Sample records for broadband noise prediction

  1. Broadband Trailing Edge Noise Predictions in the Time Domain. Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casper, Jay; Farassat, Fereidoun

    2003-01-01

    A recently developed analytic result in acoustics, "Formulation 1B," is used to compute broadband trailing edge noise from an unsteady surface pressure distribution on a thin airfoil in the time domain. This formulation is a new solution of the Ffowcs Willliams-Hawkings equation with the loading source term, and has been shown in previous research to provide time domain predictions of broadband noise that are in excellent agreement with experimental results. Furthermore, this formulation lends itself readily to rotating reference frames and statistical analysis of broadband trailing edge noise. Formulation 1B is used to calculate the far field noise radiated from the trailing edge of a NACA 0012 airfoil in low Mach number flows, by using both analytical and experimental data on the airfoil surface. The acoustic predictions are compared with analytical results and experimental measurements that are available in the literature. Good agreement between predictions and measurements is obtained.

  2. The prediction of tonal and broadband slat noise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anurag Agarwal

    2004-01-01

    Noise from high-lift devices like slats and flaps can contribute significantly to the over-all aircraft sound pressure levels, particularly during approach. The acoustic spectrum of the noise radiated from slats exhibits two distinct features. There is a high-frequency tonal noise component, and a high-energy broadband component ranging from low to mid-frequencies. The objective of this thesis is to predict both

  3. Axial flow fan broad-band noise and prediction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Carolus; Marc Schneider; Hauke Reese

    2007-01-01

    Two prediction methods for broad-band noise of low-pressure axial fans are investigated. Emphasis is put on the interaction noise due to ingested turbulence. The numerical large eddy simulation (LES) is applied to predict the unsteady blade forces due to grid generated highly turbulent inflow; the blade forces are then fed into an analytical two-dimensional acoustic ducted source model. A simple

  4. The Prediction of Scattered Broadband Shock-Associated Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Steven A. E.

    2015-01-01

    A mathematical model is developed for the prediction of scattered broadband shock-associated noise. Model arguments are dependent on the vector Green's function of the linearized Euler equations, steady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes solutions, and the two-point cross-correlation of the equivalent source. The equivalent source is dependent on steady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes solutions of the jet flow, that capture the nozzle geometry and airframe surface. Contours of the time-averaged streamwise velocity component and turbulent kinetic energy are examined with varying airframe position relative to the nozzle exit. Propagation effects are incorporated by approximating the vector Green's function of the linearized Euler equations. This approximation involves the use of ray theory and an assumption that broadband shock-associated noise is relatively unaffected by the refraction of the jet shear layer. A non-dimensional parameter is proposed that quantifies the changes of the broadband shock-associated noise source with varying jet operating condition and airframe position. Scattered broadband shock-associated noise possesses a second set of broadband lobes that are due to the effect of scattering. Presented predictions demonstrate relatively good agreement compared to a wide variety of measurements.

  5. A survey of the broadband shock associated noise prediction methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Chan M.; Krejsa, Eugene A.; Khavaran, Abbas

    1992-01-01

    Several different prediction methods to estimate the broadband shock associated noise of a supersonic jet are introduced and compared with experimental data at various test conditions. The nozzle geometries considered for comparison include a convergent and a convergent-divergent nozzle, both axisymmetric. Capabilities and limitations of prediction methods in incorporating the two nozzle geometries, flight effect, and temperature effect are discussed. Predicted noise field shows the best agreement for a convergent nozzle geometry under static conditions. Predicted results for nozzles in flight show larger discrepancies from data and more dependable flight data are required for further comparison. Qualitative effects of jet temperature, as observed in experiment, are reproduced in predicted results.

  6. Broadband Noise Predictions Based on a New Aeroacoustic Formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casper, J.; Farassat, F.

    2002-01-01

    A new analytic result in acoustics called 'Formulation 1B,' proposed by Farassat, is used to compute the loading noise from an unsteady surface pressure distribution on a thin airfoil in the time domain. This formulation is a new solution of the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equation with the loading source term. The formulation contains a far-field surface integral that depends on the time derivative and the surface gradient of the pressure on the airfoil, as well as a contour integral on the boundary of the airfoil surface. As a first test case, the new formulation is used to compute the noise radiated from a flat plate, moving through a sinusoidal gust of constant frequency. The unsteady surface pressure for this test case is specified analytically from a result that is based on linear airfoil theory. This test case is used to examine the velocity scaling properties of Formulation 1B, and to demonstrate its equivalence to Formulation 1A, of Farassat. The new acoustic formulation, again with an analytic surface pressure, is then used to predict broadband noise radiated from an airfoil immersed in homogeneous turbulence. The results are compared with experimental data previously reported by Paterson and Amiet. Good agreement between predictions and measurements is obtained. The predicted results also agree very well with those of Paterson and Amiet, who used a frequency-domain approach. Finally, an alternative form of Formulation 1B is described for statistical analysis of broadband noise.

  7. A New Time Domain Formulation for Broadband Noise Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casper, Jay H.; Farassat, Fereidoun

    2002-01-01

    A new analytic result in acoustics called "Formulation 1B," proposed by Farassat, is used to compute the loading noise from an unsteady surface pressure distribution on a thin airfoil in the time domain. This formulation is a new solution of the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equation with the loading source term. The formulation contains a far field surface integral that depends on the time derivative and the surface gradient of the pressure on the airfoil, as well as a contour integral on the boundary of the airfoil surface. As a first test case, the new formulation is used to compute the noise radiated from a flat plate, moving through a sinusoidal gust of constant frequency. The unsteady surface pressure for this test case is analytically specied from a result based on linear airfoil theory. This test case is used to examine the velocity scaling properties of Formulation 1B and to demonstrate its equivalence to Formulation 1A of Farassat. The new acoustic formulation, again with an analytic surface pressure, is then used to predict broadband noise radiated from an airfoil immersed in homogeneous, isotropic turbulence. The results are compared with experimental data previously reported by Paterson and Amiet. Good agreement between predictions and measurements is obtained. Finally, an alternative form of Formulation 1B is described for statistical analysis of broadband noise.

  8. A New Time Domain Formulation for Broadband Noise Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casper, J.; Farassat, F.

    2002-01-01

    A new analytic result in acoustics called "Formulation 1B," proposed by Farassat, is used to compute the loading noise from an unsteady surface pressure distribution on a thin airfoil in the time domain. This formulation is a new solution of the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equation with the loading source term. The formulation contains a far field surface integral that depends on the time derivative and the surface gradient of the pressure on the airfoil, as well as a contour integral on the boundary of the airfoil surface. As a first test case, the new formulation is used to compute the noise radiated from a flat plate, moving through a sinusoidal gust of constant frequency. The unsteady surface pressure for this test case is analytically specified from a result based on linear airfoil theory. This test case is used to examine the velocity scaling properties of Formulation 1B and to demonstrate its equivalence to Formulation 1A of Farassat. The new acoustic formulation, again with an analytic surface pressure, is then used to predict broadband noise radiated from an airfoil immersed in homogeneous, isotropic turbulence. The results are compared with experimental data previously reported by Paterson and Amiet. Good agreement between predictions and measurements is obtained. Finally, an alternative form of Formulation 1B is described for statistical analysis of broadband noise.

  9. Broadband Noise Predictions for an Airfoil in a Turbulent Stream

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casper, J.; Farassat, F.; Mish, P. F.; Devenport, W. J.

    2003-01-01

    Loading noise is predicted from unsteady surface pressure measurements on a NACA 0015 airfoil immersed in grid-generated turbulence. The time-dependent pressure is obtained from an array of synchronized transducers on the airfoil surface. Far field noise is predicted by using the time-dependent surface pressure as input to Formulation 1A of Farassat, a solution of the Ffowcs Williams - Hawkings equation. Acoustic predictions are performed with and without the effects of airfoil surface curvature. Scaling rules are developed to compare the present far field predictions with acoustic measurements that are available in the literature.

  10. Prediction of broadband noise from large horizontal axis wind turbine generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grosveld, F. W.

    1984-01-01

    A method is presented for predicting the broadband noise spectra of large horizontal axis wind turbine generators. It includes contributions from such noise sources as the inflow turbulence to the rotor, the interactions between the turbulent boundary layers on the blade surfaces with their trailing edges and the wake due to a blunt trailing edge. The method is partly empirical and is based on acoustic measurements of large wind turbines and airfoil models. The predicted frequency spectra are compared with measured data from several machines including the MOD-OA, the MOD-2, the WTS-4 and the U.S. Wind-power Inc. machine. Also included is a broadband noise prediction for the proposed MOD-5B. The significance of the effects of machine size, power output, trailing edge bluntness and distance to the receiver is illustrated. Good agreement is obtained between the predicted and measured far field noise spectra.

  11. A frequency domain numerical method for airfoil broadband self-noise prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Qidou; Joseph, Phillip

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a numerical approach, based in the frequency domain, for predicting the broadband self-noise radiation due to an airfoil situated in a smooth mean flow. Noise is generated by the interaction between the boundary layer turbulence on the airfoil surface and the airfoil trailing edge. Thin airfoil theory is used to deduce the unsteady blade loading. In this paper, the important difference with much of the previous work dealing with trailing edge noise is that the integration of the surface sources for computation of the radiated sound field is evaluated on the actual airfoil surface rather than in the mean-chord plane. The assumption of flat plate geometry in the calculation of radiation is therefore avoided. Moreover, the solution is valid in both near and far fields and reduces to the analytic solution due to Amiet when the airfoil collapses to a flat plate with large span, and the measurement point is taken to the far field. Predictions of the airfoil broadband self-noise radiation presented here are shown to be in reasonable agreement with the predictions obtained using the Brooks approach, which are based on a comprehensive database of experimental data. Also investigated in this paper is the effect on the broadband noise prediction of relaxing the 'frozen-gust' assumption, whereby the turbulence at each frequency comprises a continuous spectrum of streamwise wavenumber components. It is shown that making the frozen gust assumption yields an under-prediction of the noise spectrum by approximately 2dB compared with that obtained when this assumption is relaxed, with the largest occurring at high frequencies. This paper concludes with a comparison of the broadband noise directivity for a flat-plat, a NACA 0012 and a NACA 0024 airfoil at non-zero angle of attack. Differences of up to 20 dB are predicted, with the largest difference occurring at a radiation angle of zero degrees relative to the airfoil mean centre line.

  12. Measurement and prediction of broadband noise from large horizontal axis wind turbine generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grosveld, F. W.; Shepherd, K. P.; Hubbard, H. H.

    1995-01-01

    A method is presented for predicting the broadband noise spectra of large wind turbine generators. It includes contributions from such noise sources as the inflow turbulence to the rotor, the interactions between the turbulent boundary layers on the blade surfaces with their trailing edges and the wake due to a blunt trailing edge. The method is partly empirical and is based on acoustic measurements of large wind turbines and airfoil models. Spectra are predicted for several large machines including the proposed MOD-5B. Measured data are presented for the MOD-2, the WTS-4, the MOD-OA, and the U.S. Windpower Inc. machines. Good agreement is shown between the predicted and measured far field noise spectra.

  13. Prediction of Broadband Shock-Associated Noise Including Propagation Effects Originating NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Steven; Morris, Philip J.

    2012-01-01

    An acoustic analogy is developed based on the Euler equations for broadband shock-associated noise (BBSAN) that directly incorporates the vector Green s function of the linearized Euler equations and a steady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes solution (SRANS) to describe the mean flow. The vector Green s function allows the BBSAN propagation through the jet shear layer to be determined. The large-scale coherent turbulence is modeled by two-point second order velocity cross-correlations. Turbulent length and time scales are related to the turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation rate. An adjoint vector Green s function solver is implemented to determine the vector Green s function based on a locally parallel mean flow at different streamwise locations. The newly developed acoustic analogy can be simplified to one that uses the Green s function associated with the Helmholtz equation, which is consistent with a previous formulation by the authors. A large number of predictions are generated using three different nozzles over a wide range of fully-expanded jet Mach numbers and jet stagnation temperatures. These predictions are compared with experimental data from multiple jet noise experimental facilities. In addition, two models for the so-called fine-scale mixing noise are included in the comparisons. Improved BBSAN predictions are obtained relative to other models that do not include propagation effects.

  14. Assessment of Geometry and In-Flow Effects on Contra-Rotating Open Rotor Broadband Noise Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zawodny, Nikolas S.; Nark, Douglas M.; Boyd, D. Douglas, Jr.

    2015-01-01

    Application of previously formulated semi-analytical models for the prediction of broadband noise due to turbulent rotor wake interactions and rotor blade trailing edges is performed on the historical baseline F31/A31 contra-rotating open rotor configuration. Simplified two-dimensional blade element analysis is performed on cambered NACA 4-digit airfoil profiles, which are meant to serve as substitutes for the actual rotor blade sectional geometries. Rotor in-flow effects such as induced axial and tangential velocities are incorporated into the noise prediction models based on supporting computational fluid dynamics (CFD) results and simplified in-flow velocity models. Emphasis is placed on the development of simplified rotor in-flow models for the purpose of performing accurate noise predictions independent of CFD information. The broadband predictions are found to compare favorably with experimental acoustic results.

  15. Broadband Noise Prediction When Turbulence Simulation Is Available - Derivation of Formulation 2B and Its Statistical Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farassat, Fereidoun; Casper, Jay H.

    2012-01-01

    We show that a simple modification of Formulation 1 of Farassat results in a new analytic expression that is highly suitable for broadband noise prediction when extensive turbulence simulation is available. This result satisfies all the stringent requirements, such as permitting the use of the exact geometry and kinematics of the moving body, that we have set as our goal in the derivation of useful acoustic formulas for the prediction of rotating blade and airframe noise. We also derive a simple analytic expression for the autocorrelation of the acoustic pressure that is valid in the near and far fields. Our analysis is based on the time integral of the acoustic pressure that can easily be obtained at any resolution for any observer time interval and digitally analyzed for broadband noise prediction. We have named this result as Formulation 2B of Farassat. One significant consequence of Formulation 2B is the derivation of the acoustic velocity potential for the thickness and loading terms of the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FW-H) equation. This will greatly enhance the usefulness of the Fast Scattering Code (FSC) by providing a high fidelity boundary condition input for scattering predictions.

  16. Broadband noise prediction when turbulence simulation is available—Derivation of Formulation 2B and its statistical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farassat, F.; Casper, J.

    2012-05-01

    We show that a simple modification of Formulation 1 of Farassat results in a new analytic expression that is highly suitable for broadband noise prediction when extensive turbulence simulation is available. This result satisfies all the stringent requirements, such as permitting the use of the exact geometry and kinematics of the moving body, which we have set as our goal in the derivation of useful acoustic formulas for the prediction of rotating blade and airframe noise. We also derive a simple analytic expression for the autocorrelation of the acoustic pressure that is valid in the near and far fields. Our analysis is based on the time integral of the acoustic pressure that can easily be obtained at any resolution for any observer time interval and digitally analyzed for broadband noise prediction. We have named this result as Formulation 2B of Farassat. One significant consequence of Formulation 2B is the derivation of the acoustic velocity potential for the thickness and loading terms of the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FW-H) equation. This will greatly enhance the usefulness of the Fast Scattering Code (FSC) by providing a high-fidelity boundary condition input for scattering predictions.

  17. Generalised turbulence spectra for broadband noise predictions with the Random Particle Mesh method

    E-print Network

    Wohlbrandt, Attila; Guerin, Sebastien; Ewert, Roland

    2015-01-01

    For better comparison to fan broadband noise experiments the Random Particle Mesh (RPM) method is extended to generalised turbulence spectra. The RPM method synthesises turbulent fluctuations by filtering white noise with a Gaussian filter kernel, which in turn gives a Gaussian spectrum. The Gaussian function is smooth and its derivatives and antiderivatives are again Gaussian functions; the Gaussian filter is efficient and finds wide-spread applications in stochastic signal processing. However in many applications Gaussian spectra are not matching physical spectra. E.g. in turbo-machines, the von Karman, Liepmann, and modified von Karman spectra are the most relevant model spectra. In the current paper we show how to analytically derive weighting functions to realise arbitrary spectra which are isotropic and solenoidal using a superposition of weighted Gaussian spectra of differing length scales. The analytic weighting functions for the von Karman , the Liepmann , and the modified von Karman spectra are deri...

  18. Predicting Noise From Wind Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grosveld, Ferdinand W.

    1990-01-01

    Computer program WINDY predicts broadband noise spectra of horizontal-axis wind-turbine generators. Enables adequate assessment of impact of broadband wind-turbine noise. Effects of turbulence, trailing-edge wakes, and bluntness taken into account. Program has practical application in design and siting of wind-turbine machines acceptable to community. Written in GW-Basic.

  19. Fundamental noise limits in broadband Raman amplifiers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. R. S. Fludger; V. Handerek; R. J. Mears

    2001-01-01

    We show that broadband discrete Raman amplifiers based on silica-germania will have a noise figure significantly greater than the quantum limit. We also present temperature measurements on a broadband distributed Raman amplifier using asymmetrically-spaced pumps.

  20. A study of rotor broadband noise mechanisms and helicopter tail rotor noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Shau-Tak Rudy

    1990-01-01

    The rotor broadband noise mechanisms considered are the following: (1) lift fluctuation due to turbulence ingestion; (2) boundary layer/trailing edge interaction; (3) tip vortex formation; and (4) turbulent vortex shedding from blunt trailing edge. Predictions show good agreement with available experimental data. The study shows that inflow turbulence is the most important broadband noise source for typical helicopters' main rotors at low- and mid-frequencies. Due to the size difference, isolated helicopter tail rotor broadband noise is not important compared to the much louder main rotor broadband noise. However, the inflow turbulence noise from a tail rotor can be very significant because it is operating in a highly turbulent environment, ingesting wakes from upstream components of the helicopter. The study indicates that the main rotor turbulent wake is the most important source of tail rotor broadband noise. The harmonic noise due to ingestion of main rotor tip vortices is studied.

  1. Predicting broadband noise from a stator vane of a gas turbine engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, Donald B. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A computer-implemented model of fan section of a gas turbine engine accounts for the turbulence in the gas flow emanating from the rotor assembly and impinging upon an inlet to the stator vane cascade. The model allows for user-input variations in the sweep and/or lean angles for the stator vanes. The model determines the resulting acoustic response of the fan section as a function of the turbulence and the lean and/or sweep angles of the vanes. The model may be embodied in software that is rapidly executed in a computer. This way, an optimum arrangement in terms of fan noise reduction is quickly determined for the stator vane lean and sweep physical positioning in the fan section of a gas turbine engine.

  2. Propeller noise prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zorumski, W. E.

    1983-01-01

    Analytic propeller noise prediction involves a sequence of computations culminating in the application of acoustic equations. The prediction sequence currently used by NASA in its ANOPP (aircraft noise prediction) program is described. The elements of the sequence are called program modules. The first group of modules analyzes the propeller geometry, the aerodynamics, including both potential and boundary layer flow, the propeller performance, and the surface loading distribution. This group of modules is based entirely on aerodynamic strip theory. The next group of modules deals with the actual noise prediction, based on data from the first group. Deterministic predictions of periodic thickness and loading noise are made using Farassat's time-domain methods. Broadband noise is predicted by the semi-empirical Schlinker-Amiet method. Near-field predictions of fuselage surface pressures include the effects of boundary layer refraction and (for a cylinder) scattering. Far-field predictions include atmospheric and ground effects. Experimental data from subsonic and transonic propellers are compared and NASA's future direction is propeller noise technology development are indicated.

  3. Propeller noise prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorumski, W. E.

    1983-05-01

    Analytic propeller noise prediction involves a sequence of computations culminating in the application of acoustic equations. The prediction sequence currently used by NASA in its ANOPP (aircraft noise prediction) program is described. The elements of the sequence are called program modules. The first group of modules analyzes the propeller geometry, the aerodynamics, including both potential and boundary layer flow, the propeller performance, and the surface loading distribution. This group of modules is based entirely on aerodynamic strip theory. The next group of modules deals with the actual noise prediction, based on data from the first group. Deterministic predictions of periodic thickness and loading noise are made using Farassat's time-domain methods. Broadband noise is predicted by the semi-empirical Schlinker-Amiet method. Near-field predictions of fuselage surface pressures include the effects of boundary layer refraction and (for a cylinder) scattering. Far-field predictions include atmospheric and ground effects. Experimental data from subsonic and transonic propellers are compared and NASA's future direction is propeller noise technology development are indicated.

