings (FW-H) acoustic analogy and with a Finite Element (FE) approach solving Lighthill's wave equation. Computed noise spectra are compared with experimental data published by NASA showing a good agreement both for peak location as well as for the predicted noise level.

  13. The flux-dependent amplitude of broadband noise variability in X-ray binaries and active galaxies

    E-print Network

    Philip Uttley; Ian M. McHardy

    2001-03-30

    Standard shot-noise models, which seek to explain the broadband noise variability that characterises the X-ray lightcurves of X-ray binaries and active galaxies, predict that the power spectrum of the X-ray lightcurve is stationary (i.e. constant amplitude and shape) on short time-scales. We show that the broadband noise power spectra of the black hole candidate Cyg X-1 and the accreting millisecond pulsar SAX J1808.4-3658 are intrinsically non-stationary, in that RMS variability scales linearly with flux. Flux-selected power spectra confirm that this effect is due to changes in power-spectral amplitude and not shape. The lightcurves of three Seyfert galaxies are also consistent with a linear relationship between RMS variability and flux, suggesting that it is an intrinsic feature of the broadband noise variability in compact accreting systems over more than 6 decades of central object mass. The RMS variability responds to flux variations on all measured time-scales, raising fundamental difficulties for shot-noise models which seek to explain this result by invoking variations in the shot parameters. We suggest that models should be explored where the longest time-scale variations are fundamental and precede the variations on shorter time-scales. Possible models which can explain the linear RMS-flux relation include the fractal break-up of large coronal flares, or the propagation of fluctuations in mass accretion rate through the accretion disk. The linear relationship between RMS variability and flux in Cyg X-1 and SAX J1808.4-3658 is offset on the flux axis, suggesting the presence of a second, constant-flux component to the lightcurve which contributes 25% of the total flux. The spectrum of this constant component is similar to the total spectrum [abridged].

  14. Low-noise high gain dispersion compensating broadband Raman amplifier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. E. Lewis; F. Koch; S. V. Chernikov; J. R. Taylor

    2000-01-01

    Raman gain module compensating for both loss and dispersion of a 40 km standard telecommunication fiber span over the 1510-1565 nm band is reported. The optimized configuration ensures a low signal-spontaneous noise figure and negligible double Rayleigh scattering noise. The high gain margin of the amplifier makes it applicable for compensation of an 80 km span

  15. Broadband transmission noise reduction of smart panels featuring piezoelectric shunt circuits and sound-absorbing material

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jaehwan Kim; Joong-Kuen Lee

    2002-01-01

    The possibility of a broadband noise reduction of piezoelectric smart panels is experimentally studied. A piezoelectric smart panel is basically a plate structure on which piezoelectric patches with electrical shunt circuits are mounted and sound-absorbing material is bonded on the surface of the structure. Sound-absorbing material can absorb the sound transmitted at the midfrequency region effectively while the use of

  16. Broadband maximum likelihood estimation of shallow ocean parameters using shipping noise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. F. Mecklenbrauker; A. Gershman

    2001-01-01

    Environmental parameter estimation for a shallow ocean is addressed by using wideband shipping noise as a source of acoustic energy. Unknown locations of the broadband acoustic sources are estimated simultaneously with the ocean depth using the approximate conditional maximum likelihood estimator (CMLE). This procedure is tested via computer simulations and applied to the experimental hydrophone towed array data

  17. 23 CFR 772.17 - Traffic noise prediction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Traffic noise prediction. 772.17 Section 772.17 Highways...ENVIRONMENT PROCEDURES FOR ABATEMENT OF HIGHWAY TRAFFIC NOISE AND CONSTRUCTION NOISE § 772.17 Traffic noise prediction....

  18. Thin broadband noise absorption through acoustic reactance control by electro-mechanical coupling without sensor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yumin; Chan, Yum-Ji; Huang, Lixi

    2014-05-01

    Broadband noise with profound low-frequency profile is prevalent and difficult to be controlled mechanically. This study demonstrates effective broadband sound absorption by reducing the mechanical reactance of a loudspeaker using a shunt circuit through electro-mechanical coupling, which induces reactance with different signs from that of loudspeaker. An RLC shunt circuit is connected to the moving coil to provide an electrically induced mechanical impedance which counters the cavity stiffness at low frequencies and reduces the system inertia above the resonance frequency. A sound absorption coefficient well above 0.5 is demonstrated across frequencies between 150 and 1200 Hz. The performance of the proposed device is superior to existing passive absorbers of the same depth (60?mm), which has lower frequency limits of around 300 Hz. A passive noise absorber is further proposed by paralleling a micro-perforated panel with shunted loudspeaker which shows potentials in absorbing band-limit impulse noise. PMID:24815257

  19. Assessment of NASA's Aircraft Noise Prediction Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahl, Milo D. (Editor)

    2012-01-01

    A goal of NASA s Fundamental Aeronautics Program is the improvement of aircraft noise prediction. This document provides an assessment, conducted from 2006 to 2009, on the current state of the art for aircraft noise prediction by carefully analyzing the results from prediction tools and from the experimental databases to determine errors and uncertainties and compare results to validate the predictions. The error analysis is included for both the predictions and the experimental data and helps identify where improvements are required. This study is restricted to prediction methods and databases developed or sponsored by NASA, although in many cases they represent the current state of the art for industry. The present document begins with an introduction giving a general background for and a discussion on the process of this assessment followed by eight chapters covering topics at both the system and the component levels. The topic areas, each with multiple contributors, are aircraft system noise, engine system noise, airframe noise, fan noise, liner physics, duct acoustics, jet noise, and propulsion airframe aeroacoustics.

  20. NOVEL METHODS FOR PREDICTING PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFTS FROM BROADBAND PHOTOMETRY USING VIRTUAL SENSORS

    E-print Network

    NOVEL METHODS FOR PREDICTING PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFTS FROM BROADBAND PHOTOMETRY USING VIRTUAL SENSORS, and the Two Micron All Sky Survey using two new training-set methods. We utilize the broadband photometry from material: color figures 1. INTRODUCTION Using broadband photometry in multiple filters to estimate

  1. Numerical prediction of wind turbine noise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Tadamasa; M. Zangeneh

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops and validates the first principle based numerical method for predicting the noise radiated from the rotating Horizontal-Axis Wind Turbine (HAWT) blades. The noise radiated to the far-field was predicted by the code based on Ffowcs Williams–Hawkings (FW–H) equation, using both original non-permeable formulation and permeable formulation. A commercially available CFD solver, ANSYS CFX 11.0, was used to

  2. Shielding of Turbomachinery Broadband Noise from a Hybrid Wing Body Aircraft Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutcheson, Florence V.; Brooks, Thomas F.; Burley, Casey L.; Bahr, Christopher J.; Stead, Daniel J.; Pope, D. Stuart

    2014-01-01

    The results of an experimental study on the effects of engine placement and vertical tail configuration on shielding of exhaust broadband noise radiation are presented. This study is part of the high fidelity aeroacoustic test of a 5.8% scale Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) aircraft configuration performed in the 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center. Broadband Engine Noise Simulators (BENS) were used to determine insertion loss due to shielding by the HWB airframe of the broadband component of turbomachinery noise for different airframe configurations and flight conditions. Acoustics data were obtained from flyover and sideline microphones traversed to predefined streamwise stations. Noise measurements performed for different engine locations clearly show the noise benefit associated with positioning the engine nacelles further upstream on the HWB centerbody. Positioning the engine exhaust 2.5 nozzle diameters upstream (compared to 0.5 nozzle diameters downstream) of the HWB trailing edge was found of particular benefit in this study. Analysis of the shielding performance obtained with and without tunnel flow show that the effectiveness of the fuselage shielding of the exhaust noise, although still significant, is greatly reduced by the presence of the free stream flow compared to static conditions. This loss of shielding is due to the turbulence in the model near-wake/boundary layer flow. A comparison of shielding obtained with alternate vertical tail configurations shows limited differences in level; nevertheless, overall trends regarding the effect of cant angle and vertical location are revealed. Finally, it is shown that the vertical tails provide a clear shielding benefit towards the sideline while causing a slight increase in noise below the aircraft.

  3. Source localization for active control of turbofan rotor-stator broadband noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Bruce E.

    2005-09-01

    In order to identify a reference signal source for an active noise cancellation system, cross-correlation techniques were used to localize broadband noise source regions on exit guide vanes of the NASA Glenn Research Center Advance Noise Control Fan (ANCF). Arrays of surface pressure sensors were imbedded in one guide vane and in the wall of the fan. Synchronous sampling was used with a multichannel data acquisition system to allow removal of periodic components from the signals. The signals were then cross-correlated to assess radiation directivity and the relationship between vane surface pressure and in-duct acoustic noise. The results of these measurements indicated that broadband unsteady pressures near the leading edge tip of the guide vane were well enough correlated with acoustic radiation that 2-3 dB active noise cancellation could be achieved using a simple gain-delay control algorithm and actuator array. After successful simulation in a wind tunnel environment the concept was incorporated on 15 guide vanes and tested in ANCF. Cross-correlation measurements were further used to evaluate system performance and to identify competing noises from rotating and stationary sources within the fan.

  4. The use of plasma actuators for bluff body broadband noise control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yong; Zhang, Xin; Huang, Xun

    2010-08-01

    Experiments were conducted using plasma actuators to control broadband noise generated by a bluff body flow. The motivation behind the study was to explore the potential of plasma actuators to reduce landing gear noise during approach phase of an aircraft. The control effectiveness of both dielectric barrier discharge and sliding discharge plasma actuators were tested in laboratory environment, using a representative bluff body consisting of a circular cylinder and an oblique strut. Noise measurements were taken in an anechoic chamber using a phased microphone array and far-field microphones. Results showed that the upstream directed plasma forcing, located at ±90 deg on the upstream cylinder with respect to the approaching flow, could effectively attenuate the broadband noise radiated from the wake flow interaction with the downstream strut. With the same AC electrical power consumption, the sliding discharge with additional DC voltage was found to be more effective due to its elongated plasma distribution and higher induced flow momentum. Measurements using particle image velocimetry suggested that the flow speed impinging on the downstream strut was reduced by the upstream plasma forcing, contributing to the reduced noise.

  5. Ambient noise recorded at broadband stations in Portugal and Morocco: Characterization and Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Custódio, Susana; Madureira, Guilherme; Corela, Carlos; Alves, Paulo; Haberland, Christian; Carrilho, Fernando; Fonseca, Joao; Caldeira, Bento; Dias, Nuno

    2013-04-01

    The first broadband (BB) seismic stations were deployed in Portugal in the 1990s, and ever since their number had steadily increased. Portugal is currently covered by a network of 35 broadband stations in mainland Portugal, which is complemented by stations in the islands of Madeira and Azores, as well as stations in Morocco. In the period 2010 - 2012, project WILAS - "West Iberia Lithosphere and Astenosphere Structure" (PTDC/CTE-GIX/097946/2008), deployed 30 additional temporary seismic BB stations in mainland Portugal. The WILAS stations, in addition to the permanent and TOPOIBERIA stations, provided a full and dense coverage of the Iberian Peninsula. In this presentation we will characterize the ambient seismic noise recorded at BB stations deployed in Portugal (mainland, Azores and Madeira) and Morocco. We analyse all time periods of data available since the instruments were installed. The noise is characterized by means of probability density functions (PDFs) of power spectral density (PSDs) of continuous, overlapping, 1-hour segments of data. Time-series of noise levels at different frequencies and spectrograms are computed to visualize the variations of ambient noise over different time periods and frequency bands. We observe the expected diurnal periodicity at high frequencies and seasonal variation at long periods. There is a clear increase of the noise amplitude in the microseismic band during the Winter, when more storms occur in the adjacent Northern Atlantic. We correlate sea level, storm activity, and other atmospheric parameters with the variations in ambient noise level. The analysis performed gives clues concerning data quality (poor quality data is clearly identified), Earth structure (a correlation is visible between sedimentary basins and amplification of seismic noise), and sources of ambient noise at different frequency bands.

  6. Advances in tilt rotor noise prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, A. R.; Coffen, C. D.; Ringler, T. D.

    1992-01-01

    The two most serious tilt rotor external noise problems, hover noise and blade-vortex interaction noise, are studied. The results of flow visualization and inflow velocity measurements document a complex, recirculating highly unsteady and turbulent flow due to the rotor-wing-body interactions characteristic of tilt rotors. The wing under the rotor is found to obstruct the inflow, causing a deficit in the inflow velocities over the inboard region of the rotor. Discrete frequency harmonic thickness and loading noise mechanisms in hover are examined by first modeling tilt rotor hover aerodynamics and then applying various noise prediction methods using the WOPWOP code. The analysis indicates that the partial ground plane created by the wing below the rotor results in a primary sound source for hover.

  7. Validation of helicopter noise prediction techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Succi, G. P.

    1981-04-01

    The current techniques of helicopter rotor noise prediction attempt to describe the details of the noise field precisely and remove the empiricisms and restrictions inherent in previous methods. These techniques require detailed inputs of the rotor geometry, operating conditions, and blade surface pressure distribution. The purpose of this paper is to review those techniques in general and the Farassat/Nystrom analysis in particular. The predictions of the Farassat/Nystrom noise computer program, using both measured and calculated blade surface pressure data, are compared to measured noise level data. This study is based on a contract from NASA to Bolt Beranek and Newman Inc. with measured data from the AH-1G Helicopter Operational Loads Survey flight test program supplied by Bell Helicopter Textron.

  8. Validation of helicopter noise prediction techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Succi, G. P.

    1981-01-01

    The current techniques of helicopter rotor noise prediction attempt to describe the details of the noise field precisely and remove the empiricisms and restrictions inherent in previous methods. These techniques require detailed inputs of the rotor geometry, operating conditions, and blade surface pressure distribution. The purpose of this paper is to review those techniques in general and the Farassat/Nystrom analysis in particular. The predictions of the Farassat/Nystrom noise computer program, using both measured and calculated blade surface pressure data, are compared to measured noise level data. This study is based on a contract from NASA to Bolt Beranek and Newman Inc. with measured data from the AH-1G Helicopter Operational Loads Survey flight test program supplied by Bell Helicopter Textron.

  9. Predictions of Supersonic Jet Mixing and Shock-Associated Noise Compared With Measured Far-Field Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahl, Milo D.

    2010-01-01

    Codes for predicting supersonic jet mixing and broadband shock-associated noise were assessed using a database containing noise measurements of a jet issuing from a convergent nozzle. Two types of codes were used to make predictions. Fast running codes containing empirical models were used to compute both the mixing noise component and the shock-associated noise component of the jet noise spectrum. One Reynolds-averaged, Navier-Stokes-based code was used to compute only the shock-associated noise. To enable the comparisons of the predicted component spectra with data, the measured total jet noise spectra were separated into mixing noise and shock-associated noise components. Comparisons were made for 1/3-octave spectra and some power spectral densities using data from jets operating at 24 conditions covering essentially 6 fully expanded Mach numbers with 4 total temperature ratios.

  10. Aircraft noise prediction program theoretical manual, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zorumski, W. E.

    1982-01-01

    Aircraft noise prediction theoretical methods are given. The prediction of data which affect noise generation and propagation is addressed. These data include the aircraft flight dynamics, the source noise parameters, and the propagation effects.

  11. Jet Aeroacoustics: Noise Generation Mechanism and Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tam, Christopher

    1998-01-01

    This report covers the third year research effort of the project. The research work focussed on the fine scale mixing noise of both subsonic and supersonic jets and the effects of nozzle geometry and tabs on subsonic jet noise. In publication 1, a new semi-empirical theory of jet mixing noise from fine scale turbulence is developed. By an analogy to gas kinetic theory, it is shown that the source of noise is related to the time fluctuations of the turbulence kinetic theory. On starting with the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations, a formula for the radiated noise is derived. An empirical model of the space-time correlation function of the turbulence kinetic energy is adopted. The form of the model is in good agreement with the space-time two-point velocity correlation function measured by Davies and coworkers. The parameters of the correlation are related to the parameters of the k-epsilon turbulence model. Thus the theory is self-contained. Extensive comparisons between the computed noise spectrum of the theory and experimental measured have been carried out. The parameters include jet Mach number from 0.3 to 2.0 and temperature ratio from 1.0 to 4.8. Excellent agreements are found in the spectrum shape, noise intensity and directivity. It is envisaged that the theory would supercede all semi-empirical and totally empirical jet noise prediction methods in current use.

  12. Numerical assessment for a broadband and tuned noise using hybrid mufflers and a simulated annealing method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Min-Chie

    2013-06-01

    A broadband noise hybridized with pure tones often occurs in practical engineering work. However, assessments of a muffler's optimal shape design that would simultaneously overcome a broadband noise hybridized with multiple tones within a constrained space were rarely addressed. In order to promote the best acoustical performance in mufflers, five kinds of the hybrid mufflers composed of a reactive unit, a dissipative unit, and Helmholtz resonator (HR) units will be proposed. Moreover, to strengthen the noise elimination at the pure tone, mufflers having parallel multiple-sectioned HRs or having multiple HR connections in series (muffler D and muffler E) will be also presented in the noise abatement. On the basis of the plane wave theory, the four-pole system matrix used to evaluate the acoustic performance of a multi-tone hybrid Helmholtz muffler will be presented. A numerical case for eliminating broadband noise hybridized with a pure tone emitted from a machine room using five kinds of mufflers (muffler A-E) will also be introduced. To find the best acoustical performance of a space-constrained muffler, a numerical assessment using a simulated annealing (SA) method is adopted. To verify the availability of the SA optimization, a numerical optimization of muffler A at a pure tone (280 Hz) is exemplified. Before the SA operation can be carried out, the accuracy of the mathematical model will be checked using the experimental data. The influences of the sound transmission loss (STL) with respect to N1-array HR and the STL with respect to one-array HR sectioned in N2 divisions have also been assessed. Also, the influence of the STL with respect to the design parameters such as the ratio of d1/d2, the diameter of the perforated hole (dH), the porosity (p%) of the perforated plate, and the outer diameter (d2) of the dissipative unit has been analyzed. Consequently, a successful approach in eliminating a broadband noise hybridized with a pure tone using optimally shaped hybrid mufflers and a simulated annealing method within a constrained space has been demonstrated.

  13. Aircraft noise prediction program user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillian, R. E.

    1982-01-01

    The Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP) predicts aircraft noise with the best methods available. This manual is designed to give the user an understanding of the capabilities of ANOPP and to show how to formulate problems and obtain solutions by using these capabilities. Sections within the manual document basic ANOPP concepts, ANOPP usage, ANOPP functional modules, ANOPP control statement procedure library, and ANOPP permanent data base. appendixes to the manual include information on preparing job decks for the operating systems in use, error diagnostics and recovery techniques, and a glossary of ANOPP terms.

  14. The Scaling of Broadband Shock-Associated Noise with Increasing Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Steven A.

    2012-01-01

    A physical explanation for the saturation of broadband shock-associated noise (BBSAN) intensity with increasing jet stagnation temperature has eluded investigators. An explanation is proposed for this phenomenon with the use of an acoustic analogy. For this purpose the acoustic analogy of Morris and Miller is examined. To isolate the relevant physics, the scaling of BBSAN at the peak intensity level at the sideline ( = 90 degrees) observer location is examined. Scaling terms are isolated from the acoustic analogy and the result is compared using a convergent nozzle with the experiments of Bridges and Brown and using a convergent-divergent nozzle with the experiments of Kuo, McLaughlin, and Morris at four nozzle pressure ratios in increments of total temperature ratios from one to four. The equivalent source within the framework of the acoustic analogy for BBSAN is based on local field quantities at shock wave shear layer interactions. The equivalent source combined with accurate calculations of the propagation of sound through the jet shear layer, using an adjoint vector Green s function solver of the linearized Euler equations, allows for predictions that retain the scaling with respect to stagnation pressure and allows for the accurate saturation of BBSAN with increasing stagnation temperature. This is a minor change to the source model relative to the previously developed models. The full development of the scaling term is shown. The sources and vector Green s function solver are informed by steady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes solutions. These solutions are examined as a function of stagnation temperature at the first shock wave shear layer interaction. It is discovered that saturation of BBSAN with increasing jet stagnation temperature occurs due to a balance between the amplification of the sound propagation through the shear layer and the source term scaling.A physical explanation for the saturation of broadband shock-associated noise (BBSAN) intensity with increasing jet stagnation temperature has eluded investigators. An explanation is proposed for this phenomenon with the use of an acoustic analogy. For this purpose the acoustic analogy of Morris and Miller is examined. To isolate the relevant physics, the scaling of BBSAN at the peak intensity level at the sideline psi = 90 degrees) observer location is examined. Scaling terms are isolated from the acoustic analogy and the result is compared using a convergent nozzle with the experiments of Bridges and Brown and using a convergent-divergent nozzle with the experiments of Kuo, McLaughlin, and Morris at four nozzle pressure ratios in increments of total temperature ratios from one to four. The equivalent source within the framework of the acoustic analogy for BBSAN is based on local field quantities at shock wave shear layer interactions. The equivalent source combined with accurate calculations of the propagation of sound through the jet shear layer, using an adjoint vector Green s function solver of the linearized Euler equations, allows for predictions that retain the scaling with respect to stagnation pressure and allows for the accurate saturation of BBSAN with increasing stagnation temperature. This is a minor change to the source model relative to the previously developed models. The full development of the scaling term is shown. The sources and vector Green s function solver are informed by steady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes solutions. These solutions are examined as a function of stagnation temperature at the first shock wave shear layer interaction. It is discovered that saturation of BBSAN with increasing jet stagnation temperature occurs due to a balance between the amplification of the sound propagation through the shear layer and the source term scaling.

  15. Flow and noise predictions for the tandem cylinder aeroacoustic benchmarka)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brès, Guillaume A.; Freed, David; Wessels, Michael; Noelting, Swen; Pérot, Franck

    2012-03-01

    Flow and noise predictions for the tandem cylinder benchmark are performed using lattice Boltzmann and Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings methods. The numerical results are compared to experimental measurements from the Basic Aerodynamic Research Tunnel and Quiet Flow Facility (QFF) at NASA Langley Research Center. The present study focuses on two configurations: the first configuration corresponds to the typical setup with uniform inflow and spanwise periodic boundary condition. To investigate installation effects, the second configuration matches the QFF setup and geometry, including the rectangular open jet nozzle, and the two vertical side plates mounted in the span to support the test models. For both simulations, the full span of 16 cylinder diameters is simulated, matching the experimental dimensions. Overall, good agreement is obtained with the experimental surface data, flow field, and radiated noise measurements. In particular, the presence of the side plates significantly reduces the excessive spanwise coherence observed with periodic boundary conditions and improves the predictions of the tonal peak amplitude in the far-field noise spectra. Inclusion of the contributions from the side plates in the calculation of the radiated noise shows an overall increase in the predicted spectra and directivity, leading to a better match with the experimental measurements. The measured increase is about 1 to 2 dB at the main shedding frequency and harmonics, and is likely caused by reflections on the spanwise side plates. The broadband levels are also slightly higher by about 2 to 3 dB, likely due to the shear layers from the nozzle exit impacting the side plates.

  16. Investigation of a broadband duct noise control system inspired by the middle ear mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chunqi; Huang, Lixi

    2012-08-01

    A new duct noise control device is introduced based on the mechanism of human middle ear which functions as a compact, broadband impedance transformer between the air motion in the outer ear and the liquid motion in the inner ear. The system consists of two rigid endplates, simulating the tympanic membrane and the stapes footplate, and they are connected by a single rigid rod, simulating the overall action of the ossicular chain. These three pieces are placed in a side-branch cavity, and the whole device is called an ossicular silencer. A specific configuration is investigated numerically with a two-dimensional finite element model. Results show that broadband noise attenuation can be achieved in the very low frequency regime. Typically, two or more resonance peaks are found and the transmission loss between two neighbouring peaks is maintained at a high level. The cavity length is found to be the most crucial parameter that determines the effective frequency range of the ossicular silencer. The total cavity volume, which is a major controlling factor in most existing noise control devices, becomes less influential. The fluid medium in the enclosed cavity mainly acts like an added mass, while its stiffness effect is negligible. Simplified plane wave analysis is also conducted to reveal the mechanisms of the system resonances. The first resonance is identified as of the mass-spring system with mass contributions from both fluid and the plates, while the second one is of the Herschel-Quincke (HQ) tube resonance.

  17. Jet Noise Diagnostics Supporting Statistical Noise Prediction Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, James E.

    2006-01-01

    The primary focus of my presentation is the development of the jet noise prediction code JeNo with most examples coming from the experimental work that drove the theoretical development and validation. JeNo is a statistical jet noise prediction code, based upon the Lilley acoustic analogy. Our approach uses time-average 2-D or 3-D mean and turbulent statistics of the flow as input. The output is source distributions and spectral directivity. NASA has been investing in development of statistical jet noise prediction tools because these seem to fit the middle ground that allows enough flexibility and fidelity for jet noise source diagnostics while having reasonable computational requirements. These tools rely on Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solutions as input for computing far-field spectral directivity using an acoustic analogy. There are many ways acoustic analogies can be created, each with a series of assumptions and models, many often taken unknowingly. And the resulting prediction can be easily reverse-engineered by altering the models contained within. However, only an approach which is mathematically sound, with assumptions validated and modeled quantities checked against direct measurement will give consistently correct answers. Many quantities are modeled in acoustic analogies precisely because they have been impossible to measure or calculate, making this requirement a difficult task. The NASA team has spent considerable effort identifying all the assumptions and models used to take the Navier-Stokes equations to the point of a statistical calculation via an acoustic analogy very similar to that proposed by Lilley. Assumptions have been identified and experiments have been developed to test these assumptions. In some cases this has resulted in assumptions being changed. Beginning with the CFD used as input to the acoustic analogy, models for turbulence closure used in RANS CFD codes have been explored and compared against measurements of mean and rms velocity statistics over a range of jet speeds and temperatures. Models for flow parameters used in the acoustic analogy, most notably the space-time correlations of velocity, have been compared against direct measurements, and modified to better fit the observed data. These measurements have been extremely challenging for hot, high speed jets, and represent a sizeable investment in instrumentation development. As an intermediate check that the analysis is predicting the physics intended, phased arrays have been employed to measure source distributions for a wide range of jet cases. And finally, careful far-field spectral directivity measurements have been taken for final validation of the prediction code. Examples of each of these experimental efforts will be presented. The main result of these efforts is a noise prediction code, named JeNo, which is in middevelopment. JeNo is able to consistently predict spectral directivity, including aft angle directivity, for subsonic cold jets of most geometries. Current development on JeNo is focused on extending its capability to hot jets, requiring inclusion of a previously neglected second source associated with thermal fluctuations. A secondary result of the intensive experimentation is the archiving of various flow statistics applicable to other acoustic analogies and to development of time-resolved prediction methods. These will be of lasting value as we look ahead at future challenges to the aeroacoustic experimentalist.

  18. Comparison of two transonic noise prediction formulations using the aircraft noise prediction program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spence, Peter L.

    1987-01-01

    This paper addresses recently completed work on using Farassat's Formulation 3 noise prediction code with the Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP). Software was written to link aerodynamic loading generated by the Propeller Loading (PLD) module within ANOPP with formulation 3. Included are results of comparisons between Formulation 3 with ANOPP's existing noise prediction modules, Subsonic Propeller Noise (SPN) and Transonic Propeller Noise (TPN). Four case studies are investigated. Results of the comparison studies show excellent agreement for the subsonic cases. Differences found in the comparisons made under transonic conditions are strictly numerical and can be explained by the way in which the time derivative is calculated in Formulation 3. Also included is a section on how to execute Formulation 3 with ANOPP.

  19. Broadband transmission noise reduction of smart panels featuring piezoelectric shunt circuits and sound-absorbing material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jaehwan; Lee, Joong-Kuen

    2002-09-01

    The possibility of a broadband noise reduction of piezoelectric smart panels is experimentally studied. A piezoelectric smart panel is basically a plate structure on which piezoelectric patches with electrical shunt circuits are mounted and sound-absorbing material is bonded on the surface of the structure. Sound-absorbing material can absorb the sound transmitted at the midfrequency region effectively while the use of piezoelectric shunt damping can reduce the transmission at resonance frequencies of the panel structure. To be able to reduce the sound transmission at low panel resonance frequencies, piezoelectric damping using the measured electrical impedance model is adopted. A resonant shunt circuit for piezoelectric shunt damping is composed of resistor and inductor in series, and they are determined by maximizing the dissipated energy through the circuit. The transmitted noise-reduction performance of smart panels is tested in an acoustic tunnel. The tunnel is a square cross-sectional tube and a loudspeaker is mounted at one side of the tube as a sound source. Panels are mounted in the middle of the tunnel and the transmitted sound pressure across panels is measured. When an absorbing material is bonded on a single plate, a remarkable transmitted noise reduction in the midfrequency region is observed except for the fundamental resonance frequency of the plate. By enabling the piezoelectric shunt damping, noise reduction is achieved at the resonance frequency as well. Piezoelectric smart panels incorporating passive absorbing material and piezoelectric shunt damping is a promising technology for noise reduction over a broadband of frequencies. copyright 2002 Acoustical Society of America.

  20. A Process for Assessing NASA's Capability in Aircraft Noise Prediction Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahl, Milo D.

    2008-01-01

    An acoustic assessment is being conducted by NASA that has been designed to assess the current state of the art in NASA s capability to predict aircraft related noise and to establish baselines for gauging future progress in the field. The process for determining NASA s current capabilities includes quantifying the differences between noise predictions and measurements of noise from experimental tests. The computed noise predictions are being obtained from semi-empirical, analytical, statistical, and numerical codes. In addition, errors and uncertainties are being identified and quantified both in the predictions and in the measured data to further enhance the credibility of the assessment. The content of this paper contains preliminary results, since the assessment project has not been fully completed, based on the contributions of many researchers and shows a select sample of the types of results obtained regarding the prediction of aircraft noise at both the system and component levels. The system level results are for engines and aircraft. The component level results are for fan broadband noise, for jet noise from a variety of nozzles, and for airframe noise from flaps and landing gear parts. There are also sample results for sound attenuation in lined ducts with flow and the behavior of acoustic lining in ducts.

  1. Noise Prediction Module for Offset Stream Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Brenda S.

    2011-01-01

    A Modern Design of Experiments (MDOE) analysis of data acquired for an offset stream technology was presented. The data acquisition and concept development were funded under a Supersonics NRA NNX07AC62A awarded to Dimitri Papamoschou at University of California, Irvine. The technology involved the introduction of airfoils in the fan stream of a bypass ratio (BPR) two nozzle system operated at transonic exhaust speeds. The vanes deflected the fan stream relative to the core stream and resulted in reduced sideline noise for polar angles in the peak jet noise direction. Noise prediction models were developed for a range of vane configurations. The models interface with an existing ANOPP module and can be used or future system level studies.

  2. Inner hair cell responses to tonal stimulation in the presence of broadband noise.

    PubMed

    Dolan, D F; Nuttall, A L

    1989-09-01

    The effects of broadband noise (BBN) on the tone-evoked de receptor potential from inner hair cells of guinea pigs were measured. The effects of the noise were: suppression of the receptor potential, no net change, or greater depolarization relative to the tone alone, evoked receptor potential. The effects appear to be consistent with a two-tone suppression hypothesis. The time course of the suppression effect is immediate and constant in time. This observation suggests no obvious involvement of a local feedback loop in outer hair cells or one depending on the efferent nerves. Inner hair cell "sensitivity" is a variable in the magnitude of the suppression. Comparison of masked, tone-evoked de receptor potential intensity functions to responses from auditory-nerve fibers (taken from the literature for experiments using a similar paradigm) differentiates the phenomena of suppression and adaptation in the auditory periphery. PMID:2794238

  3. Interim prediction method for low frequency core engine noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, R. G.; Clark, B. J.; Dorsch, R. G.

    1974-01-01

    A literature survey on low-frequency core engine noise is presented. Possible sources of low frequency internally generated noise in core engines are discussed with emphasis on combustion and component scrubbing noise. An interim method is recommended for predicting low frequency core engine noise that is dominant when jet velocities are low. Suggestions are made for future research on low frequency core engine noise that will aid in improving the prediction method and help define possible additional internal noise sources.

  4. Airframe Noise Prediction Using the Sngr Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Rongqian; Wu, Yizhao; Xia, Jian

    In this paper, the Stochastic Noise Generation and Radiation method (SNGR) is used to predict airframe noise. The SNGR method combines a stochastic model with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), and it can give acceptable noise results while the computation cost is relatively low. In the method, the time-averaged mean flow field is firstly obtained by solving Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations (RANS), and a stochastic velocity is generated based on the obtained information. Then the turbulent field is used to generate the source for the Acoustic Perturbation Equations (APEs) that simulate the noise propagation. For numerical methods, timeaveraged RANS equations are solved by finite volume method, and the turbulent model is K - ? model; APEs are solved by finite difference method, and the numerical scheme is the Dispersion-Relation-Preserving (DRP) scheme, with explicit optimized 5-stage Rung-Kutta scheme time step. In order to test the APE solver, propagation of a Gaussian pulse in a uniform mean flow is firstly simulated and compared with the analytical solution. Then, using the method, the trailing edge noise of NACA0012 airfoil is calculated. The results are compared with reference data, and good agreements are demonstrated.

  5. Interior noise prediction methodology: ATDAC theory and validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathur, Gopal P.; Gardner, Bryce K.

    1992-01-01

    The Acoustical Theory for Design of Aircraft Cabins (ATDAC) is a computer program developed to predict interior noise levels inside aircraft and to evaluate the effects of different aircraft configurations on the aircraft acoustical environment. The primary motivation for development of this program is the special interior noise problems associated with advanced turboprop (ATP) aircraft where there is a tonal, low frequency noise problem. Prediction of interior noise levels requires knowledge of the energy sources, the transmission paths, and the relationship between the energy variable and the sound pressure level. The energy sources include engine noise, both airborne and structure-borne; turbulent boundary layer noise; and interior noise sources such as air conditioner noise and auxiliary power unit noise. Since propeller and engine noise prediction programs are widely available, they are not included in ATDAC. Airborne engine noise from any prediction or measurement may be input to this program. This report describes the theory and equations implemented in the ATDAC program.

  6. Initial noise predictions for rudimentary landing gear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spalart, Philippe R.; Shur, Mikhail L.; Strelets, Mikhail Kh.; Travin, Andrey K.

    2011-08-01

    A four-wheel "rudimentary" landing gear (RLG) truck was designed for public-domain research, with a level of complexity which is manageable in current numerical simulations, and a weak Reynolds-number sensitivity. Experimental measurements of wall-pressure fluctuations are allowing a meaningful test of unsteady simulations with emphasis on noise generation. We present three Detached-Eddy Simulations (DES) using up to 18 million points in the high-order NTS code. The first is incompressible with the model placed in the wind tunnel, as requested for the 2010 workshop on Benchmark problems for Airframe Noise Computations (BANC-I), intended for force and surface-pressure studies. The second and third are at Mach 0.115 and Mach 0.23, with only one wall, a "ceiling" analogous to a wing (but infinite and inviscid), and are used to exercise far-field noise prediction by coupling the Detached-Eddy Simulations and a Ffowcs-Williams/Hawkings calculation. The results include wall-pressure, and far-field-noise intensities and spectra. The wall pressure signals in the three simulations are very similar and, in a comparison published separately, agree well with experiment and other simulations. In the absence of experimental noise data, the attention is focused on internal quality checks, by varying the permeable Ffowcs-Williams/Hawkings calculation surface and then by using only the solid surface. An unexpected finding at these Mach numbers is an apparent strong role for quadrupoles, revealed by a typical deficit of 3 dB in the solid-surface results, relative to the permeable-surface results. The solid-surface approach has variants, related to the presence of the ceiling (a plane of symmetry), which can increase this error further; there is little consensus on the exact configuration of the solid surfaces in the Ffowcs-Williams/Hawkings calculation procedure. Tentative theoretical arguments suggest that a balance somewhat in favor of quadrupoles over dipoles is plausible at Mach 0.115. However, the scaling of sound with Mach number does not follow the eighth power, as quadrupoles do in theory: it is closer to the sixth power. This trend gives a muddled theoretical picture, but agrees with the scaling observed in experiments. If it is confirmed, this finding will complicate airframe-noise calculations, and prevent the attribution of noise to a given component of the aircraft. Progress in airframe-noise simulations appears real, but systematic grid-refinement studies and noise comparisons with experiment or other simulations have yet to occur, and the theoretical uncertainty is high.

  7. Comparison of predicted engine core noise with current and proposed aircraft noise certification requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonglahn, U. H.; Groesbeck, D. E.

    1981-01-01

    Predicted engine core noise levels are compared with measured total aircraft noise levels and with current and proposed federal noise certification requirements. Comparisons are made at the FAR-36 measuring stations and include consideration of both full- and cutback-power operation at takeoff. In general, core noise provides a barrier to achieving proposed EPA stage 5 noise levels for all types of aircraft. More specifically, core noise levels will limit further reductions in aircraft noise levels for current widebody commercial aircraft.

  8. The application of experimental data to blade wake interaction noise prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glegg, Stewart A. L.; Devenport, William J.

    1991-01-01

    Blade wake interaction noise (BWI) has been defined as the broadband noise generated by the ingestion of turbulent trailing tip vortices by helicopter rotors. This has been shown to be the dominant contributor to the subjectively important part of the acoustic spectrum for the approach stage of a helicopter flyover. A prediction method for BWI noise based on the calculated trailing vortex trajectories has been developed and estimates of the vortex turbulence have been made. These measurements were made on a trailing vortex from a split wing arrangement and did not give the spectrum of the velocity fluctuations. A recent experiment carried out to measure the turbulence associated with a trailing vortex and the application of the results to BWI noise prediction is described.

  9. Aerodynamic noise prediction for long-span bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Jung H.; Moon, Young J.

    2007-10-01

    A computational methodology is proposed for aerodynamic noise prediction of long-span bodies at low Mach numbers. The three-dimensional hydrodynamic field is computed by incompressible large eddy simulation, while its two-dimensional acoustic field at zero spanwise wavenumber is solved by the linearized perturbed compressible equations (LPCE). A far-field acoustic pressure is obtained by extrapolating the pressure fluctuations with Kirchhoff method, followed by a three-dimensional correction with Oberai et al.'s formula. The far-field sound pressure level for the long span is then estimated by a correction method, which is formally derived by revisiting the previous works of Kato et al. and Perot et al., along with discussion on finding the spanwise coherence lengths. The accuracy of the present method is assessed for broadband noise (with a broadened tone) from a flow with ReD=4.6×104 and M=0.21, past a circular cylinder of 30 cylinder-diameter span. The computed aerodynamic and acoustic results are found in excellent agreement with the experimental measurements.

  10. Supersonic Coaxial Jets: Noise Predictions and Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahl, Milo D.; Papamoschou, Dimitri; Hixon, Ray

    1998-01-01

    The noise from perfectly expanded coaxial jets was measured in an anechoic chamber for different operating conditions with the same total thrust, mass flow, and exit area. The shape of the measured noise spectrum at different angles to the jet axis was found to agree with spectral shapes for single, axisymmetric jets. Based on these spectra, the sound was characterized as being generated by large turbulent structures or fine-scale turbulence. Modeling the large scale structures as instability waves, a stability analysis was conducted for the coaxial jets to identify the growing and decaying instability waves in each shear layer and predict their noise radiation pattern outside the jet. When compared to measured directivity, the analysis identified the region downstream of the outer potential core, where the two shear layers were merging, as the source of the peak radiated noise where instability waves, with their origin in the inner shear layer, reach their maximum amplitude. Numerical computations were also performed using a linearized Euler equation solver. Those results were compared to both the results from the instability wave analysis and to measured data.

  11. Theory for broadband Noise of Rotor and Stator Cascades with Inhomogeneous Inflow Turbulence Including Effects of Lean and Sweep

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, Donald B.

    2001-01-01

    The problem of broadband noise generated by turbulence impinging on a downstream blade row is examined from a theoretical viewpoint. Equations are derived for sound power spectra in terms of 3 dimensional wavenumber spectra of the turbulence. Particular attention is given to issues of turbulence inhomogeneity associated with the near field of the rotor and variations through boundary layers. Lean and sweep of the rotor or stator cascade are also handled rigorously with a full derivation of the relevant geometry and definitions of lean and sweep angles. Use of the general theory is illustrated by 2 simple theoretical spectra for homogeneous turbulence. Limited comparisons are made with data from model fans designed by Pratt & Whitney, Allison, and Boeing. Parametric studies for stator noise are presented showing trends with Mach number, vane count, turbulence scale and intensity, lean, and sweep. Two conventions are presented to define lean and sweep. In the "cascade system" lean is a rotation out of its plane and sweep is a rotation of the airfoil in its plane. In the "duct system" lean is the leading edge angle viewing the fan from the front (along the fan axis) and sweep is the angle viewing the fan from the side (,perpendicular to the axis). It is shown that the governing parameter is sweep in the plane of the airfoil (which reduces the chordwise component of Mach number). Lean (out of the plane of the airfoil) has little effect. Rotor noise predictions are compared with duct turbulence/rotor interaction noise data from Boeing and variations, including blade tip sweep and turbulence axial and transverse scales are explored.

  12. Generation of broadband noise-like pulse from Yb-doped fiber laser ring cavity.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Masayuki; Ganeev, Rashid A; Yoneya, Shin; Kuroda, Hiroto

    2015-03-01

    We have demonstrated a generation of the noise-like pulse (NLP) with broadband spectrum in a nonlinear polarized evolution-based passive mode-locked Yb-doped fiber (YDF) ring laser. At the cavity dispersion of near zero, the NLP with spectrum bandwidth up to 131 nm (FWHM) was obtained at a central wavelength of 1070 nm with output power of 136 mW and 80 MHz repetition rate. To our best knowledge, this spectrum bandwidth of NLP is the broadest among the reported YDF lasers. The autocorrelation function of pulse contained the short (30 fs) and long (4.6 ps) components. This short coherence light source is well suited for the optical coherent tomography used for ophthalmology at a wavelength of ?1000??nm. PMID:25723437

  13. Research at DLR towards airframe noise prediction and reduction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Werner Dobrzynski; Roland Ewert; Michael Pott-Pollenske; Michaela Herr; Jan Delfs

    2008-01-01

    In the final approach phase airframe noise represents the ultimate aircraft noise barrier for future aircraft when equipped with quiet UHBR engines. This paper summarizes the results achieved at DLR in the development of methods and tools for airframe noise prediction and reduction. Numerous DLR internal, national and EC co-financed research projects were conducted to investigate the aerodynamic noise of

  14. Frequency-domain method for discrete frequency noise prediction of rotors in arbitrary steady motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gennaretti, M.; Testa, C.; Bernardini, G.

    2012-12-01

    A novel frequency-domain formulation for the prediction of the tonal noise emitted by rotors in arbitrary steady motion is presented. It is derived from Farassat's 'Formulation 1A', that is a time-domain boundary integral representation for the solution of the Ffowcs-Williams and Hawkings equation, and represents noise as harmonic response to body kinematics and aerodynamic loads via frequency-response-function matrices. The proposed frequency-domain solver is applicable to rotor configurations for which sound pressure levels of discrete tones are much higher than those of broadband noise. The numerical investigation concerns the analysis of noise produced by an advancing helicopter rotor in blade-vortex interaction conditions, as well as the examination of pressure disturbances radiated by the interaction of a marine propeller with a non-uniform inflow.

  15. Unsteady jet flow computation towards noise prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soh, Woo-Yung

    1994-01-01

    An attempt has been made to combine a wave solution method and an unsteady flow computation to produce an integrated aeroacoustic code to predict far-field jet noise. An axisymmetric subsonic jet is considered for this purpose. A fourth order space accurate Pade compact scheme is used for the unsteady Navier-Stokes solution. A Kirchhoff surface integral for the wave equation is employed through the use of an imaginary surface which is a circular cylinder enclosing the jet at a distance. Information such as pressure and its time and normal derivatives is provided on the surface. The sound prediction is performed side by side with the jet flow computation. Retarded time is also taken into consideration since the cylinder body is not acoustically compact. The far-field sound pressure has the directivity and spectra show that low frequency peaks shift toward higher frequency region as the observation angle increases from the jet flow axis.

  16. Estimation of the far-field directivity of broadband aeroengine fan noise using an in-duct axial microphone array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowis, C. R.; Joseph, P. F.; Kempton, A. J.

    2010-09-01

    This paper presents a measurement technique for estimating the far-field directivity of the sound radiated from a duct using measurements of acoustic pressure made inside the duct. The technique is restricted to broadband, multi-mode sound fields whose directivity patterns are axi-symmetric, and whose modes are mutually uncorrelated. The technique uses a transfer function to relate the output from an in-duct axial beamformer to measurements of the far-field polar directivity. A transfer function for a hollow cylindrical duct with no flow is derived, and investigated in detail. Transfer functions for practical cases concerning aeroengine exhausts are also presented. The transfer function is shown to be insensitive to the mode-amplitude distribution inside the duct, and hence can be used to predict the directivity in practice where the noise source distribution is unknown. The technique is then validated using a no-flow facility, and is shown to be able to predict variations in the far-field directivity pattern and also estimate the far-field sound pressure levels to within 2 dB. It is suggested that the proposed technique will be especially useful for fan rig experiments, where direct measurement of directivity, for example by use of an anechoic chamber, is impossible.

  17. Pairing broadband noise with cortical stimulation induces extensive suppression of ascending sensory activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markovitz, Craig D.; Hogan, Patrick S.; Wesen, Kyle A.; Lim, Hubert H.

