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1

Broadband Trailing Edge Noise Predictions in the Time Domain. Revised  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A recently developed analytic result in acoustics, "Formulation 1B," is used to compute broadband trailing edge noise from an unsteady surface pressure distribution on a thin airfoil in the time domain. This formulation is a new solution of the Ffowcs Willliams-Hawkings equation with the loading source term, and has been shown in previous research to provide time domain predictions of broadband noise that are in excellent agreement with experimental results. Furthermore, this formulation lends itself readily to rotating reference frames and statistical analysis of broadband trailing edge noise. Formulation 1B is used to calculate the far field noise radiated from the trailing edge of a NACA 0012 airfoil in low Mach number flows, by using both analytical and experimental data on the airfoil surface. The acoustic predictions are compared with analytical results and experimental measurements that are available in the literature. Good agreement between predictions and measurements is obtained.

Casper, Jay; Farassat, Fereidoun

2003-01-01

2

Rotor Broadband Noise Prediction with Comparison to Model Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper reports an analysis and prediction development of rotor broadband noise. The two primary components of this noise are Blade-Wake Interaction (BWI) noise, due to the blades' interaction with the turbulent wakes of the preceding blades, and "Self" noise, due to the development and shedding of turbulence within the blades' boundary layers. Emphasized in this report is the new code development for Self noise. The analysis and validation employs data from the HART program, a model BO-105 rotor wind tunnel test conducted in the German-Dutch Wind Tunnel (DNW). The BWI noise predictions are based on measured pressure response coherence functions using cross-spectral methods. The Self noise predictions are based on previously reported semiempirical modeling of Self noise obtained from isolated airfoil sections and the use of CAMRAD.Modl to define rotor performance and local blade segment flow conditions. Both BWI and Self noise from individual blade segments are Doppler shifted and summed at the observer positions. Prediction comparisons with measurements show good agreement for a range of rotor operating conditions from climb to steep descent. The broadband noise predictions, along with those of harmonic and impulsive Blade-Vortex Interaction (BVI) noise predictions, demonstrate a significant advance in predictive capability for main rotor noise.

Brooks, Thomas F.; Burley, Casey L.

2001-01-01

3

Broadband Noise Control Using Predictive Techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Predictive controllers have found applications in a wide range of industrial processes. Two types of such controllers are generalized predictive control and deadbeat control. Recently, deadbeat control has been augmented to include an extended horizon. This modification, named deadbeat predictive control, retains the advantage of guaranteed stability and offers a novel way of control weighting. This paper presents an application of both predictive control techniques to vibration suppression of plate modes. Several system identification routines are presented. Both algorithms are outlined and shown to be useful in the suppression of plate vibrations. Experimental results are given and the algorithms are shown to be applicable to non- minimal phase systems.

Eure, Kenneth W.; Juang, Jer-Nan

1997-01-01

4

Broadband Noise Predictions Based on a New Aeroacoustic Formulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new analytic result in acoustics called 'Formulation 1B,' proposed by Farassat, is used to compute the loading noise from an unsteady surface pressure distribution on a thin airfoil in the time domain. This formulation is a new solution of the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equation with the loading source term. The formulation contains a far-field surface integral that depends on the time derivative and the surface gradient of the pressure on the airfoil, as well as a contour integral on the boundary of the airfoil surface. As a first test case, the new formulation is used to compute the noise radiated from a flat plate, moving through a sinusoidal gust of constant frequency. The unsteady surface pressure for this test case is specified analytically from a result that is based on linear airfoil theory. This test case is used to examine the velocity scaling properties of Formulation 1B, and to demonstrate its equivalence to Formulation 1A, of Farassat. The new acoustic formulation, again with an analytic surface pressure, is then used to predict broadband noise radiated from an airfoil immersed in homogeneous turbulence. The results are compared with experimental data previously reported by Paterson and Amiet. Good agreement between predictions and measurements is obtained. The predicted results also agree very well with those of Paterson and Amiet, who used a frequency-domain approach. Finally, an alternative form of Formulation 1B is described for statistical analysis of broadband noise.

Casper, J.; Farassat, F.

2002-01-01

5

Axial flow fan broad-band noise and prediction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two prediction methods for broad-band noise of low-pressure axial fans are investigated. Emphasis is put on the interaction noise due to ingested turbulence. The numerical large eddy simulation (LES) is applied to predict the unsteady blade forces due to grid generated highly turbulent inflow; the blade forces are then fed into an analytical two-dimensional acoustic ducted source model. A simple semi-empirical noise prediction model (SEM) is utilized for indicative comparison. Finally, to obtain a database for detailed verification, the turbulence statistics for a variety of different inflow configurations are determined experimentally using hot wire anemometry and a correlation analysis. In the limits of the necessary assumptions the SEM predicts the noise spectra and the overall sound power surprisingly well without any further tuning of parameters; the influence of the fan operating point and the nature of the inflow is obtained. Naturally, the predicted spectra appear unrealistically "smooth", since the empirical input data are averaged and modeled in the frequency domain. By way of contrast the LES yields the fluctuating forces on the blades in the time domain. Details of the source characteristics and their origin are obtained rather clearly. The predicted effects of the ingested turbulence on the fluctuating blade forces and the fan noise compare favorably with experiments. However, the choice of the numerical grid size determines the maximal resolvable frequency and the computational cost. As contrasted with the SEM, the cost for the LES-based method are immense.

Carolus, Thomas; Schneider, Marc; Reese, Hauke

2007-02-01

6

The Prediction of Broadband Shock-Associated Noise from Dualstream and Rectangular Jets Using RANS CFD  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Supersonic jets operating off-design produce broadband shock-associated noise. Broadband shock-associated noise is characterized by multiple broadband peaks in the far-field and is often the dominant source of noise towards the sideline and upstream direction relative to the jet axis. It is due to large scale coherent turbulence structures in the jet shear layers interacting with the shock cell structure. A broadband shock-associated noise model recently developed by the authors predicts this noise component from solutions to the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations using a two-equation turbulence model. The broadband shock-associated noise model is applied to dualstream and rectangular nozzles operating supersonically, heated, and off-design. The dualstream jet broadband shock-associated noise predictions are conducted for cases when the core jet is supersonic and the fan jet is subsonic, the core jet is subsonic and the fan jet is supersonic, and when both jet streams operate supersonically. Rectangular jet predictions are shown for a convergent-divergent nozzle operating both over- and under-expanded for cold and heated conditions. The original model implementation has been heavily modified to make accurate predictions for the dualstream jets. It is also argued that for over-expanded jets the oblique shock wave attached to the nozzle lip contributes little to broadband shock-associated noise. All predictions are compared with experiments.

Miller, Steven A.; Morris, Philip J.

2010-01-01

7

Prediction of broadband noise from large horizontal axis wind turbine generators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is presented for predicting the broadband noise spectra of large horizontal axis wind turbine generators. It includes contributions from such noise sources as the inflow turbulence to the rotor, the interactions between the turbulent boundary layers on the blade surfaces with their trailing edges and the wake due to a blunt trailing edge. The method is partly empirical and is based on acoustic measurements of large wind turbines and airfoil models. The predicted frequency spectra are compared with measured data from several machines including the MOD-OA, the MOD-2, the WTS-4 and the U.S. Wind-power Inc. machine. Also included is a broadband noise prediction for the proposed MOD-5B. The significance of the effects of machine size, power output, trailing edge bluntness and distance to the receiver is illustrated. Good agreement is obtained between the predicted and measured far field noise spectra.

Grosveld, F. W.

1984-01-01

8

Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System for Turbofan Engines. Volume 3; Validation and Test Cases  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pratt & Whitney has developed a Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System (BFaNS) for turbofan engines. This system computes the noise generated by turbulence impinging on the leading edges of the fan and fan exit guide vane, and noise generated by boundary-layer turbulence passing over the fan trailing edge. BFaNS has been validated on three fan rigs that were tested during the NASA Advanced Subsonic Technology Program (AST). The predicted noise spectra agreed well with measured data. The predicted effects of fan speed, vane count, and vane sweep also agreed well with measurements. The noise prediction system consists of two computer programs: Setup_BFaNS and BFaNS. Setup_BFaNS converts user-specified geometry and flow-field information into a BFaNS input file. From this input file, BFaNS computes the inlet and aft broadband sound power spectra generated by the fan and FEGV. The output file from BFaNS contains the inlet, aft and total sound power spectra from each noise source. This report is the third volume of a three-volume set documenting the Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System: Volume 1: Setup_BFaNS User s Manual and Developer s Guide; Volume 2: BFaNS User s Manual and Developer s Guide; and Volume 3: Validation and Test Cases. The present volume begins with an overview of the Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System, followed by validation studies that were done on three fan rigs. It concludes with recommended improvements and additional studies for BFaNS.

Morin, Bruce L.

2010-01-01

9

A prediction method for broadband shock associated noise from supersonic rectangualr jets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Braodband shock associated noise is an important aircraft noise component of the proposed high-speed civil transport (HSCT) at take-offs and landings. For noise certification purpose one would, therefore, like to be able to predict as accurately as possible the intensity, directivity and spectral content of this noise component. The purpose of this work is to develop a semi-empirical prediction method for the broadband shock associated noise from supersonic rectangular jets. The complexity and quality of the noise prediction method are to be similar to those for circular jets. In this paper only the broadband shock associated noise of jets issued from rectangular nozzles with straight side walls is considered. Since many current aircraft propulsion systems have nozzle aspect ratios (at nozzle exit) in the range of 1 to 4, the present study has been confined to nozzles with aspect ratio less than 6. In developing the prediction method the essential physics of the problem are taken into consideration. Since the braodband shock associated noise generation mechanism is the same whether the jet is circular or round the present prediction method in a number of ways is quite similar to that for axisymmetric jets. Comparisons between predictions and measurements for jets with aspect ratio up to 6 will be reported. Efforts will be concentrated on the fly-over plane. However, side line angles and other directions will also be included.

Tam, Christopher K. W.; Reddy, N. N.

1993-01-01

10

Broadband rotor noise analyses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The various mechanisms which generate broadband noise on a range of rotors studied include load fluctuations due to inflow turbulence, due to turbulent boundary layers passing the blades' trailing edges, and due to tip vortex formation. Existing analyses are used and extensions to them are developed to make more accurate predictions of rotor noise spectra and to determine which mechanisms are important in which circumstances. Calculations based on the various prediction methods in existing experiments were compared. The present analyses are adequate to predict the spectra from a wide variety of experiments on fans, full scale and model scale helicopter rotors, wind turbines, and propellers to within about 5 to 10 dB. Better knowledge of the inflow turbulence improves the accuracy of the predictions. Results indicate that inflow turbulence noise depends strongly on ambient conditions and dominates at low frequencies. Trailing edge noise and tip vortex noise are important at higher frequencies if inflow turbulence is weak. Boundary layer trailing edge noise, important, for large sized rotors, increases slowly with angle of attack but not as rapidly as tip vortex noise.

George, A. R.; Chou, S. T.

1984-04-01

11

Measurement and prediction of broadband noise from large horizontal axis wind turbine generators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is presented for predicting the broadband noise spectra of large wind turbine generators. It includes contributions from such noise sources as the inflow turbulence to the rotor, the interactions between the turbulent boundary layers on the blade surfaces with their trailing edges and the wake due to a blunt trailing edge. The method is partly empirical and is based on acoustic measurements of large wind turbines and airfoil models. Spectra are predicted for several large machines including the proposed MOD-5B. Measured data are presented for the MOD-2, the WTS-4, the MOD-OA, and the U.S. Windpower Inc. machines. Good agreement is shown between the predicted and measured far field noise spectra.

Grosveld, F. W.; Shepherd, K. P.; Hubbard, H. H.

1995-01-01

12

Prediction of Broadband Shock-Associated Noise Including Propagation Effects Originating NASA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An acoustic analogy is developed based on the Euler equations for broadband shock-associated noise (BBSAN) that directly incorporates the vector Green s function of the linearized Euler equations and a steady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes solution (SRANS) to describe the mean flow. The vector Green s function allows the BBSAN propagation through the jet shear layer to be determined. The large-scale coherent turbulence is modeled by two-point second order velocity cross-correlations. Turbulent length and time scales are related to the turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation rate. An adjoint vector Green s function solver is implemented to determine the vector Green s function based on a locally parallel mean flow at different streamwise locations. The newly developed acoustic analogy can be simplified to one that uses the Green s function associated with the Helmholtz equation, which is consistent with a previous formulation by the authors. A large number of predictions are generated using three different nozzles over a wide range of fully-expanded jet Mach numbers and jet stagnation temperatures. These predictions are compared with experimental data from multiple jet noise experimental facilities. In addition, two models for the so-called fine-scale mixing noise are included in the comparisons. Improved BBSAN predictions are obtained relative to other models that do not include propagation effects.

Miller, Steven; Morris, Philip J.

2012-01-01

13

Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System for Turbofan Engines. Volume 2; BFaNS User's Manual and Developer's Guide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pratt & Whitney has developed a Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System (BFaNS) for turbofan engines. This system computes the noise generated by turbulence impinging on the leading edges of the fan and fan exit guide vane, and noise generated by boundary-layer turbulence passing over the fan trailing edge. BFaNS has been validated on three fan rigs that were tested during the NASA Advanced Subsonic Technology Program (AST). The predicted noise spectra agreed well with measured data. The predicted effects of fan speed, vane count, and vane sweep also agreed well with measurements. The noise prediction system consists of two computer programs: Setup_BFaNS and BFaNS. Setup_BFaNS converts user-specified geometry and flow-field information into a BFaNS input file. From this input file, BFaNS computes the inlet and aft broadband sound power spectra generated by the fan and FEGV. The output file from BFaNS contains the inlet, aft and total sound power spectra from each noise source. This report is the second volume of a three-volume set documenting the Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System: Volume 1: Setup_BFaNS User s Manual and Developer s Guide; Volume 2: BFaNS User s Manual and Developer s Guide; and Volume 3: Validation and Test Cases. The present volume begins with an overview of the Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System, followed by step-by-step instructions for installing and running BFaNS. It concludes with technical documentation of the BFaNS computer program.

Morin, Bruce L.

2010-01-01

14

Frequency-domain prediction of broadband trailing edge noise from a blunt flat plate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study is to develop an efficient methodology for frequency-domain prediction of broadband trailing edge noise from a blunt flat plate where non-zero pressure gradient may exist in its boundary layer. This is achieved in two ways: (i) by developing new models for point pressure spectra within the boundary layer over a flat plate, and (ii) by deriving a simple formula to approximate the effect of convective velocity on the radiated noise spectrum. Firstly, two types of point pressure spectra-required as input data to predict the trailing edge noise in the frequency domain-are used. One is determined using the semi-analytic (S-A) models based on the boundary-layer theory combined with existing empirical models. It is shown that the prediction using these models show good agreements with the measurements where zero-pressure gradient assumption is valid. However, the prediction show poor agreement with that obtained from large eddy simulation results where negative (favorable) pressure gradient is observed with the boundary layer. Based on boundary layer characteristics predicted using the large eddy simulations, new model for point wall pressure spectra is proposed to account for the effect of favorable pressure gradient over the blunt flat plate on the wall pressure spectra. Sound spectra that were predicted using these models are compared with measurements to validate the proposed prediction scheme. The advantage of the semi-analytic model is that it can be applied to problems at Reynolds numbers for which the empirical model is not available. In addition, it is expected that the current models can be applied to the cases where favorable pressure gradient exists in the boundary layer over a blunt flat plate. Secondly, in order to quantitatively analyze contributions of the pressure field within the turbulent boundary layer on the flat plate to trailing edge noise, total pressure over the surface of airfoil is decomposed into its two constituents: incident pressure generated in the boundary layer without a trailing edge and the pressure formed by the scattering of the incident pressure at the trailing edge. The predictions made using each of the incident and scattered pressures reveal that the convective velocity of turbulence in the boundary layer dominantly affects the radiated sound pressure spectrum, both in terms of the gross behavior of the overall acoustic pressure spectrum through the scattered pressure and in terms of the narrow band small fluctuations of the spectrum through the incident pressure. The interaction term between the incident and the scattered is defined and the incident is shown to contribute to the radiated acoustic pressure through the interaction term. Based on this finding, a simple model to effectively compute the effects of convection velocities of the turbulence on the radiated sound pressure spectrum is proposed. It is shown that the proposed method can effectively and accurately predict the broadband trailing edge noise from the plate with considering both the incident and the scattered contributions.

Lee, Gwang-Se; Cheong, Cheolung

2013-10-01

15

On the use of a uniformly valid analytical cascade response function for fan broadband noise predictions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present paper extends an existing analytical model of the aeroacoustic response of a rectilinear cascade of flat-plate blades to three-dimensional incident vortical gusts, to the prediction of the noise generated by a three-dimensional annular blade-row. The extended formulation is meant to be implemented in a fan broadband noise prediction tool. The intended applications include the modern turbofan engines, for which analytical modelling is believed to be a good alternative to more expensive numerical techniques. The prediction noise model resorts to a strip theory approach based on a three-dimensional rectilinear cascade model. The latter is based on the Wiener-Hopf technique, and yields the pressure field in the blade passage and the unsteady blade loading. The analytical pressure solution is derived by making an extensive use of the residue theorem. The obtained unsteady blade loading distribution over the blades is then used as a dipole source distribution in an acoustic analogy applied in the annular rigid duct with uniform mean flow. The new achievements are then tested on three-dimensional annular-benchmark configurations and compared with three-dimensional lifting-surface models and three-dimensional Euler linearized codes available in the literature. The accuracy of the model is shown for high hub-to-tip ratio cases. When used as such in a true rectilinear-cascade configuration, it also reproduces the exact radiated field that can be derived directly. For low hub-to-tip ratio configurations, the model departs from three-dimensional computations, both regarding the blade loading and the acoustic radiation. A correction is proposed to account for the actual annular dispersion relation in the rectilinear-cascade response function. The results suggest that the proposed correction is necessary to get closer to the underlying physics of the annular-space wave equation, but that it is yet not sufficient to fully reproduce three-dimensional results.

Posson, H.; Moreau, S.; Roger, M.

2010-08-01

16

CFD Computation of Broadband Fan Interaction Noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this study, a 3-D, unsteady, Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes CFD code coupled to an acoustic calculation is used to predict the contribution of the exit guide vanes to broadband fan noise. The configuration investigated is that corresponding to the NASA Source Diagnostic Test (SDT) 22-in fan rig. Then an acoustic model introduced by Nallasamy which is based on 2-D strip theory is used to compute the broadband rotor-stator interaction noise. One configuration from the SDT matrix is considered here: the fan speed correlating to approach, and outlet guide vane count designed for cut-off of the blade passage frequency. Thus, in the chosen configuration, there are 22 rotor blades and 54 stator blades. The stators are located 2.5 tip chords downstream of the rotor trailing edge. The RANS computations are used to obtain the spectra of the unsteady surface pressure on the exit guide vanes. This surface pressure is then integrated together with the Green's function for and infinite cylindrical duct to obtain the acoustic field. The results from this investigation validate the use of the CFD code along with the acoustic model for broadband fan noise predictions. The validation enables future investigations such as the determination of rotor tip clearance and stator solidity effects on fan rotor-stator interaction noise.

Grace, Sheryl M.; Sondak, Douglas L.; Dorney, Daniel J.

2007-01-01

17

Predicting Noise From Wind Turbines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computer program WINDY predicts broadband noise spectra of horizontal-axis wind-turbine generators. Enables adequate assessment of impact of broadband wind-turbine noise. Effects of turbulence, trailing-edge wakes, and bluntness taken into account. Program has practical application in design and siting of wind-turbine machines acceptable to community. Written in GW-Basic.

Grosveld, Ferdinand W.

1990-01-01

18

Open rotor broadband interaction noise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A theoretical model is presented for calculating the broadband noise produced by the interaction of an open rotor with the wake from either an upstream contra-rotating rotor or a stationary pylon. The model is used to investigate the dependence of the radiated noise on parameters such as pylon-rotor gap and the polar and azimuthal directivity of the noise field. A simple model is also presented which assumes that the unsteady loading on adjacent blades is uncorrelated. It is shown that the simple model can be used to calculate broadband interaction noise for most practical open rotor geometries. The errors in Ref. [3] are listed in this footnote. (1) The effect of wake skew on the 'mean wake profile' was not properly accounted for (see Eqs. (38 and 39) of this paper). (2) The final formulation contained an extra factor of 2? due to an inconsistent Fourier transform convention. (3) There was an error in the wavenumber contained in the blade response function g (see Appendix 1 of this paper). (4) There were a number of errors in the 'acoustically weighted lift function', ?L, which is defined in Appendix 1 of this paper.

Kingan, Michael J.

2013-08-01

19

Analyses of broadband noise mechanisms of rotors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The various source mechanisms which generate broadband noise on a range of rotors are reviewed. Analyses of these mechanisms are presented and compared to existing experimental data. The sources considered are load fluctuations due to inflow turbulence, due to turbulent blade boundary layers passing the trailing edge, and due to tip vortex formation turbulence. Vortex shedding noise due to laminar boundary layers and blunt trailing edges is not considered in detail as it can be avoided in most cases. Present analyses are adequate to predict the spectra from a wide variety of experiments on fans, helicopter rotors, and wind turbines to within about 5 to 10 dB. Better knowledge of the inflow turbulence improves the accuracy of the predictions. Inflow turbulence noise depends strongly on ambient conditions and dominates at low frequencies. Trailing edge and tip vortex noise are important at higher frequencies if inflow turbulence is weak. Boundary layer trailing edge noise increases slowly with angle of attack but not as rapidly as tip vortex formation noise. Tip noise can be important at high angles of attack for wide chord, square edge tips.

George, A. R.

20

UHB engine fan broadband noise reduction study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study has been completed to quantify the contribution of fan broadband noise to advanced high bypass turbofan engine system noise levels. The result suggests that reducing fan broadband noise can produce 3 to 4 EPNdB in engine system noise reduction, once the fan tones are eliminated. Further, in conjunction with the elimination of fan tones and an increase in bypass ratio, a potential reduction of 7 to 10 EPNdB in system noise can be achieved. In addition, an initial assessment of engine broadband noise source mechanisms has been made, concluding that the dominant source of fan broadband noise is the interaction of incident inlet boundary layer turbulence with the fan rotor. This source has two contributors, i.e., unsteady life dipole response and steady loading quadrupole response. The quadrupole contribution was found to be the most important component, suggesting that broadband noise reduction can be achieved by the reduction of steady loading field-turbulence field quadrupole interaction. Finally, for a controlled experimental quantification and verification, the study recommends that further broadband noise tests be done on a simulated engine rig, such as the GE Aircraft Engine Universal Propulsion Simulator, rather than testing on an engine statically in an outdoor arena The rig should be capable of generating forward and aft propagating fan noise, and it needs to be tested in a large freejet or a wind tunnel.

Gliebe, Philip R.; Ho, Patrick Y.; Mani, Ramani

1995-06-01

21

UHB Engine Fan Broadband Noise Reduction Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study has been completed to quantify the contribution of fan broadband noise to advanced high bypass turbofan engine system noise levels. The result suggests that reducing fan broadband noise can produce 3 to 4 EPNdB in engine system noise reduction, once the fan tones are eliminated. Further, in conjunction with the elimination of fan tones and an increase in bypass ratio, a potential reduction of 7 to 10 EPNdB in system noise can be achieved. In addition, an initial assessment of engine broadband noise source mechanisms has been made, concluding that the dominant source of fan broadband noise is the interaction of incident inlet boundary layer turbulence with the fan rotor. This source has two contributors, i.e., unsteady life dipole response and steady loading quadrupole response. The quadrupole contribution was found to be the most important component, suggesting that broadband noise reduction can be achieved by the reduction of steady loading field-turbulence field quadrupole interaction. Finally, for a controlled experimental quantification and verification, the study recommends that further broadband noise tests be done on a simulated engine rig, such as the GE Aircraft Engine Universal Propulsion Simulator, rather than testing on an engine statically in an outdoor arena The rig should be capable of generating forward and aft propagating fan noise, and it needs to be tested in a large freejet or a wind tunnel.

Gliebe, Philip R.; Ho, Patrick Y.; Mani, Ramani

1995-01-01

22

Main rotor broadband noise study in the DNW  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An acoustics test of a 2/5 scale model BO-105 helicopter main rotor was conducted in the Duits-Nederlandse Windtunnel (DNW). A range of operating conditions was tested from hover to moderately high flight speeds for various climb and descent rates at different thrust settings. Diagnostic tests including rotor speed and blade geometry changes were made to better isolate and study particular broadband self noise sources. Acoustic data in the form of acoustic pressure time histories and power spectra are used to demonstrate the regions of importance of the different broadband noise sources and their sensitivity to operating conditions. To help interpret the data, comparisons are made to predictions of rotor broadband noise. The predictions are based on self noise data previously obtained from isolated airfoil sections and the use of the NASA ROTONET program to define rotor performance and to sum contributions of noise from individual blade segments. An important result herein is the identification and articulation of a previously unheralded rotor broadband noise source. This source is blade-turbulent wake interaction (BWI) noise which dominates the spectra in the mid-frequencies for off-peak blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise flight conditions.

Brooks, Thomas F.; Marcolini, Michael A.; Pope, D. Stuart

1987-02-01

23

Main rotor broadband noise study in the DNW  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An acoustics test of a 2/5 scale model BO-105 helicopter main rotor was conducted in the Duits-Nederlandse Windtunnel (DNW). A range of operating conditions was tested from hover to moderately high flight speeds for various climb and descent rates at different thrust settings. Diagnostic tests including rotor speed and blade geometry changes were made to better isolate and study particular broadband self noise sources. Acoustic data in the form of acoustic pressure time histories and power spectra are used to demonstrate the regions of importance of the different broadband noise sources and their sensitivity to operating conditions. To help interpret the data, comparisons are made to predictions of rotor broadband noise. The predictions are based on self noise data previously obtained from isolated airfoil sections and the use of the NASA ROTONET program to define rotor performance and to sum contributions of noise from individual blade segments. An important result herein is the identification and articulation of a previously unheralded rotor broadband noise source. This source is blade-turbulent wake interaction (BWI) noise which dominates the spectra in the mid-frequencies for off-peak blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise flight conditions.

Brooks, Thomas F.; Marcolini, Michael A.; Pope, D. Stuart

1987-01-01

24

Broadband Shock Noise Reduction in Turbulent Jets by Water Injection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concept of effective jet properties introduced by the author (AIAA-2007-3 645) has been extended to the estimation of broadband shock noise reduction by water injection in supersonic jets. Comparison of the predictions with the test data for cold underexpanded supersonic nozzles shows a satisfactory agreement. The results also reveal the range of water mass flow rates over which saturation of mixing noise reduction and existence of parasitic noise are manifest.

Kandula, Max

2008-01-01

25

Random particle methods applied to broadband fan interaction noise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Predicting broadband fan noise is key to reduce noise emissions from aircraft and wind turbines. Complete CFD simulations of broadband fan noise generation remain too expensive to be used routinely for engineering design. A more efficient approach consists in synthesizing a turbulent velocity field that captures the main features of the exact solution. This synthetic turbulence is then used in a noise source model. This paper concentrates on predicting broadband fan noise interaction (also called leading edge noise) and demonstrates that a random particle mesh method (RPM) is well suited for simulating this source mechanism. The linearized Euler equations are used to describe sound generation and propagation. In this work, the definition of the filter kernel is generalized to include non-Gaussian filters that can directly follow more realistic energy spectra such as the ones developed by Liepmann and von Kármán. The velocity correlation and energy spectrum of the turbulence are found to be well captured by the RPM. The acoustic predictions are successfully validated against Amiet's analytical solution for a flat plate in a turbulent stream. A standard Langevin equation is used to model temporal decorrelation, but the presence of numerical issues leads to the introduction and validation of a second-order Langevin model.

Dieste, M.; Gabard, G.

2012-10-01

26

Broadband Fan Noise Generated by Small Scale Turbulence  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes the development of prediction methods for broadband fan noise from aircraft engines. First, experimental evidence of the most important source mechanisms is reviewed. It is found that there are a number of competing source mechanism involved and that there is no single dominant source to which noise control procedures can be applied. Theoretical models are then developed for: (1) ducted rotors and stator vanes interacting with duct wall boundary layers, (2) ducted rotor self noise, and (3) stator vanes operating in the wakes of rotors. All the turbulence parameters required for these models are based on measured quantities. Finally the theoretical models are used to predict measured fan noise levels with some success.

Glegg, Stewart A. L.

1998-01-01

27

Prediction of airframe noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methods of predicting airframe noise generated by aircraft in flight under nonpowered conditions are discussed. Approaches to predictions relying on flyover data and component theoretical analyses are developed. A nondimensional airframe noise spectrum of various aircraft is presented. The spectrum was obtained by smoothing all the measured spectra to remove any peculiarities due to airframe protrusions, normalizing each spectra by its overall sound pressure level and a characteristics frequency, and averaging the spectra together. A chart of airframe noise sources is included.

Hardin, J. C.; Fratello, D. J.; Hayden, R. E.; Kadman, Y.; Africk, S.

1975-01-01

28

Maneuvering rotorcraft noise prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the unique aspects of the development of an entirely new maneuver noise prediction code called PSU-WOPWOP. The main focus of this work is development of a noise prediction methodology, which will enable the study of the aeroacoustic aspects a rotorcraft in maneuvering flight. It is assumed that the aeromechanical data (namely aircraft and blade motion, blade airloads)

G. A. Brès; K. S. Brentner; G. Perez; H. E. Jones

2004-01-01

29

Comparison of broadband noise mechanisms, analyses, and experiments on helicopters, propellers, and wind turbines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental data on broadband noise from airfoils are compared, together with analytical methods, in order to identify the mechanisms of noise emission. Rotor noise is categorized into discrete frequency, impulsive, and broadband components, the last having a continuous spectrum originating from a random source. The results of computer simulations of different rotor blade types which produce broadband noise were compared with experimental data and among themselves in terms of predictions of the spectra obtained. Consideration was given to the overall sound pressure level, unsteady turbulence forces, rotational forces, inflow turbulence, self-generated turbulence, and turbulence in the flow. Data are presented for a helicopter rotor and light aircraft propeller. The most significant source was found to be inflow turbulence induced lift fluctuations in helicopter rotors and boundary layer trailing edge noise on large wind energy conversion systems

George, A. R.; Chou, S.-T.

1983-01-01

30

Power control by interference prediction for broadband wireless packet networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Kalman-filter method for power control is proposed for broadband, packet-switched time division multiple access wireless networks. By exploiting the temporal correlation of co-channel interference, a Kalman filter is used to predict future interference power. Based on the predicted interference and estimated path gain between the transmitter and receiver, the transmission power is determined to achieve a desired signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio

Kin K. Leung

2002-01-01

31

Estimation of Broadband Shock Noise Reduction in Turbulent Jets by Water Injection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concept of effective jet properties introduced by the authors (AIAA-2007-3645) has been extended to the estimation of broadband shock noise reduction by water injection in supersonic jets. Comparison of the predictions with the test data for cold underexpanded supersonic nozzles shows a satisfactory agreement. The results also reveal the range of water mass flow rates over which saturation of mixing noise reduction and existence of parasitic noise are manifest.

Kandula, Max; Lonerjan, Michael J.

2008-01-01

32

Aircraft Noise Prediction Program theoretical manual: Propeller aerodynamics and noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The prediction sequence used in the aircraft noise prediction program (ANOPP) is described. The elements of the sequence are called program modules. The first group of modules analyzes the propeller geometry, the aerodynamics, including both potential and boundary-layer flow, the propeller performance, and the surface loading distribution. This group of modules is based entirely on aerodynamic strip theory. The next group of modules deals with the first group. Predictions of periodic thickness and loading noise are determined with time-domain methods. Broadband noise is predicted by a semiempirical method. Near-field predictions of fuselage surface pressrues include the effects of boundary layer refraction and scattering. Far-field predictions include atmospheric and ground effects.

Zorumski, W. E. (editor); Weir, D. S. (editor)

1986-01-01

33

Maneuvering rotorcraft noise prediction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the unique aspects of the development of an entirely new maneuver noise prediction code called PSU-WOPWOP. The main focus of this work is development of a noise prediction methodology, which will enable the study of the aeroacoustic aspects a rotorcraft in maneuvering flight. It is assumed that the aeromechanical data (namely aircraft and blade motion, blade airloads) are provided as input data. This new noise prediction capability was developed for rotors in steady and transient maneuvering flight. Featuring an object-oriented design, the PSU-WOPWOP code allows great flexibility for complex rotor configuration and motion (including multiple rotors and full aircraft motion). The relative locations and number of hinges, flexures, and body motions can be arbitrarily specified to match any specific rotorcraft. An analysis of algorithm efficiency was performed for maneuver noise prediction along with a description of the tradeoffs made specifically for the maneuvering noise problem. Noise predictions for the mainrotor of a rotorcraft in steady descent, transient (arrested) descent, hover and a "pop-up" maneuver are demonstrated.

Brès, G. A.; Brentner, K. S.; Perez, G.; Jones, H. E.

2004-08-01

34

Wave propagation effects of broadband electrostatic noise in the magnetotail  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis of the wave and particle data from ISEE 1 for 1978 yielded several examples of crossings between the lobe and the plasma sheet boundary layer (PSBL) which exhibited the signatures predicted by the theoretical analysis of the generation of broadband electrostatic noise (BEN) by ion beam instabilities. These signatures are a gradual rise in the upper frequency of BEN as the spacecraft approaches the plasma boundary layer, and a very rapid rise in the upper frequency near the crossing into the PSBL from the lobe. Several examples of crossings are presented that exhibit both signatures, as well as a case of crossings in which the gradual frequency rise signature is absent but the rapid rise is present. This case exhibits a BEN in the range expected for the low-frequency ion-ion two-stream and the high-frequency Buneman instability.

Grabbe, Crockett

1989-01-01

35

Rocket Noise Prediction Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comprehensive, automated, and user-friendly software program was developed to predict the noise and ignition over-pressure environment generated during the launch of a rocket. The software allows for interactive modification of various parameters affecting the generated noise environment. Predictions can be made for different launch scenarios and a variety of vehicle and launch mount configurations. Moreover, predictions can be made for both near-field and far-field locations on the ground and any position on the vehicle. Multiple engine and fuel combinations can be addressed, and duct geometry can be incorporated efficiently. Applications in structural design are addressed.

Margasahayam, Ravi; Caimi, Raoul

1999-01-01

36

Airframe noise prediction evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this study is to evaluate the accuracy and adequacy of current airframe noise prediction methods using available airframe noise measurements from tests of a narrow body transport (DC-9) and a wide body transport (DC-10) in addition to scale model test data. General features of the airframe noise from these aircraft and models are outlined. The results of the assessment of two airframe prediction methods, Fink's and Munson's methods, against flight test data of these aircraft and scale model wind tunnel test data are presented. These methods were extensively evaluated against measured data from several configurations including clean, slat deployed, landing gear-deployed, flap deployed, and landing configurations of both DC-9 and DC-10. They were also assessed against a limited number of configurations of scale models. The evaluation was conducted in terms of overall sound pressure level (OASPL), tone corrected perceived noise level (PNLT), and one-third-octave band sound pressure level (SPL).

Yamamoto, Kingo J.; Donelson, Michael J.; Huang, Shumei C.; Joshi, Mahendra C.

1995-01-01

37

A single chip broadband noise source for noise measurements at cryogenic temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the design and performance of a single chip broadband noise source dedicated for on-chip measurements in a cryogenic environment. The noise source is used to generate the two input noise powers Pc and Ph which are required by the commonly used Y-factor method. High accuracy in temperature control and impedance presented to the device under test is

D. Bruch; F. Schafer; M. Seelmann-Eggebert; B. Aja; I. Kallfass; A. Leuther; M. Schlechtweg; O. Ambacher

2011-01-01

38

Aircraft noise prediction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This contribution addresses the state-of-the-art in the field of aircraft noise prediction, simulation and minimisation. The point of view taken in this context is that of comprehensive models that couple the various aircraft systems with the acoustic sources, the propagation and the flight trajectories. After an exhaustive review of the present predictive technologies in the relevant fields (airframe, propulsion, propagation, aircraft operations, trajectory optimisation), the paper addresses items for further research and development. Examples are shown for several airplanes, including the Airbus A319-100 (CFM engines), the Bombardier Dash8-Q400 (PW150 engines, Dowty R408 propellers) and the Boeing B737-800 (CFM engines). Predictions are done with the flight mechanics code FLIGHT. The transfer function between flight mechanics and the noise prediction is discussed in some details, along with the numerical procedures for validation and verification. Some code-to-code comparisons are shown. It is contended that the field of aircraft noise prediction has not yet reached a sufficient level of maturity. In particular, some parametric effects cannot be investigated, issues of accuracy are not currently addressed, and validation standards are still lacking.

Filippone, Antonio

2014-07-01

39

Rotorcraft noise prediction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this presentation is to give a general strategy for rotorcraft noise prediction. This strategy is expressed through a modular software system design rather than theoretical analysis of the aerocoustic phenomena. The crucial design choices in a software system design are the module interface definitions. An interface is the data that are passed from one module to another. A module takes data from one (input) interface and transforms it, through a prediction method, to another (output) interface. In system design, the method is less important than the interface. The two types of methods available may be braodly classified as empirical or analytical, although no method is purely one or the other. These two general approaches will be compared as they apply to rotorcraft noise prediction.

Zorumski, W. E.

1982-01-01

40

Airframe Noise Prediction by Acoustic Analogy: Revisited  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present work follows a recent survey of airframe noise prediction methodologies. In that survey, Lighthill s acoustic analogy was identified as the most prominent analytical basis for current approaches to airframe noise research. Within this approach, a problem is typically modeled with the Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings (FW-H) equation, for which a geometry-independent solution is obtained by means of the use of the free-space Green function (FSGF). Nonetheless, the aeroacoustic literature would suggest some interest in the use of tailored or exact Green s function (EGF) for aerodynamic noise problems involving solid boundaries, in particular, for trailing edge (TE) noise. A study of possible applications of EGF for prediction of broadband noise from turbulent flow over an airfoil surface and the TE is, therefore, the primary topic of the present work. Typically, the applications of EGF in the literature have been limited to TE noise prediction at low Mach numbers assuming that the normal derivative of the pressure vanishes on the airfoil surface. To extend the application of EGF to higher Mach numbers, the uniqueness of the solution of the wave equation when either the Dirichlet or the Neumann boundary condition (BC) is specified on a deformable surface in motion. The solution of Lighthill s equation with either the Dirichlet or the Neumann BC is given for such a surface using EGFs. These solutions involve both surface and volume integrals just like the solution of FW-H equation using FSGF. Insight drawn from this analysis is evoked to discuss the potential application of EGF to broadband noise prediction. It appears that the use of a EGF offers distinct advantages for predicting TE noise of an airfoil when the normal pressure gradient vanishes on the airfoil surface. It is argued that such an approach may also apply to an airfoil in motion. However, for the prediction of broadband noise not directly associated with a trailing edge, the use of EGF does not appear to offer any advantages over the use of FSGF at the present stage of development. It is suggested here that the applications of EGF for airframe noise analysis be continued. As an example pertinent to airframe noise prediction, the Fast Scattering Code of NASA Langley is utilized to obtain the EGF numerically on the surface of a three dimensional wing with a flap and leading edge slat in uniform rectilinear motion. The interpretation and use of these numerical Green functions are then discussed.

Farassat, F.; Casper, Jay H.; Tinetti, A.; Dunn, M. H.

2006-01-01

41

Background noise properties at the IBERARRAY broadband seismic network  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characteristics of the background seismic noise recorded at the IberArray broadband seismic network have been analyzed using power spectral density (PSD) estimates and their corresponding probability density functions (PDFs) for the whole data set (up to 55 stations continuously recording since summer 2007). These PDFs provide a useful tool for managing the network as they allow identifying stations with

J. Diaz; A. Villaseñor

2009-01-01

42

Suppression of spin projection noise in broadband atomic magnetometry.  

PubMed

We demonstrate that quantum nondemolition measurement, combined with a suitable parameter estimation procedure, can improve the sensitivity of a broadband atomic magnetometer by reducing uncertainty due to spin projection noise. Furthermore, we provide evidence that real-time quantum feedback control offers robustness to classical uncertainties, including shot-to-shot atom number fluctuations, that would otherwise prevent quantum-limited performance. PMID:16090242

Geremia, J M; Stockton, John K; Mabuchi, Hideo

2005-05-27

43

Suppression of Spin Projection Noise in Broadband Atomic Magnetometry  

SciTech Connect

We demonstrate that quantum nondemolition measurement, combined with a suitable parameter estimation procedure, can improve the sensitivity of a broadband atomic magnetometer by reducing uncertainty due to spin projection noise. Furthermore, we provide evidence that real-time quantum feedback control offers robustness to classical uncertainties, including shot-to-shot atom number fluctuations, that would otherwise prevent quantum-limited performance.

Geremia, J.M.; Stockton, John K.; Mabuchi, Hideo [Physics and Control and Dynamical Systems, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena California 91125 (United States)

2005-05-27

44

Sources, control, and effects of noise from aircraft propellers and rotors. [noise prediction (aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Source noise predictions are compared with measurements for conventional low-speed propellers, for new high speed propellers (propfans), and for a helicopter. Results from a light aircraft demonstration program are described, indicating that about 5-dB reduction of flyover noise can be obtained without significant performance penalty. Sidewall design studies are described for interior noise control in light general aviation aircraft and in large transports using propfan propulsion. The weight of the added acoustic treatment is estimated and tradeoffs between weight and noise reduction are discussed. A laboratory study of passenger response to combined broadband and tonal propeller like noise is described. Subject discomfort ratings of combined tone broadband noises are compared with ratings of broadband (boundary layer) noise alone, and the relative importance of the propeller tones is examined.

Mixson, J. S.; Greene, G. C.; Dempsey, T. K.

1981-01-01

45

Fan noise prediction assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report is an evaluation of two techniques for predicting the fan noise radiation from engine nacelles. The first is a relatively computational intensive finite element technique. The code is named ARC, an abbreviation of Acoustic Radiation Code, and was developed by Eversman. This is actually a suite of software that first generates a grid around the nacelle, then solves for the potential flowfield, and finally solves the acoustic radiation problem. The second approach is an analytical technique requiring minimal computational effort. This is termed the cutoff ratio technique and was developed by Rice. Details of the duct geometry, such as the hub-to-tip ratio and Mach number of the flow in the duct, and modal content of the duct noise are required for proper prediction.

Bent, Paul H.

1995-01-01

46

Piezoelectric Smart Panels for Broadband Noise Reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents the noise reduction performance of piezoelectric smart panels featuring piezoelectric shunt damping. A piezoelectric smart panel is a plate structure on which a piezoelectric patch with an electrical shunt circuit is attached. When an incidence sound is impinged on the panel structure, the structure vibrates and the attached piezoelectric patch produces electrical energy, which is effectively dissipated

Jaehwan Kim; Young-Chae Jung

2006-01-01

47

Broadband electrostatic noise due to field-aligned currents  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are observations of broadband electrostatic noise in the plasma-sheet boundary layer that are associated with field-aligned currents (electron beams), which often have an upper cutoff frequency above the electron plasma frequency. In this paper linear theory and numerical simulations are used to study instabilities caused by an electron beam in a thermally mixed plasma. It is shown that two instabilities, the electron acoustic and electron-ion instabilities, can combine to form a broadband wave spectrum that rapidly destroys the electron beam.

Schriver, David; Ashour-Abdalla, Maha

1989-01-01

48

Noise predictions of a high bypass turbofan engine using the Lockheed Near-Field Noise Prediction Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The prediction of engine noise during cruise using the Near-Field Noise Prediction Program developed by Lockheed is examined. Test conditions were established which simulate the operation of a high bypass turbofan engine under a wide range of operating conditions. These test conditions include variations in altitude, flight Mach number and thrust setting. Based on the results of noise prediction made using the Lockheed program, an evaluation of the impact of these test conditions on the overall sound pressure level(OASPL)and the one-third octave band spectra is made. An evaluation of the sensitivity of flight condition parameters is also made. The primary noise source from a high bypass turbofan was determined to be fan broadband shock noise. This noise source can be expected to be present during normal cruising conditions. When present, fan broadband shock noise usually dominates at all frequencies and all directivity angles. Other noise sources of importance are broadband shock noise from the primary jet, fan noise, fan mixing noise and turbine noise.

Rawls, J. W., Jr.