  4. Broadband Fan Noise Generated by Small Scale Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glegg, Stewart A. L.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes the development of prediction methods for broadband fan noise from aircraft engines. First, experimental evidence of the most important source mechanisms is reviewed. It is found that there are a number of competing source mechanism involved and that there is no single dominant source to which noise control procedures can be applied. Theoretical models are then developed for: (1) ducted rotors and stator vanes interacting with duct wall boundary layers, (2) ducted rotor self noise, and (3) stator vanes operating in the wakes of rotors. All the turbulence parameters required for these models are based on measured quantities. Finally the theoretical models are used to predict measured fan noise levels with some success.

  5. Non-linear Identiflcation Applied to Broadband Turbomachinery Noise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gareth J. Bennett

    Coherence based source analysis techniques can be used to identify the contribution of broadband noise sources in the exhaust of a gas turbine and hence enable the design of noise reduction devices. However, when the broadband noise source propagates in a non-linear fashion the identifled contribution using ordinary coherence methods will be inaccurate. In this paper, an analysis technique to

  6. Propeller noise prediction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. E. Zorumski

    1983-01-01

    Analytic propeller noise prediction involves a sequence of computations culminating in the application of acoustic equations. The prediction sequence currently used by NASA in its ANOPP (aircraft noise prediction) program is described. The elements of the sequence are called program modules. The first group of modules analyzes the propeller geometry, the aerodynamics, including both potential and boundary layer flow, the

  7. Feedback controllers for broadband active noise reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petitjean, Benoit; Legrain, Isabelle

    1994-09-01

    The aim of the present paper is to demonstrate the efficiency of an LQG-based controller for the active control of the acoustic field radiated by a rectangular panel. This topic has been of interest for numerous researchers in the past 10 or 15 years, but very little attention has been paid to broadband disturbances occurring in a relatively high frequency range. These are unfortunately common features of noise perturbations in realistic structures such as airplanes or helicopters. The few articles that deal with this problem provide very scarce experimental results and are related to frequency bands where the structure dynamics is rather poor. From the outset, the problem at hand involves numerous difficulties, such as the modeling of the active structure itself and the possible large size of the controller. In the following, the experimental setup is described, then the controller design procedure is developed and finally some experimental results are shown that prove the efficiency of the method.

  8. Airfoil self-noise and prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Thomas F.; Pope, D. Stuart; Marcolini, Michael A.

    1989-01-01

    A prediction method is developed for the self-generated noise of an airfoil blade encountering smooth flow. The prediction methods for the individual self-noise mechanisms are semiempirical and are based on previous theoretical studies and data obtained from tests of two- and three-dimensional airfoil blade sections. The self-noise mechanisms are due to specific boundary-layer phenomena, that is, the boundary-layer turbulence passing the trailing edge, separated-boundary-layer and stalled flow over an airfoil, vortex shedding due to laminar boundary layer instabilities, vortex shedding from blunt trailing edges, and the turbulent vortex flow existing near the tip of lifting blades. The predictions are compared successfully with published data from three self-noise studies of different airfoil shapes. An application of the prediction method is reported for a large scale-model helicopter rotor, and the predictions compared well with experimental broadband noise measurements. A computer code of the method is given.

  9. Broadband Resolution Analysis for Imaging with Measurement Noise

    E-print Network

    Solna, Knut

    Broadband Resolution Analysis for Imaging with Measurement Noise Albert Fannjiang Department of Mathematics University of California, Irvine ksolna@math.uci.edu Resolution analysis for imaging in the conventional definitions of imaging resolution. In the classical, more pessimistic Rayleigh criterion

  10. Aircraft Noise Prediction Program theoretical manual: Propeller aerodynamics and noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorumski, W. E.; Weir, D. S.

    1986-06-01

    The prediction sequence used in the aircraft noise prediction program (ANOPP) is described. The elements of the sequence are called program modules. The first group of modules analyzes the propeller geometry, the aerodynamics, including both potential and boundary-layer flow, the propeller performance, and the surface loading distribution. This group of modules is based entirely on aerodynamic strip theory. The next group of modules deals with the first group. Predictions of periodic thickness and loading noise are determined with time-domain methods. Broadband noise is predicted by a semiempirical method. Near-field predictions of fuselage surface pressrues include the effects of boundary layer refraction and scattering. Far-field predictions include atmospheric and ground effects.

  11. Aircraft Noise Prediction Program theoretical manual: Propeller aerodynamics and noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zorumski, W. E. (editor); Weir, D. S. (editor)

    1986-01-01

    The prediction sequence used in the aircraft noise prediction program (ANOPP) is described. The elements of the sequence are called program modules. The first group of modules analyzes the propeller geometry, the aerodynamics, including both potential and boundary-layer flow, the propeller performance, and the surface loading distribution. This group of modules is based entirely on aerodynamic strip theory. The next group of modules deals with the first group. Predictions of periodic thickness and loading noise are determined with time-domain methods. Broadband noise is predicted by a semiempirical method. Near-field predictions of fuselage surface pressrues include the effects of boundary layer refraction and scattering. Far-field predictions include atmospheric and ground effects.

  12. Direct Observation of Broadband Coating Thermal Noise in a Suspended Interferometer

    E-print Network

    Black, E D; Barbary, K; Bushmaker, A; Heefner, J; Kawamura, S; Kawazoe, F; Matone, L; Meidt, S; Rao, S R; Schulz, K; Zhang, M; Libbrecht, K G; Black, Eric D.; Villar, Akira; Barbary, Kyle; Bushmaker, Adam; Heefner, Jay; Kawamura, Seiji; Kawazoe, Fumiko; Matone, Luca; Meidt, Sharon; Rao, Shanti R.; Schulz, Kevin; Zhang, Michael; Libbrecht, Kenneth G.

    2004-01-01

    We report observations of broadband displacement noise resulting from thermal fluctuations in the mirror coatings of a high-sensitivity suspended interferometer. These observations show the expected spectral signature for coating thermal noise over almost two decades in frequency, but the noise amplitude (5e-19 to 1.5e-18 m/rHz) is lower than has been previously predicted. Ringdown measurements of the mechanical Q's of coated optics similar to our test masses lead to predictions of a minimum thermal noise that is greater than what we observe in our interferometer. Broadband coating thermal noise in similar low-loss coatings is a fundamental noise source that is expected to ultimately limit the astrophysical reach of interferometric gravitational wave detectors.

  13. Estimation of Broadband Shock Noise Reduction in Turbulent Jets by Water Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandula, Max; Lonerjan, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    The concept of effective jet properties introduced by the authors (AIAA-2007-3645) has been extended to the estimation of broadband shock noise reduction by water injection in supersonic jets. Comparison of the predictions with the test data for cold underexpanded supersonic nozzles shows a satisfactory agreement. The results also reveal the range of water mass flow rates over which saturation of mixing noise reduction and existence of parasitic noise are manifest.

  14. Broadband resolution analysis for imaging with measurement noise

    E-print Network

    Fannjiang, Albert

    Broadband resolution analysis for imaging with measurement noise Albert Fannjiang Department analysis for imaging in the presence of noise is presented. A simple definition of resolution that takes of the resolution theory for optical imaging to radio-wave imaging with an antenna array. Ambiguity is, however

  15. Noise analysis of broadband active metamaterials with non-Foster loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Yifeng; Rajab, Khalid Z.; Hao, Yang

    2013-06-01

    Active metamaterials loaded with non-Foster inclusions may exhibit broadband and low-loss material properties, as compared to their passive counterparts. However, the study of their noise performance still remains to be explored. In addition to the Johnson-Nyquist noise from lossy conductors, nonlinear materials used for the design of negative impedance converters (NICs) will give rise to noise as well. In this paper, a general analytical model is developed for the prediction of the noise performance of broadband, stable active metamaterials based on NICs. The noise performance is analyzed in relation to stability, and the effective material properties. The techniques developed in this paper can be applied generally to metamaterials for which equivalent circuit models exist, and results are shown demonstrating the power spectral density and the noise figure of the specific case of an active metamaterial consisting of loaded loop arrays. Results are compared to and verified with circuit simulations.

  16. A comparison of the overall and broadband noise characteristics of full-scale and model helicopter rotors.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leverton, J. W.; Pollard, J. S.

    1973-01-01

    The broadband noise generated by full-scale and model rotors is compared in terms of spectral content and the dependence on tip speed and rotor thrust/pitch angle. Low frequency broadband noise and high frequency broadband noise are studied separately and blade 'scaling' effects are outlined. The degree of agreement between measurements and theoretical and semi-empirical prediction methods is reviewed together with the directionality patterns. The parameters relating to the overall noise are also discussed. It is shown that in general good agreement is obtained between the full-scale and model rotors when considering spectral content and the dependency of the noise levels on tip speed and thrust. The scaling factors usually considered applicable to the low frequency broadband noise do not, however, appear to apply to either the model or full scale rotors.

  17. A solid state broadband microwave noise source

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. H. Haitz; F. L. Opp

    1968-01-01

    Recent studies of avalanche breakdown have led to a thorough understanding of the noise properties of a stable-burning avalanche discharge in a reverse biased silicon p-n junction. Avalanche diodes specially designed for uniform breakdown are nearly ideal noise sources because of their high noise output, high efficiency, broad bandwidth, low temperature dependence and high reliability. In order to reduce circuit

  18. A single chip broadband noise source for noise measurements at cryogenic temperatures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Bruch; F. Schafer; M. Seelmann-Eggebert; B. Aja; I. Kallfass; A. Leuther; M. Schlechtweg; O. Ambacher

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the design and performance of a single chip broadband noise source dedicated for on-chip measurements in a cryogenic environment. The noise source is used to generate the two input noise powers Pc and Ph which are required by the commonly used Y-factor method. High accuracy in temperature control and impedance presented to the device under test is

  19. Fan noise prediction assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bent, Paul H.

    1995-01-01

    This report is an evaluation of two techniques for predicting the fan noise radiation from engine nacelles. The first is a relatively computational intensive finite element technique. The code is named ARC, an abbreviation of Acoustic Radiation Code, and was developed by Eversman. This is actually a suite of software that first generates a grid around the nacelle, then solves for the potential flowfield, and finally solves the acoustic radiation problem. The second approach is an analytical technique requiring minimal computational effort. This is termed the cutoff ratio technique and was developed by Rice. Details of the duct geometry, such as the hub-to-tip ratio and Mach number of the flow in the duct, and modal content of the duct noise are required for proper prediction.

  20. Improved Broadband Liner Optimization Applied to the Advanced Noise Control Fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nark, Douglas M.; Jones, Michael G.; Sutliff, Daniel L.; Ayle, Earl; Ichihashi, Fumitaka

    2014-01-01

    The broadband component of fan noise has grown in relevance with the utilization of increased bypass ratio and advanced fan designs. Thus, while the attenuation of fan tones remains paramount, the ability to simultaneously reduce broadband fan noise levels has become more desirable. This paper describes improvements to a previously established broadband acoustic liner optimization process using the Advanced Noise Control Fan rig as a demonstrator. Specifically, in-duct attenuation predictions with a statistical source model are used to obtain optimum impedance spectra over the conditions of interest. The predicted optimum impedance information is then used with acoustic liner modeling tools to design liners aimed at producing impedance spectra that most closely match the predicted optimum values. Design selection is based on an acceptance criterion that provides the ability to apply increased weighting to specific frequencies and/or operating conditions. Constant-depth, double-degree of freedom and variable-depth, multi-degree of freedom designs are carried through design, fabrication, and testing to validate the efficacy of the design process. Results illustrate the value of the design process in concurrently evaluating the relative costs/benefits of these liner designs. This study also provides an application for demonstrating the integrated use of duct acoustic propagation/radiation and liner modeling tools in the design and evaluation of novel broadband liner concepts for complex engine configurations.

  1. Trailing Edge Noise Prediction Based on a New Acoustic Formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casper, J.; Farassat, F.

    2002-01-01

    A new analytic result in acoustics called 'Formulation 1B,' proposed by Farassat, is used to compute broadband trailing edge noise from an unsteady surface pressure distribution on a thin airfoil in the time domain. This formulation is a new solution of the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equation with the loading source term, and has been shown in previous research to provide time domain predictions of broadband noise that are in excellent agreement with experiment. Furthermore, this formulation lends itself readily to rotating reference frames and statistical analysis of broadband trailing edge noise. Formulation 1B is used to calculate the far field noise radiated from the trailing edge of a NACA 0012 airfoil in low Mach number flows, using both analytical and experimental data on the airfoil surface. The results are compared to analytical results and experimental measurements that are available in the literature. Good agreement between predictions and measurements is obtained.

  2. Helicopter noise prediction - The current status and future direction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brentner, Kenneth S.; Farassat, F.

    1992-01-01

    The paper takes stock of the progress, assesses the current prediction capabilities, and forecasts the direction of future helicopter noise prediction research. The acoustic analogy approach, specifically, theories based on the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equations, are the most widely used for deterministic noise sources. Thickness and loading noise can be routinely predicted given good plane motion and blade loading inputs. Blade-vortex interaction noise can also be predicted well with measured input data, but prediction of airloads with the high spatial and temporal resolution required for BVI is still difficult. Current semiempirical broadband noise predictions are useful and reasonably accurate. New prediction methods based on a Kirchhoff formula and direct computation appear to be very promising, but are currently very demanding computationally.

  3. Generation of broadband noise in the magnetotail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dusenbery, P. B.; Lyons, L. R.

    1987-01-01

    The generation of electrostatic noise in the geomagnetic tail by ion beams is evaluated, assuming a stationary plasma-sheet electron distribution and streaming-ion distributions. Both warm ion streams, as observed within the plasma-sheet boundary layer, and cold ion streams, as expected from upward flowing ionospheric ions, are considered. Warm ion streams by themselves are found to be stable, whereas a cold ion stream by itself is unstable to the beam acoustic mode. However, wave growth is increased if both cold and warm streams are simultaneously present. These results suggest that the interaction between the warm and cold ion streams is responsible for the peak in electrostatic-wave intensities observed within the plasma-sheet boundary layer. For cold and warm ions streaming in the same direction, wave-growth peaks are found for wave normal angles theta = 0 deg and wave frequencies about 0.1 times the electron plasma frequency. However, for antiparallel streaming cold and warm ions, wave growth peaks near theta = 90 deg and wave frequencies are an order of magnitude smaller.

  4. Noise Prediction For Maneuvering Rotorcraft

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth S. Brentner

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the initial work toward firstprinciplesnoise prediction for maneuvering rotors.Both the aeromechanical and acoustics aspects of themaneuver noise problem are discussed. Thecomprehensive analysis code, CAMRAD 2, wasutilized to predict the time-dependent aircraft positionand attitude, along with the rotor blade airloads andmotion. The major focus of this effort was theenhancement of the acoustic code WOPWOP necessaryto compute the noise

  5. Turbulence Associated With Broadband Shock Noise in Hot Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, James E.; Wernet, Mark P.

    2008-01-01

    Time-Resolved Particle Image Velocimetry (TRPIV) has been applied to a series of jet flows to measure turbulence statistics associated with broadband shock associated noise (BBSN). Data were acquired in jets of Mach numbers 1.05, 1.185, and 1.4 at different temperatures. Both convergent and ideally expanded nozzles were tested, along with a convergent nozzle modified to minimize screech. Key findings include the effect of heat on shock structure and jet decay, the increase in turbulent velocity when screech is present, and the relative lack of spectral detail associated with the enhanced turbulence.

  6. Turbulence generated noise from rotating blades with application to broadband noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dash, R.

    1986-01-01

    This paper develops a formula which relates the power spectral density of the time-dependent stresses which arise in a turbulence generated by rotating blades to the power spectral density of the pressure fluctuations in the distant radiation field. This formula 'equation (31)' derives the acoustic spectrum at frequency omega in terms of the stress fluctuations at frequencies omega-n(Omega), which are shifted from omega by a range of blade passage harmonics n(Omega). An earlier equation from Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings (1969) is shown to be a special low Mach number case of this formula. This work also develops an integral formula 'eqn. (56)', for the prediction of broadband noise when the power spectral density T(rr) (phi, omega-nOmega) of the quadrupole strength in the direction of radiation is known. These results can be applied to high speed rotors for which the quadrupole effects are significant, and also to the prediction of turblent sound generation from tip jet rotors and deflected jets.

  7. An Excess Broadband Noise Observed with Overexpanded Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaman, K.B.M.Q.; Bridges, James E.; Brown, C.A.

    2009-01-01

    Results of an experiment on the characteristics of an excess noise occurring with convergent-divergent (C-D) nozzles in the overexpanded regime are presented in this paper. Data are obtained with five C-D nozzles and a convergent nozzle, all having the same exit diameter. The results clearly establish that the C-D nozzles are noisier in the low Mach number range of the overexpanded regime. This is evidenced from the directivity patterns as well as overall radiated sound power calculations. The excess noise is broadband in nature and is found to be more pronounced with nozzles having a larger half-angle of the divergent section. It appears to occur when a shock resides within the divergent section and results from random unsteady motion of the shock.

  8. Aircraft noise prediction program validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shivashankara, B. N.

    1980-01-01

    A modular computer program (ANOPP) for predicting aircraft flyover and sideline noise was developed. A high quality flyover noise data base for aircraft that are representative of the U.S. commercial fleet was assembled. The accuracy of ANOPP with respect to the data base was determined. The data for source and propagation effects were analyzed and suggestions for improvements to the prediction methodology are given.

  9. The prediction of STOVL noise - Current semiempirical methods and comparisons with jet noise data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soderman, Paul T.

    1990-04-01

    The prediction of conventional or STOVL turbojet propulsion system-using aircraft noise is presently undertaken by means of a method incorporating empirical models for jet-mixing noise, engine core noise, and broadband shock noise. The free-jet noise is coupled with a novel empirical equation for ground-interaction noise generated by a vertically impinging jet, and supplemented with the out-of-ground-effect free-jet acoustic directivity pattern of a Harrier-type vectoring nozzle installation. This acoustic-prediction method yielded reasonable agreement with measured far-field Harrier noise during hover in and out of ground effect. Unlike small-scale studies of jet impingement on a hard surface, no tones were found in the present Harrier nozzle spectra.

  10. Tandem Cylinder Noise Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockhard, David P.; Khorrami, Mehdi R.; CHoudhari, Meelan M.; Hutcheson, Florence V.; Brooks, Thomas F.; Stead, Daniel J.

    2007-01-01

    In an effort to better understand landing-gear noise sources, we have been examining a simplified configuration that still maintains some of the salient features of landing-gear flow fields. In particular, tandem cylinders have been studied because they model a variety of component level interactions. The present effort is directed at the case of two identical cylinders spatially separated in the streamwise direction by 3.7 diameters. Experimental measurements from the Basic Aerodynamic Research Tunnel (BART) and Quiet Flow Facility (QFF) at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) have provided steady surface pressures, detailed off-surface measurements of the flow field using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), hot-wire measurements in the wake of the rear cylinder, unsteady surface pressure data, and the radiated noise. The experiments were conducted at a Reynolds number of 166 105 based on the cylinder diameter. A trip was used on the upstream cylinder to insure a fully turbulent shedding process and simulate the effects of a high Reynolds number flow. The parallel computational effort uses the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver CFL3D with a hybrid, zonal turbulence model that turns off the turbulence production term everywhere except in a narrow ring surrounding solid surfaces. The current calculations further explore the influence of the grid resolution and spanwise extent on the flow and associated radiated noise. Extensive comparisons with the experimental data are used to assess the ability of the computations to simulate the details of the flow. The results show that the pressure fluctuations on the upstream cylinder, caused by vortex shedding, are smaller than those generated on the downstream cylinder by wake interaction. Consequently, the downstream cylinder dominates the noise radiation, producing an overall directivity pattern that is similar to that of an isolated cylinder. Only calculations based on the full length of the model span were able to capture the complete decay in the spanwise correlation, thereby producing reasonable noise radiation levels.

  11. Broadband noise measurement in the transonic test section of the VTI T-38 wind tunnel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. L. Medved; G. M. Elfstrom; A. Vitic

    1990-01-01

    Broadband noise level measurements in the T-38 wind tunnel trisonic test section having slanted holes treated for edgetone reduction have been performed. Results show that the splitter-plates have shifted the test section resonant peak condition toward lower Mach numbers, providing low broadband noise level at transonic speeds. No presence of high resonant frequencies was experienced. All resonant frequencies are located

  12. Turbulence Measurements and Computations for the Predication of Broadband Noise in High Bypass Ratio Fans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devenport, William J.; Ragab, Saad A.