    2015-04-01

    Objective. The corticofugal system can alter coding along the ascending sensory pathway. Within the auditory system, electrical stimulation of the auditory cortex (AC) paired with a pure tone can cause egocentric shifts in the tuning of auditory neurons, making them more sensitive to the pure tone frequency. Since tinnitus has been linked with hyperactivity across auditory neurons, we sought to develop a new neuromodulation approach that could suppress a wide range of neurons rather than enhance specific frequency-tuned neurons. Approach. We performed experiments in the guinea pig to assess the effects of cortical stimulation paired with broadband noise (PN-Stim) on ascending auditory activity within the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (CNIC), a widely studied region for AC stimulation paradigms. Main results. All eight stimulated AC subregions induced extensive suppression of activity across the CNIC that was not possible with noise stimulation alone. This suppression built up over time and remained after the PN-Stim paradigm. Significance. We propose that the corticofugal system is designed to decrease the brain’s input gain to irrelevant stimuli and PN-Stim is able to artificially amplify this effect to suppress neural firing across the auditory system. The PN-Stim concept may have potential for treating tinnitus and other neurological disorders.

  18. New approach to time domain classification of broadband noise in gravitational wave data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, S.; Rizwan, P.; Biswas, R.

    2012-07-01

    Transient broadband noise in gravitational wave (GW) detectors—also known as noise triggers (referred to as triggers for brevity)—can often be a deterrant to the efficiency with which astrophysical search pipelines detect sources. It is important to understand their instrumental or environmental origin so that they could be eliminated or accounted for in the data. Since the number of triggers is large, data mining approaches such as clustering and classification are useful tools for this task. Classification of triggers based on a handful of discrete properties has been done in the past. A rich information content is available in the waveform or “shape” of the triggers that has had a rather restricted exploration so far. This paper presents a new way to classify triggers deriving information from both trigger waveforms as well as their discrete physical properties, using a sequential combination of the longest common subsequence (LCSS) and LCSS coupled with Fast Time Series Evaluation (FTSE) for waveform classification, and the multidimensional hierarchical classification (MHC) analysis for the grouping based on physical properties. A generalized k-means algorithm is used with the LCSS (and LCSS+FTSE) for clustering the triggers using a validity measure to determine the correct number of clusters in absence of any prior knowledge. The results have been demonstrated by simulations and by application to a segment of real LIGO data from the sixth science run.

  19. Observations of correlated broadband electrostatic noise and electron-cyclotron emissions in the plasma sheet. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Roeder, J.L.; Angelopoulos, V.; Baumjohann, W.; Anderson, R.R.

    1991-11-15

    Electric field wave observations in the central plasma sheet of the earth's magnetosphere show the correlated occurrence of broadband electrostatic noise and electrostatic electron cyclotron harmonic emissions. A model is proposed in which the broadband emissions are electron acoustic waves generated by an observed low energy electron beam, and the cyclotron emissions are generated by the hot electron loss cone instability. The high degree of correlation between the two emissions is provided in the model by the presence of the cold electron beam population, which allows both of the plasma instabilities to grow.

  20. A broad-band low-noise SIS receiver for submillimeter astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buttgenbach, Thomas H.; Watson, Dan M.; Phillips, T. G.; Miller, Ronald E.; Wengler, Michael J.

    1988-01-01

    A quasi-optical heterodyne receiver using a Pb-alloy superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) tunnel junction as the detector and a planar logarithmic spiral antenna for the RF coupling is described, and its performance is compared with a the predicted performance of a theoretical model. Noise measurements were made in the laboratory at frequencies between 115 GHz and 761 GHz, yielding double-sideband noise temperatures ranging from 33 K to 1100 K. The receiver has also been used for astronomical spectroscopy on the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (Mauna Kea, Hawaii) at 115, 230, 345, and 492 GHz.

  1. The Effect of Nondeterministic Parameters on Shock-Associated Noise Prediction Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahl, Milo D.; Khavaran, Abbas

    2010-01-01

    Engineering applications for aircraft noise prediction contain models for physical phenomenon that enable solutions to be computed quickly. These models contain parameters that have an uncertainty not accounted for in the solution. To include uncertainty in the solution, nondeterministic computational methods are applied. Using prediction models for supersonic jet broadband shock-associated noise, fixed model parameters are replaced by probability distributions to illustrate one of these methods. The results show the impact of using nondeterministic parameters both on estimating the model output uncertainty and on the model spectral level prediction. In addition, a global sensitivity analysis is used to determine the influence of the model parameters on the output, and to identify the parameters with the least influence on model output.

  2. Noise performance of IRIS/IDA broadband seismic stations AAK and TLY in the USSR. Semi-Annual technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Given, H.K.

    1992-01-15

    Averaged ambient ground noise power spectra are found two broadband IRIS/IDA seismic stations deployed at Talaya (TLY) near Lake Baikal in Russia and Ala-Archa (AAK) near Bishkek in Kirghizia, central Asia. Site descriptions are also provided for these two stations, as well as major episodes up to mid 1991 in their operational history that are relevant to potential data users. Findings can be summarized as follows: AAK shows among the lowest average absolute nighttime noise levels above I Hz documented to date for IRIS/IDA stations in the former USSR; its night-averaged noise levels above 1 Hz are very similar to those observed at GAR. Ground noise increases during the day over night levels at AAK, with the maximum increase (7-9 dB) occurring between 2-3 Hz. Below .7 Hz, day and night noise levels are the same at AAK. TLY average nighttime ground noise levels are about 6- 1 0 dB higher than AAK levels above 1 Hz; its night-averaged noise levels above 1 Hz are very similar to those observed at IRIS/IDA station KIV. Below .6 Hz, nighttime levels at AAK and TLY are comparable, except that TLY has lower horizontal noise levels (4-5 dB) at periods longer than 25 s. Almost no difference between night and day noise levels was observed at TLY; in this sense it is unique among the IRIS/IDA broadband stations in the USSR. microseism peaks at both stations are comparable (between - 135 to - 140 dB relative to (1 m/s2)2/Hz) at both stations. High-frequency noise levels appear to be fairly constant between 10 - 50 Hz, at between - 150 to - 140 dB relative to (I m/s2)2/Hz.

  3. Broadband Noise of Fans - With Unsteady Coupling Theory to Account for Rotor and Stator Reflection/Transmission Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, Donald B.

    2001-01-01

    This report examines the effects on broadband noise generation of unsteady coupling between a rotor and stator in the fan stage of a turbofan engine. Whereas previous acoustic analyses treated the blade rows as isolated cascades, the present work accounts for reflection and transmission effects at both blade rows by tracking the mode and frequency scattering of pressure and vortical waves. The fan stage is modeled in rectilinear geometry to take advantage of a previously existing unsteady cascade theory for 3D perturbation waves and thereby use a realistic 3D turbulence spectrum. In the analysis, it was found that the set of participating modes divides itself naturally into "independent mode subsets" that couple only among themselves and not to the other such subsets. This principle is the basis for the analysis and considerably reduces computational effort. It also provides a simple, accurate scheme for modal averaging for further efficiency. Computed results for a coupled fan stage are compared with calculations for isolated blade rows. It is found that coupling increases downstream noise by 2 to 4 dB. Upstream noise is lower for isolated cascades and is further reduced by including coupling effects. In comparison with test data, the increase in the upstream/downstream differential indicates that broadband noise from turbulent inflow at the stator dominates downstream noise but is not a significant contributor to upstream noise.

  4. Downwind rotor horizontal axis wind turbine noise prediction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. B. Metzger; R. J. Klatte

    1981-01-01

    NASA and industry are currently cooperating in the conduct of extensive experimental and analytical studies to understand and predict the noise of large, horizontal axis wind turbines. This effort consists of (1) obtaining high quality noise data under well controlled and documented test conditions, (2) establishing the annoyance criteria for impulse noise of the type generated by horizontal axis wind

  5. Supersonic Jet Noise Reductions Predicted with Increased Jet Spreading Rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahl, Milo D.; Morris, Philip J.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, predictions are made of noise radiation from single, supersonic, axisymmetric jets. We examine the effects of changes in operating conditions and the effects of simulated enhanced mixing that would increase the spreading rate of the jet shear layer on radiated noise levels. The radiated noise in the downstream direction is dominated by mixing noise and it is well described by the instability wave noise radiation analysis. A numerical prediction scheme is used for the mean flow providing an efficient method to obtain the mean flow development for various operating conditions and to simulate the enhanced mixing. Using far field radiated noise measurements as a reference, the calculations predict that enhanced jet spreading results in a reduction of radiated noise.

  6. Prediction of Landing Gear Noise Reduction and Comparison to Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopes, Leonard V.

    2010-01-01

    Noise continues to be an ongoing problem for existing aircraft in flight and is projected to be a concern for next generation designs. During landing, when the engines are operating at reduced power, the noise from the airframe, of which landing gear noise is an important part, is equal to the engine noise. There are several methods of predicting landing gear noise, but none have been applied to predict the change in noise due to a change in landing gear design. The current effort uses the Landing Gear Model and Acoustic Prediction (LGMAP) code, developed at The Pennsylvania State University to predict the noise from landing gear. These predictions include the influence of noise reduction concepts on the landing gear noise. LGMAP is compared to wind tunnel experiments of a 6.3%-scale Boeing 777 main gear performed in the Quiet Flow Facility (QFF) at NASA Langley. The geometries tested in the QFF include the landing gear with and without a toboggan fairing and the door. It is shown that LGMAP is able to predict the noise directives and spectra from the model-scale test for the baseline configuration as accurately as current gear prediction methods. However, LGMAP is also able to predict the difference in noise caused by the toboggan fairing and by removing the landing gear door. LGMAP is also compared to far-field ground-based flush-mounted microphone measurements from the 2005 Quiet Technology Demonstrator 2 (QTD 2) flight test. These comparisons include a Boeing 777-300ER with and without a toboggan fairing that demonstrate that LGMAP can be applied to full-scale flyover measurements. LGMAP predictions of the noise generated by the nose gear on the main gear measurements are also shown.

  7. Limits on the prediction of helicopter rotor noise using thickness and loading sources: Validation of helicopter noise prediction techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Succi, G. P.

    1983-04-01

    The techniques of helicopter rotor noise prediction attempt to describe precisely the details of the noise field and remove the empiricisms and restrictions inherent in previous methods. These techniques require detailed inputs of the rotor geometry, operating conditions, and blade surface pressure distribution. The Farassat noise prediction techniques was studied, and high speed helicopter noise prediction using more detailed representations of the thickness and loading noise sources was investigated. These predictions were based on the measured blade surface pressures on an AH-1G rotor and compared to the measured sound field. Although refinements in the representation of the thickness and loading noise sources improve the calculation, there are still discrepancies between the measured and predicted sound field. Analysis of the blade surface pressure data indicates shocks on the blades, which are probably responsible for these discrepancies.

  8. Limits on the prediction of helicopter rotor noise using thickness and loading sources: Validation of helicopter noise prediction techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Succi, G. P.

    1983-01-01

    The techniques of helicopter rotor noise prediction attempt to describe precisely the details of the noise field and remove the empiricisms and restrictions inherent in previous methods. These techniques require detailed inputs of the rotor geometry, operating conditions, and blade surface pressure distribution. The Farassat noise prediction techniques was studied, and high speed helicopter noise prediction using more detailed representations of the thickness and loading noise sources was investigated. These predictions were based on the measured blade surface pressures on an AH-1G rotor and compared to the measured sound field. Although refinements in the representation of the thickness and loading noise sources improve the calculation, there are still discrepancies between the measured and predicted sound field. Analysis of the blade surface pressure data indicates shocks on the blades, which are probably responsible for these discrepancies.

  9. Broadband signal processing for detection, classification, and identification of underwater, bottomed, and buried targets in ambient noise environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goo, Gee-In

    2006-05-01

    This paper addresses the theories, experiments and real data of passive detection, classification and identification of "silent" targets in the illumination of ambient noise, a method known as "Acoustic Daylight." A great deal of work and sonar systems exist on active and passive sonar systems, but the principle of using ambient noise as the sole source of acoustic illumination was explored with limited success. This paper presents some of the successes using broadband signal processing and theory of target resonance as proposed in Uricks' text. In addition, the paper will present some of the results from experiments and simulations and Navy data of opportunities.

  10. Some Analytic Results for the Study of Broadband Noise Radiation from Wings, Propellers and Jets in Uniform Motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farassat, F.; Casper, J.

    2003-01-01

    Alan Powell has made significant contributions to the understanding of many aeroacoustic problems, in particular, the problems of broadband noise from jets and boundary layers. In this paper, some analytic results are presented for the calculation of the correlation function of the broadband noise radiated from a wing, a propeller, and a jet in uniform forward motion. It is shown that, when the observer (or microphone) motion is suitably chosen, the geometric terms of the radiation formula become time independent. The time independence of these terms leads to a significant simplification of the statistical analysis of the radiated noise, even when the near field terms are included. For a wing in forward motion, if the observer is in the moving reference frame, then the correlation function of the near and far field noise can be related to a space-time cross-correlation function of the pressure on the wing surface. A similar result holds for a propeller in forward flight if the observer is in a reference frame that is attached to the propeller and rotates at the shaft speed. For a jet in motion, it is shown that the correlation function of the radiated noise can be related to the space-time crosscorrelation of the Lighthill stress tensor in the jet. Exact analytical results are derived for all three cases. For the cases under present consideration, the inclusion of the near field terms does not introduce additional complexity, as compared to existing formulations that are limited to the far field.

  11. A statistical model for landing gear noise prediction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yueping Guo

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a framework for aircraft landing gear noise prediction. A prediction model is derived that decomposes the landing gear noise into three spectral components, for the low, mid and high frequencies, respectively. This corresponds to cataloguing the parts in the landing gear assembly into three groups, namely, the wheels for low frequencies, the main struts

  12. Complex Landing Gear Noise Prediction Using a Simple Toolkit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonard V. Lopes; Kenneth S. Brentner; Philip J. Morris

    This paper describes the initial development of a method for the prediction of the noise radiated by aircraft landing gear. Called the Landing Gear Model and Acoustic Prediction (LGMAP), it will eventually include all the geometric complexity of a realistic landing gear. This will be achieved by dividing the gear into a number of elements or objects. The noise from

  13. Contra-Rotating Open Rotor Tone Noise Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Envia, Edmane

    2014-01-01

    Reliable prediction of contra-rotating open rotor (CROR) noise is an essential element of any strategy for the development of low-noise open rotor propulsion systems that can meet both the community noise regulations and cabin noise limits. Since CROR noise spectra exhibit a preponderance of tones, significant efforts have been directed towards predicting their tone content. To that end, there has been an ongoing effort at NASA to assess various in-house open rotor tone noise prediction tools using a benchmark CROR blade set for which significant aerodynamic and acoustic data have been acquired in wind tunnel tests. In the work presented here, the focus is on the nearfield noise of the benchmark open rotor blade set at the cruise condition. Using an analytical CROR tone noise model with input from high-fidelity aerodynamic simulations, tone noise spectra have been predicted and compared with the experimental data. Comparisons indicate that the theoretical predictions are in good agreement with the data, especially for the dominant tones and for the overall sound pressure level of tones. The results also indicate that, whereas the individual rotor tones are well predicted by the combination of the thickness and loading sources, for the interaction tones it is essential that the quadrupole source is also included in the analysis.

  14. Contra-Rotating Open Rotor Tone Noise Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Envia, Edmane

    2014-01-01

    Reliable prediction of contra-rotating open rotor (CROR) noise is an essential element of any strategy for the development of low-noise open rotor propulsion systems that can meet both the community noise regulations and the cabin noise limits. Since CROR noise spectra typically exhibits a preponderance of tones, significant efforts have been directed towards predicting their tone spectra. To that end, there has been an ongoing effort at NASA to assess various in-house open rotor tone noise prediction tools using a benchmark CROR blade set for which significant aerodynamic and acoustic data had been acquired in wind tunnel tests. In the work presented here, the focus is on the near-field noise of the benchmark open rotor blade set at the cruise condition. Using an analytical CROR tone noise model with input from high-fidelity aerodynamic simulations, detailed tone noise spectral predictions have been generated and compared with the experimental data. Comparisons indicate that the theoretical predictions are in good agreement with the data, especially for the dominant CROR tones and their overall sound pressure level. The results also indicate that, whereas individual rotor tones are well predicted by the linear sources (i.e., thickness and loading), for the interaction tones it is essential that the quadrupole sources be included in the analysis.

  15. Modular Engine Noise Component Prediction System (MCP) Technical Description and Assessment Document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herkes, William H.; Reed, David H.

    2005-01-01

    This report describes an empirical prediction procedure for turbofan engine noise. The procedure generates predicted noise levels for several noise components, including inlet- and aft-radiated fan noise, and jet-mixing noise. This report discusses the noise source mechanisms, the development of the prediction procedures, and the assessment of the accuracy of these predictions. Finally, some recommendations for future work are presented.

  16. Aeroacoustics: Acoustic wave propagation; Aircraft noise prediction; Aeroacoustic instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, I. R.

    1976-01-01

    The papers in this volume deal with recent research into acoustic-wave propagation through the atmosphere and progress in aeroacoustic instrumentation, facilities, and test techniques. Topics include the propagation of aircraft noise over long distances in the lower atmosphere, measured effects of turbulence on the rise time of a weak shock, sound scattering from atmospheric turbulence, saturation effects associated with sound propagation in a turbulent medium, and a computer model of the lightning-thunder process. Other papers discuss the development of a computer system for aircraft noise prediction; aircraft flyover noise measurements; and theories and methods for the prediction of ground effects on aircraft noise propagation, for the prediction of airframe aerodynamic noise, for turbine noise prediction, and for combustion noise prediction. Attention is also given to the use of Hartmann generators as sources of high-intensity sound in a large absorption flow-duct facility, an outdoor jet noise facility, factors in the design and performance of free-jet acoustic wind tunnels, and the use of a laser shadowgraph for jet noise diagnosis.

  17. Experimental validation of boundary element methods for noise prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seybert, A. F.; Oswald, Fred B.

    1992-01-01

    Experimental validation of methods to predict radiated noise is presented. A combined finite element and boundary element model was used to predict the vibration and noise of a rectangular box excited by a mechanical shaker. The predicted noise was compared to sound power measured by the acoustic intensity method. Inaccuracies in the finite element model shifted the resonance frequencies by about 5 percent. The predicted and measured sound power levels agree within about 2.5 dB. In a second experiment, measured vibration data was used with a boundary element model to predict noise radiation from the top of an operating gearbox. The predicted and measured sound power for the gearbox agree within about 3 dB.

  18. Modular Engine Noise Component Prediction System (MCP) Program Users' Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, Robert A. (Technical Monitor); Herkes, William H.; Reed, David H.

    2004-01-01

    This is a user's manual for Modular Engine Noise Component Prediction System (MCP). This computer code allows the user to predict turbofan engine noise estimates. The program is based on an empirical procedure that has evolved over many years at The Boeing Company. The data used to develop the procedure include both full-scale engine data and small-scale model data, and include testing done by Boeing, by the engine manufacturers, and by NASA. In order to generate a noise estimate, the user specifies the appropriate engine properties (including both geometry and performance parameters), the microphone locations, the atmospheric conditions, and certain data processing options. The version of the program described here allows the user to predict three components: inlet-radiated fan noise, aft-radiated fan noise, and jet noise. MCP predicts one-third octave band noise levels over the frequency range of 50 to 10,000 Hertz. It also calculates overall sound pressure levels and certain subjective noise metrics (e.g., perceived noise levels).

  19. Passive geoacoustic inversion with a single hydrophone using broadband ship noise.

    PubMed

    Gervaise, C; Kinda, B G; Bonnel, J; Stéphan, Y; Vallez, S

    2012-03-01

    An inversion scheme is proposed, relying upon the inversion of the noise of a moving ship measured on a single distant hydrophone. The spectrogram of the measurements exhibits striations which depend on waveguide parameters. The periodic behavior of striations versus range are used to estimate the differences of radial wavenumber between couples of propagative modes at a given frequency. These wavenumber differences are stacked for several frequencies to form the relative dispersion curves. Such relative dispersion curves can be synthesized using a propagation model feeded with a bottom geoacoustic model. Inversion is performed by looking for the bottom properties that optimize the fit between measured and predicted relative dispersion curves. The inversion scheme is tested on simulated data. The conclusions are twofold: (1) a minimum 6 dB signal to noise ratio is required to obtained an unbiased estimate of compressional sound speed in the bottom with a 3 m s(-1) standard deviation; however, even with low signal to noise ratio, the estimation error remains bounded and (2) in the case of a multi-layer bottom, the scheme produces a single depth-average compressional sound speed. The inversion scheme is applied on experimental data. The results are fully consistent with a core sample measured around the receiving hydrophone. PMID:22423697

  20. Rotor wake/stator interaction noise-predictions versus data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topol, D. A.

    1990-10-01

    A rotor wake/stator interaction noise prediction method is presented and evaluated with fan rig and full-scale engine data. The noise prediction method uses a two-dimensional (2D) semi-empirical wake model and an analytical stator response function and noise calculation. The stator response function is a 2D strip theory which is linked to a noise calculation formulated in a constant area annular duct with mean axial flow. Comparisons are made with data from an Advanced Ducted Propeller (ADP) fan rig which is a next-generation turbofan engine design. A calibration of the prediction model is attempted using this rig data. The calibrated model is subsequently utilized to calculate and compare with noise test data from a 4.1-inch diameter fan rig and from a full-scale turbofan engine configuration. The results indicate the method has promise, but that further improvement is desirable.

  1. High Speed Jet Noise Prediction Using Large Eddy Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lele, Sanjiva K.

    2002-01-01

    Current methods for predicting the noise of high speed jets are largely empirical. These empirical methods are based on the jet noise data gathered by varying primarily the jet flow speed, and jet temperature for a fixed nozzle geometry. Efforts have been made to correlate the noise data of co-annular (multi-stream) jets and for the changes associated with the forward flight within these empirical correlations. But ultimately these emipirical methods fail to provide suitable guidance in the selection of new, low-noise nozzle designs. This motivates the development of a new class of prediction methods which are based on computational simulations, in an attempt to remove the empiricism of the present day noise predictions.

  2. Advanced propeller noise prediction in the time domain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farassat, F.; Dunn, M. H.; Spence, P. L.

    1992-01-01

    The time domain code ASSPIN gives acousticians a powerful technique of advanced propeller noise prediction. Except for nonlinear effects, the code uses exact solutions of the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equation with exact blade geometry and kinematics. By including nonaxial inflow, periodic loading noise, and adaptive time steps to accelerate computer execution, the development of this code becomes complete.

  3. Study on Noise Prediction Model and Control Schemes for Substation

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yang; Liu, Songtao

    2014-01-01

    With the government's emphasis on environmental issues of power transmission and transformation project, noise pollution has become a prominent problem now. The noise from the working transformer, reactor, and other electrical equipment in the substation will bring negative effect to the ambient environment. This paper focuses on using acoustic software for the simulation and calculation method to control substation noise. According to the characteristics of the substation noise and the techniques of noise reduction, a substation's acoustic field model was established with the SoundPLAN software to predict the scope of substation noise. On this basis, 4 reasonable noise control schemes were advanced to provide some helpful references for noise control during the new substation's design and construction process. And the feasibility and application effect of these control schemes can be verified by using the method of simulation modeling. The simulation results show that the substation always has the problem of excessive noise at boundary under the conventional measures. The excess noise can be efficiently reduced by taking the corresponding noise reduction methods. PMID:24672356

  4. Study on noise prediction model and control schemes for substation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chuanmin; Gao, Yang; Liu, Songtao

    2014-01-01

    With the government's emphasis on environmental issues of power transmission and transformation project, noise pollution has become a prominent problem now. The noise from the working transformer, reactor, and other electrical equipment in the substation will bring negative effect to the ambient environment. This paper focuses on using acoustic software for the simulation and calculation method to control substation noise. According to the characteristics of the substation noise and the techniques of noise reduction, a substation's acoustic field model was established with the SoundPLAN software to predict the scope of substation noise. On this basis, 4 reasonable noise control schemes were advanced to provide some helpful references for noise control during the new substation's design and construction process. And the feasibility and application effect of these control schemes can be verified by using the method of simulation modeling. The simulation results show that the substation always has the problem of excessive noise at boundary under the conventional measures. The excess noise can be efficiently reduced by taking the corresponding noise reduction methods. PMID:24672356

  5. Predicted vs. scale model and flight test UDF engine noise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. E. Whitfield; P. R. Gliebe

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the development of a frequency-domain, noncompact-source noise prediction model for the unducted fan (UDF) engine. A brief description of the acoustic modeling approach and basic equations employed is given, together with a summary of the aerodynamic characteristics utilized in the noise prediction model. Scale model test results obtained from both low-speed and high-speed wind

  6. A note on pure-tone masking by broadband noise under free-field and insert-phone conditions (L)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houtsma, Adrianus J. M.

    2005-02-01

    Free-field experiments on masking of low-frequency tones by broadband noise, as reported by Fidell, et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 73, 628-638 (1983)] should, in principle, yield the same results as the recently reported insert-phone experiment by Houtsma [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 115, 967-970 (2004)]. Indeed, if Fidell et al.'s data are converted to critical ratios and compared with the recent insert-earphone results, both turn out to be quite similar and significantly different from Hawkins and Stevens' classical critical ratio results.

  7. Initial Integration of Noise Prediction Tools for Acoustic Scattering Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nark, Douglas M.; Burley, Casey L.; Tinetti, Ana; Rawls, John W.

    2008-01-01

    This effort provides an initial glimpse at NASA capabilities available in predicting the scattering of fan noise from a non-conventional aircraft configuration. The Aircraft NOise Prediction Program, Fast Scattering Code, and the Rotorcraft Noise Model were coupled to provide increased fidelity models of scattering effects on engine fan noise sources. The integration of these codes led to the identification of several keys issues entailed in applying such multi-fidelity approaches. In particular, for prediction at noise certification points, the inclusion of distributed sources leads to complications with the source semi-sphere approach. Computational resource requirements limit the use of the higher fidelity scattering code to predict radiated sound pressure levels for full scale configurations at relevant frequencies. And, the ability to more accurately represent complex shielding surfaces in current lower fidelity models is necessary for general application to scattering predictions. This initial step in determining the potential benefits/costs of these new methods over the existing capabilities illustrates a number of the issues that must be addressed in the development of next generation aircraft system noise prediction tools.

  8. Measurement, analysis, and prediction of aircraft interior noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howlett, J. T.; Williams, L. H.; Catherines, J. J.; Jha, S. K.

    1976-01-01

    Considerations of comfort of passengers and crew in light aircraft and helicopters indicate substantial benefits may be obtained by the reduction of interior noise levels. This paper discusses an ongoing research effort to reduce interior noise in such vehicles. Data from both field and laboratory studies for a light aircraft are presented. The laboratory data indicate that structural vibration is an efficient source of interior noise and should be considered in the reduction of interior noise. Flight data taken on a helicopter before and after installation of acoustic treatment demonstrate that over 30 dB of noise reduction can be obtained in certain portions of the spectra. However, subjective evaluations of the treated vehicle indicate that further reductions in interior noise are desirable. An existing interior noise prediction method which was developed for large jet transports was applied to study low-frequency noise in a light aircraft fuselage. The results indicate that improvements in the analytical model may be necessary for the prediction of interior noise of light aircraft.

  9. Increased Fidelity in Prediction Methods For Landing Gear Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopes, Leonard V.; Brentner, Kenneth S.; Morris, Philip J.; Lockhard, David P.

    2006-01-01

    An aeroacoustic prediction scheme has been developed for landing gear noise. The method is designed to handle the complex landing gear geometry of current and future aircraft. The gear is represented by a collection of subassemblies and simple components that are modeled using acoustic elements. These acoustic elements are generic, but generate noise representative of the physical components on a landing gear. The method sums the noise radiation from each component of the undercarriage in isolation accounting for interference with adjacent components through an estimate of the local upstream and downstream flows and turbulence intensities. The acoustic calculations are made in the code LGMAP, which computes the sound pressure levels at various observer locations. The method can calculate the noise from the undercarriage in isolation or installed on an aircraft for both main and nose landing gear. Comparisons with wind tunnel and flight data are used to initially calibrate the method, then it may be used to predict the noise of any landing gear. In this paper, noise predictions are compared with wind tunnel data for model landing gears of various scales and levels of fidelity, as well as with flight data on fullscale undercarriages. The present agreement between the calculations and measurements suggests the method has promise for future application in the prediction of airframe noise.

  10. Prediction and analysis of infra and low-frequency noise of upwind horizontal axis wind turbine using statistical wind speed model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Gwang-Se; Cheong, Cheolung

    2014-12-01

    Despite increasing concern about low-frequency noise of modern large horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWTs), few studies have focused on its origin or its prediction methods. In this paper, infra- and low-frequency (the ILF) wind turbine noise are closely examined and an efficient method is developed for its prediction. Although most previous studies have assumed that the ILF noise consists primarily of blade passing frequency (BPF) noise components, these tonal noise components are seldom identified in the measured noise spectrum, except for the case of downwind wind turbines. In reality, since modern HAWTs are very large, during rotation, a single blade of the turbine experiences inflow with variation in wind speed in time as well as in space, breaking periodic perturbations of the BPF. Consequently, this transforms acoustic contributions at the BPF harmonics into broadband noise components. In this study, the ILF noise of wind turbines is predicted by combining Lowson's acoustic analogy with the stochastic wind model, which is employed to reproduce realistic wind speed conditions. In order to predict the effects of these wind conditions on pressure variation on the blade surface, unsteadiness in the incident wind speed is incorporated into the XFOIL code by varying incident flow velocities on each blade section, which depend on the azimuthal locations of the rotating blade. The calculated surface pressure distribution is subsequently used to predict acoustic pressure at an observing location by using Lowson's analogy. These predictions are compared with measured data, which ensures that the present method can reproduce the broadband characteristics of the measured low-frequency noise spectrum. Further investigations are carried out to characterize the IFL noise in terms of pressure loading on blade surface, narrow-band noise spectrum and noise maps around the turbine.

  11. A Hybrid RANS/LES Approach for Predicting Jet Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, Marvin E.

    2006-01-01

    Hybrid acoustic prediction methods have an important advantage over the current Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) based methods in that they only involve modeling of the relatively universal subscale motion and not the configuration dependent larger scale turbulence. Unfortunately, they are unable to account for the high frequency sound generated by the turbulence in the initial mixing layers. This paper introduces an alternative approach that directly calculates the sound from a hybrid RANS/LES flow model (which can resolve the steep gradients in the initial mixing layers near the nozzle lip) and adopts modeling techniques similar to those used in current RANS based noise prediction methods to determine the unknown sources in the equations for the remaining unresolved components of the sound field. The resulting prediction method would then be intermediate between the current noise prediction codes and previously proposed hybrid noise prediction methods.

  12. State of Jet Noise Prediction-NASA Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, James E.

    2008-01-01

    This presentation covers work primarily done under the Airport Noise Technical Challenge portion of the Supersonics Project in the Fundamental Aeronautics Program. To provide motivation and context, the presentation starts with a brief overview of the Airport Noise Technical Challenge. It then covers the state of NASA s jet noise prediction tools in empirical, RANS-based, and time-resolved categories. The empirical tools, requires seconds to provide a prediction of noise spectral directivity with an accuracy of a few dB, but only for axisymmetric configurations. The RANS-based tools are able to discern the impact of three-dimensional features, but are currently deficient in predicting noise from heated jets and jets with high speed and require hours to produce their prediction. The time-resolved codes are capable of predicting resonances and other time-dependent phenomena, but are very immature, requiring months to deliver predictions without unknown accuracies and dependabilities. In toto, however, when one considers the progress being made it appears that aeroacoustic prediction tools are soon to approach the level of sophistication and accuracy of aerodynamic engineering tools.

  13. Large eddy simulation and noise prediction of turbulent heated and swirling jets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cheng Zhang

    2007-01-01

    Jet noise is one of the major noise sources of jet-powered aircraft. To improve the understanding of noise generation mechanisms in turbulent jets and hence reduce the noise, innovative methods are needed for noise prediction. Large eddy simulation and noise prediction of several turbulent jets are conducted on a computational domain including both the aerodynamic near-field and a portion of

  14. Tone and Broadband Noise Separation from Acoustic Data of a Scale-Model Counter-Rotating Open Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sree, David; Stephens, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Renewed interest in contra-rotating open rotor technology for aircraft propulsion application has prompted the development of advanced diagnostic tools for better design and improved acoustical performance. In particular, the determination of tonal and broadband components of open rotor acoustic spectra is essential for properly assessing the noise control parameters and also for validating the open rotor noise simulation codes. The technique of phase averaging has been employed to separate the tone and broadband components from a single rotor, but this method does not work for the two-shaft contra-rotating open rotor. A new signal processing technique was recently developed to process the contra-rotating open rotor acoustic data. The technique was first tested using acoustic data taken of a hobby aircraft open rotor propeller, and reported previously. The intent of the present work is to verify and validate the applicability of the new technique to a realistic one-fifth scale open rotor model which has 12 forward and 10 aft contra-rotating blades operating at realistic forward flight Mach numbers and tip speeds. The results and discussions of that study are presented in this paper.

  15. Tone and Broadband Noise Separation from Acoustic Data of a Scale-Model Contra-Rotating Open Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sree, Dave; Stephens, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Renewed interest in contra-rotating open rotor technology for aircraft propulsion application has prompted the development of advanced diagnostic tools for better design and improved acoustical performance. In particular, the determination of tonal and broadband components of open rotor acoustic spectra is essential for properly assessing the noise control parameters and also for validating the open rotor noise simulation codes. The technique of phase averaging has been employed to separate the tone and broadband components from a single rotor, but this method does not work for the two-shaft contra-rotating open rotor. A new signal processing technique was recently developed to process the contra-rotating open rotor acoustic data. The technique was first tested using acoustic data taken of a hobby aircraft open rotor propeller, and reported previously. The intent of the present work is to verify and validate the applicability of the new technique to a realistic one-fifth scale open rotor model which has 12 forward and 10 aft contra-rotating blades operating at realistic forward flight Mach numbers and tip speeds. The results and discussions of that study are presented in this paper.

  16. The Acoustic Analogy and Alternative Theories for Jet Noise Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Philip J.; Farassat, F.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes several methods for the prediction of jet noise. All but one of the noise prediction schemes are based on Lighthill's or Lilley's acoustic analogy while the other is the jet noise generation model recently proposed by Tam and Auriault. In all the approaches some assumptions must be made concerning the statistical properties of the turbulent sources. In each case the characteristic scales of the turbulence are obtained from a solution of the Reynolds-averaged Navier Stokes equation using a k - epsilon turbulence model. It is shown that, for the same level of empiricism, Tam and Auriault's model yields better agreement with experimental noise measurements than the acoustic analogy. It is then shown that this result is not because of some fundamental flaw in the acoustic analogy approach: but, is associated with the assumptions made in the approximation of the turbulent source statistics. If consistent assumptions are made, both the acoustic analogy and Tam and Auriault's model yield identical noise predictions. The paper concludes with a proposal for an acoustic analogy that provides a clearer identification of the equivalent source mechanisms and a discussion of noise prediction issues that remain to be resolved.

  17. Predicting spectral features in galaxy spectra from broad-band photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdalla, F. B.; Mateus, A.; Santos, W. A.; Sodrè, L., Jr.; Ferreras, I.; Lahav, O.

    2008-07-01

    We explore the prospects of predicting emission-line features present in galaxy spectra given broad-band photometry alone. There is a general consent that colours, and spectral features, most notably the 4000 Å break, can predict many properties of galaxies, including star formation rates and hence they could infer some of the line properties. We argue that these techniques have great prospects in helping us understand line emission in extragalactic objects and might speed up future galaxy redshift surveys if they are to target emission-line objects only. We use two independent methods, Artificial Neural Networks (based on the ANNz code) and Locally Weighted Regression (LWR), to retrieve correlations present in the colour N-dimensional space and to predict the equivalent widths present in the corresponding spectra. We also investigate how well it is possible to separate galaxies with and without lines from broad-band photometry only. We find, unsurprisingly, that recombination lines can be well predicted by galaxy colours. However, among collisional lines some can and some cannot be predicted well from galaxy colours alone, without any further redshift information. We also use our techniques to estimate how much information contained in spectral diagnostic diagrams can be recovered from broad-band photometry alone. We find that it is possible to classify active galactic nuclei and star formation objects relatively well using colours only. We suggest that this technique could be used to considerably improve redshift surveys such as the upcoming Fibre Multi Object Spectrograph (FMOS) survey and the planned Wide Field Multi Object Spectrograph (WFMOS) survey.

  18. Prediction of helicopter rotor noise from measured blade surface pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Succi, G. P.; Brieger, J. T.

    The current techniques of helicopter rotor noise prediction attempt to describe the details of the noise field precisely and remove the empiricisms and restrictions inherent in previous methods. These techniques require detailed inputs of the rotor geometry, operating conditions, and blade surface pressure distribution. The purpose of this paper is to review those techniques in general and the Farassat/Nystrom analysis in particular. The predictions of the Farassat/Nystrom noise computer program, using both measured and calculated blade surface pressure data, are compared to measured noise level data. This study is based on a contract from NASA to Bolt Beranek and Newman Inc. (BBN) with measured data from the AH-lG Helicopter Operational Loads Survey flight test program supplied by Bell Helicopter Textron.

  19. The NASA aircraft noise prediction program improved propeller analysis system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, L. Cathy

    1991-01-01

    The improvements and the modifications of the NASA Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP) and the Propeller Analysis System (PAS) are described. Comparisons of the predictions and the test data are included in the case studies for the flat plate model in the Boundary Layer Module, for the effects of applying compressibility corrections to the lift and pressure coefficients, for the use of different weight factors in the Propeller Performance Module, for the use of the improved retarded time equation solution, and for the effect of the number grids in the Transonic Propeller Noise Module. The DNW tunnel test data of a propeller at different angles of attack and the Dowty Rotol data are compared with ANOPP predictions. The effect of the number of grids on the Transonic Propeller Noise Module predictions and the comparison of ANOPP TPN and DFP-ATP codes are studied. In addition to the above impact studies, the transonic propeller noise predictions for the SR-7, the UDF front rotor, and the support of the enroute noise test program are included.

  20. Prediction of aerodynamic tonal noise from open rotors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Anupam; Chen, Hsuan-nien

    2013-08-01

    A numerical approach for predicting tonal aerodynamic noise from "open rotors" is presented. "Open rotor" refers to an engine architecture with a pair of counter-rotating propellers. Typical noise spectra from an open rotor consist of dominant tones, which arise due to both the steady loading/thickness and the aerodynamic interaction between the two bladerows. The proposed prediction approach utilizes Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations to obtain near-field description of the noise sources. The near-to-far-field propagation is then carried out by solving the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equation. Since the interest of this paper is limited to tone noise, a linearized, frequency domain approach is adopted to solve the wake/vortex-blade interaction problem.This paper focuses primarily on the speed scaling of the aerodynamic tonal noise from open rotors. Even though there is no theoretical mode cut-off due to the absence of nacelle in open rotors, the far-field noise is a strong function of the azimuthal mode order. While the steady loading/thickness noise has circumferential modes of high order, due to the relatively large number of blades (?10-12), the interaction noise typically has modes of small orders. The high mode orders have very low radiation efficiency and exhibit very strong scaling with Mach number, while the low mode orders show a relatively weaker scaling. The prediction approach is able to capture the speed scaling (observed in experiment) of the overall aerodynamic noise very well.

  1. Downwind rotor horizontal axis wind turbine noise prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metzger, F. B.; Klatte, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    NASA and industry are currently cooperating in the conduct of extensive experimental and analytical studies to understand and predict the noise of large, horizontal axis wind turbines. This effort consists of (1) obtaining high quality noise data under well controlled and documented test conditions, (2) establishing the annoyance criteria for impulse noise of the type generated by horizontal axis wind turbines with rotors downwind of the support tower, (3) defining the wake characteristics downwind of the axial location of the plane of rotation, (4) comparing predictions with measurements made by use of wake data, and (5) comparing predictions with annoyance criteria. The status of work by Hamilton Standard in the above areas which was done in support of the cooperative NASA and industry studies is briefly summarized.

  2. Stability Assessment and Quantitative Evaluation of H/ V Spectral Ratios for Site Response Studies in Kumaon Himalaya, India Using Ambient Noise Recorded by a Broadband Seismograph Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivaram, K.; Mahesh, P.; Rai, S. S.

    2012-10-01

    The Kumaon Himalaya region in India has accumulated considerable seismic risk potential from moderate to high seismicity due to ongoing tectonic evolutionary processes. To assess conditions of high seismic risk arising from local site effects at populated locations, we applied the empirical horizontal to vertical ( H/ V) spectral amplitude ratio method ( Nakamura in Quarterly Reports of the Railway Technical Research Institute Tokyo, 30:25-33, 1989) using ambient seismic noise recorded by a network of 32 digital broadband seismographs from June 2005 to June 2008. The data and the estimated parameters were subjected to stability tests to assess the effect of seasonal variations. Seasonal variations in the ambient noise data seemed to show a lesser effect on fundamental frequency estimates and a slightly greater effect on the peak H/ V amplitudes. Validation of the ambient noise results was done by complementary tests using H/ V ratios of local and regional earthquakes. The `peak' corresponding to the fundamental resonance frequency is prominently present in both the ambient noise and the earthquake datasets. The study locations showed distinct H/ V curve topologies, corresponding to the effects of both velocity contrast at well-defined frequencies and characteristic topographic effect around a certain frequency range. The clearly indicated `peaks' in the H/ V curves possibly correspond to velocity contrasts created by weathered sediments overlying hard rock basements in rocky hills. Our study indicates high site responses at many populated locations near the surface trace of the seismically active Main Central Thrust (MCT) and other fault boundaries. The fundamental resonance frequencies estimated from the site response studies at the 32 locations could be useful in preliminary site characterization, ground motion prediction and seismic hazard analysis.

  3. Broadband Noise Limit in the Photodetection of Ultralow Jitter Optical Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wenlu; Quinlan, Franklyn; Fortier, Tara M.; Deschenes, Jean-Daniel; Fu, Yang; Diddams, Scott A.; Campbell, Joe C.

    2014-11-01

    Applications with optical atomic clocks and precision timing often require the transfer of optical frequency references to the electrical domain with extremely high fidelity. Here we examine the impact of photocarrier scattering and distributed absorption on the photocurrent noise of high-speed photodiodes when detecting ultralow jitter optical pulses. Despite its small contribution to the total photocurrent, this excess noise can determine the phase noise and timing jitter of microwave signals generated by detecting ultrashort optical pulses. A Monte Carlo simulation of the photodetection process is used to quantitatively estimate the excess noise. Simulated phase noise on the 10 GHz harmonic of a photodetected pulse train shows good agreement with previous experimental data, leading to the conclusion that the lowest phase noise photonically generated microwave signals are limited by photocarrier scattering well above the quantum limit of the optical pulse train.

  4. Efficient clipping for broadband power line systems in impulsive noise environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Der-Feng Tseng; Ru-Bing Yang; Tsung-Ru Tsai; Yunghsiang S. Han; Wai Ho Mow

    2012-01-01

    For broadband power line communication systems, which may be incorporated with Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) technique, the detrimental effect arising from strong and frequently occurred impulses is paramount as signaling on each sub-carrier is simultaneously corrupted thanks to frequency-domain transformation on a per-OFDM symbol basis at the front-end receiver. In this perspective, channel coding epoch on the basis of

  5. Application of Traffic Noise Model and GIS for Prediction of Highway Noise on High Rise Building in 3D Format

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Pamanikabud; M. Tansatcha

    This paper presents the utilization of traffic noise simulation model in combination with GIS in order to predict highway traffic noise impact that appears on façades of high rise building by the side of highway. Presentation of traffic noise on building is given on 3 dimension form by application of 3D-GIS. Traffic noise model that was previously built and tested

  6. A Stochastic Simulation Framework for the Prediction of Strategic Noise Mapping and Occupational Noise Exposure Using the Random Walk Approach

    PubMed Central

    Haron, Zaiton; Bakar, Suhaimi Abu; Dimon, Mohamad Ngasri

    2015-01-01

    Strategic noise mapping provides important information for noise impact assessment and noise abatement. However, producing reliable strategic noise mapping in a dynamic, complex working environment is difficult. This study proposes the implementation of the random walk approach as a new stochastic technique to simulate noise mapping and to predict the noise exposure level in a workplace. A stochastic simulation framework and software, namely RW-eNMS, were developed to facilitate the random walk approach in noise mapping prediction. This framework considers the randomness and complexity of machinery operation and noise emission levels. Also, it assesses the impact of noise on the workers and the surrounding environment. For data validation, three case studies were conducted to check the accuracy of the prediction data and to determine the efficiency and effectiveness of this approach. The results showed high accuracy of prediction results together with a majority of absolute differences of less than 2 dBA; also, the predicted noise doses were mostly in the range of measurement. Therefore, the random walk approach was effective in dealing with environmental noises. It could predict strategic noise mapping to facilitate noise monitoring and noise control in the workplaces. PMID:25875019

  7. Effects of broadband noise on cortical evoked auditory responses at different loudness levels in young adults.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Mridula; Purdy, Suzanne C; Munro, Kevin J; Sawaya, Kathleen; Peter, Varghese

    2014-03-26

    Young adults with no history of hearing concerns were tested to investigate their /da/-evoked cortical auditory evoked potentials (P1-N1-P2) recorded from 32 scalp electrodes in the presence and absence of noise at three different loudness levels (soft, comfortable, and loud), at a fixed signal-to-noise ratio (+3 dB). P1 peak latency significantly increased at soft and loud levels, and N1 and P2 latencies increased at all three levels in the presence of noise, compared with the quiet condition. P1 amplitude was significantly larger in quiet than in noise conditions at the loudest level. N1 amplitude was larger in quiet than in noise for the soft level only. P2 amplitude was reduced in the presence of noise to a similar degree at all loudness levels. The differential effects of noise on P1, N1, and P2 suggest differences in auditory processes underlying these peaks. The combination of level and signal-to-noise ratio should be considered when using cortical auditory evoked potentials as an electrophysiological indicator of degraded speech processing. PMID:24323122

  8. Prediction of Non-Cavitating Underwater Propeller Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SEOL, H.; JUNG, B.; SUH, J.-C.; LEE, S.