1986-01-01

49

Boeing 18-Inch Fan Rig Broadband Noise Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purposes of the subject test were to identify and quantify the mechanisms by which fan broadband noise is produced, and to assess the validity of such theoretical models of those mechanisms as may be available. The test was conducted with the Boeing 18-inch fan rig in the Boeing Low-Speed Aeroacoustic Facility (LSAF). The rig was designed to be particularly clean and geometrically simple to facilitate theoretical modeling and to minimize sources of interfering noise. The inlet is cylindrical and is equipped with a boundary layer suction system. The fan is typical of modern high-by-pass ratio designs but is capable of operating with or without fan exit guide vanes (stators), and there is only a single flow stream. Fan loading and tip clearance are adjustable. Instrumentation included measurements of fan performance, the unsteady flow field incident on the fan and stators, and far-field and in-duct acoustic fields. The acoustic results were manipulated to estimate the noise generated by different sources. Significant fan broadband noise was found to come from the rotor self-noise as measured with clean inflow and no boundary layer. The rotor tip clearance affected rotor self-noise somewhat. The interaction of the rotor with inlet boundary layer turbulence is also a significant source, and is strongly affected by rotor tip clearance. High level noise can be generated by a high-order nonuniform rotating at a fraction of the fan speed, at least when tip clearance and loading are both large. Stator-generated noise is the loudest of the significant sources, by a small margin, at least on this rig. Stator noise is significantly affected by propagation through the fan.

Ganz, Ulrich W.; Joppa, Paul D.; Patten, Timothy J.; Scharpf, Daniel F.

1998-01-01

50

Trailing Edge Noise Prediction Based on a New Acoustic Formulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new analytic result in acoustics called 'Formulation 1B,' proposed by Farassat, is used to compute broadband trailing edge noise from an unsteady surface pressure distribution on a thin airfoil in the time domain. This formulation is a new solution of the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equation with the loading source term, and has been shown in previous research to provide time domain predictions of broadband noise that are in excellent agreement with experiment. Furthermore, this formulation lends itself readily to rotating reference frames and statistical analysis of broadband trailing edge noise. Formulation 1B is used to calculate the far field noise radiated from the trailing edge of a NACA 0012 airfoil in low Mach number flows, using both analytical and experimental data on the airfoil surface. The results are compared to analytical results and experimental measurements that are available in the literature. Good agreement between predictions and measurements is obtained.

Casper, J.; Farassat, F.

2002-01-01

51

Noise Prediction for Maneuvering Rotorcraft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper presents the initial work toward first-principles noise prediction for maneuvering rotors. Both the aeromechanical and acoustics aspects of the maneuver noise problem are discussed. The comprehensive analysis code, CAMRAD 2. was utilized to pre...

K. S. Brentner H. E. Jones

2000-01-01

52

Overview of Aircraft Noise Prediction Tools Assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The acoustic assessment task for both the Subsonic Fixed Wing and the Supersonic projects under NASA s Fundamental Aeronautics Program was designed to assess the current state-of-the-art in noise prediction capability and to establish baselines for gauging future progress. The documentation of our current capabilities included quantifying the differences between predictions of noise from computer codes and measurements of noise from experimental tests. Quantifying the accuracy of both the computed and experimental results further enhanced the credibility of the assessment. This presentation gives sample results from codes representative of NASA s capabilities in aircraft noise prediction at the system level and at the component level. These include semi-empirical, statistical, analytical, and numerical codes. An example of system level results is shown for an aircraft. Component level results are shown for airframe flaps and landing gear, for jet noise from a variety of nozzles, and for broadband fan noise. Additional results are shown for modeling of the acoustic behavior of duct acoustic lining and the attenuation of sound in lined ducts with flow.

Dahl, Milo D.

2007-01-01

53

Drive-noise-tolerant broadband silicon electro-optic switch.  

PubMed

We report a broadband digital electro-optical switch, based upon a multi-stage Mach-Zehnder lattice design in silicon-on-insulator. A digital switching response is demonstrated, engineered through apodization of the coupling coefficients between stages. The digital switching behavior results in crosstalk lower than -15 dB for drive-voltage noise levels in excess of 300 mV(pp), which exceeds the noise tolerance of a conventional single-stage Mach-Zehnder switch by more than six-fold. In addition, the digital design enables a larger maximum 'on'-state extinction (below -26 dB) and lower 'on'-state free-carrier-induced insertion loss (less than 0.45 dB) than that of the single-stage switch. The noise-tolerant, low-crosstalk switch can thus play a key role within CMOS-integrated reconfigurable optical networks operating under noisy on-chip conditions. PMID:21716388

Van Campenhout, Joris; Green, William M J; Assefa, Solomon; Vlasov, Yurii A

2011-06-01

54

The emissions of broadband electrostatic noise in the near vicinity of the Shuttle Orbiter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurements of the Space Shuttle environment from the STS-3 and Spacelab 2 missions indicate the presence of oblique ion streams and broadband electrostatic noise. A two-dimensional theoretical model is applied to study a possible causal relationship between the ion streams and the broadband noise, especially in terms of the ion acoustic wave and ion-ion wave modes. This model predicts the generation of waves with frequencies ranging from the ion cyclotron frequency up to values greater than the ion plasma frequency, with the maximum growth rate occurring in the 10-kHz range. These results are consistent with the observational data from the STS-3 mission. The model also shows that these two wave modes can coexist only when the wave vectors of the two wave modes are nearly perpendicular. The parametric dependence of the wave instabilities on the plasma parameters and the inclination of the wave propagation vector is also studied.

Hwang, K. S.; Stone, N. H.; Wright, K. H., Jr.; Samir, U.

1987-01-01

55

Generation of broadband electrostatic noise by electron acoustic solitons  

SciTech Connect

Broadband electrostatic noise (BEN) bursts whose amplitude sometimes reaches about 100 mV m{sup {minus}1} have been observed by the Viking satellite in the dayside auroral zone. These emissions have been shown to be greatly influenced by nonlinear effects and to occur simultaneously with the observation of particle distributions favouring the destabilization of the electron acoustic mode. It is shown that electron acoustic solitons passing by the satellite would generate spectra that can explain the high-frequency part of BEN, above the electron plasma frequency.

Dubouloz, N.; Pottelette, R.; Malingre, M. (Centre de Recherches en Physique de l'Environnement, Saint-Maur-des-Fosses (France)); Treumann, R.A. (Max-Planck Institut, Garching-bei-Muenchen (West Germany))

1991-02-01

56

Turbulence Associated With Broadband Shock Noise in Hot Jets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Time-Resolved Particle Image Velocimetry (TRPIV) has been applied to a series of jet flows to measure turbulence statistics associated with broadband shock associated noise (BBSN). Data were acquired in jets of Mach numbers 1.05, 1.185, and 1.4 at different temperatures. Both convergent and ideally expanded nozzles were tested, along with a convergent nozzle modified to minimize screech. Key findings include the effect of heat on shock structure and jet decay, the increase in turbulent velocity when screech is present, and the relative lack of spectral detail associated with the enhanced turbulence.

Bridges, James E.; Wernet, Mark P.

2008-01-01

57

Noise Prediction For Maneuvering Rotorcraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the initial work toward firstprinciplesnoise prediction for maneuvering rotors.Both the aeromechanical and acoustics aspects of themaneuver noise problem are discussed. Thecomprehensive analysis code, CAMRAD 2, wasutilized to predict the time-dependent aircraft positionand attitude, along with the rotor blade airloads andmotion. The major focus of this effort was theenhancement of the acoustic code WOPWOP necessaryto compute the noise

Kenneth S. Brentner

2000-01-01

58

Non-linear propagation of broadband noise signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theoretical backround to the prediction of aircraft flyover noise is considered, and Taylor's series solutions to a generalized Burger's equation are generated for stationary noise signals. The expansions are in powers of the range variable, and the method allows any frequency dependence of attenuation and dispersion. The limitations of the approach are discussed, and it is found that the

G. P. Howell; C. L. Morfey

1987-01-01

59

Anechoic wind tunnel study of turbulence effects on wind turbine broadband noise  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes recent results obtained at MIT on the experimental and theoretical modelling of aerodynamic broadband noise generated by a downwind rotor horizontal axis wind turbine. The aerodynamic broadband noise generated by the wind turbine rotor is attributed to the interaction of ingested turbulence with the rotor blades. The turbulence was generated in the MIT anechoic wind tunnel facility

B. Loyd; W. L. Harris

1995-01-01

60

Generation of broadband electrostatic noise by ion beam instabilities in the magnetotail  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Particle data from ISEE 1 sampled in the earth's magnetotail show the presence of energetic ion beams in the boundary layer of the plasma sheet. A theory of instabilities driven by the beams is developed and compared with wave data sampled simultaneously to the particle data. It is concluded that the ion beams generate broadband electrostatic bursts of noise. The electrostatic noise correlates well with the occurrence of the beams, and the spectrum is consistent with that predicted from a negative energy beam instability under magnetotail conditions. The theory predicts that a spectrum of growing waves can be driven for frequencies from 0.001 omega(pe) up to omega(pe), the electron plasma frequency, with a spectral peak typically near 0.01 omega(pe) or lower, in agreement with the wave data. Furthermore, as one moves away from the source region perpendicular to the magnetic field, the high frequency components of the observed wave spectra are predicted to disappear gradually, leaving the low frequency part of the spectrum, also as is observed. Evidence is given for significant pitch angle scattering of the beams by the broadband electrostatic noise, leading to more isotropic ion distributions.

Grabbe, C. L.; Eastman, T. E.

1984-01-01

61

Noise Prediction for Maneuvering Rotorcraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents the initial work toward first-principles noise prediction for maneuvering rotors. Both the aeromechanical and acoustics aspects of the maneuver noise problem are discussed. The comprehensive analysis code, CAMRAD 2. was utilized to predict the time-dependent aircraft position and attitude, along - with the rotor blade airloads and motion. The major focus of this effort was the enhancement of the acoustic code WOPWOP necessary to compute the noise from a maneuvering rotorcraft. Full aircraft motion, including arbitrary transient motion, is modeled together with arbitrary rotor blade motions. Noise from a rotorcraft in turning and descending flight is compared to level flight. A substantial increase in the rotor noise is found both for turning flight and during a transient maneuver. Additional enhancements to take advantage of parallel computers and clusters of workstations, in addition to a new compact-chordwise loading formulation, are also described.

Brentner, Kenneth S.; Jones, Henry E.

2000-01-01

62

Interim prediction method for fan and compressor source noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is presented for interim use in assessing the noise generated by fans and compressors in turbojet and turbofan engines. One-third octave band sound pressure levels consisting of broadband, discrete tone, and combination-tone noise components are predicted. Spectral distributions and directivity variations are specified. The method is based on that developed by other investigators with modifications derived from an analysis of full-scale, single-stage fan data. Comparisons of predicted and measured noise performance are presented, and requirements for improving the method are discussed.

Heidmann, M. F.

1975-01-01

63

A Theoretical Basis for the Scaling Law of Broadband Shock Noise Intensity in Supersonic Jets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A theoretical basis for the scaling of broadband shock noise intensity In supersonic jets was formulated considering linear shock-shear wave interaction. Modeling of broadband shock noise with the aid of shock-turbulence interaction with special reference to linear theories is briefly reviewed. An hypothesis has been postulated that the peak angle of incidence (closer to the critical angle) for the shear wave primarily governs the generation of sound in the interaction process with the noise generation contribution from off-peak incident angles being relatively unimportant. The proposed hypothesis satisfactorily explains the well-known scaling law for the broadband shock-associated noise in supersonic jets.

Kandula, Max

2011-01-01

64

Semi-Empirical Modelling of Broadband Noise for Aerofoils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Turbulence related noise is widely recognized to be one of the most important aerodynamic noise sources for many applications and the development of computational tools for its modelling and prediction is an even more important target in many areas of applied engineering. On a general basis the noise generation mechanisms that can occur on an aerofoil surface can be classified in three main categories: Turbulent Boundary Layer-Trailing Edge noise (TBL-TE), the Laminar Boundary Layer--Vortex Shedding (LBL-VS) noise and the Separation Stall (S-S) noise, respectively related to the boundary layer turbulent eddies, to the boundary layer laminar instabilities and to the large vorticity that can be experienced for different Angle of Attacks, Reynolds and Mach numbers. Despite of the recent improvements of Computational Fluid Dynamics in the frame of turbulence modelling, the numerical computation of high Reynolds flow field turbulence for acoustic purposes is still a hard task to perform as it requires a time-dependant, fully-resolved Large Eddy Simulation often resulting in a prohibitive computational cost. Furthermore in most of the cases it is of fundamental importance to have fast and reliable tools able to capture the driving phenomena and noise sources, in order to be able to perform a large number of simulations embedded in an optimization cycle. The target of this paper is testing the Brooks, Pope and Marcolini semi-empirical model for noise prediction of the NACA 0012 aerofoil on the DU96 geometry in a range of Angle of Attacks from 3 to 10 degrees and Reynolds numbers from 1.5 to 3.1 M. The semi-empirical model input parameters (boundary layer, displacement and momentum thickness) on the suction and pressure side of the aerofoil at the trailing edge location are computed with a steady RANS simulation while the BPM approach has been implemented as an external tool. Computed noise spectra show a good agreement with experimental data from literature in terms of both Sound Pressure Levels (SPLs) and spectra envelope.

de Gennaro, Michele; Kuehnelt, Helmut

2011-09-01

65

Civil tiltrotor noise impact prediction methodology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the early development of a methodology to predict the noise impact of tiltrotor aircraft. Existing XV-15 and V-22 tiltrotor noise data are used, in conjunction with the FAA's Heliport Noise Model (HNM), to predict noise contours and the effects of operating modes on approach noise. Results of these predictions illustrate the tiltrotor's effectiveness in minimizing noise impact through proper selection of airspeed and nacelle angle. In addition to noise contour predictions of the two tiltrotor aircraft, the paper demonstrates the capability to make predictions for new designs, showing the effects of gross weight and tip speed on noise.

Riley, Richard G., Jr.

66

A complementary low-cost method for broadband noise reduction in hearing aids for medium to high SNR levels.  

PubMed

This work presents a complementary broadband noise reduction scheme for hearing aid applications. It is designed to attenuate uncorrelated and small-correlation-length acoustic noise with controlled speech distortion. Noisy speech signals are pre-processed by the proposed strategy before being subjected to an existing narrowband noise reduction system. The clean speech signal is estimated by a convex combination of the unprocessed speech signal and the output of a linear predictor. The convex combination coefficient is adjusted to provide noise suppression while avoiding significant unvoiced utterance distortions. The proposed method is optimized to minimize speech mean-square prediction-error. A low-cost adaptive implementation is proposed and compared to the conventional adaptive linear predictor showing an improved performance, as predicted by theory. Four different objective quality measures and subjective assessment performed by normal hearing volunteers indicate that the combined use of the proposed technique with a narrowband noise reduction system consistently improves speech quality for a range of signal to noise ratios. Low-cost digital hearing aids that make use of the conventional adaptive predictor for broadband noise reduction can be easily modified to incorporate the new proposal with a minimum amount of extra computational resources. PMID:24529203

Holsbach Costa, Márcio

2014-03-01

67

Performance Analysis of OFDM Broadband Communications System Over Low Voltage Powerline with Impulsive Noise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Broadband communications for indoor powerline networks with impulsive noise using Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is considered. From earlier investigations, it is known that this channel suffers from multipath fading and frequency selectivity along with manmade impulsive bursty noise. Nevertheless, the calculated channel capacity limit promises very high data rates over this channel. In this paper the bit error rate

P. Amirshahi; S. M. Navidpour; M. Kavehrad

2006-01-01

68

Annoyance Due to Discrete Tones in Broadband Background Noise. Part 2: Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A series of subjective tests of annoyance of tonal noises was described in a companion report (Robinson and Wright, 1991). Each stimulus consisted of a pure tone superimposed on a broadband noise. The present report analyses the results and derives from t...

D. W. Robinson

1992-01-01

69

Emergence of broadband Rayleigh waves from correlations of the ambient seismic noise  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate that the coherent information about the Earth structure can be extracted from the ambient seismic noise. We compute cross-correlations of vertical component records of several days of seismic noise at different pairs of stations separated by distances from about one hundred to more than two thousand kilometers. Coherent broadband dispersive wavetrains clearly emerge with group velocities similar to

N. M. Shapiro; M. Campillo

2004-01-01

70

Fountain codes for impulsive noise correction in low-voltage indoor power-line broadband communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Broadband communications for indoor power-line networks with impulsive noise using Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is considered in this paper. From earlier investigations, it is known that this channel suffers from multipath fading and frequency selectivity along with man-made impulsive bursty noise. Nevertheless, the calculated channel capacity limit promises very high data rates over this channel. Enhancement techniques, such as

P. Amirshahi; S. M. Navidpour; M. Kavehrad

2006-01-01

71

On the Scaling Law for Broadband Shock Noise Intensity in Supersonic Jets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A theoretical model for the scaling of broadband shock noise intensity in supersonic jets was formulated on the basis of linear shock-shear wave interaction. An hypothesis has been postulated that the peak angle of incidence (closer to the critical angle) for the shear wave primarily governs the generation of sound in the interaction process rather than the noise generation contribution from off-peak incident angles. The proposed theory satisfactorily explains the well-known scaling law for the broadband shock -associated noise in supersonic jets.

Kanudula, Max

2009-01-01

72

Tiltrotor ground noise reduction from rotor parametric changes as predicted by ROTONET  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple acoustic footprint trend study has been performed to determine the sensitivity of a tiltrotor aircraft to simple rotor design variations. Using the XV-15 aircraft as a baseline, the effects of blade number, rotor RPM, and chord on tone and broadband noise were predicted with the ROTONET noise code. Effects on EPNL, PNLT, and OASPL for level forward flight were considered.

Jumper, Stephen J.; Prichard, Devon; Golub, Robert A.

73

Secure communication in fiber optic systems via transmission of broad-band optical noise.  

PubMed

We propose a new scheme for data encryption in the physical layer. Our scheme is based on the distribution of a broadband optical noise-like signal between Alice and Bob. The broadband signal is used for the establishment of a secret key that can be used for the secure transmission of information by using the one-time-pad method. We characterize the proposed scheme and study its applicability to the existing fiber-optics communications infrastructure. PMID:18542430

Buskila, O; Eyal, A; Shtaif, M

2008-03-01

74

Anechoic wind tunnel study of turbulence effects on wind turbine broadband noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes recent results obtained at MIT on the experimental and theoretical modelling of aerodynamic broadband noise generated by a downwind rotor horizontal axis wind turbine. The aerodynamic broadband noise generated by the wind turbine rotor is attributed to the interaction of ingested turbulence with the rotor blades. The turbulence was generated in the MIT anechoic wind tunnel facility with the aid of biplanar grids of various sizes. The spectra and the intensity of the aerodynamic broadband noise have been studied as a function of parameters which characterize the turbulence and of wind turbine performance parameters. Specifically, the longitudinal integral scale of turbulence, the size scale of turbulence, the number of turbine blades, and free stream velocity were varied. Simultaneous measurements of acoustic and turbulence signals were made. The sound pressure level was found to vary directly with the integral scale of the ingested turbulence but not with its intensity level. A theoretical model based on unsteady aerodynamics is proposed.

Loyd, B.; Harris, W. L.

1995-01-01

75

Very broadband seismic background noise analysis of permanent good vaulted seismic stations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the results of a preliminary study conducted to analyze seismic background noise at sites of recently deployed very broadband stations of the Egyptian National Seismological Network (ENSN). The main purpose of the study is to assess the effects of permanent seismic vault construction and also to establish characteristics and origin of seismic noise at those sites. Another goal of this study is to determine the time needed for noise at those sites to stabilize. The power spectral densities of background noise at short period band (SP), very broadband (VBB), and ultra long period band (ULP) for each component of each broadband seismometer deployed in the different investigated sites are calculated. A MATLAB code has been developed that manages data processing and data analysis and compares the results with the high-noise model (NHNM) and low-noise model (NLNM) of Peterson (1993). Based on the obtained analysis, the noise stability and the efficiency of each station to record regional and teleseismic events are measured. The results of this study could be used in the future to evaluate station quality, to improve those processes that require background noise values, such as automatic association, and to improve the estimation of station and network detection and location thresholds.

Abd el-aal, Abd el-aziz Khairy

2013-04-01

76

Broadband noise masks suppress neural responses to narrowband stimuli  

PubMed Central

White pixel noise is widely used to estimate the level of internal noise in a system by injecting external variance into the detecting mechanism. Recent work (Baker and Meese, 2012) has provided psychophysical evidence that such noise masks might also cause suppression that could invalidate estimates of internal noise. Here we measure neural population responses directly, using steady-state visual evoked potentials, elicited by target stimuli embedded in different mask types. Sinusoidal target gratings of 1 c/deg flickered at 5 Hz, and were shown in isolation, or with superimposed orthogonal grating masks or 2D white noise masks, flickering at 7 Hz. Compared with responses to a blank screen, the Fourier amplitude at the target frequency increased monotonically as a function of target contrast when no mask was present. Both orthogonal and white noise masks caused rightward shifts of the contrast response function, providing evidence of contrast gain control suppression. We also calculated within-observer amplitude variance across trials. This increased in proportion to the target response, implying signal-dependent (i.e., multiplicative) noise at the system level, the implications of which we discuss for behavioral tasks. This measure of variance was reduced by both mask types, consistent with the changes in mean target response. An alternative variety of noise, which we term zero-dimensional noise, involves trial-by-trial jittering of the target contrast. This type of noise produced no gain control suppression, and increased the amplitude variance across trials.

Baker, Daniel H.; Vilidaite, Greta

2014-01-01

77

Prediction of Externally Blown Flap Noise and Turbomachinery Strut Noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methods were developed for predicting externally blown flap (EBF) noise and turbomachinery strut noise. Noise radiated by under-the-wing and upper-surface-blowing EBF configurations is calculated as a sum of lift dipole noise, trailing edge noise, and jet quadrupole noise. Resulting predictions of amplitudes and spectra generally were in good agreement with data from small-scale models. These data cover a range of exhaust velocity, flap deflection, exhaust nozzle position, exhaust nozzle shape, and ratio of exhaust nozzle diameter to wing chord. A semi-empirical method for predicting dipole noise radiation from a strut with incident turbulence was in good agreement with data. Leading-edge regions made of perforated plate backed by a bulk acoustic absorber achieved up to 7 db reduction of strut noise caused by incident turbulence at high frequencies. Radial turbulence in a turbofan exit duct was found to have a relatively high level associated with the mean velocity defect in the rotor blade wakes. Use of these turbulence spectra and a dipole noise radiation equation gave general prediction of measured aft-radiated sound power caused by a splitter ring in a full-scale fan exit duct.

Fink, M. R.

1975-01-01

78

Computer program to predict aircraft noise levels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methods developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center for predicting the noise contributions from various aircraft noise sources were programmed to predict aircraft noise levels either in flight or in ground tests. The noise sources include fan inlet and exhaust, jet, flap (for powered lift), core (combustor), turbine, and airframe. Noise propagation corrections are available for atmospheric attenuation, ground reflections, extra ground attenuation, and shielding. Outputs can include spectra, overall sound pressure level, perceived noise level, tone-weighted perceived noise level, and effective perceived noise level at locations specified by the user. Footprint contour coordinates and approximate footprint areas can also be calculated. Inputs and outputs can be in either System International or U.S. customary units. The subroutines for each noise source and propagation correction are described. A complete listing is given.

Clark, B. J.

1981-01-01

79

Effect of broadband and narrowband contralateral noise on psychophysical tuning curves and otoacoustic emissions.  

PubMed

The relative effectiveness of narrowband and broadband noises in activating the efferent system was assessed by comparing the effect of contralateral stimulation (CS) with such sounds on psychophysical tuning curves (PTCs) determined in simultaneous masking, using signal frequencies of 1000 or 2000 Hz. To check that the CS stimuli used did activate the efferent system, distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) were also measured in the absence and presence of narrowband and broadband CS. The CS had no consistent effect on the masker level at the tips of the PTCs. A broadband pink noise CS consistently reduced the masker level required for threshold on both the low- and high-frequency sides of the PTCs for the 2000-Hz signal frequency. However, there were no consistent effects of the CS for any other case. The broadband pink noise CS had a greater effect in reducing DPOAE levels than the narrowband CS. The results provide psychophysical evidence supporting the idea that the efferent system is activated more effectively by a broadband than by a narrowband CS, at least for a signal frequency of 2000 Hz. PMID:24815273

Wicher, Andrzej; Moore, Brian C J

2014-05-01

80

Fan Noise Prediction: Status and Needs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The prediction of fan noise is an important part to the prediction of overall turbofan engine noise. Advances in computers and better understanding of the flow physics have allowed researchers to compute sound generation from first principles and rely less on empirical correlations. While progress has been made, there are still many aspects of the problem that need to be explored. This paper presents some recent advances in fan noise prediction and suggests areas that still need further development. Fan noise predictions that support the recommendations are taken from existing publications.

Huff, Dennis L.

1997-01-01

81

Comparisons of Shock Noise Predictions with Flight Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A flight test was performed at NASA Dryden Research Center in November 1991 utilizing both F18 and Fl6 aircraft. These flights were designed to provide (1) acoustic data that could be extrapolated to that of an HSCT at various points of its climb-to-cruise operation and (2) a data base for noise from a supersonic jet exhausting from an aircraft moving at high subsonic speeds. This presentation utilizes data obtained from these flyovers to evaluate predictions of broadband shock noise from supersonic jets in flight. The Fl8 is particularly suitable for flyovers of shock noise since it can be flown with one engine at flight idle. The second engine can then be operated at a pressure high enough to produce a supersonic nozzle exhaust and still maintain an unaccelerated, level flyover.

Norum, T. D.; Golub, R. A.; Willshire, W. L.

1999-01-01

82

Broadband transmission noise reduction of smart panels featuring piezoelectric shunt circuits and sound-absorbing material  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility of a broadband noise reduction of piezoelectric smart panels is experimentally studied. A piezoelectric smart panel is basically a plate structure on which piezoelectric patches with electrical shunt circuits are mounted and sound-absorbing material is bonded on the surface of the structure. Sound-absorbing material can absorb the sound transmitted at the midfrequency region effectively while the use of

Jaehwan Kim; Joong-Kuen Lee

2002-01-01

83

Broadband maximum likelihood estimation of shallow ocean parameters using shipping noise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental parameter estimation for a shallow ocean is addressed by using wideband shipping noise as a source of acoustic energy. Unknown locations of the broadband acoustic sources are estimated simultaneously with the ocean depth using the approximate conditional maximum likelihood estimator (CMLE). This procedure is tested via computer simulations and applied to the experimental hydrophone towed array data

C. F. Mecklenbrauker; A. Gershman

2001-01-01

84

Flyover-noise measurement and prediction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Details are presented for the measurement and prediction of aircraft flyover noise to be used for certification, research and development, community noise surveys, airport monitors, and pass fail criteria. Test details presented are applicable to all types of aircraft, both large and small, and the use of Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR) Part 36 (ref. 1) is emphasized. Accuracy of noise measurements is important. Thus, a pass-fail criterion should be used for all noise measurements. Finally, factors which influence the sound propagation and noise prediction procedures, such as atmospheric and ground effects, are also presented.

Peart, Noel A.

1991-01-01

85

Numerical Prediction of Laminar Instability Noise for NACA 0012 Aerofoil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aerofoil self-generated noise is recognized to be of fundamental importance in the frame of applied aeroacoustics and the use of computational methods to assess the acoustic behaviour of airframe components challenges an even larger community of engineers and scientists. Several noise generation mechanisms can be found which are mainly related to the physical development of turbulence over the boundary layer. They can be classified in 3 main categories: the Turbulent Boundary Layer--Trailing Edge noise (TBL-TE), the Laminar Boundary Layer--Vortex Shedding (LBL-VS) noise and the Separation Stall (S-S) noise. The TBL-TE is mainly related to the noise generated by turbulent eddies which develop into the boundary layer and usually exhibits a broadband spectrum. The LBL-VS is related to laminar instabilities that can occur within the boundary layer which are responsible for a very late transition and generate a typical peaked tonal noise, while the S-S noise mainly results from the development of large vortices after the separation point. In this paper we propose a numerical analysis targeted to the simulation the LBL-VS noise mechanisms on a NACA 0012 aerofoil, tested at a Reynolds number of 1.1 M and Mach number of 0.2. The aerodynamic simulation is performed with a 2D transient RANS approach using the k-? transitional turbulence model, while the acoustic computations are performed with the FfowcsWilliams-Hawkings (FW-H) acoustic analogy and with a Finite Element (FE) approach solving Lighthill's wave equation. Computed noise spectra are compared with experimental data published by NASA showing a good agreement both for peak location as well as for the predicted noise level.

de Gennaro, Michele; Hueppe, Andreas; Kuehnelt, Helmut; Kaltenbacher, Manfred

2011-09-01

86

Empirical Prediction of Aircraft Landing Gear Noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report documents a semi-empirical/semi-analytical method for landing gear noise prediction. The method is based on scaling laws of the theory of aerodynamic noise generation and correlation of these scaling laws with current available test data. The former gives the method a sound theoretical foundation and the latter quantitatively determines the relations between the parameters of the landing gear assembly and the far field noise, enabling practical predictions of aircraft landing gear noise, both for parametric trends and for absolute noise levels. The prediction model is validated by wind tunnel test data for an isolated Boeing 737 landing gear and by flight data for the Boeing 777 airplane. In both cases, the predictions agree well with data, both in parametric trends and in absolute noise levels.

Golub, Robert A. (Technical Monitor); Guo, Yue-Ping

2005-01-01

87

A review of propeller noise prediction methodology: 1919-1994  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report summarizes a review of the literature regarding propeller noise prediction methods. The review is divided into six sections: (1) early methods; (2) more recent methods based on earlier theory; (3) more recent methods based on the Acoustic Analogy; (4) more recent methods based on Computational Acoustics; (5) empirical methods; and (6) broadband methods. The report concludes that there are a large number of noise prediction procedures available which vary markedly in complexity. Deficiencies in accuracy of methods in many cases may be related, not to the methods themselves, but the accuracy and detail of the aerodynamic inputs used to calculate noise. The steps recommended in the report to provide accurate and easy to use prediction methods are: (1) identify reliable test data; (2) define and conduct test programs to fill gaps in the existing data base; (3) identify the most promising prediction methods; (4) evaluate promising prediction methods relative to the data base; (5) identify and correct the weaknesses in the prediction methods, including lack of user friendliness, and include features now available only in research codes; (6) confirm the accuracy of improved prediction methods to the data base; and (7) make the methods widely available and provide training in their use.

Metzger, F. Bruce

1995-01-01

88

Highway traffic noise prediction based on GIS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Before building a new road, we need to predict the traffic noise generated by vehicles. Traditional traffic noise prediction methods are based on certain locations and they are not only time-consuming, high cost, but also cannot be visualized. Geographical Information System (GIS) can not only solve the problem of manual data processing, but also can get noise values at any point. The paper selected a road segment from Wenxi to Heyang. According to the geographical overview of the study area and the comparison between several models, we combine the JTG B03-2006 model and the HJ2.4-2009 model to predict the traffic noise depending on the circumstances. Finally, we interpolate the noise values at each prediction point and then generate contours of noise. By overlaying the village data on the noise contour layer, we can get the thematic maps. The use of GIS for road traffic noise prediction greatly facilitates the decision-makers because of GIS spatial analysis function and visualization capabilities. We can clearly see the districts where noise are excessive, and thus it becomes convenient to optimize the road line and take noise reduction measures such as installing sound barriers and relocating villages and so on.

Zhao, Jianghua; Qin, Qiming

2014-05-01

89

Fan broadband noise shielding for over-wing engines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasingly demanding community noise targets are promoting noise performance ever higher on the list of airliner design drivers. In response, significant noise reductions are being made, though at a declining rate—it appears that a whole airframe approach is now needed to achieve significant further gains. As a possible step in this direction, over-wing engine installations are considered here, which use the airframe itself as a noise shield. The paper is the account of an experimental investigation of the comparative shielding performances of a range of relative engine positions on such a layout. Using the statistical modelling technique Kriging, we build an approximation of the noise shielding metric as a function of the position of the engines above the wing—this can serve as the input to multi-disciplinary design trade-off studies. We then compare the results found with the results of applying simple half-barrier diffraction theory to the same problem. We conclude that the latter could be considered as a first order, conceptual design tool, though it misses certain features of the design merit landscape identified by the experiment presented here.

Powell, Stephen; Sóbester, András; Joseph, Phillip

2012-11-01

90

Annoyance due to discrete tones in broadband background noise. Part 2: Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of subjective tests of annoyance of tonal noises was described in a companion report (Robinson and Wright, 1991). Each stimulus consisted of a pure tone superimposed on a broadband noise. The present report analyses the results and derives from them a general algebraic formula accommodating all the variables (frequency and sensation level of the tonal component, level and spectrum shape of the broadband component). Annoyance of each tone/noise combination was determined as an overall tone penalty, that is, the equivalent increment in decibels of the broadband component alone which was required to match the annoyance of the combination. These increments varied with the parameters of the stimuli in a complicated manner. Heuristic means revealed and underlying pattern of comparative simplicity: the overall tone penalty consists of the sum of two terms. The first term is a constant sub-multiple of the A-weighted level increase caused by adding the tonal component to the broadband noise and appears to be related to the corresponding increase of loudness level in phons. The second term is a multiple product of non-interactive factors expressing the dependence on the four parameters of the signal. The tone-frequency factor is given as a polynomial in log frequency. Sensation level appears directly in the formula as a proportionality factor; its magnitude has to be derived from the difference between the sound pressure level of the tone and that of the 1/3-octave band of the broadband component embracing the tone frequency, together with a detection ratio in decibels which is given as a quadratic function of frequency. The factor for broadband noise level is a negative exponential of level, falling by 22 percent for each 10 dB(A) increase in level. Finally, spectrum shape is accommodated by an empirical function which is linear in the difference between the C and A weighted sound pressure levels of the broadband noise. The algebraic formula reproduces the experimental data to a good accuracy (root-mean-square deviation 1.2 dB). Most of the residual deviation is implicit in the experimental uncertainties of the input data. The range of applicability of the formula is specified; it embraces a wide range of each variable but is, of course, limited to cases with single tones or, at least, to those where one tone is dominant.

Robinson, D. W.

1992-04-01

91

Thin broadband noise absorption through acoustic reactance control by electro-mechanical coupling without sensor.  

PubMed

Broadband noise with profound low-frequency profile is prevalent and difficult to be controlled mechanically. This study demonstrates effective broadband sound absorption by reducing the mechanical reactance of a loudspeaker using a shunt circuit through electro-mechanical coupling, which induces reactance with different signs from that of loudspeaker. An RLC shunt circuit is connected to the moving coil to provide an electrically induced mechanical impedance which counters the cavity stiffness at low frequencies and reduces the system inertia above the resonance frequency. A sound absorption coefficient well above 0.5 is demonstrated across frequencies between 150 and 1200 Hz. The performance of the proposed device is superior to existing passive absorbers of the same depth (60?mm), which has lower frequency limits of around 300 Hz. A passive noise absorber is further proposed by paralleling a micro-perforated panel with shunted loudspeaker which shows potentials in absorbing band-limit impulse noise. PMID:24815257

Zhang, Yumin; Chan, Yum-Ji; Huang, Lixi

2014-05-01

92

Comparison of the effects of broad-band noise on speech intelligibility and voice quality ratings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results of a study of effects of broad-band noise on speech intelligibility and voice quality are presented, with a comparison of three methods for evaluating speech signals: the Diagnostic Rhyme Test (DRT) for speech intelligibility, the Diagnostic Acceptability Measure (DAM) test for voice quality and acceptability, and the Mean Opinion Score (MOS), also for evaluating speech quality and acceptability. Speech samples were combined with broad-band noise, with accurate calibration of speech-to-noise energy ratios by using a new measurements algorithm developed under RADC sponsorship. Four scrambling (randomizations) of the Diagnostic Rhyme Test were prepared with each of three male speakers, for assessing speech intelligibility. Connected speech samples from the three speakers were prepared for assessing voice quality and acceptability. The processed speech samples were digitally recorded for subsequent presentation to listener crews.

Smith, Caldwell P.

1986-08-01

93

Hybrid phononic crystals for broad-band frequency noise control by sound blocking and localization.  

PubMed

A bandgap cannot be enlarged sufficiently enough to suppress a broad-band noise only with a single type of finite-length phononic crystals. Here, a hybrid phononic crystal consisting of a bi-prism and an inverted bi-prism is proposed for noise control in a broad band; a stop band is formed in a central frequency range while positive-positive and positive-negative refractions occur in lower and higher frequency ranges to concentrate acoustic energy in a central localized zone. Thereby, the remaining zone becomes little affected by the noise. Analysis and numerical simulations are given for the justification of the proposed configuration. PMID:23145703

Yoo, Sungmin; Kim, Yoon Jae; Kim, Yoon Young

2012-11-01

94

Low-noise and broadband optical frequency comb generation based on an optoelectronic oscillator.  

PubMed

A novel scheme to generate broadband high-repetition-rate optical frequency combs and low phase noise microwave signals simultaneously is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. By incorporating an optical frequency comb generator in an optoelectronic oscillator loop, more than 200 lines are generated for a 25 GHz optical frequency comb, and the single-sideband phase noise is as low as -122??dBc/Hz at 10 kHz offset for the 25 GHz microwave signal. 10 and 20 GHz optical frequency combs and microwave signals are also generated. Unlike the microwave frequency synthesizer, the phase noise of the microwave signals generated by this new scheme is frequency independent. PMID:24562206

Xie, Xiaopeng; Sun, Tao; Peng, Huanfa; Zhang, Cheng; Guo, Peng; Zhu, Lixin; Hu, Weiwei; Chen, Zhangyuan

2014-02-15

95

Broadband Differential Low-Noise Amplifier for Active Differential Arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, differential low-noise amplifiers are presented as a very powerful solution for radio astronomy appli- cations. A fully differential amplifier topology has been analyzed and implemented in microstrip technology with discrete surface mount components. The amplifier design is made for an active receiving dense antenna array. Thus, the differential amplifier source impedance is no longer 50 , but

Óscar Garcia-Perez; Daniel Segovia-Vargas; Luis Enrique Garcia-Munoz; José Luis Jimenez-Martin; Vicente Gonzalez-Posadas

2011-01-01

96

Speckle noise reduction on a laser projection display via a broadband green light source.  

PubMed

A broadband green light source was demonstrated using a tandem-poled lithium niobate (TPLN) crystal. The measured wavelength and temperature bandwidth were 6.5 nm and 100 °C, respectively, spectral bandwidth was 36 times broader than the periodically poled case. Although the conversion efficiency was smaller than in the periodic case, the TPLN device had a good figure of merit owing to the extremely large bandwidth for wavelength and temperature. The developed broadband green light source exhibited speckle noise approximately one-seventh of that in the conventional approach for a laser projection display. PMID:24663644

Yu, Nan Ei; Choi, Ju Won; Kang, Heejong; Ko, Do-Kyeong; Fu, Shih-Hao; Liou, Jiun-Wei; Kung, Andy H; Choi, Hee Joo; Kim, Byoung Joo; Cha, Myoungsik; Peng, Lung-Han

2014-02-10

97

Source localization for active control of turbofan rotor-stator broadband noise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to identify a reference signal source for an active noise cancellation system, cross-correlation techniques were used to localize broadband noise source regions on exit guide vanes of the NASA Glenn Research Center Advance Noise Control Fan (ANCF). Arrays of surface pressure sensors were imbedded in one guide vane and in the wall of the fan. Synchronous sampling was used with a multichannel data acquisition system to allow removal of periodic components from the signals. The signals were then cross-correlated to assess radiation directivity and the relationship between vane surface pressure and in-duct acoustic noise. The results of these measurements indicated that broadband unsteady pressures near the leading edge tip of the guide vane were well enough correlated with acoustic radiation that 2-3 dB active noise cancellation could be achieved using a simple gain-delay control algorithm and actuator array. After successful simulation in a wind tunnel environment the concept was incorporated on 15 guide vanes and tested in ANCF. Cross-correlation measurements were further used to evaluate system performance and to identify competing noises from rotating and stationary sources within the fan.

Walker, Bruce E.

2005-09-01

98

Assessment of NASA's Aircraft Noise Prediction Capability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A goal of NASA s Fundamental Aeronautics Program is the improvement of aircraft noise prediction. This document provides an assessment, conducted from 2006 to 2009, on the current state of the art for aircraft noise prediction by carefully analyzing the results from prediction tools and from the experimental databases to determine errors and uncertainties and compare results to validate the predictions. The error analysis is included for both the predictions and the experimental data and helps identify where improvements are required. This study is restricted to prediction methods and databases developed or sponsored by NASA, although in many cases they represent the current state of the art for industry. The present document begins with an introduction giving a general background for and a discussion on the process of this assessment followed by eight chapters covering topics at both the system and the component levels. The topic areas, each with multiple contributors, are aircraft system noise, engine system noise, airframe noise, fan noise, liner physics, duct acoustics, jet noise, and propulsion airframe aeroacoustics.

Dahl, Milo D. (Editor)

2012-01-01

99

Broadband Seismic Noise Analysis of the Himalayan Nepal Tibet Seismic Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A background noise analysis is conducted as part of the Himalayan Nepal Tibet Seismic Experiment (HIMNT), a Passcal broadband seismic deployment involving 28 seismometers deployed in eastern Nepal and southern Tibet from Fall 2001- Fall 2002. The noise study was performed in order to assess experimental vault construction design, determine noise variations with time of day and season, to determine site characteristics and response, and to identify sites of seismometer placement for future experiments. Power Spectral Density (PSD) estimates of background noise are calculated for each component of the fifteen Streckeisen STS2 broadband seismometers deployed in Nepal, and then compared to the High Noise Model (HNM) and Low Noise Model (LNM) of Peterson (1993). All waveforms from designated day and night local time windows for twenty-one day time periods are included in the calculation without parsing out events. Noise levels are found to be considerably higher for the first month of the experiment (October 2001) relative to later times (January 2002). The time period needed for the site to stabilize will be investigated. Preliminary estimates from the January time period show moderate noise levels with all stations falling within the HNM and LNM bounds, except for the southern Nepal (Terai) stations, which exceed the HNM at frequencies greater than 1 Hz. Vaults in the high water table area of southern Nepal were installed in specially constructed above ground vaults. The noise characteristics of two different site designs for the Terai relative to each other and to the other stations of the array will be discussed.

de La Torre, T.; Sheehan, A. F.; Blume, F.

2002-12-01

100

An Assessment of Current Fan Noise Prediction Capability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper, the results of an extensive assessment exercise carried out to establish the current state of the art for predicting fan noise at NASA are presented. Representative codes in the empirical, analytical, and computational categories were exercised and assessed against a set of benchmark acoustic data obtained from wind tunnel tests of three model scale fans. The chosen codes were ANOPP, representing an empirical capability, RSI, representing an analytical capability, and LINFLUX, representing a computational aeroacoustics capability. The selected benchmark fans cover a wide range of fan pressure ratios and fan tip speeds, and are representative of modern turbofan engine designs. The assessment results indicate that the ANOPP code can predict fan noise spectrum to within 4 dB of the measurement uncertainty band on a third-octave basis for the low and moderate tip speed fans except at extreme aft emission angles. The RSI code can predict fan broadband noise spectrum to within 1.5 dB of experimental uncertainty band provided the rotor-only contribution is taken into account. The LINFLUX code can predict interaction tone power levels to within experimental uncertainties at low and moderate fan tip speeds, but could deviate by as much as 6.5 dB outside the experimental uncertainty band at the highest tip speeds in some case.

Envia, Edmane; Woodward, Richard P.; Elliott, David M.; Fite, E. Brian; Hughes, Christopher E.; Podboy, Gary G.; Sutliff, Daniel L.

2008-01-01

101

Assessment of Current Jet Noise Prediction Capabilities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An assessment was made of the capability of jet noise prediction codes over a broad range of jet flows, with the objective of quantifying current capabilities and identifying areas requiring future research investment. Three separate codes in NASA s possession, representative of two classes of jet noise prediction codes, were evaluated, one empirical and two statistical. The empirical code is the Stone Jet Noise Module (ST2JET) contained within the ANOPP aircraft noise prediction code. It is well documented, and represents the state of the art in semi-empirical acoustic prediction codes where virtual sources are attributed to various aspects of noise generation in each jet. These sources, in combination, predict the spectral directivity of a jet plume. A total of 258 jet noise cases were examined on the ST2JET code, each run requiring only fractions of a second to complete. Two statistical jet noise prediction codes were also evaluated, JeNo v1, and Jet3D. Fewer cases were run for the statistical prediction methods because they require substantially more resources, typically a Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes solution of the jet, volume integration of the source statistical models over the entire plume, and a numerical solution of the governing propagation equation within the jet. In the evaluation process, substantial justification of experimental datasets used in the evaluations was made. In the end, none of the current codes can predict jet noise within experimental uncertainty. The empirical code came within 2dB on a 1/3 octave spectral basis for a wide range of flows. The statistical code Jet3D was within experimental uncertainty at broadside angles for hot supersonic jets, but errors in peak frequency and amplitude put it out of experimental uncertainty at cooler, lower speed conditions. Jet3D did not predict changes in directivity in the downstream angles. The statistical code JeNo,v1 was within experimental uncertainty predicting noise from cold subsonic jets at all angles, but did not predict changes with heating of the jet and did not account for directivity changes at supersonic conditions. Shortcomings addressed here give direction for future work relevant to the statistical-based prediction methods. A full report will be released as a chapter in a NASA publication assessing the state of the art in aircraft noise prediction.