    2000-01-01

    Work was performed under this grant with a view to providing the experimental and computational results needed to improve the prediction of broadband stator noise in large bypass ratio aircraft engines. The central hypothesis of our study was that a large fraction of this noise was generated by the fan tip leakage vortices. More specifically, that these vortices are a significant component of the fan wake turbulence and they contain turbulent eddies of a type that can produce significant broadband noise. To test this hypothesis we originally proposed experimental work and computations with the following objectives: (1) to build a large scale two-dimensional cascade with a tip gap and a stationary endwall that, as far as possible, simulates the fan tip geometry, (2) to build a moving endwall for use with the large scale cascade, (3) to measure, in detail, the turbulence structure and spectrum generated by the blade wake and tip leakage vortex, for both endwall configurations, (4) to use the CFD to compute the flow and turbulence distributions for both the experimental configurations and the ADP fan, (5) to provide the experimental and CFD results for the cascades and the physical understanding gained from their study as a basis for improving the broadband noise prediction method. In large part these objectives have been achieved. The most important achievements and findings of our experimental and computational efforts are summarized below. The bibliography at the end of this report includes a list of all publications produced to date under this project. Note that this list is necessarily incomplete the task of publication (particularly in journal papers) continues.

  13. A Theoretical Basis for the Scaling Law of Broadband Shock Noise Intensity in Supersonic Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandula, Max

    2011-01-01

    A theoretical basis for the scaling of broadband shock noise intensity In supersonic jets was formulated considering linear shock-shear wave interaction. Modeling of broadband shock noise with the aid of shock-turbulence interaction with special reference to linear theories is briefly reviewed. An hypothesis has been postulated that the peak angle of incidence (closer to the critical angle) for the shear wave primarily governs the generation of sound in the interaction process with the noise generation contribution from off-peak incident angles being relatively unimportant. The proposed hypothesis satisfactorily explains the well-known scaling law for the broadband shock-associated noise in supersonic jets.

  14. Fan Broadband Noise Shielding for Over-Wing Engines Stephen Powell, Andras Sobester, Phillip Joseph

    E-print Network

    Sóbester, András

    . Keywords: Broadband Inlet Noise, Diffraction, Turbofan Engine,, Half-Plane Barrier Theory, Noise Shielding;1 INTRODUCTION the trailing edge of the wing would become unnecessary[4], and the size of the landing gear would PercievedNoiseLevelCorrectedforThrust,(dB) Turbojets 1st Generation Turbofans 2nd Generation Turbofans ACARE

  15. Semi-Empirical Modelling of Broadband Noise for Aerofoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Gennaro, Michele; Kuehnelt, Helmut

    2011-09-01

    Turbulence related noise is widely recognized to be one of the most important aerodynamic noise sources for many applications and the development of computational tools for its modelling and prediction is an even more important target in many areas of applied engineering. On a general basis the noise generation mechanisms that can occur on an aerofoil surface can be classified in three main categories: Turbulent Boundary Layer-Trailing Edge noise (TBL-TE), the Laminar Boundary Layer—Vortex Shedding (LBL-VS) noise and the Separation Stall (S-S) noise, respectively related to the boundary layer turbulent eddies, to the boundary layer laminar instabilities and to the large vorticity that can be experienced for different Angle of Attacks, Reynolds and Mach numbers. Despite of the recent improvements of Computational Fluid Dynamics in the frame of turbulence modelling, the numerical computation of high Reynolds flow field turbulence for acoustic purposes is still a hard task to perform as it requires a time-dependant, fully-resolved Large Eddy Simulation often resulting in a prohibitive computational cost. Furthermore in most of the cases it is of fundamental importance to have fast and reliable tools able to capture the driving phenomena and noise sources, in order to be able to perform a large number of simulations embedded in an optimization cycle. The target of this paper is testing the Brooks, Pope and Marcolini semi-empirical model for noise prediction of the NACA 0012 aerofoil on the DU96 geometry in a range of Angle of Attacks from 3 to 10 degrees and Reynolds numbers from 1.5 to 3.1 M. The semi-empirical model input parameters (boundary layer, displacement and momentum thickness) on the suction and pressure side of the aerofoil at the trailing edge location are computed with a steady RANS simulation while the BPM approach has been implemented as an external tool. Computed noise spectra show a good agreement with experimental data from literature in terms of both Sound Pressure Levels (SPLs) and spectra envelope.

  16. Depth dependence of wind-driven, broadband ambient noise in the Philippine Sea.

    PubMed

    Barclay, David R; Buckingham, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    In 2009, as part of PhilSea09, the instrument platform known as Deep Sound was deployed in the Philippine Sea, descending under gravity to a depth of 6000 m, where it released a drop weight, allowing buoyancy to return it to the surface. On the descent and ascent, at a speed of 0.6 m/s, Deep Sound continuously recorded broadband ambient noise on two vertically aligned hydrophones separated by 0.5 m. For frequencies between 1 and 10 kHz, essentially all the noise was found to be downward traveling, exhibiting a depth-independent directional density function having the simple form cos ?, where ? ? 90° is the polar angle measured from the zenith. The spatial coherence and cross-spectral density of the noise show no change in character in the vicinity of the critical depth, consistent with a local, wind-driven surface-source distribution. The coherence function accurately matches that predicted by a simple model of deep-water, wind-generated noise, provided that the theoretical coherence is evaluated using the local sound speed. A straightforward inversion procedure is introduced for recovering the sound speed profile from the cross-correlation function of the noise, returning sound speeds with a root-mean-square error relative to an independently measured profile of 8.2 m/s. PMID:23297883

  17. Comparative Noise Performance of Portable Broadband Sensor Emplacements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweet, Justin; Arias-Dotson, Eliana; Beaudoin, Bruce; Anderson, Kent

    2015-04-01

    IRIS PASSCAL has supported portable broadband seismic experiments for close to 30 years. During that time we have seen a variety of sensor vaults deployed. The vaults deployed fall into two broad categories, a PASSCAL style vault and a Flexible Array style vault. The PASSCAL vault is constructed of materials available in-county and it is the Principle Investigator (PI) who establishes the actual field deployed design. These vaults generally are a large barrel placed in a ~1 m deep hole. A small pier, decoupled from the barrel, is fashioned in the bottom of the vault (either cement, paving stone or tile) for the sensor placement. The sensor is insulated and protected. Finally the vault is sealed and buried under ~30 cm of soil. The Flexible Array vault is provided to PIs by the EarthScope program, offering a uniform portable vault for these deployments. The vault consists of a 30 cm diameter by 0.75 cm tall piece of plastic sewage pipe buried with ~10 cm of pipe above grade. A rubber membrane covers the bottom and cement was poured into the bottom, coupling the pier to the pipe. The vault is sealed and buried under ~30 cm of soil. Cost, logistics, and the availability of materials in-country are usually the deciding factors for PIs when choosing a vault design and frequently trades are made given available resources. Recently a third type of portable broadband installation, direct burial, is being tested. In this case a sensor designed for shallow, direct burial is installed in a ~20 cm diameter by ~1 m deep posthole. Direct burial installation costs are limited to the time and effort required to dig the posthole and emplace the sensor. Our initial analyses suggest that direct burial sensors perform as well and at times better than sensor in vaults on both horizontal and vertical channels across a range of periods (<1 s to 100 s). Moving towards an instrument pool composed entirely of direct burial sensors (some with integrated digitizers) could yield higher-quality data at lower cost. Until recently vault performance for portable installations supported by the PASSCAL program was anecdotal. A formal comparison of these various installation techniques is the subject of this poster. We've selected a suite of experiments that are representative of the three installation techniques and compare their noise performance by using PSD probability density functions (McNamara and Buland, 2004).

  18. NASA progress in aircraft noise prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raney, J. P.; Padula, S. L.; Zorumski, W. E.

    1981-01-01

    Langley Research Center efforts to develop a methodology for predicting the effective perceived noise level (EPNL) produced by jet-powered CTOL aircraft to an accuracy of + or - 1.5 dB are summarized with emphasis on the aircraft noise prediction program (ANOPP) which contains a complete set of prediction methods for CTOL aircraft including propulsion system noise sources, aerodynamic or airframe noise sources, forward speed effects, a layered atmospheric model with molecular absorption, ground impedance effects including excess ground attenuation, and a received noise contouring capability. The present state of ANOPP is described and its accuracy and applicability to the preliminary aircraft design process is assessed. Areas are indicated where further theoretical and experimental research on noise prediction are needed. Topics covered include the elements of the noise prediction problem which are incorporated in ANOPP, results of comparisons of ANOPP calculations with measured noise levels, and progress toward treating noise as a design constraint in aircraft system studies.

  19. Interim prediction method for jet noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    A method is provided for predicting jet noise for a wide range of nozzle geometries and operating conditions of interest for aircraft engines. Jet noise theory, data and existing prediction methods was reviewed, and based on this information a interim method of jet noise prediction is proposed. Problem areas are idenified where further research is needed to improve the prediction method. This method predicts only the noise generated by the exhaust jets mixing with the surrounding air and does not include other noises emanating from the engine exhaust, such as combustion and machinery noise generated inside the engine (i.e., core noise). It does, however, include thrust reverser noise. Prediction relations are provided for conical nozzles, plug nozzles, coaxial nozzles and slot nozzles.

  20. Material loss angles from direct measurements of broadband thermal noise

    E-print Network

    Principe, Maria; Pierro, Vincenzo; DeSalvo, Riccardo; Taurasi, Ilaria; Villar, Akira E; Black, Eric D; Libbrecht, Kenneth G; Michel, Christophe; Morgado, Nazario; Pinard, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    We estimate the loss angles of the materials currently used in the highly reflective test-mass coatings of interferometric detectors of gravitational waves, namely Silica, Tantala, and Ti-dop ed Tantala, from direct measurement of coating thermal noise in an optical interferometer testbench, the Caltech TNI. We also present a simple predictive theory for the material properties of amorphous glassy oxide mixtures, which gives results in good agreement with our measurements on Ti-doped Tantala. Alternative measure ment methods and results are reviewed, and some critical issues are discussed.

  1. Material loss angles from direct measurements of broadband thermal noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Principe, Maria; Pinto, Innocenzo M.; Pierro, Vincenzo; DeSalvo, Riccardo; Taurasi, Ilaria; Villar, Akira E.; Black, Eric D.; Libbrecht, Kenneth G.; Michel, Christophe; Morgado, Nazario; Pinard, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    We estimate the loss angles of the materials currently used in the highly reflective test-mass coatings of interferometric detectors of gravitational waves, namely Silica, Tantala, and Ti-doped Tantala, from direct measurement of coating thermal noise in an optical interferometer testbench, the Caltech TNI. We also present a simple predictive theory for the material properties of amorphous glassy oxide mixtures, which gives results in good agreement with our measurements on Ti-doped Tantala. Alternative measurement methods and results are reviewed, and some critical issues are discussed.

  2. NASA progress in aircraft noise prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raney, J. P.; Padula, S. L.; Zorumski, W. E.

    1981-01-01

    Some of the essential features of aircraft noise prediction are described and the basis for evaluating its capability and future potential is discussed. A takeoff noise optimizing procedure is described which calculates a minimum noise takeoff procedure subject to multiple site noise constraints.

  3. Design and fabrication of monolithic broadband microwave GaAs low noise FET amplifiers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. C. C. Ho

    1985-01-01

    The design of a broadband low noise FET amplifier is a complicated process since it requires achieving both flat gain and a low noise figure over the desired octave frequency band. Difficulties also occur in the realization of these designs due to limitations in fabrication techniques. This thesis reports the development of a practical design, characterization, and fabrication of a

  4. Broadband squeezing of quantum noise in a Michelson interferometer with Twin-Signal-Recycling

    E-print Network

    André Thüring; Christian Gräf; Henning Vahlbruch; Moritz Mehmet; Karsten Danzmann; Roman Schnabel

    2010-05-25

    Twin-Signal-Recycling (TSR) builds on the resonance doublet of two optically coupled cavities and efficiently enhances the sensitivity of an interferometer at a dedicated signal frequency. We report on the first experimental realization of a Twin-Signal-Recycling Michelson interferometer and also its broadband enhancement by squeezed light injection. The complete setup was stably locked and a broadband quantum noise reduction of the interferometers shot noise by a factor of up to 4\\,dB was demonstrated. The system was characterized by measuring its quantum noise spectra for several tunings of the TSR cavities. We found good agreement between the experimental results and numerical simulations.

  5. On the Scaling Law for Broadband Shock Noise Intensity in Supersonic Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanudula, Max

    2009-01-01

    A theoretical model for the scaling of broadband shock noise intensity in supersonic jets was formulated on the basis of linear shock-shear wave interaction. An hypothesis has been postulated that the peak angle of incidence (closer to the critical angle) for the shear wave primarily governs the generation of sound in the interaction process rather than the noise generation contribution from off-peak incident angles. The proposed theory satisfactorily explains the well-known scaling law for the broadband shock -associated noise in supersonic jets.

  6. Identifying and removing noise from the Monterey ocean bottom broadband seismic station (MOBB) data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Dolenc; Barbara Romanowicz; Robert Uhrhammer; Paul McGill; Doug Neuhauser; Debra Stakes

    2007-01-01

    When compared to quiet land stations, the very broadband Monterey ocean bottom seismic station (MOBB) shows increased long-period background as well as signal-generated noise. Both sources of noise are unavoidable in shallow ocean bottom installations, and postprocessing is required to remove them from seismic observations. The long-period background noise observed for periods longer than 20 s is mainly due to

  7. Computer program to predict aircraft noise levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, B. J.

    1981-01-01

    Methods developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center for predicting the noise contributions from various aircraft noise sources were programmed to predict aircraft noise levels either in flight or in ground tests. The noise sources include fan inlet and exhaust, jet, flap (for powered lift), core (combustor), turbine, and airframe. Noise propagation corrections are available for atmospheric attenuation, ground reflections, extra ground attenuation, and shielding. Outputs can include spectra, overall sound pressure level, perceived noise level, tone-weighted perceived noise level, and effective perceived noise level at locations specified by the user. Footprint contour coordinates and approximate footprint areas can also be calculated. Inputs and outputs can be in either System International or U.S. customary units. The subroutines for each noise source and propagation correction are described. A complete listing is given.

  8. Anechoic wind tunnel study of turbulence effects on wind turbine broadband noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loyd, B.; Harris, W. L.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes recent results obtained at MIT on the experimental and theoretical modelling of aerodynamic broadband noise generated by a downwind rotor horizontal axis wind turbine. The aerodynamic broadband noise generated by the wind turbine rotor is attributed to the interaction of ingested turbulence with the rotor blades. The turbulence was generated in the MIT anechoic wind tunnel facility with the aid of biplanar grids of various sizes. The spectra and the intensity of the aerodynamic broadband noise have been studied as a function of parameters which characterize the turbulence and of wind turbine performance parameters. Specifically, the longitudinal integral scale of turbulence, the size scale of turbulence, the number of turbine blades, and free stream velocity were varied. Simultaneous measurements of acoustic and turbulence signals were made. The sound pressure level was found to vary directly with the integral scale of the ingested turbulence but not with its intensity level. A theoretical model based on unsteady aerodynamics is proposed.

  9. Fan Noise Prediction: Status and Needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Dennis L.

    1997-01-01

    The prediction of fan noise is an important part to the prediction of overall turbofan engine noise. Advances in computers and better understanding of the flow physics have allowed researchers to compute sound generation from first principles and rely less on empirical correlations. While progress has been made, there are still many aspects of the problem that need to be explored. This paper presents some recent advances in fan noise prediction and suggests areas that still need further development. Fan noise predictions that support the recommendations are taken from existing publications.

  10. Very broadband seismic background noise analysis of permanent good vaulted seismic stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd el-aal, Abd el-aziz Khairy

    2013-04-01

    This paper describes the results of a preliminary study conducted to analyze seismic background noise at sites of recently deployed very broadband stations of the Egyptian National Seismological Network (ENSN). The main purpose of the study is to assess the effects of permanent seismic vault construction and also to establish characteristics and origin of seismic noise at those sites. Another goal of this study is to determine the time needed for noise at those sites to stabilize. The power spectral densities of background noise at short period band (SP), very broadband (VBB), and ultra long period band (ULP) for each component of each broadband seismometer deployed in the different investigated sites are calculated. A MATLAB code has been developed that manages data processing and data analysis and compares the results with the high-noise model (NHNM) and low-noise model (NLNM) of Peterson (1993). Based on the obtained analysis, the noise stability and the efficiency of each station to record regional and teleseismic events are measured. The results of this study could be used in the future to evaluate station quality, to improve those processes that require background noise values, such as automatic association, and to improve the estimation of station and network detection and location thresholds.

  11. Broadband noise measurement in the transonic test section of the VTI T-38 wind tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medved, B. L.; Elfstrom, G. M.; Vitic, A.

    1990-06-01

    Broadband noise level measurements in the T-38 wind tunnel trisonic test section having slanted holes treated for edgetone reduction have been performed. Results show that the splitter-plates have shifted the test section resonant peak condition toward lower Mach numbers, providing low broadband noise level at transonic speeds. No presence of high resonant frequencies was experienced. All resonant frequencies are located in the low frequency domain (below 100 Hz) which is not usually observed in other transonic facilities. No Reynolds number or wall porosity effect on results were found.

  12. Flyover-noise measurement and prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peart, Noel A.

    1991-01-01

    Details are presented for the measurement and prediction of aircraft flyover noise to be used for certification, research and development, community noise surveys, airport monitors, and pass fail criteria. Test details presented are applicable to all types of aircraft, both large and small, and the use of Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR) Part 36 (ref. 1) is emphasized. Accuracy of noise measurements is important. Thus, a pass-fail criterion should be used for all noise measurements. Finally, factors which influence the sound propagation and noise prediction procedures, such as atmospheric and ground effects, are also presented.

  13. Some analytic results for the study of broadband noise radiation from wings, propellers and jets in uniform motion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Farassat; J. Casper

    2003-01-01

    Alan Powell has made significant contributions to t he understanding of many aeroacoustic problems, in particular, the problems of broadband noise from jets and boundary layers. In this paper, some analytic resu lts are presented for the calculation of the correlation function of the broadband noise rad iated from a wing, a propeller, and a jet in uniform forward motion.

  14. Numerical Prediction of Laminar Instability Noise for NACA 0012 Aerofoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Gennaro, Michele; Hueppe, Andreas; Kuehnelt, Helmut; Kaltenbacher, Manfred

    2011-09-01

    Aerofoil self-generated noise is recognized to be of fundamental importance in the frame of applied aeroacoustics and the use of computational methods to assess the acoustic behaviour of airframe components challenges an even larger community of engineers and scientists. Several noise generation mechanisms can be found which are mainly related to the physical development of turbulence over the boundary layer. They can be classified in 3 main categories: the Turbulent Boundary Layer—Trailing Edge noise (TBL-TE), the Laminar Boundary Layer—Vortex Shedding (LBL-VS) noise and the Separation Stall (S-S) noise. The TBL-TE is mainly related to the noise generated by turbulent eddies which develop into the boundary layer and usually exhibits a broadband spectrum. The LBL-VS is related to laminar instabilities that can occur within the boundary layer which are responsible for a very late transition and generate a typical peaked tonal noise, while the S-S noise mainly results from the development of large vortices after the separation point. In this paper we propose a numerical analysis targeted to the simulation the LBL-VS noise mechanisms on a NACA 0012 aerofoil, tested at a Reynolds number of 1.1 M and Mach number of 0.2. The aerodynamic simulation is performed with a 2D transient RANS approach using the k-? transitional turbulence model, while the acoustic computations are performed with the FfowcsWilliams-Hawkings (FW-H) acoustic analogy and with a Finite Element (FE) approach solving Lighthill's wave equation. Computed noise spectra are compared with experimental data published by NASA showing a good agreement both for peak location as well as for the predicted noise level.

  15. Fan Noise Prediction with Applications to Aircraft System Noise Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nark, Douglas M.; Envia, Edmane; Burley, Casey L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an assessment of current fan noise prediction tools by comparing measured and predicted sideline acoustic levels from a benchmark fan noise wind tunnel test. Specifically, an empirical method and newly developed coupled computational approach are utilized to predict aft fan noise for a benchmark test configuration. Comparisons with sideline noise measurements are performed to assess the relative merits of the two approaches. The study identifies issues entailed in coupling the source and propagation codes, as well as provides insight into the capabilities of the tools in predicting the fan noise source and subsequent propagation and radiation. In contrast to the empirical method, the new coupled computational approach provides the ability to investigate acoustic near-field effects. The potential benefits/costs of these new methods are also compared with the existing capabilities in a current aircraft noise system prediction tool. The knowledge gained in this work provides a basis for improved fan source specification in overall aircraft system noise studies.