    2002-10-01

    Non-cavitation noise of underwater propeller is numerically investigated. The main purpose is to analyze non-cavitation noise in various operating conditions with different configurations. The noise is predicted using time-domain acoustic analogy and boundary element method. The flow field is analyzed with potential-based panel method, and then the time-dependent pressure data are used as the input for Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings formulation to predict the farfield acoustics. Boundary integral equation method is also considered to investigate the effect of ducted propeller. Sound deflection and scattering effect on the duct is considered with the BEM. The governing equations are based on the assumption that all acoustic pressure is linear. A scattering approach is applied in which the acoustic pressure field is split into the known incident component and the unknown scattered component. Noise prediction results are presented for single propeller and ducted propeller in non-uniform flow conditions similar to real situation. The investigation reveals that the effect of a duct on the acoustic performance propeller is small in the far field under non-cavitating situations since the noise directivities of single and ducted propellers are almost the same. Only the high order BPFs are influenced by the existence of the duct.

  9. A jet engine noise measurement and prediction tool.

    PubMed

    Frendi, Abdelkader; Dorland, Wade D; Maung, Thein; Nesman, Tom; Wang, Ten-See

    2002-11-01

    In this paper, the authors describe an innovative jet engine noise measurement and prediction tool. The tool measures sound-pressure levels and frequency spectra in the far field. In addition, the tool provides predicted results while the measurements are being made. The predictions are based on an existing computational fluid dynamics database coupled to an empirical acoustic radiation model based on the far-field approximation to the Lighthill acoustic analogy. Preliminary tests of this acoustic measurement and prediction tool produced very encouraging results. PMID:12430815

  10. Broad-band Gaussian noise is most effective in improving motor performance and is most pleasant

    PubMed Central

    Trenado, Carlos; Mikuli?, Areh; Manjarrez, Elias; Mendez-Balbuena, Ignacio; Schulte-Mönting, Jürgen; Huethe, Frank; Hepp-Reymond, Marie-Claude; Kristeva, Rumyana

    2014-01-01

    Modern attempts to improve human performance focus on stochastic resonance (SR). SR is a phenomenon in non-linear systems characterized by a response increase of the system induced by a particular level of input noise. Recently, we reported that an optimum level of 0–15 Hz Gaussian noise applied to the human index finger improved static isometric force compensation. A possible explanation was a better sensorimotor integration caused by increase in sensitivity of peripheral receptors and/or of internal SR. The present study in 10 subjects compares SR effects in the performance of the same motor task and on pleasantness, by applying three Gaussian noises chosen on the sensitivity of the fingertip receptors (0–15 Hz mostly for Merkel receptors, 250–300 Hz for Pacini corpuscles and 0–300 Hz for all). We document that only the 0–300 Hz noise induced SR effect during the transitory phase of the task. In contrast, the motor performance was improved during the stationary phase for all three noise frequency bandwidths. This improvement was stronger for 0–300 Hz and 250–300 Hz than for 0–15 Hz noise. Further, we found higher degree of pleasantness for 0–300 Hz and 250–300 Hz noise bandwidths than for 0–15 Hz. Thus, we show that the most appropriate Gaussian noise that could be used in haptic gloves is the 0–300 Hz, as it improved motor performance during both stationary and transitory phases. In addition, this noise had the highest degree of pleasantness and thus reveals that the glabrous skin can also forward pleasant sensations. PMID:24550806

  11. Prediction of Jet Noise Shielding with Forward Flight Salvador Mayoral

    E-print Network

    Papamoschou, Dimitri

    driven by low-noise considerations. Accurate and efficient prediction tools that can provide design ( ) = acoustic fluctuation component ( ) = axial Fourier transform ( ) = transformed domain I. Introduction The acoustics of airframe-propulsion integration are gaining attention as aircraft design is increasingly being

  12. NASTRAN application for the prediction of aircraft interior noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marulo, Francesco; Beyer, Todd B.

    1987-01-01

    The application of a structural-acoustic analogy within the NASTRAN finite element program for the prediction of aircraft interior noise is presented. Some refinements of the method, which reduce the amount of computation required for large, complex structures, are discussed. Also, further improvements are proposed and preliminary comparisons with structural and acoustic modal data obtained for a large, composite cylinder are presented.

  13. MJO empirical modeling and improved prediction by "Past Noise Forecasting"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondrashov, D. A.; Chekroun, M.; Robertson, A. W.; Ghil, M.

    2011-12-01

    The Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) is the dominant mode of intraseasonal variability in tropics and plays an important role in global climate. Here we presents modeling and prediction study of MJO by using Empirical Model Reduction (EMR). EMR is a methodology for constructing stochastic models based on the observed evolution of selected climate fields; these models represent unresolved processes as multivariate, spatially correlated stochastic forcing. In EMR, multiple polynomial regression is used to estimate the nonlinear, deterministic propagator of the dynamics, as well as multi-level additive stochastic forcing -"noise", directly from the observational dataset. The EMR approach has been successfully applied on the seasonal-to-interannual time scale for real-time ENSO prediction (Kondrashov et al. 2005), as well as atmospheric midlatitude intraseasonal variability (Kondrashov et al. 2006,2010). In this study nonlinear (quadratic) with annual cycle, three-level EMR model was developed to model and predict leading pair of real-time multivariate Madden-Julian oscillation (RMM1,2) daily indices (June 1974- January 2009, http://cawcr.gov.au/staff/mwheeler/maproom/RMM/). The EMR model captures essential MJO statistical features, such as seasonal dependence, RMM1,2 autocorrelations and spectra. By using the "Past Noise Forecasting" (PNF) approach developed and successfully applied to improve long-term ENSO prediction in Chekroun et al. (2011), we are able to notably improve the cross-validated prediction skill of RMM indices- especially at lead times of 15-to-30 days. The EMR/PNF method has two steps: (i) select noise samples - or "snippets" - from the past noise, which have forced the EMR model to yield the MJO phase resembling the one at the the currently observed state; and (ii) use these "noise" snippets to create ensemble forecast of EMR model. The MJO phase identification is based on Singular Spectrum Analysis reconstruction of 30-60 day MJO cycle.

  14. [Perception of approaching and withdrawing sound sources following exposure to broadband noise. The effect of spatial domain].

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    The spatial specificity of auditory aftereffect was studied after a short-time adaptation (5 s) to the broadband noise (20-20000 Hz). Adapting stimuli were sequences of noise impulses with the constant amplitude, test stimuli--with the constant and changing amplitude: an increase of amplitude of impulses in sequence was perceived by listeners as approach of the sound source, while a decrease of amplitude--as its withdrawal. The experiments were performed in an anechoic chamber. The auditory aftereffect was estimated under the following conditions: the adapting and test stimuli were presented from the loudspeaker located at a distance of 1.1 m from the listeners (the subjectively near spatial domain) or 4.5 m from the listeners (the subjectively near spatial domain) or 4.5 m from the listeners (the subjectively far spatial domain); the adapting and test stimuli were presented from different distances. The obtained data showed that perception of the imitated movement of the sound source in both spatial domains had the common characteristic peculiarities that manifested themselves both under control conditions without adaptation and after adaptation to noise. In the absence of adaptation for both distances, an asymmetry of psychophysical curves was observed: the listeners estimated the test stimuli more often as approaching. The overestimation by listeners of test stimuli as the approaching ones was more pronounced at their presentation from the distance of 1.1 m, i. e., from the subjectively near spatial domain. After adaptation to noise the aftereffects showed spatial specificity in both spatial domains: they were observed only at the spatial coincidence of adapting and test stimuli and were absent at their separation. The aftereffects observed in two spatial domains were similar in direction and value: the listeners estimated the test stimuli more often as withdrawing as compared to control. The result of such aftereffect was restoration of the symmetry of psychometric curves and of the equiprobable estimation of direction of movement of test signals. PMID:25508938

  15. [Perception of approaching and withdrawing sound sources following exposure to broadband noise. The effect of spatial domain].

    PubMed

    Malinina, E S

    2014-01-01

    The spatial specificity of auditory aftereffect was studied after a short-time adaptation (5 s) to the broadband noise (20-20000 Hz). Adapting stimuli were sequences of noise impulses with the constant amplitude, test stimuli--with the constant and changing amplitude: an increase of amplitude of impulses in sequence was perceived by listeners as approach of the sound source, while a decrease of amplitude--as its withdrawal. The experiments were performed in an anechoic chamber. The auditory aftereffect was estimated under the following conditions: the adapting and test stimuli were presented from the loudspeaker located at a distance of 1.1 m from the listeners (the subjectively near spatial domain) or 4.5 m from the listeners (the subjectively near spatial domain) or 4.5 m from the listeners (the subjectively far spatial domain); the adapting and test stimuli were presented from different distances. The obtained data showed that perception of the imitated movement of the sound source in both spatial domains had the common characteristic peculiarities that manifested themselves both under control conditions without adaptation and after adaptation to noise. In the absence of adaptation for both distances, an asymmetry of psychophysical curves was observed: the listeners estimated the test stimuli more often as approaching. The overestimation by listeners of test stimuli as the approaching ones was more pronounced at their presentation from the distance of 1.1 m, i. e., from the subjectively near spatial domain. After adaptation to noise the aftereffects showed spatial specificity in both spatial domains: they were observed only at the spatial coincidence of adapting and test stimuli and were absent at their separation. The aftereffects observed in two spatial domains were similar in direction and value: the listeners estimated the test stimuli more often as withdrawing as compared to control. The result of such aftereffect was restoration of the symmetry of psychometric curves and of the equiprobable estimation of direction of movement of test signals. PMID:25486807

  16. Evaluation of approximate methods for the prediction of noise shielding by airframe components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahtye, W. F.; Mcculley, G.

    1980-01-01

    An evaluation of some approximate methods for the prediction of shielding of monochromatic sound and broadband noise by aircraft components is reported. Anechoic-chamber measurements of the shielding of a point source by various simple geometric shapes were made and the measured values compared with those calculated by the superposition of asymptotic closed-form solutions for the shielding by a semi-infinite plane barrier. The shields used in the measurements consisted of rectangular plates, a circular cylinder, and a rectangular plate attached to the cylinder to simulate a wing-body combination. The normalized frequency, defined as a product of the acoustic wave number and either the plate width or cylinder diameter, ranged from 4.6 to 114. Microphone traverses in front of the rectangular plates and cylinders generally showed a series of diffraction bands that matched those predicted by the approximate methods, except for differences in the magnitudes of the attenuation minima which can be attributed to experimental inaccuracies. The shielding of wing-body combinations was predicted by modifications of the approximations used for rectangular and cylindrical shielding. Although the approximations failed to predict diffraction patterns in certain regions, they did predict the average level of wing-body shielding with an average deviation of less than 3 dB.

  17. A new approach to complete aircraft landing gear noise prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, Leonard V.

    This thesis describes a new landing gear noise prediction system developed at The Pennsylvania State University, called Landing Gear Model and Acoustic Prediction code (LGMAP). LGMAP is used to predict the noise of an isolated or installed landing gear geometry. The predictions include several techniques to approximate the aeroacoustic and aerodynamic interactions of landing gear noise generation. These include (1) a method for approximating the shielding of noise caused by the landing gear geometry, (2) accounting for local flow variations due to the wing geometry, (3) the interaction of the landing gear wake with high-lift devices, and (4) a method for estimating the effect of gross landing gear design changes on local flow and acoustic radiation. The LGMAP aeroacoustic prediction system has been created to predict the noise generated by a given landing gear. The landing gear is modeled as a set of simple components that represent individual parts of the structure. Each component, ranging from large to small, is represented by a simple geometric shape and the unsteady flow on the component is modeled based on an individual characteristic length, local flow velocity, and the turbulent flow environment. A small set of universal models is developed and applied to a large range of similar components. These universal models, combined with the actual component geometry and local environment, give a unique loading spectrum and acoustic field for each component. Then, the sum of all the individual components in the complete configuration is used to model the high level of geometric complexity typical of current aircraft undercarriage designs. A line of sight shielding algorithm based on scattering by a two-dimensional cylinder approximates the effect of acoustic shielding caused by the landing gear. Using the scattering from a cylinder in two-dimensions at an observer position directly behind the cylinder, LGMAP is able to estimate the reduction in noise due to shielding by the landing gear geometry. This thesis compares predictions with data from a recent wind tunnel experiment conducted at NASA Langley Research Center, and demonstrates that including the acoustic scattering can improve the predictions by LGMAP at all observer positions. In this way, LGMAP provides more information about the actual noise propagation than simple empirical schemes. Two-dimensional FLUENT calculations of approximate wing cross-sections are used by LGMAP to compute the change in noise due to the change in local flow velocity in the vicinity of the landing gear due to circulation around the wing. By varying angle of attack and flap deflection angle in the CFD calculations, LGMAP is able to predict the noise level change due to the change in local flow velocity in the landing gear vicinity. A brief trade study is performed on the angle of attack of the wing and flap deflection angle of the flap system. It is shown that increasing the angle of attack or flap deflection angle reduces the flow velocity in the vicinity of the landing gear, and therefore the predicted noise. Predictions demonstrate the ability of the prediction system to quickly estimate the change in landing gear noise caused by a change in wing configuration. A three-dimensional immersed boundary CFD calculation of simplified landing gear geometries provides relatively quick estimates of the mean flow around the landing gear. The mean flow calculation provides the landing gear wake geometry for the prediction of trailing edge noise associated with the interaction of the landing gear wake with the high lift devices. Using wind tunnel experiments that relate turbulent intensity to wake size and the Ffowcs Williams and Hall trailing edge noise equation for the acoustic calculation, LGMAP is able to predict the landing gear wake generated trailing edge noise. In this manner, LGMAP includes the effect of the interaction of the landing gear's wake with the wing/flap system on the radiated noise. The final prediction technique implemented includes local flow calculations of a landing gear wi

  18. Predicting Noise From Aircraft Turbine-Engine Combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gliebe, P.; Mani, R.; Salamah, S.; Coffin, R.; Mehta, Jayesh

    2005-01-01

    COMBUSTOR and CNOISE are computer codes that predict far-field noise that originates in the combustors of modern aircraft turbine engines -- especially modern, low-gaseous-emission engines, the combustors of which sometimes generate several decibels more noise than do the combustors of older turbine engines. COMBUSTOR implements an empirical model of combustor noise derived from correlations between engine-noise data and operational and geometric parameters, and was developed from databases of measurements of acoustic emissions of engines. CNOISE implements an analytical and computational model of the propagation of combustor temperature fluctuations (hot spots) through downstream turbine stages. Such hot spots are known to give rise to far-field noise. CNOISE is expected to be helpful in determining why low-emission combustors are sometimes noisier than older ones, to provide guidance for refining the empirical correlation model embodied in the COMBUSTOR code, and to provide insight on how to vary downstream turbinestage geometry to reduce the contribution of hot spots to far-field noise.

  19. Predicting speech intelligibility in noise for hearing-critical jobs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soli, Sigfrid D.; Laroche, Chantal; Giguere, Christian

    2003-10-01

    Many jobs require auditory abilities such as speech communication, sound localization, and sound detection. An employee for whom these abilities are impaired may constitute a safety risk for himself or herself, for fellow workers, and possibly for the general public. A number of methods have been used to predict these abilities from diagnostic measures of hearing (e.g., the pure-tone audiogram); however, these methods have not proved to be sufficiently accurate for predicting performance in the noise environments where hearing-critical jobs are performed. We have taken an alternative and potentially more accurate approach. A direct measure of speech intelligibility in noise, the Hearing in Noise Test (HINT), is instead used to screen individuals. The screening criteria are validated by establishing the empirical relationship between the HINT score and the auditory abilities of the individual, as measured in laboratory recreations of real-world workplace noise environments. The psychometric properties of the HINT enable screening of individuals with an acceptable amount of error. In this presentation, we will describe the predictive model and report the results of field measurements and laboratory studies used to provide empirical validation of the model. [Work supported by Fisheries and Oceans Canada.

  20. New algorithms for the detection and elimination of sine waves and other narrow-band signals in the presence of broadband signals and noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soderstrand, Michael A.; Rangarao, K. V.; Loomis, H. H.

    1992-10-01

    Four different classes of adaptive signal cancelers can be used to eliminate narrow-band interference from a broadband signal: (1) cascaded second-order notch filters; (2) high-order in-line notch filters; (3) second-order bandpass noise cancelers; and (4) high-order bandpass noise cancelers. Of the four, a structure based on second-order bandpass filters used as signal cancelers is found to perform better than the other structures. An adaptive algorithm for these filters has been proposed. The structure can be reduced in hardware complexity without degrading performance using a new adaptive algorithm that out-performs any of the other known structures or algorithms. This new structure is particularly suited to the elimination of narrow-band interference in broadband Bi-Phase Shift-Key (BPSK) signals with and without background noise.

  1. Jet Engine Noise Generation, Prediction and Control. Chapter 86

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Dennis L.; Envia, Edmane

    2004-01-01

    Aircraft noise has been a problem near airports for many years. It is a quality of life issue that impacts millions of people around the world. Solving this problem has been the principal goal of noise reduction research that began when commercial jet travel became a reality. While progress has been made in reducing both airframe and engine noise, historically, most of the aircraft noise reduction efforts have concentrated on the engines. This was most evident during the 1950 s and 1960 s when turbojet engines were in wide use. This type of engine produces high velocity hot exhaust jets during takeoff generating a great deal of noise. While there are fewer commercial aircraft flying today with turbojet engines, supersonic aircraft including high performance military aircraft use engines with similar exhaust flow characteristics. The Pratt & Whitney F100-PW-229, pictured in Figure la, is an example of an engine that powers the F-15 and F-16 fighter jets. The turbofan engine was developed for subsonic transports, which in addition to better fuel efficiency also helped mitigate engine noise by reducing the jet exhaust velocity. These engines were introduced in the late 1960 s and power most of the commercial fleet today. Over the years, the bypass ratio (that is the ratio of the mass flow through the fan bypass duct to the mass flow through the engine core) has increased to values approaching 9 for modern turbofans such as the General Electric s GE-90 engine (Figure lb). The benefits to noise reduction for high bypass ratio (HPBR) engines are derived from lowering the core jet velocity and temperature, and lowering the tip speed and pressure ratio of the fan, both of which are the consequences of the increase in bypass ratio. The HBPR engines are typically very large in diameter and can produce over 100,000 pounds of thrust for the largest engines. A third type of engine flying today is the turbo-shaft which is mainly used to power turboprop aircraft and helicopters. An example of this type of engine is shown in Figure IC, which is a schematic of the Honeywell T55 engine that powers the CH-47 Chinook helicopter. Since the noise from the propellers or helicopter rotors is usually dominant for turbo-shaft engines, less attention has been paid to these engines in so far as community noise considerations are concerned. This chapter will concentrate mostly on turbofan engine noise and will highlight common methods for their noise prediction and reduction.

  2. Structural Acoustic Prediction and Interior Noise Control Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathur, G. P.; Chin, C. L.; Simpson, M. A.; Lee, J. T.; Palumbo, Daniel L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This report documents the results of Task 14, "Structural Acoustic Prediction and Interior Noise Control Technology". The task was to evaluate the performance of tuned foam elements (termed Smart Foam) both analytically and experimentally. Results taken from a three-dimensional finite element model of an active, tuned foam element are presented. Measurements of sound absorption and sound transmission loss were taken using the model. These results agree well with published data. Experimental performance data were taken in Boeing's Interior Noise Test Facility where 12 smart foam elements were applied to a 757 sidewall. Several configurations were tested. Noise reductions of 5-10 dB were achieved over the 200-800 Hz bandwidth of the controller. Accelerometers mounted on the panel provided a good reference for the controller. Configurations with far-field error microphones outperformed near-field cases.

  3. Evaluation of actuator disk theory for predicting indirect combustion noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Ashish; Bodony, Daniel J.

    2013-02-01

    Indirect combustion noise is believed to be a key component of turbofan engine core noise, but existing experimental data have not been able to definitively determine its importance. Instead, actuator disk theory (ADT) as developed by Cumpsty and Marble [The interaction of entropy fluctuations with turbine blade rows; a mechanism of turbojet noise, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A 357 (1977) 323-344] is commonly used to estimate its contribution based on combustor exit conditions and changes in the mean flow across blade rows. The theory, which assumes planar propagation of acoustic, entropic, and vortical waves in the long wavelength limit, is assessed by comparing its predictions to those from two-dimensional compressible Euler calculations of idealized entropy disturbances interacting with a 1980s era NASA turbine stator. Both low-frequency planar waves of constant frequency and higher-frequency, localized entropy disturbances are considered, with the former being within ADT's range of applicability and the latter outside of it. It is found that ADT performs well for the cut-on acoustic modes generated by the entropy-blade interaction but its accuracy suffers for the cut-off acoustic modes, which could impact indirect combustion noise predictions for turbines with closely spaced blade rows.

  4. Computer program to predict noise of general aviation aircraft: User's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, J. A.; Barton, C. K.; Kisner, L. S.; Lyon, C. A.

    1982-01-01

    Program NOISE predicts General Aviation Aircraft far-field noise levels at FAA FAR Part 36 certification conditions. It will also predict near-field and cabin noise levels for turboprop aircraft and static engine component far-field noise levels.

  5. Towards the prediction of noise from jet engines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. L. Shur; P. R. Spalart; M. Kh. Strelets; A. K. Travin

    2003-01-01

    We are in the initial stages of development of a “non-empirical” numerical tool for jet-noise prediction in the airline industry, ultimately to treat complex nacelles and nozzles. The non-empirical demand leads to compressible large-eddy simulations, followed by post-processing to produce the far-field sound. Here we treat a simple cold jet with an axisymmetric geometry. The simulations leave out the subgrid-scale

  6. Noise Prediction of NASA SR2 Propeller in Transonic Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gennaro, Michele De; Caridi, Domenico; Nicola, Carlo De

    2010-09-01

    In this paper we propose a numerical approach for noise prediction of high-speed propellers for Turboprop applications. It is based on a RANS approach for aerodynamic simulation coupled with Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FW-H) Acoustic Analogy for propeller noise prediction. The test-case geometry adopted for this study is the 8-bladed NASA SR2 transonic cruise propeller, and simulated Sound Pressure Levels (SPL) have been compared with experimental data available from Wind Tunnel and Flight Tests for different microphone locations in a range of Mach numbers between 0.78 and 0.85 and rotational velocities between 7000 and 9000 rpm. Results show the ability of this approach to predict noise to within a few dB of experimental data. Moreover corrections are provided to be applied to acoustic numerical results in order for them to be compared with Wind Tunnel and Flight Test experimental data, as well computational grid requirements and guidelines in order to perform complete aerodynamic and aeroacoustic calculations with highly competitive computational cost.

  7. Broadband measurement of coating thermal noise in rigid Fabry–Pérot cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalermsongsak, Tara; Seifert, Frank; Hall, Evan D.; Arai, Koji; Gustafson, Eric K.; Adhikari, Rana X.

    2015-02-01

    We report on the relative length fluctuation of two fixed-spacer Fabry–Pérot cavities with mirrors fabricated from silica/tantala dielectric coatings on fused silica substrates. By locking a laser to each cavity and reading out the beat note \\hat?={?1}-{?2} of the transmitted beams, we find that, for frequencies from 10 Hz to 1 kHz, the power spectral density of beat note fluctuation is {{S}{\\hat{?}}}(f)={{?ft(0.5\\text{Hz}\\right)}2}/f . By careful budgeting of noise sources contributing to the beat note, we find that our measurement is consistent with the fluctuation in this band being dominated by the Brownian noise of the mirror coatings. Fitting for the coating loss angle ?c, we find it equal to 4 × 10?4. We then use a Bayesian analysis to combine our measurement with previous observations, and thereby extract estimates for the individual loss angles of the silica and tantala constituents of these coatings. With minor upgrades, the testbed described in this article can be used in the future to measure the length noise of cavities formed with novel mirror coating materials and geometries.

  8. Predicting Rocket or Jet Noise in Real Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frendi, Kader

    2007-01-01

    A semi-empirical theoretical model and a C++ computer program that implements the model have been developed for use in predicting the noise generated by a rocket or jet engine. The computer program, entitled the Realtime Rocket and Jet Engine Noise Analysis and Prediction Software, is one of two main subsystems of the Acoustic Prediction/Measurement Tool, which comprises software, acoustic instrumentation, and electronic hardware combined to afford integrated capabilities for real-time prediction and measurement of noise emitted by rocket and jet engines. [The other main subsystem, consisting largely of acoustic instrumentation and electronic hardware, is described in Wireless Acoustic Measurement System, which appears elsewhere in this section.] The theoretical model was derived from the fundamental laws of fluid mechanics, as first was done by M. J. Lighthill in his now famous theory of aerodynamically generated sound. The far-field approximation of the Lighthill theory is incorporated into this model. Many other contributions from various researchers have also been introduced into the model. The model accounts for two noise components: shear noise and self noise. The final result of the model is expressed in terms of a volume integral of the acoustic intensities attributable to these two components, subject to various directivity coefficients. The computer program was written to solve the volume integral. The inputs required by the program are two data files from a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of the flow of interest: the computational-grid file and the solution file. The CFD solution should be one that has been obtained for conditions that closely approximate those of an experimental test that is yet to be performed. In the current state of development of the model and software, it is recommended that the observation points lie along a radius at an angle >60 from the jet axis. The software provides, and is driven via, a graphical user interface, which facilitates its use. Optionally, the program accepts additional input in the form of data on the measured sound pressure level as a function of frequency at a given far-field location, preferably at an angle of 90 from the jet axis. The user is prompted to use default empirical constants or to choose constants based the measurement data. The user can view the results and compare them with other computational or experimental data. Once satisfied with the results, the user can save a graph of the results in a file that can be imported into documents.

  9. Noise prediction of a subsonic turbulent round jet using the lattice-Boltzmann method

    PubMed Central

    Lew, Phoi-Tack; Mongeau, Luc; Lyrintzis, Anastasios

    2010-01-01

    The lattice-Boltzmann method (LBM) was used to study the far-field noise generated from a Mach, Mj=0.4, unheated turbulent axisymmetric jet. A commercial code based on the LBM kernel was used to simulate the turbulent flow exhausting from a pipe which is 10 jet radii in length. Near-field flow results such as jet centerline velocity decay rates and turbulence intensities were in agreement with experimental results and results from comparable LES studies. The predicted far field sound pressure levels were within 2 dB from published experimental results. Weak unphysical tones were present at high frequency in the computed radiated sound pressure spectra. These tones are believed to be due to spurious sound wave reflections at boundaries between regions of varying voxel resolution. These “VR tones” did not appear to bias the underlying broadband noise spectrum, and they did not affect the overall levels significantly. The LBM appears to be a viable approach, comparable in accuracy to large eddy simulations, for the problem considered. The main advantages of this approach over Navier–Stokes based finite difference schemes may be a reduced computational cost, ease of including the nozzle in the computational domain, and ease of investigating nozzles with complex shapes. PMID:20815448

  10. Prediction of Turbulent Jet Mixing Noise Reduction by Water Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandula, Max

    2008-01-01

    A one-dimensional control volume formulation is developed for the determination of jet mixing noise reduction due to water injection. The analysis starts from the conservation of mass, momentum and energy for the confrol volume, and introduces the concept of effective jet parameters (jet temperature, jet velocity and jet Mach number). It is shown that the water to jet mass flow rate ratio is an important parameter characterizing the jet noise reduction on account of gas-to-droplet momentum and heat transfer. Two independent dimensionless invariant groups are postulated, and provide the necessary relations for the droplet size and droplet Reynolds number. Results are presented illustrating the effect of mass flow rate ratio on the jet mixing noise reduction for a range of jet Mach number and jet Reynolds number. Predictions from the model show satisfactory comparison with available test data on perfectly expanded hot supersonic jets. The results suggest that significant noise reductions can be achieved at increased flow rate ratios.

  11. Jet Mixing Noise Scaling Laws SHJAR Data Vs. Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khavaran, Abbas; Bridges, James

    2008-01-01

    High quality jet noise spectral data measured at the anechoic dome at the NASA Glenn Research Center is used to examine a number of jet noise scaling laws. Configurations considered in the present study consist of convergent as well as convergent-divergent axisymmetric nozzles. The spectral measurements are shown in narrow band and cover 8193 equally spaced points in a typical Strouhal number range of (0.01 10.0). Measurements are reported as lossless (i.e. atmospheric attenuation is added to as-measured data), and at 24 equally spaced angles (50deg to 165deg) on a 100-diameter arc. Following the work of Viswanathan [Ref. 1], velocity power laws are derived using a least square fit on spectral power density as a function of jet temperature and observer angle. The goodness of the fit is studied at each angle, and alternative relationships are proposed to improve the spectral collapse when certain conditions are met. On the application side, power laws are extremely useful in identifying components from various noise generation mechanisms. From this analysis, jet noise prediction tools can be developed with physics derived from the different spectral components.

  12. Prediction models for the acoustic performance of noise barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Hon Yiu

    Noise barriers are the common acoustic measures which are used to minimize the disturbance of traffic noise to residents. It is essential to have an accurate prediction scheme for barrier designs. The main objectives in this thesis are to develop prediction schemes for present barrier problems provided that the prediction schemes shall have a good balance between prediction accuracy and computational efficiency. A study of the prediction models for different types of barriers has been investigated. Gaps are found in some new built barriers. The gaps are left in barriers for emergency access and maintenance for instance. The presence of gaps may significantly reduce the overall insertion loss of a barrier. In contrast, small gaps on a barrier are reported as a preferential frequency filters which enhance the insertion loss. However, no simple computational schemes are available to predict the effects of the barrier gaps. The first addressed research topic is barrier leakage. An approximate boundary integral method is used to model the barrier leakage problems due to horizontal and vertical gaps. The second research topic is to predict the sound levels behind tilted barriers and cranked barriers of finite length. The theories on sound propagation inside wedge are introduced to approximate boundary integral method for accounting the multiple reflections of sound between the barrier surfaces and the ground surface. It is shown that teeth top barriers can significantly improve the barrier performance. Lastly, an improved scheme of in-situ determination of barrier performance has been developed. The theories and formulae proposed in this thesis are validated by conducting indoor experiments in an anechoic chamber, performing full scaled outdoor measurements, and comparing to benchmark numerical schemes. The proposed theories are shown to be accurate and useful to encounter the addressed problems. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  13. An unsteady aerodynamic formulation for efficient rotor tonal noise prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gennaretti, M.; Testa, C.; Bernardini, G.

    2013-12-01

    An aerodynamic/aeroacoustic solution methodology for predction of tonal noise emitted by helicopter rotors and propellers is presented. It is particularly suited for configurations dominated by localized, high-frequency inflow velocity fields as those generated by blade-vortex interactions. The unsteady pressure distributions are determined by the sectional, frequency-domain Küssner-Schwarz formulation, with downwash including the wake inflow velocity predicted by a three-dimensional, unsteady, panel-method formulation suited for the analysis of rotors operating in complex aerodynamic environments. The radiated noise is predicted through solution of the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equation. The proposed approach yields a computationally efficient solution procedure that may be particularly useful in preliminary design/multidisciplinary optimization applications. It is validated through comparisons with solutions that apply the airloads directly evaluated by the time-marching, panel-method formulation. The results are provided in terms of blade loads, noise signatures and sound pressure level contours. An estimation of the computational efficiency of the proposed solution process is also presented.

  14. Unstructured CFD and Noise Prediction Methods for Propulsion Airframe Aeroacoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pao, S. Paul; Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S.; Campbell, Richard L.; Hunter, Craig A.; Massey, Steven J.; Elmiligui, Alaa A.

    2006-01-01

    Using unstructured mesh CFD methods for Propulsion Airframe Aeroacoustics (PAA) analysis has the distinct advantage of precise and fast computational mesh generation for complex propulsion and airframe integration arrangements that include engine inlet, exhaust nozzles, pylon, wing, flaps, and flap deployment mechanical parts. However, accurate solution values of shear layer velocity, temperature and turbulence are extremely important for evaluating the usually small noise differentials of potential applications to commercial transport aircraft propulsion integration. This paper describes a set of calibration computations for an isolated separate flow bypass ratio five engine nozzle model and the same nozzle system with a pylon. These configurations have measured data along with prior CFD solutions and noise predictions using a proven structured mesh method, which can be used for comparison to the unstructured mesh solutions obtained in this investigation. This numerical investigation utilized the TetrUSS system that includes a Navier-Stokes solver, the associated unstructured mesh generation tools, post-processing utilities, plus some recently added enhancements to the system. New features necessary for this study include the addition of two equation turbulence models to the USM3D code, an h-refinement utility to enhance mesh density in the shear mixing region, and a flow adaptive mesh redistribution method. In addition, a computational procedure was developed to optimize both solution accuracy and mesh economy. Noise predictions were completed using an unstructured mesh version of the JeT3D code.

  15. Prediction of the far field noise from wind energy farms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, K. P.; Hubbard, H. H.

    1986-01-01

    The basic physical factors involved in making predictions of wind turbine noise and an approach which allows for differences in the machines, the wind energy farm configurations and propagation conditions are reviewed. Example calculations to illustrate the sensitivity of the radiated noise to such variables as machine size, spacing and numbers, and such atmosphere variables as absorption and wind direction are presented. It is found that calculated far field distances to particular sound level contours are greater for lower values of atmospheric absorption, for a larger total number of machines, for additional rows of machines and for more powerful machines. At short and intermediate distances, higher sound pressure levels are calculated for closer machine spacings, for more powerful machines, for longer row lengths and for closer row spacings.

  16. Broadband Seismic Analyses of the Crust and Noise Sources in Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Luyi

    Cross-correlation of continuous seismic recordings has been proven effective in extracting the Green's function between two seismic stations. Travel-time and waveform source migration calculations jointly suggest a persistent noise source near Lesser Slave Lake (LSL), a large ice-covered lake in Alberta, Canada, during winter months. Subspace inversions of effective Green's functions from five narrow frequency bands (0.002-0.2 Hz) reveal low velocities in the upper crust beneath Alberta basin, which indicates strong effects from the thick platform sedimentary cover. Consistently low velocities are also observed beneath Wabamun domain but the areal coverage is considerably smaller than the published domain boundaries. The lower-crustal velocities beneath southern Loverna Block is 10% faster than the regional average. As the possible remnant cratonic core of the Hearne province, this northeast-striking anomaly extends to the western part of Medicine Hat Block and contributes to a strong east-west structural gradient in the latter domain.

  17. Towards Full Aircraft Airframe Noise Prediction: Lattice Boltzmann Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Fares, Ehab; Casalino, Damiano

    2014-01-01

    Computational results for an 18%-scale, semi-span Gulfstream aircraft model are presented. Exa Corporation's lattice Boltzmann PowerFLOW(trademark) solver was used to perform time-dependent simulations of the flow field associated with this high-fidelity aircraft model. The simulations were obtained for free-air at a Mach number of 0.2 with the flap deflected at 39 deg (landing configuration). We focused on accurately predicting the prominent noise sources at the flap tips and main landing gear for the two baseline configurations, namely, landing flap setting without and with gear deployed. Capitalizing on the inherently transient nature of the lattice Boltzmann formulation, the complex time-dependent flow features associated with the flap were resolved very accurately and efficiently. To properly simulate the noise sources over a broad frequency range, the tailored grid was very dense near the flap inboard and outboard tips. Extensive comparison of the computed time-averaged and unsteady surface pressures with wind tunnel measurements showed excellent agreement for the global aerodynamic characteristics and the local flow field at the flap inboard and outboard tips and the main landing gear. In particular, the computed fluctuating surface pressure field for the flap agreed well with the measurements in both amplitude and frequency content, indicating that the prominent airframe noise sources at the tips were captured successfully. Gear-flap interaction effects were remarkably well predicted and were shown to affect only the inboard flap tip, altering the steady and unsteady pressure fields in that region. The simulated farfield noise spectra for both baseline configurations, obtained using a Ffowcs-Williams and Hawkings acoustic analogy approach, were shown to be in close agreement with measured values.

  18. Signal, noise, and bias for a broadband, division-of-amplitude Stokes polarimeter.

    PubMed

    Tyler, David W; Mudge, Jason D

    2010-08-16

    We analyze estimation error as a function of spectral bandwidth for division-of-amplitude (DoAm) Stokes polarimeters. Our approach allows quantitative assessment of the competing effects of noise and deterministic error, or bias, as bandwidth is varied.We use the signal-to-rms error (SRR) as a metric. Rather than calculating the SRR of the estimated Stokes parameters themselves, we use the singular-value decomposition to calculate the SRRs of the coefficients of the measured data vector projected onto the measurement matrix left singular vectors.We argue that calculating the SRRs for left singular vector coefficients will allow development of reconstruction filters to minimize Stokes estimation error. For the example case of a source with constant polarization over a relatively wide band, we show that as the spectral filter bandwidth is increased to include wavelengths significantly different than the design wavelength, the SRRs of the estimated left singular vector coefficients will a.) increase monotonically if relatively few photo-detection events (PDEs) are recorded, b.) after a sharp peak close to the design wavelength, decrease monotonically if relatively many PDEs are recorded, and c.) have well-defined maxima for nominal PDE counts. Given some idea of the source brightness relative to detector noise, one can specify a spectral filter bandwidth minimizing the variance and bias effects and optimizing Stokes parameter estimation. Our approach also allows one to specify the bandwidth over which the response of "achromatic" optics must be reasonably invariant with wavelength for rms Stokes estimation error to remain below some desired maximum. Finally, we point out that our method can be generalized not only to other types of polarimeters, but also to any sensing scheme that can be represented by a linear system for limiting values of a certain parameter. PMID:20721188

  19. Measurements and Modeling of Noise on 22.9kV Medium-Voltage Underground Power Line for Broadband Power Line Communication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seungjoon Lee; Donghwan Shin; Yonghwa Kim; Jaejo Lee; Kihwan Eom

    2010-01-01

    \\u000a This paper proposed the measurements and modeling of noise on the 22.9-kV Medium-Voltage (MV) underground power distribution\\u000a cable for Broadband Power Line Communication (BPLC). The proposed measurement system was composed of inductive coupler and\\u000a Digital Phosphor Oscilloscope (DPO). The measurement noise data was obtained from thirty-two pad mounted transformers in the\\u000a test field located in Choji area of Ansan city.

  20. Improving long-term ENSO prediction by using ``weather'' noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondrashov, D. A.; Chekroun, M.; Ghil, M.

    2010-12-01

    The El-Niño/Southern-Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon dominates interannual climate signals in and around the Tropical Pacific Ocean and affects the atmospheric circulation and air-sea interaction over many parts of the globe. In particular, these effects are significant during ENSO’s extreme phases, El Niño and La Niña, and include large anomalies in rainfall and temperatures. In practice, accurate long-term forecasting of ENSO beyond 6 months remains a challenge for current state-of-the art statistical, as well as dynamical models. Kondrashov et al. (2005) developed an Empirical Model Reduction (EMR) model of ENSO based on monthly time series of sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in a tropical belt spanning the three major ocean basins. EMR is a methodology for constructing stochastic models based on the observed evolution of selected climate fields; these models represent unresolved processes (“weather” noise) as multivariate, spatially correlated stochastic forcing. In EMR, multiple polynomial regression is used to estimate the nonlinear, deterministic propagator of the dynamics, as well as multi-level additive stochastic forcing directly from the SST dataset. The EMR-ENSO model has competitive forecast capabilities, which are due to its nonlinear dynamical operator’s ability to capture ENSO’s leading quasi-quadrennial and quasi-biennial oscillatory modes of low-frequency variability (LFV). We demonstrate here a new method for improving LFV forecasting based on estimating the path of the weather noise by an EMR-ENSO model. The method (i) selects samples --- or ``snippets" --- of the noise from past LFV phases that resemble the one occurring at the start of the forecast; and (ii) based on this selection, uses appropriate noise snippets to force the model into the future. The domain of validity of this procedure depends on the nature of the model's pathwise response to noise perturbations; it is shown numerically that the EMR-ENSO model's response to such perturbations is linear on interannual time scales. In the cross-validated hindcast experiments, the method exhibits significantly better prediction skill at 6--16 months lead time for the Niño-3 index and the global SST field, when compared with standard EMR-ENSO model prediction based on a large ensemble of arbitrary realizations of the weather noise.

  1. Climb to Cruise Noise Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joshi, M. C.; Yamamoto, K. J.; Donelson, M. J.; Golub, R. A.; Rawls, J. W.

    1999-01-01

    A semi-empirical formula for the prediction of the broadband shock associated noise from rectangular supersonic jets in the fly-over plane has been developed. The predicted noise spectra compared very favorable with the measurement of Ponton, Manning and Seiner. Extension to side-line directions will be carried out.

  2. Interim prediction method for externally blown flap noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorsch, R. G.; Clark, B. J.; Reshotko, M.

    1975-01-01

    An interim procedure for predicting externally blown flap (EBF) noise spectra anywhere below a powered lift aircraft is presented. Both engine-under-the-wing and engine-over-the-wing EBF systems are included. The method uses data correlations for the overall sound pressure level based on nozzle exit area and exhaust velocity along with OASPL directivity curves and normalized one-third-octave spectra. Aircraft motion effects are included by taking into account the relative motion of the source with respect to the observer and the relative velocity effects on source strength.

  3. The Role of Instability Waves in Predicting Jet Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, Marvin E.; Handler, Louis M.

    2003-01-01

    Debate over whether linear instability waves play a role in the prediction of jet noise has been going on for many years. Parallel mean flow models, such as the one proposed by Lilley, usually neglect these waves because they cause the solution to become infinite. The present paper solves the true non-parallel acoustic equations for a two-dimensional shear layer by using a vector Greens function and assuming small mean flow spread rate. The results show that linear instability waves must be accounted for in order to construct a proper causal solution to the problem.

  4. Broadband Liner Optimization for the Source Diagnostic Test Fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nark, Douglas M.; Jones, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    The broadband component of fan noise has grown in relevance with the utilization of increased bypass ratio and advanced fan designs. Thus, while the attenuation of fan tones remains paramount, the ability to simultaneously reduce broadband fan noise levels has become more appealing. This paper describes a broadband acoustic liner optimization study for the scale model Source Diagnostic Test fan. Specifically, in-duct attenuation predictions with a statistical fan source model are used to obtain optimum impedance spectra over a number of flow conditions for three liner locations in the bypass duct. The predicted optimum impedance information is then used with acoustic liner modeling tools to design liners aimed at producing impedance spectra that most closely match the predicted optimum values. Design selection is based on an acceptance criterion that provides the ability to apply increased weighting to specific frequencies and/or operating conditions. Typical tonal liner designs targeting single frequencies at one operating condition are first produced to provide baseline performance information. These are followed by multiple broadband design approaches culminating in a broadband liner targeting the full range of frequencies and operating conditions. The broadband liner is found to satisfy the optimum impedance objectives much better than the tonal liner designs. In addition, the broadband liner is found to provide better attenuation than the tonal designs over the full range of frequencies and operating conditions considered. Thus, the current study successfully establishes a process for the initial design and evaluation of novel broadband liner concepts for complex engine configurations.

  5. Noise from Supersonic Coaxial Jets. Part 1; Mean Flow Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahl, Milo D.; Morris, Philip J.

    1997-01-01

    Recent theories for supersonic jet noise have used an instability wave noise generation model to predict radiated noise. This model requires a known mean flow that has typically been described by simple analytic functions for single jet mean flows. The mean flow of supersonic coaxial jets is not described easily in terms of analytic functions. To provide these profiles at all axial locations, a numerical scheme is developed to calculate the mean flow properties of a coaxial jet. The Reynolds-averaged, compressible, parabolic boundary layer equations are solved using a mixing length turbulence model. Empirical correlations are developed to account for the effects of velocity and temperature ratios and Mach number on the shear layer spreading. Both normal velocity profile and inverted velocity profile coaxial jets are considered. The mixing length model is modified in each case to obtain reasonable results when the two stream jet merges into a single fully developed jet. The mean flow calculations show both good qualitative and quantitative agreement with measurements in single and coaxial jet flows.

  6. Computational AeroAcoustics for Fan Noise Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Envia, Ed; Hixon, Ray; Dyson, Rodger; Huff, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    An overview of the current state-of-the-art in computational aeroacoustics as applied to fan noise prediction at NASA Glenn is presented. Results from recent modeling efforts using three dimensional inviscid formulations in both frequency and time domains are summarized. In particular, the application of a frequency domain method, called LINFLUX, to the computation of rotor-stator interaction tone noise is reviewed and the influence of the background inviscid flow on the acoustic results is analyzed. It has been shown that the noise levels are very sensitive to the gradients of the mean flow near the surface and that the correct computation of these gradients for highly loaded airfoils is especially problematic using an inviscid formulation. The ongoing development of a finite difference time marching code that is based on a sixth order compact scheme is also reviewed. Preliminary results from the nonlinear computation of a gust-airfoil interaction model problem demonstrate the fidelity and accuracy of this approach. Spatial and temporal features of the code as well as its multi-block nature are discussed. Finally, latest results from an ongoing effort in the area of arbitrarily high order methods are reviewed and technical challenges associated with implementing correct high order boundary conditions are discussed and possible strategies for addressing these challenges ore outlined.

  7. Method for predicting impulsive noise generated by wind turbine rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viterna, L. A.