Hunter, Craid A.; Bridges, James E.; Khavaran, Abbas

2008-01-01

102

Ambient noise recorded at broadband stations in Portugal and Morocco: Characterization and Sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first broadband (BB) seismic stations were deployed in Portugal in the 1990s, and ever since their number had steadily increased. Portugal is currently covered by a network of 35 broadband stations in mainland Portugal, which is complemented by stations in the islands of Madeira and Azores, as well as stations in Morocco. In the period 2010 - 2012, project WILAS - "West Iberia Lithosphere and Astenosphere Structure" (PTDC/CTE-GIX/097946/2008), deployed 30 additional temporary seismic BB stations in mainland Portugal. The WILAS stations, in addition to the permanent and TOPOIBERIA stations, provided a full and dense coverage of the Iberian Peninsula. In this presentation we will characterize the ambient seismic noise recorded at BB stations deployed in Portugal (mainland, Azores and Madeira) and Morocco. We analyse all time periods of data available since the instruments were installed. The noise is characterized by means of probability density functions (PDFs) of power spectral density (PSDs) of continuous, overlapping, 1-hour segments of data. Time-series of noise levels at different frequencies and spectrograms are computed to visualize the variations of ambient noise over different time periods and frequency bands. We observe the expected diurnal periodicity at high frequencies and seasonal variation at long periods. There is a clear increase of the noise amplitude in the microseismic band during the Winter, when more storms occur in the adjacent Northern Atlantic. We correlate sea level, storm activity, and other atmospheric parameters with the variations in ambient noise level. The analysis performed gives clues concerning data quality (poor quality data is clearly identified), Earth structure (a correlation is visible between sedimentary basins and amplification of seismic noise), and sources of ambient noise at different frequency bands.

Custódio, Susana; Madureira, Guilherme; Corela, Carlos; Alves, Paulo; Haberland, Christian; Carrilho, Fernando; Fonseca, Joao; Caldeira, Bento; Dias, Nuno

2013-04-01

103

Advances in tilt rotor noise prediction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The two most serious tilt rotor external noise problems, hover noise and blade-vortex interaction noise, are studied. The results of flow visualization and inflow velocity measurements document a complex, recirculating highly unsteady and turbulent flow due to the rotor-wing-body interactions characteristic of tilt rotors. The wing under the rotor is found to obstruct the inflow, causing a deficit in the inflow velocities over the inboard region of the rotor. Discrete frequency harmonic thickness and loading noise mechanisms in hover are examined by first modeling tilt rotor hover aerodynamics and then applying various noise prediction methods using the WOPWOP code. The analysis indicates that the partial ground plane created by the wing below the rotor results in a primary sound source for hover.

George, A. R.; Coffen, C. D.; Ringler, T. D.

1992-01-01

104

Advances in tilt rotor noise prediction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The two most serious tilt rotor external noise problems, hover noise and blade-vortex interaction noise, are studied. The results of flow visualization and inflow velocity measurements document a complex, recirculating highly unsteady and turbulent flow due to the rotor-wing-body interactions characteristic of tilt rotors. The wing under the rotor is found to obstruct the inflow, causing a deficit in the inflow velocities over the inboard region of the rotor. Discrete frequency harmonic thickness and loading noise mechanisms in hover are examined by first modeling tilt rotor hover aerodynamics and then applying various noise prediction methods using the WOPWOP code. The analysis indicates that the partial ground plane created by the wing below the rotor results in a primary sound source for hover.

George, A. R.; Coffen, C. D.; Ringler, T. D.

105

Validation of helicopter noise prediction techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current techniques of helicopter rotor noise prediction attempt to describe the details of the noise field precisely and remove the empiricisms and restrictions inherent in previous methods. These techniques require detailed inputs of the rotor geometry, operating conditions, and blade surface pressure distribution. The purpose of this paper is to review those techniques in general and the Farassat/Nystrom analysis in particular. The predictions of the Farassat/Nystrom noise computer program, using both measured and calculated blade surface pressure data, are compared to measured noise level data. This study is based on a contract from NASA to Bolt Beranek and Newman Inc. with measured data from the AH-1G Helicopter Operational Loads Survey flight test program supplied by Bell Helicopter Textron.

Succi, G. P.

1981-01-01

106

The Scaling of Broadband Shock-Associated Noise with Increasing Temperature  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A physical explanation for the saturation of broadband shock-associated noise (BBSAN) intensity with increasing jet stagnation temperature has eluded investigators. An explanation is proposed for this phenomenon with the use of an acoustic analogy. For this purpose the acoustic analogy of Morris and Miller is examined. To isolate the relevant physics, the scaling of BBSAN at the peak intensity level at the sideline ( = 90 degrees) observer location is examined. Scaling terms are isolated from the acoustic analogy and the result is compared using a convergent nozzle with the experiments of Bridges and Brown and using a convergent-divergent nozzle with the experiments of Kuo, McLaughlin, and Morris at four nozzle pressure ratios in increments of total temperature ratios from one to four. The equivalent source within the framework of the acoustic analogy for BBSAN is based on local field quantities at shock wave shear layer interactions. The equivalent source combined with accurate calculations of the propagation of sound through the jet shear layer, using an adjoint vector Green s function solver of the linearized Euler equations, allows for predictions that retain the scaling with respect to stagnation pressure and allows for the accurate saturation of BBSAN with increasing stagnation temperature. This is a minor change to the source model relative to the previously developed models. The full development of the scaling term is shown. The sources and vector Green s function solver are informed by steady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes solutions. These solutions are examined as a function of stagnation temperature at the first shock wave shear layer interaction. It is discovered that saturation of BBSAN with increasing jet stagnation temperature occurs due to a balance between the amplification of the sound propagation through the shear layer and the source term scaling.A physical explanation for the saturation of broadband shock-associated noise (BBSAN) intensity with increasing jet stagnation temperature has eluded investigators. An explanation is proposed for this phenomenon with the use of an acoustic analogy. For this purpose the acoustic analogy of Morris and Miller is examined. To isolate the relevant physics, the scaling of BBSAN at the peak intensity level at the sideline psi = 90 degrees) observer location is examined. Scaling terms are isolated from the acoustic analogy and the result is compared using a convergent nozzle with the experiments of Bridges and Brown and using a convergent-divergent nozzle with the experiments of Kuo, McLaughlin, and Morris at four nozzle pressure ratios in increments of total temperature ratios from one to four. The equivalent source within the framework of the acoustic analogy for BBSAN is based on local field quantities at shock wave shear layer interactions. The equivalent source combined with accurate calculations of the propagation of sound through the jet shear layer, using an adjoint vector Green s function solver of the linearized Euler equations, allows for predictions that retain the scaling with respect to stagnation pressure and allows for the accurate saturation of BBSAN with increasing stagnation temperature. This is a minor change to the source model relative to the previously developed models. The full development of the scaling term is shown. The sources and vector Green s function solver are informed by steady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes solutions. These solutions are examined as a function of stagnation temperature at the first shock wave shear layer interaction. It is discovered that saturation of BBSAN with increasing jet stagnation temperature occurs due to a balance between the amplification of the sound propagation through the shear layer and the source term scaling.

Miller, Steven A.

2012-01-01

107

Aircraft noise prediction program theoretical manual, part 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aircraft noise prediction theoretical methods are given. The prediction of data which affect noise generation and propagation is addressed. These data include the aircraft flight dynamics, the source noise parameters, and the propagation effects.

Zorumski, W. E.

1982-01-01

108

Predictions of Supersonic Jet Mixing and Shock-Associated Noise Compared With Measured Far-Field Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Codes for predicting supersonic jet mixing and broadband shock-associated noise were assessed using a database containing noise measurements of a jet issuing from a convergent nozzle. Two types of codes were used to make predictions. Fast running codes containing empirical models were used to compute both the mixing noise component and the shock-associated noise component of the jet noise spectrum. One Reynolds-averaged, Navier-Stokes-based code was used to compute only the shock-associated noise. To enable the comparisons of the predicted component spectra with data, the measured total jet noise spectra were separated into mixing noise and shock-associated noise components. Comparisons were made for 1/3-octave spectra and some power spectral densities using data from jets operating at 24 conditions covering essentially 6 fully expanded Mach numbers with 4 total temperature ratios.

Dahl, Milo D.

2010-01-01

109

Jet Aeroacoustics: Noise Generation Mechanism and Prediction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report covers the third year research effort of the project. The research work focussed on the fine scale mixing noise of both subsonic and supersonic jets and the effects of nozzle geometry and tabs on subsonic jet noise. In publication 1, a new semi-empirical theory of jet mixing noise from fine scale turbulence is developed. By an analogy to gas kinetic theory, it is shown that the source of noise is related to the time fluctuations of the turbulence kinetic theory. On starting with the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations, a formula for the radiated noise is derived. An empirical model of the space-time correlation function of the turbulence kinetic energy is adopted. The form of the model is in good agreement with the space-time two-point velocity correlation function measured by Davies and coworkers. The parameters of the correlation are related to the parameters of the k-epsilon turbulence model. Thus the theory is self-contained. Extensive comparisons between the computed noise spectrum of the theory and experimental measured have been carried out. The parameters include jet Mach number from 0.3 to 2.0 and temperature ratio from 1.0 to 4.8. Excellent agreements are found in the spectrum shape, noise intensity and directivity. It is envisaged that the theory would supercede all semi-empirical and totally empirical jet noise prediction methods in current use.

Tam, Christopher

1998-01-01

110

Prediction of light aircraft interior noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At the present time, predictions of aircraft interior noise depend heavily on empirical correction factors derived from previous flight measurements. However, to design for acceptable interior noise levels and to optimize acoustic treatments, analytical techniques which do not depend on empirical data are needed. This paper describes a computerized interior noise prediction method for light aircraft. An existing analytical program (developed for commercial jets by Cockburn and Jolly in 1968) forms the basis of some modal analysis work which is described. The accuracy of this modal analysis technique for predicting low-frequency coupled acoustic-structural natural frequencies is discussed along with trends indicating the effects of varying parameters such as fuselage length and diameter, structural stiffness, and interior acoustic absorption.

Howlett, J. T.; Morales, D. A.

1976-01-01

111

Effect of intrapulse Raman scattering on broadband amplitude noise of supercontinuum generated in fiber normal dispersion region.  

PubMed

Based on the generalized stochastic nonlinear Schrödinger equation, the effect of intrapulse Raman scattering (IRS) on broadband amplitude noise of supercontinuum (SC) generated in the normal dispersion regime is investigated numerically. The results show that, in the normal dispersion regime, where the IRS contributes less to the bandwidth of the SC spectrum, the broadband amplitude noise of SC is amplified significantly in the process of SC generation because of the existence of IRS effect. Using fiber with an optimal negative dispersion slope, the IRS effect can be suppressed, and thus the SC amplitude noise is reduced without spectral bandwidth loss. PMID:22534902

Ma, Huifang; Zhang, Xia; Jing, Qi; Huang, Yongqing; Ren, Xiaomin

2012-04-20

112

Investigation of a broadband duct noise control system inspired by the middle ear mechanism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new duct noise control device is introduced based on the mechanism of human middle ear which functions as a compact, broadband impedance transformer between the air motion in the outer ear and the liquid motion in the inner ear. The system consists of two rigid endplates, simulating the tympanic membrane and the stapes footplate, and they are connected by a single rigid rod, simulating the overall action of the ossicular chain. These three pieces are placed in a side-branch cavity, and the whole device is called an ossicular silencer. A specific configuration is investigated numerically with a two-dimensional finite element model. Results show that broadband noise attenuation can be achieved in the very low frequency regime. Typically, two or more resonance peaks are found and the transmission loss between two neighbouring peaks is maintained at a high level. The cavity length is found to be the most crucial parameter that determines the effective frequency range of the ossicular silencer. The total cavity volume, which is a major controlling factor in most existing noise control devices, becomes less influential. The fluid medium in the enclosed cavity mainly acts like an added mass, while its stiffness effect is negligible. Simplified plane wave analysis is also conducted to reveal the mechanisms of the system resonances. The first resonance is identified as of the mass-spring system with mass contributions from both fluid and the plates, while the second one is of the Herschel-Quincke (HQ) tube resonance.

Wang, Chunqi; Huang, Lixi

2012-08-01

113

Aircraft noise prediction program user's manual  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP) predicts aircraft noise with the best methods available. This manual is designed to give the user an understanding of the capabilities of ANOPP and to show how to formulate problems and obtain solutions by using these capabilities. Sections within the manual document basic ANOPP concepts, ANOPP usage, ANOPP functional modules, ANOPP control statement procedure library, and ANOPP permanent data base. appendixes to the manual include information on preparing job decks for the operating systems in use, error diagnostics and recovery techniques, and a glossary of ANOPP terms.

Gillian, R. E.

1982-01-01

114

Broadband transmission noise reduction of smart panels featuring piezoelectric shunt circuits and sound-absorbing material.  

PubMed

The possibility of a broadband noise reduction of piezoelectric smart panels is experimentally studied. A piezoelectric smart panel is basically a plate structure on which piezoelectric patches with electrical shunt circuits are mounted and sound-absorbing material is bonded on the surface of the structure. Sound-absorbing material can absorb the sound transmitted at the midfrequency region effectively while the use of piezoelectric shunt damping can reduce the transmission at resonance frequencies of the panel structure. To be able to reduce the sound transmission at low panel resonance frequencies, piezoelectric damping using the measured electrical impedance model is adopted. A resonant shunt circuit for piezoelectric shunt damping is composed of resistor and inductor in series, and they are determined by maximizing the dissipated energy through the circuit. The transmitted noise-reduction performance of smart panels is tested in an acoustic tunnel. The tunnel is a square cross-sectional tube and a loudspeaker is mounted at one side of the tube as a sound source. Panels are mounted in the middle of the tunnel and the transmitted sound pressure across panels is measured. When an absorbing material is bonded on a single plate, a remarkable transmitted noise reduction in the midfrequency region is observed except for the fundamental resonance frequency of the plate. By enabling the piezoelectric shunt damping, noise reduction is achieved at the resonance frequency as well. Piezoelectric smart panels incorporating passive absorbing material and piezoelectric shunt damping is a promising technology for noise reduction over a broadband of frequencies. PMID:12243188

Kim, Jaehwan; Lee, Joong-Kuen

2002-09-01

115

Improved NASA-ANOPP Noise Prediction Computer Code for Advanced Subsonic Propulsion Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent experience using ANOPP to predict turbofan engine flyover noise suggests that it over-predicts overall EPNL by a significant amount. An improvement in this prediction method is desired for system optimization and assessment studies of advanced UHB engines. An assessment of the ANOPP fan inlet, fan exhaust, jet, combustor, and turbine noise prediction methods is made using static engine component noise data from the CF6-8OC2, E(3), and QCSEE turbofan engines. It is shown that the ANOPP prediction results are generally higher than the measured GE data, and that the inlet noise prediction method (Heidmann method) is the most significant source of this overprediction. Fan noise spectral comparisons show that improvements to the fan tone, broadband, and combination tone noise models are required to yield results that more closely simulate the GE data. Suggested changes that yield improved fan noise predictions but preserve the Heidmann model structure are identified and described. These changes are based on the sets of engine data mentioned, as well as some CFM56 engine data that was used to expand the combination tone noise database. It should be noted that the recommended changes are based on an analysis of engines that are limited to single stage fans with design tip relative Mach numbers greater than one.

Kontos, K. B.; Janardan, B. A.; Gliebe, P. R.

1996-01-01

116

Swell Noise Suppression by Wiener Prediction Filter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The conventional method to remove swell noise from raw seismic data is band-pass filtering (BPF). It ideally removes whole low frequency band of the spectral content, which results in a total loss of the amplitudes concerning the low frequency reflections from deeper reflectors, and hence lower resolution in the deeper reflection events. The procedure described here attenuates swell noise from seismic data while preserving the reflection amplitudes at low frequency band. The proposed Wiener prediction filter (WPF) method is used to estimate the swell noise embedded in the raw marine seismic data and then the estimated noise is subtracted from shots by a trace-by-trace basis. It is observed that the deeper reflections have significantly higher amplitudes and show better trace-by-trace consistency in the final migration sections obtained by the WPF application. The WPF method removes most of the swell noise and may be an alternative filtering technique to the conventional BPF method. It can be used with high resolution marine seismic data which may have weaker reflection amplitudes from deeper reflectors. It also improves the lateral continuity of the events which may be useful for auto-picking tools such as automatic event tracking. We propose that the method can effectively be used to remove any type of coherent noise providing that a suitable noise model can be determined from the data itself.

Dondurur, Derman; Karsl?, Hakan

2012-05-01

117

Flow and noise predictions for the tandem cylinder aeroacoustic benchmark  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flow and noise predictions for the tandem cylinder benchmark are performed using lattice Boltzmann and Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings methods. The numerical results are compared to experimental measurements from the Basic Aerodynamic Research Tunnel and Quiet Flow Facility (QFF) at NASA Langley Research Center. The present study focuses on two configurations: the first configuration corresponds to the typical setup with uniform inflow and spanwise periodic boundary condition. To investigate installation effects, the second configuration matches the QFF setup and geometry, including the rectangular open jet nozzle, and the two vertical side plates mounted in the span to support the test models. For both simulations, the full span of 16 cylinder diameters is simulated, matching the experimental dimensions. Overall, good agreement is obtained with the experimental surface data, flow field, and radiated noise measurements. In particular, the presence of the side plates significantly reduces the excessive spanwise coherence observed with periodic boundary conditions and improves the predictions of the tonal peak amplitude in the far-field noise spectra. Inclusion of the contributions from the side plates in the calculation of the radiated noise shows an overall increase in the predicted spectra and directivity, leading to a better match with the experimental measurements. The measured increase is about 1 to 2 dB at the main shedding frequency and harmonics, and is likely caused by reflections on the spanwise side plates. The broadband levels are also slightly higher by about 2 to 3 dB, likely due to the shear layers from the nozzle exit impacting the side plates.

Brès, Guillaume A.; Freed, David; Wessels, Michael; Noelting, Swen; Pérot, Franck

2012-03-01

118

Simultaneous excitation of broadband electrostatic noise and electron cyclotron waves in the plasma sheet  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electron cyclotron harmonics and broadband electrostatic noise (BEN) are often observed in the earth's outer plasma sheet. While it is well known that ion beams in the plasma sheet boundary layer can generate BEN, new two-dimensional electrostatic simulations show that field-aligned ion beams with a small perpendicular ring distribution can drive not only BEN, but also electron cyclotron harmonic (ECH) waves simultaneously. Simulation results are presented here using detailed diagnostics of wave properties, including dispersion relations of all wave modes.

Berchem, Jean P.; Schriver, David; Ashour-Abdalla, Maha

1991-01-01

119

Prediction of ground effects on aircraft noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A unified method is recommended for predicting ground effects on noise. This method may be used in flyover noise predictions and in correcting static test-stand data to free-field conditions. The recommendation is based on a review of recent progress in the theory of ground effects and of the experimental evidence which supports this theory. It is shown that a surface wave must be included sometimes in the prediction method. Prediction equations are collected conveniently in a single section of the paper. Methods of measuring ground impedance and the resulting ground-impedance data are also reviewed because the recommended method is based on a locally reactive impedance boundary model. Current practice of estimating ground effects are reviewed and consideration is given to practical problems in applying the recommended method. These problems include finite frequency-band filters, finite source dimension, wind and temperature gradients, and signal incoherence.

Pao, S. P.; Wenzel, A. R.; Oncley, P. B.

1978-01-01

120

Decoherence times of universal two-qubit gates in the presence of broad-band noise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The controlled generation of entangled states of two quantum bits is a fundamental step toward the implementation of a quantum information processor. In nano-devices this operation is counteracted by the solid-state environment, characterized by a broadband and non-monotonic power spectrum, often 1/f, at low frequencies. For single-qubit gates, incoherent processes due to fluctuations acting on different time scales result in peculiar short- and long-time behavior. Markovian noise gives rise to exponential decay with relaxation and decoherence times, T1 and T2, simply related to the symmetry of the qubit-environment coupling Hamiltonian. Noise with the 1/f power spectrum at low frequencies is instead responsible for defocusing processes and algebraic short-time behavior. In this paper, we identify the relevant decoherence times of an entangling operation due to the different decoherence channels originating from solid-state noise. Entanglement is quantified by concurrence, which we evaluate in an analytic form employing a multi-stage approach. The ‘optimal’ operating conditions of reduced sensitivity to noise sources are identified. We apply this analysis to a superconducting \\sqrt { {i}-SWAP} gate for experimental noise spectra.

Paladino, E.; D'Arrigo, A.; Mastellone, A.; Falci, G.

2011-09-01

121

Investigation of computational aeroacoustic tools for noise predictions of wind turbine aerofoils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work trailing edge noise levels of a research aerofoil have been computed and compared to aeroacoustic measurements using two different approaches. On the other hand, aerodynamic and aeroacoustic calculations were performed with the full Navier-Stokes CFD code Fluent [Fluent Inc 2005 Fluent 6.2 Users Guide, Lebanon, NH, USA] on the basis of a steady RANS simulation. Aerodynamic characteristics were computed by the aid of various turbulence models. By the combined usage of implemented broadband noise source models, it was tried to isolate and determine the trailing edge noise level. Throughout this work two methods of different computational cost have been tested and quantitative and qualitative results obtained. On the one hand, the semi-empirical noise prediction tool NAFNoise [Moriarty P 2005 NAFNoise User's Guide. Golden, Colorado, July. http://wind.nrel.gov/designcodes/ simulators/NAFNoise] was used to directly predict trailing edge noise by taking into consideration the nature of the experiments.

Humpf, A.; Ferrer, E.; Munduate, X.

2007-07-01

122

Comparison of two transonic noise prediction formulations using the aircraft noise prediction program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper addresses recently completed work on using Farassat's Formulation 3 noise prediction code with the Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP). Software was written to link aerodynamic loading generated by the Propeller Loading (PLD) module within ANOPP with formulation 3. Included are results of comparisons between Formulation 3 with ANOPP's existing noise prediction modules, Subsonic Propeller Noise (SPN) and Transonic Propeller Noise (TPN). Four case studies are investigated. Results of the comparison studies show excellent agreement for the subsonic cases. Differences found in the comparisons made under transonic conditions are strictly numerical and can be explained by the way in which the time derivative is calculated in Formulation 3. Also included is a section on how to execute Formulation 3 with ANOPP.

Spence, Peter L.

1987-01-01

123

Railway Noise Prediction Models: a Comparison  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper represents a comparison between some European prediction models for rail traffic noise. These models are from Austria, Denmark, France, Germany, The Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland and the U.K. In the propagation part the ISO 9613-2 is also considered. The comparison of the noise emission gives results for disc- and block-braked passenger trains and for freight trains. For purposes of comparison the propagation model is divided according to the usual attenuation elements including geometrical spreading, atmospheric attenuation, ground attenuation, screening attenuation and reflections. These attenuation effects are compared separately.

VAN LEEUWEN, H. J. A.

2000-03-01

124

A Process for Assessing NASA's Capability in Aircraft Noise Prediction Technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An acoustic assessment is being conducted by NASA that has been designed to assess the current state of the art in NASA s capability to predict aircraft related noise and to establish baselines for gauging future progress in the field. The process for determining NASA s current capabilities includes quantifying the differences between noise predictions and measurements of noise from experimental tests. The computed noise predictions are being obtained from semi-empirical, analytical, statistical, and numerical codes. In addition, errors and uncertainties are being identified and quantified both in the predictions and in the measured data to further enhance the credibility of the assessment. The content of this paper contains preliminary results, since the assessment project has not been fully completed, based on the contributions of many researchers and shows a select sample of the types of results obtained regarding the prediction of aircraft noise at both the system and component levels. The system level results are for engines and aircraft. The component level results are for fan broadband noise, for jet noise from a variety of nozzles, and for airframe noise from flaps and landing gear parts. There are also sample results for sound attenuation in lined ducts with flow and the behavior of acoustic lining in ducts.

Dahl, Milo D.

2008-01-01

125

Acoustic near field and local flow properties associated with broadband shock noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Shock noise associated with unheated supersonic jets were investigated using a near field microphone array and a single sensor wedge shaped hot-film probe. Both over and underexpanded cases were investigated using Mach 1.5 and 2.0 convergent-divergent nozzles. Correlation measurements through each shock cell of a single underexpanded case with the Mach 1.5 nozzle were obtained between the hot-film probe and microphone array. The results show for the Mach number cases selected that the probe's response is primarily sensitive to velocity. The results of the hot-film near field microphone correlations show general agreement with certain theoretical models as to the location for shock noise production, although they demonstrate the existence of some large perhaps turbulent structure that collectively interacts and phases the motion of the downstream shocks. The near field microphone correlations demonstrate that downstream shocks dominate shock noise production, and suggests the existence of a Doppler effect in near field of the sources. In addition broadband shock noise is found to also propagate at small angles to the jet axis.

Seiner, J. M.; Yu, J. C.

1981-01-01

126

Comparison of Predicted Engine Core Noise with Proposed FAA Helicopter Noise Certification Requirements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Calculated engine core noise levels, based on NASA-Lewis prediction procedures, for five representative helicopter engines are compared with measured total helicopter noise levels and proposed FAA helicopter noise certification requirements. Comparisons a...

U. Vonglahn D. Groesbeck

1981-01-01

127

23 CFR 772.17 - Traffic noise prediction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Traffic noise prediction. 772.17 Section...17 Traffic noise prediction. (a) Any analysis...the FHWA Traffic Noise Model (FHWA TNM), which is...FHWA's Traffic Noise Model Web site at the following...characteristics which will yield the worst hourly...

2010-04-01

128

23 CFR 772.17 - Traffic noise prediction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Traffic noise prediction. 772.17 Section...17 Traffic noise prediction. (a) Any analysis...the FHWA Traffic Noise Model (FHWA TNM), which is...FHWA's Traffic Noise Model Web site at the following...characteristics which will yield the worst hourly...

2009-04-01

129

Comparison of predicted engine core noise with current and proposed aircraft noise certification requirements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Predicted engine core noise levels are compared with measured total aircraft noise levels and with current and proposed federal noise certification requirements. Comparisons are made at the FAR-36 measuring stations and include consideration of both full- and cutback-power operation at takeoff. In general, core noise provides a barrier to achieving proposed EPA stage 5 noise levels for all types of aircraft. More specifically, core noise levels will limit further reductions in aircraft noise levels for current widebody commercial aircraft.

Vonglahn, U. H.; Groesbeck, D. E.

1981-01-01

130

Theory for broadband Noise of Rotor and Stator Cascades with Inhomogeneous Inflow Turbulence Including Effects of Lean and Sweep  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problem of broadband noise generated by turbulence impinging on a downstream blade row is examined from a theoretical viewpoint. Equations are derived for sound power spectra in terms of 3 dimensional wavenumber spectra of the turbulence. Particular attention is given to issues of turbulence inhomogeneity associated with the near field of the rotor and variations through boundary layers. Lean and sweep of the rotor or stator cascade are also handled rigorously with a full derivation of the relevant geometry and definitions of lean and sweep angles. Use of the general theory is illustrated by 2 simple theoretical spectra for homogeneous turbulence. Limited comparisons are made with data from model fans designed by Pratt & Whitney, Allison, and Boeing. Parametric studies for stator noise are presented showing trends with Mach number, vane count, turbulence scale and intensity, lean, and sweep. Two conventions are presented to define lean and sweep. In the "cascade system" lean is a rotation out of its plane and sweep is a rotation of the airfoil in its plane. In the "duct system" lean is the leading edge angle viewing the fan from the front (along the fan axis) and sweep is the angle viewing the fan from the side (,perpendicular to the axis). It is shown that the governing parameter is sweep in the plane of the airfoil (which reduces the chordwise component of Mach number). Lean (out of the plane of the airfoil) has little effect. Rotor noise predictions are compared with duct turbulence/rotor interaction noise data from Boeing and variations, including blade tip sweep and turbulence axial and transverse scales are explored.

Hanson, Donald B.

2001-01-01

131

Interior noise prediction methodology: ATDAC theory and validation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Acoustical Theory for Design of Aircraft Cabins (ATDAC) is a computer program developed to predict interior noise levels inside aircraft and to evaluate the effects of different aircraft configurations on the aircraft acoustical environment. The primary motivation for development of this program is the special interior noise problems associated with advanced turboprop (ATP) aircraft where there is a tonal, low frequency noise problem. Prediction of interior noise levels requires knowledge of the energy sources, the transmission paths, and the relationship between the energy variable and the sound pressure level. The energy sources include engine noise, both airborne and structure-borne; turbulent boundary layer noise; and interior noise sources such as air conditioner noise and auxiliary power unit noise. Since propeller and engine noise prediction programs are widely available, they are not included in ATDAC. Airborne engine noise from any prediction or measurement may be input to this program. This report describes the theory and equations implemented in the ATDAC program.

Mathur, Gopal P.; Gardner, Bryce K.

1992-01-01

132

Prediction of nonlinear jet noise propagation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of nonlinearity in the propagation of noise radiated from high-performance jet aircraft has not been a well-understood phenomenon in the past. To address the problem of finite-amplitude noise propagation, a hybrid time-frequency domain model has been developed to numerically solve the generalized Mendousse-Burgers equation, which is a parabolic model equation that includes effects of quadratic nonlinearity, atmospheric absorption and dispersion, and geometrical spreading. The algorithm has been compared against analytical theory and numerical issues have been discussed. Three sets of experimental data have been used to evaluate the model: model-scale laboratory jet data, field data using a large loudspeaker, and static engine run-up measurements of the F/A-22 Raptor. Comparison of linearly- and nonlinearly-predicted spectra demonstrates that nonlinearity does, in fact, impact the noise propagation in all three sets of data. Additionally, the extensive comparison with the Raptor data shows that the model is successful in predicting the measured spectrum over multiple angles and engine conditions, demonstrating that the model captures much of the physics of the propagation, despite its current neglect of multipath interference and atmospheric refraction and turbulence effects. Two additional studies have been carried out in order to address fundamental questions relevant to the nonlinear propagation of jet noise: ''What is the impact of nonlinearity on perceived levels?" and ''At what point does the propagation become linear?" An investigation of the perceived impact of nonlinearity shows that there are only minor differences between nonlinear and linear predictions in calculations of power-based, single-number metrics, such as A-weighted overall sound pressure level. On the other hand, the actual perceived differences between nonlinear and linear waveforms are substantially greater and consequently do not correlate well with calculated metrics. This investigation suggests the need for further research in order to better quantify the perceptual differences between nonlinear and linear propagation. Study of the additional generation of nonlinearity in the long-range propagation of a noise waveform suggests that the high-frequency energy decays very slowly and the spatial rate of change of the difference between nonlinearly- and linearly-predicted sound pressure levels does not go to zero, which would indicate linear propagation, but appears to asymptotically approach nonzero constant behavior. This implies that a finite-amplitude noise waveform may never truly decay as linear theory would indicate, which could be important from a human-perception standpoint.

Gee, Kent L.

133

Low-noise broadband light generation from optical fibers for use in high-resolution optical coherence tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Broadband light generation from a single-mode optical fiber was developed for high-resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT). No noise amplification was observed for light broadened by self-phase modulation. The investigation showed that the intensity noise of light broadened by self-phase modulation in a single-mode optical fiber was much lower than that of continuum light from a microstructure fiber (MSF). The spectral

Yimin Wang; Ivan Tomov; J. Stuart Nelson; Zhongping Chen; Hyungsik Lim; Frank Wise

2005-01-01

134

Supersonic Coaxial Jets: Noise Predictions and Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The noise from perfectly expanded coaxial jets was measured in an anechoic chamber for different operating conditions with the same total thrust, mass flow, and exit area. The shape of the measured noise spectrum at different angles to the jet axis was found to agree with spectral shapes for single, axisymmetric jets. Based on these spectra, the sound was characterized as being generated by large turbulent structures or fine-scale turbulence. Modeling the large scale structures as instability waves, a stability analysis was conducted for the coaxial jets to identify the growing and decaying instability waves in each shear layer and predict their noise radiation pattern outside the jet. When compared to measured directivity, the analysis identified the region downstream of the outer potential core, where the two shear layers were merging, as the source of the peak radiated noise where instability waves, with their origin in the inner shear layer, reach their maximum amplitude. Numerical computations were also performed using a linearized Euler equation solver. Those results were compared to both the results from the instability wave analysis and to measured data.

Dahl, Milo D.; Papamoschou, Dimitri; Hixon, Ray

1998-01-01

135

Broadband noise and vibration reduction for lightweight chassis design using smart structure technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lightweight design is gaining more and more importance in the automotive industry. Engineers are trying hard to reduce the increased weight of chassis due to safety and comfort issues. This paper presents new achievements in the field of control design for smart structures, targeting at innovative lightweight, high-performance and low-noise engineering constructions with integrated embedded systems technology: The first part of the paper focuses on new developments in the field of low-cost, highly efficient smart structure power electronics for piezoelectric elements. These elements will be integrated into automotive chassis, which are able to measure any structure-borne disturbance such as vibrations. The second part of the paper presents frontier research in the design of a high-performance control concept for smart structure applications. This innovative control concept based on a nonlinear state observer design, targets at highly robust and broadband suppression of structure-borne noise in terms of fast changing frequencies. The controller performance is not only assessed with respect to stability and disturbance rejection but also with respect to technical feasibility and implementation issues (required sample rate, rounding errors due to inappropriate data formats, latency, etc.).

Messner, L.; Gusenbauer, M.; Rittenschober, T.

2007-03-01

136

Unsteady jet flow computation towards noise prediction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An attempt has been made to combine a wave solution method and an unsteady flow computation to produce an integrated aeroacoustic code to predict far-field jet noise. An axisymmetric subsonic jet is considered for this purpose. A fourth order space accurate Pade compact scheme is used for the unsteady Navier-Stokes solution. A Kirchhoff surface integral for the wave equation is employed through the use of an imaginary surface which is a circular cylinder enclosing the jet at a distance. Information such as pressure and its time and normal derivatives is provided on the surface. The sound prediction is performed side by side with the jet flow computation. Retarded time is also taken into consideration since the cylinder body is not acoustically compact. The far-field sound pressure has the directivity and spectra show that low frequency peaks shift toward higher frequency region as the observation angle increases from the jet flow axis.

Soh, Woo-Yung

1994-01-01

137

Observations of correlated broadband electrostatic noise and electron-cyclotron emissions in the plasma sheet. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

Electric field wave observations in the central plasma sheet of the earth's magnetosphere show the correlated occurrence of broadband electrostatic noise and electrostatic electron cyclotron harmonic emissions. A model is proposed in which the broadband emissions are electron acoustic waves generated by an observed low energy electron beam, and the cyclotron emissions are generated by the hot electron loss cone instability. The high degree of correlation between the two emissions is provided in the model by the presence of the cold electron beam population, which allows both of the plasma instabilities to grow.

Roeder, J.L.; Angelopoulos, V.; Baumjohann, W.; Anderson, R.R.

1991-11-15

138

Applying Noise Compensation Methods to Robustly Predict Acoustic Speech Features from MFCC Vectors in Noise  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the effect of applying noise compensation to improve acoustic speech feature prediction from noise contaminated MFCC vectors, as may be encountered in distributed speech recognition (DSR). A brief review of maximum a posteriori prediction of acoustic speech features (voicing, fundamental and formant frequencies) from MFCC vectors is made. Two noise compensation methods are then applied; spectral subtraction

Ben Milner; Jonathan Darch; Saeed Vaseghi

2008-01-01

139

An adaptive analog noise-predictive decision-feedback equalizer  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, an adaptive noise-predictive decision-feedback equalizer (NPDFE) is presented. The NPDFE architecture and its implementation are described. The NPDFE consists of an analog finite-impulse-response (FIR) forward equalizer, a recursive analog equalizer for noise prediction, and a decision-feedback equalizer (DFE). The recursive equalizer reduces noise enhancement and improves the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at the decision slicer input. The prototype

Michael Q. Le; Paul J. Hurst; John P. Keane

2002-01-01

140

Noise performance of IRIS/IDA broadband seismic stations AAK and TLY in the USSR. Semi-Annual technical report  

SciTech Connect

Averaged ambient ground noise power spectra are found two broadband IRIS/IDA seismic stations deployed at Talaya (TLY) near Lake Baikal in Russia and Ala-Archa (AAK) near Bishkek in Kirghizia, central Asia. Site descriptions are also provided for these two stations, as well as major episodes up to mid 1991 in their operational history that are relevant to potential data users. Findings can be summarized as follows: AAK shows among the lowest average absolute nighttime noise levels above I Hz documented to date for IRIS/IDA stations in the former USSR; its night-averaged noise levels above 1 Hz are very similar to those observed at GAR. Ground noise increases during the day over night levels at AAK, with the maximum increase (7-9 dB) occurring between 2-3 Hz. Below .7 Hz, day and night noise levels are the same at AAK. TLY average nighttime ground noise levels are about 6- 1 0 dB higher than AAK levels above 1 Hz; its night-averaged noise levels above 1 Hz are very similar to those observed at IRIS/IDA station KIV. Below .6 Hz, nighttime levels at AAK and TLY are comparable, except that TLY has lower horizontal noise levels (4-5 dB) at periods longer than 25 s. Almost no difference between night and day noise levels was observed at TLY; in this sense it is unique among the IRIS/IDA broadband stations in the USSR. microseism peaks at both stations are comparable (between - 135 to - 140 dB relative to (1 m/s2)2/Hz) at both stations. High-frequency noise levels appear to be fairly constant between 10 - 50 Hz, at between - 150 to - 140 dB relative to (I m/s2)2/Hz.

Given, H.K.

1992-01-15

141

Broadband Noise of Fans - With Unsteady Coupling Theory to Account for Rotor and Stator Reflection/Transmission Effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report examines the effects on broadband noise generation of unsteady coupling between a rotor and stator in the fan stage of a turbofan engine. Whereas previous acoustic analyses treated the blade rows as isolated cascades, the present work accounts for reflection and transmission effects at both blade rows by tracking the mode and frequency scattering of pressure and vortical waves. The fan stage is modeled in rectilinear geometry to take advantage of a previously existing unsteady cascade theory for 3D perturbation waves and thereby use a realistic 3D turbulence spectrum. In the analysis, it was found that the set of participating modes divides itself naturally into "independent mode subsets" that couple only among themselves and not to the other such subsets. This principle is the basis for the analysis and considerably reduces computational effort. It also provides a simple, accurate scheme for modal averaging for further efficiency. Computed results for a coupled fan stage are compared with calculations for isolated blade rows. It is found that coupling increases downstream noise by 2 to 4 dB. Upstream noise is lower for isolated cascades and is further reduced by including coupling effects. In comparison with test data, the increase in the upstream/downstream differential indicates that broadband noise from turbulent inflow at the stator dominates downstream noise but is not a significant contributor to upstream noise.

Hanson, Donald B.

2001-01-01

142

Generation of high-frequency broadband electrostatic noise - The role of cold electrons  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Broadband electrostatic noise (BEN) is commonly observed in the plasma sheet boundary layer in association with ion beams. The generation of these waves in a plasma consisting of an ion beam and a background of hot ions, hot electrons, and cold electrons is investigated. The cold electrons are of ionospheric origin. A complete, systematic study of electrostatic ion beam instabilities, including cold electrons, has been done, and it is shown that for the plasma configuration described, four instabilities can be excited: (1) ion acoustic, (2) Buneman, (3) beam resonant, and (4) electron acoustic instabilities. A low and high beam temperature division is shown to exist that separates when different instabilities can be excited. For typically observed parameters in the plasma sheet boundary layer, the ion beams lie in the high-temperature regime. In this regime, the beam resonant and electron acoustic instabilities are excited, and these instabilities can account for the high-frequency (higher than 500 Hz), low-power portion of the BEN spectrum. In the absence of cold electrons, no such wave growth occurs.

Schriver, David; Ashour-Abdalla, Maha

1987-01-01

143

The Effect of Nondeterministic Parameters on Shock-Associated Noise Prediction Modeling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Engineering applications for aircraft noise prediction contain models for physical phenomenon that enable solutions to be computed quickly. These models contain parameters that have an uncertainty not accounted for in the solution. To include uncertainty in the solution, nondeterministic computational methods are applied. Using prediction models for supersonic jet broadband shock-associated noise, fixed model parameters are replaced by probability distributions to illustrate one of these methods. The results show the impact of using nondeterministic parameters both on estimating the model output uncertainty and on the model spectral level prediction. In addition, a global sensitivity analysis is used to determine the influence of the model parameters on the output, and to identify the parameters with the least influence on model output.

Dahl, Milo D.; Khavaran, Abbas

2010-01-01

144

Prevision du Bruit Externe des Helicopteres: Les Methodes Numeriques Vues Par UN Industriel (Predicting Helicopter External Noise: Numerical Methods as Conceived by an Industrialist).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper investigates the methods used for rotor rotational noise, impulsive noise from blade/vortex interaction, high speed noise, rotor broadband noise, the various types of fenestron noise, and noise from the turboshaft engines. From the helicopter m...

F. Toulmay D. Falchero G. Arnaud

1995-01-01

145

Some Analytic Results for the Study of Broadband Noise Radiation from Wings, Propellers and Jets in Uniform Motion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Alan Powell has made significant contributions to the understanding of many aeroacoustic problems, in particular, the problems of broadband noise from jets and boundary layers. In this paper, some analytic results are presented for the calculation of the correlation function of the broadband noise radiated from a wing, a propeller, and a jet in uniform forward motion. It is shown that, when the observer (or microphone) motion is suitably chosen, the geometric terms of the radiation formula become time independent. The time independence of these terms leads to a significant simplification of the statistical analysis of the radiated noise, even when the near field terms are included. For a wing in forward motion, if the observer is in the moving reference frame, then the correlation function of the near and far field noise can be related to a space-time cross-correlation function of the pressure on the wing surface. A similar result holds for a propeller in forward flight if the observer is in a reference frame that is attached to the propeller and rotates at the shaft speed. For a jet in motion, it is shown that the correlation function of the radiated noise can be related to the space-time crosscorrelation of the Lighthill stress tensor in the jet. Exact analytical results are derived for all three cases. For the cases under present consideration, the inclusion of the near field terms does not introduce additional complexity, as compared to existing formulations that are limited to the far field.

Farassat, F.; Casper, J.

2003-01-01

146

23 CFR 772.9 - Traffic noise prediction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FHWA Traffic Noise Modelâ Report No. FHWA-PD-96-010...2004, or any other model determined by...FHWA's Traffic Noise Model Web site at the following...for future noise level prediction unless a highway agency...characteristics that would yield the worst traffic...

2013-04-01

147

Noise prediction and control of Pudong International Airport expansion project.  

PubMed

The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) process of the third runway building project of Pudong International Airport is briefly introduced in the paper. The basic principle, the features, and the operation steps of newly imported FAA's Integrated Noise Model (INM) are discussed for evaluating the aircraft noise impacts. The prediction of the aircraft noise and the countermeasures for the noise mitigation are developed, which includes the reasonable runway location, the optimized land use, the selection of low noise aircrafts, the Fly Quit Program, the relocation of sensitive receptors and the noise insulation of sensitive buildings. Finally, the expansion project is justified and its feasibility is confirmed. PMID:18373206

Lei, Bin; Yang, Xin; Yang, Jianguo

2009-04-01

148

Prediction of Landing Gear Noise Reduction and Comparison to Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Noise continues to be an ongoing problem for existing aircraft in flight and is projected to be a concern for next generation designs. During landing, when the engines are operating at reduced power, the noise from the airframe, of which landing gear noise is an important part, is equal to the engine noise. There are several methods of predicting landing gear noise, but none have been applied to predict the change in noise due to a change in landing gear design. The current effort uses the Landing Gear Model and Acoustic Prediction (LGMAP) code, developed at The Pennsylvania State University to predict the noise from landing gear. These predictions include the influence of noise reduction concepts on the landing gear noise. LGMAP is compared to wind tunnel experiments of a 6.3%-scale Boeing 777 main gear performed in the Quiet Flow Facility (QFF) at NASA Langley. The geometries tested in the QFF include the landing gear with and without a toboggan fairing and the door. It is shown that LGMAP is able to predict the noise directives and spectra from the model-scale test for the baseline configuration as accurately as current gear prediction methods. However, LGMAP is also able to predict the difference in noise caused by the toboggan fairing and by removing the landing gear door. LGMAP is also compared to far-field ground-based flush-mounted microphone measurements from the 2005 Quiet Technology Demonstrator 2 (QTD 2) flight test. These comparisons include a Boeing 777-300ER with and without a toboggan fairing that demonstrate that LGMAP can be applied to full-scale flyover measurements. LGMAP predictions of the noise generated by the nose gear on the main gear measurements are also shown.

Lopes, Leonard V.