  16. Broadband noise masks suppress neural responses to narrowband stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Daniel H.; Vilidait?, Greta

    2014-01-01

    White pixel noise is widely used to estimate the level of internal noise in a system by injecting external variance into the detecting mechanism. Recent work (Baker and Meese, 2012) has provided psychophysical evidence that such noise masks might also cause suppression that could invalidate estimates of internal noise. Here we measure neural population responses directly, using steady-state visual evoked potentials, elicited by target stimuli embedded in different mask types. Sinusoidal target gratings of 1 c/deg flickered at 5 Hz, and were shown in isolation, or with superimposed orthogonal grating masks or 2D white noise masks, flickering at 7 Hz. Compared with responses to a blank screen, the Fourier amplitude at the target frequency increased monotonically as a function of target contrast when no mask was present. Both orthogonal and white noise masks caused rightward shifts of the contrast response function, providing evidence of contrast gain control suppression. We also calculated within-observer amplitude variance across trials. This increased in proportion to the target response, implying signal-dependent (i.e., multiplicative) noise at the system level, the implications of which we discuss for behavioral tasks. This measure of variance was reduced by both mask types, consistent with the changes in mean target response. An alternative variety of noise, which we term zero-dimensional noise, involves trial-by-trial jittering of the target contrast. This type of noise produced no gain control suppression, and increased the amplitude variance across trials. PMID:25076930

  17. Analysis of a Shock-Associated Noise Prediction Model Using Measured Jet Far-Field Noise Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahl, Milo D.; Sharpe, Jacob A.

    2014-01-01

    A code for predicting supersonic jet broadband shock-associated noise was assessed using a database containing noise measurements of a jet issuing from a convergent nozzle. The jet was operated at 24 conditions covering six fully expanded Mach numbers with four total temperature ratios. To enable comparisons of the predicted shock-associated noise component spectra with data, the measured total jet noise spectra were separated into mixing noise and shock-associated noise component spectra. Comparisons between predicted and measured shock-associated noise component spectra were used to identify deficiencies in the prediction model. Proposed revisions to the model, based on a study of the overall sound pressure levels for the shock-associated noise component of the measured data, a sensitivity analysis of the model parameters with emphasis on the definition of the convection velocity parameter, and a least-squares fit of the predicted to the measured shock-associated noise component spectra, resulted in a new definition for the source strength spectrum in the model. An error analysis showed that the average error in the predicted spectra was reduced by as much as 3.5 dB for the revised model relative to the average error for the original model.

  18. Analysis of a Shock-Associated Noise Prediction Model Using Measured Jet Far-Field Noise Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahl, Milo D.; Sharpe, Jacob A.

    2014-01-01

    A code for predicting supersonic jet broadband shock-associated noise was assessed us- ing a database containing noise measurements of a jet issuing from a convergent nozzle. The jet was operated at 24 conditions covering six fully expanded Mach numbers with four total temperature ratios. To enable comparisons of the predicted shock-associated noise component spectra with data, the measured total jet noise spectra were separated into mixing noise and shock-associated noise component spectra. Comparisons between predicted and measured shock-associated noise component spectra were used to identify de ciencies in the prediction model. Proposed revisions to the model, based on a study of the overall sound pressure levels for the shock-associated noise component of the mea- sured data, a sensitivity analysis of the model parameters with emphasis on the de nition of the convection velocity parameter, and a least-squares t of the predicted to the mea- sured shock-associated noise component spectra, resulted in a new de nition for the source strength spectrum in the model. An error analysis showed that the average error in the predicted spectra was reduced by as much as 3.5 dB for the revised model relative to the average error for the original model.

  19. Spectral Characteristics of Noise in Broadband Stations of Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Koseoglu Kusmezer; M. Aktar

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the seismic noise levels of the Broadband Stations operated by Bogazici University Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institue, in Turkey are investigated for periods ranging from 0.01 to 100 sec. The data are selected to reflect different conditions including seasonal and daily variations. The method which was applied consisted of first removing the instrument response to obtain

  20. Aircraft Noise Prediction Program theoretical manual: Propeller aerodynamics and noise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. E. Zorumski; D. S. Weir

    1986-01-01

    The prediction sequence used in the aircraft noise prediction program (ANOPP) is described. The elements of the sequence are called program modules. The first group of modules analyzes the propeller geometry, the aerodynamics, including both potential and boundary-layer flow, the propeller performance, and the surface loading distribution. This group of modules is based entirely on aerodynamic strip theory. The next

  1. Modeling and Prediction of Fan Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Envia, Ed

    2008-01-01

    Fan noise is a significant contributor to the total noise signature of a modern high bypass ratio aircraft engine and with the advent of ultra high bypass ratio engines like the geared turbofan, it is likely to remain so in the future. As such, accurate modeling and prediction of the basic characteristics of fan noise are necessary ingredients in designing quieter aircraft engines in order to ensure compliance with ever more stringent aviation noise regulations. In this paper, results from a comprehensive study aimed at establishing the utility of current tools for modeling and predicting fan noise will be summarized. It should be emphasized that these tools exemplify present state of the practice and embody what is currently used at NASA and Industry for predicting fan noise. The ability of these tools to model and predict fan noise is assessed against a set of benchmark fan noise databases obtained for a range of representative fan cycles and operating conditions. Detailed comparisons between the predicted and measured narrowband spectral and directivity characteristics of fan nose will be presented in the full paper. General conclusions regarding the utility of current tools and recommendations for future improvements will also be given.

  2. Aircraft noise prediction program theoretical manual, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zorumski, W. E.

    1982-01-01

    Detailed prediction methods for specific aircraft noise sources are given. These sources are airframe noise, combustion noise, fan noise, single and dual stream jet noise, and turbine noise. Modifications to the NASA methods which comply with the International Civil Aviation Organization standard method for aircraft noise prediction are given.

  3. Aircraft noise prediction program theoretical manual, part 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorumski, W. E.

    1982-02-01

    Detailed prediction methods for specific aircraft noise sources are given. These sources are airframe noise, combustion noise, fan noise, single and dual stream jet noise, and turbine noise. Modifications to the NASA methods which comply with the International Civil Aviation Organization standard method for aircraft noise prediction are given.

  4. Thin broadband noise absorption through acoustic reactance control by electro-mechanical coupling without sensor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yumin; Chan, Yum-Ji; Huang, Lixi

    2014-05-01

    Broadband noise with profound low-frequency profile is prevalent and difficult to be controlled mechanically. This study demonstrates effective broadband sound absorption by reducing the mechanical reactance of a loudspeaker using a shunt circuit through electro-mechanical coupling, which induces reactance with different signs from that of loudspeaker. An RLC shunt circuit is connected to the moving coil to provide an electrically induced mechanical impedance which counters the cavity stiffness at low frequencies and reduces the system inertia above the resonance frequency. A sound absorption coefficient well above 0.5 is demonstrated across frequencies between 150 and 1200 Hz. The performance of the proposed device is superior to existing passive absorbers of the same depth (60?mm), which has lower frequency limits of around 300 Hz. A passive noise absorber is further proposed by paralleling a micro-perforated panel with shunted loudspeaker which shows potentials in absorbing band-limit impulse noise. PMID:24815257

  5. Assessment of NASA's Aircraft Noise Prediction Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahl, Milo D. (Editor)

    2012-01-01

    A goal of NASA s Fundamental Aeronautics Program is the improvement of aircraft noise prediction. This document provides an assessment, conducted from 2006 to 2009, on the current state of the art for aircraft noise prediction by carefully analyzing the results from prediction tools and from the experimental databases to determine errors and uncertainties and compare results to validate the predictions. The error analysis is included for both the predictions and the experimental data and helps identify where improvements are required. This study is restricted to prediction methods and databases developed or sponsored by NASA, although in many cases they represent the current state of the art for industry. The present document begins with an introduction giving a general background for and a discussion on the process of this assessment followed by eight chapters covering topics at both the system and the component levels. The topic areas, each with multiple contributors, are aircraft system noise, engine system noise, airframe noise, fan noise, liner physics, duct acoustics, jet noise, and propulsion airframe aeroacoustics.

  6. An Assessment of Current Fan Noise Prediction Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Envia, Edmane; Woodward, Richard P.; Elliott, David M.; Fite, E. Brian; Hughes, Christopher E.; Podboy, Gary G.; Sutliff, Daniel L.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the results of an extensive assessment exercise carried out to establish the current state of the art for predicting fan noise at NASA are presented. Representative codes in the empirical, analytical, and computational categories were exercised and assessed against a set of benchmark acoustic data obtained from wind tunnel tests of three model scale fans. The chosen codes were ANOPP, representing an empirical capability, RSI, representing an analytical capability, and LINFLUX, representing a computational aeroacoustics capability. The selected benchmark fans cover a wide range of fan pressure ratios and fan tip speeds, and are representative of modern turbofan engine designs. The assessment results indicate that the ANOPP code can predict fan noise spectrum to within 4 dB of the measurement uncertainty band on a third-octave basis for the low and moderate tip speed fans except at extreme aft emission angles. The RSI code can predict fan broadband noise spectrum to within 1.5 dB of experimental uncertainty band provided the rotor-only contribution is taken into account. The LINFLUX code can predict interaction tone power levels to within experimental uncertainties at low and moderate fan tip speeds, but could deviate by as much as 6.5 dB outside the experimental uncertainty band at the highest tip speeds in some case.

  7. Fan broadband noise shielding for over-wing engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, Stephen; Sóbester, András; Joseph, Phillip

    2012-11-01

    Increasingly demanding community noise targets are promoting noise performance ever higher on the list of airliner design drivers. In response, significant noise reductions are being made, though at a declining rate—it appears that a whole airframe approach is now needed to achieve significant further gains. As a possible step in this direction, over-wing engine installations are considered here, which use the airframe itself as a noise shield. The paper is the account of an experimental investigation of the comparative shielding performances of a range of relative engine positions on such a layout. Using the statistical modelling technique Kriging, we build an approximation of the noise shielding metric as a function of the position of the engines above the wing—this can serve as the input to multi-disciplinary design trade-off studies. We then compare the results found with the results of applying simple half-barrier diffraction theory to the same problem. We conclude that the latter could be considered as a first order, conceptual design tool, though it misses certain features of the design merit landscape identified by the experiment presented here.

  8. The influence of broadband noise on the precedence effect.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Y C; Freyman, R L

    1998-11-01

    This study examined the influence of background noise on the localization of lead-lag noise-burst pairs and on echo threshold for the same stimuli. Experiments were conducted in an anechoic chamber with a leading stimulus delivered from a loudspeaker at 45 degrees to the right of center and a lagging stimulus from 45 degrees left. Lead and lag stimuli were 4-ms bursts of Gaussian noise. In experiment 1, with lead and lag at equal levels and the lag delay fixed at 2 ms, the perceived location of the image produced by the lead-lag stimulus was estimated from subjects' left/right judgments relative to bursts from a "comparitor" loudspeaker whose position could be adjusted. In experiment 2, the dominance of the leading burst on perceived location was measured by determining the increase in level of the lagging burst necessary to produce an image estimated to be centered at 0 degree azimuth. Experiment 3 was concerned with echo threshold. Subjects reported whether or not they heard a sound in the vicinity of the lagging loudspeaker as the lag-burst delay was varied. In all three experiments, data were obtained for four to five stimulus levels in quiet and for three levels of background white noise from a loudspeaker at 180 degrees. The results revealed a substantial weakening effect of background noise on the precedence effect in experiments 2 and 3, and a nonsignificant effect in experiment 1. PMID:9821348

  9. Numerical prediction of wind turbine noise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Tadamasa; M. Zangeneh

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops and validates the first principle based numerical method for predicting the noise radiated from the rotating Horizontal-Axis Wind Turbine (HAWT) blades. The noise radiated to the far-field was predicted by the code based on Ffowcs Williams–Hawkings (FW–H) equation, using both original non-permeable formulation and permeable formulation. A commercially available CFD solver, ANSYS CFX 11.0, was used to

  10. Shielding of Turbomachinery Broadband Noise from a Hybrid Wing Body Aircraft Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutcheson, Florence V.; Brooks, Thomas F.; Burley, Casey L.; Bahr, Christopher J.; Stead, Daniel J.; Pope, D. Stuart

    2014-01-01

    The results of an experimental study on the effects of engine placement and vertical tail configuration on shielding of exhaust broadband noise radiation are presented. This study is part of the high fidelity aeroacoustic test of a 5.8% scale Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) aircraft configuration performed in the 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center. Broadband Engine Noise Simulators (BENS) were used to determine insertion loss due to shielding by the HWB airframe of the broadband component of turbomachinery noise for different airframe configurations and flight conditions. Acoustics data were obtained from flyover and sideline microphones traversed to predefined streamwise stations. Noise measurements performed for different engine locations clearly show the noise benefit associated with positioning the engine nacelles further upstream on the HWB centerbody. Positioning the engine exhaust 2.5 nozzle diameters upstream (compared to 0.5 nozzle diameters downstream) of the HWB trailing edge was found of particular benefit in this study. Analysis of the shielding performance obtained with and without tunnel flow show that the effectiveness of the fuselage shielding of the exhaust noise, although still significant, is greatly reduced by the presence of the free stream flow compared to static conditions. This loss of shielding is due to the turbulence in the model near-wake/boundary layer flow. A comparison of shielding obtained with alternate vertical tail configurations shows limited differences in level; nevertheless, overall trends regarding the effect of cant angle and vertical location are revealed. Finally, it is shown that the vertical tails provide a clear shielding benefit towards the sideline while causing a slight increase in noise below the aircraft.

  11. A GaAs monolithic low-noise broad-band amplifier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Archer; H. P. Weidlich; E. Pettenpaul; F. A. Petz; J. Huber

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes the design, fabrication, and performance of GaAs monolithic low-noise broad-band amplifiers intended for broadcast receiver antenna amplifier, IF amplifier, and instrumentation applications. The process technology includes the use of Czochralski-grown semiinsulating substrates, localized implantation of ohmic and FET channel regions, and silicon nitride for passivation and MIM capacitors. The amplifiers employ shunt feedback to obtain input matching

  12. Reducing magnetic field induced noise in broad-band seismic recordings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Forbriger

    2007-01-01

    Seismic broad-band sensors are known to be sensitive to the magnetic field. Magnetic storms and man-made disturbances of the magnetic field can produce significant noise in seismic recordings. I show that variations in the magnetic field translate directly into apparent acceleration of the seismic sensor within the period range from 60 to 1200s for all leaf-spring sensors under investigation. For

  13. Advances in tilt rotor noise prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, A. R.; Coffen, C. D.; Ringler, T. D.

    1992-01-01

    The two most serious tilt rotor external noise problems, hover noise and blade-vortex interaction noise, are studied. The results of flow visualization and inflow velocity measurements document a complex, recirculating highly unsteady and turbulent flow due to the rotor-wing-body interactions characteristic of tilt rotors. The wing under the rotor is found to obstruct the inflow, causing a deficit in the inflow velocities over the inboard region of the rotor. Discrete frequency harmonic thickness and loading noise mechanisms in hover are examined by first modeling tilt rotor hover aerodynamics and then applying various noise prediction methods using the WOPWOP code. The analysis indicates that the partial ground plane created by the wing below the rotor results in a primary sound source for hover.

  14. Predict of noise from a scroll compressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwata, Hisao; Sato, Kazuhiko; Hirabayashi, Masasi; Hagimoto, Kiyoshi

    Recently, low noise for a compressor is as important as its mechanical efficiency. But it is difficult to accomplish low noise with other demands such as low cost, high speed, light weight, small size and high power. Therefore, it is necessary to take noise into account from the beginning of the design stage. We have been developing the prediction procedure for a scroll compressor. It consists of the following three stages (1) Calculation of the excitation forces by the dynamic behaviro analysis of the rotating elements (2) Determination of the frequency response of the structures (3) Prediction of the radiated noise There are many papers which describe the kinematic model of a scroll compressor but they do not refer to the noise radiation. This paper describes the features of the procedure from the calculation of excitation forces with the dynamic behavior model of a scroll compressor to the prediction of the radiated noise. The application of the procedure to a middle cooling capacity scroll compressor is also discussed.

  15. Origin of Narrow-band and Broadband Noise in Conduction Noise Spectra of Bi_2Sr_2CaCu_2O_y

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Maeda; Y. Togawa; R. Abiru; H. Kitano

    2001-01-01

    Conduction noise spectra were investigated in the driven vortex state of a high-temperature superconductor, Bi_2Sr_2CaCu_2Oy single crystals. Two characteristic noise features, a broad-band noise (BBN) and a narrow-band noise (NBN), were observed in the vortex solid phase. The NBN was found to originate from the washboard modulation of the translational velocity of the driven vortices [1]. To clarifify the origin

  16. High-fidelity, broadband stimulated-Brillouin-scattering-based slow light using fast noise modulation

    E-print Network

    Zhu, Yunhui; Neifeld, Mark A; Gauthier, Daniel J

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate a 5-GHz-broadband tunable slow-light device based on stimulated Brillouin scattering in a standard highly-nonlinear optical fiber pumped by a noise-current-modulated laser beam. The noise modulation waveform uses an optimized pseudo-random distribution of the laser drive voltage to obtain an optimal flat-topped gain profile, which minimizes the pulse distortion and maximizes pulse delay for a given pump power. Eye-diagram and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) analysis show that this new broadband slow-light technique significantly increases the fidelity of a delayed data sequence, while maintaining the delay performance. A fractional delay of 0.81 with a SNR of 5.2 is achieved at the pump power of 350 mW using a 2-km-long highly nonlinear fiber with the fast noise-modulation method, demonstrating a 50% increase in eye-opening and a 36% increase in SNR compared to a previous slow-modulation method.

  17. Prediction of noise constrained optimum takeoff procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padula, S. L.

    1980-01-01

    An optimization method is used to predict safe, maximum-performance takeoff procedures which satisfy noise constraints at multiple observer locations. The takeoff flight is represented by two-degree-of-freedom dynamical equations with aircraft angle-of-attack and engine power setting as control functions. The engine thrust, mass flow and noise source parameters are assumed to be given functions of the engine power setting and aircraft Mach number. Effective Perceived Noise Levels at the observers are treated as functionals of the control functions. The method is demonstrated by applying it to an Advanced Supersonic Transport aircraft design. The results indicate that automated takeoff procedures (continuously varying controls) can be used to significantly reduce community and certification noise without jeopardizing safety or degrading performance.

  18. Validation of the Lower Tagus Valley velocity and structural model using ambient noise broadband measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, R. J. G.; Furtado, J. A.; Silva, H. G.; Borges, J. F.; Caldeira, B.; Bezzeghoud, M.; Cancela Pinto, C.; Carvalho, J.

    2012-04-01

    Along his history the Lower Tagus Valley (LTV) region was shaken by several earthquakes, some of them were produced in large ruptures of offshore structures located southwest of the Portuguese coastline, among these we the Lisbon earthquake of 1 November 1755; other moderates earthquakes were produced by local sources such as the 1344, 1531 and the 1909 Benavente earthquake. In order to promote an improved assessment of the seismic hazard in this region, we propose the introduction of realistic methods on the prediction of ground motion produced by moderate to large earthquakes in LTV. This process involves the establishment of a structural 3D model based on all the available geophysical and geotechnical data on the area (seismic, gravimetric, deep wells and geological outcrops) and the determination of wave propagation from a finite difference method: by applying the E3D program [1,2]. To confirm this model we use broadband ambient noise measurements collected in two profiles with azimuth perpendicular to the basin axis and we applied the horizontal to vertical (H/V) spectral ratio method [3] to the recordings in order to estimate the amplification of the basin. The H/V curves obtained reveals the existence of two low frequency peaks centered on 0.2 a 1 Hz frequencies[4]. These peaks are strongly related with the thickness of Cenozoic and alluvial sediments. By inversion of the H/V curve, we obtain a more detailed velocity model for the region where the profile were determined, which is in good agreement with borehole data and other results obtained with magnetic and seismic reflection methods.

  19. Broadband flat-noise Raman amplifier using low-noise bidirectionally pumping sources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Kado; Y. Emori; S. Namiki; N. Tsukiji; J. Yoshida; T. Kimura

    2001-01-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate an optimised bidirectional pumping scheme that realizes a less than 0.7 dB flatness over C- and L-bands for both Raman gain and optical noise figure, simultaneously. In order to use forward-pumping for the proposed method, a new type of pump laser having low relative intensity noise is also developed.

  20. Jet Noise Diagnostics Supporting Statistical Noise Prediction Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, James E.