    1982-01-01

    Large wind turbines can generate both broad band and impulsive noises. These noises can be controlled by proper choice of rotor design parameters such as rotor location with respect to the supporting tower, tower geometry and tip speed. A method was developed to calculate the impulsive noise generated when the wind turbine blade experiences air forces that are periodic functions of the rotational frequency. This phenomenon can occur when the blades operate in the wake of the support tower and the nonuniform velocity field near the ground due to wind shear. Results from this method were compared with measured sound spectra taken at locations of one to two rotor diameters from the DOE/NASA Mod-1 wind turbine. The calculated spectra generally agreed with the measured data in both the amplitude of the predominant harmonics and the roll of rate with frequency. Measured sound pressure levels far from the Mod-1 (15 rotor diameters), however, were higher than predicted. Simultaneous measurements in the near and far field indicated that the propagation effects could enhance the sound levels by more than 10 dB above that expected by spherical dispersion. These propagation effects are believed to be due to terrain and atmospheric characteristics of the Mod-1 site.

  8. Progress Toward Improving Jet Noise Predictions in Hot Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khavaran, Abbas; Kenzakowski, Donald C.

    2007-01-01

    An acoustic analogy methodology for improving noise predictions in hot round jets is presented. Past approaches have often neglected the impact of temperature fluctuations on the predicted sound spectral density, which could be significant for heated jets, and this has yielded noticeable acoustic under-predictions in such cases. The governing acoustic equations adopted here are a set of linearized, inhomogeneous Euler equations. These equations are combined into a single third order linear wave operator when the base flow is considered as a locally parallel mean flow. The remaining second-order fluctuations are regarded as the equivalent sources of sound and are modeled. It is shown that the hot jet effect may be introduced primarily through a fluctuating velocity/enthalpy term. Modeling this additional source requires specialized inputs from a RANS-based flowfield simulation. The information is supplied using an extension to a baseline two equation turbulence model that predicts total enthalpy variance in addition to the standard parameters. Preliminary application of this model to a series of unheated and heated subsonic jets shows significant improvement in the acoustic predictions at the 90 degree observer angle.

  9. Predictability of the coherent-noise model and its applications.

    PubMed

    Sarlis, N V; Christopoulos, S-R G

    2012-05-01

    We study the threshold distribution function of the coherent-noise model for the case of infinite number of agents. This function is piecewise constant with a finite number of steps n. The latter exhibits a 1/f behavior as a function of the order of occurrence of an avalanche and hence versus natural time. An analytic expression of the expectation value E(S) for the size S of the next avalanche is obtained and used for the prediction of the next avalanche. Apart from E(S), the number of steps n can also serve for this purpose. This enables the construction of a similar prediction scheme which can be applied to real earthquake aftershock data. PMID:23004732

  10. Auralization of Hybrid Wing Body Aircraft Flyover Noise from System Noise Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rizzi, Stephen A.; Aumann, Aric R.; Lopes, Leonvard V.; Burley, Casey L.

    2013-01-01

    System noise assessments of a state-of-the-art reference aircraft (similar to a Boeing 777-200ER with GE90-like turbofan engines) and several hybrid wing body (HWB) aircraft configurations were recently performed using NASA engine and aircraft system analysis tools. The HWB aircraft were sized to an equivalent mission as the reference aircraft and assessments were performed using measurements of airframe shielding from a series of propulsion airframe aeroacoustic experiments. The focus of this work is to auralize flyover noise from the reference aircraft and the best HWB configuration using source noise predictions and shielding data based largely on the earlier assessments. For each aircraft, three flyover conditions are auralized. These correspond to approach, sideline, and cutback operating states, but flown in straight and level flight trajectories. The auralizations are performed using synthesis and simulation tools developed at NASA. Audio and visual presentations are provided to allow the reader to experience the flyover from the perspective of a listener in the simulated environment.

  11. An introduction to high speed aircraft noise prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Mark R.

    1992-01-01

    The Aircraft Noise Prediction Program's High Speed Research prediction system (ANOPP-HSR) is introduced. This mini-manual is an introduction which gives a brief overview of the ANOPP system and the components of the HSR prediction method. ANOPP information resources are given. Twelve of the most common ANOPP-HSR control statements are described. Each control statement's purpose and format are stated and relevant examples are provided. More detailed examples of the use of the control statements are presented in the manual along with ten ANOPP-HSR templates. The purpose of the templates is to provide the user with working ANOPP-HSR programs which can be modified to serve particular prediction requirements. Also included in this manual is a brief discussion of common errors and how to solve these problems. The appendices include the following useful information: a summary of all ANOPP-HSR functional research modules, a data unit directory, a discussion of one of the more complex control statements, and input data unit and table examples.

  12. A Superior Kirchhoff Method for Aeroacoustic Noise Prediction: The Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings Equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brentner, Kenneth S.

    1997-01-01

    The prediction of aeroacoustic noise is important; all new aircraft must meet noise certification requirements. Local noise standards can be even more stringent. The NASA noise reduction goal is to reduce perceived noise levels by a factor of two in 10 years. The objective of this viewgraph presentation is to demonstrate the superiority of the FW-H approach over the Kirchoff method for aeroacoustics, both analytically and numerically.

  13. Fan Noise Source Diagnostic Test Computation of Rotor Wake Turbulence Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nallasamy, M.; Envia, E.; Thorp, S. A.; Shabbir, A.

    2002-01-01

    An important source mechanism of fan broadband noise is the interaction of rotor wake turbulence with the fan outlet guide vanes. A broadband noise model that utilizes computed rotor flow turbulence from a RANS code is used to predict fan broadband noise spectra. The noise model is employed to examine the broadband noise characteristics of the 22-inch Source Diagnostic Test fan rig for which broadband noise data were obtained in wind tunnel tests at the NASA Glenn Research Center. A 9-case matrix of three outlet guide vane configurations at three representative fan tip speeds are considered. For all cases inlet and exhaust acoustic power spectra are computed and compared with the measured spectra where possible. In general, the acoustic power levels and shape of the predicted spectra are in good agreement with the measured data. The predicted spectra show the experimentally observed trends with fan tip speed, vane count, and vane sweep. The results also demonstrate the validity of using CFD-based turbulence information for fan broadband noise calculations.

  14. Numerical method for predicting ship propeller cavitation noise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong-Kun Zhang; Ying Xiong

    2011-01-01

    During ship travels in high-velocity, propeller cavitation noise predominates in the radiated noise sources. However, experiential data regress method was use to predicate propeller cavitation noise in the past. In this article, propeller cavitation noise has been calculated by numerical computation method. From the engineering point of view, ship propeller has been disposed as a dipole bubble. Bubble volume pulse

  15. Auralization Architectures for NASA?s Next Generation Aircraft Noise Prediction Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rizzi, Stephen A.; Lopes, Leonard V.; Burley, Casey L.; Aumann, Aric R.

    2013-01-01

    Aircraft community noise is a significant concern due to continued growth in air traffic, increasingly stringent environmental goals, and operational limitations imposed by airport authorities. The assessment of human response to noise from future aircraft can only be afforded through laboratory testing using simulated flyover noise. Recent work by the authors demonstrated the ability to auralize predicted flyover noise for a state-of-the-art reference aircraft and a future hybrid wing body aircraft concept. This auralization used source noise predictions from NASA's Aircraft NOise Prediction Program (ANOPP) as input. The results from this process demonstrated that auralization based upon system noise predictions is consistent with, and complementary to, system noise predictions alone. To further develop and validate the auralization process, improvements to the interfaces between the synthesis capability and the system noise tools are required. This paper describes the key elements required for accurate noise synthesis and introduces auralization architectures for use with the next-generation ANOPP (ANOPP2). The architectures are built around a new auralization library and its associated Application Programming Interface (API) that utilize ANOPP2 APIs to access data required for auralization. The architectures are designed to make the process of auralizing flyover noise a common element of system noise prediction.

  16. The Role of Instability Waves in Predicting Jet Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, M. E.; Leib, S. J.

    2004-01-01

    There has been an ongoing debate about the role of linear instability waves in the prediction of jet noise. Parallel mean flow models, such as the one proposed by Lilley, usually neglect these waves because they cause the solution to become infinite. The resulting solution is then non-causal and can, therefore, be quite different from the true causal solution for the chaotic flows being considered here. The present paper solves the relevant acoustic equations for a non-parallel mean flow by using a vector Green s function approach and assuming the mean flow to be weakly non-parallel, i.e., assuming the spread rate to be small. It demonstrates that linear instability waves must be accounted for in order to construct a proper causal solution to the jet noise problem. . Recent experimental results (e.g., see Tam, Golebiowski, and Seiner,1996) show that the small angle spectra radiated by supersonic jets are quite different from those radiated at larger angles (say, at 90deg) and even exhibit dissimilar frequency scalings (i.e., they scale with Helmholtz number as opposed to Strouhal number). The present solution is (among other things )able to explain this rather puzzling experimental result.

  17. Broadband ocean bottom seismometer in the Gulf of Cadiz (offshore SW Iberia and NW of Moroccan margin): Characterization of ambient noise and tomographic model of the crustal structure.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corela, Carlos; Silveira, Graça; Matias, Luis; Schimmel, Martin; Geissler, Wolfram

    2013-04-01

    In this study we use the continuous data recording performed by 24 ocean bottom seismometers (OBS), wide band (BB), deployed in the Gulf of Cadiz in the framework of the NEAREST project from September 2007 to July of 2008 to study the ambient seismic noise recorded in the bottom of the ocean. Our goals are: i) to understand the instrument and the environmental conditions that control the observed seismic noise; ii) and to obtain reliable broadband surface wave dispersion measurements. The noise sources are investigated through the probability density functions (PDFs) of power spectral density (PSDs) which provides insights on the generation and propagating of seismic noise in the Gulf of Cadiz. We show the results of the Rayleigh wave group velocity tomography performed using ambient seismic noise observed on 24 broadband OBS in the Gulf of Cadiz and 7 broadband land stations south of Portugal. The time-series for the 11 months were cross-correlated to obtain empirical Rayleigh wave green's functions between the components OBS vertical-OBS vertical, OBS vertical-land station vertical, OBS hydrophone-OBS hydrophone and between OBS hydrophone-Land station vertical. The results are based on the analysis of two spectral bands corresponding to the primary (10-20s) and secondary (5-10s) microseism peak. The stack of the station-to-station cross correlograms was done to increase the signal-to-noise ratio. In addition to the usual stack, we have also have applied a phase-weighted stack to avoid local noise contamination and so enable the detection of weak coherent signals. These cross-correlograms enabled us to compute short-period surface-wave group-velocity measurements on interstation paths. We used these measurements to construct maps of Rayleigh-wave group-velocity lateral variations at different periods at the Gulf of Cadiz and south of Portugal. Despite the great difference in the crustal structure below the OBS (thin continental or oceanic type) and the land stations (typical continental crust, 30 km thick) we were able to derive high S/N cross-correlations between these two types of sensors. This study was co-sponsored by several projects namely the NEAREST FP6-2005-GLOBAL-4 (OJ 2005 C177/15), WILAS (PTDC/CTE-GIX/097946/2008), TOPOMED (TOPOEUROPE/0001/2007) and Pest OE/CTE/LA0019/2011.

  18. Towards an Airframe Noise Prediction Methodology: Survey of Current Approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farassat, Fereidoun; Casper, Jay H.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present a critical survey of the current airframe noise (AFN) prediction methodologies. Four methodologies are recognized. These are the fully analytic method, CFD combined with the acoustic analogy, the semi-empirical method and fully numerical method. It is argued that for the immediate need of the aircraft industry, the semi-empirical method based on recent high quality acoustic database is the best available method. The method based on CFD and the Ffowcs William- Hawkings (FW-H) equation with penetrable data surface (FW-Hpds ) has advanced considerably and much experience has been gained in its use. However, more research is needed in the near future particularly in the area of turbulence simulation. The fully numerical method will take longer to reach maturity. Based on the current trends, it is predicted that this method will eventually develop into the method of choice. Both the turbulence simulation and propagation methods need to develop more for this method to become useful. Nonetheless, the authors propose that the method based on a combination of numerical and analytical techniques, e.g., CFD combined with FW-H equation, should also be worked on. In this effort, the current symbolic algebra software will allow more analytical approaches to be incorporated into AFN prediction methods.

  19. Predicting Earthquake Response of Civil Structures from Ambient Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieto, G.; Lawrence, J. F.; Chung, A. I.; Kohler, M. D.

    2009-12-01

    Increased monitoring of civil structures for response to earthquake motions is fundamental for reducing seismic hazard. Seismic monitoring is difficult because typically only a few useful, intermediate to large earthquakes occur per decade near instrumented structures. Here we demonstrate that the impulse response function (IRF) of a multi-story building can be generated from ambient noise. Estimated shear-wave velocity, attenuation values, and resonance frequencies from the IRFs agree with previous estimates for the instrumented UCLA Factor building. The accuracy of the approach is demonstrated by predicting the Factor building’s response to an M4.2 earthquake. The methodology described here allows for rapid non-invasive determination of structural parameters from the IRFs within days and could be used as a new tool for stateof- health monitoring of civil structures (buildings, bridges, etc.) before and/or after major earthquakes.

  20. Broadband sub-millimeter wave amplifer module with 38dB gain and 8.3dB noise figure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkozy, S.; Leong, K.; Lai, R.; Leakey, R.; Yoshida, W.; Mei, X.; Lee, J.; Liu, P.-H.; Gorospe, B.; Deal, W. R.

    2011-05-01

    Broadband sub-millimeter wave technology has received significant attention for potential applications in security, medical, and military imaging. Despite theoretical advantages of reduced size, weight, and power compared to current millimeter-wave systems, sub-millimeter-wave systems are hampered by a fundamental lack of amplification with sufficient gain and noise figure properties. We report on the development of a sub-millimeter wave amplifier module as part of a broadband pixel operating from 300-350 GHz, biased off of a single 2V power supply. Over this frequency range, > 38 dB gain and < 8.3 dB noise figure are obtained and represent the current state-of-art performance capabilities. The prototype pixel chain consists of two WR3 waveguide amplifier blocks, and a horn antenna and diode detector. The low noise amplifier Sub-Millimeter-wave Monolithic Integrated Circuit (SMMIC) was originally developed under the DARPA SWIFT and THz Electronics programs and is based on sub 50 nm Indium Arsenide Composite Channel (IACC) transistor technology with a projected maximum oscillation frequency fmax > 1.0 THz. This development and demonstration may bring to life future sub-millimeter-wave and THz applications such as solutions to brown-out problems, ultra-high bandwidth satellite communication cross-links, and future planetary exploration missions.

  1. Small Engine Technology (SET) - Task 13 ANOPP Noise Prediction for Small Engines: Jet Noise Prediction Module, Wing Shielding Module, and System Studies Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lieber, Lysbeth; Golub, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This Final Report has been prepared by AlliedSignal Engines and Systems, Phoenix, Arizona, documenting work performed during the period May 1997 through June 1999, under the Small Engines Technology Program, Contract No. NAS3-27483, Task Order 13, ANOPP Noise Prediction for Small Engines. The report specifically covers the work performed under Subtasks 4, 5 and 6. Subtask 4 describes the application of a semi-empirical procedure for jet noise prediction, subtask 5 describes the development of a procedure to predict the effects of wing shielding, and subtask 6 describes the results of system studies of the benefits of the new noise technology on business and regional aircraft.

  2. Estimation and prediction of noise power based on variational Bayesian and adaptive ARMA time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jingyi; Li, Yonggui; Zhu, Yonggang; Li, Binwu

    2014-04-01

    Estimation and prediction of noise power are very important for communication anti-jamming and efficient allocation of spectrum resources in adaptive wireless communication and cognitive radio. In order to estimate and predict the time-varying noise power caused by natural factors and jamming in the high frequency channel, Variational Bayesian algorithm and adaptive ARMA time series are proposed. Through establishing the time-varying noise power model, which controlled by the noise variance rate, the noise power can be estimated with Variational Bayesian algorithm, and the results show that the estimation error is related to observation interval. What's more, through the analysis of the correlation characteristics of the estimation power, noise power can be predicted based on adaptive ARMA time series, and the results show that it will be available to predict the noise power in next 5 intervals with the proportional error less than 0.2.

  3. A study of the prediction of cruise noise and laminar flow control noise criteria for subsonic air transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swift, G.; Mungur, P.

    1979-01-01

    General procedures for the prediction of component noise levels incident upon airframe surfaces during cruise are developed. Contributing noise sources are those associated with the propulsion system, the airframe and the laminar flow control (LFC) system. Transformation procedures from the best prediction base of each noise source to the transonic cruise condition are established. Two approaches to LFC/acoustic criteria are developed. The first is a semi-empirical extension of the X-21 LFC/acoustic criteria to include sensitivity to the spectrum and directionality of the sound field. In the second, the more fundamental problem of how sound excites boundary layer disturbances is analyzed by deriving and solving an inhomogeneous Orr-Sommerfeld equation in which the source terms are proportional to the production and dissipation of sound induced fluctuating vorticity. Numerical solutions are obtained and compared with corresponding measurements. Recommendations are made to improve and validate both the cruise noise prediction methods and the LFC/acoustic criteria.

  4. A prediction of high-speed rotor noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purcell, Timothy W.

    1989-01-01

    A combined computational (CFD) and integral approach solves the acoustic pressure fields of two high-speed helicopter rotors. A CFD code supplies boundary data to a non-linear type of Kirchhoff integral formulation to find the far-field pressures. Direct calculations of pressures are given by the CFD code up to the sonic cylinder where the Kirchhoff method takes over. This paper shows predictions and measurements of High-Speed Impulsive (HSI) noise in hover for two different rotor geometries. One rotor has a conventional rectangular planform, while the other rotor is highly swept and tapered. The swept rotor analysis forms the majority of this paper. Test data from both rotors are shown and compared with predictions for a range of tip Mach numbers from .85 to .95 (including delocalization). The correlation with the near-field pressures from the straight bladed experiment is excellent and good to excellent correlation is seen for the far-field pressures from both experiments.

  5. The noise of jet aircraft flying with high speeds at low altitudes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan Boettcher; Ulf Michel

    1992-01-01

    Flyover noise measurements are evaluated for four different military jet aircraft types flying at low altitudes. Flight Mach numbers ranged from 0.5 to 0.9. The analysis shows that noise emission is likely caused by jet mixing and broadband shock associated noise. Results from novel prediction schemes for both noise sources are compared with the experimental data. It is demonstrated that

  6. Applications of aero-acoustics to wind turbine noise prediction and control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin V. Lowson

    1993-01-01

    Wind turbine noise generation mechanisms are essentially equivalent to the aero-acoustic mechanisms of other rotors, which have been studied in depth for many years. Basic sources for the wind turbine noise radiation process are defined, and their significance assessed. From the analysis, areas of potential improvement in wind turbine noise prediction are defined. Suggestions are made for approaches to wind

  7. A component-based model for aircraft landing gear noise prediction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yueping Guo

    2008-01-01

    This paper follows the general formulation of aircraft landing gear noise prediction to develop a component-based model, incorporating scaling laws of the theory of aerodynamic noise generation and correlations of these scaling laws with currently available test data. The method decomposes the landing gear noise into three spectral components, respectively, for the low, the mid and the high frequencies, which

  8. Towards Full Aircraft Airframe Noise Prediction: Detached Eddy Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Mineck, Raymond E.

    2014-01-01

    Results from a computational study on the aeroacoustic characteristics of an 18%-scale, semi-span Gulf-stream aircraft model are presented in this paper. NASA's FUN3D unstructured compressible Navier-Stokes solver was used to perform steady and unsteady simulations of the flow field associated with this high-fidelity aircraft model. Solutions were obtained for free-air at a Mach number of 0.2 with the flap deflected at 39 deg, with the main gear off and on (the two baseline configurations). Initially, the study focused on accurately predicting the prominent noise sources at both flap tips for the baseline configuration with deployed flap only. Building upon the experience gained from this initial effort, subsequent work involved the full landing configuration with both flap and main landing gear deployed. For the unsteady computations, we capitalized on the Detached Eddy Simulation capability of FUN3D to capture the complex time-dependent flow features associated with the flap and main gear. To resolve the noise sources over a broad frequency range, the tailored grid was very dense near the flap inboard and outboard tips and the region surrounding the gear. Extensive comparison of the computed steady and unsteady surface pressures with wind tunnel measurements showed good agreement for the global aerodynamic characteristics and the local flow field at the flap inboard tip. However, the computed pressure coefficients indicated that a zone of separated flow that forms in the vicinity of the outboard tip is larger in extent along the flap span and chord than measurements suggest. Computed farfield acoustic characteristics from a FW-H integral approach that used the simulated pressures on the model solid surface were in excellent agreement with corresponding measurements.

  9. ANOPP Landing Gear Noise Prediction Comparisons to Model-scale Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, Casey L.; Brooks, Thomas F.; Humphreys, William M., Jr.; Rawls, John W., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Aircraft NOise Prediction Program (ANOPP) includes two methods for computing the noise from landing gear: the "Fink" method and the "Guo" method. Both methods have been predominately validated and used to predict full-scale landing gear noise. The two methods are compared, and their ability to predict the noise for model-scale landing gear is investigated. Predictions are made using both the Fink and Guo methods and compared to measured acoustic data obtained for a high-fidelity, 6.3%-scale, Boeing 777 main landing gear. A process is developed by which full-scale predictions can be scaled to compare with model-scale data. The measurements were obtained in the NASA Langley Quiet Flow Facility for a range of Mach numbers at a large number of observer polar (flyover) and azimuthal (sideline) observer angles. Spectra and contours of the measured sound pressure levels as a function of polar and azimuthal angle characterize the directivity of landing gear noise. Comparisons of predicted noise spectra and contours from each ANOPP method are made. Both methods predict comparable amplitudes and trends for the flyover locations, but deviate at the sideline locations. Neither method fully captures the measured noise directivity. The availability of these measured data provides the opportunity to further understand and advance noise prediction capabilities, particularly for noise directivity.

  10. Prediction of Tohoku Seismic Catastrophe by Microseismic Noise Multi-Fractal Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyubushin, A.

    2011-12-01

    The analysis of low-frequency seismic noise multi-fractal properties from broadband network F-net in Japan allowed a hypothesis about approaching Japan Islands to a future seismic catastrophe to be formulated at the middle of 2008. The base for such a hypothesis was statistically significant decreasing of multi-fractal singularity spectrum support width mean value. The peculiarities of correlation coefficient estimate within 1 year time window between median values of singularity spectra support width and generalized Hurst exponent allowed to make a decision that starting from July of 2010 Japan come to the state of waiting strong earthquake. This prediction of Tohoku earthquake, initially with estimate of lower magnitude as 8.3 only (at the middle of 2008) and further on with estimate of the time beginning of waiting earthquake (from the middle of 2010) was published in advance in a number of scientific articles and abstracts on international conferences. The analysis of data after Tohoku earthquake indicates increasing probability of the 2nd strong earthquake with magnitude more than 8.5 starting from the middle of August 2011 within the rectangular domain with longitudes range 137-142 degrees and latitudes range 30-34 degrees which is characterized by relatively low values of singularity spectrum support width. Plotting the maps of singularity spectra support width within moving time window based on the time series from monitoring systems presents a new method of dynamic seismic hazard estimate.
    When and Were the prediction of Tohoku 2011 seismic catastrophe was published

  11. Cyclostationary spectral analysis for the measurement and prediction of wind turbine swishing noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheong, Cheolung; Joseph, Phillip

    2014-07-01

    This paper introduces cyclostationary spectral analysis as a new approach to analyzing and predicting the aerodynamic noise generated by wind turbines. This method is able to reveal new insights into the periodic character of the noise signal and is therefore ideally suited to the study of wind turbine noise. A new formulation is presented for the time variation of the noise spectrum due to wind turbines thereby providing insight into the character of the periodic variation in noise referred to as 'swishing'. The character and mechanism of swishing noise is analyzed in detail.

  12. Source Noise Modeling Efforts for Fan Noise in NASA Research Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Dennis L.

    2006-01-01

    There has been considerable progress made in fan noise prediction over the past 15 years. NASA has conducted and sponsored research that has improved both tone and broadband fan noise prediction methods. This presentation highlights progress in these areas with emphasis on rotor/stator interaction noise sources. Tone noise predictions are presented for an advanced prediction code called "LINFLUX". Comparisons with data are" included for individual fan duct modes. There has also been considerable work developing new fan broadband noise prediction codes and validation data from wind tunnel model tests. Results from several code validation exercises are presented that show improvement of predicted sound power levels. A summary is included with recommendations for future work.

  13. Validation of Aircraft Noise Prediction Models at Low Levels of Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Page, Juliet A.; Hobbs, Christopher M.; Plotkin, Kenneth J.; Stusnick, Eric; Shepherd, Kevin P. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Aircraft noise measurements were made at Denver International Airport for a period of four weeks. Detailed operational information was provided by airline operators which enabled noise levels to be predicted using the FAA's Integrated Noise Model. Several thrust prediction techniques were evaluated. Measured sound exposure levels for departure operations were found to be 4 to 10 dB higher than predicted, depending on the thrust prediction technique employed. Differences between measured and predicted levels are shown to be related to atmospheric conditions present at the aircraft altitude.

  14. Maneuvering Rotorcraft Noise Prediction: A New Code for a New Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brentner, Kenneth S.; Bres, Guillaume A.; Perez, Guillaume; Jones, Henry E.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the unique aspects of the development of an entirely new maneuver noise prediction code called PSU-WOPWOP. The main focus of the code is the aeroacoustic aspects of the maneuver noise problem, when the aeromechanical input data are provided (namely aircraft and blade motion, blade airloads). The PSU-WOPWOP noise prediction capability was developed for rotors in steady and transient maneuvering flight. Featuring an object-oriented design, the code allows great flexibility for complex rotor configuration and motion (including multiple rotors and full aircraft motion). The relative locations and number of hinges, flexures, and body motions can be arbitrarily specified to match the any specific rotorcraft. An analysis of algorithm efficiency is performed for maneuver noise prediction along with a description of the tradeoffs made specifically for the maneuvering noise problem. Noise predictions for the main rotor of a rotorcraft in steady descent, transient (arrested) descent, hover and a mild "pop-up" maneuver are demonstrated.

  15. New Computational Methods for the Prediction and Analysis of Helicopter Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strawn, Roger C.; Oliker, Leonid; Biswas, Rupak

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes several new methods to predict and analyze rotorcraft noise. These methods are: 1) a combined computational fluid dynamics and Kirchhoff scheme for far-field noise predictions, 2) parallel computer implementation of the Kirchhoff integrations, 3) audio and visual rendering of the computed acoustic predictions over large far-field regions, and 4) acoustic tracebacks to the Kirchhoff surface to pinpoint the sources of the rotor noise. The paper describes each method and presents sample results for three test cases. The first case consists of in-plane high-speed impulsive noise and the other two cases show idealized parallel and oblique blade-vortex interactions. The computed results show good agreement with available experimental data but convey much more information about the far-field noise propagation. When taken together, these new analysis methods exploit the power of new computer technologies and offer the potential to significantly improve our prediction and understanding of rotorcraft noise.

  16. Bone mineral density, ultrasound velocity, and broadband attenuation predict mechanical properties of trabecular bone differently

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Töyräs; M. T. Nieminen; H. Kröger; J. S. Jurvelin

    2002-01-01

    Measurement of areal bone mineral density (BMDareal), broadband ultrasound (US) attenuation (BUA), and speed-of-sound (SOS) are widely used ways to perform clinical assessment of bone quality. In this study, bovine (n = 37) and human (n = 32) trabecular bone was investigated in vitro and in vivo to reveal relationships between mechanical properties, mineral density, and US parameters BUA and

  17. Auditory Brainstem Response to Complex Sounds Predicts Self-Reported Speech-in-Noise Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Samira; Parbery-Clark, Alexandra; White-Schwoch, Travis; Kraus, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the ability of the auditory brainstem response to complex sounds (cABR) to predict subjective ratings of speech understanding in noise on the Speech, Spatial, and Qualities of Hearing Scale (SSQ; Gatehouse & Noble, 2004) relative to the predictive ability of the Quick Speech-in-Noise test (QuickSIN; Killion, Niquette,…

  18. Measurements and predictions of flyover and static noise of a TF30 afterburning turbofan engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, F. W., Jr.; Lasagna, P. L.; Oas, S. C.

    1978-01-01

    The noise of the TF30 afterburning turbofan engine in an F-111 airplane was determined from static (ground) and flyover tests. A survey was made to measure the exhaust temperature and velocity profiles for a range of power settings. Comparisons were made between predicted and measured jet mixing, internal, and shock noise. It was found that the noise produced at static conditions was dominated by jet mixing noise, and was adequately predicted by current methods. The noise produced during flyovers exhibited large contributions from internally generated noise in the forward arc. For flyovers with the engine at nonafterburning power, the internal noise, shock noise, and jet mixing noise were accurately predicted. During flyovers with afterburning power settings, however, additional internal noise believed to be due to the afterburning process was evident; its level was as much as 8 decibels above the nonafterburning internal noise. Power settings that produced exhausts with inverted velocity profiles appeared to be slightly less noisy than power settings of equal thrust that produced uniform exhaust velocity profiles both in flight and in static testing.

  19. Numerical Prediction of Laminar Instability Noise for NACA 0012 Aerofoil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michele de Gennaro; Andreas Hueppe; Helmut Kuehnelt; Manfred Kaltenbacher

    2011-01-01

    Aerofoil self-generated noise is recognized to be of fundamental importance in the frame of applied aeroacoustics and the use of computational methods to assess the acoustic behaviour of airframe components challenges an even larger community of engineers and scientists. Several noise generation mechanisms can be found which are mainly related to the physical development of turbulence over the boundary layer.

  20. On the prediction of impact noise, part VIII: Diesel engine noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuschieri, J. M.; Richards, E. J.

    1985-09-01

    The noise energy radiated from a diesel engine due to combustion and piston slap excitation is investigated by considering single impacts. From the results obtained, possible methods of noise control are studied, and the expected results due to changes in the liner mounting to the engine frame, and the bearings of the camshaft for an injected engine, are compared to the measured noise levels. This proves to be very successful and radical modifications in the engine for noise control can be investigated in this way prior to full development of the prototype engine.

  1. Evaluation and prediction of blade-passing frequency noise generated by a centrifugal blower

    SciTech Connect

    Ohta, Y.; Outa, E.; Tajima, K. [Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1996-07-01

    The blade-passing frequency noise, abbreviated to BPF noise, of a low-specific-speed centrifugal blower is analyzed by separating the frequency response of the transmission passage and the intensity of the noise source. Frequency response has previously been evaluated by the authors using a one-dimensional linear wave model, and the results have agreed well with the experimental response in a practical range of the blower speed. In the present study, the intensity of the noise source is estimated by introducing the quasi-steady model of the blade wake impingement on the scroll surface. The effective location of the noise source is determined by analyzing the cross-correlation between measured data of the blower suction noise and pressure fluctuation on the scroll surface. Then, the surface density distribution of a dipole noise source is determined from pressure fluctuations expressed in terms of quasi-steady dynamic pressure of the traveling blade wake. Finally, the free-field noise level is predicted by integrating the density spectrum of the noise source over the effective source area. The sound pressure level of the blower suction noise is easily predicted by multiplying the free-field noise level by the frequency-response characteristics of the noise transmission passage.

  2. Prediction of mechanical properties of the human calcaneus by broadband ultrasonic attenuation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. M. Langton; C. F. Njeh; R. Hodgskinson; J. D. Currey

    1996-01-01

    Broadband ultrasonic attenuation (dB MHz cm?1, nBUA) was determined for specimens from 20 human calcanei, along with apparent density, elasticity (Young's modulus), and compressive strength. The calcanei were modified to provide “whole” (only soft tissue removed), “core” (mediolateral cores corresponding to in vivo measurement region), “can” (cortical end plates removed from core), and “der” (core defatted) samples. The nBUA values

  3. Image discrimination models predict detection in fixed but not random noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahumada, A. J. Jr; Beard, B. L.; Watson, A. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    By means of a two-interval forced-choice procedure, contrast detection thresholds for an aircraft positioned on a simulated airport runway scene were measured with fixed and random white-noise masks. The term fixed noise refers to a constant, or unchanging, noise pattern for each stimulus presentation. The random noise was either the same or different in the two intervals. Contrary to simple image discrimination model predictions, the same random noise condition produced greater masking than the fixed noise. This suggests that observers seem unable to hold a new noisy image for comparison. Also, performance appeared limited by internal process variability rather than by external noise variability, since similar masking was obtained for both random noise types.

  4. On INM's Use of Corrected Net Thrust for the Prediction of Jet Aircraft Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McAninch, Gerry L.; Shepherd, Kevin P.

    2011-01-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration s (FAA) Integrated Noise Model (INM) employs a prediction methodology that relies on corrected net thrust as the sole correlating parameter between aircraft and engine operating states and aircraft noise. Thus aircraft noise measured for one set of atmospheric and aircraft operating conditions is assumed to be applicable to all other conditions as long as the corrected net thrust remains constant. This hypothesis is investigated under two primary assumptions: (1) the sound field generated by the aircraft is dominated by jet noise, and (2) the sound field generated by the jet flow is adequately described by Lighthill s theory of noise generated by turbulence.

  5. Validation of finite element and boundary element methods for predicting structural vibration and radiated noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seybert, A. F.; Wu, X. F.; Oswald, Fred B.

    1992-01-01

    Analytical and experimental validation of methods to predict structural vibration and radiated noise are presented. A rectangular box excited by a mechanical shaker was used as a vibrating structure. Combined finite element method (FEM) and boundary element method (BEM) models of the apparatus were used to predict the noise radiated from the box. The FEM was used to predict the vibration, and the surface vibration was used as input to the BEM to predict the sound intensity and sound power. Vibration predicted by the FEM model was validated by experimental modal analysis. Noise predicted by the BEM was validated by sound intensity measurements. Three types of results are presented for the total radiated sound power: (1) sound power predicted by the BEM modeling using vibration data measured on the surface of the box; (2) sound power predicted by the FEM/BEM model; and (3) sound power measured by a sound intensity scan. The sound power predicted from the BEM model using measured vibration data yields an excellent prediction of radiated noise. The sound power predicted by the combined FEM/BEM model also gives a good prediction of radiated noise except for a shift of the natural frequencies that are due to limitations in the FEM model.

  6. Prediction and Reduction of Noise in Pneumatic Bleed Valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taghavi Nezhad, Shervin

    This study investigates numerically the fluid mechanics and acoustics of pneumatic bleed valves used in turbofan engines. The goal is to characterized the fundamental processes of noise generation and devise strategies for noise reduction. Three different methods are employed for both analysis and redesign of the bleed valve to reduce noise. The bleed valve noise problem is carefully divided into multiple smaller problems. For large separations and tonal noises, the unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) method is utilized. This method is also applied in the re-designing of the bleed valve geometry. For the bleed valve muffler, which is comprised of perforated plates and a honeycomb, a Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) method combined with a simplified acoustic analogy is used. The original muffler design is modified to improve noise attenuation. Finally, for sound scattering through perforated plates, a fully implicit linearized Euler solver is developed. The problem of sound interaction with perforated plates is studied from two perspectives. In the first study the effect of high--speed mean flow is considered and it is shown that at Strouhal numbers of around 0.2-0.25 there is an increase in transmitted incident sound. In the second part, the interaction of holes in two--dimensional perforated plates is investigated using three different configurations. The study demonstrates that the hole interaction has a significant impact on sound attenuation, especially at high frequencies.

  7. Understanding Slat Noise Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khorrami, Medhi R.

    2003-01-01

    Model-scale aeroacoustic tests of large civil transports point to the leading-edge slat as a dominant high-lift noise source in the low- to mid-frequencies during aircraft approach and landing. Using generic multi-element high-lift models, complementary experimental and numerical tests were carefully planned and executed at NASA in order to isolate slat noise sources and the underlying noise generation mechanisms. In this paper, a brief overview of the supporting computational effort undertaken at NASA Langley Research Center, is provided. Both tonal and broadband aspects of slat noise are discussed. Recent gains in predicting a slat s far-field acoustic noise, current shortcomings of numerical simulations, and other remaining open issues, are presented. Finally, an example of the ever-expanding role of computational simulations in noise reduction studies also is given.

  8. Blade-Vortex Interaction (BVI) Noise and Airload Prediction Using Loose Aerodynamic/Structural Coupling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sim, B. W.; Lim, J. W.

    2007-01-01

    Predictions of blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise, using blade airloads obtained from a coupled aerodynamic and structural methodology, are presented. This methodology uses an iterative, loosely-coupled trim strategy to cycle information between the OVERFLOW-2 (CFD) and CAMRAD-II (CSD) codes. Results are compared to the HART-II baseline, minimum noise and minimum vibration conditions. It is shown that this CFD/CSD state-of-the-art approach is able to capture blade airload and noise radiation characteristics associated with BVI. With the exception of the HART-II minimum noise condition, predicted advancing and retreating side BVI for the baseline and minimum vibration conditions agrees favorably with measured data. Although the BVI airloads and noise amplitudes are generally under-predicted, this CFD/CSD methodology provides an overall noteworthy improvement over the lifting line aerodynamics and free-wake models typically used in CSD comprehensive analysis codes.

  9. Toward high-fidelity subsonic jet noise prediction using petascale supercomputers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martha, Chandra Sekhar

    The field of jet noise has become one of most active areas of research due to increasingly stringent aircraft noise regulations. A petascalable noise prediction tool-set based on the large eddy simulation (LES) technique is designed and implemented to improve the fidelity of subsonic jet noise predictions. Such tools are needed to help drive the design of quieter jets. The focus is to target computational performance and improved noise prediction fidelity through better matching experimental jet conditions and/or inclusion of the nozzle as part of the simulation. A communication-efficient SPIKE solver is used for spatial operations in conjunction with a non-overlapping multi-block topology based on a new concept of superblocks. These two choices have resulted in efficient scalability tested on up to 91,125 processors (or a theoretical speed of ˜1 petaflop/s). Other important optimizations include parallel file I/O and data buffering while gathering the acoustics. The noise from a Mach-0.9, isothermal jet is studied without and with a round nozzle. Production runs with up to first-ever one-billion-point simple-block topology grids without the nozzle and 125-million-point multi-block topology grids with the nozzle are performed. A vortex ring is used to excite the shear layers in the cases without the nozzle. The fine grid simulations with thinner shear layers have predicted higher sideline noise levels caused by the vortex ring and hence, established the need for nozzle inclusion. The problems of the centerline singularity and smaller time step size due to cylindrical grids have been addressed. A new, faster method based on a sinc filter is discussed for the time step issue in cylindrical grids. Two approaches are considered for nozzle inclusion by: 1) fully resolving the boundary layers at a lower Reynolds number; and 2) using a wall model to model the inner layer at the experimental Reynolds number. The wall-modeled cases exhibited numerical instabilities behind the nozzle lip which contaminated the far-field noise data, whereas the wall-resolved cases showed no such problems. The latter cases predicted noise and spectra that are in better agreement with the experiments. Overall, the inclusion of the nozzle as part of the LES is found to improve the noise predictions. Various innovative noise analysis tools have been used to understand the jet noise to a better extent. Lastly, specific guidelines have been suggested to improve jet noise predictions. It is hoped that the predicted noise levels with improved fidelity will help drive the design of quieter nozzles.

  10. Evaluation of Turbulence-Model Performance as Applied to Jet-Noise Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodruff, S. L.; Seiner, J. M.; Hussaini, M. Y.; Erlebacher, G.

    1998-01-01

    The accurate prediction of jet noise is possible only if the jet flow field can be predicted accurately. Predictions for the mean velocity and turbulence quantities in the jet flowfield are typically the product of a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes solver coupled with a turbulence model. To evaluate the effectiveness of solvers and turbulence models in predicting those quantities most important to jet noise prediction, two CFD codes and several turbulence models were applied to a jet configuration over a range of jet temperatures for which experimental data is available.

  11. The Uses and Abuses of the Acoustic Analogy in Helicopter Rotor Noise Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farassat, F.; Brentner, Kenneth S.

    1987-01-01

    This paper is theoretical in nature and addresses applications of the acoustic analogy in helicopter rotor noise prediction. It is argued that in many instances the acoustic analogy has not been used with care in rotor noise studies. By this it is meant that approximate or inappropriate formulations have been used. By considering various mechanisms of noise generation, such abuses are identified and the remedy is suggested. The mechanisms discussed are thickness, loading, quadrupole, and blade-vortex interaction noise. The quadrupole term of the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equation is written in a new form which separates the contributions of regions of high gradients such as shock surfaces. It is shown by order of magnitude studies that such regions are capable of producing noise with the same directivity as the thickness noise. The inclusion of this part of quadrupole sources in current acoustic codes is quite practical. Some of the difficulties with the use of loading noise formulations of the first author in predictions of blade-vortex interaction noise are discussed. It appears that there is a need for development of new theoretical results based on the acoustic analogy in this area. Because of the impulsive character of the blade surface pressure, a time scale of integration different from that used in loading and thickness computations must he used in a computer code for prediction of blade-vortex interaction noise.

  12. Linear Predictive Detection for Power Line Communications Impaired by Colored Noise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Riccardo Pighi; Riccardo Raheli

    2007-01-01

    ó Robust detection algorithms capable of mitigating the effects of colored noise are of primary interest in com- munication systems operating on power line channels. In this paper, we present a sequence detection scheme based on linear prediction to be applied to single carrier power line communica- tion impaired by colored Gaussian noise. The proposed solution improves the Bit Error

  13. URBAN NOISE PREDICTS SONG FREQUENCY IN NORTHERN CARDINALS AND AMERICAN ROBINS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KERRI D. SEGER-FULLAM; AMANDA D. RODEWALD; JILL A. SOHA

    2011-01-01

    We examined the extent to which acoustic noise in urban environments influences song characteristics and singing behaviour of Northern Cardinals Cardinalis cardinalis and American Robins Turdus migratorius. We predicted that, in response to loud noise, birds would improve signal transmission by (1) increasing singing rate and (2) adjusting song characteristics such as pitch and length. From May—July 2006, 42 cardinals

  14. Prediction of XV-15 tilt rotor discrete frequency aeroacoustic noise with WOPWOP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffen, Charles D.; George, Albert R.

    1990-01-01

    The results, methodology, and conclusions of noise prediction calculations carried out to study several possible discrete frequency harmonic noise mechanisms of the XV-15 Tilt Rotor Aircraft in hover and helicopter mode forward flight are presented. The mechanisms studied were thickness and loading noise. In particular, the loading noise caused by flow separation and the fountain/ground plane effect were predicted with calculations made using WOPWOP, a noise prediction program developed by NASA Langley. The methodology was to model the geometry and aerodynamics of the XV-15 rotor blades in hover and steady level flight and then create corresponding FORTRAN subroutines which were used an input for WOPWOP. The models are described and the simplifying assumptions made in creating them are evaluated, and the results of the computations are presented. The computations lead to the following conclusions: The fountain/ground plane effect is an important source of aerodynamic noise for the XV-15 in hover. Unsteady flow separation from the airfoil passing through the fountain at high angles of attack significantly affects the predicted sound spectra and may be an important noise mechanism for the XV-15 in hover mode. The various models developed did not predict the sound spectra in helicopter forward flight. The experimental spectra indicate the presence of blade vortex interactions which were not modeled in these calculations. A need for further study and development of more accurate aerodynamic models, including unsteady stall in hover and blade vortex interactions in forward flight.

  15. Aeroacoustics: Acoustic wave propagation; Aircraft noise prediction; Aeroacoustic instrumentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. R. Schwartz

    1976-01-01

    The papers in this volume deal with recent research into acoustic-wave propagation through the atmosphere and progress in aeroacoustic instrumentation, facilities, and test techniques. Topics include the propagation of aircraft noise over long distances in the lower atmosphere, measured effects of turbulence on the rise time of a weak shock, sound scattering from atmospheric turbulence, saturation effects associated with sound

  16. Predicting Earthquake Response of Civil Structures from Ambient Noise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Prieto; J. F. Lawrence; A. I. Chung; M. D. Kohler

    2009-01-01

    Increased monitoring of civil structures for response to earthquake motions is fundamental for reducing seismic hazard. Seismic monitoring is difficult because typically only a few useful, intermediate to large earthquakes occur per decade near instrumented structures. Here we demonstrate that the impulse response function (IRF) of a multi-story building can be generated from ambient noise. Estimated shear-wave velocity, attenuation values,

  17. Small Engine Technology (SET) Task 23 ANOPP Noise Prediction for Small Engines, Wing Reflection Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lieber, Lysbeth; Brown, Daniel; Golub, Robert A. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The work performed under Task 23 consisted of the development and demonstration of improvements for the NASA Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP), specifically targeted to the modeling of engine noise enhancement due to wing reflection. This report focuses on development of the model and procedure to predict the effects of wing reflection, and the demonstration of the procedure, using a representative wing/engine configuration.

  18. Landing-gear noise prediction using high-order finite difference schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wen; Wook Kim, Jae; Zhang, Xin; Angland, David; Caruelle, Bastien

    2013-07-01

    Aerodynamic noise from a generic two-wheel landing-gear model is predicted by a CFD/FW-H hybrid approach. The unsteady flow-field is computed using a compressible Navier-Stokes solver based on high-order finite difference schemes and a fully structured grid. The calculated time history of the surface pressure data is used in an FW-H solver to predict the far-field noise levels. Both aerodynamic and aeroacoustic results are compared to wind tunnel measurements and are found to be in good agreement. The far-field noise was found to vary with the 6th power of the free-stream velocity. Individual contributions from three components, i.e. wheels, axle and strut of the landing-gear model are also investigated to identify the relative contribution to the total noise by each component. It is found that the wheels are the dominant noise source in general. Strong vortex shedding from the axle is the second major contributor to landing-gear noise. This work is part of Airbus LAnding Gear nOise database for CAA validatiON (LAGOON) program with the general purpose of evaluating current CFD/CAA and experimental techniques for airframe noise prediction.