2010-01-01

149

Advances in tilt rotor noise prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The two most serious tilt rotor external noise problems, hover noise and blade-vortex interaction noise, are studied. The results of flow visualization and inflow velocity measurements document a complex, recirculating highly unsteady and turbulent flow due to the rotor-wing-body interactions characteristic of tilt rotors. The wing under the rotor is found to obstruct the inflow, causing a deficit in the

A. R. George; C. D. Coffen; T. D. Ringler

1992-01-01

150

Acoustic noise prediction in a vector controlled induction machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deterministic approach for the prediction of noise in electrical machines is generally based on the use of FEM\\/BEM models. Mechanical and electromagnetic properties included in these models, such as the damping or the BH curve, are difficult to estimate, compromising the accuracy in the noise prediction. Simulations showed that a 10% increase in the saturated part of the BH

D. Martinez-Munoz; Joseph C. S. Lai

2003-01-01

151

Passive geoacoustic inversion with a single hydrophone using broadband ship noise.  

PubMed

An inversion scheme is proposed, relying upon the inversion of the noise of a moving ship measured on a single distant hydrophone. The spectrogram of the measurements exhibits striations which depend on waveguide parameters. The periodic behavior of striations versus range are used to estimate the differences of radial wavenumber between couples of propagative modes at a given frequency. These wavenumber differences are stacked for several frequencies to form the relative dispersion curves. Such relative dispersion curves can be synthesized using a propagation model feeded with a bottom geoacoustic model. Inversion is performed by looking for the bottom properties that optimize the fit between measured and predicted relative dispersion curves. The inversion scheme is tested on simulated data. The conclusions are twofold: (1) a minimum 6 dB signal to noise ratio is required to obtained an unbiased estimate of compressional sound speed in the bottom with a 3 m s(-1) standard deviation; however, even with low signal to noise ratio, the estimation error remains bounded and (2) in the case of a multi-layer bottom, the scheme produces a single depth-average compressional sound speed. The inversion scheme is applied on experimental data. The results are fully consistent with a core sample measured around the receiving hydrophone. PMID:22423697

Gervaise, C; Kinda, B G; Bonnel, J; Stéphan, Y; Vallez, S

2012-03-01

152

Impact of various noises on maximum reach in broadband light source based high-capacity WDM passive optical networks.  

PubMed

We investigated the effects of various noises on the performance of extended-reach WDM-PONs based on broadband light sources (BLSs). The maximum reach in BLS based WDM-PONs was analyzed by taking into account the impact of relative intensity noise of optical source, chromatic dispersion of transmission fiber and in-band crosstalk. We confirmed that the system's performance of BLS based WDM-PONs would be strongly dependent on the equivalent optical bandwidth of optical source. From the results, we found that the maximum reach in BLS based WDM-PONs operating at 1.25 Gb/s could be increased to be approximately 70 km of single-mode fiber as long as the chirp and relative intensity noise (RIN) of optical source would be suppressed properly. PMID:20588835

Kim, Chul Han

2010-05-10

153

The effect of broad-band noise on the binaural interaction components of human auditory brainstem-evoked potentials.  

PubMed

Three-channel Lissajous trajectories (3-CLTs) of binaural interaction components (BI) of auditory brainstem potentials (ABEPs) were derived from 13 normally hearing adults by subtracting the response to binaural clicks from the algebraic sum of monaurally evoked responses to clicks. ABEPs were recorded in response to 65 dB nHL, alternating-polarity clicks, presented at a rate of 11/s. The procedure was repeated with clicks alone as well as with clicks with broad-band masking noise. Noise was presented at 25 and 45 dB nHL, producing a signal-to-noise ratio of +40 and +20 dB, respectively. All BI 3-CLTs included 6 planar segments (labeled BdI, BdII, BdIII, BeI, BeII and Bf) whose apex latencies, except Bf, increased with increasing noise level above 25 dB nHL, and whose durations, sizes, shapes and orientations did not change across noise levels. There were also significant increases in peak latencies of the BI from single channels vertex-mastoid and vertex-neck with increasing noise level. No significant change was found in the trajectory amplitude of apices, with the exception of apices BdIII and Bf whose amplitudes increased with increasing noise level. We suggest that the paradoxical increase in BI amplitude with masking noise may reflect a binaural enhancement of the effect of noise. The effects observed indicate that, whereas the response to clicks displays occlusion, the response to noise displays spatial facilitation at the brainstem level. PMID:7487645

Polyakov, A; Pratt, H

1995-01-01

154

Modular Engine Noise Component Prediction System (MCP) Technical Description and Assessment Document  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes an empirical prediction procedure for turbofan engine noise. The procedure generates predicted noise levels for several noise components, including inlet- and aft-radiated fan noise, and jet-mixing noise. This report discusses the noise source mechanisms, the development of the prediction procedures, and the assessment of the accuracy of these predictions. Finally, some recommendations for future work are presented.

Herkes, William H.; Reed, David H.

2005-01-01

155

Application of indoor noise prediction in the real world  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Predicting indoor noise in industrial workrooms is an important part of the process of designing industrial plants. Predicted levels are used in the design process to determine compliance with occupational-noise regulations, and to estimate levels inside the walls in order to predict community noise radiated from the building. Once predicted levels are known, noise-control strategies can be developed. In this paper an overview of over 20 years of experience is given with the use of various prediction approaches to manage noise in Unilever plants. This work has applied empirical and ray-tracing approaches separately, and in combination, to design various packaging and production plants and other facilities. The advantages of prediction methods in general, and of the various approaches in particular, will be discussed. A case-study application of prediction methods to the optimization of noise-control measures in a food-packaging plant will be presented. Plans to acquire a simplified prediction model for use as a company noise-screening tool will be discussed.

Lewis, David N.

2002-11-01

156

Experimental validation of boundary element methods for noise prediction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental validation of methods to predict radiated noise is presented. A combined finite element and boundary element model was used to predict the vibration and noise of a rectangular box excited by a mechanical shaker. The predicted noise was compared to sound power measured by the acoustic intensity method. Inaccuracies in the finite element model shifted the resonance frequencies by about 5 percent. The predicted and measured sound power levels agree within about 2.5 dB. In a second experiment, measured vibration data was used with a boundary element model to predict noise radiation from the top of an operating gearbox. The predicted and measured sound power for the gearbox agree within about 3 dB.

Seybert, A. F.; Oswald, Fred B.

1992-01-01

157

Analysis of broadband seismic noise at the German Regional Seismic Network and search for improved alternative station sites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The German Regional Seismic Network (GRSN) comprizes now 16 digital broadband stations equipped with Wieland-Streckeisen STS-2 seismometers, 24-bit dataloggers and a seismological data center at Erlangen. It covers the whole territory of Germany with station-spacings between 80 km to 240 km. The stations are sited in very different environments ranging from near shore at the Baltic Sea coast up to distances of about 700 km from the coast, both within cities and up to about 10 km away from any major settlement, industry or traffic roads. The underground varies from outcropping hard rocks in Hercynian mountain areas, sedimentary rocks in areas of Mesozoic platform cover to up to 1.5 km unconsolidated Quarternary and Tertiary subsoil. Accordingly, seismic background noise varies in a wide range between the upper and lower bounds of the new global noise model. The noise conditions at the GRSN have been investigated systematically by means of displacement power spectral analysis within the frequency range 10-2 5 for RUE and > 10 for BSEG have been confirmed for frequencies between about 0.6 Hz 3 Hz. Strong lateral velocity and impedance contrasts between the outcropping Triassic/Permian sedimentary rocks and the surrounding unconsolidated Quarternary/Tertiary sediments are shown to be the main cause for the strong noise reduction and signal-to-noise ratio improvement at RUE and can account for about 50% of the noise reduction at BSEG.

Bormann, P.; Wylegalla, K.; Klinge, K.

158

“Buzz-saw” noise: A comparison of measurement with prediction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate prediction of "buzz-saw" noise in a turbofan inlet duct necessitates consideration of nonlinear acoustics, modelling a complete fan blade set, modelling an acoustic liner, and calculations at high frequencies. A recent series of papers has described new work concerning the application of one-dimensional propagation models to the prediction of buzz-saw noise. A numerical model, termed the frequency domain numerical solution or FDNS, has been developed. It can be used to calculate the nonlinear propagation of the rotor-alone pressure field in either a rigid or acoustically-lined inlet duct. From this the in-duct noise level of the buzz-saw tones can be determined. In previous work, validation of this method by comparison with in-duct noise measurements has been limited to rigid inlet ducts, because of the lack of availability of suitable measurements from lined ducts. In this article new measurements of buzz-saw noise in an acoustically-lined inlet duct are utilized. A comparison of measurements of buzz-saw noise in a lined inlet duct, and noise predictions from numerical simulations by the FDNS is presented. The detailed measurements reveal the effect of an acoustic liner on buzz-saw noise. The suitability of the numerical model to be used to provide realistic noise predictions for supersonic ducted fans is also examined.

McAlpine, A.; Fisher, M. J.; Tester, B. J.

2006-03-01

159

Analytical expressions for simplifying the design of broadband low noise microwave transistor amplifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytical expression for the minimum achievable noise figure for a specified gain at a given frequency is derived for a microwave amplifier. The minimum noise figure is given in terms of the specified gain, the amplifier noise parameters, and the S-parameters. Similarly, another expression for the maximum gain at a specified noise figure is derived in terms of the

G. N. Link; V. S. Rao Gudimetla

1995-01-01

160

High Speed Jet Noise Prediction Using Large Eddy Simulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current methods for predicting the noise of high speed jets are largely empirical. These empirical methods are based on the jet noise data gathered by varying primarily the jet flow speed, and jet temperature for a fixed nozzle geometry. Efforts have been made to correlate the noise data of co-annular (multi-stream) jets and for the changes associated with the forward flight within these empirical correlations. But ultimately these emipirical methods fail to provide suitable guidance in the selection of new, low-noise nozzle designs. This motivates the development of a new class of prediction methods which are based on computational simulations, in an attempt to remove the empiricism of the present day noise predictions.

Lele, Sanjiva K.

2002-01-01

161

Rotor wake/stator interaction noise-predictions versus data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A rotor wake/stator interaction noise prediction method is presented and evaluated with fan rig and full-scale engine data. The noise prediction method uses a two-dimensional (2D) semi-empirical wake model and an analytical stator response function and noise calculation. The stator response function is a 2D strip theory which is linked to a noise calculation formulated in a constant area annular duct with mean axial flow. Comparisons are made with data from an Advanced Ducted Propeller (ADP) fan rig which is a next-generation turbofan engine design. A calibration of the prediction model is attempted using this rig data. The calibrated model is subsequently utilized to calculate and compare with noise test data from a 4.1-inch diameter fan rig and from a full-scale turbofan engine configuration. The results indicate the method has promise, but that further improvement is desirable.

Topol, D. A.

1990-10-01

162

Analyses of the Predictability of Noise-Induced Sleep Disturbance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report provides a summary of the analyses performed on 21 studies concerning the effects of noise on sleep. The analyses were performed in the hope of developing a quantitative predictive model for assessing the effects of aircraft noise exposure on ...

B. G. Tabachnick D. S. Barber K. S. Pearsons

1990-01-01

163

Advanced propeller noise prediction in the time domain  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The time domain code ASSPIN gives acousticians a powerful technique of advanced propeller noise prediction. Except for nonlinear effects, the code uses exact solutions of the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equation with exact blade geometry and kinematics. By including nonaxial inflow, periodic loading noise, and adaptive time steps to accelerate computer execution, the development of this code becomes complete.

Farassat, F.; Dunn, M. H.; Spence, P. L.

1992-01-01

164

Aircraft cabin noise prediction and optimization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Theoretical and experimental studies were conducted to determine the noise transmission into acoustic enclosures ranging from simple rectangular box models to full scale light aircraft in flight. The structural models include simple, stiffened, curved stiffened, and orthotropic panels and double wall windows. The theoretical solutions were obtained by model analysis. Transfer matrix and finite element procedures were utilized. Good agreement between theory and experiment has been achieved. An efficient acoustic add-on treatment was developed for interior noise control in a twin engine light aircraft.

Vaicaitis, R.

1985-01-01

165

Heavy-Tailed Prediction Error: A Difficulty in Predicting Biomedical Signals of 1/f Noise Type  

PubMed Central

A fractal signal x(t) in biomedical engineering may be characterized by 1/f noise, that is, the power spectrum density (PSD) divergences at f = 0. According the Taqqu's law, 1/f noise has the properties of long-range dependence and heavy-tailed probability density function (PDF). The contribution of this paper is to exhibit that the prediction error of a biomedical signal of 1/f noise type is long-range dependent (LRD). Thus, it is heavy-tailed and of 1/f noise. Consequently, the variance of the prediction error is usually large or may not exist, making predicting biomedical signals of 1/f noise type difficult.

Li, Ming; Zhao, Wei; Chen, Biao

2012-01-01

166

Structural Acoustic Prediction and Interior Noise Control Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report documents the results of Task 14, Structural Acoustic Prediction and Interior Noise Control Technology. The task was to evaluate the performance of tuned foam elements (termed Smart Foam) both analytically and experimentally. Results taken fro...

C. L. Chin G. P. Mathur J. T. Lee M. A. Simpson

2001-01-01

167

Jet Measurements for Development of Jet Noise Prediction Tools  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary focus of my presentation is the development of the jet noise prediction code JeNo with most examples coming from the experimental work that drove the theoretical development and validation. JeNo is a statistical jet noise prediction code, based upon the Lilley acoustic analogy. Our approach uses time-average 2-D or 3-D mean and turbulent statistics of the flow as input. The output is source distributions and spectral directivity.

Bridges, James E.

2006-01-01

168

``Buzz-saw'' noise: A comparison of measurement with prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate prediction of ``buzz-saw'' noise in a turbofan inlet duct necessitates consideration of nonlinear acoustics, modelling a complete fan blade set, modelling an acoustic liner, and calculations at high frequencies. A recent series of papers has described new work concerning the application of one-dimensional propagation models to the prediction of buzz-saw noise. A numerical model, termed the frequency domain numerical

A. McAlpine; M. J. Fisher; B. J. Tester

2006-01-01

169

“Buzz-saw” noise: A comparison of measurement with prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate prediction of “buzz-saw” noise in a turbofan inlet duct necessitates consideration of nonlinear acoustics, modelling a complete fan blade set, modelling an acoustic liner, and calculations at high frequencies. A recent series of papers has described new work concerning the application of one-dimensional propagation models to the prediction of buzz-saw noise. A numerical model, termed the frequency domain numerical

A. McAlpine; M. J. Fisher; B. J. Tester

2006-01-01

170

Initial Integration of Noise Prediction Tools for Acoustic Scattering Effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This effort provides an initial glimpse at NASA capabilities available in predicting the scattering of fan noise from a non-conventional aircraft configuration. The Aircraft NOise Prediction Program, Fast Scattering Code, and the Rotorcraft Noise Model were coupled to provide increased fidelity models of scattering effects on engine fan noise sources. The integration of these codes led to the identification of several keys issues entailed in applying such multi-fidelity approaches. In particular, for prediction at noise certification points, the inclusion of distributed sources leads to complications with the source semi-sphere approach. Computational resource requirements limit the use of the higher fidelity scattering code to predict radiated sound pressure levels for full scale configurations at relevant frequencies. And, the ability to more accurately represent complex shielding surfaces in current lower fidelity models is necessary for general application to scattering predictions. This initial step in determining the potential benefits/costs of these new methods over the existing capabilities illustrates a number of the issues that must be addressed in the development of next generation aircraft system noise prediction tools.

Nark, Douglas M.; Burley, Casey L.; Tinetti, Ana; Rawls, John W.

2008-01-01

171

Processing seismic ambient noise data to obtain reliable broad-band surface wave dispersion measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Ambient noise tomography is a rapidly emerging field of seismological research. This paper presents the current status of ambient noise data processing as it has developed over the past several years and is intended to explain and justify this development through salient examples. The ambient noise data processing procedure divides into four principal phases: (1) single station data preparation,

G. D. Bensen; M. H. Ritzwoller; M. P. Barmin; A. L. Levshin; F. Lin; M. P. Moschetti; N. M. Shapiro; Y. Yang

2007-01-01

172

Increased Fidelity in Prediction Methods For Landing Gear Noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An aeroacoustic prediction scheme has been developed for landing gear noise. The method is designed to handle the complex landing gear geometry of current and future aircraft. The gear is represented by a collection of subassemblies and simple components that are modeled using acoustic elements. These acoustic elements are generic, but generate noise representative of the physical components on a landing gear. The method sums the noise radiation from each component of the undercarriage in isolation accounting for interference with adjacent components through an estimate of the local upstream and downstream flows and turbulence intensities. The acoustic calculations are made in the code LGMAP, which computes the sound pressure levels at various observer locations. The method can calculate the noise from the undercarriage in isolation or installed on an aircraft for both main and nose landing gear. Comparisons with wind tunnel and flight data are used to initially calibrate the method, then it may be used to predict the noise of any landing gear. In this paper, noise predictions are compared with wind tunnel data for model landing gears of various scales and levels of fidelity, as well as with flight data on fullscale undercarriages. The present agreement between the calculations and measurements suggests the method has promise for future application in the prediction of airframe noise.

Lopes, Leonard V.; Brentner, Kenneth S.; Morris, Philip J.; Lockhard, David P.

2006-01-01

173

Suppression of modal noise in a multimode fiber optic delivery output from an ultra-broadband supercontinuum light source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have tested various methods to suppress the modal noise in multi-mode fiber (MMF) output from an ultrabroadband supercontinuum light which is generated in a nonlinear photonic-crystal fiber (PCF) pumped with a 1.06-?mwavelength, sub-nanosecond-pulse-width, 8-kHz-rep-rate Nd:YAG laser source. Significant amount of modal noise including spectral fluctuations was observed when the output from the photonic crystal single-mode fiber (SMF) was directly coupled into MMF. Standard mode-exciting and -mixing techniques such as mode scrambling and fiber stretching showed minimal effect on noise suppression. We observed significant suppression of modal noise by expanding the output beam from the PCF and tightly focus back into MMF using multiple lenses. The resulting spectra of the different MMFs are compared with the output from different SMFs coupled to the supercontinuum source, which are necessary to cover the broadband range of the supercontinuum source over more than two octaves, from 450 nm up to 2100 nm wavelength.

Kim, Do-Hyun; Klein, Karl-Friedrich; Ilev, Ilko K.

2010-02-01

174

State of Jet Noise Prediction-NASA Perspective  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation covers work primarily done under the Airport Noise Technical Challenge portion of the Supersonics Project in the Fundamental Aeronautics Program. To provide motivation and context, the presentation starts with a brief overview of the Airport Noise Technical Challenge. It then covers the state of NASA s jet noise prediction tools in empirical, RANS-based, and time-resolved categories. The empirical tools, requires seconds to provide a prediction of noise spectral directivity with an accuracy of a few dB, but only for axisymmetric configurations. The RANS-based tools are able to discern the impact of three-dimensional features, but are currently deficient in predicting noise from heated jets and jets with high speed and require hours to produce their prediction. The time-resolved codes are capable of predicting resonances and other time-dependent phenomena, but are very immature, requiring months to deliver predictions without unknown accuracies and dependabilities. In toto, however, when one considers the progress being made it appears that aeroacoustic prediction tools are soon to approach the level of sophistication and accuracy of aerodynamic engineering tools.

Bridges, James E.

2008-01-01

175

Forecasting global lightning for atmospheric noise prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we discuss an investigation into the feasibility of using current and forecasted weather data to forecast lightning occurrence. These lightning occurrence forecasts are intended to be used to improve the accuracy of near-term long wave communication systems coverage predictions. Various weather information sources were reviewed to determine which data and parameters could be used to predict lightning

Chris R. Warber; Balram Prasad

1997-01-01

176

The Acoustic Analogy and Alternative Theories for Jet Noise Prediction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes several methods for the prediction of jet noise. All but one of the noise prediction schemes are based on Lighthill's or Lilley's acoustic analogy while the other is the jet noise generation model recently proposed by Tam and Auriault. In all the approaches some assumptions must be made concerning the statistical properties of the turbulent sources. In each case the characteristic scales of the turbulence are obtained from a solution of the Reynolds-averaged Navier Stokes equation using a k-epsilon turbulence model. It is shown that, for the same level of empiricism, Tam and Auriault's model yields better agreement with experimental noise measurements than the acoustic analogy. It is then shown that this result is not because of some fundamental flaw in the acoustic analogy approach: but, is associated with the assumptions made in the approximation of the turbulent source statistics. If consistent assumptions are made, both the acoustic analogy and Tam and Auriault's model yield identical noise predictions. The paper concludes with a proposal for an acoustic analogy that provides a clearer identification of the equivalent source mechanisms and a discussion of noise prediction issues that remain to be resolved.

Morris, Philip J.; Farassat, F.; Morris, Philip J.

2002-01-01

177

Acoustic Analogy and Alternative Theories for Jet Noise Prediction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several methods for the prediction of jet noise are described. All but one of the noise prediction schemes are based on Lighthill's or Lilley's acoustic analogy, whereas the other is the jet noise generation model recently proposed by Tam and Auriault. In all of the approaches, some assumptions must be made concerning the statistical properties of the turbulent sources. In each case the characteristic scales of the turbulence are obtained from a solution of the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equation using a kappa-sigma turbulence model. It is shown that, for the same level of empiricism, Tam and Auriault's model yields better agreement with experimental noise measurements than the acoustic analogy. It is then shown that this result is not because of some fundamental flaw in the acoustic analogy approach, but instead is associated with the assumptions made in the approximation of the turbulent source statistics. If consistent assumptions are made, both the acoustic analogy and Tam and Auriault's model yield identical noise predictions. In conclusion, a proposal is presented for an acoustic analogy that provides a clearer identification of the equivalent source mechanisms, as is a discussion of noise prediction issues that remain to be resolved.

Morris, Philip J.; Farassat, F.

2002-01-01

178

The Acoustic Analogy and Alternative Theories for Jet Noise Prediction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes several methods for the prediction of jet noise. All but one of the noise prediction schemes are based on Lighthill's or Lilley's acoustic analogy while the other is the jet noise generation model recently proposed by Tam and Auriault. In all the approaches some assumptions must be made concerning the statistical properties of the turbulent sources. In each case the characteristic scales of the turbulence are obtained from a solution of the Reynolds-averaged Navier Stokes equation using a k - epsilon turbulence model. It is shown that, for the same level of empiricism, Tam and Auriault's model yields better agreement with experimental noise measurements than the acoustic analogy. It is then shown that this result is not because of some fundamental flaw in the acoustic analogy approach: but, is associated with the assumptions made in the approximation of the turbulent source statistics. If consistent assumptions are made, both the acoustic analogy and Tam and Auriault's model yield identical noise predictions. The paper concludes with a proposal for an acoustic analogy that provides a clearer identification of the equivalent source mechanisms and a discussion of noise prediction issues that remain to be resolved.

Morris, Philip J.; Farassat, F.

2002-01-01

179

Characterization of frequency noise on a broadband infrared frequency comb using optical heterodyne techniques.  

PubMed

We measure the frequency noise across a Cr:forsterite infrared frequency comb through the optical heterodyne beat of different comb teeth against stable continuous wave (CW) lasers. This sensitive measurement shows strong correlations of the frequency noise between spectral components of the comb, relative to a fixed optical frequency near the 1.3 micron carrier of the Cr:forsterite laser. The correlated frequency fluctuations are shown to arise from amplitude noise on the pump laser. We also report a preliminary comparison of excess noise that occurs during supercontinuum generation in both highly nonlinear fiber and an extruded glass microstructured fiber. PMID:19551068

Kim, K; Nicholson, J W; Yan, M; Knight, J C; Newbury, N R; Diddams, S A

2007-12-24

180

Stability Assessment and Quantitative Evaluation of H/ V Spectral Ratios for Site Response Studies in Kumaon Himalaya, India Using Ambient Noise Recorded by a Broadband Seismograph Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kumaon Himalaya region in India has accumulated considerable seismic risk potential from moderate to high seismicity due to ongoing tectonic evolutionary processes. To assess conditions of high seismic risk arising from local site effects at populated locations, we applied the empirical horizontal to vertical ( H/ V) spectral amplitude ratio method ( Nakamura in Quarterly Reports of the Railway Technical Research Institute Tokyo, 30:25-33, 1989) using ambient seismic noise recorded by a network of 32 digital broadband seismographs from June 2005 to June 2008. The data and the estimated parameters were subjected to stability tests to assess the effect of seasonal variations. Seasonal variations in the ambient noise data seemed to show a lesser effect on fundamental frequency estimates and a slightly greater effect on the peak H/ V amplitudes. Validation of the ambient noise results was done by complementary tests using H/ V ratios of local and regional earthquakes. The `peak' corresponding to the fundamental resonance frequency is prominently present in both the ambient noise and the earthquake datasets. The study locations showed distinct H/ V curve topologies, corresponding to the effects of both velocity contrast at well-defined frequencies and characteristic topographic effect around a certain frequency range. The clearly indicated `peaks' in the H/ V curves possibly correspond to velocity contrasts created by weathered sediments overlying hard rock basements in rocky hills. Our study indicates high site responses at many populated locations near the surface trace of the seismically active Main Central Thrust (MCT) and other fault boundaries. The fundamental resonance frequencies estimated from the site response studies at the 32 locations could be useful in preliminary site characterization, ground motion prediction and seismic hazard analysis.

Sivaram, K.; Mahesh, P.; Rai, S. S.

2012-10-01

181

The NASA aircraft noise prediction program improved propeller analysis system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The improvements and the modifications of the NASA Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP) and the Propeller Analysis System (PAS) are described. Comparisons of the predictions and the test data are included in the case studies for the flat plate model in the Boundary Layer Module, for the effects of applying compressibility corrections to the lift and pressure coefficients, for the use of different weight factors in the Propeller Performance Module, for the use of the improved retarded time equation solution, and for the effect of the number grids in the Transonic Propeller Noise Module. The DNW tunnel test data of a propeller at different angles of attack and the Dowty Rotol data are compared with ANOPP predictions. The effect of the number of grids on the Transonic Propeller Noise Module predictions and the comparison of ANOPP TPN and DFP-ATP codes are studied. In addition to the above impact studies, the transonic propeller noise predictions for the SR-7, the UDF front rotor, and the support of the enroute noise test program are included.

Nguyen, L. Cathy

1991-01-01

182

Data Recovery from Seafloor Borehole Broadband Seismic Observatories in the Northwestern Pacific and Ambient Seismic NoiseLevel Changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2000 and 2001, the seafloor borehole seismological observatories WP-1 and WP-2 in the northwestern Pacific were installed. The WP-1 site is in the west Philippine Basin, and the WP-2 observatory is situated on a normal oceanic Mesozoic crust in the northwestern Pacific Basin. The seismic network with 1000-km interval in the western Pacific has been completed by the construction of these stations. Each observatory had two identical broadband seismometers (Guralp, CMG-1T), which were cemented in a igneous rock section. The WP-1 has a water depth of 5710m and all the necessary power was supplied from the Lithium Battery System. For the WP-2 observatory, a water depth is 5566m and the Sea Water Battery (SWB) System mainly supplied the power to the system. We operated only one seismometer for both the observatories to reduce the consuming power of the system. The WP-1 observatory was activated in March 2002 using the ROV KAIKO and long-term observation was started. In June 2006, the new ROV KAIKO-7000II dived to the WP-1 (fourth visit) and recovered the data. At this visit, data recording was discontinued. At present, seismic records of 692-days (Mar. 2002 - Feb, 2004) have been obtained from the WP-1. The WP-2 observatory was activated in October 2000 using the KAIKO. In June 2005, the KAIKO-7000II made fourth visit to the WP-2 and recovered the data. Recording at the WP-2 has been suspended from the fourth ROV visit. In total, 436-days data (Oct. 2000 - Jan. 2001, Aug. 2001 - July 2002) were retrieved. In addition, it was confirmed that the SWB system continued working for the whole observation period by the system monitoring data. The long-term variations of broadband seismic noise spectra (3mHz - 10 Hz) in oceanic basins were revealed. The noise levels (-160 db, re: 1 m**2/s**4/Hz) at periods of greater than 10 s are stable. On the other hand, temporal small variations (maximum fluctuation is 10 dB) of noise levels (-120 db) for periods around a few seconds are found. In these periods, the WP-1 station has large noises in summer and fall. The WP-2 station becomes noisy in winter. These suggest that the noise levels in these periods are related with weather and sea condition.

Shinohara, M.; Araki, E.; Kanazawa, T.; Suyehiro, K.; Yamada, T.; Mochizuki, K.; Nakahigashi, K.

2006-12-01

183

Analytical developments for definition and prediction of USB noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A systematic acoustic data base and associated flow data are used in identifying the noise generating mechanisms of upper surface blown flap configurations of short takeoff and landing aircraft. Theory is developed for the radiated sound field of the highly sheared flow of the trailing edge wake. An empirical method is also developed using extensive experimental data and physical reasonings to predict the noise levels.

Reddy, N. N.; Tam, C. K. W.

1976-01-01

184

Prediction of non-cavitation propeller noise in time domain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The blade frequency noise of non-cavitation propeller in a uniform flow is analyzed in time domain. The unsteady loading (dipole source) on the blade surface is calculated by a potential-based surface panel method. Then the time-dependent pressure data is used as the input for Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings formulation to predict the acoustics pressure. The integration of noise source is performed over the true blade surface rather than the nothickness blade surface, and the effect of hub can be considered. The noise characteristics of the non-cavitation propeller and the numerical discretization forms are discussed.

Ye, Jin-Ming; Xiong, Ying; Xiao, Chang-Run; Bi, Yi

2011-09-01

185

Predicting the Responses of Repetitively Firing Neurons to Current Noise  

PubMed Central

We used phase resetting methods to predict firing patterns of rat subthalamic nucleus (STN) neurons when their rhythmic firing was densely perturbed by noise. We applied sequences of contiguous brief (0.5–2 ms) current pulses with amplitudes drawn from a Gaussian distribution (10–100 pA standard deviation) to autonomously firing STN neurons in slices. Current noise sequences increased the variability of spike times with little or no effect on the average firing rate. We measured the infinitesimal phase resetting curve (PRC) for each neuron using a noise-based method. A phase model consisting of only a firing rate and PRC was very accurate at predicting spike timing, accounting for more than 80% of spike time variance and reliably reproducing the spike-to-spike pattern of irregular firing. An approximation for the evolution of phase was used to predict the effect of firing rate and noise parameters on spike timing variability. It quantitatively predicted changes in variability of interspike intervals with variation in noise amplitude, pulse duration and firing rate over the normal range of STN spontaneous rates. When constant current was used to drive the cells to higher rates, the PRC was altered in size and shape and accurate predictions of the effects of noise relied on incorporating these changes into the prediction. Application of rate-neutral changes in conductance showed that changes in PRC shape arise from conductance changes known to accompany rate increases in STN neurons, rather than the rate increases themselves. Our results show that firing patterns of densely perturbed oscillators cannot readily be distinguished from those of neurons randomly excited to fire from the rest state. The spike timing of repetitively firing neurons may be quantitatively predicted from the input and their PRCs, even when they are so densely perturbed that they no longer fire rhythmically.

Wilson, Charles J.; Barraza, David; Troyer, Todd; Farries, Michael A.

2014-01-01

186

An electrically tunable true-time-delay line on Si for a broadband noise radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

A short range broad band noise radar system using an electrically tunable true-time-delay line in silicon is presented. The delay line has to cover the interested scanning range (here 2.3 m) and show low dispersion. The delay line consists of discrete switchable lines realized in hybrid form and a on chip continual tunable coplanar delay line. The noise radar operates

P. Abele; R. Stephan; M. Birk; D. Behammer; H. Kibbel; A. Trasser; K.-B. Schad; E. Sonmez; H. Schumacher

2003-01-01

187

NASTRAN application for the prediction of aircraft interior noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The application of a structural-acoustic analogy within the NASTRAN finite element program for the prediction of aircraft interior noise is presented. Some refinements of the method, which reduce the amount of computation required for large, complex structures, are discussed. Also, further improvements are proposed and preliminary comparisons with structural and acoustic modal data obtained for a large, composite cylinder are presented.

Marulo, Francesco; Beyer, Todd B.

1987-01-01

188

Evaluation of approximate methods for the prediction of noise shielding by airframe components  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An evaluation of some approximate methods for the prediction of shielding of monochromatic sound and broadband noise by aircraft components is reported. Anechoic-chamber measurements of the shielding of a point source by various simple geometric shapes were made and the measured values compared with those calculated by the superposition of asymptotic closed-form solutions for the shielding by a semi-infinite plane barrier. The shields used in the measurements consisted of rectangular plates, a circular cylinder, and a rectangular plate attached to the cylinder to simulate a wing-body combination. The normalized frequency, defined as a product of the acoustic wave number and either the plate width or cylinder diameter, ranged from 4.6 to 114. Microphone traverses in front of the rectangular plates and cylinders generally showed a series of diffraction bands that matched those predicted by the approximate methods, except for differences in the magnitudes of the attenuation minima which can be attributed to experimental inaccuracies. The shielding of wing-body combinations was predicted by modifications of the approximations used for rectangular and cylindrical shielding. Although the approximations failed to predict diffraction patterns in certain regions, they did predict the average level of wing-body shielding with an average deviation of less than 3 dB.

Ahtye, W. F.; Mcculley, G.

1980-01-01

189

Predicting speech intelligibility in noise for hearing-critical jobs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many jobs require auditory abilities such as speech communication, sound localization, and sound detection. An employee for whom these abilities are impaired may constitute a safety risk for himself or herself, for fellow workers, and possibly for the general public. A number of methods have been used to predict these abilities from diagnostic measures of hearing (e.g., the pure-tone audiogram); however, these methods have not proved to be sufficiently accurate for predicting performance in the noise environments where hearing-critical jobs are performed. We have taken an alternative and potentially more accurate approach. A direct measure of speech intelligibility in noise, the Hearing in Noise Test (HINT), is instead used to screen individuals. The screening criteria are validated by establishing the empirical relationship between the HINT score and the auditory abilities of the individual, as measured in laboratory recreations of real-world workplace noise environments. The psychometric properties of the HINT enable screening of individuals with an acceptable amount of error. In this presentation, we will describe the predictive model and report the results of field measurements and laboratory studies used to provide empirical validation of the model. [Work supported by Fisheries and Oceans Canada.

Soli, Sigfrid D.; Laroche, Chantal; Giguere, Christian

2003-10-01

190

Jet Engine Noise Generation, Prediction and Control. Chapter 86  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aircraft noise has been a problem near airports for many years. It is a quality of life issue that impacts millions of people around the world. Solving this problem has been the principal goal of noise reduction research that began when commercial jet travel became a reality. While progress has been made in reducing both airframe and engine noise, historically, most of the aircraft noise reduction efforts have concentrated on the engines. This was most evident during the 1950 s and 1960 s when turbojet engines were in wide use. This type of engine produces high velocity hot exhaust jets during takeoff generating a great deal of noise. While there are fewer commercial aircraft flying today with turbojet engines, supersonic aircraft including high performance military aircraft use engines with similar exhaust flow characteristics. The Pratt & Whitney F100-PW-229, pictured in Figure la, is an example of an engine that powers the F-15 and F-16 fighter jets. The turbofan engine was developed for subsonic transports, which in addition to better fuel efficiency also helped mitigate engine noise by reducing the jet exhaust velocity. These engines were introduced in the late 1960 s and power most of the commercial fleet today. Over the years, the bypass ratio (that is the ratio of the mass flow through the fan bypass duct to the mass flow through the engine core) has increased to values approaching 9 for modern turbofans such as the General Electric s GE-90 engine (Figure lb). The benefits to noise reduction for high bypass ratio (HPBR) engines are derived from lowering the core jet velocity and temperature, and lowering the tip speed and pressure ratio of the fan, both of which are the consequences of the increase in bypass ratio. The HBPR engines are typically very large in diameter and can produce over 100,000 pounds of thrust for the largest engines. A third type of engine flying today is the turbo-shaft which is mainly used to power turboprop aircraft and helicopters. An example of this type of engine is shown in Figure IC, which is a schematic of the Honeywell T55 engine that powers the CH-47 Chinook helicopter. Since the noise from the propellers or helicopter rotors is usually dominant for turbo-shaft engines, less attention has been paid to these engines in so far as community noise considerations are concerned. This chapter will concentrate mostly on turbofan engine noise and will highlight common methods for their noise prediction and reduction.

Huff, Dennis L.; Envia, Edmane

2004-01-01

191

Control of Aircraft Interior Broadband Noise with Foam-Pvdf Smart Skin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A foam-PVDF smart skin design for aircraft interior noise control is discussed. The smart skin is designed to reduce sound by the action of the passive absorption of an acoustic foam (which is effective at higher frequencies) and the active input of a PVDF element driven by an oscillating electrical input (which is effective at lower frequencies). For performance testing, the foam-PVDF smart skin is mounted in the cockpit of a Cessna Citation III fuselage. The fuselage crown panels are excited with a speaker located on the outside of the cockpit and driven by a band-limited random excitation. A MIMO feedforward Filtered-x LMS controller is implemented to minimize the error sensor signals provided by microphones in the close proximity of the smart skin elements. Three different reference signals are implemented for the feedforward controller and are compared in terms of the interior noise attenuation achieved. The voltage sent to the disturbance speaker provides an optimal reference signal which is not realistic in practice. Therefore, the use of either a structural sensor (accelerometer directly mounted on the fuselage) or an acoustic sensor (microphone located close to the fuselage) is investigated to supply a practical reference signal. The potential of the smart foam-PVDF skin for reducing interior noise is demonstrated.

Guigou, C.; Fuller, C. R.

1999-02-01

192

Prediction of blade vortex interaction noise from measured blade pressure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The impulsive nature of noise due to the interaction of a rotor blade with a tip vortex is studied. The time signature of this noise is calculated theoretically based on the measured blade surface pressure fluctuation of an operational load survey rotor in slow descending flight and is compared with the simultaneous microphone measurement. Particularly, the physical understanding of the characteristic features of a waveform is extensively studied in order to understand the generating mechanism and to identify the important parameters. The interaction trajectory of a tip vortex on an acoustic planform is shown to be a very important parameter for the impulsive shape of the noise. The unsteady nature of the pressure distribution at the very leading edge is also important to the pulse shape. The theoretical model using noncompact linear acoustics predicts the general shape of interaction impulse pretty well except for peak amplitude which requires more continuous pressure information along the span at the leading edge.

Nakamura, Y.

1981-01-01

193

Structural Acoustic Prediction and Interior Noise Control Technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report documents the results of Task 14, "Structural Acoustic Prediction and Interior Noise Control Technology". The task was to evaluate the performance of tuned foam elements (termed Smart Foam) both analytically and experimentally. Results taken from a three-dimensional finite element model of an active, tuned foam element are presented. Measurements of sound absorption and sound transmission loss were taken using the model. These results agree well with published data. Experimental performance data were taken in Boeing's Interior Noise Test Facility where 12 smart foam elements were applied to a 757 sidewall. Several configurations were tested. Noise reductions of 5-10 dB were achieved over the 200-800 Hz bandwidth of the controller. Accelerometers mounted on the panel provided a good reference for the controller. Configurations with far-field error microphones outperformed near-field cases.

Mathur, G. P.; Chin, C. L.; Simpson, M. A.; Lee, J. T.; Palumbo, Daniel L. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

194

Cortical activity patterns predict robust speech discrimination ability in noise  

PubMed Central

The neural mechanisms that support speech discrimination in noisy conditions are poorly understood. In quiet conditions, spike timing information appears to be used in the discrimination of speech sounds. In this study, we evaluated the hypothesis that spike timing is also used to distinguish between speech sounds in noisy conditions that significantly degrade neural responses to speech sounds. We tested speech sound discrimination in rats and recorded primary auditory cortex (A1) responses to speech sounds in background noise of different intensities and spectral compositions. Our behavioral results indicate that rats, like humans, are able to accurately discriminate consonant sounds even in the presence of background noise that is as loud as the speech signal. Our neural recordings confirm that speech sounds evoke degraded but detectable responses in noise. Finally, we developed a novel neural classifier that mimics behavioral discrimination. The classifier discriminates between speech sounds by comparing the A1 spatiotemporal activity patterns evoked on single trials with the average spatiotemporal patterns evoked by known sounds. Unlike classifiers in most previous studies, this classifier is not provided with the stimulus onset time. Neural activity analyzed with the use of relative spike timing was well correlated with behavioral speech discrimination in quiet and in noise. Spike timing information integrated over longer intervals was required to accurately predict rat behavioral speech discrimination in noisy conditions. The similarity of neural and behavioral discrimination of speech in noise suggests that humans and rats may employ similar brain mechanisms to solve this problem.

Shetake, Jai A.; Wolf, Jordan T.; Cheung, Ryan J.; Engineer, Crystal T.; Ram, Satyananda K.; Kilgard, Michael P.

2012-01-01

195

Evaluation of actuator disk theory for predicting indirect combustion noise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Indirect combustion noise is believed to be a key component of turbofan engine core noise, but existing experimental data have not been able to definitively determine its importance. Instead, actuator disk theory (ADT) as developed by Cumpsty and Marble [The interaction of entropy fluctuations with turbine blade rows; a mechanism of turbojet noise, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A 357 (1977) 323-344] is commonly used to estimate its contribution based on combustor exit conditions and changes in the mean flow across blade rows. The theory, which assumes planar propagation of acoustic, entropic, and vortical waves in the long wavelength limit, is assessed by comparing its predictions to those from two-dimensional compressible Euler calculations of idealized entropy disturbances interacting with a 1980s era NASA turbine stator. Both low-frequency planar waves of constant frequency and higher-frequency, localized entropy disturbances are considered, with the former being within ADT's range of applicability and the latter outside of it. It is found that ADT performs well for the cut-on acoustic modes generated by the entropy-blade interaction but its accuracy suffers for the cut-off acoustic modes, which could impact indirect combustion noise predictions for turbines with closely spaced blade rows.

Mishra, Ashish; Bodony, Daniel J.

2013-02-01

196

Frequency-domain prediction of turbofan noise radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a frequency-domain numerical method for predicting noise radiation from ducted fans, including acoustic treatment and non-uniform background flow effects. The method solves the Euler equations linearized about a mean flow in the frequency domain. A pseudo-time derivative term is added to the frequency-domain equations so that a time marching technique can be employed to drive the acoustic

Y. Özyörük; E. Alpman; V. Ahuja; L. N. Long

2004-01-01

197

Towards the prediction of noise from jet engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are in the initial stages of development of a “non-empirical” numerical tool for jet-noise prediction in the airline industry, ultimately to treat complex nacelles and nozzles. The non-empirical demand leads to compressible large-eddy simulations, followed by post-processing to produce the far-field sound. Here we treat a simple cold jet with an axisymmetric geometry. The simulations leave out the subgrid-scale

M. L. Shur; P. R. Spalart; M. Kh. Strelets; A. K. Travin

2003-01-01

198

Prediction of XV-15 tilt rotor discrete frequency aeroacoustic noise with WOPWOP  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results, methodology, and conclusions of noise prediction calculations carried out to study several possible discrete frequency harmonic noise mechanisms of the XV-15 Tilt Rotor Aircraft in hover and helicopter mode forward flight are presented. The mechanisms studied were thickness and loading noise. In particular, the loading noise caused by flow separation and the fountain\\/ground plane effect were predicted with

Charles D. Coffen; Albert R. George

1990-01-01

199

Computer program to predict noise of general aviation aircraft: User's guide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Program NOISE predicts General Aviation Aircraft far-field noise levels at FAA FAR Part 36 certification conditions. It will also predict near-field and cabin noise levels for turboprop aircraft and static engine component far-field noise levels.

Mitchell, J. A.; Barton, C. K.; Kisner, L. S.; Lyon, C. A.

1982-01-01

200

Broad-band ambient noise surface wave tomography: Technique development and application across the United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, it has been shown that surface wave signals can be extracted from high-quality empirical Green functions (EGF) obtained through cross-correlation of long ambient noise timeseries. Early work showed that Rayleigh wave components of EGFs could be created in a narrow period band under certain background noise characteristics. Such Rayleigh wave signals were used to develop shear wave tomography models of several geographic regions with unprecedented high resolution. However, questions remained regarding the robustness of these signals and their range of applicability. My work focuses on two problems. The first is researching the best method for computing, measuring and selecting high-quality EGFs. The second is to use this new technique to create a three-dimensional (3D) velocity model of the continental United States. Testing a variety of temporal and spectral normalization techniques yields an optimal method of creating EGFs. These signals are evaluated for robustness in a variety of noise environments effectively broadening the bandwidth from 7.5-20 s period to 6-100 s period. An automated dispersion measurement technique is presented as well as a preferred method of measurement selection and certain "best practices" are proposed for future study. Applying this method across the continental United States I develop Rayleigh and Love wave group and phase speed dispersion maps from 8-70 s period. The resulting set of dispersion maps possesses unprecedented high resolution and bandwidth for continental scale surface wave investigations and unites diverse tectonic regions into a coherent model. I invert the dispersion maps for a 3D shear velocity model with resolution from the surface to 150 km depth using a two-step procedure. First is a linearized inversion for the best fitting velocity model. Second is a Monte-Carlo re-sampling to develop an ensemble of models of sufficient quality and to generate uncertainty estimates at all points. The resulting velocity model allows identification of prominent features in the crust and mantle and sheds light on topics such as topographic compensation, crustal heterogeneity and radial anisotropy in the crust.