    2006-01-01

    The primary focus of my presentation is the development of the jet noise prediction code JeNo with most examples coming from the experimental work that drove the theoretical development and validation. JeNo is a statistical jet noise prediction code, based upon the Lilley acoustic analogy. Our approach uses time-average 2-D or 3-D mean and turbulent statistics of the flow as input. The output is source distributions and spectral directivity. NASA has been investing in development of statistical jet noise prediction tools because these seem to fit the middle ground that allows enough flexibility and fidelity for jet noise source diagnostics while having reasonable computational requirements. These tools rely on Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solutions as input for computing far-field spectral directivity using an acoustic analogy. There are many ways acoustic analogies can be created, each with a series of assumptions and models, many often taken unknowingly. And the resulting prediction can be easily reverse-engineered by altering the models contained within. However, only an approach which is mathematically sound, with assumptions validated and modeled quantities checked against direct measurement will give consistently correct answers. Many quantities are modeled in acoustic analogies precisely because they have been impossible to measure or calculate, making this requirement a difficult task. The NASA team has spent considerable effort identifying all the assumptions and models used to take the Navier-Stokes equations to the point of a statistical calculation via an acoustic analogy very similar to that proposed by Lilley. Assumptions have been identified and experiments have been developed to test these assumptions. In some cases this has resulted in assumptions being changed. Beginning with the CFD used as input to the acoustic analogy, models for turbulence closure used in RANS CFD codes have been explored and compared against measurements of mean and rms velocity statistics over a range of jet speeds and temperatures. Models for flow parameters used in the acoustic analogy, most notably the space-time correlations of velocity, have been compared against direct measurements, and modified to better fit the observed data. These measurements have been extremely challenging for hot, high speed jets, and represent a sizeable investment in instrumentation development. As an intermediate check that the analysis is predicting the physics intended, phased arrays have been employed to measure source distributions for a wide range of jet cases. And finally, careful far-field spectral directivity measurements have been taken for final validation of the prediction code. Examples of each of these experimental efforts will be presented. The main result of these efforts is a noise prediction code, named JeNo, which is in middevelopment. JeNo is able to consistently predict spectral directivity, including aft angle directivity, for subsonic cold jets of most geometries. Current development on JeNo is focused on extending its capability to hot jets, requiring inclusion of a previously neglected second source associated with thermal fluctuations. A secondary result of the intensive experimentation is the archiving of various flow statistics applicable to other acoustic analogies and to development of time-resolved prediction methods. These will be of lasting value as we look ahead at future challenges to the aeroacoustic experimentalist.

  1. Prediction of aircraft sideline noise attenuation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zorumski, W. E.

    1978-01-01

    A computational study is made using the recommended ground effect theory by Pao, Wenzel, and Oncley. It is shown that this theory adequately predicts the measured ground attenuation data by Parkin and Scholes, which is the only available large data set. It is also shown, however, that the ground effect theory does not predict the measured lateral attenuations from actual aircraft flyovers. There remain one or more important lateral effects on aircraft noise, such as sideline shielding of sources, which must be incorporated in the prediction methods. Experiments at low elevation angles (0 deg to 10 deg) and low-to-intermediate frequencies are recommended to further validate the ground effect theory.

  2. Correlation between broad-band noise and frequency fluctuations of narrow-band noise in the charge-density wave in NbSe3

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Bloom; A. C. Marley; M. B. Weissman

    1994-01-01

    The broad-band noise (BBN) and the frequency fluctuations of the narrow-band noise (NBN) were simultaneously measured in small NbSe3 samples. The two variables were highly correlated. Some discrete switching events show up in both noises. When multiple NBN peaks were present, some large fluctuations appearing in the BBN did not appear in the frequency of the biggest NBN peak, indicating

  3. Further analysis of broadband noise measurements for a rotating blade operating with and without its shed wake blown downstream

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheiman, J.

    1974-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been conducted to investigate the broadband noise generated by a rotating-blade system. Tests were made with circular and NACA 0012 rotor-blade sections. The blades were operated only with zero lift at each radial station. Tests were made both with zero axial velocity, so that the blades operated in their own turbulent wake, and with a small axial velocity imposed by the wind tunnel to blow the wake of one blade away before the passage of the next blade. The rotor with cylindrical blades generally radiated more noise throughout the noise spectrum than did the rotor with airfoil blades. Blowing the blade wake away from the rotor with cylindrical blades did not have any appreciable effect on the amplitude frequency spectrum, and the predominant noise was broadband, either with tunnel wind on or off. For the rotor with airfoil blades, however, blowing the blade wake away changed the character of the noise spectrum completely in that broadband noise was eliminated or diminished to such an extent as to be indistinguishable. The broadband noise of the airfoil-bladed rotor with zero axial velocity is apparently caused by lift fluctuations due to velocity components of the turbulence normal to the plane of rotation.

  4. Noise Prediction Module for Offset Stream Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Brenda S.

    2011-01-01

    A Modern Design of Experiments (MDOE) analysis of data acquired for an offset stream technology was presented. The data acquisition and concept development were funded under a Supersonics NRA NNX07AC62A awarded to Dimitri Papamoschou at University of California, Irvine. The technology involved the introduction of airfoils in the fan stream of a bypass ratio (BPR) two nozzle system operated at transonic exhaust speeds. The vanes deflected the fan stream relative to the core stream and resulted in reduced sideline noise for polar angles in the peak jet noise direction. Noise prediction models were developed for a range of vane configurations. The models interface with an existing ANOPP module and can be used or future system level studies.

  5. Data analysis and noise prediction for the QF-1B experimental fan stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bliss, D. B.; Chandiramani, K. L.; Piersol, A. G.

    1976-01-01

    The results of a fan noise data analysis and prediction effort using experimental data obtained from tests on the QF-1B research fan are described. Surface pressure measurements were made with flush mounted sensors installed on selected rotor blades and stator vanes and noise measurements were made by microphones located at the far field. Power spectral density analysis, time history studies, and calculation of coherence functions were made. The emphasis of these studies was on the characteristics of tones in the spectra. The amplitude behavior of spectral tones was found to have a large, often predominant, random component, suggesting that turbulent processes play an important role in the generation of tonal as well as broadband noise. Inputs from the data analysis were used in a prediction method which assumes that acoustic dipoles, produced by unsteady blade and van forces, are the important source of fan noise.

  6. The application of experimental data to blade wake interaction noise prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glegg, Stewart A. L.; Devenport, William J.

    1991-01-01

    Blade wake interaction noise (BWI) has been defined as the broadband noise generated by the ingestion of turbulent trailing tip vortices by helicopter rotors. This has been shown to be the dominant contributor to the subjectively important part of the acoustic spectrum for the approach stage of a helicopter flyover. A prediction method for BWI noise based on the calculated trailing vortex trajectories has been developed and estimates of the vortex turbulence have been made. These measurements were made on a trailing vortex from a split wing arrangement and did not give the spectrum of the velocity fluctuations. A recent experiment carried out to measure the turbulence associated with a trailing vortex and the application of the results to BWI noise prediction is described.

  7. Prediction of Jet Noise Shielding with Forward Flight Salvador Mayoral

    E-print Network

    Papamoschou, Dimitri

    thus be used to "shield" the power-plant noise emitted towards communities. The prediction approachPrediction of Jet Noise Shielding with Forward Flight Effects Salvador Mayoral and Dimitri of propulsion noise sources by the airframe. The focus of this study is the diffraction of a wavepacket noise

  8. Broadband noise-free optical quantum memory with neutral nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poem, E.; Weinzetl, C.; Klatzow, J.; Kaczmarek, K. T.; Munns, J. H. D.; Champion, T. F. M.; Saunders, D. J.; Nunn, J.; Walmsley, I. A.

    2015-05-01

    It is proposed that the ground-state manifold of the neutral nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond could be used as a quantum two-level system in a solid-state-based implementation of a broadband noise-free quantum optical memory. The proposal is based on the same-spin ? -type three-level system created between the two E orbital ground states and the A1 orbital excited state of the center, and the cross-linear polarization selection rules obtained with the application of a transverse electric field or uniaxial stress. Possible decay and decoherence mechanisms of this system are discussed, and it is shown that high-efficiency, noise-free storage of photons as short as a few tens of picoseconds for at least a few nanoseconds could be possible at low temperature.

  9. Broadband, noise-free optical quantum memory with neutral nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond

    E-print Network

    E. Poem; C. Weinzetl; J. Klatzow; K. T. Kaczmarek; J. H. D. Munns; T. F. M. Champion; D. J. Saunders; J. Nunn; I. A. Walmsley

    2015-04-23

    It is proposed that the ground-state manifold of the neutral nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond could be used as a quantum two-level system in a solid-state-based implementation of a broadband, noise-free quantum optical memory. The proposal is based on the same-spin $\\Lambda$-type three-level system created between the two E orbital ground states and the A$_1$ orbital excited state of the center, and the cross-linear polarization selection rules obtained with the application of transverse electric field or uniaxial stress. Possible decay and decoherence mechanisms of this system are discussed, and it is shown that high-efficiency, noise-free storage of photons as short as a few tens of picoseconds for at least a few nanoseconds could be possible at low temperature.

  10. Comparison of predicted engine core noise with current and proposed aircraft noise certification requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonglahn, U. H.; Groesbeck, D. E.

    1981-01-01

    Predicted engine core noise levels are compared with measured total aircraft noise levels and with current and proposed federal noise certification requirements. Comparisons are made at the FAR-36 measuring stations and include consideration of both full- and cutback-power operation at takeoff. In general, core noise provides a barrier to achieving proposed EPA stage 5 noise levels for all types of aircraft. More specifically, core noise levels will limit further reductions in aircraft noise levels for current widebody commercial aircraft.

  11. A noise assessment and prediction system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, Robert O.; Noble, John M.

    1990-01-01

    A system has been designed to provide an assessment of noise levels that result from testing activities at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md. The system receives meteorological data from surface stations and an upper air sounding system. The data from these systems are sent to a meteorological model, which provides forecasting conditions for up to three hours from the test time. The meteorological data are then used as input into an acoustic ray trace model which projects sound level contours onto a two-dimensional display of the surrounding area. This information is sent to the meteorological office for verification, as well as the range control office, and the environmental office. To evaluate the noise level predictions, a series of microphones are located off the reservation to receive the sound and transmit this information back to the central display unit. The computer models are modular allowing for a variety of models to be utilized and tested to achieve the best agreement with data. This technique of prediction and model validation will be used to improve the noise assessment system.

  12. Excitation of broadband electrostatic noise and of hydrogen cyclotron waves by a perpendicular ion beam in multi-ion plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malingre, M.; Pottelette, R.

    1985-05-01

    Results from the PORCUPINE experiment show that a perpendicular heavy ion beams, injected into an O(+) dominated plasma which contains a small concentration of H(+), induces a broadband electrostatic noise near the lower hybrid frequency and also discrete elecrostatic emissions at frequencies close to multiples of the hydrogen gyrofrequency. The dependence of these instabilities on the parameters characteristics of the beam-background plasma system is studied. It is shown that, provided the beam is of sufficiently high density and low temperature, the frequency range of the broadband noise extends continuously from zero frequency up to the lower hybrid frequency. In this case the harmonics of the hydrogen gyrofrequency are also excited but their growth rates are much lower than that of the broadband emission, up to two of three orders of magnitude for the first harmonics.

  13. Towards a noise prediction model for in vivo neural recording.

    PubMed

    López, Carolina Mora; Welkenhuysen, Marleen; Musa, Silke; Eberle, Wolfgang; Bartic, Carmen; Puers, Robert; Gielen, Georges

    2012-01-01

    The signal-to-noise ratio of in vivo extracellular neural recordings with microelectrodes is influenced by many factors including the impedance of the electrode-tissue interface, the noise of the recording equipment and biological background noise from distant neurons. In this work we study the different noise sources affecting the quality of neural signals. We propose a simplified noise model as an analytical tool to predict the noise of an electrode given its geometrical dimensions and impedance characteristics. With this tool we are able to quantify different noise sources, which is important to determine realistic noise specifications for the design of electronic neural recording interfaces. PMID:23366003

  14. Rotor wake\\/stator interaction noise-predictions versus data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. A. Topol

    1990-01-01

    A rotor wake\\/stator interaction noise prediction method is presented and evaluated with fan rig and full-scale engine data. The noise prediction method uses a two-dimensional (2D) semi-empirical wake model and an analytical stator response function and noise calculation. The stator response function is a 2D strip theory which is linked to a noise calculation formulated in a constant area annular

  15. Predictions of noise disturbance near large airports

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. R. Hazard

    1971-01-01

    This report examines the relationship between public annoyance with aircraft noise, objective measures of the noise itself, and mediating social or psychological conditions which affect the noise-annoyance relationship. The noise readings and interviews were gathered in areas within 12 miles of the major airports serving Atlanta, Dallas, Denver and Los Angeles. A total of 4212 hour-long interviews were conducted in

  16. Prediction of helicopter rotor noise in hover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusyumov, A. N.; Mikhailov, S. A.; Garipova, L. I.; Batrakov, A. S.; Barakos, G.

    2015-05-01

    Two mathematical models are used in this work to estimate the acoustics of a hovering main rotor. The first model is based on the Ffowcs Williams-Howkings equations using the formulation of Farassat. An analytical approach is followed for this model, to determine the thickness and load noise contributions of the rotor blade in hover. The second approach allows using URANS and RANS CFD solutions and based on numerical solution of the Ffowcs Williams-Howkings equations. The employed test cases correspond to a model rotor available at the KNRTUKAI aerodynamics laboratory. The laboratory is equipped with a system of acoustic measurements, and comparisons between predictions and measurements are to be attempted as part of this work.

  17. The prediction of helicopter rotor discrete frequency noise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Farassat; G. P. Succi

    1982-01-01

    An accurate prediction of the noise produced by helicopters requires a good understanding of the noise generating mechanisms involved. Such an understanding can lead to controlling the noise of existing helicopters by avoiding noisy regimes of flight or by redesigning the main and tail rotors. The present investigation is concerned with approaches which are suitable for the calculation of discrete

  18. Comparison of aircraft noise-contour prediction programs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. L. Chapkis; G. L. Blankenship; A. H. Marsh

    1980-01-01

    A comparison was made of the FAA Integrated Noise Model (INM) and the USAF\\/NOISEMAP computer programs. Those programs are widely used to predict the location of aircraft noise contours around airports. Large differences between the programs were found in the noise data bases. There were also differences in the flight profile data bases, the ground attenuation factor, and in the

  19. Broadband Noise of Fans - With Unsteady Coupling Theory to Account for Rotor and Stator Reflection/Transmission Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, Donald B.

    2001-01-01

    This report examines the effects on broadband noise generation of unsteady coupling between a rotor and stator in the fan stage of a turbofan engine. Whereas previous acoustic analyses treated the blade rows as isolated cascades, the present work accounts for reflection and transmission effects at both blade rows by tracking the mode and frequency scattering of pressure and vortical waves. The fan stage is modeled in rectilinear geometry to take advantage of a previously existing unsteady cascade theory for 3D perturbation waves and thereby use a realistic 3D turbulence spectrum. In the analysis, it was found that the set of participating modes divides itself naturally into "independent mode subsets" that couple only among themselves and not to the other such subsets. This principle is the basis for the analysis and considerably reduces computational effort. It also provides a simple, accurate scheme for modal averaging for further efficiency. Computed results for a coupled fan stage are compared with calculations for isolated blade rows. It is found that coupling increases downstream noise by 2 to 4 dB. Upstream noise is lower for isolated cascades and is further reduced by including coupling effects. In comparison with test data, the increase in the upstream/downstream differential indicates that broadband noise from turbulent inflow at the stator dominates downstream noise but is not a significant contributor to upstream noise.

  20. A note on pure-tone masking by broadband noise under free-field and insert-phone conditions (L)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adrianus J. M. Houtsma

    2005-01-01

    Free-field experiments on masking of low-frequency tones by broadband noise, as reported by Fidell, et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 73, 628-638 (1983)] should, in principle, yield the same results as the recently reported insert-phone experiment by Houtsma [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 115, 967-970 (2004)]. Indeed, if Fidell et al.'s data are converted to critical ratios and compared with the

  1. Broadband signal processing for detection, classification, and identification of underwater, bottomed, and buried targets in ambient noise environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goo, Gee-In

    2006-05-01

    This paper addresses the theories, experiments and real data of passive detection, classification and identification of "silent" targets in the illumination of ambient noise, a method known as "Acoustic Daylight." A great deal of work and sonar systems exist on active and passive sonar systems, but the principle of using ambient noise as the sole source of acoustic illumination was explored with limited success. This paper presents some of the successes using broadband signal processing and theory of target resonance as proposed in Uricks' text. In addition, the paper will present some of the results from experiments and simulations and Navy data of opportunities.

  2. Contra-Rotating Open Rotor Tone Noise Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Envia, Edmane

    2014-01-01

    Reliable prediction of contra-rotating open rotor (CROR) noise is an essential element of any strategy for the development of low-noise open rotor propulsion systems that can meet both the community noise regulations and the cabin noise limits. Since CROR noise spectra typically exhibits a preponderance of tones, significant efforts have been directed towards predicting their tone spectra. To that end, there has been an ongoing effort at NASA to assess various in-house open rotor tone noise prediction tools using a benchmark CROR blade set for which significant aerodynamic and acoustic data had been acquired in wind tunnel tests. In the work presented here, the focus is on the near-field noise of the benchmark open rotor blade set at the cruise condition. Using an analytical CROR tone noise model with input from high-fidelity aerodynamic simulations, detailed tone noise spectral predictions have been generated and compared with the experimental data. Comparisons indicate that the theoretical predictions are in good agreement with the data, especially for the dominant CROR tones and their overall sound pressure level. The results also indicate that, whereas individual rotor tones are well predicted by the linear sources (i.e., thickness and loading), for the interaction tones it is essential that the quadrupole sources be included in the analysis.

  3. Contra-Rotating Open Rotor Tone Noise Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Envia, Edmane

    2014-01-01

    Reliable prediction of contra-rotating open rotor (CROR) noise is an essential element of any strategy for the development of low-noise open rotor propulsion systems that can meet both the community noise regulations and cabin noise limits. Since CROR noise spectra exhibit a preponderance of tones, significant efforts have been directed towards predicting their tone content. To that end, there has been an ongoing effort at NASA to assess various in-house open rotor tone noise prediction tools using a benchmark CROR blade set for which significant aerodynamic and acoustic data have been acquired in wind tunnel tests. In the work presented here, the focus is on the nearfield noise of the benchmark open rotor blade set at the cruise condition. Using an analytical CROR tone noise model with input from high-fidelity aerodynamic simulations, tone noise spectra have been predicted and compared with the experimental data. Comparisons indicate that the theoretical predictions are in good agreement with the data, especially for the dominant tones and for the overall sound pressure level of tones. The results also indicate that, whereas the individual rotor tones are well predicted by the combination of the thickness and loading sources, for the interaction tones it is essential that the quadrupole source is also included in the analysis.

  4. Modular Engine Noise Component Prediction System (MCP) Technical Description and Assessment Document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herkes, William H.; Reed, David H.

    2005-01-01

    This report describes an empirical prediction procedure for turbofan engine noise. The procedure generates predicted noise levels for several noise components, including inlet- and aft-radiated fan noise, and jet-mixing noise. This report discusses the noise source mechanisms, the development of the prediction procedures, and the assessment of the accuracy of these predictions. Finally, some recommendations for future work are presented.

  5. Supersonic Jet Noise Reductions Predicted With Increased Jet Spreading Rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahl, Milo D.; Morris, Philip J.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, predictions are made of noise radiation from single, supersonic, axisymmetric jets. We examine the effects of changes in operating conditions and the effects of simulated enhanced mixing that would increase the spreading rate of jet shear layer on radiated noise levels. The radiated noise in the downstream direction is dominated by mixing noise and, at higher speeds, it is well described by the instability wave noise radiation model. Further analysis with the model shows a relationship between changes in spreading rate due to enhanced mixing and changes in the far field radiated peak noise levels. The calculations predict that enhanced jet spreading results in a reduction of the radiated peak noise level.

  6. Predicted vs. scale model and flight test UDF engine noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitfield, C. E.; Gliebe, P. R.

    1990-10-01

    This paper presents an overview of the development of a frequency-domain, noncompact-source noise prediction model for the unducted fan (UDF) engine. A brief description of the acoustic modeling approach and basic equations employed is given, together with a summary of the aerodynamic characteristics utilized in the noise prediction model. Scale model test results obtained from both low-speed and high-speed wind tunnel measurements are compared with the prediction model, and comparisons of predicted vs measured flight noise characteristics for the full-scale engine are also discussed.