  19. Design predictions for noise control in the cryogenic National Transonic Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lassiter, W. S.

    1981-01-01

    Noise control in the National Transonic Facility - a cryogenic wind tunnel - has been examined in terms of acoustical design criteria, drive-fan noise and exhaust system noise. A duct lining with two layers of perforated sheeting and a gas-filled honeycomb core was selected for attenuating drive-fan noise. With the exception of attenuation peaks, attenuation of the lining was found to experimentally agree with predicted values at 20 C air temperatures. Exhaust system noise will be attenuated with a large muffler used in conjunction with a 6.1-m high acoustical enclosure. Fan noise from the fan-ejector system will be attenuated by fan silencers and the acoustic enclosure.

  20. Interior noise control prediction study for high-speed propeller-driven aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rennison, D. C.; Wilby, J. F.; Marsh, A. H.; Wilby, E. G.

    1979-01-01

    An analytical model was developed to predict the noise levels inside propeller-driven aircraft during cruise at M = 0.8. The model was applied to three study aircraft with fuselages of different size (wide body, narrow body and small diameter) in order to determine the noise reductions required to achieve the goal of an A-weighted sound level which does not exceed 80 dB. The model was then used to determine noise control methods which could achieve the required noise reductions. Two classes of noise control treatments were investigated: add-on treatments which can be added to existing structures, and advanced concepts which would require changes to the fuselage primary structure. Only one treatment, a double wall with limp panel, provided the required noise reductions. Weight penalties associated with the treatment were estimated for the three study aircraft.

  1. The Acoustic Analogy: A Powerful Tool in Aeroacoustics with Emphasis on Jet Noise Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farassat, F.; Doty, Michael J.; Hunter, Craig A.

    2004-01-01

    The acoustic analogy introduced by Lighthill to study jet noise is now over 50 years old. In the present paper, Lighthill s Acoustic Analogy is revisited together with a brief evaluation of the state-of-the-art of the subject and an exploration of the possibility of further improvements in jet noise prediction from analytical methods, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) predictions, and measurement techniques. Experimental Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) data is used both to evaluate turbulent statistics from Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) CFD and to propose correlation models for the Lighthill stress tensor. The NASA Langley Jet3D code is used to study the effect of these models on jet noise prediction. From the analytical investigation, a retarded time correction is shown that improves, by approximately 8 dB, the over-prediction of aft-arc jet noise by Jet3D. In experimental investigation, the PIV data agree well with the CFD mean flow predictions, with room for improvement in Reynolds stress predictions. Initial modifications, suggested by the PIV data, to the form of the Jet3D correlation model showed no noticeable improvements in jet noise prediction.

  2. Development of a traffic noise prediction model on inland waterway of China using the FHWA.

    PubMed

    Dai, Ben-lin; He, Yu-long; Mu, Fei-hu; Xu, Ning; Wu, Zhen

    2014-06-01

    Based on the local environmental standards, vessels types and traffic conditions, an inland waterway traffic noise prediction model was developed for use in China. This model was modified from the US FHWA model by adding the ground absorption and water surface attenuation correction terms to the governing equations. The parameters that were input into the equations, including traffic flow, vessel speed, distance from the center of the inland waterway to the receiver, position and height of the barriers and buildings, location of the receiver, type of ground, percentage of soft ground cover within the segment, and water surface conditions were re-defined. The model was validated by comparing the measured noise levels obtained at 33 sampling sites from Shugang Channel, Yanhe Channel and Danjinlicaohe Channel in China with the predicted values. The deviation between the predicted and measured noise levels within the range of ±1.5dB(A) was 81.8%. The mean difference between the predicted and measured noise levels was 0.15±1.75dB(A). However, the noise levels predicted developed model are generally higher than the measured levels. Overall, the comparison has proved that the developed method is of a high precision, and that it can be applied to estimate the traffic noise exposure level on inland waterway in China. PMID:23810035

  3. Development and Validation of a Multidisciplinary Tool for Accurate and Efficient Rotorcraft Noise Prediction (MUTE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Yi; Anusonti-Inthra, Phuriwat; Diskin, Boris

    2011-01-01

    A physics-based, systematically coupled, multidisciplinary prediction tool (MUTE) for rotorcraft noise was developed and validated with a wide range of flight configurations and conditions. MUTE is an aggregation of multidisciplinary computational tools that accurately and efficiently model the physics of the source of rotorcraft noise, and predict the noise at far-field observer locations. It uses systematic coupling approaches among multiple disciplines including Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), Computational Structural Dynamics (CSD), and high fidelity acoustics. Within MUTE, advanced high-order CFD tools are used around the rotor blade to predict the transonic flow (shock wave) effects, which generate the high-speed impulsive noise. Predictions of the blade-vortex interaction noise in low speed flight are also improved by using the Particle Vortex Transport Method (PVTM), which preserves the wake flow details required for blade/wake and fuselage/wake interactions. The accuracy of the source noise prediction is further improved by utilizing a coupling approach between CFD and CSD, so that the effects of key structural dynamics, elastic blade deformations, and trim solutions are correctly represented in the analysis. The blade loading information and/or the flow field parameters around the rotor blade predicted by the CFD/CSD coupling approach are used to predict the acoustic signatures at far-field observer locations with a high-fidelity noise propagation code (WOPWOP3). The predicted results from the MUTE tool for rotor blade aerodynamic loading and far-field acoustic signatures are compared and validated with a variation of experimental data sets, such as UH60-A data, DNW test data and HART II test data.

  4. Broadband RF Front-End Design for Multi-Standard Receiver with High-Linearity and Low-Noise Techniques

    E-print Network

    Kim, Ju Sung

    2012-02-14

    is to design a wideband SAW-less direct coversion receiver with a single low noise transconductor and current-mode passive mixer with trans-impedance amplifier utilizing feed-forward compensation. The innovations in the circuit and architecture improves...

  5. Analysis of impact/impulse noise for predicting noise induced hearing loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vipperman, Jeffrey S.; Prince, Mary M.; Flamm, Angela M.

    2003-04-01

    Studies indicate that the statistical properties and temporal structure of the sound signal are important in determining the extent of hearing hazard. As part of a pilot study to examine hearing conservation program effectiveness, NIOSH collected noise samples of impact noise sources in an automobile stamping plant, focusing on jobs with peak sound levels (Lpk) of greater than 120 dB. Digital tape recordings of sounds were collected using a Type I Precision Sound Level Meter and microphone connected to a DAT tape recorder. The events were archived and processed as .wav files to extract single events of interest on CD-R media and CD audio media. A preliminary analysis of sample wavelet files was conducted to characterize each event using metrics such as the number of impulses per unit time, the repetition rate or temporal pattern of these impulses, index of peakedness, crest factor, kurtosis, coefficient of kurtosis, rise time, fall time, and peak time. The spectrum, duration, and inverse of duration for each waveform were also computed. Finally, the data were evaluated with the Auditory Hazard Assessment Algorithm (AHAAH). Improvements to data collection for a future study examining different strategies for evaluating industrial noise exposure will be discussed.

  6. An empirical method for predicting the mixing noise levels of subsonic circular and coaxial jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    An empirical method for predicting the static free field source noise levels of subsonic circular and coaxial jet flow streams is presented. The method was developed from an extensive data base of 817 jet tests obtained from five different government and industry sources in three nations. The prediction method defines the jet noise in terms of four components which are overall power level, power spectrum level, directivity index, and relative spectrum level. The values of these noise level components are defined on a grid consisting of seven frequency parameter values (Strouhal numbers) and seven directivity angles. The value of the noise level at each of these grid points is called a noise level coordinate and was defined as a function of five jet exhaust flow state parameters which are equivalent jet velocity, equivalent jet total temperature, the velocity ratio (outer stream to inner stream), temperature ratio, and area ratio. The functions were obtained by curve fitting in a least squares sense the noise level coordinates from the data base in a five dimensional flow state space using a third order Taylor series. The noise level coordinates define the component noise levels for all frequencies and directivities through a bicubic spline function.

  7. An Integrated RANS-PSE-Wave Packet Tool for the Prediction of Subsonic and Supersonic Jet Noise

    E-print Network

    Dabiri, John O.

    for predicting supersonic jet noise, and the development of engine exhaust noise reduction technologyAn Integrated RANS-PSE-Wave Packet Tool for the Prediction of Subsonic and Supersonic Jet Noise. Reba6 United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT 06108 Few engineering tools are suitable

  8. Auditory brainstem measures predict reading and speech-in-noise perception in school-aged children

    PubMed Central

    Hornickel, Jane; Chandrasekaran, Bharath; Zecker, Steve; Kraus, Nina

    2010-01-01

    Reading and speech-in-noise perception, fundamental aspects of human communication, have been linked to neural indices of auditory brainstem function. However, how these factors interact is currently unclear. Multivariate analysis methods (structural equation modeling) were employed to delineate and quantify the relationships among factors that relate to successful reading and speech-in-noise perception in children. Neural measures of subcortical speech encoding that reflect the utilization of stimulus regularities, differentiation of stop consonants, and robustness of neural synchrony predicted 73% of the variance in reading scores. A different combination of neural measures, specifically, utilization of stimulus regularities, strength of encoding of lower harmonics, and the extent of noise-induced timing delays uniquely predicted 56% of the variance in speech-in-noise perception measures. The neural measures relating to reading and speech-in-noise perception were substantially non-overlapping and resulted in poor fitting models when substituted for each other, thereby suggesting distinct neural signatures for the two skills. When phonological processing and working memory measures were added to the models, brainstem measures still uniquely predicted variance in reading ability and speech-in-noise perception, highlighting the robustness of the relationship between subcortical auditory function and these skills. The current study suggests that objective neural markers may prove valuable in the assessment of reading or speech-in-noise abilities in children. PMID:20826187

  9. Development of an Empirical Methods for Predicting Jet Mixing Noise of Cold Flow Rectangular Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, James W.

    1999-01-01

    This report presents an empirical method for predicting the jet mixing noise levels of cold flow rectangular jets. The report presents a detailed analysis of the methodology used in development of the prediction method. The empirical correlations used are based on narrow band acoustic data for cold flow rectangular model nozzle tests conducted in the NASA Langley Jet Noise Laboratory. There were 20 separate nozzle test operating conditions. For each operating condition 60 Hz bandwidth microphone measurements were made over a frequency range from 0 to 60,000 Hz. Measurements were performed at 16 polar directivity angles ranging from 45 degrees to 157.5 degrees. At each polar directivity angle, measurements were made at 9 azimuth directivity angles. The report shows the methods employed to remove screech tones and shock noise from the data in order to obtain the jet mixing noise component. The jet mixing noise was defined in terms of one third octave band spectral content, polar and azimuth directivity, and overall power level. Empirical correlations were performed over the range of test conditions to define each of these jet mixing noise parameters as a function of aspect ratio, jet velocity, and polar and azimuth directivity angles. The report presents the method for predicting the overall power level, the average polar directivity, the azimuth directivity and the location and shape of the spectra for jet mixing noise of cold flow rectangular jets.

  10. Prediction of noise levels and annoyance from aircraft run-ups at Vancouver International Airport.

    PubMed

    Scherebnyj, Katrina; Hodgson, Murray

    2007-10-01

    Annoyance complaints resulting from engine run-ups have been increasing at Vancouver International Airport for several years. To assist the Airport in managing run-up noise levels, a prediction tool based on a Green's function parabolic equation (GFPE) model has been consolidated, evaluated, and applied. It was extended to include more realistic atmospheric and ground input parameters. Measurements were made of the noise-radiation characteristics of a CRJ200 jet aircraft. The GFPE model was validated by comparing predictions with results in the literature. A sensitivity analysis showed that predicted levels are relatively insensitive to small variations in geometry and ground impedance, but relatively sensitive to variations in wind speed, atmosphere type, and aircraft heading and power setting. Predicted noise levels were compared with levels measured at noise monitoring terminals. For the four cases for which all input information was available, agreement was within 10 dBA. For events for which some information had to be estimated, predictions were within 20 dBA. The predicted annoyance corresponding to the run-up events considered ranged from 1.8% to 9.5% of people awoken, suggesting that noise complaints can be expected. PMID:17902830

  11. On the prediction of impact noise, IV: Estimation of noise energy radiated by impact excitation of a structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuschieri, J. M.; Richards, E. J.

    1983-02-01

    This series of papers [1-3] sets out to provide a practical method of predicting the noise radiated by a machinery-type structure as a result of an impact upon it. As such noise energy may vary from 10 -8 to 10 -3 of the mechanical energy used in the machine, it is necessary to validate the accuracy of the "energy accountancy equation" which has been developed [3] to permit this prediction in terms of those items which can be measured, viz., the force derivative during impact, the ppint response term, the calculated "modified" radiation efficiency, the damping factor, and the average thickness of the machinery components. To do so, and to represent typically a gearbox casing, this paper sets out to calculate, measure and compare the noise radiated from a damped plate, held rigidly in a frame, the impact being produced by a sphere (whose natural frequencies are well above those being examined) striking the plate either directly, through a lumped mass which is either attached directly to the centre of the plate, or through a resilient and damped interlayer. As Skudrzyk [4] has indicated that the mean point response of a curved casing can be treated as a flat plate under conditions which apply to gearbox casings, the representation referred to in this paper can be taken as typical of such examples as a gearbox casing excited by out-of-balance shaft loads or backlash, with concentrated masses or some degree of isolation added to the shaft housing area. It can also be seen to apply to close but semi-isolated covers or panels surrounding diesel engine frames, drop hammer tups and the like. It is concluded that the "energy accountancy" equations do predict the very large changes in noise radiation throughout the important frequency ranges with accuracies of ±2 dB in one-third octave bands, even on configurations giving 50 dB reductions (see Figure 19).

  12. Prediction of noise field of a propfan at angle of attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Envia, Edmane

    1991-01-01

    A method for predicting the noise field of a propfan operating at an angle of attack to the oncoming flow is presented. The method takes advantage of the high-blade-count of the advanced propeller designs to provide an accurate and efficient formula for predicting their noise field. The formula, which is written in terms of the Airy function and its derivative, provides a very attractive alternative to the use of numerical integration. A preliminary comparison shows rather favorable agreement between the predictions from the present method and the experimental data.

  13. A Noise Level Prediction Method Based on Electro-Mechanical Frequency Response Function for Capacitors

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Lingyu; Ji, Shengchang; Shen, Qi; Liu, Yuan; Li, Jinyu; Liu, Hao

    2013-01-01

    The capacitors in high-voltage direct-current (HVDC) converter stations radiate a lot of audible noise which can reach higher than 100 dB. The existing noise level prediction methods are not satisfying enough. In this paper, a new noise level prediction method is proposed based on a frequency response function considering both electrical and mechanical characteristics of capacitors. The electro-mechanical frequency response function (EMFRF) is defined as the frequency domain quotient of the vibration response and the squared capacitor voltage, and it is obtained from impulse current experiment. Under given excitations, the vibration response of the capacitor tank is the product of EMFRF and the square of the given capacitor voltage in frequency domain, and the radiated audible noise is calculated by structure acoustic coupling formulas. The noise level under the same excitations is also measured in laboratory, and the results are compared with the prediction. The comparison proves that the noise prediction method is effective. PMID:24349105

  14. Experimental validation of finite element and boundary element methods for predicting structural vibration and radiated noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seybert, A. F.; Wu, T. W.; Wu, X. F.

    1994-01-01

    This research report is presented in three parts. In the first part, acoustical analyses were performed on modes of vibration of the housing of a transmission of a gear test rig developed by NASA. The modes of vibration of the transmission housing were measured using experimental modal analysis. The boundary element method (BEM) was used to calculate the sound pressure and sound intensity on the surface of the housing and the radiation efficiency of each mode. The radiation efficiency of each of the transmission housing modes was then compared to theoretical results for a finite baffled plate. In the second part, analytical and experimental validation of methods to predict structural vibration and radiated noise are presented. A rectangular box excited by a mechanical shaker was used as a vibrating structure. Combined finite element method (FEM) and boundary element method (BEM) models of the apparatus were used to predict the noise level radiated from the box. The FEM was used to predict the vibration, while the BEM was used to predict the sound intensity and total radiated sound power using surface vibration as the input data. Vibration predicted by the FEM model was validated by experimental modal analysis; noise predicted by the BEM was validated by measurements of sound intensity. Three types of results are presented for the total radiated sound power: sound power predicted by the BEM model using vibration data measured on the surface of the box; sound power predicted by the FEM/BEM model; and sound power measured by an acoustic intensity scan. In the third part, the structure used in part two was modified. A rib was attached to the top plate of the structure. The FEM and BEM were then used to predict structural vibration and radiated noise respectively. The predicted vibration and radiated noise were then validated through experimentation.

  15. Curved Duct Noise Prediction Using the Fast Scattering Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, M. H.; Tinetti, Ana F.; Farassat, F.

    2007-01-01

    Results of a study to validate the Fast Scattering Code (FSC) as a duct noise predictor, including the effects of curvature, finite impedance on the walls, and uniform background flow, are presented in this paper. Infinite duct theory was used to generate the modal content of the sound propagating within the duct. Liner effects were incorporated via a sound absorbing boundary condition on the scattering surfaces. Simulations for a rectangular duct of constant cross-sectional area have been compared to analytical solutions and experimental data. Comparisons with analytical results indicate that the code can properly calculate a given dominant mode for hardwall surfaces. Simulated acoustic behavior in the presence of lined walls (using hardwall duct modes as incident sound) is consistent with expected trends. Duct curvature was found to enhance weaker modes and reduce pressure amplitude. Agreement between simulated and experimental results for a straight duct with hard walls (no flow) was excellent.

  16. Development of a Jet Noise Prediction Method for Installed Jet Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Craig A.; Thomas, Russell H.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes development of the Jet3D noise prediction method and its application to heated jets with complex three-dimensional flow fields and installation effects. Noise predictions were made for four separate flow bypass ratio five nozzle configurations tested in the NASA Langley Jet Noise Laboratory. These configurations consist of a round core and fan nozzle with and without pylon, and an eight chevron core nozzle and round fan nozzle with and without pylon. Predicted SPL data were in good agreement with experimental noise measurements up to 121 inlet angle, beyond which Jet3D under predicted low frequency levels. This is due to inherent limitations in the formulation of Lighthill's Acoustic Analogy used in Jet3D, and will be corrected in ongoing development. Jet3D did an excellent job predicting full scale EPNL for nonchevron configurations, and captured the effect of the pylon, correctly predicting a reduction in EPNL. EPNL predictions for chevron configurations were not in good agreement with measured data, likely due to the lower mixing and longer potential cores in the CFD simulations of these cases.

  17. Development of computer program ENMASK for prediction of residual environmental masking-noise spectra, from any three independent environmental parameters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y.-S. Chang; R. E. Liebich; K. C. Chun

    2000-01-01

    Residual environmental sound can mask intrusive4 (unwanted) sound. It is a factor that can affect noise impacts and must be considered both in noise-impact studies and in noise-mitigation designs. Models for quantitative prediction of sensation level (audibility) and psychological effects of intrusive noise require an input with 1\\/3 octave-band spectral resolution of environmental masking noise. However, the majority of published

  18. Thermoelastic-damping noise from sapphire mirrors in a fundamental-noise-limited interferometer

    E-print Network

    Eric D. Black; Akira Villar; Kenneth G. Libbrecht

    2004-10-06

    We report the first high-precision interferometer using large sapphire mirrors, and we present the first direct, broadband measurements of the fundamental thermal noise in these mirrors. Our results agree well with the thermoelastic-damping noise predictions of Braginsky, et al. [Phys. Lett. A 264, 1(1999)] and Cerdonio, et al.[Phys. Rev. D 63, 082003 (2001)], which have been used to predict the astrophysical reach of advanced interferometric gravitational wave detectors.

  19. An instantaneous spatiotemporal model to predict a bicyclist's Black Carbon exposure based on mobile noise measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekoninck, Luc; Botteldooren, Dick; Int Panis, Luc

    2013-11-01

    Several studies have shown that a significant amount of daily air pollution exposure, in particular Black Carbon (BC), is inhaled during trips. Assessing this contribution to exposure remains difficult because on the one hand local air pollution maps lack spatio-temporal resolution, at the other hand direct measurement of particulate matter concentration remains expensive. This paper proposes to use in-traffic noise measurements in combination with geographical and meteorological information for predicting BC exposure during commuting trips. Mobile noise measurements are cheaper and easier to perform than mobile air pollution measurements and can easily be used in participatory sensing campaigns. The uniqueness of the proposed model lies in the choice of noise indicators that goes beyond the traditional overall A-weighted noise level used in previous work. Noise and BC exposures are both related to the traffic intensity but also to traffic speed and traffic dynamics. Inspired by theoretical knowledge on the emission of noise and BC, the low frequency engine related noise and the difference between high frequency and low frequency noise that indicates the traffic speed, are introduced in the model. In addition, it is shown that splitting BC in a local and a background component significantly improves the model. The coefficients of the proposed model are extracted from 200 commuter bicycle trips. The predicted average exposure over a single trip correlates with measurements with a Pearson coefficient of 0.78 using only four parameters: the low frequency noise level, wind speed, the difference between high and low frequency noise and a street canyon index expressing local air pollution dispersion properties.

  20. Prediction of the break-out noise of the cylindrical sandwich plate muffler shells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. L. Munjal

    1998-01-01

    Break-out noise from the shell often puts a limit on the (net) transmission loss that can be obtained from an engine exhaust muffler. One of the best ways of reducing break-out noise is use of a sandwich plate shell. This short paper presents an analytical model for prediction of transverse transmission loss of sandwich plate shells. Four-pole parameters of the

  1. LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Semiclassical prediction for shot noise in chaotic cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Petr; Heusler, Stefan; Müller, Sebastian; Haake, Fritz

    2006-03-01

    We show that in clean chaotic cavities the power of shot noise takes a universal form. Our predictions go beyond previous results from random-matrix theory, in covering the experimentally relevant case of few channels. Following a semiclassical approach we evaluate the contributions of quadruplets of classical trajectories to shot noise. Our approach can be extended to a variety of transport phenomena as illustrated for the crossover between symmetry classes in the presence of a weak magnetic field.

  2. Prediction of airplane cabin noise due to engine shock cell excitation using statistical energy analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Steven E.

    As part of the effort in the 1980's to design fuel efficient propulsion systems (unducted fan engines) for large commercial airplanes, procedures were developed for predicting interior noise using statistical energy analysis (SEA). Due to stable fuel process and deregulation in the airline industry, the emphasis for propulsion systems on commercial airplanes shifted to higher thrust and lower operating costs. In order to preserve and enhance the knowledge acquired using SEA to predict cabin noise for propeller airplanes, potential noise control applications for more conventional airplane configurations were investigated. The present paper records an effort to extend the experience acquired using statistical energy analysis for unducted fan engines to noise generated by turbofan engine exhaust. The technique is applied to the generic case of a large commercial airplane with twin, wing-mounted engines. Results are presented from an evaluation of the noise source based on an uncommon set of flight test data. Model construction is decribed and prediction results compared to the flight test data. It is then demonstrated how SEA is used to prioritize the transmission paths and judge the merit of the common noise suppression techniques.

  3. Noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical frequency comb spectroscopy: a sensitive technique for high-resolution broadband molecular detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodabakhsh, Amir; Johansson, Alexandra C.; Foltynowicz, Aleksandra

    2015-02-01

    Noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical frequency comb spectroscopy (NICE-OFCS) is a recently developed technique that utilizes phase modulation to obtain immunity to frequency-to-amplitude noise conversion by the cavity modes and yields high absorption sensitivity over a broad spectral range. We describe the principles of the technique and discuss possible comb-cavity matching solutions. We present a theoretical description of NICE-OFCS signals detected with a Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) and validate the model by comparing it to experimental CO2 spectra around 1,575 nm. Our system is based on an Er:fiber femtosecond laser locked to a cavity and phase-modulated at a frequency equal to a multiple of the cavity free spectral range (FSR). The NICE-OFCS signal is detected by a fast-scanning FTS equipped with a high-bandwidth commercial detector. We demonstrate a simple method of passive locking of the modulation frequency to the cavity FSR that significantly improves the long-term stability of the system, allowing averaging times on the order of minutes. Using a cavity with a finesse of ~9,000, we obtain absorption sensitivity of 6.4 × 10-11 cm-1 Hz-1/2 per spectral element and concentration detection limit for CO2 of 450 ppb Hz-1/2, determined by multiline fitting.

  4. JT150 1/2-scale nozzle jet noise experiment and comparison with prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groesbeck, D. E.; Wasserbauer, C. A.

    1983-01-01

    As part of a program to study flight effects on the exhaust noise of a full scale JT15D engine, static half scale model jet noise experiments were conducted. Acoustic data were recorded for microphone angles of 45 deg to 155 deg with jet conditions for the model scale nozzle corresponding closely to those at 55, 73 and 97 percent of corrected rated speed for the full scale engine. These data are useful for determining the relative importance of jet and core noise in the static full scale engine test data and will in turn allow for a proper evaluation of flight effects on the exhaust noise results. The model scale data are also compared with the coaxial jet noise prediction. Above 1000 Hz, the prediction is nominally 0 to 3 dB higher than the data. The arithmetic mean of the differences between the experimental OASPL and the predicted OASPL for all angles for each run ranged from 0 to -3.2 dB. The standard deviation of all the OASPL differences is 2.2 dB. The discrepancies are greatest at low primary jet velocities and appear to be due to inadequacy in the variable jet density exponent incorporated in the prediction procedure.

  5. Noise produced by turbulent flow into a rotor: Users manual for atmospheric turbulence prediction and mean flow and turbulence contraction prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simonich, J. C.; Caplin, B.

    1989-01-01

    A users manual for a computer program for predicting atmospheric turbulence and mean flow and turbulence contraction as part of a noise prediction scheme for nonisotropic turbulence ingestion noise in helicopters is described. Included are descriptions of the various program modules and subroutines, their function, programming structure, and the required input and output variables. This routine is incorporated as one module of NASA's ROTONET helicopter noise prediction program.

  6. Aerodynamic loads and blade vortex interaction noise prediction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Schaffar; J. Haertig; P. Gnemmi

    1990-01-01

    The vortex lattice method is described and applied in order to predict the aerodynamic loads on a thin two-bladed rotor. A local conformal mapping for each position in span is used to transform the thin rotor into a thick one. The pressure coefficients obtained for the thick rotor are fed into an acoustic code which is based on the Ffowcs-Williams-Hawkings

  7. Evidence for a change in the radiation mechanism in the hard state of GRO J1655-40. Hysteresis in the broad-band noise components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reig, P.; Papadakis, I. E.; Sobolewska, M. A.; Malzac, J.

    2013-11-01

    We have analysed archival data from the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) to study the aperiodic variability of the black hole binary GRO J1655-40 during the hard state of the 2005 outburst. This work was motivated by the recent finding of a spectral change in the hard state X-ray radiation mechanism in black hole binaries. We computed the 0.008-64 Hz power spectral density during the rise and decay of the 2005 outburst, and we found that they were reasonably well modelled by the sum of two, broad Lorenztian functions in most cases (plus a narrow QPO), which correspond to three different variability components. Our aim is to study the evolution of the timing properties of the source during the outburst, by studying the correlation between the characteristics of the broad-band noise components in the power spectra and the source luminosity. Our results suggest that the whole power spectrum shifts to high (low) frequencies as the source luminosity increases (decreases), in agreement with previous studies of other black hole binaries. However, we also detect a strong `hysteresis' pattern in the `frequency-luminosity' plots, and show that the `critical' luminosity limit, above which the timing properties of the source change, is different during the rise and the decay phase of the outburst. We discuss the general implications of these results in the context of the truncated disc model.

  8. ANOPP programmer's reference manual for the executive System. [aircraft noise prediction program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillian, R. E.; Brown, C. G.; Bartlett, R. W.; Baucom, P. H.

    1977-01-01

    Documentation for the Aircraft Noise Prediction Program as of release level 01/00/00 is presented in a manual designed for programmers having a need for understanding the internal design and logical concepts of the executive system software. Emphasis is placed on providing sufficient information to modify the system for enhancements or error correction. The ANOPP executive system includes software related to operating system interface, executive control, and data base management for the Aircraft Noise Prediction Program. It is written in Fortran IV for use on CDC Cyber series of computers.

  9. Advanced turboprop noise prediction: Development of a code at NASA Langley based on recent theoretical results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farassat, F.; Dunn, M. H.; Padula, S. L.

    1986-01-01

    The development of a high speed propeller noise prediction code at Langley Research Center is described. The code utilizes two recent acoustic formulations in the time domain for subsonic and supersonic sources. The structure and capabilities of the code are discussed. Grid size study for accuracy and speed of execution on a computer is also presented. The code is tested against an earlier Langley code. Considerable increase in accuracy and speed of execution are observed. Some examples of noise prediction of a high speed propeller for which acoustic test data are available are given. A brisk derivation of formulations used is given in an appendix.

  10. Predictions and observations of seafloor infrasonic noise generated by sea surface orbital motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindstrom, Timothy E.

    1991-09-01

    A model is developed for the prediction of the seismo-acoustic noise spectrum in the microseism peak region 0.1 to 0.7 Hz. The model uses a theory developed by Cato (1991) for an infinite depth ocean in which the surface orbital motion caused by gravity waves may produce acoustic waves at twice the gravity wave frequency. Using directional wave spectra as inputs, acoustic source levels are computed and incorporated into a more realistic environment consisting of a horizontally stratified ocean with an elastic bottom. Noise predictions are made using directional wave spectra obtained from the Surface Wave Dynamics Experiment (SWADE) surface buoys moored off the coast of Virginia and the SAFARI sound propagation code, with a bottom model derived using wave speeds measured in the EDGE deep seismic reflection survey. The predictions are analyzed for noise level variations with frequency, wave height, wind direction, and receiver depth. These predictions are compared to noise measurements made in ECONOMEX using near bottom receivers located close to the surface buoys. Good agreement is found between the predictions and observations under a variety of environmental conditions.

  11. Noise Certification Predictions for FJX-2-Powered Aircraft Using Analytic Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berton, Jeffrey J.

    1999-01-01

    Williams International Co. is currently developing the 700-pound thrust class FJX-2 turbofan engine for the general Aviation Propulsion Program's Turbine Engine Element. As part of the 1996 NASA-Williams cooperative working agreement, NASA agreed to analytically calculate the noise certification levels of the FJX-2-powered V-Jet II test bed aircraft. Although the V-Jet II is a demonstration aircraft that is unlikely to be produced and certified, the noise results presented here may be considered to be representative of the noise levels of small, general aviation jet aircraft that the FJX-2 would power. A single engine variant of the V-Jet II, the V-Jet I concept airplane, is also considered. Reported in this paper are the analytically predicted FJX-2/V-Jet noise levels appropriate for Federal Aviation Regulation certification. Also reported are FJX-2/V-Jet noise levels using noise metrics appropriate for the propeller-driven aircraft that will be its major market competition, as well as a sensitivity analysis of the certification noise levels to major system uncertainties.

  12. The Prediction and Analysis of Jet Flows and Scattered Turbulent Mixing Noise About Flight Vehicle Airframes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Steven A.

    2014-01-01

    Jet flows interacting with nearby surfaces exhibit a complex behavior in which acoustic and aerodynamic characteristics are altered. The physical understanding and prediction of these characteristics are essential to designing future low noise aircraft. A new approach is created for predicting scattered jet mixing noise that utilizes an acoustic analogy and steady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes solutions. A tailored Green's function accounts for the propagation of mixing noise about the air-frame and is calculated numerically using a newly developed ray tracing method. The steady aerodynamic statistics, associated unsteady sound source, and acoustic intensity are examined as jet conditions are varied about a large at plate. A non-dimensional number is proposed to estimate the effect of the aerodynamic noise source relative to jet operating condition and airframe position. The steady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes solutions, acoustic analogy, tailored Green's function, non- dimensional number, and predicted noise are validated with a wide variety of measurements. The combination of the developed theory, ray tracing method, and careful implementation in a stand-alone computer program result in an approach that is more first principles oriented than alternatives, computationally efficient, and captures the relevant physics of fluid-structure interaction.

  13. The Prediction and Analysis of Jet Flows and Scattered Turbulent Mixing Noise about Flight Vehicle Airframes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Steven A. E.

    2014-01-01

    Jet flows interacting with nearby surfaces exhibit a complex behavior in which acoustic and aerodynamic characteristics are altered. The physical understanding and prediction of these characteristics are essential to designing future low noise aircraft. A new approach is created for predicting scattered jet mixing noise that utilizes an acoustic analogy and steady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes solutions. A tailored Green's function accounts for the propagation of mixing noise about the airframe and is calculated numerically using a newly developed ray tracing method. The steady aerodynamic statistics, associated unsteady sound source, and acoustic intensity are examined as jet conditions are varied about a large flat plate. A non-dimensional number is proposed to estimate the effect of the aerodynamic noise source relative to jet operating condition and airframe position.The steady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes solutions, acoustic analogy, tailored Green's function, non-dimensional number, and predicted noise are validated with a wide variety of measurements. The combination of the developed theory, ray tracing method, and careful implementation in a stand-alone computer program result in an approach that is more first principles oriented than alternatives, computationally efficient, and captures the relevant physics of fluid-structure interaction.

  14. On Acoustic Source Specification for Rotor-Stator Interaction Noise Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nark, Douglas M.; Envia, Edmane; Burley, Caesy L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the use of measured source data to assess the effects of acoustic source specification on rotor-stator interaction noise predictions. Specifically, the acoustic propagation and radiation portions of a recently developed coupled computational approach are used to predict tonal rotor-stator interaction noise from a benchmark configuration. In addition to the use of full measured data, randomization of source mode relative phases is also considered for specification of the acoustic source within the computational approach. Comparisons with sideline noise measurements are performed to investigate the effects of various source descriptions on both inlet and exhaust predictions. The inclusion of additional modal source content is shown to have a much greater influence on the inlet results. Reasonable agreement between predicted and measured levels is achieved for the inlet, as well as the exhaust when shear layer effects are taken into account. For the number of trials considered, phase randomized predictions follow statistical distributions similar to those found in previous statistical source investigations. The shape of the predicted directivity pattern relative to measurements also improved with phase randomization, having predicted levels generally within one standard deviation of the measured levels.

  15. Effective Jet Properties for the Prediction of Turbulent Mixing Noise Reduction by Water Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandula, Max; Lonergan, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    A one-dimensional control volume formulation is developed for the determination of jet mixing noise reduction due to water injection. The analysis starts from the conservation of mass, momentum and energy for the control volume, and introduces the concept of effective jet parameters (jet temperature, jet velocity and jet Mach number). It is shown that the water to jet mass flow rate ratio is an important parameter characterizing the jet noise reduction on account of gas-to-droplet momentum and heat transfer. Two independent dimensionless invariant groups are postulated, and provide the necessary relations for the droplet size and droplet Reynolds number. Results are presented illustrating the effect of mass flow rate ratio on the jet mixing noise reduction for a range of jet Mach number and jet Reynolds number. Predictions from the model show satisfactory comparison with available test data on supersonic jets. The results suggest that significant noise reductions can be achieved at increased flow rate ratios.

  16. Prediction of Solar Proton Events and the Radio Type I Noise Storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhi-guo, XIA; Guan-nan, GAO; Min, WANG; Jun, LIN

    2015-01-01

    The Sun is an extremely active celestial body, and its explosive processes can produce important effects on the space environment around the Earth. Commonly a single energetic proton may be enough to cause the abnormality of microelectronic devices in spacecraft, hence, the prediction of solar proton events is an important content of the prediction of space weather. The parameter selection in the prediction models still has something to be improved. The studies suggested that the radio type I noise storm is closely related to the coronal heating and magnetic reconnection, so it should be taken as a proper parameter for the prediction. With an analysis of two typical solar explosive events, the correlations of the radio type I noise storms with the solar proton events and coronal mass ejections have been demonstrated in this paper.

  17. Computational methods in the prediction of advanced subsonic and supersonic propeller induced noise: ASSPIN users' manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, M. H.; Tarkenton, G. M.

    1992-01-01

    This document describes the computational aspects of propeller noise prediction in the time domain and the use of high speed propeller noise prediction program ASSPIN (Advanced Subsonic and Supersonic Propeller Induced Noise). These formulations are valid in both the near and far fields. Two formulations are utilized by ASSPIN: (1) one is used for subsonic portions of the propeller blade; and (2) the second is used for transonic and supersonic regions on the blade. Switching between the two formulations is done automatically. ASSPIN incorporates advanced blade geometry and surface pressure modelling, adaptive observer time grid strategies, and contains enhanced numerical algorithms that result in reduced computational time. In addition, the ability to treat the nonaxial inflow case has been included.

  18. A real-time sound propagation system for noise prediction in outdoor spaces

    E-print Network

    North Carolina at Chapel Hill, University of

    of sound. These tough challenges have prompted high frequency wave propagation to be cited as an unsolvedA real-time sound propagation system for noise prediction in outdoor spaces Ravish Mehraa method for sound propagation in outdoor spaces since diffraction is modeled accurately throughout

  19. Model Predictive Control Applied to Constraint Handling in Active Noise and Vibration Control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adrian G. Wills; Dale Bates; Andrew J. Fleming; Brett Ninness; S. O. Reza Moheimani

    2008-01-01

    The difficulties imposed by actuator limitations in a range of active vibration and noise control problems are well recognized. This paper proposes and examines a new approach of employing model predictive control (MPC). MPC permits limitations on allowable control action to be explicitly included in the computation of an optimal control action. Such techniques have been widely and successfully applied

  20. Prediction of airplane cabin noise due to engine shock cell excitation using statistical energy analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven E. Marshall

    1993-01-01

    As part of the effort in the 1980's to design fuel efficient propulsion systems (unducted fan engines) for large commercial airplanes, procedures were developed for predicting interior noise using statistical energy analysis (SEA). Due to stable fuel process and deregulation in the airline industry, the emphasis for propulsion systems on commercial airplanes shifted to higher thrust and lower operating costs.

  1. Aircraft interior noise prediction using a structural-acoustic analogy in NASTRAN modal synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grosveld, Ferdinand W.; Sullivan, Brenda M.; Marulo, Francesco

    1988-01-01

    The noise induced inside a cylindrical fuselage model by shaker excitation is investigated theoretically and experimentally. The NASTRAN modal-synthesis program is used in the theoretical analysis, and the predictions are compared with experimental measurements in extensive graphs. Good general agreement is obtained, but the need for further refinements to account for acoustic-cavity damping and structural-acoustic interaction is indicated.

  2. Ambient seismic noise monitoring of a clay landslide: Toward failure prediction

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Ambient seismic noise monitoring of a clay landslide: Toward failure prediction Guénolé Mainsant,1 that clay-rich landslides may become mobilized, leading to rapid mass movements (earthflows and debris flows in the seismic surface wave velocity in the Pont Bourquin landslide (Swiss Alps). This small but active composite

  3. The prediction of jet noise ground effects using an acoustic analogy and a tailored Green's function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Steven A. E.

    2014-02-01

    An assessment of an acoustic analogy for the mixing noise component of jet noise in the presence of an infinite surface is presented. The reflection of jet noise by the ground changes the distribution of acoustic energy and is characterized by constructive and destructive interference patterns. The equivalent sources are modeled based on the two-point cross-correlation of the turbulent velocity fluctuations and a steady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) solution. Propagation effects, due to reflection by the surface and refraction by the jet shear layer, are taken into account by calculating the vector Green's function of the linearized Euler equations (LEE). The vector Green's function of the LEE is written in relation to that of Lilley's equation; that is, it is approximated with matched asymptotic solutions and Green's function of the convective Helmholtz equation. The Green's function of the convective Helmholtz equation in the presence of an infinite flat plane with impedance is the Weyl-van der Pol equation. Predictions are compared with measurements from an unheated Mach 0.95 jet. Microphones are placed at various heights and distances from the nozzle exit in the peak jet noise direction above an acoustically hard and an asphalt surface. The predictions are shown to accurately capture jet noise ground effects that are characterized by constructive and destructive interference patterns in the mid- and far-field and capture overall trends in the near-field.

  4. The Prediction of Jet Noise Ground Effects Using an Acoustic Analogy and a Tailored Green's Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Steven A. E.

    2013-01-01

    An assessment of an acoustic analogy for the mixing noise component of jet noise in the presence of an infinite surface is presented. The reflection of jet noise by the ground changes the distribution of acoustic energy and is characterized by constructive and destructive interference patterns. The equivalent sources are modeled based on the two-point cross- correlation of the turbulent velocity fluctuations and a steady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) solution. Propagation effects, due to reflection by the surface and refaction by the jet shear layer, are taken into account by calculating the vector Green's function of the linearized Euler equations (LEE). The vector Green's function of the LEE is written in relation to Lilley's equation; that is, approximated with matched asymptotic solutions and the Green's function of the convective Helmholtz equation. The Green's function of the convective Helmholtz equation for an infinite flat plane with impedance is the Weyl-van der Pol equation. Predictions are compared with an unheated Mach 0.95 jet produced by a nozzle with an exit diameter of 0.3302 meters. Microphones are placed at various heights and distances from the nozzle exit in the peak jet noise direction above an acoustically hard and an asphalt surface. The predictions are shown to accurately capture jet noise ground effects that are characterized by constructive and destructive interference patterns in the mid- and far-field and capture overall trends in the near-field.

  5. Analysis of Acoustic Modeling and Sound Propagation in Aircraft Noise Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plotkin, Kenneth J.; Shepherd, Kevin P. (Technical Monitor)

    2006-01-01

    An analysis has been performed of measured and predicted aircraft noise levels around Denver International Airport. A detailed examination was made of 90 straight-out departures that yielded good measurements on multiple monitors. Predictions were made with INM 5, INM 6 and the simulation model NMSIM. Predictions were consistently lower than measurements, less so for the simulation model than for the integrated models. Lateral directivity ("installation effect") patterns were seen which are consistent with other recent measurements. Atmospheric absorption was determined to be a significant factor in the underprediction. Calculations of atmospheric attenuation were made over a full year of upper air data at seven locations across the United States. It was found that temperature/humidity effects could cause variations of up to +/-4 dB, depending on season, for the sites examined. It was concluded that local temperature and humidity should be accounted for in aircraft noise modeling.

  6. Mean Flow and Noise Prediction for a Separate Flow Jet With Chevron Mixers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, L. Danielle; Bridges, James; Khavaran, Abbas

    2004-01-01

    Experimental and numerical results are presented here for a separate flow nozzle employing chevrons arranged in an alternating pattern on the core nozzle. Comparisons of these results demonstrate that the combination of the WIND/MGBK suite of codes can predict the noise reduction trends measured between separate flow jets with and without chevrons on the core nozzle. Mean flow predictions were validated against Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), pressure, and temperature data, and noise predictions were validated against acoustic measurements recorded in the NASA Glenn Aeroacoustic Propulsion Lab. Comparisons are also made to results from the CRAFT code. The work presented here is part of an on-going assessment of the WIND/MGBK suite for use in designing the next generation of quiet nozzles for turbofan engines.

  7. Open Rotor Noise Prediction at NASA Langley - Capabilities, Research and Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farassat, Fereidoun

    2010-01-01

    The high fuel prices of recent years have caused the operating cost of the airlines to soar. In an effort to bring down the fuel consumption, the major aircraft engine manufacturers are now taking a fresh look at open rotors for the propulsion of future airliners. Open rotors, also known as propfans or unducted fans, can offer up to 30 per cent improvement in efficiency compared to high bypass engines of 1980 vintage currently in use in most civilian aircraft. NASA Langley researchers have contributed significantly to the development of aeroacoustic technology of open rotors. This report discusses the current noise prediction technology at Langley and reviews the input data requirements, strengths and limitations of each method as well as the associated problems in need of attention by the researchers. We present a brief history of research on the aeroacoustics of rotating blade machinery at Langley Research Center. We then discuss the available noise prediction codes for open rotors developed at NASA Langley and their capabilities. In particular, we present the two useful formulations used for the computation of noise from subsonic and supersonic surfaces. Here we discuss the open rotor noise prediction codes ASSPIN and one based on Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equation with penetrable data surface (FW - Hpds). The scattering of sound from surfaces near the rotor are calculated using the fast scattering code (FSC) which is also discussed in this report. Plans for further improvements of these codes are given.

  8. Rotorcraft noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huston, R. J. (compiler)

    1982-01-01

    The establishment of a realistic plan for NASA and the U.S. helicopter industry to develop a design-for-noise methodology, including plans for the identification and development of promising noise reduction technology was discussed. Topics included: noise reduction techniques, scaling laws, empirical noise prediction, psychoacoustics, and methods of developing and validing noise prediction methods.

  9. Prediction of blade-vortex interaction noise from measured blade pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, Y.

    1981-01-01

    The impulsive nature of noise due to the interaction of a rotor blade with a tip vortex is studied. The time signature of this noise is calculated theoretically based on the measured blade surface pressure fluctuation of an operational load survey rotor in slow descending flight and is compared with the simultaneous microphone measurement. Particularly, the physical understanding of the characteristic features of a waveform is extensively studied in order to understand the generating mechanism and to identify the important parameters. The interaction trajectory of a tip vortex on an acoustic planform is shown to be a very important parameter for the impulsive shape of the noise. The unsteady nature of the pressure distribution at the very leading edge is also important to the pulse shape. The theoretical model using noncompact liner acoustics predicts the general shape of interaction impulse pretty well except for peak amplitude which requires more continuous information along the span at the leading edge.