Bensen, Gregory David

201

Broadband Seismic Analyses of the Crust and Noise Sources in Alberta, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cross-correlation of continuous seismic recordings has been proven effective in extracting the Green's function between two seismic stations. Travel-time and waveform source migration calculations jointly suggest a persistent noise source near Lesser Slave Lake (LSL), a large ice-covered lake in Alberta, Canada, during winter months. Subspace inversions of effective Green's functions from five narrow frequency bands (0.002-0.2 Hz) reveal low velocities in the upper crust beneath Alberta basin, which indicates strong effects from the thick platform sedimentary cover. Consistently low velocities are also observed beneath Wabamun domain but the areal coverage is considerably smaller than the published domain boundaries. The lower-crustal velocities beneath southern Loverna Block is 10% faster than the regional average. As the possible remnant cratonic core of the Hearne province, this northeast-striking anomaly extends to the western part of Medicine Hat Block and contributes to a strong east-west structural gradient in the latter domain.

Shen, Luyi

202

Noise prediction of a subsonic turbulent round jet using the lattice-Boltzmann method.  

PubMed

The lattice-Boltzmann method (LBM) was used to study the far-field noise generated from a Mach, M(j)=0.4, unheated turbulent axisymmetric jet. A commercial code based on the LBM kernel was used to simulate the turbulent flow exhausting from a pipe which is 10 jet radii in length. Near-field flow results such as jet centerline velocity decay rates and turbulence intensities were in agreement with experimental results and results from comparable LES studies. The predicted far field sound pressure levels were within 2 dB from published experimental results. Weak unphysical tones were present at high frequency in the computed radiated sound pressure spectra. These tones are believed to be due to spurious sound wave reflections at boundaries between regions of varying voxel resolution. These "VR tones" did not appear to bias the underlying broadband noise spectrum, and they did not affect the overall levels significantly. The LBM appears to be a viable approach, comparable in accuracy to large eddy simulations, for the problem considered. The main advantages of this approach over Navier-Stokes based finite difference schemes may be a reduced computational cost, ease of including the nozzle in the computational domain, and ease of investigating nozzles with complex shapes. PMID:20815448

Lew, Phoi-Tack; Mongeau, Luc; Lyrintzis, Anastasios

2010-09-01

203

Flight effects on exhaust noise for turbojet and turbofan engines: Comparison of experimental data with prediction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It was demonstrated that static and in flight jet engine exhaust noise can be predicted with reasonable accuracy when the multiple source nature of the problem is taken into account. Jet mixing noise was predicted from the interim prediction method. Provisional methods of estimating internally generated noise and shock noise flight effects were used, based partly on existing prediction methods and partly on recent reported engine data.

Stone, J. R.

1976-01-01

204

The prediction of flow-induced noise in heat exchanger tube arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of methods for the prediction of flow-induced acoustic standing waves in heat exchangers are recommended in the literature. The source for this noise has been assumed to be vortex shedding, turbulent buffeting or broadband turbulence, and a variety of methods based on these have been proposed for predicting the occurrence of these standing-wave resonances. Furthermore, parameters which estimate the capacity of a heat exchanger to dissipate acoustic energy and thus suppress such resonances have been suggested. As there has been no direct comparison of these various techniques, there is confusion as to the applicability of each. In this paper the merits of the techniques for predicting resonance are compared, with use of data from four independent sources, and a method for estimating the limit conditions for avoidance of resonance is recommended. In addition, the parameters for estimating the 'damping capacity' of a tube bank are examined and shown to have limitations. A modified damping criterion is suggested and appears to correlate existing data well.

Fitzpatrick, J. A.

1985-04-01

205

Jet Mixing Noise Scaling Laws SHJAR Data Vs. Predictions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High quality jet noise spectral data measured at the anechoic dome at the NASA Glenn Research Center is used to examine a number of jet noise scaling laws. Configurations considered in the present study consist of convergent as well as convergent-divergent axisymmetric nozzles. The spectral measurements are shown in narrow band and cover 8193 equally spaced points in a typical Strouhal number range of (0.01 10.0). Measurements are reported as lossless (i.e. atmospheric attenuation is added to as-measured data), and at 24 equally spaced angles (50deg to 165deg) on a 100-diameter arc. Following the work of Viswanathan [Ref. 1], velocity power laws are derived using a least square fit on spectral power density as a function of jet temperature and observer angle. The goodness of the fit is studied at each angle, and alternative relationships are proposed to improve the spectral collapse when certain conditions are met. On the application side, power laws are extremely useful in identifying components from various noise generation mechanisms. From this analysis, jet noise prediction tools can be developed with physics derived from the different spectral components.

Khavaran, Abbas; Bridges, James

2008-01-01

206

An unsteady aerodynamic formulation for efficient rotor tonal noise prediction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An aerodynamic/aeroacoustic solution methodology for predction of tonal noise emitted by helicopter rotors and propellers is presented. It is particularly suited for configurations dominated by localized, high-frequency inflow velocity fields as those generated by blade-vortex interactions. The unsteady pressure distributions are determined by the sectional, frequency-domain Küssner-Schwarz formulation, with downwash including the wake inflow velocity predicted by a three-dimensional, unsteady, panel-method formulation suited for the analysis of rotors operating in complex aerodynamic environments. The radiated noise is predicted through solution of the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equation. The proposed approach yields a computationally efficient solution procedure that may be particularly useful in preliminary design/multidisciplinary optimization applications. It is validated through comparisons with solutions that apply the airloads directly evaluated by the time-marching, panel-method formulation. The results are provided in terms of blade loads, noise signatures and sound pressure level contours. An estimation of the computational efficiency of the proposed solution process is also presented.

Gennaretti, M.; Testa, C.; Bernardini, G.

2013-12-01

207

Unstructured CFD and Noise Prediction Methods for Propulsion Airframe Aeroacoustics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using unstructured mesh CFD methods for Propulsion Airframe Aeroacoustics (PAA) analysis has the distinct advantage of precise and fast computational mesh generation for complex propulsion and airframe integration arrangements that include engine inlet, exhaust nozzles, pylon, wing, flaps, and flap deployment mechanical parts. However, accurate solution values of shear layer velocity, temperature and turbulence are extremely important for evaluating the usually small noise differentials of potential applications to commercial transport aircraft propulsion integration. This paper describes a set of calibration computations for an isolated separate flow bypass ratio five engine nozzle model and the same nozzle system with a pylon. These configurations have measured data along with prior CFD solutions and noise predictions using a proven structured mesh method, which can be used for comparison to the unstructured mesh solutions obtained in this investigation. This numerical investigation utilized the TetrUSS system that includes a Navier-Stokes solver, the associated unstructured mesh generation tools, post-processing utilities, plus some recently added enhancements to the system. New features necessary for this study include the addition of two equation turbulence models to the USM3D code, an h-refinement utility to enhance mesh density in the shear mixing region, and a flow adaptive mesh redistribution method. In addition, a computational procedure was developed to optimize both solution accuracy and mesh economy. Noise predictions were completed using an unstructured mesh version of the JeT3D code.

Pao, S. Paul; Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S.; Campbell, Richard L.; Hunter, Craig A.; Massey, Steven J.; Elmiligui, Alaa A.

2006-01-01

208

The prediction of noise radiation from supersonic elliptic jets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the prediction of noise radiation from supersonic elliptic jets. The noise is associated with the large scale structures in the jet mixing layer. These structures are described as instability waves. The local characteristics of the instability waves are determined from a compressible, linear, analysis. The jet mean velocity and density are described in elliptic cylindrical coordinates. The local eigensolution for the instability waves is determined from a finite difference solution of the non-separable boundary value problem. This inner solution which is formulated in terms of the method of multiple scales is matched with the radiated field using the method of matched asymptotic expansions. The form of the far-field directivity is derived. Predictions are presented for the noise radiation by the several modes of instability in the elliptic jet. The radiated field is not axisymmetric and certain modes radiate strongly in the directions of the major and minor axes of the jet. The extension of the present work to other geometries and flow fields is discussed.

Morris, Philip J.; Bhat, Thonse R. S.

1992-01-01

209

The generation, radiation and prediction of supersonic jet noise. Volume 2, appendix: Computer program listing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This appendix volume presents a complete listing of the unified jet noise prediction computer program (UNIJET), developed to predict the total noise from a subsonic or supersonic jet under static conditions. In addition, a listing of the computer program (called INTEG) to predict absolute turbulent mixing noise levels at 90 deg to the jet axis, using laser velocimeter turbulence measurement,

B. J. Tester; P. J. Morris; H. K. Tanna; D. F. Blakney

1978-01-01

210

Measurements and Modeling of Noise on 22.9-kV Medium-Voltage Underground Power Line for Broadband Power Line Communication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposed the measurements and modeling of noise on the 22.9-kV Medium-Voltage (MV) underground power distribution cable for Broadband Power Line Communication (BPLC). The proposed measurement system was composed of inductive coupler and Digital Phosphor Oscilloscope (DPO). The measurement noise data was obtained from thirty-two pad mounted transformers in the test field located in Choji area of Ansan city. After conducting analysis of noise characteristics in time and frequency domain, the noise model are presented. In order to analyze the noise in frequency domain, Power Spectral Density (PSD) was computed with empirical data using Welch's method. The modeling of the power line noise at each frequency carried out using Cumulative Probability Distribution (CPD) of the noise power. It compared with common Cumulative Distribution Functions (CDF) of Nakagami-m distribution, Gaussian distribution, Gamma distribution. In low frequency range, gamma distribution was fitted with the CPD. Nakagami-m distribution provides a good fitting to the noise CPD above 20MHz frequency range.

Lee, Seungjoon; Shin, Donghwan; Kim, Yonghwa; Lee, Jaejo; Eom, Kihwan

211

Prediction, Measurement, and Suppression of High Temperature Supersonic Jet Noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The photograph in figure 1 displays a water cooled round convergent-divergent supersonic nozzle operating slightly overexpanded near 2460 F. The nozzle is designed to produce shock free flow near this temperature at Mach 2. The exit diameter of this nozzle is 3.5 inches. This nozzle is used in the present study to establish properties of the sound field associated with high temperature supersonic jets operating fully pressure balanced (i.e. shock free) and to evaluate capability of the compressible Rayleigh model to account for principle physical features of the observed sound emission. The experiment is conducted statically (i.e. M(sub f) = 0.) in the NASA/LaRC Jet Noise Laboratory. Both aerodynamic and acoustic measurements are obtained in this study along with numerical plume simulation and theoretical prediction of jet noise. Detailed results from this study are reported previously by Seiner, Ponton, Jansen, and Lagen.

Seiner, John M.; Bhat, T. R. S.; Jansen, Bernard J.

1999-01-01

212

Prediction of the far field noise from wind energy farms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The basic physical factors involved in making predictions of wind turbine noise and an approach which allows for differences in the machines, the wind energy farm configurations and propagation conditions are reviewed. Example calculations to illustrate the sensitivity of the radiated noise to such variables as machine size, spacing and numbers, and such atmosphere variables as absorption and wind direction are presented. It is found that calculated far field distances to particular sound level contours are greater for lower values of atmospheric absorption, for a larger total number of machines, for additional rows of machines and for more powerful machines. At short and intermediate distances, higher sound pressure levels are calculated for closer machine spacings, for more powerful machines, for longer row lengths and for closer row spacings.

Shepherd, K. P.; Hubbard, H. H.

1986-01-01

213

Flicker-noise Spectroscopy In Earthquake Prediction Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been found out that a two-component model including a seasonal and a flicker- noise components occurs to be a more adequate model of statistical structure of time series of long-term geophysical observations' data. Unlike a white noise which sig- nifies absence of any relation between the system's current dynamics and past events in it, presence of flicker-noise indicates that such a relation in the system does ex- ist. Flicker-noise pertains a property of scale invariance. It seems natural to relate self-similarity of statistical properties of geophysical parameters' variations on dif- ferent scales to self-similar (fractal) properties of geophysical medium. At the same time self-similar time variations of geophysical parameters may indicate to presence of deterministic chaos in geophysical system's evolution. An important element of a proposed approach is application of stochastic models of preparation of each concrete large seismic event. Instead of regular, for example bay-form precursor variations, occurrence of precursors of another kind associated in particular with variation in parameter fluctuations should be expected. To solve a problem of large earthquakes prediction we use Flicker-Noise Spectroscopy (FNS) as a basis of a new approach proposed by us. The basis of the FNS methodology is a postulate about the impor- tant information significance of sequences of various dynamic irregularities (bursts or spikes, jumps with different characteristic values, discontinuities of derivatives) of the measured temporal, spatial and energetic variables on each level of hierarchical orga- nization of studied systems. A proposed new method using integral values of analyzed signals - power spectra and different moments ("structural functions") of a different order as information relations, has demonstrated principally new opportunities in a search of large earthquake precursors already at a preliminary stage of some data analysis. This research was supported by NATO - Russia Collaborative Linkage Grant (RCLG) number 978210 within the frameworks of NATO - Russia Joint Scientific and Technological Cooperation.

Desherevsky, A. V.; Lukk, A. A.; Sidorin, A. Y.; Timashev, S. F.

214

Prediction of flyover noise from single and coannular jets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A recently derived scaling law for predicting flyover jet noise from static experiments is presented and extended to the prediction of the noise from coannular jets in flight. The main differences from existing theories are the avoidance of a special turbulence model, the inclusion of the density terms of the source function and the consideration of a stretching of both the axial source and coherence length scales in flight. The flyover case at a specific jet and flight velocity proves to be related to that of a static jet. The corresponding static velocity depends on the emission angle and is lower in the rear arc and higher in the forward arc. The resulting equations are derived for low flight Mach numbers and for emission angles not too close to the jet axis. The influence of the boundary layer about the outside of the nozzle is neglected. The impressive agreement of the prediction with experimental results suggests that this might be valid for jet engines mounted in nacelles.

Michalke, A.; Michel, U.

1980-06-01

215

Broadband Liner Optimization for the Source Diagnostic Test Fan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The broadband component of fan noise has grown in relevance with the utilization of increased bypass ratio and advanced fan designs. Thus, while the attenuation of fan tones remains paramount, the ability to simultaneously reduce broadband fan noise levels has become more appealing. This paper describes a broadband acoustic liner optimization study for the scale model Source Diagnostic Test fan. Specifically, in-duct attenuation predictions with a statistical fan source model are used to obtain optimum impedance spectra over a number of flow conditions for three liner locations in the bypass duct. The predicted optimum impedance information is then used with acoustic liner modeling tools to design liners aimed at producing impedance spectra that most closely match the predicted optimum values. Design selection is based on an acceptance criterion that provides the ability to apply increased weighting to specific frequencies and/or operating conditions. Typical tonal liner designs targeting single frequencies at one operating condition are first produced to provide baseline performance information. These are followed by multiple broadband design approaches culminating in a broadband liner targeting the full range of frequencies and operating conditions. The broadband liner is found to satisfy the optimum impedance objectives much better than the tonal liner designs. In addition, the broadband liner is found to provide better attenuation than the tonal designs over the full range of frequencies and operating conditions considered. Thus, the current study successfully establishes a process for the initial design and evaluation of novel broadband liner concepts for complex engine configurations.

Nark, Douglas M.; Jones, Michael G.

2012-01-01

216

The Role of Instability Waves in Predicting Jet Noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Debate over whether linear instability waves play a role in the prediction of jet noise has been going on for many years. Parallel mean flow models, such as the one proposed by Lilley, usually neglect these waves because they cause the solution to become infinite. The present paper solves the true non-parallel acoustic equations for a two-dimensional shear layer by using a vector Greens function and assuming small mean flow spread rate. The results show that linear instability waves must be accounted for in order to construct a proper causal solution to the problem.

Goldstein, Marvin E.; Handler, Louis M.

2003-01-01

217

High Speed Research Noise Prediction Code (HSRNOISE) User's and Theoretical Manual  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes a computer program, HSRNOISE, that predicts noise levels for a supersonic aircraft powered by mixed flow turbofan engines with rectangular mixer-ejector nozzles. It fully documents the noise prediction algorithms, provides instructions for executing the HSRNOISE code, and provides predicted noise levels for the High Speed Research (HSR) program Technology Concept (TC) aircraft. The component source noise prediction algorithms were developed jointly by Boeing, General Electric Aircraft Engines (GEAE), NASA and Pratt & Whitney during the course of the NASA HSR program. Modern Technologies Corporation developed an alternative mixer ejector jet noise prediction method under contract to GEAE that has also been incorporated into the HSRNOISE prediction code. Algorithms for determining propagation effects and calculating noise metrics were taken from the NASA Aircraft Noise Prediction Program.

Golub, Robert (Technical Monitor); Rawls, John W., Jr.; Yeager, Jessie C.

2004-01-01

218

Auralization of Hybrid Wing Body Aircraft Flyover Noise from System Noise Predictions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

System noise assessments of a state-of-the-art reference aircraft (similar to a Boeing 777-200ER with GE90-like turbofan engines) and several hybrid wing body (HWB) aircraft configurations were recently performed using NASA engine and aircraft system analysis tools. The HWB aircraft were sized to an equivalent mission as the reference aircraft and assessments were performed using measurements of airframe shielding from a series of propulsion airframe aeroacoustic experiments. The focus of this work is to auralize flyover noise from the reference aircraft and the best HWB configuration using source noise predictions and shielding data based largely on the earlier assessments. For each aircraft, three flyover conditions are auralized. These correspond to approach, sideline, and cutback operating states, but flown in straight and level flight trajectories. The auralizations are performed using synthesis and simulation tools developed at NASA. Audio and visual presentations are provided to allow the reader to experience the flyover from the perspective of a listener in the simulated environment.

Rizzi, Stephen A.; Aumann, Aric R.; Lopes, Leonvard V.; Burley, Casey L.

2013-01-01

219

Frequency-domain prediction of turbofan noise radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a frequency-domain numerical method for predicting noise radiation from ducted fans, including acoustic treatment and non-uniform background flow effects. The method solves the Euler equations linearized about a mean flow in the frequency domain. A pseudo-time derivative term is added to the frequency-domain equations so that a time marching technique can be employed to drive the acoustic field to steady state explicitly. This approach makes distributed parallel computing more viable for equations of this type and will allow for future use of well-known convergence acceleration techniques, such as multigrid, to obtain the solutions efficiently. Simulations of the JT15D static test inlet are performed including the effects of liners, and the results are compared with experimental data. A generic engine geometry is used for demonstrating further the prediction capability of the code, calculating the attenuation effects of different liner impedances and liner installation locations on the radiated sound fields.

Özyörük, Y.; Alpman, E.; Ahuja, V.; Long, L. N.

2004-03-01

220

Prediction of flyover jet noise spectra from static tests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A scaling law for predicting the overall flyover noise of a single stream shock-free circular jet from static experiments is outlined. It is valid for isothermal and hot jets. It assumes that the jet flow and turbulence field are axially stretched in flight. Effects of the boundary layer within the nozzle and along the engine nacelle are neglected. The scaling laws for the power spectral density and spectra with constant relative bandwidth can be derived. In order to compare static and inflight directivities, the far field point relative to the source position must be denoted by the emission angle and the wave normal distance. From the solution of the convective Lighthill equation in a coordinate system fixed to the jet nozzle (wind tunnel case), the power spectral density of sound pressure at a given frequency is found. Predictions for Aerotrain compare well with measured values.

Michel, U.; Michalke, A.

221

Prediction of the attenuation of road traffic noise with distance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method is described of calculating the sound pressure level received from single, representative light and heavy vehicles after propagation over terrain composed of various combinations of hard ground and grass-land. These results are then used to derive correction contours for the attenuation with distance of the Leq level received from streams of each class of vehicle. The results apply to conditions where the boundary between the soft and hard areas is parallel to the traffic stream and the soft ground is on the receiver side. Various positions of the boundary are considered. A simple prediction method for Leq is developed, incorporating the distance corrections. Similar calculations are carried out for the attenuation with distance of the L10 noise index for a representative stream of vehicles. Based on these results simple prediction equations for the excess attenuation are proposed in terms of the receiver position and the proportion of soft ground below the propagation path.

Hothersall, D. C.; Chandler-Wilde, S. N.

1987-06-01

222

Progress Toward Improving Jet Noise Predictions in Hot Jets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An acoustic analogy methodology for improving noise predictions in hot round jets is presented. Past approaches have often neglected the impact of temperature fluctuations on the predicted sound spectral density, which could be significant for heated jets, and this has yielded noticeable acoustic under-predictions in such cases. The governing acoustic equations adopted here are a set of linearized, inhomogeneous Euler equations. These equations are combined into a single third order linear wave operator when the base flow is considered as a locally parallel mean flow. The remaining second-order fluctuations are regarded as the equivalent sources of sound and are modeled. It is shown that the hot jet effect may be introduced primarily through a fluctuating velocity/enthalpy term. Modeling this additional source requires specialized inputs from a RANS-based flowfield simulation. The information is supplied using an extension to a baseline two equation turbulence model that predicts total enthalpy variance in addition to the standard parameters. Preliminary application of this model to a series of unheated and heated subsonic jets shows significant improvement in the acoustic predictions at the 90 degree observer angle.

Khavaran, Abbas; Kenzakowski, Donald C.

2007-01-01

223

A basic neural traffic noise prediction model for Tehran's roads.  

PubMed

We present an artificial neural network model to predict hourly A-weighted equivalent sound pressure levels (L(Aeq,1h)) for roads in Tehran at distances less than 4 m from the nearside carriageway edge. Our model uses the UK Calculation of Road Traffic Noise (CORTN) approach. Data were obtained from 50 sampling locations near five roads in Tehran at nearside carriageway edge distances of less than 4 m. The data were randomly assigned to training, testing, and holdout subsets. Model training was carried out using the training and testing subsets and comprised 60% and 20% of the data, respectively. Model validation was performed using the remaining 20% of data as a holdout subset. We examine the overall model efficiency using non-parametric tests, such as the Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test for the training step and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for two independent samples for the validation step. Our results indicate that a neural network approach can be applied for traffic noise prediction in Tehran in a statistically sound manner. The Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks test detects no significant difference between the absolute testing set errors of the developed neural network and a calibrated version of the CORTN model. PMID:20678858

Givargis, Sh; Karimi, H

2010-12-01

224

Development of a shock noise prediction code for high-speed helicopters - The subsonically moving shock  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A previously defined airfoil subsonic shock-noise prediction formula whose result depends on a mapping of the time-dependent shock surface to a time-independent computational domain is presently coded and incorporated in the NASA-Langley rotor-noise prediction code, WOPWOP. The structure and algorithms used in the shock-noise prediction code are presented; special care has been taken to reduce computation time while maintaining accuracy. Numerical examples of shock-noise prediction are presented for hover and forward flight. It is confirmed that shock noise is an important component of the quadrupole source.

Tadghighi, H.; Holz, R.; Farassat, F.; Lee, Yung-Jang

1991-01-01

225

Development of a shock noise prediction code for high-speed helicopters - The subsonically moving shock  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A previously defined airfoil subsonic shock-noise prediction formula whose result depends on a mapping of the time-dependent shock surface to a time-independent computational domain is presently coded and incorporated in the NASA-Langley rotor-noise prediction code, WOPWOP. The structure and algorithms used in the shock-noise prediction code are presented; special care has been taken to reduce computation time while maintaining accuracy. Numerical examples of shock-noise prediction are presented for hover and forward flight. It is confirmed that shock noise is an important component of the quadrupole source.

Tadghighi, H.; Holz, R.; Farassat, F.; Lee, Yung-Jang

226

Prediction of aircraft noise source and estimation of noise-level contours  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two computer programs aid aircraft designers who need to identify noise characteristics of various aircraft and engine configurations; calculated noise levels can then be compared with community goals for noise limitation.

Peart, N. A.

1975-01-01

227

Prediction of XV-15 Tilt Rotor Discrete Frequency Aeroacoustic Noise with WOPWOP.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results, methodology, and conclusions of noise prediction calculations carried out to study several possible discrete frequency harmonic noise mechanisms of the XV-15 Tilt Rotor Aircraft in hover and helicopter mode forward flight are presented. The m...

C. D. Coffen A. R. George

1990-01-01

228

Phase noise characteristic of an Yb-doped fiber amplifier predicted from structure function  

Microsoft Academic Search

From a measurement of the noise power spectral density of the fiber amplifier by using multi-dithering technique, we predict and verify the frequency bandwidth for a feedback loop using the noise structure function.

Jianhua Wang; Lei Si

2009-01-01

229

Thermoelastic-damping noise from sapphire mirrors in a fundamental-noise-limited interferometer.  

PubMed

We report the first high-precision interferometer using large sapphire mirrors, and we present the first direct, broadband measurements of the fundamental thermal noise in these mirrors. Our results agree well with the thermoelastic-damping noise predictions of Braginsky, et al. and Cerdonio et al., which have been used to predict the astrophysical reach of advanced interferometric gravitational wave detectors. PMID:15697789

Black, Eric D; Villar, Akira; Libbrecht, Kenneth G

2004-12-10

230

A Superior Kirchhoff Method for Aeroacoustic Noise Prediction: The Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings Equation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The prediction of aeroacoustic noise is important; all new aircraft must meet noise certification requirements. Local noise standards can be even more stringent. The NASA noise reduction goal is to reduce perceived noise levels by a factor of two in 10 years. The objective of this viewgraph presentation is to demonstrate the superiority of the FW-H approach over the Kirchoff method for aeroacoustics, both analytically and numerically.

Brentner, Kenneth S.

1997-01-01

231

Fan Noise Source Diagnostic Test Computation of Rotor Wake Turbulence Noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An important source mechanism of fan broadband noise is the interaction of rotor wake turbulence with the fan outlet guide vanes. A broadband noise model that utilizes computed rotor flow turbulence from a RANS code is used to predict fan broadband noise spectra. The noise model is employed to examine the broadband noise characteristics of the 22-inch Source Diagnostic Test fan rig for which broadband noise data were obtained in wind tunnel tests at the NASA Glenn Research Center. A 9-case matrix of three outlet guide vane configurations at three representative fan tip speeds are considered. For all cases inlet and exhaust acoustic power spectra are computed and compared with the measured spectra where possible. In general, the acoustic power levels and shape of the predicted spectra are in good agreement with the measured data. The predicted spectra show the experimentally observed trends with fan tip speed, vane count, and vane sweep. The results also demonstrate the validity of using CFD-based turbulence information for fan broadband noise calculations.

Nallasamy, M.; Envia, E.; Thorp, S. A.; Shabbir, A.

2002-01-01

232

Fan Noise Source Diagnostic Test Computation of Rotor Wake Turbulence Noise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An important source mechanism of fan broadband noise is the interaction of rotor wake turbulence with the fan outlet guide vanes. A broadband noise model that utilizes computed rotor flow turbulence from a RANS code is used to predict fan broadband noise spectra. The noise model is employed to examine the broadband noise characteristics of the 22-inch Source Diagnostic Test fan rig for which broadband noise data were obtained in wind tunnel tests at the NASA Glenn Research Center. A 9-case matrix of three outlet guide vane configurations at three representative fan tip speeds are considered. For all cases inlet and exhaust acoustic power spectra are computed and compared with the measured spectra where possible. In general, the acoustic power levels and shape of the predicted spectra are in good agreement with the measured data. The predicted spectra show the experimentally observed trends with fan tip speed, vane count, and vane sweep. The results also demonstrate the validity of using CFD-based turbulence information for fan broadband noise calculations.

Nallasamy, M.; Envia, E.; Thorp, S. A.; Shabbir, A.

2002-08-01

233

Numerical method for predicting ship propeller cavitation noise  

Microsoft Academic Search

During ship travels in high-velocity, propeller cavitation noise predominates in the radiated noise sources. However, experiential data regress method was use to predicate propeller cavitation noise in the past. In this article, propeller cavitation noise has been calculated by numerical computation method. From the engineering point of view, ship propeller has been disposed as a dipole bubble. Bubble volume pulse

Yong-Kun Zhang; Ying Xiong

2011-01-01

234

The prediction of en route noise levels for a DC-9 aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

En route noise for advanced propfan powered aircraft has become an issue of concern for the Federal Aviation Administration. The NASA Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP) is used to demonstrate the source noise and propagation effects for an aircraft in level flight up to 35,000 feet altitude. One-third octave band spectra of the source noise, atmospheric absorption loss, and received noise are presented. The predicted maximum A-weighted sound pressure level is compared to measured data from the Aeronautical Research Institute of Sweden. ANOPP is shown to be an effective tool in evaluating the en route noise characteristics of a DC-9 aircraft.

Weir, Donald S.

1988-01-01

235

Investigation of the jet noise prediction theory and application utilizing the PAO formulation. [mathematical model for calculating noise radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Application of the Phillips theory to engineering calculations of rocket and high speed jet noise radiation is reported. Presented are a detailed derivation of the theory, the composition of the numerical scheme, and discussions of the practical problems arising in the application of the present noise prediction method. The present method still contains some empirical elements, yet it provides a unified approach in the prediction of sound power, spectrum, and directivity.

1973-01-01

236

A Study on Predicting Shinkansen Noise Levels Using the Sound Intensity Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate a new method developed to predict track wayside noise levels resulting from the passage of high-speed trains. The method calculates noise levels based on data acquired by the sound intensity method developed by the Central Japan Railway Company. This measurement method allows one to identify each sound source and its characteristics as well as identify how much each source contributes to the overall resulting noise level. Structure borne noise and multiple reflected noise between train car bodies and noise barriers are also studied. As a result of this study, a prediction method was created which can calculate and predict noise levels resulting from such various factors as structure, train type, train speed and noise barrier. Noise levels predicted during this study agreed well with those actually measured under various conditions, thus indicating the prediction method model resulting from the study is a useful tool to verify noise levels occurring at receiver positions. Furthermore, it can also verify in advance how much effect noise barriers or train source noise level reduction devices would have on noise reduction.

Okada, Tadashi

237

Prediction of far-field harmonic noise from propellers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A FORTRAN program for estimating the discrete frequency free-field noise from an isolated straight blade single propeller which is in uniform motion or stationary in a lossless atmosphere is given. Blade sweep is unlikely, however, to have a significant effect up to tip Mach numbers of 0.9. It is assumed that the noise sources are compact chordwise so that they are line sources; that assumption excludes advanced propellers and prop fans. The input to the program is ambient static pressure and temperature, source/receiver relative geometry, propeller operating conditions, and blade geometry and lift coefficient at a number of radial stations. If the load distribution is not known, a default distribution is provided for which power supplied and propeller thrust generated is required. Predictions are compared with available limited data measured in a wind-tunnel, and a sketch shows a typical correlation. The program is provided on disc as ESDUpac 9133, and information is given on the format for the input and output, illustrated by two worked examples. A graphical method for the maximum harmonic levels from a static propeller is given in ESDU 76020.

1991-11-01

238

The Role of Instability Waves in Predicting Jet Noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There has been an ongoing debate about the role of linear instability waves in the prediction of jet noise. Parallel mean flow models, such as the one proposed by Lilley, usually neglect these waves because they cause the solution to become infinite. The resulting solution is then non-causal and can, therefore, be quite different from the true causal solution for the chaotic flows being considered here. The present paper solves the relevant acoustic equations for a non-parallel mean flow by using a vector Green s function approach and assuming the mean flow to be weakly non-parallel, i.e., assuming the spread rate to be small. It demonstrates that linear instability waves must be accounted for in order to construct a proper causal solution to the jet noise problem. . Recent experimental results (e.g., see Tam, Golebiowski, and Seiner,1996) show that the small angle spectra radiated by supersonic jets are quite different from those radiated at larger angles (say, at 90deg) and even exhibit dissimilar frequency scalings (i.e., they scale with Helmholtz number as opposed to Strouhal number). The present solution is (among other things )able to explain this rather puzzling experimental result.

Goldstein, M. E.; Leib, S. J.

2004-01-01

239

Auralization Architectures for NASA?s Next Generation Aircraft Noise Prediction Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aircraft community noise is a significant concern due to continued growth in air traffic, increasingly stringent environmental goals, and operational limitations imposed by airport authorities. The assessment of human response to noise from future aircraft can only be afforded through laboratory testing using simulated flyover noise. Recent work by the authors demonstrated the ability to auralize predicted flyover noise for a state-of-the-art reference aircraft and a future hybrid wing body aircraft concept. This auralization used source noise predictions from NASA's Aircraft NOise Prediction Program (ANOPP) as input. The results from this process demonstrated that auralization based upon system noise predictions is consistent with, and complementary to, system noise predictions alone. To further develop and validate the auralization process, improvements to the interfaces between the synthesis capability and the system noise tools are required. This paper describes the key elements required for accurate noise synthesis and introduces auralization architectures for use with the next-generation ANOPP (ANOPP2). The architectures are built around a new auralization library and its associated Application Programming Interface (API) that utilize ANOPP2 APIs to access data required for auralization. The architectures are designed to make the process of auralizing flyover noise a common element of system noise prediction.

Rizzi, Stephen A.; Lopes, Leonard V.; Burley, Casey L.; Aumann, Aric R.

2013-01-01

240

Towards an Airframe Noise Prediction Methodology: Survey of Current Approaches  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper, we present a critical survey of the current airframe noise (AFN) prediction methodologies. Four methodologies are recognized. These are the fully analytic method, CFD combined with the acoustic analogy, the semi-empirical method and fully numerical method. It is argued that for the immediate need of the aircraft industry, the semi-empirical method based on recent high quality acoustic database is the best available method. The method based on CFD and the Ffowcs William- Hawkings (FW-H) equation with penetrable data surface (FW-Hpds ) has advanced considerably and much experience has been gained in its use. However, more research is needed in the near future particularly in the area of turbulence simulation. The fully numerical method will take longer to reach maturity. Based on the current trends, it is predicted that this method will eventually develop into the method of choice. Both the turbulence simulation and propagation methods need to develop more for this method to become useful. Nonetheless, the authors propose that the method based on a combination of numerical and analytical techniques, e.g., CFD combined with FW-H equation, should also be worked on. In this effort, the current symbolic algebra software will allow more analytical approaches to be incorporated into AFN prediction methods.

Farassat, Fereidoun; Casper, Jay H.

2006-01-01

241

Prediction of BVI noise patterns and correlation with wake interaction locations  

Microsoft Academic Search

High resolution fluctuating airloads data were acquired during a test of a contemporary design United Technologies model rotor in the Duits-Nederlandse Windtunnel (DNW). The airloads are used as input to the noise prediction program WOPWOP, in order to predict the blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise field on a large plane below the rotor. Trends of predicted advancing and retreating side BVI

Michael A. Marcolini; Ruth M. Martin; Peter F. Lorber; T. A. Egolf

1992-01-01

242

Small Engine Technology (SET) - Task 13 ANOPP Noise Prediction for Small Engines: Jet Noise Prediction Module, Wing Shielding Module, and System Studies Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This Final Report has been prepared by AlliedSignal Engines and Systems, Phoenix, Arizona, documenting work performed during the period May 1997 through June 1999, under the Small Engines Technology Program, Contract No. NAS3-27483, Task Order 13, ANOPP Noise Prediction for Small Engines. The report specifically covers the work performed under Subtasks 4, 5 and 6. Subtask 4 describes the application of a semi-empirical procedure for jet noise prediction, subtask 5 describes the development of a procedure to predict the effects of wing shielding, and subtask 6 describes the results of system studies of the benefits of the new noise technology on business and regional aircraft.

Lieber, Lysbeth; Golub, Robert (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

243

A study of the prediction of cruise noise and laminar flow control noise criteria for subsonic air transports  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

General procedures for the prediction of component noise levels incident upon airframe surfaces during cruise are developed. Contributing noise sources are those associated with the propulsion system, the airframe and the laminar flow control (LFC) system. Transformation procedures from the best prediction base of each noise source to the transonic cruise condition are established. Two approaches to LFC/acoustic criteria are developed. The first is a semi-empirical extension of the X-21 LFC/acoustic criteria to include sensitivity to the spectrum and directionality of the sound field. In the second, the more fundamental problem of how sound excites boundary layer disturbances is analyzed by deriving and solving an inhomogeneous Orr-Sommerfeld equation in which the source terms are proportional to the production and dissipation of sound induced fluctuating vorticity. Numerical solutions are obtained and compared with corresponding measurements. Recommendations are made to improve and validate both the cruise noise prediction methods and the LFC/acoustic criteria.

Swift, G.; Mungur, P.

1979-01-01

244

Estimation and prediction of noise power based on variational Bayesian and adaptive ARMA time series  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimation and prediction of noise power are very important for communication anti-jamming and efficient allocation of spectrum resources in adaptive wireless communication and cognitive radio. In order to estimate and predict the time-varying noise power caused by natural factors and jamming in the high frequency channel, Variational Bayesian algorithm and adaptive ARMA time series are proposed. Through establishing the time-varying noise power model, which controlled by the noise variance rate, the noise power can be estimated with Variational Bayesian algorithm, and the results show that the estimation error is related to observation interval. What's more, through the analysis of the correlation characteristics of the estimation power, noise power can be predicted based on adaptive ARMA time series, and the results show that it will be available to predict the noise power in next 5 intervals with the proportional error less than 0.2.

Zhang, Jingyi; Li, Yonggui; Zhu, Yonggang; Li, Binwu

2014-04-01

245

Program for Helicopter Gearbox Noise Prediction and Reduction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method of computing helicopter gearbox noise from design and operating data is verified by a comparison of calculated and measured gearbox noise spectra. Measurements on CH-47 helicopters are used to provide experimental data. Positive identification of...

I. Laskin R. A. Badgley

1970-01-01

246

Observing and predicting chaotic signals: Is 2% noise too much?  

Microsoft Academic Search

: We discuss the influence of noise on the analysis of complex time series data.How harmful it is depends on the nature of the noise, the complexity of the signal and onthe application in mind. We will give generally valid upper bounds on the feasible noise levelfor dimension, entropy and Lyapunov estimates and lower bounds for the optimal achievableprediction error.

Thomas Schreiber; Holger Kantz

1996-01-01

247

Use of SEA to predict structure-borne noise in aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Statistical Energy Analysis is used to predict aircraft noise from the structural components. Structural-borne noise is vibration: (1) generated at one location; (2) transmitted by the structure to other locations; and (3) radiated into the cabin as noise. All results are presented in viewgraph format.

Manning, Jerome E.

1992-01-01

248

Use of SEA to predict structure-borne noise in aircraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Statistical Energy Analysis is used to predict aircraft noise from the structural components. Structural-borne noise is vibration: (1) generated at one location; (2) transmitted by the structure to other locations; and (3) radiated into the cabin as noise. All results are presented in viewgraph format.

Manning, Jerome E.

1992-07-01

249

Application of Grey Model to Predict Acoustical Properties and Tire\\/Road Noise on Asphalt Pavement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect factors of acoustical properties and tire\\/road noise, such as cruising speed, vehicle categories, pavement surface type and pavement condition are uncertain. Many of the exiting prediction models for acoustical properties and traffic noise have still application limitations and accuracy problems. Therefore, acoustical properties and tire\\/road noise measured on laboratory and field test is conducted in this study. The

Der-Hsien Shen; Chia-Ming Wu; Jia-Chong Du

2006-01-01

250

Supersonic jet noise - Its generation, prediction and effects on people and structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents the results of a study aimed at quantifying the effects of jet source noise reduction, increases in aircraft lift, and reduced aircraft thrust on the take-off noise associated with supersonic civil transports. Supersonic jet noise sources are first described, and their frequency and directivity dependence are defined. The study utilizes NASA's Aircraft Noise Prediction Program in a parametric study to weigh the relative benefits of several approaches to low noise. The baseline aircraft concept used in these predictions is the AST-205-1 powered by GE21/J11-B14A scaled engines. Noise assessment is presented in terms of effective perceived noise levels at the FAA's centerline and sideline measuring locations for current subsonic aircraft, and in terms of audiologically perceived sound of people and other indirect effects. The results show that significant noise benefit can be achieved through proper understanding and utilization of all available approaches.

Preisser, J. S.; Golub, R. A.; Seiner, J. M.; Powell, C. A.

1990-01-01

251

Cyclostationary spectral analysis for the measurement and prediction of wind turbine swishing noise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper introduces cyclostationary spectral analysis as a new approach to analyzing and predicting the aerodynamic noise generated by wind turbines. This method is able to reveal new insights into the periodic character of the noise signal and is therefore ideally suited to the study of wind turbine noise. A new formulation is presented for the time variation of the noise spectrum due to wind turbines thereby providing insight into the character of the periodic variation in noise referred to as 'swishing'. The character and mechanism of swishing noise is analyzed in detail.

Cheong, Cheolung; Joseph, Phillip

2014-07-01

252

Source Noise Modeling Efforts for Fan Noise in NASA Research Programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There has been considerable progress made in fan noise prediction over the past 15 years. NASA has conducted and sponsored research that has improved both tone and broadband fan noise prediction methods. This presentation highlights progress in these areas with emphasis on rotor/stator interaction noise sources. Tone noise predictions are presented for an advanced prediction code called "LINFLUX". Comparisons with data are" included for individual fan duct modes. There has also been considerable work developing new fan broadband noise prediction codes and validation data from wind tunnel model tests. Results from several code validation exercises are presented that show improvement of predicted sound power levels. A summary is included with recommendations for future work.

Huff, Dennis L.

2006-01-01

253

A Noise Level Prediction Method Based on Electro-Mechanical Frequency Response Function for Capacitors  

PubMed Central

The capacitors in high-voltage direct-current (HVDC) converter stations radiate a lot of audible noise which can reach higher than 100 dB. The existing noise level prediction methods are not satisfying enough. In this paper, a new noise level prediction method is proposed based on a frequency response function considering both electrical and mechanical characteristics of capacitors. The electro-mechanical frequency response function (EMFRF) is defined as the frequency domain quotient of the vibration response and the squared capacitor voltage, and it is obtained from impulse current experiment. Under given excitations, the vibration response of the capacitor tank is the product of EMFRF and the square of the given capacitor voltage in frequency domain, and the radiated audible noise is calculated by structure acoustic coupling formulas. The noise level under the same excitations is also measured in laboratory, and the results are compared with the prediction. The comparison proves that the noise prediction method is effective.

Zhu, Lingyu; Ji, Shengchang; Shen, Qi; Liu, Yuan; Li, Jinyu; Liu, Hao

2013-01-01

254

Auditory Brainstem Response to Complex Sounds Predicts Self-Reported Speech-in-Noise Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To compare the ability of the auditory brainstem response to complex sounds (cABR) to predict subjective ratings of speech understanding in noise on the Speech, Spatial, and Qualities of Hearing Scale (SSQ; Gatehouse & Noble, 2004) relative to the predictive ability of the Quick Speech-in-Noise test (QuickSIN; Killion, Niquette,…

Anderson, Samira; Parbery-Clark, Alexandra; White-Schwoch, Travis; Kraus, Nina

2013-01-01

255

An Improved Prediction Method for Noise Generated by Conventional Profile Coaxial Jets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A semiempirical model for predicting the noise generated by conventional velocity profile jets exhausting from coaxial nozzles is presented and compared with small scale static and simulated flight data. Improvements to the basic circular jet noise prediction are developed which improve the accuracy, especially at high jet velocity and near the jet axis.

Stone, J. R.; Groesbeck, D. E.; Zola, C. L.

1981-01-01

256

A Comparison between Traffic Noise Experimental Data and Predictive Models Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract—Traffic Noise predictive Models (TNMs) are often used in order to predict and\\/or monitor road traffic noise impact on environment. Usually a statistical approach is followed in the most used model building and compiling. A large set of experimental data is collected on one or more sites under investigation and on these data a best fit is performed with

Claudio Guarnaccia; Tony LL Lenza; Nikos E. Mastorakis; Joseph Quartieri

2011-01-01

257

Comparison of Predicted and Measured Attenuation of Turbine Noise from a Static Engine Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aircraft noise has become an increasing concern for commercial airlines. Worldwide demand for quieter aircraft is increasing, making the prediction of engine noise suppression one of the most important fields of research. The Low-Pressure Turbine (LPT) can be an important noise source during the approach condition for commercial aircraft. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Pratt & Whitney (P&W), and Goodrich Aerostructures (Goodrich) conducted a joint program to validate a method for predicting turbine noise attenuation. The method includes noise-source estimation, acoustic treatment impedance prediction, and in-duct noise propagation analysis. Two noise propagation prediction codes, Eversman Finite Element Method (FEM) code [1] and the CDUCT-LaRC [2] code, were used in this study to compare the predicted and the measured turbine noise attenuation from a static engine test. In this paper, the test setup, test configurations and test results are detailed in Section II. A description of the input parameters, including estimated noise modal content (in terms of acoustic potential), and acoustic treatment impedance values are provided in Section III. The prediction-to-test correlation study results are illustrated and discussed in Section IV and V for the FEM and the CDUCT-LaRC codes, respectively, and a summary of the results is presented in Section VI.