  7. Reducing magnetic field induced noise in broad-band seismic recordings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbriger, Thomas

    2007-04-01

    Seismic broad-band sensors are known to be sensitive to the magnetic field. Magnetic storms and man-made disturbances of the magnetic field can produce significant noise in seismic recordings. I show that variations in the magnetic field translate directly into apparent acceleration of the seismic sensor within the period range from 60 to 1200s for all leaf-spring sensors under investigation. For a Streckeisen STS-1V this is shown even for periods down to 1s. The sensitivity is quantified in magnitude and direction. Both are quite stable over many time windows and signal periods. The sensitivities obtained by linear regression of the acceleration signal on magnetic field recordings during a magnetic storm can effectively be applied to reduce noise in seismic signals. The sensitivity varies in magnitude from sensor to sensor but all are in the range from 0.05 to 1.2ms-2T-1. Seismograms from sensors at Black Forest Observatory (BFO) and stations of the German Regional Seismic Network were investigated. Although these are mainly equipped with leaf-spring sensors, the problem is not limited to this type of instrument. The effect is not observable on the horizontal component STS-1s at BFO while it is significant in the recordings of the vertical STS-1. The main difference between these instruments is the leaf-spring suspension in the vertical component that appears to be the source of the trouble. The suspension springs are made of temperature compensated Elinvar alloys that inherently are ferromagnetic and may respond to the magnetic field in various ways. However, the LaCoste Romberg ET-19 gravimeter at BFO, which uses this material too, does not respond to magnetic storms at a similar magnitude neither do the Invar-wire strainmeters. An active shielding, composed of three Helmholtz coils and a feedback system, is installed at station Stuttgart and provides an improvement of signal-to-noise ratio by almost a factor of 20 at this particular station. The passive Permalloy shielding commonly installed with STS-1V sensors performs similarly well.

  8. Aeroacoustics: Acoustic wave propagation; Aircraft noise prediction; Aeroacoustic instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, I. R.

    1976-01-01

    The papers in this volume deal with recent research into acoustic-wave propagation through the atmosphere and progress in aeroacoustic instrumentation, facilities, and test techniques. Topics include the propagation of aircraft noise over long distances in the lower atmosphere, measured effects of turbulence on the rise time of a weak shock, sound scattering from atmospheric turbulence, saturation effects associated with sound propagation in a turbulent medium, and a computer model of the lightning-thunder process. Other papers discuss the development of a computer system for aircraft noise prediction; aircraft flyover noise measurements; and theories and methods for the prediction of ground effects on aircraft noise propagation, for the prediction of airframe aerodynamic noise, for turbine noise prediction, and for combustion noise prediction. Attention is also given to the use of Hartmann generators as sources of high-intensity sound in a large absorption flow-duct facility, an outdoor jet noise facility, factors in the design and performance of free-jet acoustic wind tunnels, and the use of a laser shadowgraph for jet noise diagnosis.

  9. Application of indoor noise prediction in the real world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, David N.

    2002-11-01

    Predicting indoor noise in industrial workrooms is an important part of the process of designing industrial plants. Predicted levels are used in the design process to determine compliance with occupational-noise regulations, and to estimate levels inside the walls in order to predict community noise radiated from the building. Once predicted levels are known, noise-control strategies can be developed. In this paper an overview of over 20 years of experience is given with the use of various prediction approaches to manage noise in Unilever plants. This work has applied empirical and ray-tracing approaches separately, and in combination, to design various packaging and production plants and other facilities. The advantages of prediction methods in general, and of the various approaches in particular, will be discussed. A case-study application of prediction methods to the optimization of noise-control measures in a food-packaging plant will be presented. Plans to acquire a simplified prediction model for use as a company noise-screening tool will be discussed.

  10. Experimental validation of boundary element methods for noise prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seybert, A. F.; Oswald, Fred B.

    1992-01-01

    Experimental validation of methods to predict radiated noise is presented. A combined finite element and boundary element model was used to predict the vibration and noise of a rectangular box excited by a mechanical shaker. The predicted noise was compared to sound power measured by the acoustic intensity method. Inaccuracies in the finite element model shifted the resonance frequencies by about 5 percent. The predicted and measured sound power levels agree within about 2.5 dB. In a second experiment, measured vibration data was used with a boundary element model to predict noise radiation from the top of an operating gearbox. The predicted and measured sound power for the gearbox agree within about 3 dB.

  11. Overview of predicting noise levels in indoor industrial spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brittain, Frank

    2002-11-01

    Predicting indoor noise in industrial facilities is a vital part of designing industrial plants. The predicted levels are used in the design process to determine compliance with occupation noise exposure limits, and to estimate levels inside the walls as starting point for predicting community noise radiated by buildings. Once levels are predicted, the noise controls needed can be developed. Special methodologies are needed, because normal room acoustics found in architectural acoustics texts is valid only for nearly empty rooms with limited absorption and ranges of room dimensions. The fittings inside industrial spaces can profoundly affect the propagation of noise and the resulting noise levels. In an industrial space, such as a power plant, there is no such thing as a reverberant field, except in isolated areas. In industrial spaces, including factories, predicting noise levels by summing free and reverberant fields gives erroneous results that are usually overly conservative. This paper discusses normal empty room acoustics, and problems typically encountered when it is applied to industrial spaces, particularly those with a high density of fittings or very large spaces. Also, alternative methodologies for predicting indoor noise levels in industrial spaces, which are based on standards and software, are identified and discussed.

  12. The Broad-Band Seismic Noise Wavefield at the Larderello-Travale Geothermal Field (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zupo, M.; Saccorotti, G.; Piccinini, D.

    2013-12-01

    Cross-correlation of ambient noise wave-field between a pair of receivers (NCF), provides an estimate of the Green's Function between the two sites, thus allowing extraction of the associated group velocity dispersion curve. This is valid under the assumption that noise sources and/or scatterers are isotropically distributed and uncorrelated each other. These conditions are usually met once the cross-correlations are averaged over long time intervals. At frequencies lower than 1 Hz, ambient noise wavefield is essentially composed by surface waves that are mostly associated with oceanic sources; as a consequence, the noise wavefield may exhibit marked directional properties over short (day) to intermediate (weeks) time scales. A detailed assessment of the nature and duration of these sources is therefore required in order to define the optimal conditions for retrieving the Green's functions from NCF analysis. This study presents ambient noise analysis for the Larderello-Travale Geothermal Field (Italy). We use data collected by a temporary seismic array consisting of 20 broad-band instruments, with station spacing ranging from 6 to 50 Km. Below 1 Hz, the most energetic sources are those associated with both primary and secondary microseisms, with dominant spectral peaks spanning the 0.05-0.5 Hz frequency range. Focusing on the secondary microseism sources (f > 0.1 Hz), we test the validity of the isotropic-wavefield assumption by determining the kinematic properties of the wavefield using frequency-domain beamforming. For the May-November 2012 time span, our results show that the most energetic and persistent wavefield components propagate from WNW (Gulf of Marseille and Genova) and SW (Sardinia channel). In the late part of the observation period, additional wavefield components are observed to propagate from the NE-SE azimuthal range, corresponding to sources located throughout the Adriatic sea. This suggests that the conditions for the application of the NCF technique can be met by averaging cross-correlation estimates over a period of a few months. The NCF analysis included a pre-processing step, consisting of signal filtering and normalization. Then, we calculated cross-correlations between all independent station pairs, and stacked these functions over the entire observation period. Finally, the retrieved Green's functions are subjected to a frequency-time analysis, in order to obtain group velocity dispersion curves for each station pair. The local velocity structure and the inter-station distances are key factors conditioning the frequency range within which the surface wave dispersion can be correctly measured. When the ratio between the inter-station distance and the wavelength of interest is lower than ~3, NCF can severely fail. For these cases, we used the Spatial Autocorrelation Function (SPAC), which relates the frequency-dependent spatial autocorrelation functions to the phase velocity dispersion curve. In the analyzed frequency band we also found evidences for signals traveling with high apparent velocities ( > 8000 m/s). Beamforming and polarization analysis indicate that these signals are likely associated with P-waves generated in deep water far from coastlines.

  13. Supersonic jet noise prediction and noise source investigation for realistic baseline and chevron nozzles based on hybrid RANS/LES simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Yongle

    Jet noise simulations have been performed for a military-style baseline nozzle and a chevron nozzle with design Mach numbers of Md = 1:5 operating at several off-design conditions. The objective of the current numerical study is to provide insight into the noise generation mechanisms of shock-containing supersonic hot jets and the noise reduction mechanisms of chevron nozzles. A hybrid methodology combining advanced CFD technologies and the acoustic analogy is used for supersonic jet noise simulations. Unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) equations are solved to predict the turbulent noise sources in the jet flows. A modified version of the Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) approach is used to avoid excessive damping of fine scale turbulent fluctuations. A multiblock structured mesh topology is used to represent complex nozzle geometries, including the faceted inner contours and finite nozzle thickness. A block interface condition is optimized for the complex multiblock mesh topology to avoid the centerline singularity. A fourth-order Dispersion-Relation-Preserving (DRP) scheme is used for spatial discretization. To enable efficient calculations, a dual time-stepping method is used in addition to parallel computation using MPI. Both multigrid and implicit residual smoothing are used to accelerate the convergence rate of sub-iterations in the fictitious time domain. Noise predictions are made with the permeable surface Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings (FWH) solution. All the numerical methods have been implemented in the jet flow simulation code "CHOPA" and the noise prediction code "PSJFWH". The computer codes have been validated with several benchmark cases. A preliminary study has been performed for an under-expanded baseline nozzle jet with Mj = 1:56 to validate the accuracy of the jet noise simulations. The results show that grid refinement around the jet potential core and the use of a lower artificial dissipation improve the resolution of the predicted high frequency noise spectra. The results also show that the predicted low frequency noise spectra are sensitive to the axial extent of the acoustic data surface, and the high frequency noise spectra are affected by the radial size of the acoustic data surface. The baseline nozzle has been studied at several off-design conditions with Mj = 1:36, 1.47 and 1.56. Although the noise levels at mid to high frequencies are over-predicted at several shallow polar angles, the predicted noise spectra in the peak noise radiation direction and upstream directions agree very well with the experimental measurements. More encouraging is that the frequencies and amplitudes of the broadband shock-associated noise (BBSAN) are captured accurately at all three operating conditions. Three techniques are used to examine the noise source characteristics. The two-point space-time correlation method is used to analyze the statistical characteristics of the turbulent eddies. The direct flow-acoustic correlation technique and the beamformed acoustic pressures are used to reveal the different noise generation mechanisms of the large-scale and fine-scale turbulent fluctuations. The chevron nozzle simulations have been performed at the same operating conditions to evaluate the noise reduction effects. Special treatments are proposed to address the numerical difficulties caused by the chevrons. The impact of chevrons on the near-field noise sources and far-field noise radiation is simulated using the immersed boundary method (IBM) to overcome the great difficulties in grid generation. A non-matching block interface condition is developed to allow the grids to be greatly refined around chevrons for a higher accuracy of simulations without increasing the mesh size significantly. The predicted noise spectra agree very well with the acoustic measurements of the baseline nozzle, considering the small noise reductions of the chevrons at the given operating conditions. No apparent over-prediction is observed. However, the noise reductions are over-predicted because of the over-pr

  14. Relative Noise Level Comparison Of Portable Broadband Seismometer Installation Techniques Used By PASSCAL And Flexible Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias, E. Y.; Beaudoin, B. C.; Woodward, R.; Anderson, K. E.; Reusch, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    Multiple methods of broadband seismometer emplacement are used on portable experiments. Techniques range from a typical IRIS PASSCAL vault (~1-m deep vault with a decoupled pier), to an EarthScope USArray Flexible Array (FA) vault (~1-m deep narrow vault with a cement plug in the bottom coupled to the vault), both using traditional vault (pier) sensors, as well as direct burial emplacement of both sensors purpose-built for direct burial and standard vault sensors. The selection of the appropriate sensor emplacement technique for a given environment has often relied on anecdotal assessment or personal preference. We have performed an inter-comparison of these various emplacement techniques, for diverse environments. Our goal is to provide quantitative information that will facilitate choosing deployment strategies that best meet an experiment's scientific goals and logistical constraints. For our analysis, a total of 15 networks (781 stations) from PASSCAL and FA are analyzed using SQLX, which utilizes the ambient noise analysis methods of McNamara and Buland*. Using this analysis, a comparison of the mean of the monthly mode (MMM) of each component of the networks is performed to evaluate the various emplacement methods currently used. We have used a total of 182 PASSCAL stations (5 networks using PASSCAL vaults and 1 network using direct burial installs) and 365 FA stations (5 networks with FA vaults, 2 networks using direct burial installs, and 2 networks with a mix of installation types). The installations span a variety of environments. For our analysis the MMM has been calculated for each component separately (Z, N and E) and these results are compared to similar results already computed for EarthScope USArray Transportable Array (TA) stations. To evaluate the relative network performance, we use three separate period bands: short period (< 1 s), microseism band (1-10 s) and long period (10 -100 s). Using the TA baseline as a reference, each network is ranked from quietest to noisiest. Results of this comparison will be presented. * (McNamara, D.E. and R.P. Buland, Ambient Noise Levels in the Continental United States, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 94, 4, 1517-1527, 2004). 1 - Independent Contractor for IRIS?2- IRIS/PASSCAL 2- IRIS/PASSCAL 3- IRIS

  15. PREDICTION OF NON-CAVITATING UNDERWATER PROPELLER NOISE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Seol; B. Jung; J.-C. SUH; S. Lee

    2002-01-01

    Non-cavitation noise of underwater propeller is numerically investigated. The main purpose is to analyze non-cavitation noise in various operating conditions with different configurations. The noise is predicted using time-domain acoustic analogy and boundary element method. The flow field is analyzed with potential-based panel method, and then the time-dependent pressure data are used as the input for Ffowcs Williams–Hawkings formulation to

  16. A Highly Linear Broadband LNA

    E-print Network

    Park, Joung Won

    2010-10-12

    In this work, a highly linear broadband Low Noise Amplifier (LNA) is presented. The linearity issue in broadband Radio Frequency (RF) front-end is introduced, followed by an analysis of the specifications and requirements of a broadband LNA through...

  17. Study on Noise Prediction Model and Control Schemes for Substation

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yang; Liu, Songtao

    2014-01-01

    With the government's emphasis on environmental issues of power transmission and transformation project, noise pollution has become a prominent problem now. The noise from the working transformer, reactor, and other electrical equipment in the substation will bring negative effect to the ambient environment. This paper focuses on using acoustic software for the simulation and calculation method to control substation noise. According to the characteristics of the substation noise and the techniques of noise reduction, a substation's acoustic field model was established with the SoundPLAN software to predict the scope of substation noise. On this basis, 4 reasonable noise control schemes were advanced to provide some helpful references for noise control during the new substation's design and construction process. And the feasibility and application effect of these control schemes can be verified by using the method of simulation modeling. The simulation results show that the substation always has the problem of excessive noise at boundary under the conventional measures. The excess noise can be efficiently reduced by taking the corresponding noise reduction methods. PMID:24672356

  18. Study on noise prediction model and control schemes for substation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chuanmin; Gao, Yang; Liu, Songtao

    2014-01-01

    With the government's emphasis on environmental issues of power transmission and transformation project, noise pollution has become a prominent problem now. The noise from the working transformer, reactor, and other electrical equipment in the substation will bring negative effect to the ambient environment. This paper focuses on using acoustic software for the simulation and calculation method to control substation noise. According to the characteristics of the substation noise and the techniques of noise reduction, a substation's acoustic field model was established with the SoundPLAN software to predict the scope of substation noise. On this basis, 4 reasonable noise control schemes were advanced to provide some helpful references for noise control during the new substation's design and construction process. And the feasibility and application effect of these control schemes can be verified by using the method of simulation modeling. The simulation results show that the substation always has the problem of excessive noise at boundary under the conventional measures. The excess noise can be efficiently reduced by taking the corresponding noise reduction methods. PMID:24672356

  19. ``Buzz-saw'' noise: A comparison of measurement with prediction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. McAlpine; M. J. Fisher; B. J. Tester

    2006-01-01

    Accurate prediction of ``buzz-saw'' noise in a turbofan inlet duct necessitates consideration of nonlinear acoustics, modelling a complete fan blade set, modelling an acoustic liner, and calculations at high frequencies. A recent series of papers has described new work concerning the application of one-dimensional propagation models to the prediction of buzz-saw noise. A numerical model, termed the frequency domain numerical

  20. “Buzz-saw” noise: A comparison of measurement with prediction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. McAlpine; M. J. Fisher; B. J. Tester

    2006-01-01

    Accurate prediction of “buzz-saw” noise in a turbofan inlet duct necessitates consideration of nonlinear acoustics, modelling a complete fan blade set, modelling an acoustic liner, and calculations at high frequencies. A recent series of papers has described new work concerning the application of one-dimensional propagation models to the prediction of buzz-saw noise. A numerical model, termed the frequency domain numerical

  1. Noise Prediction of NASA SR2 Propeller in Transonic Conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michele De Gennaro; Domenico Caridi; Carlo De Nicola

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we propose a numerical approach for noise prediction of high-speed propellers for Turboprop applications. It is based on a RANS approach for aerodynamic simulation coupled with Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FW-H) Acoustic Analogy for propeller noise prediction. The test-case geometry adopted for this study is the 8-bladed NASA SR2 transonic cruise propeller, and simulated Sound Pressure Levels (SPL) have

  2. Aircraft cabin noise prediction and optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaicaitis, R.

    1985-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental studies were conducted to determine the noise transmission into acoustic enclosures ranging from simple rectangular box models to full scale light aircraft in flight. The structural models include simple, stiffened, curved stiffened, and orthotropic panels and double wall windows. The theoretical solutions were obtained by model analysis. Transfer matrix and finite element procedures were utilized. Good agreement between theory and experiment has been achieved. An efficient acoustic add-on treatment was developed for interior noise control in a twin engine light aircraft.

  3. Towards noise prediction for rudimentary landing gear

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philippe R. Spalart; Mikhail L. Shur; Mikhail K. Strelets; Andrey K. Travin

    2010-01-01

    A four-wheel landing gear truck was designed for research purposes, with the level of complexity which is felt to be manageable in current numerical simulations, and a weak Reynolds-number sensitivity. An experiment is underway, aimed at measuring wallpressure fluctuations, leading to a meaningful test of unsteady simulations with emphasis on noise generation at a June 2010 workshop. We present two

  4. Increased Fidelity in Prediction Methods For Landing Gear Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopes, Leonard V.; Brentner, Kenneth S.; Morris, Philip J.; Lockhard, David P.

    2006-01-01

    An aeroacoustic prediction scheme has been developed for landing gear noise. The method is designed to handle the complex landing gear geometry of current and future aircraft. The gear is represented by a collection of subassemblies and simple components that are modeled using acoustic elements. These acoustic elements are generic, but generate noise representative of the physical components on a landing gear. The method sums the noise radiation from each component of the undercarriage in isolation accounting for interference with adjacent components through an estimate of the local upstream and downstream flows and turbulence intensities. The acoustic calculations are made in the code LGMAP, which computes the sound pressure levels at various observer locations. The method can calculate the noise from the undercarriage in isolation or installed on an aircraft for both main and nose landing gear. Comparisons with wind tunnel and flight data are used to initially calibrate the method, then it may be used to predict the noise of any landing gear. In this paper, noise predictions are compared with wind tunnel data for model landing gears of various scales and levels of fidelity, as well as with flight data on fullscale undercarriages. The present agreement between the calculations and measurements suggests the method has promise for future application in the prediction of airframe noise.

  5. Comparison of aircraft noise-contour prediction programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapkis, R. L.; Blankenship, G. L.; Marsh, A. H.

    1980-06-01

    A comparison was made of the FAA Integrated Noise Model (INM) and the USAF/NOISEMAP computer programs. Those programs are widely used to predict the location of aircraft noise contours around airports. Large differences between the programs were found in the noise data bases. There were also differences in the flight profile data bases, the ground attenuation factor, and in the way the change in noise duration is handled for curved flight paths. The two programs were used to calculate single-event noise level contours for various air-carrier and general aviation jets. The programs were also used to calculate contours of cumulative noise exposure level around a hypothetical average major intercontinental airport (AVPORT). Large differences in contour areas and shapes were found.