  10. Interrogating noise in protein sequences from the perspective of protein-protein interactions prediction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongcui; Ren, Xianwen; Zhang, Chunhua; Deng, Naiyang; Zhang, Xiangsun

    2012-12-21

    The past decades witnessed extensive efforts to study the relationship among proteins. Particularly, sequence-based protein-protein interactions (PPIs) prediction is fundamentally important in speeding up the process of mapping interactomes of organisms. High-throughput experimental methodologies make many model organism's PPIs known, which allows us to apply machine learning methods to learn understandable rules from the available PPIs. Under the machine learning framework, the composition vectors are usually applied to encode proteins as real-value vectors. However, the composition vector value might be highly correlated to the distribution of amino acids, i.e., amino acids which are frequently observed in nature tend to have a large value of composition vectors. Thus formulation to estimate the noise induced by the background distribution of amino acids may be needed during representations. Here, we introduce two kinds of denoising composition vectors, which were successfully used in construction of phylogenetic trees, to eliminate the noise. When validating these two denoising composition vectors on Escherichia coli (E. coli), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) and human PPIs datasets, surprisingly, the predictive performance is not improved, and even worse than non-denoised prediction. These results suggest that the noise in phylogenetic tree construction may be valuable information in PPIs prediction. PMID:22999977

  11. The 136 MHz/400 MHz earth station antenna-noise temperature prediction program documentation for RAE-B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, M.

    1972-01-01

    A simulation study to determine the 136 MHz and 400 MHz noise temperature of the ground network antennas which will track the RAE-B satellite during data transmission periods is described. Since the noise temperature of the antenna effectively sets the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the received signal, a knowledge of SNR will be helpful in locating the optimum time windows for data transmission during low-noise periods. Antenna-noise temperatures at 136 MHz and 400 MHz will be predicted for selected earth-based ground stations which will support RAE-B. The antenna-noise temperature predictions will include the effects of galactic-brightness temperature, the sun, and the brightest radio stars. Predictions will cover the ten-month period from March 1, 1973 to December 31, 1973. The RAE-B mission will be expecially susceptible to SNR degradation during the two eclipses of the Sun occurring in this period.

  12. The 136 MHZ/400 MHz earth station antenna-noise temperature prediction program for RAE-B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, R. E.; Fee, J. J.; Chin, M.

    1972-01-01

    A simulation study was undertaken to determine the 136 MHz and 400 MHz noise temperature of the ground network antennas which will track the RAE-B satellite during data transmission periods. Since the noise temperature of the antenna effectively sets the signal-to-noise ratio of the received signal, a knowledge of SNR will be helpful in locating the optimum time windows for data transmission during low noise periods. Antenna noise temperatures will be predicted for selected earth-based ground stations which will support RAE-B. Telemetry data acquisition will be at 400 MHz; tracking support at 136 MHz will be provided by the Goddard Range and Range Rate (RARR) stations. The antenna-noise temperature predictions will include the effects of galactic-brightness temperature, the sun, and the brightest radio stars. Predictions will cover the ten-month period from March 1, 1973 to December 31, 1973.

  13. Acoustical, sensory, and psychological research data and procedures for their use in predicting effects of environmental noises.

    PubMed

    Kryter, Karl D

    2007-11-01

    A demonstration field-research study reveals that aircraft noise measured at two one-story houses is approximately 9 dB less attenuated from measured outdoor levels than is street traffic noise, and, found in other studies, approximately 14 dB less than railway noise. Comparable differences are found between these noises from the application of basic acoustical formulas for quantifying attenuations that occur on site of one- and two-story houses. Reasonably consistent with those findings are results from attitude surveys showing that daily exposure levels of aircraft must be approximately 8 dB less than levels of street traffic noise, and approximately 13 dB less than levels of railway noise to be perceived as an equal cause of annoyance and related adverse effects. However, USA government guidelines recommend that equal exposure levels of noise measured outdoors from vehicles of transportation should be considered as being equally annoying. Changes in present USA noise-measurement procedures and noise-control guidelines are proposed that provide more accurate predictions of annoyance, related adverse effects, and criteria for setting "tolerable" limits of noise exposure in residential areas. Key acoustical and psycho-acoustical principles and data pertaining to predicting correlations between dosages of environmental noises and its effects on people and land noise zoning in residential communities are examined. PMID:18189552

  14. SEA extension of a F. E. model to predict total engine noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stimpson, G.; Lalor, N.

    Automotive engine noise has been the subject of much research and development in recent years, mainly due to the pressures of legislation. Most of this research has been concentrated on the design of the cylinder block, since this is where the vibration originates. However, on many engines the ligth covers (i.e. timing gear cover, rocker cover and sump) are the predominant sources of structurally radiated noise and usually 2 to 3 decibel (dBA) reduction can be achieved by quietening them. Because of its inherent stiffness, the block casting vibrates with quite simple (low order) mode shapes even at the top end of the acoustically important 300 Hz to 3000 Hz frequency band. Thus, relatively coarse mesh Finite Element (FE) models are adequate for noise prediction. In contrast to this, many light covers have a high modal density in their predominant noise radiating region, making finite element techniques difficult to apply. The block, cylinder head and bearing caps assembly can also be considered as a subsystem of a Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) model. Thus the vibration energy calculated by the FE model can be fed into the SEA model of the complete engine - which can include ancillary equipment (starter motor, alternator, exhaust system etc.), if required. This paper describes how such a SEA model is constructed and how it can be used to evaluate noise reduction strategies.

  15. A survey of models for the prediction of ambient ocean noise: Circa 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Doolittle, R.

    1996-01-01

    The state of the art of model development for application to computer studies of undersea search systems utilizing acoustics is surveyed in this document. Due to the demands for surveillance of submarines operating in ocean basins, the development of noise models for application in deep oceans is fairly advanced and somewhat generic. This is due to the deep sound channel, discovered during World War II, which when present allows for long-range sound propagation with little or no interaction with the bottom. Exceptions to this channel, also well understood, are found in both the high latitudes where the sound is upward refracting and in tropical ocean areas with downward refracting sound transmission. The controlling parameter is the sound speed as a function of depth within the ocean, the sound speed profile. When independent of range, this profile may be converted to a noise-versus-depth profile with well-validated consequences for deep-ocean ambient noise. When considering ocean areas of shallow water, the littoral regions, the idea of a genenic ocean channel advisedly is abandoned. The locally unique nature of both the noise production mechanisms and of the channel carrying the sound, obviates the generic treatment. Nevertheless, idealizations of this case exist and promote the understanding if not the exact predictability of the statistics of shallow water ambient noise. Some examples of these models are given in this document.

  16. Prediction of the influence of reverberation on binaural speech intelligibility in noise and in quiet.

    PubMed

    Rennies, Jan; Brand, Thomas; Kollmeier, Birger

    2011-11-01

    Reverberation usually degrades speech intelligibility for spatially separated speech and noise sources since spatial unmasking is reduced and late reflections decrease the fidelity of the received speech signal. The latter effect could not satisfactorily be predicted by a recently presented binaural speech intelligibility model [Beutelmann et al. (2010). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 127, 2479-2497]. This study therefore evaluated three extensions of the model to improve its predictions: (1) an extension of the speech intelligibility index based on modulation transfer functions, (2) a correction factor based on the room acoustical quantity "definition," and (3) a separation of the speech signal into useful and detrimental parts. The predictions were compared to results of two experiments in which speech reception thresholds were measured in a reverberant room in quiet and in the presence of a noise source for listeners with normal hearing. All extensions yielded better predictions than the original model when the influence of reverberation was strong, while predictions were similar for conditions with less reverberation. Although model (3) differed substantially in the assumed interaction of binaural processing and early reflections, its predictions were very similar to model (2) that achieved the best fit to the data. PMID:22087928

  17. A computer program to predict rotor rotational noise of a stationary rotor from blade loading coefficient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramakrishnan, R.; Randall, D.; Hosier, R. N.

    1976-01-01

    The programing language used is FORTRAN IV. A description of all main and subprograms is provided so that any user possessing a FORTRAN compiler and random access capability can adapt the program to his facility. Rotor blade surface-pressure spectra can be used by the program to calculate: (1) blade station loading spectra, (2) chordwise and/or spanwise integrated blade-loading spectra, and (3) far-field rotational noise spectra. Any of five standard inline functions describing the chordwise distribution of the blade loading can be chosen in order to study parametrically the acoustic predictions. The program output consists of both printed and graphic descriptions of the blade-loading coefficient spectra and far-field acoustic spectrum. The results may also be written on binary file for future processing. Examples of the application of the program along with a description of the rotational noise prediction theory on which the program is based are also provided.

  18. Users' manual for the Langley high speed propeller noise prediction program (DFP-ATP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, M. H.; Tarkenton, G. M.

    1989-01-01

    The use of the Dunn-Farassat-Padula Advanced Technology Propeller (DFP-ATP) noise prediction program which computes the periodic acoustic pressure signature and spectrum generated by propellers moving with supersonic helical tip speeds is described. The program has the capacity of predicting noise produced by a single-rotation propeller (SRP) or a counter-rotation propeller (CRP) system with steady or unsteady blade loading. The computational method is based on two theoretical formulations developed by Farassat. One formulation is appropriate for subsonic sources, and the other for transonic or supersonic sources. Detailed descriptions of user input, program output, and two test cases are presented, as well as brief discussions of the theoretical formulations and computational algorithms employed.

  19. Signal-to-Noise Ratio Prediction and Validation for Space Shuttle GPS Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwu, Shian U.; Adkins, Antha A.; Loh, Yin-Chung; Brown, Lisa C.; Sham, Catherine C.; Kroll, Quin D.

    2002-01-01

    A deterministic method for Space Station Global Positioning System (GPS) Signal-To- Noise Ratio (SNR) predictions is proposed. The complex electromagnetic interactions between GPS antennas and surrounding Space Station structures are taken into account by computational electromagnetic technique. This computer simulator is capable of taking into account multipath effects from dynamically changed solar panels and thermal radiators. A comparison with recent collected Space Station GPS system flight experiment data is presented. The simulation results are in close agreement with flight data.

  20. Wavelet Transform Noise Elimination and Its Application in City Heating Load Prediction

    E-print Network

    Jiang, Y.; Jun, X.; Wei, B.

    2006-01-01

    ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China HVAC Technologies for Energy Efficiency, Vol. IV-6-4 Wavelet Transform Noise Elimination and Its Application in City Heating Load Prediction Yongcheng Jiang Xiong Jun Bin WEI Associate..., 1994. (in Chinese) [2] Donoho D L. De-nosing by soft-thresholding[J]. IEEE Transaction on Information Theory, 1995, 41(3):613-627. [3] Jun Xiong, Yongcheng Jiang, JunGuo. Bp networkpredictive model structure for heat supply network[J]. Journal...

  1. Predicting stochastic systems by noise sampling, and application to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation

    PubMed Central

    Chekroun, Mickaël David; Kondrashov, Dmitri; Ghil, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Interannual and interdecadal prediction are major challenges of climate dynamics. In this article we develop a prediction method for climate processes that exhibit low-frequency variability (LFV). The method constructs a nonlinear stochastic model from past observations and estimates a path of the “weather” noise that drives this model over previous finite-time windows. The method has two steps: (i) select noise samples—or “snippets”—from the past noise, which have forced the system during short-time intervals that resemble the LFV phase just preceding the currently observed state; and (ii) use these snippets to drive the system from the current state into the future. The method is placed in the framework of pathwise linear-response theory and is then applied to an El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) model derived by the empirical model reduction (EMR) methodology; this nonlinear model has 40 coupled, slow, and fast variables. The domain of validity of this forecasting procedure depends on the nature of the system’s pathwise response; it is shown numerically that the ENSO model’s response is linear on interannual time scales. As a result, the method’s skill at a 6- to 16-month lead is highly competitive when compared with currently used dynamic and statistic prediction methods for the Niño-3 index and the global sea surface temperature field. PMID:21730171

  2. Interior Noise Predictions in the Preliminary Design of the Large Civil Tiltrotor (LCTR2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grosveld, Ferdinand W.; Cabell, Randolph H.; Boyd, David D.

    2013-01-01

    A prediction scheme was established to compute sound pressure levels in the interior of a simplified cabin model of the second generation Large Civil Tiltrotor (LCTR2) during cruise conditions, while being excited by turbulent boundary layer flow over the fuselage, or by tiltrotor blade loading and thickness noise. Finite element models of the cabin structure, interior acoustic space, and acoustically absorbent (poro-elastic) materials in the fuselage were generated and combined into a coupled structural-acoustic model. Fluctuating power spectral densities were computed according to the Efimtsov turbulent boundary layer excitation model. Noise associated with the tiltrotor blades was predicted in the time domain as fluctuating surface pressures and converted to power spectral densities at the fuselage skin finite element nodes. A hybrid finite element (FE) approach was used to compute the low frequency acoustic cabin response over the frequency range 6-141 Hz with a 1 Hz bandwidth, and the Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) approach was used to predict the interior noise for the 125-8000 Hz one-third octave bands.

  3. Development of Jet Noise Power Spectral Laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khavaran, Abbas; Bridges, James

    2011-01-01

    High-quality jet noise spectral data measured at the Aero-Acoustic Propulsion Laboratory (AAPL) at NASA Glenn is used to develop jet noise scaling laws. A FORTRAN algorithm was written that provides detailed spectral prediction of component jet noise at user-specified conditions. The model generates quick estimates of the jet mixing noise and the broadband shock-associated noise (BBSN) in single-stream, axis-symmetric jets within a wide range of nozzle operating conditions. Shock noise is emitted when supersonic jets exit a nozzle at imperfectly expanded conditions. A successful scaling of the BBSN allows for this noise component to be predicted in both convergent and convergent-divergent nozzles. Configurations considered in this study consisted of convergent and convergent- divergent nozzles. Velocity exponents for the jet mixing noise were evaluated as a function of observer angle and jet temperature. Similar intensity laws were developed for the broadband shock-associated noise in supersonic jets. A computer program called sJet was developed that provides a quick estimate of component noise in single-stream jets at a wide range of operating conditions. A number of features have been incorporated into the data bank and subsequent scaling in order to improve jet noise predictions. Measurements have been converted to a lossless format. Set points have been carefully selected to minimize the instability-related noise at small aft angles. Regression parameters have been scrutinized for error bounds at each angle. Screech-related amplification noise has been kept to a minimum to ensure that the velocity exponents for the jet mixing noise remain free of amplifications. A shock-noise-intensity scaling has been developed independent of the nozzle design point. The computer program provides detailed narrow-band spectral predictions for component noise (mixing noise and shock associated noise), as well as the total noise. Although the methodology is confined to single streams, efforts are underway to generate a data bank and algorithm applicable to dual-stream jets. Shock-associated noise in high-powered jets such as military aircraft can benefit from these predictions.

  4. A Dual Band 1.8GHz/900MHz, 750kb/s GMSK Transmitter Utilizing a Hybrid PFD/DAC Structure for Reduced Broadband Phase Noise

    E-print Network

    Perrott, Michael

    . In state-of-the-art fractional-N synthesizers this noise has a high-pass shaped profile, and becomes of the shaped quantization noise feeds through to the output, giving rise to an undesirable noise, the PFD/DAC, combines the functionality of phase detector, charge-pump, and a noise cancellation digital

  5. The significance of parameter uncertainties for the prediction of offshore pile driving noise.

    PubMed

    Lippert, Tristan; von Estorff, Otto

    2014-11-01

    Due to the construction of offshore wind farms and its potential effect on marine wildlife, the numerical prediction of pile driving noise over long ranges has recently gained importance. In this contribution, a coupled finite element/wavenumber integration model for noise prediction is presented and validated by measurements. The ocean environment, especially the sea bottom, can only be characterized with limited accuracy in terms of input parameters for the numerical model at hand. Therefore the effect of these parameter uncertainties on the prediction of sound pressure levels (SPLs) in the water column is investigated by a probabilistic approach. In fact, a variation of the bottom material parameters by means of Monte-Carlo simulations shows significant effects on the predicted SPLs. A sensitivity analysis of the model with respect to the single quantities is performed, as well as a global variation. Based on the latter, the probability distribution of the SPLs at an exemplary receiver position is evaluated and compared to measurements. The aim of this procedure is to develop a model to reliably predict an interval for the SPLs, by quantifying the degree of uncertainty of the SPLs with the MC simulations. PMID:25373948

  6. Comparison of methods of predicting community response to impulsive and nonimpulsive noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fidell, Sanford; Pearsons, Karl S.

    1994-01-01

    Several scientific, regulatory, and policy-coordinating bodies have developed methods for predicting community response to sonic booms. The best known of these is the dosage-response relationship of Working Group 84 of the National Academy of Science's Committee on Hearing, Bioacoustics and Biomechanics. This dosage-response relationship between C-weighted DayNight Average Sound Level and the prevalence of annoyance with high energy impulsive sounds was derived from limited amounts of information about community response to regular, prolonged, and expected exposure to artillery and sonic booms. U.S. Army Regulation 201 adapts this approach to predictions of the acceptability of impulsive noise exposure in communities. This regulation infers equivalent degrees of effect with respect to a well known dosage-response relationship for general (nonimpulsive) transportation noise. Differences in prevalence of annoyance predicted by various relationships lead to different predictions of the compatibility of land uses with sonic boom exposure. An examination of these differences makes apparent several unresolved issues in current practice for predicting and interpreting the prevalence of annoyance due to sonic boom exposure.

  7. Development of Computational Aeroacoustics Code for Jet Noise and Flow Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keith, Theo G., Jr.; Hixon, Duane R.

    2002-07-01

    Accurate prediction of jet fan and exhaust plume flow and noise generation and propagation is very important in developing advanced aircraft engines that will pass current and future noise regulations. In jet fan flows as well as exhaust plumes, two major sources of noise are present: large-scale, coherent instabilities and small-scale turbulent eddies. In previous work for the NASA Glenn Research Center, three strategies have been explored in an effort to computationally predict the noise radiation from supersonic jet exhaust plumes. In order from the least expensive computationally to the most expensive computationally, these are: 1) Linearized Euler equations (LEE). 2) Very Large Eddy Simulations (VLES). 3) Large Eddy Simulations (LES). The first method solves the linearized Euler equations (LEE). These equations are obtained by linearizing about a given mean flow and the neglecting viscous effects. In this way, the noise from large-scale instabilities can be found for a given mean flow. The linearized Euler equations are computationally inexpensive, and have produced good noise results for supersonic jets where the large-scale instability noise dominates, as well as for the tone noise from a jet engine blade row. However, these linear equations do not predict the absolute magnitude of the noise; instead, only the relative magnitude is predicted. Also, the predicted disturbances do not modify the mean flow, removing a physical mechanism by which the amplitude of the disturbance may be controlled. Recent research for isolated airfoils' indicates that this may not affect the solution greatly at low frequencies. The second method addresses some of the concerns raised by the LEE method. In this approach, called Very Large Eddy Simulation (VLES), the unsteady Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations are solved directly using a high-accuracy computational aeroacoustics numerical scheme. With the addition of a two-equation turbulence model and the use of a relatively coarse grid, the numerical solution is effectively filtered into a directly calculated mean flow with the small-scale turbulence being modeled, and an unsteady large-scale component that is also being directly calculated. In this way, the unsteady disturbances are calculated in a nonlinear way, with a direct effect on the mean flow. This method is not as fast as the LEE approach, but does have many advantages to recommend it; however, like the LEE approach, only the effect of the largest unsteady structures will be captured. An initial calculation was performed on a supersonic jet exhaust plume, with promising results, but the calculation was hampered by the explicit time marching scheme that was employed. This explicit scheme required a very small time step to resolve the nozzle boundary layer, which caused a long run time. Current work is focused on testing a lower-order implicit time marching method to combat this problem.

  8. Applications of the predictability of the Coherent Noise Model to aftershock sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christopoulos, Stavros-Richard; Sarlis, Nicholas

    2014-05-01

    A study [1] of the coherent noise model [2-4] in natural time [5-7] has shown that it exhibits predictability. Interestingly, one of the predictors suggested [1] for the coherent noise model can be generalized and applied to the case of (real) aftershock sequences. The results obtained [8] so far are beyond chance. Here, we apply this approach to several aftershock sequences of strong earthquakes with magnitudes Mw ?6.9 in Indonesia, California and Greece, including the Mw9.2 earthquake that occurred on 26 December 2004 in Sumatra. References. [1] N. V. Sarlis and S.-R. G. Christopoulos, Predictability of the coherent-noise model and its applications, Physical Review E, 85, 051136, 2012. [2] M.E.J. Newman, Self-organized criticality, evolution and the fossil extinction record, Proc. R. Soc. London B, 263, 1605-1610, 1996. [3] M. E. J. Newman and K. Sneppen, Avalanches, scaling, and coherent noise, Phys. Rev. E, 54, 6226-6231, 1996. [4] K. Sneppen and M. Newman, Coherent noise, scale invariance and intermittency in large systems, Physica D, 110, 209 - 222. [5] P. Varotsos, N. Sarlis, and E. Skordas, Spatiotemporal complexity aspects on the interrelation between Seismic Electric Signals and seismicity, Practica of Athens Academy, 76, 294-321, 2001. [6] P.A. Varotsos, N.V. Sarlis, and E.S. Skordas, Long-range correlations in the electric signals that precede rupture, Phys. Rev. E, 66, 011902, 2002. [7] Varotsos P. A., Sarlis N. V. and Skordas E. S., Natural Time Analysis: The new view of time. Precursory Seismic Electric Signals, Earthquakes and other Complex Time-Series (Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg) 2011. [8] N. V. Sarlis and S.-R. G. Christopoulos, "Visualization of the significance of Receiver Operating Characteristics based on confidence ellipses", Computer Physics Communications, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cpc.2013.12.009

  9. A semi-analytical model for the prediction of underwater noise from offshore pile driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsouvalas, A.; Metrikine, A. V.

    2013-06-01

    Underwater noise from offshore pile driving gained considerable attention in recent years mainly due to the large scale construction of offshore wind farms. The most common foundation type of a wind turbine is a monopile, upon which the wind tower rests. The pile is driven into place with the help of hydraulic hammers. During the hammering of the pile, high levels of noise are generated which are known to produce deleterious effects on both mammals and fish. In this work, a linear semi-analytical model is developed for predicting the levels of underwater noise for a wide range of system parameters. The model incorporates all major parts of the system. The hydraulic hammer is substituted by an external force, the pile is described as a thin circular cylindrical shell, the water is modelled as a compressible fluid and the water-saturated seabed is defined by distributed springs and dashpots in all directions. The solution of the coupled vibroacoustic problem is based on the representation of the response of the complete system on the modal basis of the in vacuo shell structure. The influence that the inter-modal coupling, the choice of the soil parameters and the acoustic impedance of the seabed have on the generated noise levels is studied in the frequency domain. Strong and weak points of the present model are discussed on the basis of a comparison with a set of available experimental data. The obtained results show the capability of the model to predict the underwater noise levels both qualitatively and quantitatively.

  10. The Prediction of Noise Due to Jet Turbulence Convecting Past Flight Vehicle Trailing Edges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Steven A. E.

    2014-01-01

    High intensity acoustic radiation occurs when turbulence convects past airframe trailing edges. A mathematical model is developed to predict this acoustic radiation. The model is dependent on the local flow and turbulent statistics above the trailing edge of the flight vehicle airframe. These quantities are dependent on the jet and flight vehicle Mach numbers and jet temperature. A term in the model approximates the turbulent statistics of single-stream heated jet flows and is developed based upon measurement. The developed model is valid for a wide range of jet Mach numbers, jet temperature ratios, and flight vehicle Mach numbers. The model predicts traditional trailing edge noise if the jet is not interacting with the airframe. Predictions of mean-flow quantities and the cross-spectrum of static pressure near the airframe trailing edge are compared with measurement. Finally, predictions of acoustic intensity are compared with measurement and the model is shown to accurately capture the phenomenon.

  11. Highly Variable Cycle Nozzle Concept: Validation of Flow and Noise Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halbig, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    Results from experimental and numerical studies of highly Variable Cycle (HVC) exhaust model were presented. The model was designed and fabricated under a Supersonics NRA awarded to Rolls-Royce. The model had a lobed mixer for the core stream nozzle, and elliptic fan stream nozzle, and an ejector. Experiments included far-field acoustic array, phased array, and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements. Numerical studies included flow simulations using the WIND-US code and far-field acoustic solutions using an acoustic analogy developed by Goldstein (2003) and Leib and Goldstein (2011). Far-field acoustic measurements showed increased noise levels over the round baseline nozzle when using non-static forward flight conditions. Phased array measurements showed noise sources near the ejector doors when tones were produced for small ejector door positions. Ejector door separation identified in the experiments was reproduced in the numerical flow simulations. Acoustic solutions were unable to match levels measured in the peak jet noise direction indicating additional development work is needed to predict noise from highly three-dimensional flows.

  12. On the prediction of impact noise, III: Energy accountancy in industrial machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, E. J.

    1981-05-01

    It has been explained in the two previous parts of this series of papers that the peak noise level of an impact machine can be predicted in terms of the initial kinetic energy in an equivalent bag of air of the same dimensions and impact time, but that the total Leq at any frequency must depend upon the vibrational energy stored in the machine following impact and in its ability to radiate such energy as sound. This paper presents a method of examining the energy balance in the machine and obtains simple and helpful expressions for the radiated sound energy in terms of the internal energy level, a "modified" radiation efficiency, a structural damping factor, and a bulkness factor (equation (4a)). An alternative form, based upon the measured rates of change of force in the operating tool, impulse and structural response factors, modified radiation efficiency, damping factor and bulkiness factor is also presented (equation (4b)). The diagnostic advantages of thinking in terms of the changes in each of these terms as a method of studying noise control, even for apparently continuous running processes, are illustrated by a series of case studies which include punch press analysis, bottle impacts, impacts of solid workpieces falling into bins, gearwheel noise phenomena, backlash and diesel engine noise.

  13. Measurement and prediction of ultralow frequency ocean ambient noise off the eastern U.S. coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, D. Keith; Frisk, George V.; Lindstrom, Timothy E.; Sellers, Cynthia J.

    2003-06-01

    Ultralow frequency (0.02-2 Hz) acoustic ambient noise was monitored from January to April 1991 at six ocean bottom stations off the eastern U.S. coast. The depths of the stations ranged from about 100 m to 2500 m. The measured spectra are in good agreement with predictions made using Cato's theory [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 89, 1076-1095 (1991)] for noise generation by surface-wave orbital motion after extending the calculations to incorporate horizontally stratified environments. Contributions from both the linear, single-frequency (virtual monopole) and the nonlinear, double-frequency (dipole) mechanisms are clearly recognizable in the data. The predictions make use of directional wave data obtained from surface buoys deployed during the SWADE experiment and an ocean bottom model derived from compressional wave speed data measured during the EDGE deep seismic reflection survey. The results demonstrate conclusively that nonlinear surface-wave interactions are the dominant mechanism for generating deep-ocean ULF noise in the band 0.2-0.7 Hz.

  14. Validation of an interior noise prediction model for a composite cylinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyer, Todd B.; Grosveld, Ferdinand W.

    1987-01-01

    An acoustic modal analysis has been performed in the cavity of a composite cylinder model of an aircraft fuselage. The filament wound, composite shell is 12 feet long and 5.5 feet in diameter. A one-half-in. thick plywood floor is attached to the shell 69 deg from the vertical centerline through the bottom of the shell. The acoustic modal frequencies were obtained from a sound pressure level and phase survey conducted throughout the interior volume bounded by the floor, endcaps and stiffened shell, while being excited by white noise from a loudspeaker source. The measured acoustic resonance frequencies and mode shapes compare well with analytical predictions from the Propeller Aircraft Interior Noise (PAIN) model. Details of the theory and derivation of the acoustic characteristics have been included. Reverberation time measurements, using the integrated impulse technique, have been performed to determine acoustic loss factors. These measured loss factors have been input to the PAIN program in order to more accurately predict the space-averaged interior noise of the composite cylinder.

  15. Source Methodology for Turbofan Noise Prediction (SOURCE3D Technical Documentation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Harold D.

    1999-01-01

    This report provides the analytical documentation for the SOURCE3D Rotor Wake/Stator Interaction Code. It derives the equations for the rotor scattering coefficients and stator source vector and scattering coefficients that are needed for use in the TFANS (Theoretical Fan Noise Design/Prediction System). SOURCE3D treats the rotor and stator as isolated source elements. TFANS uses this information, along with scattering coefficients for inlet and exit elements, and provides complete noise solutions for turbofan engines. SOURCE3D is composed of a collection of FORTRAN programs that have been obtained by extending the approach of the earlier V072 Rotor Wake/Stator Interaction Code. Similar to V072, it treats the rotor and stator as a collection of blades and vanes having zero thickness and camber contained in an infinite, hardwall annular duct. SOURCE3D adds important features to the V072 capability-a rotor element, swirl flow and vorticity waves, actuator disks for flow turning, and combined rotor/actuator disk and stator/actuator disk elements. These items allow reflections from the rotor, frequency scattering, and mode trapping, thus providing more complete noise predictions than previously. The code has been thoroughly verified through comparison with D.B. Hanson's CUP2D two- dimensional code using a narrow annulus test case.

  16. IX Encontro de tecnologia em Acstica Submarina IX ETAS FIELD CALIBRATION A TOOL FOR ACOUSTIC NOISE PREDICTION

    E-print Network

    Jesus, Sérgio M.

    , as in our case, the problem of predicting the distribution of acoustic noise due to a wave energy power. In this context the number of renewable energy installations in the ocean, off-shore wind mills and wave energy recognized that anthropogenic noise affects the marine fauna, thus it becomes a major concern in ocean

  17. Experimental characterization of vertical-axis wind turbine noise.

    PubMed

    Pearson, C E; Graham, W R

    2015-01-01

    Vertical-axis wind turbines are wind-energy generators suitable for use in urban environments. Their associated noise thus needs to be characterized and understood. As a first step, this work investigates the relative importance of harmonic and broadband contributions via model-scale wind-tunnel experiments. Cross-spectra from a pair of flush-mounted wall microphones exhibit both components, but further analysis shows that the broadband dominates at frequencies corresponding to the audible range in full-scale operation. This observation has detrimental implications for noise-prediction reliability and hence also for acoustic design optimization. PMID:25618090

  18. Avian colour vision: Effects of variation in receptor sensitivity and noise data on model predictions as compared to behavioural results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olle Lind; Almut Kelber

    2009-01-01

    Colour vision models require measurement of receptor noise and the absorbance of visual pigments, oil droplets, and ocular media. We have studied how variation in these parameters influences colour matching, spectral sensitivity, and colour discrimination predictions in four bird species. While colour match predictions are sensitive to variation in visual pigment and oil droplet absorbance data, discrimination predictions are mostly

  19. An angle-by-angle approach to predicting broadband high-frequency sound fields in rectangular enclosures with experimental comparison

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda P. Franzoni; Christopher M. Elliott

    2003-01-01

    Experiments were performed on an elongated rectangular acoustic enclosure with different levels of absorptive material placed on side walls and an end wall. The acoustic source was a broadband high-frequency sound from a loudspeaker flush-mounted to an end wall of the enclosure. Measurements of sound-pressure levels were averaged in cross sections of the enclosure and then compared to theoretical results.

  20. Prediction of broadband ground-motion time histories: Hybrid low/high-frequency method with correlated random source parameters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liu, P.; Archuleta, R.J.; Hartzell, S.H.

    2006-01-01

    We present a new method for calculating broadband time histories of ground motion based on a hybrid low-frequency/high-frequency approach with correlated source parameters. Using a finite-difference method we calculate low-frequency synthetics (< ???1 Hz) in a 3D velocity structure. We also compute broadband synthetics in a 1D velocity model using a frequency-wavenumber method. The low frequencies from the 3D calculation are combined with the high frequencies from the 1D calculation by using matched filtering at a crossover frequency of 1 Hz. The source description, common to both the 1D and 3D synthetics, is based on correlated random distributions for the slip amplitude, rupture velocity, and rise time on the fault. This source description allows for the specification of source parameters independent of any a priori inversion results. In our broadband modeling we include correlation between slip amplitude, rupture velocity, and rise time, as suggested by dynamic fault modeling. The method of using correlated random source parameters is flexible and can be easily modified to adjust to our changing understanding of earthquake ruptures. A realistic attenuation model is common to both the 3D and 1D calculations that form the low- and high-frequency components of the broadband synthetics. The value of Q is a function of the local shear-wave velocity. To produce more accurate high-frequency amplitudes and durations, the 1D synthetics are corrected with a randomized, frequency-dependent radiation pattern. The 1D synthetics are further corrected for local site and nonlinear soil effects by using a 1D nonlinear propagation code and generic velocity structure appropriate for the site's National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) site classification. The entire procedure is validated by comparison with the 1994 Northridge, California, strong ground motion data set. The bias and error found here for response spectral acceleration are similar to the best results that have been published by others for the Northridge rupture.

  1. Technical Considerations for Broadband Powerline (BPL) Communication

    E-print Network

    high background noise on power lines. The third is government regulated limitation on transmitted power of the power transmission and distribution system as a waveguiding structure for high data rate or broadband advantage of broadband power line communication (BPL) systems over their wired competition (e. g., x

  2. Physics and Astronomy Seminar Broadband Spectrum Analysis

    E-print Network

    Chu, Xi

    Physics and Astronomy Seminar Broadband Spectrum Analysis and Signal Processing based will be presented on 1) a 20 GHz bandwidth high performance spectrum monitoring system with sub-MHz resolution) broadband spread spectrum communication over 30dB below the noise floor. Friday, November 21, 2014 CHCB 231

  3. Enhanced Fan Noise Modeling for Turbofan Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krejsa, Eugene A.; Stone, James R.

    2014-01-01

    This report describes work by consultants to Diversitech Inc. for the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) to revise the fan noise prediction procedure based on fan noise data obtained in the 9- by 15 Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel at GRC. The purpose of this task is to begin development of an enhanced, analytical, more physics-based, fan noise prediction method applicable to commercial turbofan propulsion systems. The method is to be suitable for programming into a computational model for eventual incorporation into NASA's current aircraft system noise prediction computer codes. The scope of this task is in alignment with the mission of the Propulsion 21 research effort conducted by the coalition of NASA, state government, industry, and academia to develop aeropropulsion technologies. A model for fan noise prediction was developed based on measured noise levels for the R4 rotor with several outlet guide vane variations and three fan exhaust areas. The model predicts the complete fan noise spectrum, including broadband noise, tones, and for supersonic tip speeds, combination tones. Both spectra and directivity are predicted. Good agreement with data was achieved for all fan geometries. Comparisons with data from a second fan, the ADP fan, also showed good agreement.

  4. Development of computer program ENMASK for prediction of residual environmental masking-noise spectra, from any three independent environmental parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Y.-S.; Liebich, R. E.; Chun, K. C.

    2000-03-31

    Residual environmental sound can mask intrusive4 (unwanted) sound. It is a factor that can affect noise impacts and must be considered both in noise-impact studies and in noise-mitigation designs. Models for quantitative prediction of sensation level (audibility) and psychological effects of intrusive noise require an input with 1/3 octave-band spectral resolution of environmental masking noise. However, the majority of published residual environmental masking-noise data are given with either octave-band frequency resolution or only single A-weighted decibel values. A model has been developed that enables estimation of 1/3 octave-band residual environmental masking-noise spectra and relates certain environmental parameters to A-weighted sound level. This model provides a correlation among three environmental conditions: measured residual A-weighted sound-pressure level, proximity to a major roadway, and population density. Cited field-study data were used to compute the most probable 1/3 octave-band sound-pressure spectrum corresponding to any selected one of these three inputs. In turn, such spectra can be used as an input to models for prediction of noise impacts. This paper discusses specific algorithms included in the newly developed computer program ENMASK. In addition, the relative audibility of the environmental masking-noise spectra at different A-weighted sound levels is discussed, which is determined by using the methodology of program ENAUDIBL.

  5. Predicting the Inflow Distortion Tone Noise of the NASA Glenn Advanced Noise Control Fan with a Combined Quadrupole-Dipole Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, L. Danielle

    2012-01-01

    A combined quadrupole-dipole model of fan inflow distortion tone noise has been extended to calculate tone sound power levels generated by obstructions arranged in circumferentially asymmetric locations upstream of a rotor. Trends in calculated sound power level agreed well with measurements from tests conducted in 2007 in the NASA Glenn Advanced Noise Control Fan. Calculated values of sound power levels radiated upstream were demonstrated to be sensitive to the accuracy of the modeled wakes from the cylindrical rods that were placed upstream of the fan to distort the inflow. Results indicate a continued need to obtain accurate aerodynamic predictions and measurements at the fan inlet plane as engineers work towards developing fan inflow distortion tone noise prediction tools.

  6. Modeling and Prediction of the Noise from Non-Axisymmetric Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leib, Stewart J.

    2014-01-01

    The new source model was combined with the original sound propagation model developed for rectangular jets to produce a new version of the rectangular jet noise prediction code. This code was validated using a set of rectangular nozzles whose geometries were specified by NASA. Nozzles of aspect ratios two, four and eight were studied at jet exit Mach numbers of 0.5, 0.7 and 0.9, for a total of nine cases. Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes solutions for these jets were provided to the contactor for use as input to the code. Quantitative comparisons of the predicted azimuthal and polar directivity of the acoustic spectrum were made with experimental data provided by NASA. The results of these comparisons, along with a documentation of the propagation and source models, were reported in a journal article publication (Ref. 4). The complete set of computer codes and computational modules that make up the prediction scheme, along with a user's guide describing their use and example test cases, was provided to NASA as a deliverable of this task. The use of conformal mapping, along with simplified modeling of the mean flow field, for noise propagation modeling was explored for other nozzle geometries, to support the task milestone of developing methods which are applicable to other geometries and flow conditions of interest to NASA. A model to represent twin round jets using this approach was formulated and implemented. A general approach to solving the equations governing sound propagation in a locally parallel nonaxisymmetric jet was developed and implemented, in aid of the tasks and milestones charged with selecting more exact numerical methods for modeling sound propagation, and developing methods that have application to other nozzle geometries. The method is based on expansion of both the mean-flowdependent coefficients in the governing equation and the Green's function in series of orthogonal functions. The method was coded and tested on two analytically prescribed mean flows which were meant to represent noise reduction concepts being considered by NASA. Testing (Ref. 5) showed that the method was feasible for the types of mean flows of interest in jet noise applications. Subsequently, this method was further developed to allow use of mean flow profiles obtained from a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) solution of the flow. Preliminary testing of the generalized code was among the last tasks completed under this contract. The stringent noise-reduction goals of NASA's Fundamental Aeronautics Program suggest that, in addition to potentially complex exhaust nozzle geometries, next generation aircraft will also involve tighter integration of the engine with the airframe. Therefore, noise generated and propagated by jet flows in the vicinity of solid surfaces is expected to be quite significant, and reduced-order noise prediction tools will be needed that can deal with such geometries. One important source of noise is that generated by the interaction of a turbulent jet with the edge of a solid surface (edge noise). Such noise is generated, for example, by the passing of the engine exhaust over a shielding surface, such as a wing. Work under this task supported an effort to develop a RANS-based prediction code for edge noise based on an extension of the classical Rapid Distortion Theory (RDT) to transversely sheared base flows (Refs. 6 and 7). The RDT-based theoretical analysis was applied to the generic problem of a turbulent jet interacting with the trailing edge of a flat plate. A code was written to evaluate the formula derived for the spectrum of the noise produced by this interaction and results were compared with data taken at NASA Glenn for a variety of jet/plate configurations and flow conditions (Ref. 8). A longer-term goal of this task was to work toward the development of a high-fidelity model of sound propagation in spatially developing non-axisymmetric jets using direct numerical methods for solving the relevant equations. Working with NASA Glenn Acoustics Branch personnel, numerical methods and boundary cond

  7. Analytical prediction of the interior noise for cylindrical models of aircraft fuselages for prescribed exterior noise fields. Phase 1: Development and validation of preliminary analytical models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pope, L. D.; Rennison, D. C.; Wilby, E. G.

    1980-01-01

    The basic theoretical work required to understand sound transmission into an enclosed space (that is, one closed by the transmitting structure) is developed for random pressure fields and for harmonic (tonal) excitation. The analysis is used to predict the noise reducton of unpressurized unstiffened cylinder, and also the interior response of the cylinder given a tonal (plane wave) excitation. Predictions and measurements are compared and the transmission is analyzed. In addition, results for tonal (harmonic) mechanical excitation are considered.

  8. A complex of analytical models for predicting noise in an aircraft cabin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efimtsov, B. M.; Lazarev, L. A.

    2012-07-01

    A series of analytical calculated models for predicting the noise in an aircraft cabin is developed: an orthotropic model, a model with discrete frames, a model with discrete stringers, a model with isolated cells, and a model with a cross system of discrete ribs. The analytical solution is constructed on the basis of the method of space harmonic expansion. Vibrations are represented in the form of double trigonometric series. Strict periodicity allows dividing the series into a large number of independent groups, which makes it possible to effectively perform calculations for large fragments of the fuselage in the entire frequency region both for deterministic and random external force fields.

  9. TBIEM3D: A Computer Program for Predicting Ducted Fan Engine Noise. Version 1.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, M. H.

    1997-01-01

    This document describes the usage of the ducted fan noise prediction program TBIEM3D (Thin duct - Boundary Integral Equation Method - 3 Dimensional). A scattering approach is adopted in which the acoustic pressure field is split into known incident and unknown scattered parts. The scattering of fan-generated noise by a finite length circular cylinder in a uniform flow field is considered. The fan noise is modeled by a collection of spinning point thrust dipoles. The program, based on a Boundary Integral Equation Method (BIEM), calculates circumferential modal coefficients of the acoustic pressure at user-specified field locations. The duct interior can be of the hard wall type or lined. The duct liner is axisymmetric, locally reactive, and can be uniform or axially segmented. TBIEM3D is written in the FORTRAN programming language. Input to TBIEM3D is minimal and consists of geometric and kinematic parameters. Discretization and numerical parameters are determined automatically by the code. Several examples are presented to demonstrate TBIEM3D capabilities.

  10. Pitch of amplitude-modulated low-pass noise and predictions by temporal and spectral theories.

    PubMed

    Houtsma, A J; Wicke, R W; Ordubadi, A

    1980-04-01

    Pitch phenomena related to the periodic interruption rate of white noise have traditionally been regarded as evidence for time domain pitch processing in the auditory system since spectra of these signals are flat. Short-term spectra, however, contain information about the interruption rate. Melodic interval identification experiments were performed with sounds comprising low-pass filtered noise modulated by either a sine wave, a square wave, or a periodic narrow pulse wave. Melodic intervals were generated by varying the modulation frequency fm while the low-pass cutoff frequency fco of the noise was an experimental variable. The correct identification score shows a particular dependence on the ratio fco/fm for each type of modulation signal. Shapes and relative positions of performance functions are compared with predictions derived from an energy detector (time domain) model and a short-term power spectrum correlation (frequency domain) model, and are found to support the former more strongly than the latter. There is some evidence, however, for the existence of both types of processing in the auditory system. PMID:7372918

  11. Simplified combustion noise theory yielding a prediction of fluctuating pressure level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, R. G.

    1984-01-01

    The first order equations for the conservation of mass and momentum in differential form are combined for an ideal gas to yield a single second order partial differential equation in one dimension and time. Small perturbation analysis is applied. A Fourier transformation is performed that results in a second order, constant coefficient, nonhomogeneous equation. The driving function is taken to be the source of combustion noise. A simplified model describing the energy addition via the combustion process gives the required source information for substitution in the driving function. This enables the particular integral solution of the nonhomogeneous equation to be found. This solution multiplied by the acoustic pressure efficiency predicts the acoustic pressure spectrum measured in turbine engine combustors. The prediction was compared with the overall sound pressure levels measured in a CF6-50 turbofan engine combustor and found to be in excellent agreement.

  12. Cortical activity predicts which older adults recognize speech in noise and when.

    PubMed

    Vaden, Kenneth I; Kuchinsky, Stefanie E; Ahlstrom, Jayne B; Dubno, Judy R; Eckert, Mark A

    2015-03-01

    Speech recognition in noise can be challenging for older adults and elicits elevated activity throughout a cingulo-opercular network that is hypothesized to monitor and modify behaviors to optimize performance. A word recognition in noise experiment was used to test the hypothesis that cingulo-opercular engagement provides performance benefit for older adults. Healthy older adults (N = 31; 50-81 years of age; mean pure tone thresholds <32 dB HL from 0.25 to 8 kHz, best ear; species: human) performed word recognition in multitalker babble at 2 signal-to-noise ratios (SNR = +3 or +10 dB) during a sparse sampling fMRI experiment. Elevated cingulo-opercular activity was associated with an increased likelihood of correct recognition on the following trial independently of SNR and performance on the preceding trial. The cingulo-opercular effect increased for participants with the best overall performance. These effects were lower for older adults compared with a younger, normal-hearing adult sample (N = 18). Visual cortex activity also predicted trial-level recognition for the older adults, which resulted from discrete decreases in activity before errors and occurred for the oldest adults with the poorest recognition. Participants demonstrating larger visual cortex effects also had reduced fractional anisotropy in an anterior portion of the left inferior frontal-occipital fasciculus, which projects between frontal and occipital regions where activity predicted word recognition. Together, the results indicate that older adults experience performance benefit from elevated cingulo-opercular activity, but not to the same extent as younger adults, and that declines in attentional control can limit word recognition. PMID:25740521

  13. Acoustic Noise Prediction of the Amine Swingbed ISS ExPRESS Rack Payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welsh, David; Smith, Holly; Wang, Shuo

    2010-01-01

    Acoustics plays a vital role in maintaining the health, safety, and comfort of crew members aboard the International Space Station (ISS). In order to maintain this livable and workable environment, acoustic requirements have been established to ensure that ISS hardware and payload developers account for the acoustic emissions of their equipment and develop acoustic mitigations as necessary. These requirements are verified by an acoustic emissions test of the integrated hardware. The Amine Swingbed ExPRESS (Expedite the PRocessing of ExperimentS to Space) rack payload creates a unique challenge to the developers in that the payload hardware is transported to the ISS in phases, making an acoustic emissions test on the integrated flight hardware impossible. In addition, the payload incorporates a high back pressure fan and a diaphragm vacuum pump, which are recognized as significant and complex noise sources. In order to accurately predict the acoustic emissions of the integrated payload, the individual acoustic noise sources and paths are first characterized. These characterizations are conducted though a series of acoustic emissions tests on the individual payload components. Secondly, the individual acoustic noise sources and paths are incorporated into a virtual model of the integrated hardware. The virtual model is constructed with the use of hybrid method utilizing the Finite Element Acoustic (FEA) and Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) techniques, which predict the overall acoustic emissions. Finally, the acoustic model is validated though an acoustic characterization test performed on an acoustically similar mock-up of the flight unit. The results of the validated acoustic model are then used to assess the acoustic emissions of the flight unit and define further acoustic mitigation efforts.