Chien, Eugene W.; Ruiz, Marta; Yu, Jia; Morin, Bruce L.; Cicon, Dennis; Schwieger, Paul S.; Nark, Douglas M.

2007-01-01

258

Analysis of broadband seismic noise at the German Regional Seismic Network and search for improved alternative station sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The German Regional Seismic Network (GRSN) comprizes now 16 digital broadband stations equipped with Wieland-Streckeisen STS-2 seismometers, 24-bit dataloggers and a seismological data center at Erlangen. It covers the whole territory of Germany with station-spacings between 80 km to 240 km. The stations are sited in very different environments ranging from near shore at the Baltic Sea coast up to

P. Bormann; K. Wylegalla; K. Klinge

1997-01-01

259

On the prediction of impact noise, part VIII: Diesel engine noise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The noise energy radiated from a diesel engine due to combustion and piston slap excitation is investigated by considering single impacts. From the results obtained, possible methods of noise control are studied, and the expected results due to changes in the liner mounting to the engine frame, and the bearings of the camshaft for an injected engine, are compared to the measured noise levels. This proves to be very successful and radical modifications in the engine for noise control can be investigated in this way prior to full development of the prototype engine.

Cuschieri, J. M.; Richards, E. J.

1985-09-01

260

Mobile Direction Assisted Predictive Base Station Switching for Broadband Wireless Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many broadband wireless access (BWA) systems, such as IEEE 802.16e, support high-mobility users traveling at vehicular speeds. BWA systems capable of high data rates and low bit-error rates typically require micro-cell or pico- cell deployments. High-mobility users usually need to perform frequent handovers in smaller cell structures, which could drastically increase system overhead and thus degrade the overall network performance.

O. Can Ozdural; Huaping Liu

2007-01-01

261

Prediction of mechanical properties of the human calcaneus by broadband ultrasonic attenuation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Broadband ultrasonic attenuation (dB MHz cm?1, nBUA) was determined for specimens from 20 human calcanei, along with apparent density, elasticity (Young's modulus), and compressive strength. The calcanei were modified to provide “whole” (only soft tissue removed), “core” (mediolateral cores corresponding to in vivo measurement region), “can” (cortical end plates removed from core), and “der” (core defatted) samples. The nBUA values

C. M. Langton; C. F. Njeh; R. Hodgskinson; J. D. Currey

1996-01-01

262

Jet Engine Noise Generation, Prediction and Control, Chapter 86.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Aircraft noise has been a problem near airports for many years. It is a quality of life issue that impacts millions of people around the world. Solving this problem has been the principal goal of noise reduction research that began when commercial jet tra...

D. L. Huff E. Envia

2004-01-01

263

Image discrimination models predict detection in fixed but not random noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

By means of a two-interval forced-choice procedure, contrast detection thresholds for an aircraft positioned on a simulated airport runway scene were measured with fixed and random white-noise masks. The term fixed noise refers to a constant, or unchanging, noise pattern for each stimulus presentation. The random noise was either the same or different in the two intervals. Contrary to simple image discrimination model predictions, the same random noise condition produced greater masking than the fixed noise. This suggests that observers seem unable to hold a new noisy image for comparison. Also, performance appeared limited by internal process variability rather than by external noise variability, since similar masking was obtained for both random noise types.

Ahumada, A. J. Jr; Beard, B. L.; Watson, A. B. (Principal Investigator)

1997-01-01

264

Numerical analysis of a broadband spectrum generated in a standard fiber by noise-like pulses from a passively mode-locked fiber laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper covers a numerical analysis of supercontinuum spectrum generation in a piece of standard fiber by using as the pump noise-like pulses produced by a passively mode-locked fiber laser. An experimental study was also carried out, yielding results that support the numerical results. In the numerical study we estimated that the spectral extension of the generated supercontinuum reaches ~ 1000 nm, and that it presents a high flatness over a region of ~ 220 nm (1630 nm-1850 nm) when we use as the pump noise-like pulses with a wide optical bandwidth (~ 50 nm) and a peak power of ~ 2 kW. Experimentally, the output signal spectrum extends from ~ 1530 nm to at least 1750 nm and presents a high flatness over a region of 1640 nm to 1750 nm for the same value of numerical input power, 1750 nm being the upper limit of the optical spectrum analyzer. The numerical analysis presented here is thus an essential part to overcome the severe limitation in measuring capabilities and to understand the phenomena of supercontinuum generation, which is mainly related to Raman self-frequency shift. Finally, this work demonstrates the potential of noise-like pulses from a passively mode-locked fiber laser for broadband spectrum generation.

Hernandez-Garcia, J. C.; Pottiez, O.; Estudillo-Ayala, J. M.; Rojas-Laguna, R.

2012-04-01

265

On INM's Use of Corrected Net Thrust for the Prediction of Jet Aircraft Noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Federal Aviation Administration s (FAA) Integrated Noise Model (INM) employs a prediction methodology that relies on corrected net thrust as the sole correlating parameter between aircraft and engine operating states and aircraft noise. Thus aircraft noise measured for one set of atmospheric and aircraft operating conditions is assumed to be applicable to all other conditions as long as the corrected net thrust remains constant. This hypothesis is investigated under two primary assumptions: (1) the sound field generated by the aircraft is dominated by jet noise, and (2) the sound field generated by the jet flow is adequately described by Lighthill s theory of noise generated by turbulence.

McAninch, Gerry L.; Shepherd, Kevin P.

2011-01-01

266

Prediction of BVI noise patterns and correlation with wake interaction locations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High resolution fluctuating airloads data were acquired during a test of a contemporary design United Technologies model rotor in the Duits-Nederlandse Windtunnel (DNW). The airloads are used as input to the noise prediction program WOPWOP, in order to predict the blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise field on a large plane below the rotor. Trends of predicted advancing and retreating side BVI noise levels and directionality as functions of flight condition are presented. The measured airloads have been analyzed to determine the BVI locations on the blade surface, and are used to interpret the predicted BVI noise radiation patterns. Predicted BVI locations are obtained using the free wake model in CAMRAD/JA, the UTRC Generalized Forward Flight Distorted Wake Model, and the UTRC FREEWAKE analysis. These predicted BVI locations are compared with those obtained from the measured pressure data.

Marcolini, Michael A.; Martin, Ruth M.; Lorber, Peter F.; Egolf, T. A.

267

Prediction of BVI noise patterns and correlation with wake interaction locations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High resolution fluctuating airloads data were acquired during a test of a contemporary design United Technologies model rotor in the Duits-Nederlandse Windtunnel (DNW). The airloads are used as input to the noise prediction program WOPWOP, in order to predict the blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise field on a large plane below the rotor. Trends of predicted advancing and retreating side BVI noise levels and directionality as functions of flight condition are presented. The measured airloads have been analyzed to determine the BVI locations on the blade surface, and are used to interpret the predicted BVI noise radiation patterns. Predicted BVI locations are obtained using the free wake model in CAMRAD/JA, the UTRC Generalized Forward Flight Distorted Wake Model, and the UTRC FREEWAKE analysis. These predicted BVI locations are compared with those obtained from the measured pressure data.

Marcolini, Michael A.; Martin, Ruth M.; Lorber, Peter F.; Egolf, T. A.

1992-01-01

268

A review and update of the NASA aircraft noise prediction program propeller analysis system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP) Propeller Analysis System (PAS) is a set of computational modules for predicting the aerodynamics, performance, and noise of propellers. The ANOPP PAS has the capability to predict noise levels for propeller aircraft certification and produce parametric scaling laws for the adjustment of measured data to reference conditions. A technical overview of the prediction techniques incorporated into the system is presented. The prediction system has been applied to predict the noise signature of a variety of propeller configurations including the effects of propeller angle of attack. A summary of these validation studies is discussed with emphasis being placed on the wind tunnel and flight test programs sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) for the Piper Cherokee Lance aircraft. A number of modifications and improvements have been made to the system and both DEC VAX and IBM-PC versions of the system have been added to the original CDC NOS version.

Golub, Robert A.; Nguyen, L. Cathy

1989-01-01

269

A review and update of the NASA aircraft noise prediction program propeller analysis system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP) Propeller Analysis System (PAS) is a set of computational modules for predicting the aerodynamics, performance, and noise of propellers. The ANOPP PAS has the capability to predict noise levels for propeller aircraft certification and produce parametric scaling laws for the adjustment of measured data to reference conditions. A technical overview of the prediction techniques incorporated into the system is presented. The prediction system has been applied to predict the noise signature of a variety of propeller configurations including the effects of propeller angle of attack. A summary of these validation studies is discussed with emphasis being placed on the wind tunnel and flight test programs sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) for the Piper Cherokee Lance aircraft. A number of modifications and improvements have been made to the system and both DEC VAX and IBM-PC versions of the system have been added to the original CDC NOS version.

Golub, Robert A.; Nguyen, L. Cathy

1989-04-01

270

Surface integral analogy approaches for predicting noise from 3D high-lift low-noise wings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three surface integral approaches of the acoustic analogies are studied to predict the noise from three conceptual configurations of three-dimensional high-lift low-noise wings. The approaches refer to the Kirchhoff method, the Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings (FW-H) method of the permeable integral surface and the Curle method that is known as a special case of the FW-H method. The first two approaches are used to compute the noise generated by the core flow region where the energetic structures exist. The last approach is adopted to predict the noise specially from the pressure perturbation on the wall. A new way to construct the integral surface that encloses the core region is proposed for the first two methods. Considering the local properties of the flow around the complex object-the actual wing with high-lift devices-the integral surface based on the vorticity is constructed to follow the flow structures. The surface location is discussed for the Kirchhoff method and the FW-H method because a common surface is used for them. The noise from the core flow region is studied on the basis of the dependent integral quantities, which are indicated by the Kirchhoff formulation and by the FW-H formulation. The role of each wall component on noise contribution is analyzed using the Curle formulation. Effects of the volume integral terms of Lighthill's stress tensors on the noise prediction are then evaluated by comparing the results of the Curle method with the other two methods.

Yao, Hua-Dong; Davidson, Lars; Eriksson, Lars-Erik; Peng, Shia-Hui; Grundestam, Olof; Eliasson, Peter E.

2014-05-01

271

A 1.2 V Broadband Low Noise Fully Differential Amplifier in a 65 nm CMOS Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—A fully differential operational,amplifier in a 65nm CMOS technology is presented. It is designed for low power, low noise and,high bandwidth,applications. Transistors in a 65 nm CMOS technology,suffer from,increased,short channel,effects and noise contribution. Nevertheless, thermal noise density as low as 5nV\\/ p Hz and a 1 \\/f-corner Frequency,below 1MHz are achieved. The operational amplifier has a gain of 96dB consuming

Stefan Kaehlert; Tobias D. Werth; Ralf Wunderlich; Stefan Heinen

272

Development in Source Modeling and Sound Propagation for Jet Noise Predictions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the research carried out under this cooperative agreement was to develop tools that could be used to improve upon the current state of the art in the prediction of noise emitted by turbulent exhaust jets. Both the source modeling and sound propagation aspects of the prediction of jet noise by acoustic analogy were examined with a view toward the development of methods which yield improved predictions over a wider range of operating conditions.

Leib, Steward

2004-01-01

273

Validation of finite element and boundary element methods for predicting structural vibration and radiated noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analytical and experimental validation of methods to predict structural vibration and radiated noise are presented. A rectangular box excited by a mechanical shaker was used as a vibrating structure. Combined finite element method (FEM) and boundary element method (BEM) models of the apparatus were used to predict the noise radiated from the box. The FEM was used to predict the vibration, and the surface vibration was used as input to the BEM to predict the sound intensity and sound power. Vibration predicted by the FEM model was validated by experimental modal analysis. Noise predicted by the BEM was validated by sound intensity measurements. Three types of results are presented for the total radiated sound power: (1) sound power predicted by the BEM modeling using vibration data measured on the surface of the box; (2) sound power predicted by the FEM/BEM model; and (3) sound power measured by a sound intensity scan. The sound power predicted from the BEM model using measured vibration data yields an excellent prediction of radiated noise. The sound power predicted by the combined FEM/BEM model also gives a good prediction of radiated noise except for a shift of the natural frequencies that are due to limitations in the FEM model.

Seybert, A. F.; Wu, X. F.; Oswald, Fred B.

1992-01-01

274

Understanding Slat Noise Sources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Model-scale aeroacoustic tests of large civil transports point to the leading-edge slat as a dominant high-lift noise source in the low- to mid-frequencies during aircraft approach and landing. Using generic multi-element high-lift models, complementary experimental and numerical tests were carefully planned and executed at NASA in order to isolate slat noise sources and the underlying noise generation mechanisms. In this paper, a brief overview of the supporting computational effort undertaken at NASA Langley Research Center, is provided. Both tonal and broadband aspects of slat noise are discussed. Recent gains in predicting a slat s far-field acoustic noise, current shortcomings of numerical simulations, and other remaining open issues, are presented. Finally, an example of the ever-expanding role of computational simulations in noise reduction studies also is given.

Khorrami, Medhi R.

2003-01-01

275

“Buzz-saw” noise: Prediction of the rotor-alone pressure field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Public expectations of lower environmental noise levels, and increasingly stringent legislative limits on aircraft noise, result in noise being a critical technical issue in the development of jet engines. Noise at take-off, when the engines are at high-power operating conditions, is a key reference level for engine noise certification. "Buzz-saw" noise is the dominant fan tone noise from modern high-bypass-ratio turbofan aircraft engines during take-off. Rotor-alone tones are the key component of buzz-saw noise. The rotor-alone pressure field is cut-off at subsonic fan tip speeds; buzz-saw noise is associated with supersonic fan tip speeds, or equivalently, high power engine operating conditions. A recent series of papers has described new work concerning the prediction of buzz-saw noise. The prediction method is based on modelling the nonlinear propagation of one-dimensional sawtooth waveforms. A sawtooth waveform is a simplified representation of the rotor-alone pressure field. Previous validation of the prediction method focussed entirely on reproducing the spectral characteristics of buzz-saw noise; this was dictated at that time by the availability of spectral data only for comparison between measurement and prediction. In this paper, full validation of the method by comparing measurement and prediction of the rotor-alone pressure field is published for the first time. It is shown that results from the modelling based on a one-dimensional sawtooth waveform capture the essential features of the rotor-alone pressure field as it propagates upstream inside a hard-walled inlet duct. This verifies that predictions of the buzz-saw noise spectrum, which are in good agreement with the measured data, are based on a model which reproduces the key physics of the noise generation process. Validation results for the rotor-alone pressure field in an acoustically lined inlet duct are also shown. Comparisons of the measured and predicted rotor-alone pressure field are more difficult to interpret because the acoustic lining significantly modifies the sawtooth waveform, but there remains good agreement with the measured spectral data. The buzz-saw noise prediction code used to generate the simulations in this paper has been used by the Rolls-Royce Noise Department since 2004.

McAlpine, A.; Schwaller, P. J. G.; Fisher, M. J.; Tester, B. J.

2012-10-01

276

Tyre/road interaction noise—Numerical noise prediction of a patterned tyre on a rough road surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The noise which results from the interaction of pneumatic tyres with a rough road surface is a significant contributor to an increasing local environmental problem. Above a steady forward vehicle speed of 40 km/h this is the dominant noise source of a modern car in good working condition, and is a significant contributor to the overall radiated noise during acceleration. In order to determine the noise produced by a patterned tyre rolling on a rough road surface, the vibration characteristics of the tyre must be known. A method has been presented by O'Boy and Dowling [Tyre/road interaction noise: a 3d viscoelastic multilayer model of a tyre belt, Journal of Sound and Vibration, volume 322, issues 4-5, 22 May 2009, pages 829-850] which provides these vibration characteristics for a tyre belt composed of multiple viscoelastic layers, each layer having a different thickness and material properties. In this paper, we use this model of the tyre belt to determine the parameters of an equivalent simple bending plate model which can be adapted to yield the response of a tyre which includes sidewalls. A method is then described which uses this response to determine the acceleration of the tyre surface as it rolls over a rough road. These accelerations are then used to predict the far-field radiated noise for a patterned tyre on two rough road surfaces. Comparisons with experimental data are provided at each stage.

O'Boy, D. J.; Dowling, A. P.

2009-06-01

277

Fractal dimension predicts broadband ultrasound attenuation in stereolithography models of cancellous bone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There has been considerable debate on the relative dependence of broadband ultrasound attenuation (nBUA, ) upon the density and structure of cancellous bone. A nonlinear relationship between nBUA and porosity has recently been demonstrated using stereolithography models, indicating a high structural dependence for nBUA. We report here on the measurement of trabecular perimeter and fractal dimension on the two-dimensional images used to create the stereolithography models. Adjusted coefficients of determination with nBUA were 94.4% and 98.4% for trabecular perimeter and fractal dimension respectively. The feature of fractal dimension representing both the porosity and connectivity of a given structure is most exciting. Further work is required to determine the relationship between broadband ultrasound attenuation and fractal dimension in complex three-dimensional cancellous bone structures.

Langton, C. M.; Whitehead, M. A.; Haire, T. J.; Hodgskinson, R.

1998-02-01

278

``Buzz-saw'' noise: A comparison of modal measurements with an improved prediction method  

Microsoft Academic Search

``Buzz-saw'' noise is radiated from a turbofan inlet duct when the fan tip speed is supersonic. In a recent article the effect of an acoustic liner on buzz-saw noise has been examined. Spectral measurements in a rigid and an acoustically lined inlet duct have been compared. Also these measurements have been utilized to assess a buzz-saw noise prediction method. The

A. McAlpine; M. J. Fisher; B. J. Tester

2007-01-01

279

“Buzz-saw” noise: A comparison of modal measurements with an improved prediction method  

Microsoft Academic Search

“Buzz-saw” noise is radiated from a turbofan inlet duct when the fan tip speed is supersonic. In a recent article the effect of an acoustic liner on buzz-saw noise has been examined. Spectral measurements in a rigid and an acoustically lined inlet duct have been compared. Also these measurements have been utilized to assess a buzz-saw noise prediction method. The

A. McAlpine; M. J. Fisher; B. J. Tester

2007-01-01

280

The prediction of aerodynamic and wheel\\/rail noise generated by high-speed trains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheel\\/rail interactions and aerodynamic fluctuations are the important sources of wayside noise produced by high-speed railway trains. The dominance of one or the other of these sources depends entirely on the relative effectivenss of each in generating radiated noise. Equations are given for the calculation of both the wheel\\/rail and aerodynamic noise levels and their predictions are compared to peak

W. F. King III

1977-01-01

281

Blade-Vortex Interaction (BVI) Noise and Airload Prediction Using Loose Aerodynamic/Structural Coupling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Predictions of blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise, using blade airloads obtained from a coupled aerodynamic and structural methodology, are presented. This methodology uses an iterative, loosely-coupled trim strategy to cycle information between the OVERFLOW-2 (CFD) and CAMRAD-II (CSD) codes. Results are compared to the HART-II baseline, minimum noise and minimum vibration conditions. It is shown that this CFD/CSD state-of-the-art approach is able to capture blade airload and noise radiation characteristics associated with BVI. With the exception of the HART-II minimum noise condition, predicted advancing and retreating side BVI for the baseline and minimum vibration conditions agrees favorably with measured data. Although the BVI airloads and noise amplitudes are generally under-predicted, this CFD/CSD methodology provides an overall noteworthy improvement over the lifting line aerodynamics and free-wake models typically used in CSD comprehensive analysis codes.

Sim, B. W.; Lim, J. W.

2007-01-01

282

Evaluation of ride quality prediction methods for helicopter interior noise and vibration environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a simulator study conducted to compare and validate various ride quality prediction methods for use in assessing passenger/crew ride comfort within helicopters are presented. Included are results quantifying 35 helicopter pilots discomfort responses to helicopter interior noise and vibration typical of routine flights, assessment of various ride quality metrics including the NASA ride comfort model, and examination of possible criteria approaches. Results of the study indicated that crew discomfort results from a complex interaction between vibration and interior noise. Overall measures such as weighted or unweighted root-mean-square acceleration level and A-weighted noise level were not good predictors of discomfort. Accurate prediction required a metric incorporating the interactive effects of both noise and vibration. The best metric for predicting crew comfort to the combined noise and vibration environment was the NASA discomfort index.

Leatherwood, J. D.; Clevenson, S. A.; Hollenbaugh, D. D.

1984-01-01

283

Toward high-fidelity subsonic jet noise prediction using petascale supercomputers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The field of jet noise has become one of most active areas of research due to increasingly stringent aircraft noise regulations. A petascalable noise prediction tool-set based on the large eddy simulation (LES) technique is designed and implemented to improve the fidelity of subsonic jet noise predictions. Such tools are needed to help drive the design of quieter jets. The focus is to target computational performance and improved noise prediction fidelity through better matching experimental jet conditions and/or inclusion of the nozzle as part of the simulation. A communication-efficient SPIKE solver is used for spatial operations in conjunction with a non-overlapping multi-block topology based on a new concept of superblocks. These two choices have resulted in efficient scalability tested on up to 91,125 processors (or a theoretical speed of ˜1 petaflop/s). Other important optimizations include parallel file I/O and data buffering while gathering the acoustics. The noise from a Mach-0.9, isothermal jet is studied without and with a round nozzle. Production runs with up to first-ever one-billion-point simple-block topology grids without the nozzle and 125-million-point multi-block topology grids with the nozzle are performed. A vortex ring is used to excite the shear layers in the cases without the nozzle. The fine grid simulations with thinner shear layers have predicted higher sideline noise levels caused by the vortex ring and hence, established the need for nozzle inclusion. The problems of the centerline singularity and smaller time step size due to cylindrical grids have been addressed. A new, faster method based on a sinc filter is discussed for the time step issue in cylindrical grids. Two approaches are considered for nozzle inclusion by: 1) fully resolving the boundary layers at a lower Reynolds number; and 2) using a wall model to model the inner layer at the experimental Reynolds number. The wall-modeled cases exhibited numerical instabilities behind the nozzle lip which contaminated the far-field noise data, whereas the wall-resolved cases showed no such problems. The latter cases predicted noise and spectra that are in better agreement with the experiments. Overall, the inclusion of the nozzle as part of the LES is found to improve the noise predictions. Various innovative noise analysis tools have been used to understand the jet noise to a better extent. Lastly, specific guidelines have been suggested to improve jet noise predictions. It is hoped that the predicted noise levels with improved fidelity will help drive the design of quieter nozzles.

Martha, Chandra Sekhar

284

A human-hearing-related prediction tool for soundscapes and community noise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are several methods of calculation available for the prediction of the A-weighted sound-pressure level of environmental noise, which are, however, not suitable for a qualified prediction of the residents' annoyance and physiological strain. The subjectively felt noise quality does not only depend on the A-weighted sound-pressure level, but also on other psychoacoustical parameters, such as loudness, roughness, sharpness, etc. In addition to these physical and psychoacoustical aspects of noise, the so-called psychological or cognitive aspects have to be considered, too, which means that the listeners' expectations, their mental attitude, as well as the information content of the noise finally influence the noise quality perceived by the individual persons. Within the scope of a research project SVEN (Sound Quality of Vehicle Exterior Noise), which is promoted by the EC, a new tool has been developed which allows a binaural simulation and prediction of the environmental noise to evaluate the influence of different contributions by the sound events with respect to the psychoacoustical parameters, the spatial distribution, movement, and frequency. By means of this tool it is now possible to consider completely new aspects regarding the audible perception of noise when establishing a soundscape or when planning community noise.

Genuit, Klaus

2002-11-01

285

The Uses and Abuses of the Acoustic Analogy in Helicopter Rotor Noise Prediction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper is theoretical in nature and addresses applications of the acoustic analogy in helicopter rotor noise prediction. It is argued that in many instances the acoustic analogy has not been used with care in rotor noise studies. By this it is meant that approximate or inappropriate formulations have been used. By considering various mechanisms of noise generation, such abuses are identified and the remedy is suggested. The mechanisms discussed are thickness, loading, quadrupole, and blade-vortex interaction noise. The quadrupole term of the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equation is written in a new form which separates the contributions of regions of high gradients such as shock surfaces. It is shown by order of magnitude studies that such regions are capable of producing noise with the same directivity as the thickness noise. The inclusion of this part of quadrupole sources in current acoustic codes is quite practical. Some of the difficulties with the use of loading noise formulations of the first author in predictions of blade-vortex interaction noise are discussed. It appears that there is a need for development of new theoretical results based on the acoustic analogy in this area. Because of the impulsive character of the blade surface pressure, a time scale of integration different from that used in loading and thickness computations must he used in a computer code for prediction of blade-vortex interaction noise.

Farassat, F.; Brentner, Kenneth S.

1987-01-01

286

Maneuvering Rotorcraft Noise Prediction: A New Code for a New Problem.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper presents the unique aspects of the development of an entirely new maneuver noise prediction code called PSU-WOPWOP. The main focus of the code is the aeroacoustic aspects of the maneuver noise problem, when the aeromechanical input data are pro...

K. S. Brentner G. A. Bres G. Perez H. E. Jones

2002-01-01

287

A Study on Predicting Shinkansen Noise Levels Using the Sound Intensity Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate a new method developed to predict track wayside noise levels resulting from the passage of high-speed trains. The method calculates noise levels based on data acquired by the sound intensity method developed by the Central Japan Railway Company. This measurement method allows one to identify each sound source and its characteristics as

Tadashi Okada

2004-01-01

288

In-Vehicle Tire Sound Quality Prediction from Tire Noise Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tire Sound Quality is an increasingly important factor for customer satisfaction within the replacement tire market. Manufacturers who compete in this market must be capable of predicting a driver's perception of tire noise as early in the design process as possible in order to reduce development time and cost. Typical methods for tire noise evaluation each have limitations that require

Eric C. Frank; D. J. Pickering; Chris Raglin; Cooper Tire

289

Validation of Finite Element and Boundary Element Methods for Predicting Structural Vibration and Radiated Noise.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Analytical and experimental validation of methods to predict structural vibration and radiated noise is presented in this paper. A rectangular box excited by a mechanical shaker was used as a vibrating structure. Combined finite element method (FEM) and b...

A. F. Seybert X. F. Wu F. B. Oswald

1992-01-01

290

Validation of Finite Element and Boundary Element Methods for Predicting Structural Vibration and Radiated Noise.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Analytical and experimental validation of methods to predict structural vibration and radiated noise are presented. A rectangular box excited by a mechanical shaker was used as a vibrating structure. Combined finite element method (FEM) and boundary eleme...

A. F. Seybert X. F. Wu F. B. Oswald

1992-01-01

291

Effect of Nondeterministic Parameters on Shock-Associated Noise Prediction Modeling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Engineering applications for aircraft noise prediction contain models for physical phenomenon that enable solutions to be computed quickly. These models contain parameters that have an uncertainty not accounted for in the solution. To include uncertainty ...

A. Khavaran M. D. Dahl

2010-01-01

292

Practical Wind Speed and Rain Rate Prediction from Underwater Noise  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Equations for estimating wind speed and rain rate from underwater noise are derived in this paper. Data from both this study and other published studies were used. Data for this study were collected during Oct and Nov 1988 off south Florida in 50 m of wat...

M. H. Pickett R. L. Pickett

1991-01-01

293

Peculiarities of Human Sleep under Conditions of Continuous Prolonged Influence of Broad-Band Noise of Average Intensity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Studies were conducted at the Prof. F. D. Garbov laboratory on the effects of continuous protracted broad band noise on sleep and on the transitional state between sleep and wakefulness to determine the physiological basis for the disturbing effects of no...

V. I. Myasnikov O. P. Kozerenko I. Y. Yakovleva E. I. Matsnev I. P. Lebedeva

1969-01-01

294

Temporally Weighted Linear Prediction Features for Tackling Additive Noise in Speaker Verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Text-independent speaker verification under additive noise corruption is considered. In the popular mel-frequency cepstral coefficient (MFCC) front-end, the conventional Fourier-based spectrum estimation is substituted with weighted linear predictive methods, which have earlier shown success in noise-robust speech recognition. Two temporally weighted variants of linear predictive modeling are introduced to speaker verification and they are compared to FFT, which is normally

Rahim Saeidi; Jouni Pohjalainen; Tomi Kinnunen; Paavo Alku

2010-01-01

295

Small Engine Technology (SET) Task 23 ANOPP Noise Prediction for Small Engines, Wing Reflection Code  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The work performed under Task 23 consisted of the development and demonstration of improvements for the NASA Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP), specifically targeted to the modeling of engine noise enhancement due to wing reflection. This report focuses on development of the model and procedure to predict the effects of wing reflection, and the demonstration of the procedure, using a representative wing/engine configuration.

Lieber, Lysbeth; Brown, Daniel; Golub, Robert A. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

296

Prediction of fractures in perimenopausal women: a comparison of dual energy x ray absorptiometry and broadband ultrasound attenuation.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To consider whether bone mineral density (BMD) measurements can predict traumatic fractures occurring in perimenopausal women. METHODS: One thousand perimenopausal women called up for screening underwent both dual energy x ray absorptiometry (DXA) of the spine and hip, and broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) of the heel. Two years later, they were sent a questionnaire to discover those who had since had a fracture, and compare them with those who had not. RESULTS: About 2% of the women had sustained a fracture in the two years since attendance for screening. Fractures in this age group can be predicted weakly, but significantly, by bone mass measurements using DXA and BUA (odds ratios from 1.4 to 2.1). The lumbar spine appeared to be one of the best predictive sites (odds ratio for 1 SD reduction in BMD 2.1 (95% confidence interval 1.2 to 3.8)), but no significant differences were found between the areas under the curve in receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis. CONCLUSION: In this preliminary study it appeared that bone mass measurements are predictive of perimenopausal traumatic fractures in addition to postmenopausal fractures related to osteoporosis. DXA of the lumbar spine did not perform significantly better than BUA. The number of fractures occurring was low, however, and further long term follow up is required to confirm the finding.

Stewart, A; Torgerson, D J; Reid, D M

1996-01-01

297

Development of a traffic noise prediction model for an urban environment.  

PubMed

The objective of this study is to develop a traffic noise model under diverse traffic conditions in metropolitan cities. The model has been developed to calculate equivalent traffic noise based on four input variables i.e. equivalent traffic flow (Q e ), equivalent vehicle speed (S e ) and distance (d) and honking (h). The traffic data is collected and statistically analyzed in three different cases for 15-min during morning and evening rush hours. Case I represents congested traffic where equivalent vehicle speed is <30 km/h while case II represents free-flowing traffic where equivalent vehicle speed is >30 km/h and case III represents calm traffic where no honking is recorded. The noise model showed better results than earlier developed noise model for Indian traffic conditions. A comparative assessment between present and earlier developed noise model has also been presented in the study. The model is validated with measured noise levels and the correlation coefficients between measured and predicted noise levels were found to be 0.75, 0.83 and 0.86 for case I, II and III respectively. The noise model performs reasonably well under different traffic conditions and could be implemented for traffic noise prediction at other region as well. PMID:24583682

Sharma, Asheesh; Bodhe, G L; Schimak, G

2014-01-01

298

Interior noise control prediction study for high-speed propeller-driven aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analytical model was developed to predict the noise levels inside propeller-driven aircraft during cruise at M = 0.8. The model was applied to three study aircraft with fuselages of different size (wide body, narrow body and small diameter) in order to determine the noise reductions required to achieve the goal of an A-weighted sound level which does not exceed 80 dB. The model was then used to determine noise control methods which could achieve the required noise reductions. Two classes of noise control treatments were investigated: add-on treatments which can be added to existing structures, and advanced concepts which would require changes to the fuselage primary structure. Only one treatment, a double wall with limp panel, provided the required noise reductions. Weight penalties associated with the treatment were estimated for the three study aircraft.

Rennison, D. C.; Wilby, J. F.; Marsh, A. H.; Wilby, E. G.

1979-01-01

299

Perpendicular blade vortex interaction and its implications for helicopter noise prediction: Wave-number frequency spectra in a trailing vortex for BWI noise prediction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Perpendicular blade vortex interactions are a common occurrence in helicopter rotor flows. Under certain conditions they produce a substantial proportion of the acoustic noise. However, the mechanism of noise generation is not well understood. Specifically, turbulence associated with the trailing vortices shed from the blade tips appears insufficient to account for the noise generated. The hypothesis that the first perpendicular interaction experienced by a trailing vortex alters its turbulence structure in such a way as to increase the acoustic noise generated by subsequent interactions is examined. To investigate this hypothesis a two-part investigation was carried out. In the first part, experiments were performed to examine the behavior of a streamwise vortex as it passed over and downstream of a spanwise blade in incompressible flow. Blade vortex separations between +/- one eighth chord were studied for at a chord Reynolds number of 200,000. Three-component velocity and turbulence measurements were made in the flow from 4 chord lengths upstream to 15 chordlengths downstream of the blade using miniature 4-sensor hot wire probes. These measurements show that the interaction of the vortex with the blade and its wake causes the vortex core to loose circulation and diffuse much more rapidly than it otherwise would. Core radius increases and peak tangential velocity decreases with distance downstream of the blade. True turbulence levels within the core are much larger downstream than upstream of the blade. The net result is a much larger and more intense region of turbulent flow than that presented by the original vortex and thus, by implication, a greater potential for generating acoustic noise. In the second part, the turbulence measurements described above were used to derive the necessary inputs to a Blade Wake Interaction (BWI) noise prediction scheme. This resulted in significantly improved agreement between measurements and calculations of the BWI noise spectrum especially for the spectral peak at low frequencies, which previously was poorly predicted.

Devenport, William J.; Glegg, Stewart A. L.

1993-01-01

300

Improved NASA-ANOPP Noise Prediction Computer Code for Advanced Subsonic Propulsion Systems. Volume 2; Fan Suppression Model Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Aircraft Noise Predication Program (ANOPP) is an industry-wide tool used to predict turbofan engine flyover noise in system noise optimization studies. Its goal is to provide the best currently available methods for source noise prediction. As part of a program to improve the Heidmann fan noise model, models for fan inlet and fan exhaust noise suppression estimation that are based on simple engine and acoustic geometry inputs have been developed. The models can be used to predict sound power level suppression and sound pressure level suppression at a position specified relative to the engine inlet.

Kontos, Karen B.; Kraft, Robert E.; Gliebe, Philip R.

1996-01-01

301

The Acoustic Analogy: A Powerful Tool in Aeroacoustics with Emphasis on Jet Noise Prediction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The acoustic analogy introduced by Lighthill to study jet noise is now over 50 years old. In the present paper, Lighthill s Acoustic Analogy is revisited together with a brief evaluation of the state-of-the-art of the subject and an exploration of the possibility of further improvements in jet noise prediction from analytical methods, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) predictions, and measurement techniques. Experimental Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) data is used both to evaluate turbulent statistics from Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) CFD and to propose correlation models for the Lighthill stress tensor. The NASA Langley Jet3D code is used to study the effect of these models on jet noise prediction. From the analytical investigation, a retarded time correction is shown that improves, by approximately 8 dB, the over-prediction of aft-arc jet noise by Jet3D. In experimental investigation, the PIV data agree well with the CFD mean flow predictions, with room for improvement in Reynolds stress predictions. Initial modifications, suggested by the PIV data, to the form of the Jet3D correlation model showed no noticeable improvements in jet noise prediction.

Farassat, F.; Doty, Michael J.; Hunter, Craig A.

2004-01-01

302

Development of a traffic noise prediction model on inland waterway of China using the FHWA.  

PubMed

Based on the local environmental standards, vessels types and traffic conditions, an inland waterway traffic noise prediction model was developed for use in China. This model was modified from the US FHWA model by adding the ground absorption and water surface attenuation correction terms to the governing equations. The parameters that were input into the equations, including traffic flow, vessel speed, distance from the center of the inland waterway to the receiver, position and height of the barriers and buildings, location of the receiver, type of ground, percentage of soft ground cover within the segment, and water surface conditions were re-defined. The model was validated by comparing the measured noise levels obtained at 33 sampling sites from Shugang Channel, Yanhe Channel and Danjinlicaohe Channel in China with the predicted values. The deviation between the predicted and measured noise levels within the range of ±1.5dB(A) was 81.8%. The mean difference between the predicted and measured noise levels was 0.15±1.75dB(A). However, the noise levels predicted developed model are generally higher than the measured levels. Overall, the comparison has proved that the developed method is of a high precision, and that it can be applied to estimate the traffic noise exposure level on inland waterway in China. PMID:23810035

Dai, Ben-lin; He, Yu-long; Mu, Fei-hu; Xu, Ning; Wu, Zhen

2014-06-01

303

Development and Validation of a Multidisciplinary Tool for Accurate and Efficient Rotorcraft Noise Prediction (MUTE)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A physics-based, systematically coupled, multidisciplinary prediction tool (MUTE) for rotorcraft noise was developed and validated with a wide range of flight configurations and conditions. MUTE is an aggregation of multidisciplinary computational tools that accurately and efficiently model the physics of the source of rotorcraft noise, and predict the noise at far-field observer locations. It uses systematic coupling approaches among multiple disciplines including Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), Computational Structural Dynamics (CSD), and high fidelity acoustics. Within MUTE, advanced high-order CFD tools are used around the rotor blade to predict the transonic flow (shock wave) effects, which generate the high-speed impulsive noise. Predictions of the blade-vortex interaction noise in low speed flight are also improved by using the Particle Vortex Transport Method (PVTM), which preserves the wake flow details required for blade/wake and fuselage/wake interactions. The accuracy of the source noise prediction is further improved by utilizing a coupling approach between CFD and CSD, so that the effects of key structural dynamics, elastic blade deformations, and trim solutions are correctly represented in the analysis. The blade loading information and/or the flow field parameters around the rotor blade predicted by the CFD/CSD coupling approach are used to predict the acoustic signatures at far-field observer locations with a high-fidelity noise propagation code (WOPWOP3). The predicted results from the MUTE tool for rotor blade aerodynamic loading and far-field acoustic signatures are compared and validated with a variation of experimental data sets, such as UH60-A data, DNW test data and HART II test data.

Liu, Yi; Anusonti-Inthra, Phuriwat; Diskin, Boris

2011-01-01

304

Prediction of mechanical properties of the human calcaneus by broadband ultrasonic attenuation.  

PubMed

Broadband ultrasonic attenuation (dB MHz cm-1, nBUA) was determined for specimens from 20 human calcanei, along with apparent density, elasticity (Young's modulus), and compressive strength. The calcanei were modified to provide "whole" (only soft tissue removed), "core" (mediolateral cores corresponding to in vivo measurement region), "can" (cortical end plates removed from core), and "def" (core defatted) samples. The nBUA values for the various modifications were highly correlated. The presence of the cortical endplates creates a significant nBUA, probably due to complex phase interactions. nBUAcan was a good predictor of elasticity (R2 = 75.7%) and strength (R2 = 73.6%). Apparent density was a better predictor of the mechanical variables than nBUA, with R2 values of 88.5% for elasticity and 87.6% for strength. The morphological anisotropy defined by "fabric" for the specimens was extremely uniform. The coefficient of variation in nBUA (40.5%) and compressive strength (64.4%) was significantly greater than for apparent density (23.5%) and fabric (6.7%). It is well known that a power law relationship exists between apparent density and elasticity or strength in cancellous bone. An interesting finding in this work is that there also appears to be a power law relationship between nBUA and apparent density, with an exponent of approximately 2, which, in the light of clinical implications, warrants further investigation. PMID:8805988

Langton, C M; Njeh, C F; Hodgskinson, R; Currey, J D

1996-06-01

305

Analysis of impact/impulse noise for predicting noise induced hearing loss  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies indicate that the statistical properties and temporal structure of the sound signal are important in determining the extent of hearing hazard. As part of a pilot study to examine hearing conservation program effectiveness, NIOSH collected noise samples of impact noise sources in an automobile stamping plant, focusing on jobs with peak sound levels (Lpk) of greater than 120 dB. Digital tape recordings of sounds were collected using a Type I Precision Sound Level Meter and microphone connected to a DAT tape recorder. The events were archived and processed as .wav files to extract single events of interest on CD-R media and CD audio media. A preliminary analysis of sample wavelet files was conducted to characterize each event using metrics such as the number of impulses per unit time, the repetition rate or temporal pattern of these impulses, index of peakedness, crest factor, kurtosis, coefficient of kurtosis, rise time, fall time, and peak time. The spectrum, duration, and inverse of duration for each waveform were also computed. Finally, the data were evaluated with the Auditory Hazard Assessment Algorithm (AHAAH). Improvements to data collection for a future study examining different strategies for evaluating industrial noise exposure will be discussed.

Vipperman, Jeffrey S.; Prince, Mary M.; Flamm, Angela M.

2003-04-01

306

An empirical method for predicting the mixing noise levels of subsonic circular and coaxial jets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An empirical method for predicting the static free field source noise levels of subsonic circular and coaxial jet flow streams is presented. The method was developed from an extensive data base of 817 jet tests obtained from five different government and industry sources in three nations. The prediction method defines the jet noise in terms of four components which are overall power level, power spectrum level, directivity index, and relative spectrum level. The values of these noise level components are defined on a grid consisting of seven frequency parameter values (Strouhal numbers) and seven directivity angles. The value of the noise level at each of these grid points is called a noise level coordinate and was defined as a function of five jet exhaust flow state parameters which are equivalent jet velocity, equivalent jet total temperature, the velocity ratio (outer stream to inner stream), temperature ratio, and area ratio. The functions were obtained by curve fitting in a least squares sense the noise level coordinates from the data base in a five dimensional flow state space using a third order Taylor series. The noise level coordinates define the component noise levels for all frequencies and directivities through a bicubic spline function.

Russell, J. W.

1984-01-01

307

Auditory brainstem measures predict reading and speech-in-noise perception in school-aged children  

PubMed Central

Reading and speech-in-noise perception, fundamental aspects of human communication, have been linked to neural indices of auditory brainstem function. However, how these factors interact is currently unclear. Multivariate analysis methods (structural equation modeling) were employed to delineate and quantify the relationships among factors that relate to successful reading and speech-in-noise perception in children. Neural measures of subcortical speech encoding that reflect the utilization of stimulus regularities, differentiation of stop consonants, and robustness of neural synchrony predicted 73% of the variance in reading scores. A different combination of neural measures, specifically, utilization of stimulus regularities, strength of encoding of lower harmonics, and the extent of noise-induced timing delays uniquely predicted 56% of the variance in speech-in-noise perception measures. The neural measures relating to reading and speech-in-noise perception were substantially non-overlapping and resulted in poor fitting models when substituted for each other, thereby suggesting distinct neural signatures for the two skills. When phonological processing and working memory measures were added to the models, brainstem measures still uniquely predicted variance in reading ability and speech-in-noise perception, highlighting the robustness of the relationship between subcortical auditory function and these skills. The current study suggests that objective neural markers may prove valuable in the assessment of reading or speech-in-noise abilities in children.

Hornickel, Jane; Chandrasekaran, Bharath; Zecker, Steve; Kraus, Nina

2010-01-01

308

Development of an Empirical Methods for Predicting Jet Mixing Noise of Cold Flow Rectangular Jets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents an empirical method for predicting the jet mixing noise levels of cold flow rectangular jets. The report presents a detailed analysis of the methodology used in development of the prediction method. The empirical correlations used are based on narrow band acoustic data for cold flow rectangular model nozzle tests conducted in the NASA Langley Jet Noise Laboratory. There were 20 separate nozzle test operating conditions. For each operating condition 60 Hz bandwidth microphone measurements were made over a frequency range from 0 to 60,000 Hz. Measurements were performed at 16 polar directivity angles ranging from 45 degrees to 157.5 degrees. At each polar directivity angle, measurements were made at 9 azimuth directivity angles. The report shows the methods employed to remove screech tones and shock noise from the data in order to obtain the jet mixing noise component. The jet mixing noise was defined in terms of one third octave band spectral content, polar and azimuth directivity, and overall power level. Empirical correlations were performed over the range of test conditions to define each of these jet mixing noise parameters as a function of aspect ratio, jet velocity, and polar and azimuth directivity angles. The report presents the method for predicting the overall power level, the average polar directivity, the azimuth directivity and the location and shape of the spectra for jet mixing noise of cold flow rectangular jets.

Russell, James W.

1999-01-01

309

Application of FEM/SEA for prediction of aircraft cockpit noise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interior noise restrictions in commercial and military aircraft has led to the need for accurate noise transmission prediction capabilities. Predictions are needed in the later aircraft design stages, so that the structural and acoustic changes and/or active control methods can be optimized with a minimal impact on weight and other considerations. The objective of the proposed paper is to investigate the use of the finite element method (FEM) and statistical energy analysis (SEA) method for the prediction of interior noise in an aircraft cockpit. For the cockpit configuration under study, the internal noise is dominated by low-frequency discrete resonant peaks (less than 500 Hz). After examining the available flight test cockpit internal noise data in conjunction with the canopy vibration data, it was concluded that the principal noise source is due to the external turbulent flow exciting the canopy and radiating into the cockpit. Thus the study focused on the resonant noise transmission of the canopy into the small enclosed cockpit air space. The frequency range of primary interest is well below the critical frequency range.