  6. State of Jet Noise Prediction-NASA Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, James E.

    2008-01-01

    This presentation covers work primarily done under the Airport Noise Technical Challenge portion of the Supersonics Project in the Fundamental Aeronautics Program. To provide motivation and context, the presentation starts with a brief overview of the Airport Noise Technical Challenge. It then covers the state of NASA s jet noise prediction tools in empirical, RANS-based, and time-resolved categories. The empirical tools, requires seconds to provide a prediction of noise spectral directivity with an accuracy of a few dB, but only for axisymmetric configurations. The RANS-based tools are able to discern the impact of three-dimensional features, but are currently deficient in predicting noise from heated jets and jets with high speed and require hours to produce their prediction. The time-resolved codes are capable of predicting resonances and other time-dependent phenomena, but are very immature, requiring months to deliver predictions without unknown accuracies and dependabilities. In toto, however, when one considers the progress being made it appears that aeroacoustic prediction tools are soon to approach the level of sophistication and accuracy of aerodynamic engineering tools.

  7. Measured and predicted noise of the Avco-Lycoming YF-102 turbofan noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, B. J.; Mcardle, J. G.; Homyak, L.

    1979-01-01

    Acoustic testing of the AVCO-Lycoming YF-102 turbofan engine was done on a static test stand in support of the quiet short-haul research aircraft acoustic design. Overall noise levels were dominated by the fan noise emanating from the exhaust duct, except at high power settings when combination tones were generated in the fan inlet. Component noise levels, calculated by noise prediction methods were in reasonable agreement with the measured results. Far-field microphones placed at ground level were found superior to those at engine centerline height, even at high frequencies.

  8. Helicopter external noise prediction and reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewy, Serge

    Helicopter external noise is a major challenge for the manufacturers, both in the civil domain and in the military domain. The strongest acoustic sources are due to the main rotor. Two flight conditions are analyzed in detail because radiated sound is then very loud and very impulsive: (1) high-speed flight, with large thickness and shear terms on the advancing blade side; and (2) descent flight, with blade-vortex interaction for certain rates of descent. In both cases, computational results were obtained and tests on new blade designs have been conducted in wind tunnels. These studies prove that large noise reduction can be achieved. It is shown in conclusion, however, that the other acoustic sources (tail rotor, turboshaft engines) must not be neglected to define a quiet helicopter.

  9. Predicting spectral features in galaxy spectra from broad-band photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdalla, F. B.; Mateus, A.; Santos, W. A.; Sodrè, L., Jr.; Ferreras, I.; Lahav, O.

    2008-07-01

    We explore the prospects of predicting emission-line features present in galaxy spectra given broad-band photometry alone. There is a general consent that colours, and spectral features, most notably the 4000 Å break, can predict many properties of galaxies, including star formation rates and hence they could infer some of the line properties. We argue that these techniques have great prospects in helping us understand line emission in extragalactic objects and might speed up future galaxy redshift surveys if they are to target emission-line objects only. We use two independent methods, Artificial Neural Networks (based on the ANNz code) and Locally Weighted Regression (LWR), to retrieve correlations present in the colour N-dimensional space and to predict the equivalent widths present in the corresponding spectra. We also investigate how well it is possible to separate galaxies with and without lines from broad-band photometry only. We find, unsurprisingly, that recombination lines can be well predicted by galaxy colours. However, among collisional lines some can and some cannot be predicted well from galaxy colours alone, without any further redshift information. We also use our techniques to estimate how much information contained in spectral diagnostic diagrams can be recovered from broad-band photometry alone. We find that it is possible to classify active galactic nuclei and star formation objects relatively well using colours only. We suggest that this technique could be used to considerably improve redshift surveys such as the upcoming Fibre Multi Object Spectrograph (FMOS) survey and the planned Wide Field Multi Object Spectrograph (WFMOS) survey.

  10. Prediction of noise impacts by the proposed Vienna Unit No. 9

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cwiklewski

    1980-01-01

    Noise predictions are presented for a proposed 600 MWE expansion of a power plant at Vienna, Maryland. Topics include ambient noise, continuous and non-continuous plant noise sources, propagation of noise to off-site areas, annoyance potential, compliance with state noise regulation, and predictions of traffic noise from the proposed rerouting of an adjacent highway.

  11. Measurement and prediction of construction plant noise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. S. Gill

    1980-01-01

    Propagation characteristics of noise from stationary and mobile sources over realistic ground surfaces were studied. A total of 14 sets of propagation measurements from various types of construction equipment were made. Propagation data indicate that equivalent sound levels from stationary or quasistationary construction equipment propagate with an attenuation rate of approximately 6.76 and 6.13 dB (A) per doubling of distance

  12. Measurements and Predictions of High Frequency Ambient Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holden, Andrew

    2004-11-01

    A great deal has been published on ambient noise. Most of this has covered (a) omni directional levels, and (b) the vertical and horizontal directivity of shipping noise at low frequencies. There is some published material on the vertical directivity of wind generated noise at lower frequencies, but very little at higher frequencies. In order to study wind generated ambient noise at higher frequencies, work has recently started using a small planar array from QinetiQ Bincleaves. As well as measurements, a model called CANARY has been written to predict ambient noise vertical directivity and array responses to this noise. This paper contains some comparisons between CANARY predictions and (a) previous measured vertical directivity data at 4.5 kHz, (b) measured omni-directional data, and (c) initial analysis of the planar array measurements. The paper shows the nature of the ambient noise vertical structure at higher frequencies and that the CANARY predictions are in good agreement with the measurements.

  13. The Acoustic Analogy and Alternative Theories for Jet Noise Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Philip J.; Farassat, F.; Morris, Philip J.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes several methods for the prediction of jet noise. All but one of the noise prediction schemes are based on Lighthill's or Lilley's acoustic analogy while the other is the jet noise generation model recently proposed by Tam and Auriault. In all the approaches some assumptions must be made concerning the statistical properties of the turbulent sources. In each case the characteristic scales of the turbulence are obtained from a solution of the Reynolds-averaged Navier Stokes equation using a k-epsilon turbulence model. It is shown that, for the same level of empiricism, Tam and Auriault's model yields better agreement with experimental noise measurements than the acoustic analogy. It is then shown that this result is not because of some fundamental flaw in the acoustic analogy approach: but, is associated with the assumptions made in the approximation of the turbulent source statistics. If consistent assumptions are made, both the acoustic analogy and Tam and Auriault's model yield identical noise predictions. The paper concludes with a proposal for an acoustic analogy that provides a clearer identification of the equivalent source mechanisms and a discussion of noise prediction issues that remain to be resolved.

  14. The Acoustic Analogy and Alternative Theories for Jet Noise Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Philip J.; Farassat, F.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes several methods for the prediction of jet noise. All but one of the noise prediction schemes are based on Lighthill's or Lilley's acoustic analogy while the other is the jet noise generation model recently proposed by Tam and Auriault. In all the approaches some assumptions must be made concerning the statistical properties of the turbulent sources. In each case the characteristic scales of the turbulence are obtained from a solution of the Reynolds-averaged Navier Stokes equation using a k - epsilon turbulence model. It is shown that, for the same level of empiricism, Tam and Auriault's model yields better agreement with experimental noise measurements than the acoustic analogy. It is then shown that this result is not because of some fundamental flaw in the acoustic analogy approach: but, is associated with the assumptions made in the approximation of the turbulent source statistics. If consistent assumptions are made, both the acoustic analogy and Tam and Auriault's model yield identical noise predictions. The paper concludes with a proposal for an acoustic analogy that provides a clearer identification of the equivalent source mechanisms and a discussion of noise prediction issues that remain to be resolved.

  15. The NASA aircraft noise prediction program improved propeller analysis system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, L. Cathy

    1991-01-01

    The improvements and the modifications of the NASA Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP) and the Propeller Analysis System (PAS) are described. Comparisons of the predictions and the test data are included in the case studies for the flat plate model in the Boundary Layer Module, for the effects of applying compressibility corrections to the lift and pressure coefficients, for the use of different weight factors in the Propeller Performance Module, for the use of the improved retarded time equation solution, and for the effect of the number grids in the Transonic Propeller Noise Module. The DNW tunnel test data of a propeller at different angles of attack and the Dowty Rotol data are compared with ANOPP predictions. The effect of the number of grids on the Transonic Propeller Noise Module predictions and the comparison of ANOPP TPN and DFP-ATP codes are studied. In addition to the above impact studies, the transonic propeller noise predictions for the SR-7, the UDF front rotor, and the support of the enroute noise test program are included.

  16. Prediction of aerodynamic tonal noise from open rotors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Anupam; Chen, Hsuan-nien

    2013-08-01

    A numerical approach for predicting tonal aerodynamic noise from "open rotors" is presented. "Open rotor" refers to an engine architecture with a pair of counter-rotating propellers. Typical noise spectra from an open rotor consist of dominant tones, which arise due to both the steady loading/thickness and the aerodynamic interaction between the two bladerows. The proposed prediction approach utilizes Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations to obtain near-field description of the noise sources. The near-to-far-field propagation is then carried out by solving the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equation. Since the interest of this paper is limited to tone noise, a linearized, frequency domain approach is adopted to solve the wake/vortex-blade interaction problem.This paper focuses primarily on the speed scaling of the aerodynamic tonal noise from open rotors. Even though there is no theoretical mode cut-off due to the absence of nacelle in open rotors, the far-field noise is a strong function of the azimuthal mode order. While the steady loading/thickness noise has circumferential modes of high order, due to the relatively large number of blades (?10-12), the interaction noise typically has modes of small orders. The high mode orders have very low radiation efficiency and exhibit very strong scaling with Mach number, while the low mode orders show a relatively weaker scaling. The prediction approach is able to capture the speed scaling (observed in experiment) of the overall aerodynamic noise very well.

  17. The effect of continuous, broad-band random noise, both alone and in combination with a food odor on the lemon shark, Negaprion brevirostris 

    E-print Network

    Jones, Keith Anthony

    1977-01-01

    THE EFFECTS QF CONTINUOUS, BROAD-BAND RANDOM NOISE, BOTH ALONE AND IN COMBINATION WITH A FOOD ODOR ON THE LEMON SHARK, NEGAPRION BREVIROSTRIS A Thesis by KEITH ANTHOiVY JONES Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University... in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1977 Major Subject: Biology THE EFFECTS OF CONTINUOUS, BROAD-BAND RANDOM NOISE BOTH ALONE AND IN COMBINATION WITH A FOOD ODOR ON THE LEMON SHARK, NEGAPRION BREVIROSTRIS A...

  18. Numerical hydro-acoustic prediction of marine propeller noise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu-cun Pan; Huai-xin Zhang

    2010-01-01

    A source-to-far-field computation procedure aiming at predicting the noise generated by the underwater propeller was presented.\\u000a Detached eddy simulation (DES) was used to resolve the unsteady flow field, which was taken as input data as noise propagation.\\u000a Far-field sound radiation was performed by means of Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FW-H) equation. The computation procedure was\\u000a finally applied to a typical marine propeller,

  19. Analytical developments for definition and prediction of USB noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, N. N.; Tam, C. K. W.

    1976-01-01

    A systematic acoustic data base and associated flow data are used in identifying the noise generating mechanisms of upper surface blown flap configurations of short takeoff and landing aircraft. Theory is developed for the radiated sound field of the highly sheared flow of the trailing edge wake. An empirical method is also developed using extensive experimental data and physical reasonings to predict the noise levels.

  20. Processing seismic ambient noise data to obtain reliable broad-band surface wave dispersion measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. D. Bensen; M. H. Ritzwoller; M. P. Barmin; A. L. Levshin; F. Lin; M. P. Moschetti; N. M. Shapiro; Y. Yang

    2007-01-01

    SUMMARY Ambient noise tomography is a rapidly emerging field of seismological research. This paper presents the current status of ambient noise data processing as it has developed over the past several years and is intended to explain and justify this development through salient examples. The ambient noise data processing procedure divides into four principal phases: (1) single station data preparation,

  1. Downwind rotor horizontal axis wind turbine noise prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metzger, F. B.; Klatte, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    NASA and industry are currently cooperating in the conduct of extensive experimental and analytical studies to understand and predict the noise of large, horizontal axis wind turbines. This effort consists of (1) obtaining high quality noise data under well controlled and documented test conditions, (2) establishing the annoyance criteria for impulse noise of the type generated by horizontal axis wind turbines with rotors downwind of the support tower, (3) defining the wake characteristics downwind of the axial location of the plane of rotation, (4) comparing predictions with measurements made by use of wake data, and (5) comparing predictions with annoyance criteria. The status of work by Hamilton Standard in the above areas which was done in support of the cooperative NASA and industry studies is briefly summarized.

  2. Far-field noise predictions of imperfectly expanded jet flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Junhui; Kailasanath, Kailas; Heeb, Nicholas; Munday, Dave; Gutmark, Ephraim

    2012-11-01

    The far-field noise levels of imperfectly expanded jet flows are predicted using the Ffowcs Williams & Hawkings (FW-H) surface integral approach, where the information on the integral surfaces are generated from large-eddy simulations. Three FW-H surfaces are used to test the dependence of the far-field noise prediction on the location of the integral surfaces. The near-field pressure distributions on these FW-H surfaces are first examined to see if those surfaces are located in the acoustic propagation region. The variations of the monopole and dipole sources on the integral surfaces are also examined. The contribution of the shock-associated noise to the far-field noise level is well predicted. The difference between numerical predictions and measurements is within 1.0dB, whereas the contribution of the mixing noise is within 2.0dB. The contribution of the end cap is found to be small, but this contribution is sensitive to the mesh size used in the integration.

  3. Advanced turboprop noise prediction based on recent theoretical results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farassat, F.; Padula, S. L.; Dunn, M. H.

    1987-01-01

    The development of a high speed propeller noise prediction code at Langley Research Center is described. The code utilizes two recent acoustic formulations in the time domain for subsonic and supersonic sources. The structure and capabilities of the code are discussed. Grid size study for accuracy and speed of execution on a computer is also presented. The code is tested against an earlier Langley code. Considerable increase in accuracy and speed of execution are observed. Some examples of noise prediction of a high speed propeller for which acoustic test data are available are given. A brisk derivation of formulations used is given in an appendix.

  4. A Stochastic Simulation Framework for the Prediction of Strategic Noise Mapping and Occupational Noise Exposure Using the Random Walk Approach

    PubMed Central

    Haron, Zaiton; Bakar, Suhaimi Abu; Dimon, Mohamad Ngasri

    2015-01-01

    Strategic noise mapping provides important information for noise impact assessment and noise abatement. However, producing reliable strategic noise mapping in a dynamic, complex working environment is difficult. This study proposes the implementation of the random walk approach as a new stochastic technique to simulate noise mapping and to predict the noise exposure level in a workplace. A stochastic simulation framework and software, namely RW-eNMS, were developed to facilitate the random walk approach in noise mapping prediction. This framework considers the randomness and complexity of machinery operation and noise emission levels. Also, it assesses the impact of noise on the workers and the surrounding environment. For data validation, three case studies were conducted to check the accuracy of the prediction data and to determine the efficiency and effectiveness of this approach. The results showed high accuracy of prediction results together with a majority of absolute differences of less than 2 dBA; also, the predicted noise doses were mostly in the range of measurement. Therefore, the random walk approach was effective in dealing with environmental noises. It could predict strategic noise mapping to facilitate noise monitoring and noise control in the workplaces. PMID:25875019

  5. A stochastic simulation framework for the prediction of strategic noise mapping and occupational noise exposure using the random walk approach.

    PubMed

    Han, Lim Ming; Haron, Zaiton; Yahya, Khairulzan; Bakar, Suhaimi Abu; Dimon, Mohamad Ngasri

    2015-01-01

    Strategic noise mapping provides important information for noise impact assessment and noise abatement. However, producing reliable strategic noise mapping in a dynamic, complex working environment is difficult. This study proposes the implementation of the random walk approach as a new stochastic technique to simulate noise mapping and to predict the noise exposure level in a workplace. A stochastic simulation framework and software, namely RW-eNMS, were developed to facilitate the random walk approach in noise mapping prediction. This framework considers the randomness and complexity of machinery operation and noise emission levels. Also, it assesses the impact of noise on the workers and the surrounding environment. For data validation, three case studies were conducted to check the accuracy of the prediction data and to determine the efficiency and effectiveness of this approach. The results showed high accuracy of prediction results together with a majority of absolute differences of less than 2 dBA; also, the predicted noise doses were mostly in the range of measurement. Therefore, the random walk approach was effective in dealing with environmental noises. It could predict strategic noise mapping to facilitate noise monitoring and noise control in the workplaces. PMID:25875019

  6. Broadband noise limit in the photodetection of ultralow jitter optical pulses.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wenlu; Quinlan, Franklyn; Fortier, Tara M; Deschenes, Jean-Daniel; Fu, Yang; Diddams, Scott A; Campbell, Joe C

    2014-11-14

    Applications with optical atomic clocks and precision timing often require the transfer of optical frequency references to the electrical domain with extremely high fidelity. Here we examine the impact of photocarrier scattering and distributed absorption on the photocurrent noise of high-speed photodiodes when detecting ultralow jitter optical pulses. Despite its small contribution to the total photocurrent, this excess noise can determine the phase noise and timing jitter of microwave signals generated by detecting ultrashort optical pulses. A Monte Carlo simulation of the photodetection process is used to quantitatively estimate the excess noise. Simulated phase noise on the 10 GHz harmonic of a photodetected pulse train shows good agreement with previous experimental data, leading to the conclusion that the lowest phase noise photonically generated microwave signals are limited by photocarrier scattering well above the quantum limit of the optical pulse train. PMID:25432042

  7. Broadband Noise Limit in the Photodetection of Ultralow Jitter Optical Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wenlu; Quinlan, Franklyn; Fortier, Tara M.; Deschenes, Jean-Daniel; Fu, Yang; Diddams, Scott A.; Campbell, Joe C.

    2014-11-01

    Applications with optical atomic clocks and precision timing often require the transfer of optical frequency references to the electrical domain with extremely high fidelity. Here we examine the impact of photocarrier scattering and distributed absorption on the photocurrent noise of high-speed photodiodes when detecting ultralow jitter optical pulses. Despite its small contribution to the total photocurrent, this excess noise can determine the phase noise and timing jitter of microwave signals generated by detecting ultrashort optical pulses. A Monte Carlo simulation of the photodetection process is used to quantitatively estimate the excess noise. Simulated phase noise on the 10 GHz harmonic of a photodetected pulse train shows good agreement with previous experimental data, leading to the conclusion that the lowest phase noise photonically generated microwave signals are limited by photocarrier scattering well above the quantum limit of the optical pulse train.

  8. Characterization of frequency noise on a broadband infrared frequency comb using optical heterodyne techniques.

    PubMed

    Kim, K; Nicholson, J W; Yan, M; Knight, J C; Newbury, N R; Diddams, S A

    2007-12-24

    We measure the frequency noise across a Cr:forsterite infrared frequency comb through the optical heterodyne beat of different comb teeth against stable continuous wave (CW) lasers. This sensitive measurement shows strong correlations of the frequency noise between spectral components of the comb, relative to a fixed optical frequency near the 1.3 micron carrier of the Cr:forsterite laser. The correlated frequency fluctuations are shown to arise from amplitude noise on the pump laser. We also report a preliminary comparison of excess noise that occurs during supercontinuum generation in both highly nonlinear fiber and an extruded glass microstructured fiber. PMID:19551068

  9. Prediction of Non-Cavitating Underwater Propeller Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SEOL, H.; JUNG, B.; SUH, J.-C.; LEE, S.

    2002-10-01

    Non-cavitation noise of underwater propeller is numerically investigated. The main purpose is to analyze non-cavitation noise in various operating conditions with different configurations. The noise is predicted using time-domain acoustic analogy and boundary element method. The flow field is analyzed with potential-based panel method, and then the time-dependent pressure data are used as the input for Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings formulation to predict the farfield acoustics. Boundary integral equation method is also considered to investigate the effect of ducted propeller. Sound deflection and scattering effect on the duct is considered with the BEM. The governing equations are based on the assumption that all acoustic pressure is linear. A scattering approach is applied in which the acoustic pressure field is split into the known incident component and the unknown scattered component. Noise prediction results are presented for single propeller and ducted propeller in non-uniform flow conditions similar to real situation. The investigation reveals that the effect of a duct on the acoustic performance propeller is small in the far field under non-cavitating situations since the noise directivities of single and ducted propellers are almost the same. Only the high order BPFs are influenced by the existence of the duct.

  10. GaAs 0.5 dB NF dual-loop negative-feedback broadband low-noise amplifier IC

    E-print Network

    Serdijn, Wouter A.