  14. Computation of interactional aerodynamics for noise prediction of heavy lift rotorcraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennes, Christopher C.

    Many computational tools are used when developing a modern helicopter. As the design space is narrowed, more accurate and time-intensive tools are brought to bear. These tools are used to determine the effect of a design decision on the performance, handling, stability and efficiency of the aircraft. One notable parameter left out of this process is acoustics. This is due in part to the difficulty in making useful acoustics calculations that reveal the differences between various design configurations. This thesis presents a new approach designed to bridge the gap in prediction capability between fast but low-fidelity Lagrangian particle methods, and slow but high-fidelity Eulerian computational fluid dynamics simulations. A multi-pronged approach is presented. First, a simple flow solver using well-understood and tested flow solution methodologies is developed specifically to handle bodies in arbitrary motion. To this basic flow solver two new technologies are added. The first is an Immersed Boundary technique designed to be tolerant of geometric degeneracies and low-resolution grids. This new technique allows easy inclusion of complex fuselage geometries at minimal computational cost, improving the ability of a solver to capture the complex interactional aerodynamic effects expected in modern rotorcraft design. The second new technique is an extension of a concept from flow visualization where the motion of tip vortices are tracked through the solution using massless particles convecting with the local flow. In this extension of that concept, the particles maintain knowledge of the expected and actual vortex strength. As a post-processing step, when the acoustic calculations are made, these particles are used to augment the loading noise calculation and reproduce the highly-impulsive character of blade-vortex interaction noise. In combination these new techniques yield a significant improvement to the state of the art in rotorcraft blade-vortex interaction noise prediction.

  15. Sources, control, and effects of noise from aircraft propellers and rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mixson, J. S.; Greene, G. C.; Dempsey, T. K.

    1981-01-01

    Recent NASA and NASA sponsored research on the prediction and control of propeller and rotor source noise, on the analysis and design of fuselage sidewall noise control treatments, and on the measurement and quantification of the response of passengers to aircraft noise is described. Source noise predictions are compared with measurements for conventional low speed propellers, for new high speed propellers (propfans), and for a helicopter. Results from a light aircraft demonstration program are considered which indicates that about 5 dB reduction of flyover noise can be obtained without significant performance penalty. Sidewall design studies are examined for interior noise control in light general aviation aircraft and in large transports using propfan propulsion. The weight of the added acoustic treatment is estimated and tradeoffs between weight and noise reduction are discussed. A laboratory study of passenger response to combined broadband and tonal propeller-like noise is described. Subject discomfort ratings of combined tone broadband noises are compared with ratings of broadband (boundary layer) noise alone and the relative importance of the propeller tones is examined.

  16. Broadband radiometer

    DOEpatents

    Cannon, T.W.

    1994-07-26

    A broadband radiometer is disclosed including (a) an optical integrating sphere having generally spherical integrating chamber and an entry port for receiving light (e.g., having visible and ultraviolet fractions), (b) a first optical radiation detector for receiving light from the sphere and producing an electrical output signal corresponding to broadband radiation, (c) a second optical radiation detector for receiving light from the sphere and producing an electrical output signal corresponding to a predetermined wavelength fraction of the broadband radiation, and (d) an output for producing an electrical signal which is proportional to the difference between the two electrical output signals. The radiometer is very useful, for example, in measuring the absolute amount of ultraviolet light present in a given light sample. 8 figs.

  17. Broadband radiometer

    DOEpatents

    Cannon, Theodore W. (Golden, CO)

    1994-01-01

    A broadband radiometer including (a) an optical integrating sphere having a enerally spherical integrating chamber and an entry port for receiving light (e.g., having visible and ultraviolet fractions), (b) a first optical radiation detector for receiving light from the sphere and producing an electrical output signal corresponding to broadband radiation, (c) a second optical radiation detector for receiving light from the sphere and producing an electrical output signal corresponding to a predetermined wavelength fraction of the broadband radiation, and (d) an output for producing an electrical signal which is proportional to the difference between the two electrical output signals. The radiometer is very useful, for example, in measuring the absolute amount of ultraviolet light present in a given light sample.

  18. Assessment of Radiated Fan Noise Prediction Capabilities Using Static Engine Test Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nark, Douglas M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes further assessment of the CDUCT-LaRC code via comparison with static engine test data. In an effort to improve confidence in the use of CDUCT-LaRC for liner optimization studies addressing realistic three-dimensional geometries, inlet radiated fan noise predictions were performed at 54% and 87% engine speed settings. Predictions were then compared with far-field measurements to assess the approach and implementation. The particular configurations were chosen to exercise the three-dimensional capability of CDUCT-LaRC and it s applicability to realistic configurations and conditions. At the 54% engine speed setting, the predictions capture the general directivity and acoustic treatment effects quite well. Comparisons of the predicted and measured directivity at the 87% power setting were more problematic. This was likely due in part to the difficulties in source specification and possibly the nonlinear nature of buzz-saw tones at this engine operating condition. Overall, the approach captured the basic trends and provided a conservative estimate of liner effects from which relative performance metrics could be inferred.

  19. Predictions of formant-frequency discrimination in noise based on model auditory-nerve responses

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Qing; Carney, Laurel H.

    2008-01-01

    To better understand how the auditory system extracts speech signals in the presence of noise, discrimination thresholds for the second formant frequency were predicted with simulations of auditory-nerve responses. These predictions employed either average-rate information or combined rate and timing information, and either populations of model fibers tuned across a wide range of frequencies or a subset of fibers tuned to a restricted frequency range. In general, combined temporal and rate information for a small population of model fibers tuned near the formant frequency was most successful in replicating the trends reported in behavioral data for formant-frequency discrimination. To explore the nature of the temporal information that contributed to these results, predictions based on model auditory-nerve responses were compared to predictions based on the average rates of a population of cross-frequency coincidence detectors. These comparisons suggested that average response rate (count) of cross-frequency coincidence detectors did not effectively extract important temporal information from the auditory-nerve population response. Thus, the relative timing of action potentials across auditory-nerve fibers tuned to different frequencies was not the aspect of the temporal information that produced the trends in formant-frequency discrimination thresholds. PMID:17004467

  20. Predicting the threshold of pulse-train electrical stimuli using a stochastic auditory nerve model: the effects of stimulus noise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yifang Xu; Leslie M. Collins

    2004-01-01

    The incorporation of low levels of noise into an electrical stimulus has been shown to improve auditory thresholds in some human subjects (Zeng et al., 2000). In this paper, thresholds for noise-modulated pulse-train stimuli are predicted utilizing a stochastic neural-behavioral model of ensemble fiber responses to bi-phasic stimuli. The neural refractory effect is described using a Markov model for a

  1. Prediction of the spectrum of atmospheric microburst noise in the range 2-20 Hz - Preliminary results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardin, Jay C.; Pope, D. Stuart

    1989-01-01

    An engineering estimate of the spectrum of atmospheric microburst noise radiation in the range 2-20 Hz is developed. This prediction is obtained via a marriage of standard aeroacoustic theory with a numerical computation of the relevant fluid dynamics. The 'computational aeroacoustics' technique applied here to the interpretation of atmospheric noise measurements is illustrative of a methodology that can now be employed in a wide class of problems.

  2. Prediction of aerodynamic noise in a ring fan based on wake characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Soichi; Fukuda, Masaharu; Tsujino, Masao; Tsubota, Haruhiro

    2011-06-01

    A ring fan is a propeller fan that applies an axial-flow impeller with a ring-shaped shroud on the blade tip side. In this study, the entire flow field of the ring fan is simulated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD); the accuracy of the CFD is verified through a comparison with the aerodynamic characteristics of a propeller fan of current model. Moreover, the aerodynamic noise generated by the fan is predicted on the basis of the wake characteristics. The aerodynamic characteristic of the ring fan based on CFD can represent qualitatively the variation in the measured value. The main flow domain of the ring fan is formed at the tip side of the blade because blade tip vortex is not formed at that location. Therefore, the relative velocity of the ring fan is increased by the circumferential velocity. The sound pressure levels of the ring fan within the frequency band of less than 200 Hz are larger than that of the propeller fan. In the analysis of the wake characteristics, it revealed that Karman vortex shedding occurred in the main flow domain in the frequency domain lower than 200 Hz; the aerodynamic noise of the ring fan in the vortex shedding frequency enlarges due to increase in the relative velocity and the velocity fluctuation.

  3. Large-eddy simulation for the prediction of supersonic rectangular jet noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, Joseph W.; Ham, Frank E.; Lele, Sanjiva K.; Bridges, James E.

    2011-11-01

    We investigate the noise from isothermal and heated under-expanded supersonic turbulent jets issuing from a rectangular nozzle of aspect ratio 4:1 using high-fidelity unstructured large-eddy simulation (LES) and acoustic projection based on the Ffowcs-Williams Hawkings (FWH) equations. The nozzle/flow interaction is directly included by simulating the flow in and around the nozzle in addition to the jet plume downstream. A grid resolution study is performed and results are shown for unstructured meshes containing up to 300 million control volumes, generated by a massively parallel code scaled to as many as 65,536 processors. Validated against laboratory measurements using a nozzle of precisely the same geometry, we find that mesh isotropy is a key factor in determining the quality of the far-field aeroacoustic predictions. The full flow fields produced by the simulation, in conjunction with particle image velocimetry (PIV) data measured from experiment, allow for a detailed examination of the interaction of large-scale coherent flow features and the resultant far-field noise, and its subsequent modification in the presence of heating.

  4. Prediction of stochastic blade responses using a filtered noise turbulence model in the FLAP (Force and Loads Analysis Program) code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thresher, R. W.; Holley, W. E.; Wright, A. D.

    1988-11-01

    Accurately predicting wind turbine blade loads and resulting stresses is important for predicting the fatigue life of components. There is a clear need within the wind industry for validated codes that can predict not only the deterministic loads from the mean wind velocity, wind shear, and gravity, but also the stochastic loads from turbulent inflow. The FLAP code has already been validated for predicting deterministic loads. This paper concentrates on validating the FLAP code for predicting stochastic turbulence loads using the filtered-noise turbulence model as input.

  5. Fuselage panel noise attenuation by piezoelectric switching control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makihara, Kanjuro; Miyakawa, Takeya; Onoda, Junjiro; Minesugi, Kenji

    2010-08-01

    This paper describes a problem that we encountered in our noise attenuation project and our solution for it. We intend to attenuate low-frequency noise that transmits through aircraft fuselage panels. Our method of noise attenuation is implemented with a piezoelectric semi-active system having a selective switch instead of an active energy-supply system. The semi-active controller is based on the predicted sound pressure distribution obtained from acoustic emission analysis. Experiments and numerical simulations demonstrate that the semi-active method attenuates acoustic levels of not only the simple monochromatic noise but also of broadband noise. We reveal that tuning the electrical parameters in the circuit is the key to effective noise attenuation, to overcome the acoustic excitation problem due to sharp switching actions, as well as to control chattering problems. The results obtained from this investigation provide meaningful insights into designing noise attenuation systems for comfortable aircraft cabin environments.

  6. Combustion noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strahle, W. C.

    1977-01-01

    A review of the subject of combustion generated noise is presented. Combustion noise is an important noise source in industrial furnaces and process heaters, turbopropulsion and gas turbine systems, flaring operations, Diesel engines, and rocket engines. The state-of-the-art in combustion noise importance, understanding, prediction and scaling is presented for these systems. The fundamentals and available theories of combustion noise are given. Controversies in the field are discussed and recommendations for future research are made.

  7. Validation of finite element computations for the quantitative prediction of underwater noise from impact pile driving.

    PubMed

    Zampolli, Mario; Nijhof, Marten J J; de Jong, Christ A F; Ainslie, Michael A; Jansen, Erwin H W; Quesson, Benoit A J

    2013-01-01

    The acoustic radiation from a pile being driven into the sediment by a sequence of hammer strikes is studied with a linear, axisymmetric, structural acoustic frequency domain finite element model. Each hammer strike results in an impulsive sound that is emitted from the pile and then propagated in the shallow water waveguide. Measurements from accelerometers mounted on the head of a test pile and from hydrophones deployed in the water are used to validate the model results. Transfer functions between the force input at the top of the anvil and field quantities, such as acceleration components in the structure or pressure in the fluid, are computed with the model. These transfer functions are validated using accelerometer or hydrophone measurements to infer the structural forcing. A modeled hammer forcing pulse is used in the successive step to produce quantitative predictions of sound exposure at the hydrophones. The comparison between the model and the measurements shows that, although several simplifying assumptions were made, useful predictions of noise levels based on linear structural acoustic models are possible. In the final part of the paper, the model is used to characterize the pile as an acoustic radiator by analyzing the flow of acoustic energy. PMID:23297884

  8. Tone Noise Predictions for a Spacecraft Cabin Ventilation Fan Ingesting Distorted Inflow and the Challenges of Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, L. Danielle; Shook, Tony D.; Astler, Douglas T.; Bittinger, Samantha A.

    2011-01-01

    A fan tone noise prediction code has been developed at NASA Glenn Research Center that is capable of estimating duct mode sound power levels for a fan ingesting distorted inflow. This code was used to predict the circumferential and radial mode sound power levels in the inlet and exhaust duct of an axial spacecraft cabin ventilation fan. Noise predictions at fan design rotational speed were generated. Three fan inflow conditions were studied: an undistorted inflow, a circumferentially symmetric inflow distortion pattern (cylindrical rods inserted radially into the flowpath at 15deg, 135deg, and 255deg), and a circumferentially asymmetric inflow distortion pattern (rods located at 15deg, 52deg and 173deg). Noise predictions indicate that tones are produced for the distorted inflow cases that are not present when the fan operates with an undistorted inflow. Experimental data are needed to validate these acoustic predictions, as well as the aerodynamic performance predictions. Given the aerodynamic design of the spacecraft cabin ventilation fan, a mechanical and electrical conceptual design study was conducted. Design features of a fan suitable for obtaining detailed acoustic and aerodynamic measurements needed to validate predictions are discussed.

  9. Tone Noise Predictions for a Spacecraft Cabin Ventilation Fan Ingesting Distorted Inflow and the Challenges of Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, L. Danielle; Shook, Tony D.; Astler, Douglas T.; Bittinger, Samantha A.

    2012-01-01

    A fan tone noise prediction code has been developed at NASA Glenn Research Center that is capable of estimating duct mode sound power levels for a fan ingesting distorted inflow. This code was used to predict the circumferential and radial mode sound power levels in the inlet and exhaust duct of an axial spacecraft cabin ventilation fan. Noise predictions at fan design rotational speed were generated. Three fan inflow conditions were studied: an undistorted inflow, a circumferentially symmetric inflow distortion pattern (cylindrical rods inserted radially into the flowpath at 15deg, 135deg, and 255deg), and a circumferentially asymmetric inflow distortion pattern (rods located at 15deg, 52deg and 173deg). Noise predictions indicate that tones are produced for the distorted inflow cases that are not present when the fan operates with an undistorted inflow. Experimental data are needed to validate these acoustic predictions, as well as the aerodynamic performance predictions. Given the aerodynamic design of the spacecraft cabin ventilation fan, a mechanical and electrical conceptual design study was conducted. Design features of a fan suitable for obtaining detailed acoustic and aerodynamic measurements needed to validate predictions are discussed.

  10. Aeroacoustic Prediction Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gliebe, P; Mani, R.; Shin, H.; Mitchell, B.; Ashford, G.; Salamah, S.; Connell, S.; Huff, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This report describes work performed on Contract NAS3-27720AoI 13 as part of the NASA Advanced Subsonic Transport (AST) Noise Reduction Technology effort. Computer codes were developed to provide quantitative prediction, design, and analysis capability for several aircraft engine noise sources. The objective was to provide improved, physics-based tools for exploration of noise-reduction concepts and understanding of experimental results. Methods and codes focused on fan broadband and 'buzz saw' noise and on low-emissions combustor noise and compliment work done by other contractors under the NASA AST program to develop methods and codes for fan harmonic tone noise and jet noise. The methods and codes developed and reported herein employ a wide range of approaches, from the strictly empirical to the completely computational, with some being semiempirical analytical, and/or analytical/computational. Emphasis was on capturing the essential physics while still considering method or code utility as a practical design and analysis tool for everyday engineering use. Codes and prediction models were developed for: (1) an improved empirical correlation model for fan rotor exit flow mean and turbulence properties, for use in predicting broadband noise generated by rotor exit flow turbulence interaction with downstream stator vanes: (2) fan broadband noise models for rotor and stator/turbulence interaction sources including 3D effects, noncompact-source effects. directivity modeling, and extensions to the rotor supersonic tip-speed regime; (3) fan multiple-pure-tone in-duct sound pressure prediction methodology based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis; and (4) low-emissions combustor prediction methodology and computer code based on CFD and actuator disk theory. In addition. the relative importance of dipole and quadrupole source mechanisms was studied using direct CFD source computation for a simple cascadeigust interaction problem, and an empirical combustor-noise correlation model was developed from engine acoustic test results. This work provided several insights on potential approaches to reducing aircraft engine noise. Code development is described in this report, and those insights are discussed.

  11. Integrated numerical method for the prediction of wind turbine noise and the long range propagation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eunkuk Son; Hyunjung Kim; Hogeon Kim; Wooyoung Choi; Soogab Lee

    2010-01-01

    Characteristics of noise propagation from wind turbine have been studied by using the integrated numerical methods based on Ray theory. There are two numerical approaches in this paper. Those are constructing noise sources of wind turbine and computing the noise level on the ground. First of all, the flow fields around the wind turbine blade are calculated using Wind Turbine

  12. The effect of continuous, broad-band random noise, both alone and in combination with a food odor on the lemon shark, Negaprion brevirostris

    E-print Network

    Jones, Keith Anthony

    1977-01-01

    parentheses) of that period in hours. 1878 (11) NFR FU SS8 (3) N NF FU 724 (12) NFs NF 490 (12) NF NF Fi C-1 FO C-2 RN8 FO 689 (30) NFg NF 2368 (28) NFq FU 2393 (12) N NF2 FU C-3 NF I RN NF, C-4 FIG. 6. Experiment ll2. Circular...-band random noise (0-20 KHz). The presentation of the noise resulted in a marked initial increase of activity within the monitoring tank, followed by an equally sharp decrease 1-2 hours later. In ad- dition, the sharks were found to avoid the source...

  13. L-PLC Channel Noise Prediction Based on Improved Weight One-Rank Local-Region Algorithm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wang Zhenchao; Zhao Chen

    2010-01-01

    In this paper a novel L-PLC (low-voltage power line communication) noise prediction algorithm is proposed based on the chaotic characteristics of L-PLC. The new algorithm is derived from weight one-rank local-region method by revising the Euclidean distance formula. With the revised formula, not only different relevance of phase points to the focal point but also the prediction contribution of each

  14. A prediction of helicopter rotor discrete frequency noise for three scale models using a new acoustics program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth S. Brentner

    1987-01-01

    A new computer program which uses Farassat's most advanced subsonic time domain formulation has been written to predict helicopter rotor discrete frequency noise. A brief description of the program, WOPWOP, is followed by a comparison of predicted and experimentally measured acoustic pressure and spectra for a 1\\/4 scale UH-1 model rotor blade and a 1\\/7 scale OLS (AH-1G) model rotor

  15. Predictions and experimental studies of the tail pipe noise of an automotive muffler using a one dimensional CFD model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takashi Yasuda; Chaoqun Wu; Noritoshi Nakagawa; Kazuteru Nagamura

    2010-01-01

    The tail pipe noise from a commercial automotive muffler was studied experimentally and numerically under the condition of wide open throttle acceleration in the present research. The engine was accelerated from 1000 to 6000rpm in 30s at the warm up condition. The transient acoustic characteristics of its exhaust muffler were predicted using one dimensional computational fluid dynamics. To validate the

  16. Predicting speech intelligibility based on the signal-to-noise envelope power ratio after modulation-frequency selective processing.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Søren; Dau, Torsten

    2011-09-01

    A model for predicting the intelligibility of processed noisy speech is proposed. The speech-based envelope power spectrum model has a similar structure as the model of Ewert and Dau [(2000). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 108, 1181-1196], developed to account for modulation detection and masking data. The model estimates the speech-to-noise envelope power ratio, SNR(env), at the output of a modulation filterbank and relates this metric to speech intelligibility using the concept of an ideal observer. Predictions were compared to data on the intelligibility of speech presented in stationary speech-shaped noise. The model was further tested in conditions with noisy speech subjected to reverberation and spectral subtraction. Good agreement between predictions and data was found in all cases. For spectral subtraction, an analysis of the model's internal representation of the stimuli revealed that the predicted decrease of intelligibility was caused by the estimated noise envelope power exceeding that of the speech. The classical concept of the speech transmission index fails in this condition. The results strongly suggest that the signal-to-noise ratio at the output of a modulation frequency selective process provides a key measure of speech intelligibility. PMID:21895088

  17. TFaNS-Tone Fan Noise Design/Prediction System: Users' Manual TFaNS Version 1.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Topol, David A.; Huff, Dennis L. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    TFaNS is the Tone Fan Noise Design/Prediction System developed by Pratt & Whitney under contract to NASA Glenn. The purpose of this system is to predict tone noise emanating from a fan stage including the effects of reflection and transmission by the rotor and stator and by the duct inlet and nozzle. The first version of this design system was developed under a previous NASA contract. Several improvements have been made to TFaNS. This users' manual shows how to run this new system. TFaNS consists of the codes that compute the acoustic properties (reflection and transmission coefficients) of the various elements and writes them to files, CUP3D Fan Noise Coupling Code that reads these files, solves the coupling problem, and outputs the desired noise predictions, and AWAKEN CFD/Measured Wake Postprocessor which reformats CFD wake predictions and/or measured wake data so they can be used by the system. This report provides information on code input and file structure essential for potential users of TFaNS.

  18. The effect of the duration of jet aircraft flyover sounds on judged annoyance. [noise predictions and noise measurements of jet aircrafts and human reactions to the noise intensity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, K. P.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of the duration of jet aircraft flyover sounds on humans and the annoyance factor are examined. A nine point numerical category scaling technique is utilized for the study. Changes in the spectral characteristics of aircraft sounds caused by atmospheric attenuation are discussed. The effect of Doppler shifts using aircraft noises with minimal pure tone content is reported. The spectral content of sounds independent of duration and Doppler shift are examined by analysis of variance.

  19. Addendum to the back-scattering correction of Amiet's trailing-edge noise model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roger, Michel; Moreau, Stéphane

    2012-11-01

    A minor correction to a previous analytical formulation aimed at predicting broadband trailing-edge noise of subsonic airfoils is provided. An improved numerical implementation free of mathematical singularities is proposed, and a revised plot of the final results found in the reference paper is given.

  20. A validated code to predict the performance of onboard broadband optical seekers through a turbulent transonic flow

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michele Banish; Rod Clark; Alan Kathman

    1992-01-01

    Attention is given to two analytical schemes for the prediction of 'aerooptic', aerodynamically-influenced optical performance for airborne sensors over a range of sensing wavebands. Analytic expressions which can confidently be used from the subsonic to the hypersonic regimes are developed, and experimental and analytical results are compared with a view to the relationship of wavelength-dependent optical distortion to the design

  1. Aircraft noise prediction program propeller analysis system IBM-PC version user's manual version 2.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nolan, Sandra K.

    1988-01-01

    The IBM-PC version of the Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP) Propeller Analysis System (PAS) is a set of computational programs for predicting the aerodynamics, performance, and noise of propellers. The ANOPP-PAS is a subset of a larger version of ANOPP which can be executed on CDC or VAX computers. This manual provides a description of the IBM-PC version of the ANOPP-PAS and its prediction capabilities, and instructions on how to use the system on an IBM-XT or IBM-AT personal computer. Sections within the manual document installation, system design, ANOPP-PAS usage, data entry preprocessors, and ANOPP-PAS functional modules and procedures. Appendices to the manual include a glossary of ANOPP terms and information on error diagnostics and recovery techniques.

  2. Analysis and Synthesis of Tonal Aircraft Noise Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Matthew P.; Rizzi, Stephen A.; Burdisso, Ricardo; Okcu, Selen

    2012-01-01

    Fixed and rotary wing aircraft operations can have a significant impact on communities in proximity to airports. Simulation of predicted aircraft flyover noise, paired with listening tests, is useful to noise reduction efforts since it allows direct annoyance evaluation of aircraft or operations currently in the design phase. This paper describes efforts to improve the realism of synthesized source noise by including short term fluctuations, specifically for inlet-radiated tones resulting from the fan stage of turbomachinery. It details analysis performed on an existing set of recorded turbofan data to isolate inlet-radiated tonal fan noise, then extract and model short term tonal fluctuations using the analytic signal. Methodologies for synthesizing time-variant tonal and broadband turbofan noise sources using measured fluctuations are also described. Finally, subjective listening test results are discussed which indicate that time-variant synthesized source noise is perceived to be very similar to recordings.

  3. A prediction of helicopter rotor discrete frequency noise for three scale models using a new acoustics program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brentner, Kenneth S.

    1987-01-01

    A new computer program which uses Farassat's most advanced subsonic time domain formulation has been written to predict helicopter rotor discrete frequency noise. A brief description of the program, WOPWOP, is followed by a comparison of predicted and experimentally measured acoustic pressure and spectra for a 1/4 scale UH-1 model rotor blade and a 1/7 scale OLS (AH-1G) model rotor blade. The C81 computer program was used to predict the spanwise loading on the rotor for aerodynamic input into the acoustic prediction. Comparisons are made for different flight conditions and microphone locations with good results. In general the acoustic pressure is underpredicted. The acoustic predictions for a tapered rotor blade and predictions for microphones well below the tip path plane show less underprediction. Finally, in-plane motion of the rotor blade is shown to significantly affect the peak-to-peak amplitude of the acoustic pressure for high advancing tip Mach numbers.

  4. Testing the Lower Thresholds of Broadband Seismometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearce, Nathan; Guralp, Cansun; Mcgowan, Murray; Rademacher, Horst

    2014-05-01

    Properly testing broadband seismometers for self noise and other intrinsic parameters like cross axis rejection is not an easy task. On the one hand such tests are strongly affected by the seismic noise generated by the Earth itself. The intensity of this noise is usually much higher than the self noise of the sensor. In addition the Earth's noise not only varies in time but also at any given time across the passband of the sensors, usually between 100 sec and 100 Hz. In addition there exist only very few shake tables capable of generating movements precise and stable enough to test the lower thresholds of broadband sensors. The influence of seismic noise and poor shake tables may render testing information about the lower thresholds of broadband sensors meaningless. We have applied several new techniques and developed our own to improve the quality and validity of such tests, including designing and building our own precision one axis shake table. We will present results from these testing procedures, amongst them the determination that the cross axis rejection between the horizontal and the vertical components of Guralp CMG-3T broadband sensors regularly exceeds 70 dB.

  5. A validated code to predict the performance of onboard broadband optical seekers through a turbulent transonic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banish, Michele; Clark, Rod; Kathman, Alan

    1992-05-01

    Attention is given to two analytical schemes for the prediction of 'aerooptic', aerodynamically-influenced optical performance for airborne sensors over a range of sensing wavebands. Analytic expressions which can confidently be used from the subsonic to the hypersonic regimes are developed, and experimental and analytical results are compared with a view to the relationship of wavelength-dependent optical distortion to the design and performance of prospective airborne optical systems. It is noted that the quantification of blurring must be conducted with contained-energy diameter measures rather than FWHM calculations.

  6. A Predictive Model of the HF Noise Environment at Satellite Heights

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marisa McCoy

    1995-01-01

    The radio noise background is an area of continuing research and measurement. In many cases, the background noise becomes the primary limiting factor in a communication system's sensitivity. The issue of HF (1-30 MHz) interference from terrestrial sources is especially pertinent to space -based low-frequency radio astronomy. Radio astronomy observations in the HF portion of the electromagnetic spectrum could result

  7. 5th International Meeting Wind Turbine Noise

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 5th International Meeting on Wind Turbine Noise Denver 28 ­ 30 August 2013 Wind Turbine Noise Broadband noise generated aerodynamically is the dominant noise source for a modern wind turbine(Brooks et, clean energy. While profiting from wind energy, the noise produced by a modern wind turbine becomes

  8. Raspberry, not a car: context predictability and a phonological advantage in early and late learners' processing of speech in noise.

    PubMed

    Gor, Kira

    2014-01-01

    Second language learners perform worse than native speakers under adverse listening conditions, such as speech in noise (SPIN). No data are available on heritage language speakers' (early naturalistic interrupted learners') ability to perceive SPIN. The current study fills this gap and investigates the perception of Russian speech in multi-talker babble noise by the matched groups of high- and low-proficiency heritage speakers (HSs) and late second language learners of Russian who were native speakers of English. The study includes a control group of Russian native speakers. It manipulates the noise level (high and low), and context cloze probability (high and low). The results of the SPIN task are compared to the tasks testing the control of phonology, AXB discrimination and picture-word discrimination, and lexical knowledge, a word translation task, in the same participants. The increased phonological sensitivity of HSs interacted with their ability to rely on top-down processing in sentence integration, use contextual cues, and build expectancies in the high-noise/high-context condition in a bootstrapping fashion. HSs outperformed oral proficiency-matched late second language learners on SPIN task and two tests of phonological sensitivity. The outcomes of the SPIN experiment support both the early naturalistic advantage and the role of proficiency in HSs. HSs' ability to take advantage of the high-predictability context in the high-noise condition was mitigated by their level of proficiency. Only high-proficiency HSs, but not any other non-native group, took advantage of the high-predictability context that became available with better phonological processing skills in high-noise. The study thus confirms high-proficiency (but not low-proficiency) HSs' nativelike ability to combine bottom-up and top-down cues in processing SPIN. PMID:25566130

  9. Raspberry, not a car: context predictability and a phonological advantage in early and late learners’ processing of speech in noise

    PubMed Central

    Gor, Kira

    2014-01-01

    Second language learners perform worse than native speakers under adverse listening conditions, such as speech in noise (SPIN). No data are available on heritage language speakers’ (early naturalistic interrupted learners’) ability to perceive SPIN. The current study fills this gap and investigates the perception of Russian speech in multi-talker babble noise by the matched groups of high- and low-proficiency heritage speakers (HSs) and late second language learners of Russian who were native speakers of English. The study includes a control group of Russian native speakers. It manipulates the noise level (high and low), and context cloze probability (high and low). The results of the SPIN task are compared to the tasks testing the control of phonology, AXB discrimination and picture-word discrimination, and lexical knowledge, a word translation task, in the same participants. The increased phonological sensitivity of HSs interacted with their ability to rely on top–down processing in sentence integration, use contextual cues, and build expectancies in the high-noise/high-context condition in a bootstrapping fashion. HSs outperformed oral proficiency-matched late second language learners on SPIN task and two tests of phonological sensitivity. The outcomes of the SPIN experiment support both the early naturalistic advantage and the role of proficiency in HSs. HSs’ ability to take advantage of the high-predictability context in the high-noise condition was mitigated by their level of proficiency. Only high-proficiency HSs, but not any other non-native group, took advantage of the high-predictability context that became available with better phonological processing skills in high-noise. The study thus confirms high-proficiency (but not low-proficiency) HSs’ nativelike ability to combine bottom–up and top–down cues in processing SPIN. PMID:25566130

  10. A three-dimensional vibroacoustic model for the prediction of underwater noise from offshore pile driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsouvalas, A.; Metrikine, A. V.

    2014-04-01

    Steel monopiles are nowadays widely used as foundations for a large number of offshore structures. The installation procedure commonly involves a pile driving process which can last up to several hours depending upon pile dimensions, soil conditions and input energy of the hydraulic hammer. In impact pile driving, a hydraulic hammer delivers a series of hammer blows at the head of the pile that drive the pile into the sediment. Each hammer strike results in pile vibrations that emit strong impulsive sounds into the water column which can be harmful for the marine ecosystem. With today's increasing concern regarding the environmental impact of such operations, engineering tools which will be able to provide reliable predictions of the underwater noise levels are required. In this study, a linear semi-analytical formulation of the coupled vibroacoustics of a complete pile-water-soil interaction model is addressed. The pile is described by a high order thin shell theory whereas both water and soil are modelled as three-dimensional continua. Results obtained with the developed model indicate that the near-field response in the water column consists mainly of pressure conical waves generated by the supersonic compressional waves in the pile excited by the impact hammer. The soil response is dominated by shear waves with almost vertical polarization. The Scholte waves are also generated at the water-seabed interface which can produce pressure fluctuations in the water column that are particularly significant close to the sea floor. The effects of soil elasticity and pile size are thoroughly investigated and their influence on the generated pressure levels is highlighted. The results are also compared with those ones of a similar model in which the soil is treated as an equivalent acoustic fluid. It is shown that the latter approximation can yield inaccurate results at low frequencies especially for harder soil sediments.

  11. Noise control prediction for high-speed, propeller-driven aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilby, J. F.; Rennison, D. C.; Wilby, E. G.; Marsh, A. H.

    1980-01-01

    An analytical study is described which explores add-on treatments and advanced concepts for the reduction of noise levels in three high-speed aircraft driven by propellers. Noise reductions of 25 to 28 dB are required to achieve a goal of an A-weighted sound level not greater than 80 dB. It is found that only a double-wall system, with a limp inner wall or trim panel, can achieve the required noise reductions. Weight penalties are estimated for the double-wall treatments. These penalties are 0.75% to 1.51% of the aircraft takeoff weight for the particular baseline designs selected.

  12. Prediction of Turbulence-Generated Noise in Unheated Jets. Part 1; JeNo Technical Manual (Version 1.0)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khavaran, Abbas; Bridges, James; Georgiadis, Nicholas

    2005-01-01

    The model-based approach, used by the JeNo code to predict jet noise spectral directivity, is described. A linearized form of Lilley's equation governs the non-causal Green s function of interest, with the non-linear terms on the right hand side identified as the source. A Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) solution yields the required mean flow for the solution of the propagation Green s function in a locally parallel flow. The RANS solution also produces time- and length-scales needed to model the non-compact source, the turbulent velocity correlation tensor, with exponential temporal and spatial functions. It is shown that while an exact non-causal Green s function accurately predicts the observed shift in the location of the spectrum peak with angle as well as the angularity of sound at low to moderate Mach numbers, the polar directivity of radiated sound is not entirely captured by this Green s function at high subsonic and supersonic acoustic Mach numbers. Results presented for unheated jets in the Mach number range of 0.51 to 1.8 suggest that near the peak radiation angle of high-speed jets, a different source/Green s function convolution integral may be required in order to capture the peak observed directivity of jet noise. A sample Mach 0.90 heated jet is also discussed that highlights the requirements for a comprehensive jet noise prediction model.

  13. Simulated high speed flight effects on supersonic jet noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norum, Thomas D.; Brown, Martha C.

    1993-01-01

    A free jet is utilized to investigate the changes in the noise received from supersonic jets in high speed subsonic flight. Flight Mach numbers to 0.9 are simulated for supersonic jets with fully expanded Mach numbers between 1 and 2. Plume pressure measurements show only minor changes in the shock structure of off-design jets up to a Mach number of 0.6. Correspondingly, far-field noise measurements indicate little change to the broadband shock noise emitted at right angles to the jet. However, measurements within the free jet show that convection effects on the noise are substantial, and that the point source convective amplification that is proportional to the fourth power of the Doppler factor may apply for broadband shock noise in flight. Measurements of jet mixing noise for an on-design supersonic jet show that the current predictions of mixing noise in flight can be extended to flight Mach numbers of at least 0.5.

  14. High speed propeller performance and noise predictions at takeoff/landing conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nallasamy, M.; Woodward, R. P.; Groeneweg, J. F.

    1988-01-01

    The performance and noise of a high speed SR-7A model propeller under takeoff/landing conditions are considered. The blade loading distributions are obtained by solving the three-dimensional Euler equations and the sound pressure levels are computed using a time domain approach. At the nominal takeoff operating point, the blade sections near the hub are lightly or negatively loaded. The chordwise loading distributions are distinctly different from those of cruise conditions. The noise of the SR-7A model propeller at takeoff is dominated by the loading noise, similar to that at cruise conditions. The waveforms of the acoustic pressure signature are nearly sinusoidal in the plane of the propeller. The computed directivity of the blade passing frequency tone agrees fairly well with the data at nominal takeoff blade angle.

  15. High speed propeller performance and noise predictions at takeoff/landing conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nallasamy, M.; Woodward, R. P.; Groeneweg, J. F.

    1987-01-01

    The performance and noise of a high speed SR-7A model propeller under takeoff/landing conditions are considered. The blade loading distributions are obtained by solving the three-dimensional Euler equations and the sound pressure levels are computed using a time domain approach. At the nominal takeoff operating point, the blade sections near the hub are lightly or negatively loaded. The chordwise loading distributions are distinctly different from those of cruise conditions. The noise of the SR-7A model propeller at takeoff is dominated by the loading noise, similar to that at cruise conditions. The waveforms of the acoustic pressure signature are nearly sinusoidal in the plane of the propeller. The computed directivity of the blade passing frequency tone agrees fairly well with the data at nominal takeoff blade angle.

  16. Annoyance caused by advanced turboprop aircraft flyover noise: Comparison of different propeller configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccurdy, David A.

    1991-01-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to compare the annoyance of flyover noise from advanced turboprop aircraft having different propeller configurations with the annoyance of conventional turboprop and turbofan aircraft flyover noise. A computer synthesis system was used to generate 40 realistic, time varying simulations of advanced turboprop takeoff noise. Of the 40 noises, single-rotating propeller configurations (8) and counter-rotating propeller configurations with an equal (12) and unequal (20) number of blades on each rotor were represented. Analyses found that advanced turboprops with single-rotating propellers were, on average, slightly less annoying than the other aircraft. Fundamental frequency and tone-to-broadband noise ratio affected annoyance response to advanced turboprops, but the effects varied with propeller configuration and noise metric. The addition of duration corrections and corrections for tones above 500 Hz to the noise measurement procedures improved annoyance prediction ability.

  17. An Integrated Low-Speed Performance and Noise Prediction Methodology for Subsonic Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, E. D.; Mavris, D. N.

    2000-01-01

    An integrated methodology has been assembled to compute the engine performance, takeoff and landing trajectories, and community noise levels for a subsonic commercial aircraft. Where feasible, physics-based noise analysis methods have been used to make the results more applicable to newer, revolutionary designs and to allow for a more direct evaluation of new technologies. The methodology is intended to be used with approximation methods and risk analysis techniques to allow for the analysis of a greater number of variable combinations while retaining the advantages of physics-based analysis. Details of the methodology are described and limited results are presented for a representative subsonic commercial aircraft.

  18. The prediction of noise and installation effects of high-subsonic dual-stream jets in flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxena, Swati

    Both military and civil aircraft in service generate high levels of noise. One of the major contributors to this noise generated from the aircraft is the jet engine exhaust. This makes the study of jet noise and methods to reduce jet noise an active research area with the aim of designing quieter military and commercial aircraft. The current stringent aircraft noise regulations imposed by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and other international agencies, have further raised the need to perform accurate jet noise calculations for more reliable estimation of the jet noise sources. The main aim of the present research is to perform jet noise simulations of single and dual-stream jets with engineering accuracy and assess forward flight effects on the jet noise. Installation effects such as caused by the pylon are also studied using a simplified pylon nozzle configuration. Due to advances in computational power, it has become possible to perform turbulent flow simulations of high speed jets, which leads to more accurate noise predictions. In the present research, a hybrid unsteady RANS-LES parallel multi-block structured grid solver called EAGLEJet is written to perform the nozzle flow calculations. The far-field noise calculation is performed using solutions to the Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings equation. The present calculations use meshes with 5 to 11 million grid points and require about three weeks of computing time with about 100 processors. A baseline single stream convergent nozzle and a dual-stream coaxial convergent nozzle are used for the flow and noise analysis. Calculations for the convergent nozzle are performed at a high subsonic jet Mach number of Mj = 0.9, which is similar to the operating conditions for commercial aircraft engines. A parallel flow gives the flight effect, which is simulated with a co-flow Mach number, Mcf varying from 0.0 to 0.28. The grid resolution effects, statistical properties of the turbulence and the heated jet effects ( TTR = 2.7) are studied and related to the noise characteristics of the jet. Both flow and noise predictions show good agreement with PIV and microphone measurements. The potential core lengths and nozzle wall boundary characteristics are studied to understand the differences between the numerical potential core lengths as compared to experiments. The flight velocity exponent, m is calculated from the noise reduction in overall sound pressure levels (OASPL, dB) and relative velocity (V j -- Vcf) at all jet inlet (angular) angles. The variation of the exponent, m at lower (50° to 90°) and higher aft inlet angles (120° to 150°) is studied and compared with available measurements. Previous studies have shown a different variation of the exponent with inlet angles while the current numerical data match well with recent experiments conducted on the same nozzle geometry. Today, turbofans are the most efficient engines in service used in almost all major commercial aircraft. Turbofans have a dual-stream exhaust nozzle with primary and secondary flow whose flow and noise characteristics are different from that of single stream jets. A Boeing-designed coaxial nozzle, with area ratio of As/Ap = 3.0, is used to study dual-stream jet noise in the present research. In this configuration, the primary nozzle extends beyond the secondary nozzle, which is representative of large turbofan engines in commercial service. The flow calculations are performed at high subsonic Mach numbers in the primary and secondary nozzles (Mpj = 0.85, Msj = 0.95) with heated core flow, TTRp = 2.26 and unheated fan flow, TTRs = 1.0. The co-flow of Mcf = 0.2 is used. The subscript p, s and amb represent the primary (core) nozzle, the secondary (fan) nozzle, and the ambient flow conditions, respectively. The statistical properties in the primary and secondary shear layers are studied and compared with those of the single stream jets. It has been found that the eddy convection velocity is lower in dual-stream jets as compared to the single stream jet operating at a similar jet exit Mach number. The

  19. A Novel Broadband Ultrasonic Location System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mike Hazas; Andy Ward

    2002-01-01

    Indoor ultrasonic location systems provide ne-grained position data to ubiquitous computing applications. However, the ultrasonic location systems previously developed utilize narrowband transducers, and thus perform poorly in the presence of noise and are constrained by the fact that signal collisions must be avoided. In this paper, we present a novel ultrasonic location system which uti- lizes broadband transducers. We describe

  20. APPLICATION OF MacCORMACK SCHEMES TO I.C. ENGINE EXHAUST NOISE PREDICTION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Payri; A. J. Torregrosa; M. D. Chust

    1996-01-01

    Non-linear flow calculations are a usual tool for describing the flow inside intake and exhaust systems of internal combustion engines. Therefore, they may also be used to estimate the noise radiated by these systems. Most of the work reported in this field is related to the use of the method of characteristics, and some references to the use of the

  1. Prediction of Wind Turbine Noise Generation and Propagation based on an Acoustic Analogy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Drago? Moroianu; Laszlo Fuchs

    The acoustical field behind a complete three dimensional wind turbine is considered numerically. Noise generated by the spatial velocity variation, force exerted by the blade on the fluid, and blade acceleration is taken into account. The sources are extracted from a detailed, instantaneous flow field which is computed using Large Eddy Simulations (LES). The propagation of the sound is calculated

  2. Prediction of Work Efficiency in Early Adolescence under the Effects of Noise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fosnaric, Samo; Planinsec, Jurij

    2008-01-01

    This is a short summary of research on how different stress factors in the work environment (climate, light, noise) affect work performance of early adolescents. Due to the complexity of the measurements, the research consisted of a small sample of male adolescents (N = 20); average age 13.5 years (SD = 0.25). Tasks were used which demanded…

  3. Meteorological impacts on airport noise prediction by the 'Integrated Noise Model' application based on Hamiltonian Ray-Tracing program and measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. G. Tsouka; K. Abacoumkin

    1992-01-01

    The flexible Integrated Noise Model (INM) model assumes straight line noise propagation and takes into account only the main site ground temperature. Many authors have studied the strong noise dependence on meteorological parameters and the ground effects based on the Weyl-Van der Pol equation concerning only homogeneous atmosphere and linear propagation. This paper presents a methodology for the development of

  4. Underwater radiated noise from modern commercial ships.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Megan F; Ross, Donald; Wiggins, Sean M; Hildebrand, John A

    2012-01-01

    Underwater radiated noise measurements for seven types of modern commercial ships during normal operating conditions are presented. Calibrated acoustic data (<1000 Hz) from an autonomous seafloor-mounted acoustic recorder were combined with ship passage information from the Automatic Identification System. This approach allowed for detailed measurements (i.e., source level, sound exposure level, and transmission range) on ships of opportunity. A key result was different acoustic levels and spectral shapes observed from different ship-types. A 54 kGT container ship had the highest broadband source level at 188 dB re 1 ?Pa@1m; a 26 kGT chemical tanker had the lowest at 177 dB re 1 ?Pa@1m. Bulk carriers had higher source levels near 100 Hz, while container ship and tanker noise was predominantly below 40 Hz. Simple models to predict source levels of modern merchant ships as a group from particular ship characteristics (e.g., length, gross tonnage, and speed) were not possible given individual ship-type differences. Furthermore, ship noise was observed to radiate asymmetrically. Stern aspect noise levels are 5 to 10 dB higher than bow aspect noise levels. Collectively, these results emphasize the importance of including modern ship-types in quantifying shipping noise for predictive models of global, regional, and local marine environments. PMID:22280574

  5. Computational Aeroacoustics Cascade Model of Fan Noise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip Paul LePoudre

    2011-01-01

    A Computational Aeroacoustics [CAA] cascade model has been built to study the generation and propagation mechanisms of noise resulting from the interaction of the fan and outlet guide vanes in a high-bypass ratio turbofan engine. Also called rotor-stator interaction noise, this noise source is a dominant contributor to the total tone and broadband noise levels produced by the engine, and

  6. Broadband Satellite Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Jozef Bem; Tadeusz W. Wieckowski; Ryszard J. Zielinski

    2000-01-01

    Recently, the interest in broadband satellite multimedia (BSM) systems has grown rapidly. Advancements in transmission technology have led to the availability of low-cost satellite earth terminals. The superior remote access capabilities of satellite networks are foreseen to provide broadband services to geographically diverse user groups. The desire to support a wide range of broadband services in satellite networks implies that

  7. Behavioral responses of gray whales to industrial noise: feeding observations and predictive modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Malme, C.I.; Wuersig, B.; Bird, J.E.; Tyack, P.