Engelstad, S. P.

310

A noise level prediction method based on electro-mechanical frequency response function for capacitors.  

PubMed

The capacitors in high-voltage direct-current (HVDC) converter stations radiate a lot of audible noise which can reach higher than 100 dB. The existing noise level prediction methods are not satisfying enough. In this paper, a new noise level prediction method is proposed based on a frequency response function considering both electrical and mechanical characteristics of capacitors. The electro-mechanical frequency response function (EMFRF) is defined as the frequency domain quotient of the vibration response and the squared capacitor voltage, and it is obtained from impulse current experiment. Under given excitations, the vibration response of the capacitor tank is the product of EMFRF and the square of the given capacitor voltage in frequency domain, and the radiated audible noise is calculated by structure acoustic coupling formulas. The noise level under the same excitations is also measured in laboratory, and the results are compared with the prediction. The comparison proves that the noise prediction method is effective. PMID:24349105

Zhu, Lingyu; Ji, Shengchang; Shen, Qi; Liu, Yuan; Li, Jinyu; Liu, Hao

2013-01-01

311

“Buzz-saw” noise: A comparison of modal measurements with an improved prediction method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"Buzz-saw" noise is radiated from a turbofan inlet duct when the fan tip speed is supersonic. In a recent article the effect of an acoustic liner on buzz-saw noise has been examined. Spectral measurements in a rigid and an acoustically lined inlet duct have been compared. Also these measurements have been utilized to assess a buzz-saw noise prediction method. The prediction method is based on a one-dimensional nonlinear propagation model. Sound absorption by an acoustic lining can be included in the model. In this article, the buzz-saw noise prediction method is improved by the inclusion in the modelling of the effect of a boundary layer on absorption of sound in a lined duct. Also, modal measurements from a circumferential microphone array have been examined. These show that the principal source of buzz-saw noise is not always the rotor-alone pressure field. Non-rotor-alone scattered tones can be a significant source of buzz-saw noise at low supersonic fan speeds. The numerical simulations, which only predict the rotor-alone tones, have been re-evaluated in light of these new modal measurements.

McAlpine, A.; Fisher, M. J.; Tester, B. J.

2007-10-01

312

A prediction procedure for propeller aircraft flyover noise based on empirical data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-eight different flyover noise certification tests are analyzed using multiple linear regression methods. A prediction model is presented based on this analysis, and the results compared with the test data and two other prediction methods. The aircraft analyzed include 30 single engine aircraft, 16 twin engine piston aircraft, and two twin engine turboprops. The importance of helical tip Mach number

M. H. Smith

1981-01-01

313

Comparison of Transmission Error Predictions with Noise Measurements for Several Spur and Helical Gears  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measured sound power data from eight different spur, single and double helical gear designs are compared with predictions of transmission error by the Load Distribution Program. The sound power data was taken from the recent Army-funded Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission project. Tests were conducted in the NASA gear noise rig. Results of both test data and transmission error predictions are made for each harmonic of mesh frequency at several operating conditions. In general, the transmission error predictions compare favorably with the measured noise levels.

Houser, Donald R.; Oswald, Fred B.; Valco, Mark J.; Drago, Raymond J.; Lenski, Joseph W., Jr.

1994-01-01

314

Development of a Prediction Scheme for High Aspect-Ratio Jet Noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Circulation control wings are a type of pneumatic high-lift device that have been extensively researched as to their aerodynamic benefits. However, there has been little research into the possible airframe noise reduction benefits of a circulation control wing. The key element of noise is the jet noise associated with the jet sheet emitted from the blowing slot. This jet sheet is essentially a high aspect-ratio rectangular jet. A recent study on high aspect-ratio jet noise was performed on a nozzle with aspect-ratios ranging from 100 to 3,000. In addition to the acoustic data, fluid dynamic measurements were made as well. This paper uses the results of these two studies and attempts to develop a prediction scheme for high aspect-ratio jet noise

Munro, Scott E.; Ahuja, K. K.

2003-01-01

315

Curved Duct Noise Prediction Using the Fast Scattering Code  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of a study to validate the Fast Scattering Code (FSC) as a duct noise predictor, including the effects of curvature, finite impedance on the walls, and uniform background flow, are presented in this paper. Infinite duct theory was used to generate the modal content of the sound propagating within the duct. Liner effects were incorporated via a sound absorbing boundary condition on the scattering surfaces. Simulations for a rectangular duct of constant cross-sectional area have been compared to analytical solutions and experimental data. Comparisons with analytical results indicate that the code can properly calculate a given dominant mode for hardwall surfaces. Simulated acoustic behavior in the presence of lined walls (using hardwall duct modes as incident sound) is consistent with expected trends. Duct curvature was found to enhance weaker modes and reduce pressure amplitude. Agreement between simulated and experimental results for a straight duct with hard walls (no flow) was excellent.

Dunn, M. H.; Tinetti, Ana F.; Farassat, F.

2007-01-01

316

Prediction of the interior noise levels of high-speed propeller-driven aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The theoretical basis for an analytical model developed to predict the interior noise levels of high-speed propeller-driven airplanes is presented. Particular emphasis is given to modeling the transmission of discrete tones through a fuselage element into a cavity, estimates for the mean and standard deviation of the acoustic power flow, the coupling between a non-homogeneous excitation and the fuselage vibration response, and the prediction of maximum interior noise levels. The model allows for convenient examination of the various roles of the excitation and fuselage structural characteristics on the fuselage vibration response and the interior noise levels, as is required for the design of model or prototype noise control validation tests.

Rennison, D. C.; Wilby, J. F.; Wilby, E. G.

1980-01-01

317

Experimental validation of finite element and boundary element methods for predicting structural vibration and radiated noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This research report is presented in three parts. In the first part, acoustical analyses were performed on modes of vibration of the housing of a transmission of a gear test rig developed by NASA. The modes of vibration of the transmission housing were measured using experimental modal analysis. The boundary element method (BEM) was used to calculate the sound pressure and sound intensity on the surface of the housing and the radiation efficiency of each mode. The radiation efficiency of each of the transmission housing modes was then compared to theoretical results for a finite baffled plate. In the second part, analytical and experimental validation of methods to predict structural vibration and radiated noise are presented. A rectangular box excited by a mechanical shaker was used as a vibrating structure. Combined finite element method (FEM) and boundary element method (BEM) models of the apparatus were used to predict the noise level radiated from the box. The FEM was used to predict the vibration, while the BEM was used to predict the sound intensity and total radiated sound power using surface vibration as the input data. Vibration predicted by the FEM model was validated by experimental modal analysis; noise predicted by the BEM was validated by measurements of sound intensity. Three types of results are presented for the total radiated sound power: sound power predicted by the BEM model using vibration data measured on the surface of the box; sound power predicted by the FEM/BEM model; and sound power measured by an acoustic intensity scan. In the third part, the structure used in part two was modified. A rib was attached to the top plate of the structure. The FEM and BEM were then used to predict structural vibration and radiated noise respectively. The predicted vibration and radiated noise were then validated through experimentation.

Seybert, A. F.; Wu, T. W.; Wu, X. F.

1994-01-01

318

TFaNS Tone Fan Noise Design/Prediction System. Volume 3; Evaluation of System Codes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

TFANS is the Tone Fan Noise Design/Prediction System developed by Pratt & Whitney under contract to NASA Lewis (presently NASA Glenn). The purpose of this system is to predict tone noise emanating from a fan stage including the effects of reflection and transmission by the rotor and stator and by the duct inlet and nozzle. These effects have been added to an existing annular duct/isolated stator noise prediction capability. TFANS consists of: The codes that compute the acoustic properties (reflection and transmission coefficients) of the various elements and write them to files. Cup3D: Fan Noise Coupling Code that reads these files, solves the coupling problem, and outputs the desired noise predictions. AWAKEN: CFD/Measured Wake Postprocessor which reformats CFD wake predictions and/or measured wake data so it can be used by the system. This volume of the report evaluates TFANS versus full-scale and ADP 22" fig data using the semi-empirical wake modelling in the system. This report is divided into three volumes: Volume 1: System Description, CUP3D Technical Documentation, and Manual for Code Developers; Volume II: User's Manual, TFANS Version 1.4; Volume III: Evaluation of System Codes.

Topol, David A.

1999-01-01

319

Measurement and prediction of speech and noise levels and the Lombard effect in eating establishments.  

PubMed

Measurements made of the acoustical characteristics of, and occupied noise levels in, ten eating establishments are described. Levels to which diners and employees were exposed varied from 45 to 82 dB(A). From these levels and diner questionnaire responses, the number of customers present and average noise levels to which individual diners were exposed during their visits were estimated. These data, assumptions about the number of talkers per customer, and classical room-acoustical theory were used to deduce talker voice output levels. These varied from slightly above "casual" to "loud." An iterative model for predicting speech and noise levels in eating establishments, including the Lombard effect as described by a new, proposed model, was developed. With the measured noise levels as the target for prediction, optimization techniques were used to find best estimates of unknown prediction parameters--such as those defining the Lombard effect, the number of talkers per customer, and the average absorption per customer--with highly credible results. The prediction algorithm and optimal parameters constitute a novel model for predicting speech and noise levels--and thus speech intelligibility--in eating establishments, as a function of the number of customers, including a proven, realistic model of the Lombard effect. PMID:17471719

Hodgson, Murray; Steininger, Gavin; Razavi, Zohreh

2007-04-01

320

Development of a Jet Noise Prediction Method for Installed Jet Configurations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes development of the Jet3D noise prediction method and its application to heated jets with complex three-dimensional flow fields and installation effects. Noise predictions were made for four separate flow bypass ratio five nozzle configurations tested in the NASA Langley Jet Noise Laboratory. These configurations consist of a round core and fan nozzle with and without pylon, and an eight chevron core nozzle and round fan nozzle with and without pylon. Predicted SPL data were in good agreement with experimental noise measurements up to 121 inlet angle, beyond which Jet3D under predicted low frequency levels. This is due to inherent limitations in the formulation of Lighthill's Acoustic Analogy used in Jet3D, and will be corrected in ongoing development. Jet3D did an excellent job predicting full scale EPNL for nonchevron configurations, and captured the effect of the pylon, correctly predicting a reduction in EPNL. EPNL predictions for chevron configurations were not in good agreement with measured data, likely due to the lower mixing and longer potential cores in the CFD simulations of these cases.

Hunter, Craig A.; Thomas, Russell H.

2003-01-01

321

Comprehensive approach for the development of traffic noise prediction model for Jaipur city.  

PubMed

The main objective of the present study was to develop an empirical noise prediction model for the evaluation of equivalent noise level (Leq) in terms of equivalent traffic density number under heterogeneous traffic flow conditions. Ten commercial road networks are selected for monitoring and modeling. A new factor, i.e., equivalent number of light vehicles (EqLv) and for heavy vehicles (EqHv), has been used for evaluating the equivalent traffic density for each class of vehicles, and correlation graphs are plotted between equivalent traffic density with respect to EqLv and EqHv and observed equivalent noise level [Leq(o)] for the calculation of equivalent noise levels in terms of light vehicles [Leq(Lv)] and heavy vehicles [Leq(Hv)] for different identified locations as well as for the entire city. Furthermore, regression noise prediction equations have been developed between Leq(o), Leq(Lv), and Leq(Hv). After comparison of the results, it can be depicted that the light motor vehicles are the main source of noise pollution in the city and gives significantly higher correlation coefficient values. This model can be applied for the calculation of road traffic noise under interrupted traffic flow conditions in urban areas of Indian cities. PMID:20140507

Agarwal, Sheetal; Swami, B L

2011-01-01

322

Frequency-Domain Equalization with Iterative Block Noise-Prediction for Single-Carrier Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this letter, we propose a novel frequency-domain equalizer (FDE) for single-carrier systems characterized by severe inter-symbol interference (ISI) channels; it consists of a linear FDE and an iterative block noise-predictor (IBNP). Unlike the FDE with time-domain noise predictor (FDE-NP), the proposed scheme allows the feedback equalizer being an uncausal filter, and performs the noise prediction in an iterative manner. For this reason, FDE-IBNP can remove both precursor and postcursor ISI, and alleviate the impact of error-propagation. Besides, our scheme has lower computational complexity than the present iterative block equalizers.

Feng, Ang; Yin, Qinye

323

Embracing noise to improve cross-batch prediction accuracy  

PubMed Central

One important application of microarray in clinical settings is for constructing a diagnosis or prognosis model. Batch effects are a well-known obstacle in this type of applications. Recently, a prominent study was published on how batch effects removal techniques could potentially improve microarray prediction performance. However, the results were not very encouraging, as prediction performance did not always improve. In fact, in up to 20% of the cases, prediction accuracy was reduced. Furthermore, it was stated in the paper that the techniques studied require sufficiently large sample sizes in both batches (train and test) to be effective, which is not a realistic situation especially in clinical settings. In this paper, we propose a different approach, which is able to overcome limitations faced by conventional methods. Our approach uses ranking value of microarray data and a bagging ensemble classifier with sequential hypothesis testing to dynamically determine the number of classifiers required in the ensemble. Using similar datasets to those in the original study, we showed that in only one case (<2%) is our performance reduced (by more than -0.05 AUC) and, in >60% of cases, it is improved (by more than 0.05 AUC). In addition, our approach works even on much smaller training data sets and is independent of the sample size of the test data, making it feasible to be applied on clinical studies.

2012-01-01

324

Noise produced by turbulent flow into a rotor: Users manual for atmospheric turbulence prediction and mean flow and turbulence contraction prediction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A users manual for a computer program for predicting atmospheric turbulence and mean flow and turbulence contraction as part of a noise prediction scheme for nonisotropic turbulence ingestion noise in helicopters is described. Included are descriptions of the various program modules and subroutines, their function, programming structure, and the required input and output variables. This routine is incorporated as one module of NASA's ROTONET helicopter noise prediction program.

Simonich, J. C.; Caplin, B.

1989-01-01

325

Advanced turboprop noise prediction: Development of a code at NASA Langley based on recent theoretical results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a high speed propeller noise prediction code at Langley Research Center is described. The code utilizes two recent acoustic formulations in the time domain for subsonic and supersonic sources. The structure and capabilities of the code are discussed. Grid size study for accuracy and speed of execution on a computer is also presented. The code is tested against an earlier Langley code. Considerable increase in accuracy and speed of execution are observed. Some examples of noise prediction of a high speed propeller for which acoustic test data are available are given. A brisk derivation of formulations used is given in an appendix.

Farassat, F.; Dunn, M. H.; Padula, S. L.

1986-01-01

326

Noise prediction for jetstar prop-fan test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The acoustic calculations reported in this memorandum are for two model prop-fan designs (SR-2 and SR-3 blades) scheduled for test on top of Jetstar aircraft. The predicted acoustic pressure signatures and spectra for selected microphone positions on the fuselage and operating conditions are presented. A detailed presentation of the input data, the acoustic results, and the corrections for microphone fuselage reflection are included. The general trend observed in these calculations is that the acoustically optimized model (using SR-3 blades) is substantially quieter than the model with SR-2 blades. This latter design has conventional straight blades.

Farassat, F.; Martin, R. M.; Greene, G. C.

1980-01-01

327

The New German Prediction Model for Railway Noise “Schall 03 2006” – Potentials of the New Calculation Method for Noise Mitigation of Planned Rail Traffic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The German prediction method for railway noise from new railway lines was revised by an expert team during the last five years.\\u000a The draft issue of “Schall 03 2006”[1] is available now. The calculation model is based on octave-band sound power levels\\u000a describing the emission in different heights of different vehicles, noise sources and parts of noise sources, e.g. roughness

U. Moehler; M. Liepert; U. Kurze; H. Onnich

328

Noise Certification Predictions for FJX-2-Powered Aircraft Using Analytic Methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Williams International Co. is currently developing the 700-pound thrust class FJX-2 turbofan engine for the general Aviation Propulsion Program's Turbine Engine Element. As part of the 1996 NASA-Williams cooperative working agreement, NASA agreed to analytically calculate the noise certification levels of the FJX-2-powered V-Jet II test bed aircraft. Although the V-Jet II is a demonstration aircraft that is unlikely to be produced and certified, the noise results presented here may be considered to be representative of the noise levels of small, general aviation jet aircraft that the FJX-2 would power. A single engine variant of the V-Jet II, the V-Jet I concept airplane, is also considered. Reported in this paper are the analytically predicted FJX-2/V-Jet noise levels appropriate for Federal Aviation Regulation certification. Also reported are FJX-2/V-Jet noise levels using noise metrics appropriate for the propeller-driven aircraft that will be its major market competition, as well as a sensitivity analysis of the certification noise levels to major system uncertainties.

Berton, Jeffrey J.

1999-01-01

329

An outdoor noise propagation study to predict the effect of a power plant expansion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of an outdoor noise propagation model using CadnaA were compared to test data obtained on-site. The subject property is the central utility plant of a hospital located in Milwaukee, scheduled to be expanded with the addition of cooling towers. The modeled area was 400 m squared with a resolution grid of 2 m squared. The model was used to validate the observed test data as well as to predict the anticipated noise levels at completion of the expansion. A total of 11 points were investigated and the predicted data were found to match the test values within 2 dB at many locations. The data from the model show that the anticipated noise levels at the East property line will exceed those mandated by local ordinances by 3 dB. The model also predicts that the addition of a three meter absorbing barrier and the use of reduced noise fans for the six cell cooling system will bring the overall noise level from the system into compliance.

Brasovan, Philip J.; Carney, Melinda J.; Cheenne, Dominique J.

2005-04-01

330

An improved prediction method for the noise generated in flight by circular jets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A semi-empirical model for predicting the noise generated by jets exhausting from circular nozzles is presented and compared with small-scale static and simulated-flight data. The present method is an updated version of that part of the original NASA aircraft noise prediction program relating to circular jet noise. The earlier method agreed reasonably well with experimental static and flight data for jet velocities up to approximately 520 m/sec. The poorer agreement at higher jet velocities appeared to be due primarily to the manner in which supersonic convection effects were formulated. The purely empirical supersonic convection formulation is replaced in the present method by one based on theoretical considerations. Other improvements of an empirical nature were included based on model-jet/free-jet simulated-flight tests. The effects of nozzle size, jet velocity, jet temperature, and flight are included.

Stone, J. R.; Montegani, F. J.

1980-01-01

331

Computational methods in the prediction of advanced subsonic and supersonic propeller induced noise: ASSPIN users' manual  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document describes the computational aspects of propeller noise prediction in the time domain and the use of high speed propeller noise prediction program ASSPIN (Advanced Subsonic and Supersonic Propeller Induced Noise). These formulations are valid in both the near and far fields. Two formulations are utilized by ASSPIN: (1) one is used for subsonic portions of the propeller blade; and (2) the second is used for transonic and supersonic regions on the blade. Switching between the two formulations is done automatically. ASSPIN incorporates advanced blade geometry and surface pressure modelling, adaptive observer time grid strategies, and contains enhanced numerical algorithms that result in reduced computational time. In addition, the ability to treat the nonaxial inflow case has been included.

Dunn, M. H.; Tarkenton, G. M.

1992-01-01

332

Development and validation of preliminary analytical models for aircraft interior noise prediction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Predictions are made of the transmission of sound into an unpressurized and unstiffened cylinder under random and harmonic excitations, in order to validate the preliminary version of an airplane interior noise prediction model which is based on an analysis of the power flow type. The predictions are compared to experimental results, and statistically significant differences between predictions and measurements are found to be primarily due to input data deficiencies. Because the model requires only the value of a simple integral for determining interior spatial coupling, and resonance frequencies to determine frequency coupling, the known dynamics of the fuselage can be utilized without difficulty.

Pope, L. D.; Rennison, D. C.; Willis, C. M.; Mayes, W. H.

1982-01-01

333

Prediction of blade-vortex interaction noise using measured blade pressures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the study reported here, blade-vortex interaction noise was predicted using a simplified model of blade pressures measured on a one-seventh scale model AH-1\\/OLS main rotor. The methods used for the acoustic prediction are based on the acoustic analogy and have been developed by Nakamura (1981) and by Brentner, Nystrom, and Farassat (referred to as the WOPWOP method). The waveforms

Mahendra C. Joshi; Sandy R. Liu; Donald A. Boxwell

1987-01-01

334

Semidistributed model of millimeter-wave FET for parameter and noise figure predictions  

Microsoft Academic Search

An electrical FET model, derived from a partition of the actual transistor along its gate width into N identical sections, is presented. This sliced model has two important advantages compared to distributed models: first, the derivation of its element values is obtained by directly applying Kirchhoff's laws, and second, inserting the noise sources is easy and makes possible the prediction

Laurent Escotte; Jean-Claude Mollier

1990-01-01

335

Interior Noise Reduction of Enclosure Using Predicted Characteristics of Porous Material  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the objective is to reduce the interior noise in a specific frequency band by using the predicted acoustical characteristics of a porous material. To identify the interior sound field of an enclosure, the Green's function is used and the analytical results are verified by comparing with experimental results. Foamed aluminum is used an absorption material to used

Jae-Eung Oh; Wootaek Kim

2001-01-01

336

Rotor blade-vortex interaction impulsive noise source identification and correlation with rotor wake predictions  

Microsoft Academic Search

An acoustic source localization scheme applicable to noncompact moving sources is developed and applied to the blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise data of a 40-percent scale BO-105 model rotor. A generalized rotor wake code is employed to predict possible VBI locations on the rotor disk and is found quite useful in interpreting the acoustic localization results. The highly varying directivity patterns

W. R. Splettstoesser; K. J. Schultz; Ruth M. Martin

1987-01-01

337

An improved method for predicting the effects of flight on jet mixing noise  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NASA method (1976) for predicting the effects of flight on jet mixing noise was improved. The earlier method agreed reasonably well with experimental flight data for jet velocities up to about 520 m\\/sec (approximately 1700 ft\\/sec). The poorer agreement at high jet velocities appeared to be due primarily to the manner in which supersonic convection effects were formulated. The

J. R. Stone

1979-01-01

338

Blade-vortex interaction noise - Prediction and comparison with flight and wind tunnel tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The BVI noise prediction method developed at ONERA is a combination of three computer programs. The first program (MESIR) calculates the geometry and the intensity of the main rotor wake using a free wake analysis. The second program (ARHIS) provides the blade pressure fluctuations induced by the rotor wake even for close interactions. The third code (PARIS), based on the

P. Spiegel; G. Rahier; B. Michea

1992-01-01

339

Prediction of airplane cabin noise due to engine shock cell excitation using statistical energy analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the effort in the 1980's to design fuel efficient propulsion systems (unducted fan engines) for large commercial airplanes, procedures were developed for predicting interior noise using statistical energy analysis (SEA). Due to stable fuel process and deregulation in the airline industry, the emphasis for propulsion systems on commercial airplanes shifted to higher thrust and lower operating costs.

Steven E. Marshall

1993-01-01

340

Rotorcraft noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The establishment of a realistic plan for NASA and the U.S. helicopter industry to develop a design-for-noise methodology, including plans for the identification and development of promising noise reduction technology was discussed. Topics included: noise reduction techniques, scaling laws, empirical noise prediction, psychoacoustics, and methods of developing and validing noise prediction methods.

Huston, R. J. (compiler)

1982-01-01

341

Noise reduction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The turbofan engine's noise-producing components are discussed in terms of efficient and economical noise reduction techniques that do not penalize the engine performance or weight significantly. Specific topics covered include fan noise, acoustic suppression, jet noise technology, combustor noise, and aircraft noise prediction.

Feiler, C. E.; Groeneweg, J. F.; Montegani, F. J.; Raney, J. P.; Rice, E. J.; Stone, J. R.

1979-01-01

342

The Prediction of Jet Noise Ground Effects Using an Acoustic Analogy and a Tailored Green's Function  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An assessment of an acoustic analogy for the mixing noise component of jet noise in the presence of an infinite surface is presented. The reflection of jet noise by the ground changes the distribution of acoustic energy and is characterized by constructive and destructive interference patterns. The equivalent sources are modeled based on the two-point cross- correlation of the turbulent velocity fluctuations and a steady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) solution. Propagation effects, due to reflection by the surface and refaction by the jet shear layer, are taken into account by calculating the vector Green's function of the linearized Euler equations (LEE). The vector Green's function of the LEE is written in relation to Lilley's equation; that is, approximated with matched asymptotic solutions and the Green's function of the convective Helmholtz equation. The Green's function of the convective Helmholtz equation for an infinite flat plane with impedance is the Weyl-van der Pol equation. Predictions are compared with an unheated Mach 0.95 jet produced by a nozzle with an exit diameter of 0.3302 meters. Microphones are placed at various heights and distances from the nozzle exit in the peak jet noise direction above an acoustically hard and an asphalt surface. The predictions are shown to accurately capture jet noise ground effects that are characterized by constructive and destructive interference patterns in the mid- and far-field and capture overall trends in the near-field.

Miller, Steven A. E.

2013-01-01

343

Prediction of Decisions from Noise in the Brain before the Evidence is Provided  

PubMed Central

Can decisions be predicted from brain activity? It is frequently difficult in neuroimaging studies to determine this, because it is not easy to establish when the decision has been taken. In a rigorous approach to this issue, we show that in a neurally plausible integrate-and-fire attractor-based model of decision-making, the noise generated by the randomness in the spiking times of neurons can be used to predict a decision for 0.5?s or more before the decision cues are applied. The ongoing noise at the time the decision cues are applied influences which decision will be taken. It is possible to predict on a single trial to more than 68% correct which of two decisions will be taken. The prediction is made from the spontaneous firing before the decision cues are applied in the two populations of neurons that represent the decisions. Thus decisions can be partly predicted even before the decision cues are applied, due to noise in the decision-making process. This analysis has interesting implications for decision-making and free will, for it shows that random neuronal firing times can influence a decision before the evidence for the decision has been provided.

Rolls, Edmund T.; Deco, Gustavo

2011-01-01

344

Turbine noise generation and suppression. [prediction method linking acoustic modes with aerodynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analytical method for the prediction of turbine generated noise is discussed. The method links the duct acoustic modes with the turbomachinery aerodynamics. The results of the analysis are compared with turbine component and engine results. Component data on the effects of the variation of axial spacing between blade rows on turbine aerodynamics and acoustics are presented. The results of an experimental evaluation of the relative importance of turbine noise on highly suppressed bypass turbofans are discussed. The development of high temperature acoustic treatment and its application to high bypass turbofans are presented.

Benzakein, M. J.; Smith, E. B.

1973-01-01

345

Analysis of Acoustic Modeling and Sound Propagation in Aircraft Noise Prediction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis has been performed of measured and predicted aircraft noise levels around Denver International Airport. A detailed examination was made of 90 straight-out departures that yielded good measurements on multiple monitors. Predictions were made with INM 5, INM 6 and the simulation model NMSIM. Predictions were consistently lower than measurements, less so for the simulation model than for the integrated models. Lateral directivity ("installation effect") patterns were seen which are consistent with other recent measurements. Atmospheric absorption was determined to be a significant factor in the underprediction. Calculations of atmospheric attenuation were made over a full year of upper air data at seven locations across the United States. It was found that temperature/humidity effects could cause variations of up to +/-4 dB, depending on season, for the sites examined. It was concluded that local temperature and humidity should be accounted for in aircraft noise modeling.

Plotkin, Kenneth J.; Shepherd, Kevin P. (Technical Monitor)

2006-01-01

346

Mean Flow and Noise Prediction for a Separate Flow Jet With Chevron Mixers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental and numerical results are presented here for a separate flow nozzle employing chevrons arranged in an alternating pattern on the core nozzle. Comparisons of these results demonstrate that the combination of the WIND/MGBK suite of codes can predict the noise reduction trends measured between separate flow jets with and without chevrons on the core nozzle. Mean flow predictions were validated against Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), pressure, and temperature data, and noise predictions were validated against acoustic measurements recorded in the NASA Glenn Aeroacoustic Propulsion Lab. Comparisons are also made to results from the CRAFT code. The work presented here is part of an on-going assessment of the WIND/MGBK suite for use in designing the next generation of quiet nozzles for turbofan engines.

Koch, L. Danielle; Bridges, James; Khavaran, Abbas

2004-01-01

347

Helicopter rotor rotational noise predictions based on measured high-frequency blade loads  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In tests conducted at the Langley helicopter rotor test facility, simultaneous measurements of up to 200 harmonics of the fluctuating aerodynamic blade surface pressures and far-field radiated noise were made on a full-scale nontranslating rotor system. After their characteristics were determined, the measured blade surface pressures were converted to loading coefficients and used in an existing theory to predict the far-field rotational noise. A comparison of the calculated and measured noise shows generally good agreement up to 300 to 600 Hz, depending on the discreteness of the loading spectrum. Specific attention is given to the effects of the blade loading coefficients, chordwise loading distributions, blade loading phases, and observer azimuthal position on the calculations.

Hosier, R. N.; Ramakrishnan, R.

1974-01-01

348

Prediction of blade-vortex interaction noise from measured blade pressure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The impulsive nature of noise due to the interaction of a rotor blade with a tip vortex is studied. The time signature of this noise is calculated theoretically based on the measured blade surface pressure fluctuation of an operational load survey rotor in slow descending flight and is compared with the simultaneous microphone measurement. Particularly, the physical understanding of the characteristic features of a waveform is extensively studied in order to understand the generating mechanism and to identify the important parameters. The interaction trajectory of a tip vortex on an acoustic planform is shown to be a very important parameter for the impulsive shape of the noise. The unsteady nature of the pressure distribution at the very leading edge is also important to the pulse shape. The theoretical model using noncompact liner acoustics predicts the general shape of interaction impulse pretty well except for peak amplitude which requires more continuous information along the span at the leading edge.

Nakamura, Y.

1981-01-01

349

The 136 MHz/400 MHz earth station antenna-noise temperature prediction program documentation for RAE-B  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simulation study to determine the 136 MHz and 400 MHz noise temperature of the ground network antennas which will track the RAE-B satellite during data transmission periods is described. Since the noise temperature of the antenna effectively sets the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the received signal, a knowledge of SNR will be helpful in locating the optimum time windows for data transmission during low-noise periods. Antenna-noise temperatures at 136 MHz and 400 MHz will be predicted for selected earth-based ground stations which will support RAE-B. The antenna-noise temperature predictions will include the effects of galactic-brightness temperature, the sun, and the brightest radio stars. Predictions will cover the ten-month period from March 1, 1973 to December 31, 1973. The RAE-B mission will be expecially susceptible to SNR degradation during the two eclipses of the Sun occurring in this period.

Chin, M.

1972-01-01

350

Large Civil Tiltrotor (LCTR2) Interior Noise Predictions due to Turbulent Boundary Layer Excitation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Large Civil Tiltrotor (LCTR2) is a conceptual vehicle that has a design goal to transport 90 passengers over a distance of 1800 km at a speed of 556 km/hr. In this study noise predictions were made in the notional LCTR2 cabin due to Cockburn/Robertson and Efimtsov turbulent boundary layer (TBL) excitation models. A narrowband hybrid Finite Element (FE) analysis was performed for the low frequencies (6-141 Hz) and a Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) was conducted for the high frequency one-third octave bands (125- 8000 Hz). It is shown that the interior sound pressure level distribution in the low frequencies is governed by interactions between individual structural and acoustic modes. The spatially averaged predicted interior sound pressure levels for the low frequency hybrid FE and the high frequency SEA analyses, due to the Efimtsov turbulent boundary layer excitation, were within 1 dB in the common 125 Hz one-third octave band. The averaged interior noise levels for the LCTR2 cabin were predicted lower than the levels in a comparable Bombardier Q400 aircraft cabin during cruise flight due to the higher cruise altitude and lower Mach number of the LCTR2. LCTR2 cabin noise due to TBL excitation during cruise flight was found not unacceptable for crew or passengers when predictions were compared to an acoustic survey on a Q400 aircraft.

Grosveld, Ferdinand W.

2013-01-01

351

A survey of models for the prediction of ambient ocean noise: Circa 1995  

SciTech Connect

The state of the art of model development for application to computer studies of undersea search systems utilizing acoustics is surveyed in this document. Due to the demands for surveillance of submarines operating in ocean basins, the development of noise models for application in deep oceans is fairly advanced and somewhat generic. This is due to the deep sound channel, discovered during World War II, which when present allows for long-range sound propagation with little or no interaction with the bottom. Exceptions to this channel, also well understood, are found in both the high latitudes where the sound is upward refracting and in tropical ocean areas with downward refracting sound transmission. The controlling parameter is the sound speed as a function of depth within the ocean, the sound speed profile. When independent of range, this profile may be converted to a noise-versus-depth profile with well-validated consequences for deep-ocean ambient noise. When considering ocean areas of shallow water, the littoral regions, the idea of a genenic ocean channel advisedly is abandoned. The locally unique nature of both the noise production mechanisms and of the channel carrying the sound, obviates the generic treatment. Nevertheless, idealizations of this case exist and promote the understanding if not the exact predictability of the statistics of shallow water ambient noise. Some examples of these models are given in this document.

Doolittle, R.

1996-01-01

352

The effects of vortex modeling on blade-vortex interaction noise prediction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of a blade vortex interaction noise prediction scheme, based on CAMRAD/JA, FPR and RAPP, quantifies the effects of errors and assumptions in the modeling of the helicopter's shed vortex on the acoustic predictions. CAMRAD/JA computes the wake geometry and inflow angles that are used in FPR to solve for the aerodynamic surface pressures. RAPP uses these surface pressures to predict the acoustic pressure. Both CAMRAD/JA and FPR utilize the Biot-Savart Law to determine the influence of the vortical velocities on the blade loading and both codes use an algebraic vortex model for the solid body rotation of the vortex core. Large changes in the specification of the vortex core size do not change the inplane wake geometry calculated by CAMRAD/JA and only slightly affect the out-of-plane wake geometry. However, the aerodynamic surface pressure calculated by FPR changes in both magnitude and character with small changes to the core size used by the FPR calculations. This in turn affects the acoustic predictions. Shifting the CAMRAD/JA wake geometry away from the rotor plane by 1/4 chord produces drastic changes in the acoustic predictions indicating that the prediction of acoustic pressure is extremely sensitive to the miss distance between the vortex and the blade and that this distance must be calculated as accurately as possible for acceptable noise predictions. The inclusion or exclusion of a vortex in the FPR-RAPP calculation allows for the determination of the relative importance of that vortex as a BVI noise source.

Gallman, Judith M.; Tung, Chee; Low, Scott L.

353

A computer program to predict rotor rotational noise of a stationary rotor from blade loading coefficient  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The programing language used is FORTRAN IV. A description of all main and subprograms is provided so that any user possessing a FORTRAN compiler and random access capability can adapt the program to his facility. Rotor blade surface-pressure spectra can be used by the program to calculate: (1) blade station loading spectra, (2) chordwise and/or spanwise integrated blade-loading spectra, and (3) far-field rotational noise spectra. Any of five standard inline functions describing the chordwise distribution of the blade loading can be chosen in order to study parametrically the acoustic predictions. The program output consists of both printed and graphic descriptions of the blade-loading coefficient spectra and far-field acoustic spectrum. The results may also be written on binary file for future processing. Examples of the application of the program along with a description of the rotational noise prediction theory on which the program is based are also provided.

Ramakrishnan, R.; Randall, D.; Hosier, R. N.

1976-01-01

354

Blade-vortex interaction noise predictions using measured blade surface pressures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The generation of helicopter noise by blade-vortex interactions during descent under impulsive conditions is investigated analytically. A noise-prediction technique is developed on the basis of the dipole source term of the Ffowcs-Williams/Hawkings equation and applied to data from simultaneous blade-pressure and acoustic measurements obtained by Cowan et al. (1986) on a 10-ft-diameter 4-blade rotor model in a wind tunnel. Preliminary results show that input-blade-airload azimuth resolution of 1 deg or better and computational azimuth step size of 2 deg or less are required to achieve good agreement between predicted and recorded acoustic time histories. The need for more sophisticated methods to model chordwise input data and for a more extensive experimental data base is indicated.

Ziegenbein, Perry R.; Oh, Byung K.

1987-01-01

355

Noise sampling issues for impact/impulse noise surveys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) has been recognized as a serious health concern for decades. ISO Standard 1999:1990 provides a means to predict noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) based on LAeq measurements in the working environments of workers. This standard seems to work well for predicting hearing loss in continuous noise fields. However, it is possible that ISO 1999 does not apply well to impact, impulsive, or other transient noise fields. NIOSH and University of Pittsburgh are currently developing noise-sampling strategies to measure impact and impulse noise in a manufacturing environment with the aim of developing new impulsive noise metrics. As part of the study, broadband impact/impulse pressure measurements will be made. Issues such as instrumentation, data quality, repeatability, spatial sampling, equipment portability, and calibration are addressed. Also, the annotation, digitization, and editing of the waveforms will be discussed. As part of the project, an archival database of manufacturing impulse/impact will be created to support the future algorithmic development. The ultimate goal of the project is to develop new metrics to characterize the hazards of impact/impulse noise that will complement ISO 1999 for predicting NIHL.

Prince, Mary M.; Vipperman, Jeffrey S.

2003-04-01

356

Signal-to-Noise Ratio Prediction and Validation for Space Shuttle GPS Flight Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A deterministic method for Space Station Global Positioning System (GPS) Signal-To- Noise Ratio (SNR) predictions is proposed. The complex electromagnetic interactions between GPS antennas and surrounding Space Station structures are taken into account by computational electromagnetic technique. This computer simulator is capable of taking into account multipath effects from dynamically changed solar panels and thermal radiators. A comparison with recent collected Space Station GPS system flight experiment data is presented. The simulation results are in close agreement with flight data.

Hwu, Shian U.; Adkins, Antha A.; Loh, Yin-Chung; Brown, Lisa C.; Sham, Catherine C.; Kroll, Quin D.

2002-01-01

357

The Application of a Boundary Integral Equation Method to the Prediction of Ducted Fan Engine Noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The prediction of ducted fan engine noise using a boundary integral equation method (BIEM) is considered. Governing equations for the BIEM are based on linearized acoustics and describe the scattering of incident sound by a thin, finite-length cylindrical duct in the presence of a uniform axial inflow. A classical boundary value problem (BVP) is derived that includes an axisymmetric, locally reacting liner on the duct interior. Using potential theory, the BVP is recast as a system of hypersingular boundary integral equations with subsidiary conditions. We describe the integral equation derivation and solution procedure in detail. The development of the computationally efficient ducted fan noise prediction program TBIEM3D, which implements the BIEM, and its utility in conducting parametric noise reduction studies are discussed. Unlike prediction methods based on spinning mode eigenfunction expansions, the BIEM does not require the decomposition of the interior acoustic field into its radial and axial components which, for the liner case, avoids the solution of a difficult complex eigenvalue problem. Numerical spectral studies are presented to illustrate the nexus between the eigenfunction expansion representation and BIEM results. We demonstrate BIEM liner capability by examining radiation patterns for several cases of practical interest.

Dunn, M. H.; Tweed, J.; Farassat, F.

1999-01-01

358

An efficient and robust method for predicting helicopter rotor high-speed impulsive noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new formulation for the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings quadrupole source, which is valid for a far-field in-plane observer, is presented. The far-field approximation is new and unique in that no further approximation of the quadrupole source strength is made and integrands with r(exp -2) and r(exp -3) dependence are retained. This paper focuses on the development of a retarded-time formulation in which time derivatives are analytically taken inside the integrals to avoid unnecessary computational work when the observer moves with the rotor. The new quadrupole formulation is similar to Farassat's thickness and loading formulation 1A. Quadrupole noise prediction is carried out in two parts: a preprocessing stage in which the previously computed flow field is integrated in the direction normal to the rotor disk, and a noise computation stage in which quadrupole surface integrals are evaluated for a particular observer position. Preliminary predictions for hover and forward flight agree well with experimental data. The method is robust and requires computer resources comparable to thickness and loading noise prediction.

Brentner, Kenneth S.

1996-01-01

359

Interior Noise Predictions in the Preliminary Design of the Large Civil Tiltrotor (LCTR2)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A prediction scheme was established to compute sound pressure levels in the interior of a simplified cabin model of the second generation Large Civil Tiltrotor (LCTR2) during cruise conditions, while being excited by turbulent boundary layer flow over the fuselage, or by tiltrotor blade loading and thickness noise. Finite element models of the cabin structure, interior acoustic space, and acoustically absorbent (poro-elastic) materials in the fuselage were generated and combined into a coupled structural-acoustic model. Fluctuating power spectral densities were computed according to the Efimtsov turbulent boundary layer excitation model. Noise associated with the tiltrotor blades was predicted in the time domain as fluctuating surface pressures and converted to power spectral densities at the fuselage skin finite element nodes. A hybrid finite element (FE) approach was used to compute the low frequency acoustic cabin response over the frequency range 6-141 Hz with a 1 Hz bandwidth, and the Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) approach was used to predict the interior noise for the 125-8000 Hz one-third octave bands.

Grosveld, Ferdinand W.; Cabell, Randolph H.; Boyd, David D.

2013-01-01

360

A Three-Dimensional Hybrid LES-Acoustic Analogy Method for Predicting Open-Cavity Noise  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-dimensional (3D) hybrid LES-acoustic analogy method for computational aeroacoustics (CAA) is presented for the prediction\\u000a of open-cavity noise. The method uses large-eddy simulation (LES) to compute the acoustic source while the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings\\u000a (FW-H) acoustic analogy is employed for the prediction of the far-field sound. As a comparison, a two-dimensional (2D) FW-H\\u000a analogy is also included. The hybrid method

Huanxin Lai; Kai H. Luo

2007-01-01

361

Applications of the predictability of the Coherent Noise Model to aftershock sequences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study [1] of the coherent noise model [2-4] in natural time [5-7] has shown that it exhibits predictability. Interestingly, one of the predictors suggested [1] for the coherent noise model can be generalized and applied to the case of (real) aftershock sequences. The results obtained [8] so far are beyond chance. Here, we apply this approach to several aftershock sequences of strong earthquakes with magnitudes Mw ?6.9 in Indonesia, California and Greece, including the Mw9.2 earthquake that occurred on 26 December 2004 in Sumatra. References. [1] N. V. Sarlis and S.-R. G. Christopoulos, Predictability of the coherent-noise model and its applications, Physical Review E, 85, 051136, 2012. [2] M.E.J. Newman, Self-organized criticality, evolution and the fossil extinction record, Proc. R. Soc. London B, 263, 1605-1610, 1996. [3] M. E. J. Newman and K. Sneppen, Avalanches, scaling, and coherent noise, Phys. Rev. E, 54, 6226-6231, 1996. [4] K. Sneppen and M. Newman, Coherent noise, scale invariance and intermittency in large systems, Physica D, 110, 209 - 222. [5] P. Varotsos, N. Sarlis, and E. Skordas, Spatiotemporal complexity aspects on the interrelation between Seismic Electric Signals and seismicity, Practica of Athens Academy, 76, 294-321, 2001. [6] P.A. Varotsos, N.V. Sarlis, and E.S. Skordas, Long-range correlations in the electric signals that precede rupture, Phys. Rev. E, 66, 011902, 2002. [7] Varotsos P. A., Sarlis N. V. and Skordas E. S., Natural Time Analysis: The new view of time. Precursory Seismic Electric Signals, Earthquakes and other Complex Time-Series (Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg) 2011. [8] N. V. Sarlis and S.-R. G. Christopoulos, "Visualization of the significance of Receiver Operating Characteristics based on confidence ellipses", Computer Physics Communications, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cpc.2013.12.009

Christopoulos, Stavros-Richard; Sarlis, Nicholas

2014-05-01

362

A semi-analytical model for the prediction of underwater noise from offshore pile driving  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Underwater noise from offshore pile driving gained considerable attention in recent years mainly due to the large scale construction of offshore wind farms. The most common foundation type of a wind turbine is a monopile, upon which the wind tower rests. The pile is driven into place with the help of hydraulic hammers. During the hammering of the pile, high levels of noise are generated which are known to produce deleterious effects on both mammals and fish. In this work, a linear semi-analytical model is developed for predicting the levels of underwater noise for a wide range of system parameters. The model incorporates all major parts of the system. The hydraulic hammer is substituted by an external force, the pile is described as a thin circular cylindrical shell, the water is modelled as a compressible fluid and the water-saturated seabed is defined by distributed springs and dashpots in all directions. The solution of the coupled vibroacoustic problem is based on the representation of the response of the complete system on the modal basis of the in vacuo shell structure. The influence that the inter-modal coupling, the choice of the soil parameters and the acoustic impedance of the seabed have on the generated noise levels is studied in the frequency domain. Strong and weak points of the present model are discussed on the basis of a comparison with a set of available experimental data. The obtained results show the capability of the model to predict the underwater noise levels both qualitatively and quantitatively.

Tsouvalas, A.; Metrikine, A. V.

2013-06-01

363

Comparison of methods of predicting community response to impulsive and nonimpulsive noise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several scientific, regulatory, and policy-coordinating bodies have developed methods for predicting community response to sonic booms. The best known of these is the dosage-response relationship of Working Group 84 of the National Academy of Science's Committee on Hearing, Bioacoustics and Biomechanics. This dosage-response relationship between C-weighted DayNight Average Sound Level and the prevalence of annoyance with high energy impulsive sounds was derived from limited amounts of information about community response to regular, prolonged, and expected exposure to artillery and sonic booms. U.S. Army Regulation 201 adapts this approach to predictions of the acceptability of impulsive noise exposure in communities. This regulation infers equivalent degrees of effect with respect to a well known dosage-response relationship for general (nonimpulsive) transportation noise. Differences in prevalence of annoyance predicted by various relationships lead to different predictions of the compatibility of land uses with sonic boom exposure. An examination of these differences makes apparent several unresolved issues in current practice for predicting and interpreting the prevalence of annoyance due to sonic boom exposure.

Fidell, Sanford; Pearsons, Karl S.

1994-02-01

364

Comparison of methods of predicting community response to impulsive and nonimpulsive noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several scientific, regulatory, and policy-coordinating bodies have developed methods for predicting community response to sonic booms. The best known of these is the dosage-response relationship of Working Group 84 of the National Academy of Science's Committee on Hearing, Bioacoustics and Biomechanics. This dosage-response relationship between C-weighted DayNight Average Sound Level and the prevalence of annoyance with high energy impulsive sounds was derived from limited amounts of information about community response to regular, prolonged, and expected exposure to artillery and sonic booms. U.S. Army Regulation 201 adapts this approach to predictions of the acceptability of impulsive noise exposure in communities. This regulation infers equivalent degrees of effect with respect to a well known dosage-response relationship for general (nonimpulsive) transportation noise. Differences in prevalence of annoyance predicted by various relationships lead to different predictions of the compatibility of land uses with sonic boom exposure. An examination of these differences makes apparent several unresolved issues in current practice for predicting and interpreting the prevalence of annoyance due to sonic boom exposure.

Fidell, Sanford; Pearsons, Karl S.

1994-01-01

365

Prediction of blade-vortex interaction noise using measured blade pressures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the study reported here, blade-vortex interaction noise was predicted using a simplified model of blade pressures measured on a one-seventh scale model AH-1/OLS main rotor. The methods used for the acoustic prediction are based on the acoustic analogy and have been developed by Nakamura (1981) and by Brentner, Nystrom, and Farassat (referred to as the WOPWOP method). The waveforms predicted by the two methods are in good agreement with each other and with the measurements in terms of the number of pulses, the pulse widths, and the separation times between the pulses. The peak amplitude of the dominant pulse may, however, be underpredicted by up to 40 percent, depending on flight conditions. Ways of improving the accuracy of the prediction methods are suggested.

Joshi, Mahendra C.; Liu, Sandy R.; Boxwell, Donald A.

1987-10-01

366

Prediction of blade-vortex interaction noise using measured blade pressures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the study reported here, blade-vortex interaction noise was predicted using a simplified model of blade pressures measured on a one-seventh scale model AH-1/OLS main rotor. The methods used for the acoustic prediction are based on the acoustic analogy and have been developed by Nakamura (1981) and by Brentner, Nystrom, and Farassat (referred to as the WOPWOP method). The waveforms predicted by the two methods are in good agreement with each other and with the measurements in terms of the number of pulses, the pulse widths, and the separation times between the pulses. The peak amplitude of the dominant pulse may, however, be underpredicted by up to 40 percent, depending on flight conditions. Ways of improving the accuracy of the prediction methods are suggested.

Joshi, Mahendra C.; Liu, Sandy R.; Boxwell, Donald A.

1987-01-01

367

Prediction of interior noise due to random acoustic or turbulent boundary layer excitation using statistical energy analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of predicting interior noise due to random acoustic or turbulent boundary layer excitation was investigated in experiments in which a statistical energy analysis model (VAPEPS) was used to analyze measurements of the acceleration response and sound transmission of flat aluminum, lucite, and graphite/epoxy plates exposed to random acoustic or turbulent boundary layer excitation. The noise reduction of the plate, when backed by a shallow cavity and excited by a turbulent boundary layer, was predicted using a simplified theory based on the assumption of adiabatic compression of the fluid in the cavity. The predicted plate acceleration response was used as input in the noise reduction prediction. Reasonable agreement was found between the predictions and the measured noise reduction in the frequency range 315-1000 Hz.

Grosveld, Ferdinand W.

1990-01-01

368

Effect of higher harmonic control on helicopter rotor blade-vortex interaction noise: Prediction and initial validation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper presents a status of theoretical tools of AFDD, DLR, NASA and ONERA for prediction of the effect of HHC on helicopter main rotor BVI noise. Aeroacoustic predictions from the four research centers, concerning a wind tunnel simulation of a typical descent flight case without and with HHC are presented and compared. The results include blade deformation, geometry of interacting vortices, sectional loads and noise. Acoustic predictions are compared to experimental data. An analysis of the results provides a first insight of the mechanisms by which HHC may affect BVI noise.

Beaumier, P.; Prieur, J.; Rahier, G.; Spiegel, P.; Demargne, A.; Tung, C.; Gallman, J. M.; Yu, Y. H.; Kube, R.; Vanderwall, B. G.

1995-01-01

369

Experimental study of tyre/road contact forces in rolling conditions for noise prediction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with the experimental study of dynamical tyre/road contact for noise prediction. In situ measurements of contact forces and close proximity noise levels were carried out for a slick tyre rolling on six different road surfaces between 30 and 50 km/h. Additional texture profiles of the tested surfaces were taken on the wheel track. Normal contact stresses were measured at a sampling frequency of 10752 Hz using a line of pressure sensitive cells placed both along and perpendicular to the rolling direction. The contact areas obtained during rolling were smaller than in static conditions. This is mainly explained by the dynamical properties of tyre compounds, like the viscoelastic behaviour of the rubber. Additionally the root-mean-square of the resultant contact forces at various speeds was in the same order for a given road surface, while their spectra were quite different. This is certainly due to a spectral influence of bending waves propagating in the tyre during rolling, especially when the wavelength is small in comparison with the size of the contact patch. Finally, the levels of contact forces and close proximity noise measured at 30 km/h were correlated. Additional correlations with texture levels were performed. The results show that the macro-texture generates contact forces linearly around 800 Hz and consequently noise levels between 500 and 1000 Hz via the vibrations transmitted to the tyre.

Cesbron, Julien; Anfosso-Lédée, Fabienne; Duhamel, Denis; Ping Yin, Hai; Le Houédec, Donatien

2009-02-01

370

Prediction of broadband ground-motion time histories: Hybrid low/high-frequency method with correlated random source parameters  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We present a new method for calculating broadband time histories of ground motion based on a hybrid low-frequency/high-frequency approach with correlated source parameters. Using a finite-difference method we calculate low-frequency synthetics (< ???1 Hz) in a 3D velocity structure. We also compute broadband synthetics in a 1D velocity model using a frequency-wavenumber method. The low frequencies from the 3D calculation are combined with the high frequencies from the 1D calculation by using matched filtering at a crossover frequency of 1 Hz. The source description, common to both the 1D and 3D synthetics, is based on correlated random distributions for the slip amplitude, rupture velocity, and rise time on the fault. This source description allows for the specification of source parameters independent of any a priori inversion results. In our broadband modeling we include correlation between slip amplitude, rupture velocity, and rise time, as suggested by dynamic fault modeling. The method of using correlated random source parameters is flexible and can be easily modified to adjust to our changing understanding of earthquake ruptures. A realistic attenuation model is common to both the 3D and 1D calculations that form the low- and high-frequency components of the broadband synthetics. The value of Q is a function of the local shear-wave velocity. To produce more accurate high-frequency amplitudes and durations, the 1D synthetics are corrected with a randomized, frequency-dependent radiation pattern. The 1D synthetics are further corrected for local site and nonlinear soil effects by using a 1D nonlinear propagation code and generic velocity structure appropriate for the site's National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) site classification. The entire procedure is validated by comparison with the 1994 Northridge, California, strong ground motion data set. The bias and error found here for response spectral acceleration are similar to the best results that have been published by others for the Northridge rupture.

Liu, P.; Archuleta, R. J.; Hartzell, S. H.

2006-01-01

371

Flow noise predictions of a submerged cylinder under turbulent boundary layer excitations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The unsteady fluctuated pressure underneath turbulent boundary layers (TBL) is one of major noise sources in moving vehicles. Recently, discretized TBL forcing functions have been applied to planar structures in air [Y. F. Hwang and S. A. Hambric, Noise-Con, 2000; M. Allen and N. Vlahopoulos, Computers and Structures, 2000; M. Allen and N. Vlahopoulos, Finite Elements in Analysis and Design, 2001; M. Allen, R. Sbragio, and N. Vlahopoulos, AIAA J. 2001]. This paper discusses prediction of the flow-induced radiated noise and surface responses of a submerged hemisphere-capped cylindrical shell (L/D=11). The FEM/IFEM (infinite finite element method) approach is used to calculate structural acoustic transfer functions and to accurately account for the fluid loading effects. The effect on TBL due to the curvature of a cylinder is captured by utilizing the potential flow-boundary layer theory to determine key boundary layer parameters. Predictions of the surface intensity and far field responses are developed through stochastic analysis due to the natural of the TBL excitations. A MATLAB script is generated to determine the power spectral density of the responses. [Work supported by ONR Code 334.

Wu, Kuangcheng; Vlahopoulos, Nickolas

2002-05-01

372

Rotor Wake/Stator Interaction Noise Prediction Code Technical Documentation and User's Manual  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report documents the improvements and enhancements made by Pratt & Whitney to two NASA programs which together will calculate noise from a rotor wake/stator interaction. The code is a combination of subroutines from two NASA programs with many new features added by Pratt & Whitney. To do a calculation V072 first uses a semi-empirical wake prediction to calculate the rotor wake characteristics at the stator leading edge. Results from the wake model are then automatically input into a rotor wake/stator interaction analytical noise prediction routine which calculates inlet aft sound power levels for the blade-passage-frequency tones and their harmonics, along with the complex radial mode amplitudes. The code allows for a noise calculation to be performed for a compressor rotor wake/stator interaction, a fan wake/FEGV interaction, or a fan wake/core stator interaction. This report is split into two parts, the first part discusses the technical documentation of the program as improved by Pratt & Whitney. The second part is a user's manual which describes how input files are created and how the code is run.

Topol, David A.; Mathews, Douglas C.

2010-01-01

373

Source Methodology for Turbofan Noise Prediction (SOURCE3D Technical Documentation)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report provides the analytical documentation for the SOURCE3D Rotor Wake/Stator Interaction Code. It derives the equations for the rotor scattering coefficients and stator source vector and scattering coefficients that are needed for use in the TFANS (Theoretical Fan Noise Design/Prediction System). SOURCE3D treats the rotor and stator as isolated source elements. TFANS uses this information, along with scattering coefficients for inlet and exit elements, and provides complete noise solutions for turbofan engines. SOURCE3D is composed of a collection of FORTRAN programs that have been obtained by extending the approach of the earlier V072 Rotor Wake/Stator Interaction Code. Similar to V072, it treats the rotor and stator as a collection of blades and vanes having zero thickness and camber contained in an infinite, hardwall annular duct. SOURCE3D adds important features to the V072 capability-a rotor element, swirl flow and vorticity waves, actuator disks for flow turning, and combined rotor/actuator disk and stator/actuator disk elements. These items allow reflections from the rotor, frequency scattering, and mode trapping, thus providing more complete noise predictions than previously. The code has been thoroughly verified through comparison with D.B. Hanson's CUP2D two- dimensional code using a narrow annulus test case.

Meyer, Harold D.

1999-01-01

374

On the predictability of extreme events in records with linear and nonlinear long-range memory: Efficiency and noise robustness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the predictability of extreme events in records with linear and nonlinear long-range memory in the presence of additive white noise using two different approaches: (i) the precursory pattern recognition technique (PRT) that exploits solely the information about short-term precursors, and (ii) the return interval approach (RIA) that exploits long-range memory incorporated in the elapsed time after the last extreme event. We find that the PRT always performs better when only linear memory is present. In the presence of nonlinear memory, both methods demonstrate comparable efficiency in the absence of white noise. When additional white noise is present in the record (which is the case in most observational records), the efficiency of the PRT decreases monotonously with increasing noise level. In contrast, the RIA shows an abrupt transition between a phase of low level noise where the prediction is as good as in the absence of noise, and a phase of high level noise where the prediction becomes poor. In the phase of low and intermediate noise the RIA predicts considerably better than the PRT, which explains our recent findings in physiological and financial records.

Bogachev, Mikhail I.; Bunde, Armin

2011-06-01

375

A modified Nordic prediction model of road traffic noise in a Taiwanese city with significant motorcycle traffic.  

PubMed

A prediction model was developed to map road traffic noise in an area with significant motorcycle traffic in Taichung City, Taiwan. This model was modified from the Nordic prediction method by adding three types of traffic flow rates, including heavy vehicles, light vehicles, and motorcycles, as well as local traffic speeds and road characteristics to the calculating equations. The parameters that were input into the equations include traffic flow, vehicle speed, distance from the center of the road, height of the road surface, position and height of the barriers, thickness of the barriers, location of the receiver relative to the surrounding road surface or barriers, reflecting vertical surfaces, type of ground, and height of the buildings. The model was validated by comparing the measured noise levels at 42 sampling sites close to main roads with the predicted values. A significant correlation was found between the predicted and measured noise levels (Pearson correlation coefficient=0.75, p<0.001). The deviation between the predicted and measured noise levels within the range of ±3.5 A-weighted decibel (dB(A)) was 90.5%. The mean difference between the predicted and measured noise levels was 0.9±2.1 dB(A). The modified Nordic prediction model is therefore applicable to estimate the noise exposure in this urban environment in Taiwan. PMID:22750184

Chang, Ta-Yuan; Lin, Hsiao-Ching; Yang, Wei-Ting; Bao, Bo-Ying; Chan, Chang-Chuan

2012-08-15

376

Quantification of advanced turboprop aircraft flyover noise annoyance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A laboratory experiment was conducted to quantify the annoyance to advanced turboprop (propfan) aircraft flyover noise. A computer synthesis system was used to generate 45 realistic, time varying simulations of propeller aircraft flyover noise in which the tonal content was systematically varied to represent the factorial combinations of five fundamental frequencies, three frequency envelope shapes, and three tone-to-broadband noise ratios. In the experiment, 64 subjects judged the annoyance of recordings of the 45 synthesized flyover noises presented at three sound levels in a test facility which simulates the outdoor acoustic environment. Analyses of the judgements showed that frequency envelope shape did not significantly affect annoyance. The interaction of fundamental frequency with tone-to-broadband noise ratio did have a large and complex effect on annoyance. Duration corrected A-weighted sound pressure level with a modified tone correction predicted annoyance better than any other measurement procedure.

Mccurdy, D. A.

1984-01-01

377

Prediction of Helicopter Rotor Discrete Frequency Noise: A Computer Program Incorporating Realistic Blade Motions and Advanced Acoustic Formulation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A computer program has been developed at the Langley Research Center to predict the discrete frequency noise of conventional and advanced helicopter rotors. The program, called WOPWOP, uses the most advanced subsonic formulation of Farassat that is less s...

K. S. Brentner

1986-01-01

378

Noise reduction using smart panel with shunt circuit  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, piezoelectric smart panels featuring shunt damping are designed and tested for broadband noise reduction. Electrical admittance is introduced to represent electro-mechanical characteristics of piezoelectric smart structures and to predict the performance of piezoelectric shunt damping as a design index of the system. The location and size of piezoelectric patches on the host panel are optimized by taking

Li Jie Zhao; Heung Soo Kim; Jaehwan Kim

2006-01-01

379

A prediction procedure for propeller aircraft flyover noise based on empirical data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forty-eight different flyover noise certification tests are analyzed using multiple linear regression methods. A prediction model is presented based on this analysis, and the results compared with the test data and two other prediction methods. The aircraft analyzed include 30 single engine aircraft, 16 twin engine piston aircraft, and two twin engine turboprops. The importance of helical tip Mach number is verified and the relationship of several other aircraft, engine, and propeller parameters is developed. The model shows good agreement with the test data and is at least as accurate as the other prediction methods. It has the advantage of being somewhat easier to use since it is in the form of a single equation.

Smith, M. H.

1981-04-01

380

Predicted and measured boundary layer refraction for advanced turboprop propeller noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Currently, boundary layer refraction presents a limitation to the measurement of forward arc propeller noise measured on an acoustic plate in the NASA Lewis 8- by 6-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel. The use of a validated boundary layer refraction model to adjust the data could remove this limitation. An existing boundary layer refraction model is used to predict the refraction for cases where boundary layer refraction was measured. In general, the model exhibits the same qualitative behavior as the measured refraction. However, the prediction method does not show quantitative agreement with the data. In general, it overpredicts the amount of refraction for the far forward angles at axial Mach number of 0.85 and 0.80 and underpredicts the refraction at axial Mach numbers of 0.75 and 0.70. A more complete propeller source description is suggested as a way to improve the prediction method.

Dittmar, James H.; Krejsa, Eugene A.

1990-01-01

381

Development of computer program ENMASK for prediction of residual environmental masking-noise spectra, from any three independent environmental parameters  

SciTech Connect

Residual environmental sound can mask intrusive4 (unwanted) sound. It is a factor that can affect noise impacts and must be considered both in noise-impact studies and in noise-mitigation designs. Models for quantitative prediction of sensation level (audibility) and psychological effects of intrusive noise require an input with 1/3 octave-band spectral resolution of environmental masking noise. However, the majority of published residual environmental masking-noise data are given with either octave-band frequency resolution or only single A-weighted decibel values. A model has been developed that enables estimation of 1/3 octave-band residual environmental masking-noise spectra and relates certain environmental parameters to A-weighted sound level. This model provides a correlation among three environmental conditions: measured residual A-weighted sound-pressure level, proximity to a major roadway, and population density. Cited field-study data were used to compute the most probable 1/3 octave-band sound-pressure spectrum corresponding to any selected one of these three inputs. In turn, such spectra can be used as an input to models for prediction of noise impacts. This paper discusses specific algorithms included in the newly developed computer program ENMASK. In addition, the relative audibility of the environmental masking-noise spectra at different A-weighted sound levels is discussed, which is determined by using the methodology of program ENAUDIBL.

Chang, Y.-S.; Liebich, R. E.; Chun, K. C.

2000-03-31

382

Observations from varying the lift and drag inputs to a noise prediction method for supersonic helical tip speed propellers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Previous comparisons between calculated and measured supersonic helical tip speed propeller noise show them to have different trends of peak blade passing tone versus helical tip Mach number. It was postulated that improvements in this comparison could be made first by including the drag force terms in the prediction and then by reducing the blade lift terms at the tip to allow the drag forces to dominate the noise prediction. Propeller hub to tip lift distributions were varied, but they did not yield sufficient change in the predicted lift noise to improve the comparison. This result indicates that some basic changes in the theory may be needed. In addition, the noise predicted by the drag forces did not exhibit the same curve shape as the measured data. So even if the drag force terms were to dominate, the trends with helical tip Mach number for theory and experiment would still not be the same. The effect of the blade shock wave pressure rise was approxmated by increasing the drag coefficient at the blade tip. Predictions using this shock wdave approximation did have a curve shape similar to the measured data. This result indicates that the shock pressure rise probably controls the noise at supersonic tip speed and that the linear prediction method can give the proper noise trend with Mach number.

Dittmar, J. H.

1984-01-01

383

Numerical Simulation of Broadband Sound with a Prescribed Frequency Spectrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many aeroacoustic problems involve broadband noise. To simulate these problems, using computational aeroacoustics methods, requires the development of a mathematical model to represent broadband sound with a prescribed frequency spectrum. In the present investigation, a discrete frequency model with phase randomness increasing in time is proposed. This model produces realistically looking broadband sound in the time domain. As an application,

Christopher Tam; Hongbin Ju

2003-01-01

384

Modeling and Prediction of the Noise from Non-Axisymmetric Jets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The new source model was combined with the original sound propagation model developed for rectangular jets to produce a new version of the rectangular jet noise prediction code. This code was validated using a set of rectangular nozzles whose geometries were specified by NASA. Nozzles of aspect ratios two, four and eight were studied at jet exit Mach numbers of 0.5, 0.7 and 0.9, for a total of nine cases. Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes solutions for these jets were provided to the contactor for use as input to the code. Quantitative comparisons of the predicted azimuthal and polar directivity of the acoustic spectrum were made with experimental data provided by NASA. The results of these comparisons, along with a documentation of the propagation and source models, were reported in a journal article publication (Ref. 4). The complete set of computer codes and computational modules that make up the prediction scheme, along with a user's guide describing their use and example test cases, was provided to NASA as a deliverable of this task. The use of conformal mapping, along with simplified modeling of the mean flow field, for noise propagation modeling was explored for other nozzle geometries, to support the task milestone of developing methods which are applicable to other geometries and flow conditions of interest to NASA. A model to represent twin round jets using this approach was formulated and implemented. A general approach to solving the equations governing sound propagation in a locally parallel nonaxisymmetric jet was developed and implemented, in aid of the tasks and milestones charged with selecting more exact numerical methods for modeling sound propagation, and developing methods that have application to other nozzle geometries. The method is based on expansion of both the mean-flowdependent coefficients in the governing equation and the Green's function in series of orthogonal functions. The method was coded and tested on two analytically prescribed mean flows which were meant to represent noise reduction concepts being considered by NASA. Testing (Ref. 5) showed that the method was feasible for the types of mean flows of interest in jet noise applications. Subsequently, this method was further developed to allow use of mean flow profiles obtained from a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) solution of the flow. Preliminary testing of the generalized code was among the last tasks completed under this contract. The stringent noise-reduction goals of NASA's Fundamental Aeronautics Program suggest that, in addition to potentially complex exhaust nozzle geometries, next generation aircraft will also involve tighter integration of the engine with the airframe. Therefore, noise generated and propagated by jet flows in the vicinity of solid surfaces is expected to be quite significant, and reduced-order noise prediction tools will be needed that can deal with such geometries. One important source of noise is that generated by the interaction of a turbulent jet with the edge of a solid surface (edge noise). Such noise is generated, for example, by the passing of the engine exhaust over a shielding surface, such as a wing. Work under this task supported an effort to develop a RANS-based prediction code for edge noise based on an extension of the classical Rapid Distortion Theory (RDT) to transversely sheared base flows (Refs. 6 and 7). The RDT-based theoretical analysis was applied to the generic problem of a turbulent jet interacting with the trailing edge of a flat plate. A code was written to evaluate the formula derived for the spectrum of the noise produced by this interaction and results were compared with data taken at NASA Glenn for a variety of jet/plate configurations and flow conditions (Ref. 8). A longer-term goal of this task was to work toward the development of a high-fidelity model of sound propagation in spatially developing non-axisymmetric jets using direct numerical methods for solving the relevant equations. Working with NASA Glenn Acoustics Branch personnel, numerical methods and boundary cond

Leib, Stewart J.

2014-01-01

385

Analytical prediction of the interior noise for cylindrical models of aircraft fuselages for prescribed exterior noise fields. Phase 1: Development and validation of preliminary analytical models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The basic theoretical work required to understand sound transmission into an enclosed space (that is, one closed by the transmitting structure) is developed for random pressure fields and for harmonic (tonal) excitation. The analysis is used to predict the noise reducton of unpressurized unstiffened cylinder, and also the interior response of the cylinder given a tonal (plane wave) excitation. Predictions and measurements are compared and the transmission is analyzed. In addition, results for tonal (harmonic) mechanical excitation are considered.

Pope, L. D.; Rennison, D. C.; Wilby, E. G.

1980-01-01

386

Rotor noise measurement using a directional microphone array  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A directional array of microphones was used to measure the noise from a 40 percent scale model rotor in a large aeroacoustic wind tunnel. The development and design of this directional array is described. A design goal was that the array focus on a constant sensing area over a broad frequency range. The implementation of the array design is presented, followed by sample results for several different rotor test conditions. The directional array spectral results are compared with predictions of broadband self noise, and with total rotor noise measurements obtained from individual microphones of the array. The directional array is demonstrated to be a useful tool in examining noise source distributions.

Marcolini, Michael A.; Brooks, Thomas F.

1987-01-01

387

Low-level otoacoustic emissions may predict susceptibility to noise-induced hearing loss.  

PubMed

In a longitudinal study with 338 volunteers, audiometric thresholds and otoacoustic emissions were measured before and after 6 months of noise exposure on an aircraft carrier. While the average amplitudes of the otoacoustic emissions decreased significantly, the average audiometric thresholds did not change. Furthermore, there were no significant correlations between changes in audiometric thresholds and changes in otoacoustic emissions. Changes in transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions and distortion-product otoacoustic emissions were moderately correlated. Eighteen ears acquired permanent audiometric threshold shifts. Only one-third of those ears showed significant otoacoustic emission shifts that mirrored their permanent threshold shifts. A Bayesian analysis indicated that permanent threshold shift status following a deployment was predicted by baseline low-level or absent otoacoustic emissions. The best predictor was transient-evoked otoacoustic emission amplitude in the 4-kHz half-octave frequency band, with risk increasing more than sixfold from approximately 3% to 20% as the emission amplitude decreased. It is possible that the otoacoustic emissions indicated noise-induced changes in the inner ear, undetected by audiometric tests. Otoacoustic emissions may therefore be a diagnostic predictor for noise-induced-hearing-loss risk. PMID:16875225

Lapsley Miller, Judi A; Marshall, Lynne; Heller, Laurie M; Hughes, Linda M

2006-07-01

388

Annoyance from industrial noise: indicators for a wide variety of industrial sources.  

PubMed

In the study of noises generated by industrial sources, one issue is the variety of industrial noise sources and consequently the complexity of noises generated. Therefore, characterizing the environmental impact of an industrial plant requires better understanding of the noise annoyance caused by industrial noise sources. To deal with the variety of industrial sources, the proposed approach is set up by type of spectral features and based on a perceptive typology of steady and permanent industrial noises comprising six categories. For each perceptive category, listening tests based on acoustical factors are performed on noise annoyance. Various indicators are necessary to predict noise annoyance due to various industrial noise sources. Depending on the spectral features of the industrial noise sources, noise annoyance indicators are thus assessed. In case of industrial noise sources without main spectral features such as broadband noise, noise annoyance is predicted by the A-weighted sound pressure level L(Aeq) or the loudness level L(N). For industrial noises with spectral components such as low-frequency noises with a main component at 100 Hz or noises with spectral components in middle frequencies, indicators are proposed here that allow good prediction of noise annoyance by taking into account spectral features. PMID:20815449

Alayrac, M; Marquis-Favre, C; Viollon, S; Morel, J; Le Nost, G

2010-09-01

389

A computer program for the prediction of near field noise of aircraft in cruising flight: User's guide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Detailed instructions for using the near field cruise noise prediction program, a program listing, and a sample case with output are presented. The total noise for free field lossless conditions at selected observer locations is obtained by summing the contributions from up to nine acoustic sources. These noise sources, selected at the user's option, include the fan/compressor, turbine, core (combustion), jet, shock, and airframe (trailing edge and turbulent boundary layers). The effects of acoustic suppression materials such as engine inlet treatment may also be included in the noise prediction. The program is available for use on the NASA/Langley Research Center CDC computer. Comparisons of the program predictions with measured data are also given, and some possible reasons for their lack of agreement presented.

Tibbetts, J. G.

1980-01-01

390

Reliability of predicting image signal-to-noise ratio using noise equivalent count rate in PET imaging  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Several investigators have shown that noise equivalent count rate (NECR) is linearly proportional to the square of image signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) when PET images are reconstructed using filtered back-projection. However, to our knowledge, none have shown a similar relationship in fully 3D ordered-subset expectation maximization (OSEM) reconstruction. This paper has two aims. The first is to investigate the NECR-SNR relationship for 3D-OSEM reconstruction using phantom studies while the second aim is to evaluate the NECR-SNR relationship using patient data. Methods: An anthropomorphic phantom was scanned on a GE Discovery-STE (DSTE) PET/CT scanner in 3D mode with an initial activity concentration of 66.34 kBq/cc. PET data were acquired over the lower chest/upper abdomen region in dynamic mode. The experiment was repeated with the same activity concentration on a GE Discovery-RX (DRX) scanner. Care was taken to place the phantom at identical positions in both scanners. PET data were then reconstructed using 3D Reprojection (3D-RP) and 3D-OSEM with different reconstruction parameters and the NECR and SNR for each frame/image were calculated. SNR2 was then plotted versus the NECR for each scanner, reconstruction method and parameters. In addition, 40 clinical PET/CT studies from the two scanners (20 patients/scanner) were evaluated retrospectively. The patient studies from each scanner were further divided into two subgroups of body mass indices (BMI). Each PET study was acquired in 3D mode and reconstructed using both 3D-OSEM and 3D-RP. The NECR and SNR of the bed position covering the patient liver were calculated for each patient and averaged for each subgroup. Comparisons of the NECR and SNR between scanner types and BMIs were performed using a t-test and a p value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Phantom results showed that SNR2 versus NECR was linear for 3D-RP reconstruction across all activity concentration on both scanners, as expected. However, when 3D-OSEM was used, this relationship was nonlinear at activity concentrations beyond the peak NECR on both scanners. On the other hand, the plot of SNR2 versus trues count rate was linear for 3D-OSEM across all activity concentrations on both scanners independent of reconstruction parameters used. In addition, for activity concentrations <30kBq/cc, phantom results showed a higher SNR (by 12 ± 10%; p < 0.05) and NECR for the DRX scanner compared to DSTE for 3D-RP reconstruction. However, for 3D-OSEM reconstruction, these two scanners had similar SNRs (different by 2% ± 9%; p > 0.05), despite having different NECRs. Patient studies showed a statistically significant difference in NECR as well as the SNR for 3D-RP reconstruction between the two scanners. However, no statistically significant difference was found for 3D-OSEM. A statistically significant difference in both NECR and SNR were found between the different BMI subgroups for both 3D-RP and 3D-OSEM reconstructions. Conclusions: For the scanners and reconstruction algorithm used in this study, our results suggest that the image SNR cannot be predicted by the NEC when using 3D-OSEM reconstruction particularly for those clinical applications requiring high activity concentration. Instead, our results suggest that image SNR varies with activity concentration and is dominated by the 3D-OSEM reconstruction algorithm and its associated parameters, while not being affected by the scanner type for the range of activity concentrations usually found in the clinic.

Chang, Tingting; Chang, Guoping; Clark, John W.; Diab, Rami H.; Rohren, Eric; Mawlawi, Osama R.

2012-01-01

391

Sources, control, and effects of noise from aircraft propellers and rotors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent NASA and NASA sponsored research on the prediction and control of propeller and rotor source noise, on the analysis and design of fuselage sidewall noise control treatments, and on the measurement and quantification of the response of passengers to aircraft noise is described. Source noise predictions are compared with measurements for conventional low speed propellers, for new high speed propellers (propfans), and for a helicopter. Results from a light aircraft demonstration program are considered which indicates that about 5 dB reduction of flyover noise can be obtained without significant performance penalty. Sidewall design studies are examined for interior noise control in light general aviation aircraft and in large transports using propfan propulsion. The weight of the added acoustic treatment is estimated and tradeoffs between weight and noise reduction are discussed. A laboratory study of passenger response to combined broadband and tonal propeller-like noise is described. Subject discomfort ratings of combined tone broadband noises are compared with ratings of broadband (boundary layer) noise alone and the relative importance of the propeller tones is examined.

Mixson, J. S.; Greene, G. C.; Dempsey, T. K.

1981-01-01

392

An improved method for predicting the effects of flight on jet mixing noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA method (1976) for predicting the effects of flight on jet mixing noise was improved. The earlier method agreed reasonably well with experimental flight data for jet velocities up to about 520 m/sec (approximately 1700 ft/sec). The poorer agreement at high jet velocities appeared to be due primarily to the manner in which supersonic convection effects were formulated. The purely empirical supersonic convection formulation of the earlier method was replaced by one based on theoretical considerations. Other improvements of an empirical nature included were based on model-jet/free-jet simulated flight tests. The revised prediction method is presented and compared with experimental data obtained from the Bertin Aerotrain with a J85 engine, the DC-10 airplane with JT9D engines, and the DC-9 airplane with refanned JT8D engines. It is shown that the new method agrees better with the data base than a recently proposed SAE method.

Stone, J. R.

1979-01-01

393

Simplified combustion noise theory yielding a prediction of fluctuating pressure level  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first order equations for the conservation of mass and momentum in differential form are combined for an ideal gas to yield a single second order partial differential equation in one dimension and time. Small perturbation analysis is applied. A Fourier transformation is performed that results in a second order, constant coefficient, nonhomogeneous equation. The driving function is taken to be the source of combustion noise. A simplified model describing the energy addition via the combustion process gives the required source information for substitution in the driving function. This enables the particular integral solution of the nonhomogeneous equation to be found. This solution multiplied by the acoustic pressure efficiency predicts the acoustic pressure spectrum measured in turbine engine combustors. The prediction was compared with the overall sound pressure levels measured in a CF6-50 turbofan engine combustor and found to be in excellent agreement.

Huff, R. G.

1984-01-01

394

Acoustic Noise Prediction of the Amine Swingbed ISS ExPRESS Rack Payload  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Acoustics plays a vital role in maintaining the health, safety, and comfort of crew members aboard the International Space Station (ISS). In order to maintain this livable and workable environment, acoustic requirements have been established to ensure that ISS hardware and payload developers account for the acoustic emissions of their equipment and develop acoustic mitigations as necessary. These requirements are verified by an acoustic emissions test of the integrated hardware. The Amine Swingbed ExPRESS (Expedite the PRocessing of ExperimentS to Space) rack payload creates a unique challenge to the developers in that the payload hardware is transported to the ISS in phases, making an acoustic emissions test on the integrated flight hardware impossible. In addition, the payload incorporates a high back pressure fan and a diaphragm vacuum pump, which are recognized as significant and complex noise sources. In order to accurately predict the acoustic emissions of the integrated payload, the individual acoustic noise sources and paths are first characterized. These characterizations are conducted though a series of acoustic emissions tests on the individual payload components. Secondly, the individual acoustic noise sources and paths are incorporated into a virtual model of the integrated hardware. The virtual model is constructed with the use of hybrid method utilizing the Finite Element Acoustic (FEA) and Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) techniques, which predict the overall acoustic emissions. Finally, the acoustic model is validated though an acoustic characterization test performed on an acoustically similar mock-up of the flight unit. The results of the validated acoustic model are then used to assess the acoustic emissions of the flight unit and define further acoustic mitigation efforts.

Welsh, David; Smith, Holly; Wang, Shuo

2010-01-01

395

Two-Dimensional Finite-Difference Modeling of Broadband Regional Wave Propagation Phenomena: Validation of Regional Three-Dimensional Earth Models and Prediction of Anomalous Regional Phases  

SciTech Connect

An important challenge for seismic monitoring of nuclear explosions at low magnitude to verify a nuclear-test-ban treaty is the development of techniques that use regional phases for detection, location, and identification. In order to use such phases, region-specific earth models and tools are needed that accurately predict features such as travel times, amplitudes, and spectral characteristics. In this paper, we present our efforts to use two-dimensional finite-difference modeling to help develop and validate regional earth models for the Middle East and North Africa and to develop predictive algorithms for identifying anomalous regional phases. To help develop and validate a model for the Middle East and North Africa, we compare data and finite-difference simulations for selected regions. We show that the proposed three-dimensional regional model is a significant improvement over standard one-dimensional models by comparing features of broadband data and simulations and differences between observed and predicted features such as narrow-band group velocities. We show how a potential trade-off between source and structure can be avoided by constraining source parameters such as depth, mechanism, and moment/source-time function with independent data. We also present numerous observations of anomalous timing and amplitude of regional phases and show how incorporation of two-dimensional structure can explain many of these observations. Based on these observations, and the predictive capability of our simulations, we develop a simple model that can accurately predict the timing of such phases.

Goldstein, P; Ryall, F D; Pasyanos, M E; Schultz, C A; Walter, W R

2000-07-18

396

Tone Noise Predictions for a Spacecraft Cabin Ventilation Fan Ingesting Distorted Inflow and the Challenges of Validation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A fan tone noise prediction code has been developed at NASA Glenn Research Center that is capable of estimating duct mode sound power levels for a fan ingesting distorted inflow. This code was used to predict the circumferential and radial mode sound powe...

D. T. Astler L. D. Koch S. A. Bittinger T. D. Shook

2012-01-01

397

Interior Noise Reduction of Enclosure Using Predicted Characteristics of Porous Material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the objective is to reduce the interior noise in a specific frequency band by using the predicted acoustical characteristics of a porous material. To identify the interior sound field of an enclosure, the Green’s function is used and the analytical results are verified by comparing with experimental results. Foamed aluminum is used an absorption material to used as absorption materials to reduce the interior sound pressure of the enclosure. Foamed aluminum is generally known as a metallic porous sound absorption material that has desirable attributes such as lightweight and high absorbing performance. Predicted acoustical parameters of foamed aluminum are used in the analysis to predict sound pressure levels in an enclosure and these results are compared with those of the experiments. To verify the predicted characteristics of the porous material, the analytical results obtained for the acoustical transmission matrix are compared with the experimentally obtained results from a two-microphone arrangement. Based on these results, an appropriate thickness of foamed aluminum is provided for pressure reduction in a specific frequency band.

Oh, Jae-Eung; Kim, Wootaek

398

Assessment of Radiated Fan Noise Prediction Capabilities Using Static Engine Test Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes further assessment of the CDUCT-LaRC code via comparison with static engine test data. In an effort to improve confidence in the use of CDUCT-LaRC for liner optimization studies addressing realistic three-dimensional geometries, inlet radiated fan noise predictions were performed at 54% and 87% engine speed settings. Predictions were then compared with far-field measurements to assess the approach and implementation. The particular configurations were chosen to exercise the three-dimensional capability of CDUCT-LaRC and it s applicability to realistic configurations and conditions. At the 54% engine speed setting, the predictions capture the general directivity and acoustic treatment effects quite well. Comparisons of the predicted and measured directivity at the 87% power setting were more problematic. This was likely due in part to the difficulties in source specification and possibly the nonlinear nature of buzz-saw tones at this engine operating condition. Overall, the approach captured the basic trends and provided a conservative estimate of liner effects from which relative performance metrics could be inferred.

Nark, Douglas M.

2011-01-01

399

TFaNS Tone Fan Noise Design/Prediction System. Volume 2; User's Manual; 1.4  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

TFaNS is the Tone Fan Noise Design/Prediction System developed by Pratt & Whitney under contract to NASA Lewis (presently NASA Glenn). The purpose of this system is to predict tone noise emanating from a fan stage including the effects of reflection and transmission by the rotor and stator and by the duct inlet and nozzle. These effects have been added to an existing annular duct/isolated stator noise prediction capability. TFaNS consists of: the codes that compute the acoustic properties (reflection and transmission coefficients) of the various elements and write them to files. CUP3D: Fan Noise Coupling Code that reads these files, solves the coupling problem, and outputs the desired noise predictions. AWAKEN: CFD/Measured Wake Postprocessor which reformats CFD wake predictions and/or measured wake data so it can be used by the system. This volume of the report provides information on code input and file structure essential for potential users of TFANS. This report is divided into three volumes: Volume 1. System Description, CUP3D Technical Documentation, and Manual for Code Developers; Volume 2. User's Manual, TFANS Vers. 1.4; Volume 3. Evaluation of System Codes.

Topol, David A.; Eversman, Walter

1999-01-01

400

Temporal Characterization of Aircraft Noise Sources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current aircraft source noise prediction tools yield time-independent frequency spectra as functions of directivity angle. Realistic evaluation and human assessment of aircraft fly-over noise require the temporal characteristics of the noise signature. The purpose of the current study is to analyze empirical data from broadband jet and tonal fan noise sources and to provide the temporal information required for prediction-based synthesis. Noise sources included a one-tenth-scale engine exhaust nozzle and a one-fifth scale scale turbofan engine. A methodology was developed to characterize the low frequency fluctuations employing the Short Time Fourier Transform in a MATLAB computing environment. It was shown that a trade-off is necessary between frequency and time resolution in the acoustic spectrogram. The procedure requires careful evaluation and selection of the data analysis parameters, including the data sampling frequency, Fourier Transform window size, associated time period and frequency resolution, and time period window overlap. Low frequency fluctuations were applied to the synthesis of broadband noise with the resulting records sounding virtually indistinguishable from the measured data in initial subjective evaluations. Amplitude fluctuations of blade passage frequency (BPF) harmonics were successfully characterized for conditions equivalent to take-off and approach. Data demonstrated that the fifth harmonic of the BPF varied more in frequency than the BPF itself and exhibited larger amplitude fluctuations over the duration of the time record. Frequency fluctuations were found to be not perceptible in the current characterization of tonal components.

Grosveld, Ferdinand W.; Sullivan, Brenda M.; Rizzi, Stephen A.

2004-01-01

401

Predicting the threshold of pulse-train electrical stimuli using a stochastic auditory nerve model: the effects of stimulus noise  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incorporation of low levels of noise into an electrical stimulus has been shown to improve auditory thresholds in some human subjects (Zeng et al., 2000). In this paper, thresholds for noise-modulated pulse-train stimuli are predicted utilizing a stochastic neural-behavioral model of ensemble fiber responses to bi-phasic stimuli. The neural refractory effect is described using a Markov model for a

Yifang Xu; Leslie M. Collins

2004-01-01

402

Prediction of the spectrum of atmospheric microburst noise in the range 2-20 Hz - Preliminary results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An engineering estimate of the spectrum of atmospheric microburst noise radiation in the range 2-20 Hz is developed. This prediction is obtained via a marriage of standard aeroacoustic theory with a numerical computation of the relevant fluid dynamics. The 'computational aeroacoustics' technique applied here to the interpretation of atmospheric noise measurements is illustrative of a methodology that can now be employed in a wide class of problems.

Hardin, Jay C.; Pope, D. Stuart

1989-01-01

403

A reduced-scale railway noise barrier's insertion loss and absorption coefficients: comparison of field measurements and predictions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In situ testing determined the insertion loss ( IL) and absorption coefficients of a candidate absorptive noise barrier (soundwall) to abate railway noise for residents of Anaheim, CA. A 4000 m barrier is proposed south of the tracks, but residential areas to the north have expressed concerns that barrier reflections will increase their noise exposure. To address these concerns, a 3.66 m high by 14.6 m long demonstration barrier was built in the parking lot of Edison Field, Anaheim, as part of a public open house, thereby allowing for acoustical measurements. Insertion loss ( IL) was measured in third-octave bands assuming 1/2-scale construction. The IL for three, scaled railway noise sub-sources (rail/wheel interface, locomotive, and train horn) was measured at six, scaled distances. The highest total, A-weighted IL, after corrections for finite-barrier and point-source speaker effects was 22 dB(A) for rail/wheel noise, 18 dB(A) for locomotive noise, and 20 dB(A) for train horn noise. These results can be compared favourably to IL predictions made using algorithms from the US Federal Rail Administration (FRA) noise assessment guidelines. For the actual barrier installation, shielded residential receivers located south of the project are expected to see their future noise exposures reduced from an unmitigated 78 CNEL to 65 CNEL. Absorption coefficients were measured using time delay spectrometry. At lower frequencies, measured absorption coefficients were notably less than the reverberation room results advertised in the manufacturer's literature, but generally conformed with impedance tube results. At higher frequencies the correspondence between measured absorption coefficients and reverberation room results was much improved. For the actual barrier installation, unshielded residential receivers to the north are expected to experience noise exposure increases of less than 1 dB(A). This factor of increase is consistent with a finding of no impact when assessed using FRA guidelines for allowable increases of noise exposure.

Busch, T. A.; Nugent, R. E.

2003-10-01

404

The Prediction of Ducted Fan Engine Noise Via a Boundary Integral Equation Method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computationally efficient Boundary Integral Equation Method (BIEM) for the prediction of ducted fan engine noise is presented. The key features of the BIEM are its versatility and the ability to compute rapidly any portion of the sound field without the need to compute the entire field. Governing equations for the BIEM are based on the assumptions that all acoustic processes are linear, generate spinning modes, and occur in a uniform flow field. An exterior boundary value problem (BVP) is defined that describes the scattering of incident sound by an engine duct with arbitrary profile. Boundary conditions on the duct walls are derived that allow for passive noise control treatment. The BVP is recast as a system of hypersingular boundary integral equations for the unknown duct surface quantities. BIEM solution methodology is demonstrated for the scattering of incident sound by a thin cylindrical duct with hard walls. Numerical studies are conducted for var