    1986-08-01

    An investigation was made of the potential effects of underwater noise from petroleum-industry activities on feeding gray whales. The investigation consisted of two components, a field study and an acoustic model study. The field study was performed near Southeast Cape, St. Lawrence Island in August, 1985, using a 100 cu. in. air gun source and playback of drillship noise. Sound-source levels and acoustic-propagation losses were measured to permit estimation of sound exposure levels at whale-sighting positions. For the air-gun source there was a 0.5 probability that the whales would stop feeding and move away from the area when the average pulse levels reached 173 dB.

  8. Low-frequency noise and quality prediction of MQW buried-heterostructure DFB lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pralgauskaite, Sandra; Matukas, J.; Palenskis, V.; Letal, G.; Mallard, R.; Smetona, S.

    2003-08-01

    A detailed study of both the optical and electrical low-frequency noise and correlation factor between optical and electrical fluctuation characteristics of single-mode multiple quantum wells (MQW) curied-heterostructure (BH) distributed feedback (DFB) laser diodes has been carried out under a wide current range. These techniques have been used to assess the structural differences between devices that exhibit superior and poor performance and reliability. It has been concluded that for the devices investigated here, the poor device performance characterstics (larger threshold current) and poor reliability are induced by the existence of defects in the interface between the active region and burying laser. These defects generate leakage currents that lead to teh larger threshold current. Defects migration during ageing forms clusters, and this leads to the poor reliability of the lasers. We demonstrate that the low-frequency noise investigations can detect the presence of defects that induce short device lifetime.

  9. Computation of Supersonic Jet Mixing Noise Using PARC Code With a kappa-epsilon Turbulence Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khavaran, A.; Kim, C. M.

    1999-01-01

    A number of modifications have been proposed in order to improve the jet noise prediction capabilities of the MGB code. This code which was developed at General Electric, employees the concept of acoustic analogy for the prediction of turbulent mixing noise. The source convection and also refraction of sound due to the shrouding effect of the mean flow are accounted for by incorporating the high frequency solution to Lilley's equation for cylindrical jets (Balsa and Mani). The broadband shock-associated noise is estimated using Harper-Bourne and Fisher's shock noise theory. The proposed modifications are aimed at improving the aerodynamic predictions (source/spectrum computations) and allowing for the non- axisymmetric effects in the jet plume and nozzle geometry (sound/flow interaction). In addition, recent advances in shock noise prediction as proposed by Tam can be employed to predict the shock-associated noise as an addition to the jet mixing noise when the flow is not perfectly expanded. Here we concentrate on the aerodynamic predictions using the PARC code with a k-E turbulence model and the ensuing turbulent mixing noise. The geometry under consideration is an axisymmetric convergent-divergent nozzle at its design operating conditions. Aerodynamic and acoustic computations are compared with data as well as predictions due to the original MGB model using Reichardt's aerodynamic theory.

  10. Aircraft Conceptual Design and Risk Analysis Using Physics-Based Noise Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Erik D.; Mavris, Dimitri N.

    2006-01-01

    An approach was developed which allows for design studies of commercial aircraft using physics-based noise analysis methods while retaining the ability to perform the rapid trade-off and risk analysis studies needed at the conceptual design stage. A prototype integrated analysis process was created for computing the total aircraft EPNL at the Federal Aviation Regulations Part 36 certification measurement locations using physics-based methods for fan rotor-stator interaction tones and jet mixing noise. The methodology was then used in combination with design of experiments to create response surface equations (RSEs) for the engine and aircraft performance metrics, geometric constraints and take-off and landing noise levels. In addition, Monte Carlo analysis was used to assess the expected variability of the metrics under the influence of uncertainty, and to determine how the variability is affected by the choice of engine cycle. Finally, the RSEs were used to conduct a series of proof-of-concept conceptual-level design studies demonstrating the utility of the approach. The study found that a key advantage to using physics-based analysis during conceptual design lies in the ability to assess the benefits of new technologies as a function of the design to which they are applied. The greatest difficulty in implementing physics-based analysis proved to be the generation of design geometry at a sufficient level of detail for high-fidelity analysis.

  11. Small Vessel Contribution to Underwater Noise

    SciTech Connect

    Matzner, Shari; Maxwell, Adam R.; Myers, Joshua R.; Caviggia, Kurt A.; Elster, Jennifer L.; Foley, Michael G.; Jones, Mark E.; Ogden, George L.; Sorensen, Eric L.; Zurk, Lisa M.; Tagestad, Jerry D.; Stephan, Alex J.; Peterson, Mary E.; Bradley, Donald J.

    2010-12-10

    Understanding the types of noise generated by a small boat is important for ensuring that marine ecosystems are protected from detrimental anthropogenic noise. Here we present the results of a field test conducted to examine the effects of engine RPM, number of engines and number of propeller blades on the broadband and narrowband noise produced by a small boat. The test boat was a 23-foot aluminum-hulled boat with dual 100 hp engines. The broadband noise and narrowband peak levels were observed using two hydrophones in different locations. The broadband noise levels were affected by both the number of engines and the RPM; the narrowband peaks showed a greater increase in amplitude with an increase in RPM than the broadband noise levels.

  12. Analytical prediction of the interior noise for cylindrical models of aircraft fuselages for prescribed exterior noise fields. Phase 2: Models for sidewall trim, stiffened structures and cabin acoustics with floor partition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pope, L. D.; Wilby, E. G.

    1982-01-01

    An airplane interior noise prediction model is developed to determine the important parameters associated with sound transmission into the interiors of airplanes, and to identify apropriate noise control methods. Models for stiffened structures, and cabin acoustics with floor partition are developed. Validation studies are undertaken using three test articles: a ring stringer stiffened cylinder, an unstiffened cylinder with floor partition, and ring stringer stiffened cylinder with floor partition and sidewall trim. The noise reductions of the three test articles are computed using the heoretical models and compared to measured values. A statistical analysis of the comparison data indicates that there is no bias in the predictions although a substantial random error exists so that a discrepancy of more than five or six dB can be expected for about one out of three predictions.

  13. Metamaterial coatings for broadband asymmetric mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, A.; Hasegawa, K.; Podolskiy, V. A.; Deutsch, M.

    2007-07-01

    We report the design and fabrication of nanostructured metal-dielectric mirrors with high reflectance asymmetries in the visible spectral range. Applying dispersion engineering principles to model a broadband and large reflectance asymmetry, we obtain a dielectric function for this metamaterial, closely resembling the effective permittivity of disordered metal-dielectric nanocomposites. Coatings realized by using disordered nanocrystalline silver films on glass substrates confirm the theoretical predictions, exhibiting symmetric transmittance, accompanied by large broadband reflectance asymmetries.

  14. Contribution of tonal components to the overall loudness, annoyance and noisiness of noise: Relation between single tones and noise spectral shape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hellman, R. P.

    1985-01-01

    A large scale laboratory investigation of loudness, annoyance, and noisiness produced by single-tone-noise complexes was undertaken to establish a broader data base for quanitification and prediction of perceived annoyance of sounds containing tonal components. Loudness, annoyance, and noisiness were distinguished as separate, distinct, attributes of sound. Three different spectral patterns of broadband noise with and without added tones were studied: broadband-flat, low-pass, and high-pass. Judgments were obtained by absolute magnitude estimation supplement by loudness matching. The data were examined and evaluated to determine the potential effects of (1) the overall sound pressure level (SPL) of the noise-tone complex, (2) tone SPL, (3) noise SPL, (4) tone-to-noise ratio, (5) the frequency of the added tone, (6) noise spectral shape, and (7) subjective attribute judged on absolute magnitude of annoyance. Results showed that, in contrast to noisiness, loudness and annoyance growth behavior depends on the relationship between the frequency of the added tone and the spectral shape of the noise. The close correspondence between the frequency of the added tone and the spectral shape of the noise. The close correspondence between loundness and annoyance suggests that, to better understand perceived annoyance of sound mixtures, it is necessary to relate the results to basic auditory mechanisms governing loudness and masking.

  15. Improved prediction of the turbulence-shear contribution to wind noise pressure spectra.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jiao; Raspet, Richard; Webster, Jeremy; Abbott, JohnPaul

    2011-12-01

    In previous research [Raspet et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 123(3), 1260-1269 (2008)], predictions of the low frequency turbulence-turbulence and turbulence-mean shear interaction pressure spectra measured by a large wind screen were developed and compared to the spectra measured using large spherical wind screens in the flow. The predictions and measurements agreed well except at very low frequencies where the turbulence-mean shear contribution dominated the turbulence-turbulence interaction pressure. In this region the predicted turbulence-mean shear interaction pressure did not show consistent agreement with microphone measurements. The predicted levels were often much larger than the measured results. This paper applies methods developed to predict the turbulence-shear interaction pressure measured at the ground [Yu et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 129(2), 622-632 (2011)] to improve the prediction of the turbulence-shear interaction pressure above the ground surface by incorporating a realistic wind velocity profile and realistic turbulence anisotropy. The revised prediction of the turbulence-shear interaction pressure spectra compares favorably with wind-screen microphone measurements in large wind screens at low frequency. PMID:22225016

  16. Preliminary measurement of the airframe noise from an F-106B delta wing aircraft at low flyover speeds. [establishment of lower limit for noise level of supersonic transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, R. R.

    1974-01-01

    To establish a realistic lower limit for the noise level of advanced supersonic transport aircraft will require knowledge concerning the amount of noise generated by the airframe itself as it moves through the air. The airframe noise level of an F-106B aircraft was determined and was compared to that predicted from an existing empirical relationship. The data were obtained from flyover and static tests conducted to determine the background noise level of the F-106B aircraft. Preliminary results indicate that the spectrum associated with airframe noise was broadband and peaked at a frequency of about 570 hertz. An existing empirical method successfully predicted the frequency where the spectrum peaked. However, the predicted OASPL value of 105 db was considerably greater than the measures value of 83 db.

  17. Noise reduction in supersonic jets by nozzle fluidic inserts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Philip J.; McLaughlin, Dennis K.; Kuo, Ching-Wen

    2013-08-01

    Professor Philip Doak spent a very productive time as a consultant to the Lockheed-Georgia Company in the early 1970s. The focus of the overall research project was the prediction and reduction of noise from supersonic jets. Now, 40 years on, the present paper describes an innovative methodology and device for the reduction of supersonic jet noise. The goal is the development of a practical active noise reduction technique for low bypass ratio turbofan engines. This method introduces fluidic inserts installed in the divergent wall of a CD nozzle to replace hard-wall corrugation seals, which have been demonstrated to be effective by Seiner (2005) [1]. By altering the configuration and operating conditions of the fluidic inserts, active noise reduction for both mixing and shock noise has been obtained. Substantial noise reductions have been achieved for mixing noise in the maximum noise emission direction and in the forward arc for broadband shock-associated noise. To achieve these reductions (on the order of greater than 4 and 2 dB for the two main components respectively), practically achievable levels of injection mass flow rates have been used. The total injected mass flow rates are less than 4% of the core mass flow rate and the effective operating injection pressure ratio has been maintained at or below the same level as the nozzle pressure ratio of the core flow.

  18. Noise Spectroscopy Used in Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žacik, Michal

    This thesis contains glossary topic of spectroscopic measurement methods in broad bands of frequency. There is designed experimental measurement method for simple samples and biological samples measurements for noise spectroscopy in frequency range of 0.1 - 6 GHz, using broadband noise generator. There is realized the workplace and the measurement method is verified by measuring on selected samples. Measurements a displayed and analyzed.

  19. Effects of acoustic treatment on the interior noise levels of a twin-engine propeller aircraft - Experimental flight results and theoretical predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyer, T. B.; Powell, C. A.; Daniels, E. F.; Pope, L. D.

    1984-01-01

    In-flight noise level measurements were made within two cabin configurations of a general aviation business aircraft. The Fairchild Merlin IVC twin-engine aircraft was tested with bare walls and fiberglass insulation and in an executive trim configuration. Narrow-band and octave format data were subjected to analyses which permitted identification of the blade passage harmonics (BPH). Cabin noise level reductions (insertion losses) due to added insulation varied with position in the cabin, the BPH number, cabin pressure, and engine torque. The measurements were closely predicted using the propeller aircraft interior noise (PAIN) mode.

  20. Localization of a noisy broadband surface target using time differences of multipath arrivals.

    PubMed

    Gebbie, John; Siderius, Martin; McCargar, Reid; Allen, John S; Pusey, Grant

    2013-07-01

    Previous studies [Tiemann et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 120, 2355-2365 (2006)] have reported the localization of marine mammals in 3-D from their clicks using multipath arrivals. Bathymetric variations were advantageously used to predict multipath arrival times with a raytracer. These arrivals are directly discernible from the time series for impulsive sources, such as whale clicks, but extension of the method to continuous broadband sources presents additional complications. By pulse compressing noise emitted from a small boat using two hydrophones, the hyperbolic direct-arrival ambiguity can be refined in both range and bearing. Acoustic-derived results are validated with target GPS measurements. PMID:23862911

  1. Workshop on Jet Exhaust Noise Reduction for Tactical Aircraft - NASA Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Dennis L.; Henderson, Brenda S.

    2007-01-01

    Jet noise from supersonic, high performance aircraft is a significant problem for takeoff and landing operations near air bases and aircraft carriers. As newer aircraft with higher thrust and performance are introduced, the noise tends to increase due to higher jet exhaust velocities. Jet noise has been a subject of research for over 55 years. Commercial subsonic aircraft benefit from changes to the engine cycle that reduce the exhaust velocities and result in significant noise reduction. Most of the research programs over the past few decades have concentrated on commercial aircraft. Progress has been made by introducing new engines with design features that reduce the noise. NASA has recently started a new program called "Fundamental Aeronautics" where three projects (subsonic fixed wing, subsonic rotary wing, and supersonics) address aircraft noise. For the supersonics project, a primary goal is to understand the underlying physics associated with jet noise so that improved noise prediction tools and noise reduction methods can be developed for a wide range of applications. Highlights from the supersonics project are presented including prediction methods for broadband shock noise, flow measurement methods, and noise reduction methods. Realistic expectations are presented based on past history that indicates significant jet noise reduction cannot be achieved without major changes to the engine cycle. NASA s past experience shows a few EPNdB (effective perceived noise level in decibels) can be achieved using low noise design features such as chevron nozzles. Minimal thrust loss can be expected with these nozzles (< 0.5%) and they may be retrofitted on existing engines. In the long term, it is desirable to use variable cycle engines that can be optimized for lower jet noise during takeoff operations and higher thrust for operational performance. It is also suggested that noise experts be included early in the design process for engine nozzle systems to participate in decisions that may impact the jet noise.

  2. IEEE 2004 CUSTOMINTEGRATEDCIRCUITS CONFERENCE Fast, accurate prediction of PLL jitter induced by power grid noise

    E-print Network

    Roychowdhury, Jaijeet

    the concept of a time-varying impulse sensitivityfunction (ISF). im o h n t concern lnphas*locked loop (PLL)design the VCO macromodel is able to predict phase errors coactl where nor jitter, in Contrast to the h e a r or VCO. We demonstratethe proposed the sensitivity of the VCO's phase to perturbations) is, in general

  3. Optimal launch power prediction of a 100G PM-DQPSK dispersion-managed link with the Gaussian noise model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, Telmo P.; Drummond, Miguel V.; Pavlovi?, Natasa B.; André, Paulo S.; Nogueira, Rogério N.

    2014-08-01

    Of all the non-linear fiber propagation models proposed over the years, the Gaussian Noise (GN) model is growing in popularity due to its simplicity and yet reliability when it comes to predict performance of uncompensated coherent transmission (UT) systems that rely on state-of-the art digital-signal processing (DSP) for dispersion compensation. However, many of the systems currently deployed rely on optical CD compensation. Overhauling or upgrading these systems with the most recent DSP is not always feasible. In this context, it is important to broad the range of the GNmodel to dispersion managed (DM) systems, so both scenarios can benefit from a low complexity, fast and reliable performance prediction tool. In this paper, we validate the first results comparing the performance in both accuracy and simulation time of the GN model simulating a realistic DM scenario that relies on periodical spans of non-dispersion shifted fiber (NDSF) to perform the dispersion compensation. The same realistic scenarios were modeled with commercial software and the GN model. The objective was to predict the optimal launch power for different link lengths, central wavelengths and channel spacing values. Preliminary results obtained with the GN model are in good agreement with the ones from the commercial software for several link distances tested up to 2400 Km.

  4. Predictions of diotic tone-in-noise detection based on a nonlinear optimal combination of energy, envelope, and fine-structure cues

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Junwen; Vosoughi, Azadeh; Carney, Laurel H.

    2013-01-01

    Tone-in-noise detection has been studied for decades; however, it is not completely understood what cue or cues are used by listeners for this task. Model predictions based on energy in the critical band are generally more successful than those based on temporal cues, except when the energy cue is not available. Nevertheless, neither energy nor temporal cues can explain the predictable variance for all listeners. In this study, it was hypothesized that better predictions of listeners' detection performance could be obtained using a nonlinear combination of energy and temporal cues, even when the energy cue was not available. The combination of different cues was achieved using the logarithmic likelihood-ratio test (LRT), an optimal detector in signal detection theory. A nonlinear LRT-based combination of cues was proposed, given that the cues have Gaussian distributions and the covariance matrices of cue values from noise-alone and tone-plus-noise conditions are different. Predictions of listeners' detection performance for three different sets of reproducible noises were computed with the proposed model. Results showed that predictions for hit rates approached the predictable variance for all three datasets, even when an energy cue was not available. PMID:23862816

  5. Application of MacCORMACK Schemes to I.C. Engine Exhaust Noise Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payri, F.; Torregrosa, A. J.; Chust, M. D.

    1996-09-01

    Non-linear flow calculations are a usual tool for describing the flow inside intake and exhaust systems of internal combustion engines. Therefore, they may also be used to estimate the noise radiated by these systems. Most of the work reported in this field is related to the use of the method of characteristics, and some references to the use of the Lax-Wendroff finite differences scheme are also found. In this paper, MacCormack predictor-corrector schemes are shown to be less dispersive and slightly faster than the Lax-Wendroff scheme, and are used to solve the one-dimensional flow equations in the case of the exhaust system of a single cylinder engine. A modification of the treatment of the source terms is proposed which results in a considerable reduction in the computation time without any loss of information. An iterative procedure has been devised that allows the use with this finite differences scheme of boundary conditions developed to be used with the method of characteristics. Comparison with experimental results is given for the case of an exhaust duct without muffler and with an expansion chamber, showing fair agreement in both cases.

  6. Broadband flow-induced sound control using plasma actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xun; Zhang, Xin; Li, Yong

    2010-06-01

    Plasma actuators were used in this work to control flow-induced broadband noise radiated from a bluff body. The model consists of a cylinder and a component (torque link) that is installed on the lee side of the cylinder. The objective is to reduce the broadband noise mainly generated through the impingement of the cylinder wake on the torque link. The flow-structure interactions between the cylinder wake and the torque link are reduced by manipulating the cylinder wake with the externally imposed body force from the plasma actuators, which lead to the attenuation of the broadband noise. The control performance with the plasma actuators is studied in an anechoic chamber facility by examining far-field sound level and near-field acoustic source changes. At a free stream speed of 30 m/s, corresponding to the Reynolds number of 2.1×105, far-field measurements suggested that a reduction of up to 3.2 dB in overall sound pressure level. The near-field beamforming results also show approximately 3 dB reduction in the interested frequency ranges. The physical mechanisms related to broadband noise control were also discussed. This work suggests that plasma actuators offer the potential for solving flow-induced noise control problem at broadband frequencies.

  7. Comparative evaluation of predicted and measured performance of a 68-cubic meter truncated reverberant noise chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cyphers, H. D.; Munson, A. N.; On, F. J.

    1975-01-01

    The performance of a medium size, truncated reverberation chamber is evaluated in detail. Chamber performance parameters are predicted, using classical acoustic theory, and are compared to results from actual chamber measurements. Discrepancies are discussed in relation to several available empirical corrections developed by other researchers. Of more practical interest is the confirmation of a recent theory stating that the present guide for the ratio of specimen volume to test chamber volume, approximately 10 percent, is overly conservative, and can be increased by a factor of at least 2 and possibly 3. Results and theoretical justification of these findings are presented.

  8. Rectangular nozzle plume velocity modeling for use in jet noise prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Von Glahn, U. H.

    1989-01-01

    A modeling technique for predicting the axial and transverse velocity characteristics of rectangular nozzle plumes is developed. In this technique, modeling of the plume cross section is initiated at the nozzle exit plane. The technique is demonstrated for the plume issuing from a rectangular nozzle having an aspect ratio of 6.0 and discharging into quiescent air. Application of the present procedures to a nozzle discharging into a moving airstream (flight effect) are then demonstrated. The effects of plume shear layer structure modification on the velocity flowfield are discussed and modeling procedures are illustrated by example.

  9. Enhancement of speech corrupted by acoustic noise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Berouti; R. Schwartz; J. Makhoul

    1979-01-01

    This paper describes a method for enhancing speech corrupted by broadband noise. The method is based on the spectral noise subtraction method. The original method entails subtracting an estimate of the noise power spectrum from the speech power spectrum, setting negative differences to zero, recombining the new power spectrum with the original phase, and then reconstructing the time waveform. While

  10. Numerical prediction of marine propeller noise in non-uniform inflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Yu-cun; Zhang, Huai-xin

    2013-03-01

    A numerical study on the acoustic radiation of a propeller interacting with non-uniform inflow has been conducted. Real geometry of a marine propeller DTMB 4118 is used in the calculation, and sliding mesh technique is adopted to deal with the rotational motion of the propeller. The performance of the DES (Detached Eddy Simulation) approach at capturing the unsteady forces and moments on the propeller is compared with experiment. Far-field sound radiation is predicted by the formation 1A developed by Farassat, an integral solution of FW-H (Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings) equation in time domain. The sound pressure and directivity patterns of the propeller operating in two specific velocity distributions are discussed.

  11. Comparison of measured and calculated helicopter rotor impulsive noise. [wind tunnel test data and prediction analysis techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W.; Lee, A.

    1978-01-01

    The thickness noise theory is discussed. Two full-scale rotors were tested in a wind tunnel with several tips involving changes in chord, thickness, and sweep. Impulsive noise data reduction procedures used are described. The calculated and measured impulsive noise peak pressures as a function of advancing tip Mach number are compared, showing good correlation for all rotors considered.

  12. Relationship between container ship underwater noise levels and ship design, operational and oceanographic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenna, Megan F.; Wiggins, Sean M.; Hildebrand, John A.

    2013-05-01

    Low-frequency ocean ambient noise is dominated by noise from commercial ships, yet understanding how individual ships contribute deserves further investigation. This study develops and evaluates statistical models of container ship noise in relation to design characteristics, operational conditions, and oceanographic settings. Five-hundred ship passages and nineteen covariates were used to build generalized additive models. Opportunistic acoustic measurements of ships transiting offshore California were collected using seafloor acoustic recorders. A 5-10 dB range in broadband source level was found for ships depending on the transit conditions. For a ship recorded multiple times traveling at different speeds, cumulative noise was lowest at 8 knots, 65% reduction in operational speed. Models with highest predictive power, in order of selection, included ship speed, size, and time of year. Uncertainty in source depth and propagation affected model fit. These results provide insight on the conditions that produce higher levels of underwater noise from container ships.

  13. Predicting noise-induced hearing loss in human populations. The contribution of the ISO-1999 and ANSI S3.44 standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prince, Mary M.

    2003-04-01

    This paper reviews the ISO-1999 and ANSI S3.44 standards and the literature related to prediction of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) in humans. The dearth of contemporary population-based studies of hearing loss among industrial, low noise-exposed individuals have made the ISO-1999 and ANSI S3.44 standards a key source of comparative data for assessing the risk of NIHL. This paper will highlight how these standards have been used in several published papers to examine the magnitude of NIHL risk, predictions of noise-induced thresholds in hearing conservation data, and to generate hypotheses regarding the biologic plausibility of hearing loss due to chemicals or other ototoxic agents.

  14. Jet noise modification by the 'whistler nozzle'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasan, M. A. Z.; Islam, O.; Hussain, A. K. M. F.

    1984-01-01

    The farfield noise characteristics of a subsonic whistler nozzle jet are measured as a function of Mach number (0.25, 0.37, and, 0.51), emission angle, and excitation mode. It is shown that a whistler nozzle has greater total and broadband acoustic power than an excited contraction nozzle; and that the intensity of far-field noise is a function of emission angle, Mach number, and whistler excitation stage. The whistler nozzle excitation produces broadband noise amplification with constant spectral shape; the broadband noise amplification (without associated whistler tones and harmonics) increases omnidirectionally with emission angle at all Mach numbers; and the broadband amplification factor decreases as Mach number and emission angle increase. Finally the whistler nozzle is described as a very efficient but inexpensive siren with applications in not only jet excitation but also acoustics.

  15. Predicting dynamic range and intensity discrimination for electrical pulse-train stimuli using a stochastic auditory nerve model: the effects of stimulus noise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yifang Xu; Leslie M. Collins

    2005-01-01

    This work investigates dynamic range and intensity discrimination for electrical pulse-train stimuli that are modulated by noise using a stochastic auditory nerve model. Based on a hypothesized monotonic relationship between loudness and the number of spikes elicited by a stimulus, theoretical prediction of the uncomfortable level has previously been determined by comparing spike counts to a fixed threshold, Nucl. However,

  16. Model-based prediction of long-term leaching of contaminants from secondary materials in road constructions and noise protection dams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christof Beyer; Wilfried Konrad; Hermann Rügner; Sebastian Bauer; Rudolf Liedl; Peter Grathwohl

    2008-01-01

    In this study, contaminant leaching from three different secondary materials (demolition waste, munici- pal solid waste incineration ash, and blast furnace slag) to groundwater is assessed by numerical model- ing. Reactive transport simulations for a noise protection dam and a road dam (a typical German autobahn), in which secondary materials are reused as base layers, were performed to predict the

  17. Model-based prediction of long-term leaching of contaminants from secondary materials in road constructions and noise protection dams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christof Beyer; Wilfried Konrad; Hermann Rügner; Sebastian Bauer; Rudolf Liedl; Peter Grathwohl

    2009-01-01

    In this study, contaminant leaching from three different secondary materials (demolition waste, municipal solid waste incineration ash, and blast furnace slag) to groundwater is assessed by numerical modeling. Reactive transport simulations for a noise protection dam and a road dam (a typical German autobahn), in which secondary materials are reused as base layers, were performed to predict the breakthrough of

  18. Core Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.

    2011-01-01

    This presentation is a technical summary of and outlook for NASA-internal and NASA-sponsored external research on core (combustor and turbine) noise funded by the Fundamental Aeronautics Program Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) Project. Sections of the presentation cover: the SFW system-level noise metrics for the 2015, 2020, and 2025 timeframes; turbofan design trends and their aeroacoustic implications; the emerging importance of core noise and its relevance to the SFW Reduce-Perceived-Noise Technical Challenge; and the current research activities in the core noise area. Recent work1 on the turbine-transmission loss of combustor noise is briefly described, two2,3 new NRA efforts in the core-noise area are outlined, and an effort to develop CMC-based acoustic liners for broadband noise reduction suitable for turbofan-core application is delineated. The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program has the principal objective of overcoming today's national challenges in air transportation. The reduction of aircraft noise is critical to enabling the anticipated large increase in future air traffic. The Subsonic Fixed Wing Project's Reduce-Perceived-Noise Technical Challenge aims to develop concepts and technologies to dramatically reduce the perceived aircraft noise outside of airport boundaries.

  19. Separation of airborne and structureborne noise radiated by plates constructed of conventional and composite materials with applications for prediction of interior noise paths in propeller driven aircraft. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgary, M. C.

    1986-01-01

    The anticipated application of advanced turboprop propulsion systems and use of composite materials in primary structure is expected to increase the interior noise of future aircraft to unacceptability high levels. The absence of technically and economically feasible noise source-path diagnostic tools has been a primer obstacle in the development of efficient noise control treatments for propeller driven aircraft. A new diagnostic method which permits the separation and prediction of the fully coherent airborne and structureborne components of the sound radiated by plates or thin shells has been developed. Analytical and experimental studies of the proposed method were performed on plates constructed of both conventional and composite materials. The results of the study indicate that the proposed method can be applied to a variety of aircraft materials, could be used in flight, and has fewer encumbrances than the other diagnostic tools currently available. The study has also revealed that the noise radiation of vibrating plates in the low frequency regime due to combined airborne and structureborne inputs possesses a strong synergistic nature. The large influence of the interaction between the airborne and structureborne terms has been hitherto ignored by researchers of aircraft interior noise problems.

  20. NASA propeller noise research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, G. C.

    1980-01-01

    The research in propeller noise prediction, noise/performance optimization, and interior reduction is described. Selected results are presented to illustrate the status of the technology and the direction of future research.

  1. Shielding Characteristics Using an Ultrasonic Configurable Fan Artificial Noise Source to Generate Modes - Experimental Measurements and Analytical Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutliff, Daniel L.; Walker, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    An Ultrasonic Configurable Fan Artificial Noise Source (UCFANS) was designed, built, and tested in support of the NASA Langley Research Center's 14x22 wind tunnel test of the Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) full 3-D 5.8% scale model. The UCFANS is a 5.8% rapid prototype scale model of a high-bypass turbofan engine that can generate the tonal signature of proposed engines using artificial sources (no flow). The purpose of the program was to provide an estimate of the acoustic shielding benefits possible from mounting an engine on the upper surface of a wing; a flat plate model was used as the shielding surface. Simple analytical simulations were used to preview the radiation patterns - Fresnel knife-edge diffraction was coupled with a dense phased array of point sources to compute shielded and unshielded sound pressure distributions for potential test geometries and excitation modes. Contour plots of sound pressure levels, and integrated power levels, from nacelle alone and shielded configurations for both the experimental measurements and the analytical predictions are presented in this paper.

  2. Metamaterial broadband angular selectivity

    E-print Network

    Shen, Yichen

    We demonstrate how broadband angular selectivity can be achieved with stacks of one-dimensionally periodic photonic crystals, each consisting of alternating isotropic layers and effective anisotropic layers, where each ...

  3. Fourth Aircraft Interior Noise Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, David G. (compiler)

    1992-01-01

    The fourth in a series of NASA/SAE Interior Noise Workshops was held on May 19 and 20, 1992. The theme of the workshop was new technology and applications for aircraft noise with emphasis on source noise prediction; cabin noise prediction; cabin noise control, including active and passive methods; and cabin interior noise procedures. This report is a compilation of the presentations made at the meeting which addressed the above issues.

  4. A Broadband Ocean-Bottom Seismometer System Based on a 1Hz Natural Period Geophone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Spahr C. Webb; Thomas K. Deaton; Jacques C. Lemire

    2001-01-01

    Recent work with broadband sensors has demonstrated that useful data can be obtained from seismic sensors deployed on the deep seafloor for periods as long as 300 sec, but ocean-bottom seismometer (OBS) systems using conventional broadband sensors have proven fragile and expensive to build and operate. The in- trinsic thermal (Brownian motion) noise limit for large 1-Hz geophone sensors such

  5. Electrostatic Noise in the Plasma Environment Around the Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vayner, Boris V.; Ferguson, Dale C.

    1995-01-01

    The Langmuir probe flown as part of the Solar Array Module Plasma Interactions Experiment (SAMPIE) package aboard the space shuttle flight STS-62 was used to determine plasma potential fluctuations in the vicinity of the shuttle. The broadband noise was observed at frequencies 250 - 20,000 Hz. Measurements were performed in ram conditions; thus, it seems reasonable to believe that the influence of spacecraft operations on plasma parameters was absolutely negligible. The average spectrum of fluctuations is in agreement with theoretical predictions. The influence on the observed spectra of arcing generated by high negative bias voltages applied to solar cell samples is briefly discussed.

  6. Spectral tomography with diffuse near-infrared light: inclusion of broadband frequency domain spectral data

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jia; Davis, Scott C.; Srinivasan, Subhadra; Jiang, Shudong; Pogue, Brian W.; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2010-01-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) region-based spectroscopy is examined for accuracy with spectral recovery using frequency domain data at a discrete number of wavelengths, as compared to that with broadband continuous wave data. Data with more wavelengths in the frequency domain always produce superior quantitative spectroscopy results with reduced noise and error in the chromophore concentrations. Performance of the algorithm in the situation of doing region-guided spectroscopy within the MRI is also considered, and the issue of false positive prior regions being identified is examined to see the effect of added wavelengths. The results indicate that broadband frequency domain data are required for maximal accuracy. A broadband frequency domain experimental system was used to validate the predictions, using a mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser for the source between 690- and 850-nm wavelengths. The 80-MHz pulsed signal is heterodyned with photomultiplier tube detection, to lower frequency for data acquisition. Tissue-phantom experiments with known hemoglobin absorption and tissue-like scatter values are used to validate the system, using measurements every 10 nm. More wavelengths clearly provide superior quantification of total hemoglobin values. The system and algorithms developed here should provide an optimal way to quantify regions with the goal of image-guided breast tissue spectroscopy within the MRI. PMID:19021313

  7. Exact noise analysis of SC circuits and an approximate computer implementation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOSEF GOETTE; CLAUDE-ALAIN GOBET

    1989-01-01

    A noise analysis of switched-capacitor (SC) circuits is presented that describes the time-averaged second-order statistics of the cyclostationary processes encountered in such systems. A unified framework makes it possible to take into account broadband, as well as low-frequency (such as flicker), noise sources by basing the modeling for all noise types on the mathematical white-noise model in which broadband noise

  8. Annoyance caused by advanced turboprop aircraft flyover noise: Counter-rotating-propeller configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccurdy, David A.

    1990-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to quantify the annoyance of people to flyover noise of advanced turboprop aircraft with counter rotating propellers. The first experiment examined configurations having an equal number of blades on each rotor and the second experiment examined configurations having an unequal number of blades on each rotor. The objectives were to determine the effects on annoyance of various tonal characteristics, and to compare annoyance to advanced turboprops with annoyance to conventional turboprops and turbofans. A computer was used to synthesize realistic, time-varying simulations of advanced turboprop aircraft takeoff noise. The simulations represented different combinations fundamental frequency and tone-to-broadband noise ratio. Also included in each experiment were recordings of 10 conventional turboprop and turbofan takeoffs. Each noise was presented at three sound pressure levels in an anechoic chamber. In each experiment, 64 subjects judged the annoyance of each noise stimulus. Analyses indicated that annoyance was significantly affected by the interaction of fundamental frequency with tone-to-broadband noise ratio. No significant differences in annoyance between the advanced turboprop aircraft and the conventional turbofans were found. The use of a duration correction and a modified tone correction improved the annoyance prediction for the stimuli.

  9. Numerical Prediction of Electromagnetic Vibration and Noise of Permanent-Magnet Direct Current Commutator Motors With Rotor Eccentricities and Glue Effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guhuan He; Zhenyu Huang; Ray Qin; Dayue Chen

    2012-01-01

    Numerical models are developed to predict the electromagnetic vibration and noise of permanent-magnet direct current (PMDC) commutator motors when both rotor eccentricities and glue effects are involved. Finite-element method (FEM) and boundary-element method (BEM) are combined to analyze the electromagnetic, mechanical, and acoustical characteristics of the studied motor. By using the finite-element method, an electromagnetic field considered as the electromagnetic

  10. 3D Acoustic Modes, Shot Noise and Strain Displacements in a Radio Frequency Quantum Point Contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stettenheim, J.; Thalakulam, M.; Pan, F.; Bal, M.; Pfeiffer, L. N.; West, K. W.; Rimberg, A. J.

    2009-03-01

    As previously reported, our broadband frequency resolved measurements of shot noise in a radio frequency QPC (RF-QPC) reveal a remarkable frequency dependence absent from theoretical predictions. Based on piezoelectric coupling in GaAs, our data suggest a feedback loop in which shot noise drives resonant acoustic vibrations that in turn create correlations in electron tunneling. The feedback concentrates the initially white noise in a narrow band around the sample's resonant frequency, allowing shot noise spectrum engineering. We solve for the 3D acoustic modes of our samples, finding close correspondence with measured frequencies. We have determined that the geometry and magnitude of the polarization field selects the acoustic mode excited. As polarization fields and strain displacements are linked in GaAs, we estimate the ultimate mechanical displacement sensitivity of our RF-QPC.

  11. Broad-band lightwave synthesized frequency sweeper using synchronous filtering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroki Takesue; Tsuneo Horiguchi

    2004-01-01

    We describe a broad-band lightwave synthesized frequency sweeper (LSFS) that uses synchronous filtering. We control the center frequency of the bandpass filter (BPF) in the LSFS so that it tracks the frequency of the circulating pulse. In the first half of this paper, we numerically simulate the accumulation of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) noise in the LSFS and confirm the

  12. Method and apparatus for recording broad-band seismic data

    SciTech Connect

    Fix, J.E.; Crews, G.A.

    1985-02-12

    A receiver array for detecting seismic reflections is composed of geophones of several different natural frequencies divided into subarrays having lengths compatible with the natural frequencies of their geophones and the seismic wavelengths at the recording site. This system provides both frequency and spatial filtering at the sensors so as to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio of broad-band seismic signals.

  13. Masking by Gratings Predicted by an Image Sequence Discriminating Model: Testing Models for Perceptual Discrimination Using Repeatable Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahumada, Albert J., Jr.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Adding noise to stimuli to be discriminated allows estimation of observer classification functions based on the correlation between observer responses and relevant features of the noisy stimuli. Examples will be presented of stimulus features that are found in auditory tone detection and visual vernier acuity. using the standard signal detection model (Thurstone scaling), we derive formulas to estimate the proportion of the observers decision variable variance that is controlled by the added noise. one is based on the probability of agreement of the observer with him/herself on trials with the same noise sample. Another is based on the relative performance of the observer and the model. When these do not agree, the model can be rejected. A second derivation gives the probability of agreement of observer and model when the observer follows the model except for internal noise. Agreement significantly less than this amount allows rejection of the model.

  14. Acoustic Prediction State of the Art Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahl, Milo D.

    2007-01-01

    The acoustic assessment task for both the Subsonic Fixed Wing and the Supersonic projects under NASA s Fundamental Aeronautics Program was designed to assess the current state-of-the-art in noise prediction capability and to establish baselines for gauging future progress. The documentation of our current capabilities included quantifying the differences between predictions of noise from computer codes and measurements of noise from experimental tests. Quantifying the accuracy of both the computed and experimental results further enhanced the credibility of the assessment. This presentation gives sample results from codes representative of NASA s capabilities in aircraft noise prediction both for systems and components. These include semi-empirical, statistical, analytical, and numerical codes. System level results are shown for both aircraft and engines. Component level results are shown for a landing gear prototype, for fan broadband noise, for jet noise from a subsonic round nozzle, and for propulsion airframe aeroacoustic interactions. Additional results are shown for modeling of the acoustic behavior of duct acoustic lining and the attenuation of sound in lined ducts with flow.

  15. Supersonic Jet Exhaust Noise at High Subsonic Flight Speed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norum, Thomas D.; Garber, Donald P.; Golub, Robert A.; Santa Maria, Odilyn L.; Orme, John S.

    2004-01-01

    An empirical model to predict the effects of flight on the noise from a supersonic transport is developed. This model is based on an analysis of the exhaust jet noise from high subsonic flights of the F-15 ACTIVE Aircraft. Acoustic comparisons previously attainable only in a wind tunnel were accomplished through the control of both flight operations and exhaust nozzle exit diameter. Independent parametric variations of both flight and exhaust jet Mach numbers at given supersonic nozzle pressure ratios enabled excellent correlations to be made for both jet broadband shock noise and jet mixing noise at flight speeds up to Mach 0.8. Shock noise correlated with flight speed and emission angle through a Doppler factor exponent of about 2.6. Mixing noise at all downstream angles was found to correlate well with a jet relative velocity exponent of about 7.3, with deviations from this behavior only at supersonic eddy convection speeds and at very high flight Mach numbers. The acoustic database from the flight test is also provided.

  16. Predicting the audibility and annoyance of unducted fan engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fidell, Sanford; Secrist, Linda; Helweg-Larsen, Marie

    1990-01-01

    Predictions of the prevalence of annoyance associated with aircraft noise exposure are heavily influenced by field studies conducted in urban airport neighborhoods. Flyovers heard in such relatively high ambient noise environments are composed in large part of high absolute level, broadband noise. In contrast, noise exposure created en route by aircraft powered by unducted fan engines is expected to be relatively low in level, but to contain prominent low frequency tonal energy. These tones will be readily audible in rural and other low ambient noise environments. The annoyance of noise intrusions of low absolute level has been shown to be closely related to their audibility. Thus, one way to predict the annoyance of en route noise generated by unducted fan engines is to estimate its audibility relative to that of conventionally powered aircraft in different ambient noise environments. This may be accomplished by computing the audibility of spectra produced by an aircraft powered by unducted fan engines and comparing predicted probabilities of annoyance for them with those of conventionally powered transport aircraft.

  17. Noise radiation characteristics of the Westinghouse WWG-0600 (600kW) wind turbine generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, Kevin P.; Hubbard, Harvey H.

    1989-01-01

    Acoustic data are presented from five different WWG-0600 machines for the wind speed range 6.7 to 13.4 m/s, for a power output range of 51 to 600 kW and for upwind, downwind and crosswind locations. Both broadband and narrowband data are presented and are compared with calculations and with similar data from other machines. Predicted broadband spectra are in good agreement with measurements at high power and underestimate them at low power. Discrete frequency rotational noise components are present in all measurements and are believed due to terrain induced wind gradients. Predictions are in general agreement with measurements upwind and downwind but underestimate them in the crosswind direction.

  18. Noise radiation characteristics of the Westinghouse WWG-0600 (600kW) wind turbine generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, Kevin P.; Hubbard, Harvey H.

    1989-07-01

    Acoustic data are presented from five different WWG-0600 machines for the wind speed range 6.7 to 13.4 m/s, for a power output range of 51 to 600 kW and for upwind, downwind and crosswind locations. Both broadband and narrowband data are presented and are compared with calculations and with similar data from other machines. Predicted broadband spectra are in good agreement with measurements at high power and underestimate them at low power. Discrete frequency rotational noise components are present in all measurements and are believed due to terrain induced wind gradients. Predictions are in general agreement with measurements upwind and downwind but underestimate them in the crosswind direction.

  19. Broadband Fixed Phase Shifters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amin M. Abbosh

    2011-01-01

    Amethodtodesignplanarandcompactphaseshifters with broadband characteristics is presented. It utilizes broadside- coupled microstrip-coplanarwaveguide,andthustheproposed de- vices can be fabricated using the simple and cheap double-side printed circuit boards. The method is used to design 60 and 90 phase shifters. The simulated and measured results show that the developed phase shifters achieve 3 to 11 GHz bandwidth with low phase instability , very low

  20. A 2.5-dimensional method for the prediction of structure-borne low-frequency noise from concrete rail transit bridges.

    PubMed

    Li, Qi; Song, Xiaodong; Wu, Dingjun

    2014-05-01

    Predicting structure-borne noise from bridges subjected to moving trains using the three-dimensional (3D) boundary element method (BEM) is a time consuming process. This paper presents a two-and-a-half dimensional (2.5D) BEM-based procedure for simulating bridge-borne low-frequency noise with higher efficiency, yet no loss of accuracy. The two-dimensional (2D) BEM of a bridge with a constant cross section along the track direction is adopted to calculate the spatial modal acoustic transfer vectors (MATVs) of the bridge using the space-wave number transforms of its 3D modal shapes. The MATVs calculated using the 2.5D method are then validated by those computed using the 3D BEM. The bridge-borne noise is finally obtained through the MATVs and modal coordinate responses of the bridge, considering time-varying vehicle-track-bridge dynamic interaction. The presented procedure is applied to predict the sound pressure radiating from a U-shaped concrete bridge, and the computed results are compared with those obtained from field tests on Shanghai rail transit line 8. The numerical results match well with the measured results in both time and frequency domains at near-field points. Nevertheless, the computed results are smaller than the measured ones for far-field points, mainly due to the sound radiation from adjacent spans neglected in the current model. PMID:24815255