    GaAs 0.5 dB NF dual-loop negative- feedback broadband low-noise amplifier IC J. Xu, B. Woestenburg, J. Geralt bij de Vaate and W.A. Serdijn A GaAs dual-loop negative-feedback low-noise amplifier (LNA the windings. The substrate loss can be considered negligible due to the high resistivity of GaAs substrate

  11. Heavy-tailed prediction error: a difficulty in predicting biomedical signals of 1/f noise type.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Zhao, Wei; Chen, Biao

    2012-01-01

    A fractal signal x(t) in biomedical engineering may be characterized by 1/f noise, that is, the power spectrum density (PSD) divergences at f = 0. According the Taqqu's law, 1/f noise has the properties of long-range dependence and heavy-tailed probability density function (PDF). The contribution of this paper is to exhibit that the prediction error of a biomedical signal of 1/f noise type is long-range dependent (LRD). Thus, it is heavy-tailed and of 1/f noise. Consequently, the variance of the prediction error is usually large or may not exist, making predicting biomedical signals of 1/f noise type difficult. PMID:23251226

  12. Method for predicting impulsive noise generated by wind-turbine rotors

    SciTech Connect

    Viterna, L.A.

    1982-01-01

    Large wind turbines can generate both broad-band and impulsive noises. These noises can be controlled by proper choice of rotor design parameters such as rotor location with respect to the supporting tower, tower geometry, and tip speed. A method has been developed to calculate the impulsive noise generated when the wind turbine blade experiences air forces that are periodic functions of the rotational frequency. This phenomenon can occur when the blades operate in the wake of the support tower and the non-uniform velocity field near the ground due to wind shear. Results from this method are compared with measured sound spectra taken at locations of one to two rotor diameters from the DOE/NASA Mod-1 wind turbine. The calculated spectra generally agree with the measured data in both the amplitude of the predominant harmonics and the roll-off rate with frequency. Measured sound pressure levels far from the Mod-1 (15 rotor diameters), however, are higher than predicted. Simultaneous measurements in the near and far field indicate the propagation effects can enhance the sound levels by more than 10 dB above that expected by spherical dispersion. These propagation effects are believed to be due to terrain and atmospheric characteristics of the Mod-1 site.

  13. Broadband phase noise suppression in a Yb-fiber frequency comb

    E-print Network

    measurements of intensity and phase noise spectra, as well as transfer functions, reveal that the dominant quantum noise sources. © 2011 Optical Society of America OCIS codes: 320.7090, 140.3425. Fiber in frequency metrology, where the repe- tition frequency, f rep, and the carrier envelope offset fre- quency, f

  14. Prediction of binaural speech intelligibility against noise in rooms.

    PubMed

    Lavandier, Mathieu; Culling, John F

    2010-01-01

    In the presence of competing speech or noise, reverberation degrades speech intelligibility not only by its direct effect on the target but also by affecting the interferer. Two experiments were designed to validate a method for predicting the loss of intelligibility associated with this latter effect. Speech reception thresholds were measured under headphones, using spatially separated target sentences and speech-shaped noise interferers simulated in virtual rooms. To investigate the effect of reverberation on the interferer unambiguously, the target was always anechoic. The interferer was placed in rooms with different sizes and absorptions, and at different distances and azimuths from the listener. The interaural coherence of the interferer did not fully predict the effect of reverberation. The azimuth separation of the sources and the coloration introduced by the room also had to be taken into account. The binaural effects were modeled by computing the binaural masking level differences in the studied configurations, the monaural effects were predicted from the excitation pattern of the noises, and speech intelligibility index weightings were applied to both. These parameters were all calculated from the room impulse responses convolved with noise. A 0.95-0.97 correlation was obtained between the speech reception thresholds and their predicted value. PMID:20058985

  15. Evaluation of approximate methods for the prediction of noise shielding by airframe components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahtye, W. F.; Mcculley, G.

    1980-01-01

    An evaluation of some approximate methods for the prediction of shielding of monochromatic sound and broadband noise by aircraft components is reported. Anechoic-chamber measurements of the shielding of a point source by various simple geometric shapes were made and the measured values compared with those calculated by the superposition of asymptotic closed-form solutions for the shielding by a semi-infinite plane barrier. The shields used in the measurements consisted of rectangular plates, a circular cylinder, and a rectangular plate attached to the cylinder to simulate a wing-body combination. The normalized frequency, defined as a product of the acoustic wave number and either the plate width or cylinder diameter, ranged from 4.6 to 114. Microphone traverses in front of the rectangular plates and cylinders generally showed a series of diffraction bands that matched those predicted by the approximate methods, except for differences in the magnitudes of the attenuation minima which can be attributed to experimental inaccuracies. The shielding of wing-body combinations was predicted by modifications of the approximations used for rectangular and cylindrical shielding. Although the approximations failed to predict diffraction patterns in certain regions, they did predict the average level of wing-body shielding with an average deviation of less than 3 dB.

  16. Comment on 'Generation of broadband noise in the magnetotail by the beam acoustic instability' by P.B. Dusenbery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omidi, N.; Akimoto, K.

    1988-01-01

    It is shown here that of the three plasma models for the generation of broadband noise in the magnetotail proposed by Dusenbery and Lyons (1985), two result in the same types of instabilities that are also excited in the Grabbe and Eastman (GE, 1984) model, while the third model introduces other modes not present in the GE model. For the plasma parameters given in the GE model, the ion/ion acoustic instability is a nonresonant one, even though the phase velocity of the excited waves falls within the distribution function of the core ions. The nonlinear saturation mechanism of the ion/ion acoustic instability is the trapping of both the core and the beam ions. In a reply, Dusenbery addresses several ongoing controversies which have resulted from studies of wave particle interactions in the plasma sheet boundary layer.

  17. MJO empirical modeling and improved prediction by "Past Noise Forecasting"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondrashov, D. A.; Chekroun, M.; Robertson, A. W.; Ghil, M.

    2011-12-01

    The Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) is the dominant mode of intraseasonal variability in tropics and plays an important role in global climate. Here we presents modeling and prediction study of MJO by using Empirical Model Reduction (EMR). EMR is a methodology for constructing stochastic models based on the observed evolution of selected climate fields; these models represent unresolved processes as multivariate, spatially correlated stochastic forcing. In EMR, multiple polynomial regression is used to estimate the nonlinear, deterministic propagator of the dynamics, as well as multi-level additive stochastic forcing -"noise", directly from the observational dataset. The EMR approach has been successfully applied on the seasonal-to-interannual time scale for real-time ENSO prediction (Kondrashov et al. 2005), as well as atmospheric midlatitude intraseasonal variability (Kondrashov et al. 2006,2010). In this study nonlinear (quadratic) with annual cycle, three-level EMR model was developed to model and predict leading pair of real-time multivariate Madden-Julian oscillation (RMM1,2) daily indices (June 1974- January 2009, http://cawcr.gov.au/staff/mwheeler/maproom/RMM/). The EMR model captures essential MJO statistical features, such as seasonal dependence, RMM1,2 autocorrelations and spectra. By using the "Past Noise Forecasting" (PNF) approach developed and successfully applied to improve long-term ENSO prediction in Chekroun et al. (2011), we are able to notably improve the cross-validated prediction skill of RMM indices- especially at lead times of 15-to-30 days. The EMR/PNF method has two steps: (i) select noise samples - or "snippets" - from the past noise, which have forced the EMR model to yield the MJO phase resembling the one at the the currently observed state; and (ii) use these "noise" snippets to create ensemble forecast of EMR model. The MJO phase identification is based on Singular Spectrum Analysis reconstruction of 30-60 day MJO cycle.

  18. Towards high performance computing for molecular structure prediction using IBM Cell Broadband Engine - an implementation perspective

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background RNA structure prediction problem is a computationally complex task, especially with pseudo-knots. The problem is well-studied in existing literature and predominantly uses highly coupled Dynamic Programming (DP) solutions. The problem scale and complexity become embarrassingly humungous to handle as sequence size increases. This makes the case for parallelization. Parallelization can be achieved by way of networked platforms (clusters, grids, etc) as well as using modern day multi-core chips. Methods In this paper, we exploit the parallelism capabilities of the IBM Cell Broadband Engine to parallelize an existing Dynamic Programming (DP) algorithm for RNA secondary structure prediction. We design three different implementation strategies that exploit the inherent data, code and/or hybrid parallelism, referred to as C-Par, D-Par and H-Par, and analyze their performances. Our approach attempts to introduce parallelism in critical sections of the algorithm. We ran our experiments on SONY Play Station 3 (PS3), which is based on the IBM Cell chip. Results Our results suggest that introducing parallelism in DP algorithm allows it to easily handle longer sequences which otherwise would consume a large amount of time in single core computers. The results further demonstrate the speed-up gain achieved in exploiting the inherent parallelism in the problem and also elicits the advantages of using multi-core platforms towards designing more sophisticated methodologies for handling a fairly long sequence of RNA. Conclusion The speed-up performance reported here is promising, especially when sequence length is long. To the best of our literature survey, the work reported in this paper is probably the first-of-its-kind to utilize the IBM Cell Broadband Engine (a heterogeneous multi-core chip) to implement a DP. The results also encourage using multi-core platforms towards designing more sophisticated methodologies for handling a fairly long sequence of RNA to predict its secondary structure. PMID:20122209

  19. Application of Hybrid Method for Aerodynamic Noise Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, L.; Song, W. P.

    2011-09-01

    A hybrid prediction method for aerodynamic noise is performed using high order accuracy method in this paper. The method combines a two-dimensional Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes(URANS) solver with the acoustic analogy method using Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equation with penetrable data surface (FW-Hpds). Tandem cylinders are chosen to validate the prediction method. The computations are conducted at a Reynolds number of 1.66 × 105 based on the cylinder diameter. Both the aerodynamic and acoustic results show good agreement with the experimental data, showing a successful application of the hybrid prediction method using two-dimensional URANS simulation.

  20. Prediction of the interaction noise emitted by helicopter fenestrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fournier, Francette; Roger, Michel

    1989-12-01

    This paper is concerned with the sound generation from a helicopter fenestron due to rotor-stator interactions. Two mechanisms are investigated: (1) the rotor noise due to potential disturbances created by the cylindric struts (transmission shaft and support arm) located behind the rotorplane, and (2) the stator noise resulting from the interaction with the rotor viscous wakes. Each mechanism is theoretically analyzed. The models employed give a simple expression of the acoustic field without requiring adjustable parameters and thus can be used as prediction methods.

  1. Jet Engine Noise Generation, Prediction and Control. Chapter 86

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Dennis L.; Envia, Edmane

    2004-01-01

    Aircraft noise has been a problem near airports for many years. It is a quality of life issue that impacts millions of people around the world. Solving this problem has been the principal goal of noise reduction research that began when commercial jet travel became a reality. While progress has been made in reducing both airframe and engine noise, historically, most of the aircraft noise reduction efforts have concentrated on the engines. This was most evident during the 1950 s and 1960 s when turbojet engines were in wide use. This type of engine produces high velocity hot exhaust jets during takeoff generating a great deal of noise. While there are fewer commercial aircraft flying today with turbojet engines, supersonic aircraft including high performance military aircraft use engines with similar exhaust flow characteristics. The Pratt & Whitney F100-PW-229, pictured in Figure la, is an example of an engine that powers the F-15 and F-16 fighter jets. The turbofan engine was developed for subsonic transports, which in addition to better fuel efficiency also helped mitigate engine noise by reducing the jet exhaust velocity. These engines were introduced in the late 1960 s and power most of the commercial fleet today. Over the years, the bypass ratio (that is the ratio of the mass flow through the fan bypass duct to the mass flow through the engine core) has increased to values approaching 9 for modern turbofans such as the General Electric s GE-90 engine (Figure lb). The benefits to noise reduction for high bypass ratio (HPBR) engines are derived from lowering the core jet velocity and temperature, and lowering the tip speed and pressure ratio of the fan, both of which are the consequences of the increase in bypass ratio. The HBPR engines are typically very large in diameter and can produce over 100,000 pounds of thrust for the largest engines. A third type of engine flying today is the turbo-shaft which is mainly used to power turboprop aircraft and helicopters. An example of this type of engine is shown in Figure IC, which is a schematic of the Honeywell T55 engine that powers the CH-47 Chinook helicopter. Since the noise from the propellers or helicopter rotors is usually dominant for turbo-shaft engines, less attention has been paid to these engines in so far as community noise considerations are concerned. This chapter will concentrate mostly on turbofan engine noise and will highlight common methods for their noise prediction and reduction.

  2. Evaluation of actuator disk theory for predicting indirect combustion noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Ashish; Bodony, Daniel J.

    2013-02-01

    Indirect combustion noise is believed to be a key component of turbofan engine core noise, but existing experimental data have not been able to definitively determine its importance. Instead, actuator disk theory (ADT) as developed by Cumpsty and Marble [The interaction of entropy fluctuations with turbine blade rows; a mechanism of turbojet noise, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A 357 (1977) 323-344] is commonly used to estimate its contribution based on combustor exit conditions and changes in the mean flow across blade rows. The theory, which assumes planar propagation of acoustic, entropic, and vortical waves in the long wavelength limit, is assessed by comparing its predictions to those from two-dimensional compressible Euler calculations of idealized entropy disturbances interacting with a 1980s era NASA turbine stator. Both low-frequency planar waves of constant frequency and higher-frequency, localized entropy disturbances are considered, with the former being within ADT's range of applicability and the latter outside of it. It is found that ADT performs well for the cut-on acoustic modes generated by the entropy-blade interaction but its accuracy suffers for the cut-off acoustic modes, which could impact indirect combustion noise predictions for turbines with closely spaced blade rows.

  3. A new capability for predicting helicopter rotor and propeller noise including the effect of forward motion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Farassat; T. J. Brown

    1977-01-01

    The governing equation and computing technique for the prediction of helicopter rotor and propeller noise are described. The method which gives both the acoustic pressure time history and spectrum of the noise includes the thickness and the loading noise. It was adapted to computers resulting in a new capability in noise prediction by removing many of the restrictions and limitations

  4. Broadband 0.25 micron ion-implant MMIC low noise amplifiers on GaAs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Sanctuary; C. E. Woodin; J. Manning

    1992-01-01

    A highly manufacturable 0.25-?m ion-implant-process has been used for the development of monolithic microwave integrated circuit low-noise amplifiers (MMIC LNAs) covering the 2-18-GHz band. Noise figures of less than 2.5 dB and 3.0 dB have been achieved with MMICs covering the 2-6-GHz and 6-18-GHz bands, respectively. Insertion gains were 16 dB for the 2-6-GHz design and 10 dB for the

  5. Broadband ultrasound attenuation of the calcaneus predicts lumbar and femoral neck density in Caucasian women: A preliminary study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. T. Baran; Clare Kearns McCarthy; D. Leahey; R. Lew

    1991-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the ability of ultrasound techniques to differentiate normal and osteoporotic women. To define the ability of broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) of the calcaneus to predict axial bone mass, the ultrasound value was correlated with lumbar vertebral and femoral neck density in 22 Caucasian women. The three measures of bone mass inversely correlated with age: lumbar density

  6. Design, implementation and evaluation of Broadband Low Noise Amplifier (LNA) for radiometer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Umar F. Khan; Shafqat Hameed; Atta Badii

    2008-01-01

    The two major applications of microwave remote sensors are radiometer and radar. Because of its importance and the nature of the application, much research has been made on the various aspects of the radar. This paper will focus on the various aspects of the radiometer from a design point of view and the Low Noise Amplifier will be designed and

  7. A Broadband Low-Noise-Amplifier Luca Daniel and Manolis Terrovitis

    E-print Network

    Daniel, Luca

    figure and reduced input VSWR. The minimum noise figure of a GaAs MESFET is shown to increase to 9 GHz, using GaAs MESFETs with an ft of 20 GHz. The passive components were implemented. Such an amplifier employing a GaAs MESFET transistor is shown in Fig. 1, where a simplified small-signal transistor

  8. CONTROL OF AIRCRAFT INTERIOR BROADBAND NOISE WITH FOAM-PVDF SMART SKIN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Guigou; C. R. Fuller

    1999-01-01

    A foam-PVDF smart skin design for aircraft interior noise control is discussed. The smart skin is designed to reduce sound by the action of the passive absorption of an acoustic foam (which is effective at higher frequencies) and the active input of a PVDF element driven by an oscillating electrical input (which is effective at lower frequencies). For performance testing,

  9. Noise prediction of a subsonic turbulent round jet using the lattice-Boltzmann method

    PubMed Central

    Lew, Phoi-Tack; Mongeau, Luc; Lyrintzis, Anastasios

    2010-01-01

    The lattice-Boltzmann method (LBM) was used to study the far-field noise generated from a Mach, Mj=0.4, unheated turbulent axisymmetric jet. A commercial code based on the LBM kernel was used to simulate the turbulent flow exhausting from a pipe which is 10 jet radii in length. Near-field flow results such as jet centerline velocity decay rates and turbulence intensities were in agreement with experimental results and results from comparable LES studies. The predicted far field sound pressure levels were within 2 dB from published experimental results. Weak unphysical tones were present at high frequency in the computed radiated sound pressure spectra. These tones are believed to be due to spurious sound wave reflections at boundaries between regions of varying voxel resolution. These “VR tones” did not appear to bias the underlying broadband noise spectrum, and they did not affect the overall levels significantly. The LBM appears to be a viable approach, comparable in accuracy to large eddy simulations, for the problem considered. The main advantages of this approach over Navier–Stokes based finite difference schemes may be a reduced computational cost, ease of including the nozzle in the computational domain, and ease of investigating nozzles with complex shapes. PMID:20815448

  10. Flight effects on exhaust noise for turbojet and turbofan engines: Comparison of experimental data with prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    It was demonstrated that static and in flight jet engine exhaust noise can be predicted with reasonable accuracy when the multiple source nature of the problem is taken into account. Jet mixing noise was predicted from the interim prediction method. Provisional methods of estimating internally generated noise and shock noise flight effects were used, based partly on existing prediction methods and partly on recent reported engine data.

  11. Control of Aircraft Interior Broadband Noise with Foam-Pvdf Smart Skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guigou, C.; Fuller, C. R.

    1999-02-01

    A foam-PVDF smart skin design for aircraft interior noise control is discussed. The smart skin is designed to reduce sound by the action of the passive absorption of an acoustic foam (which is effective at higher frequencies) and the active input of a PVDF element driven by an oscillating electrical input (which is effective at lower frequencies). For performance testing, the foam-PVDF smart skin is mounted in the cockpit of a Cessna Citation III fuselage. The fuselage crown panels are excited with a speaker located on the outside of the cockpit and driven by a band-limited random excitation. A MIMO feedforward Filtered-x LMS controller is implemented to minimize the error sensor signals provided by microphones in the close proximity of the smart skin elements. Three different reference signals are implemented for the feedforward controller and are compared in terms of the interior noise attenuation achieved. The voltage sent to the disturbance speaker provides an optimal reference signal which is not realistic in practice. Therefore, the use of either a structural sensor (accelerometer directly mounted on the fuselage) or an acoustic sensor (microphone located close to the fuselage) is investigated to supply a practical reference signal. The potential of the smart foam-PVDF skin for reducing interior noise is demonstrated.

  12. Jet Mixing Noise Scaling Laws SHJAR Data Vs. Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khavaran, Abbas; Bridges, James

    2008-01-01

    High quality jet noise spectral data measured at the anechoic dome at the NASA Glenn Research Center is used to examine a number of jet noise scaling laws. Configurations considered in the present study consist of convergent as well as convergent-divergent axisymmetric nozzles. The spectral measurements are shown in narrow band and cover 8193 equally spaced points in a typical Strouhal number range of (0.01 10.0). Measurements are reported as lossless (i.e. atmospheric attenuation is added to as-measured data), and at 24 equally spaced angles (50deg to 165deg) on a 100-diameter arc. Following the work of Viswanathan [Ref. 1], velocity power laws are derived using a least square fit on spectral power density as a function of jet temperature and observer angle. The goodness of the fit is studied at each angle, and alternative relationships are proposed to improve the spectral collapse when certain conditions are met. On the application side, power laws are extremely useful in identifying components from various noise generation mechanisms. From this analysis, jet noise prediction tools can be developed with physics derived from the different spectral components.

  13. Unstructured CFD and Noise Prediction Methods for Propulsion Airframe Aeroacoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pao, S. Paul; Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S.; Campbell, Richard L.; Hunter, Craig A.; Massey, Steven J.; Elmiligui, Alaa A.

    2006-01-01

    Using unstructured mesh CFD methods for Propulsion Airframe Aeroacoustics (PAA) analysis has the distinct advantage of precise and fast computational mesh generation for complex propulsion and airframe integration arrangements that include engine inlet, exhaust nozzles, pylon, wing, flaps, and flap deployment mechanical parts. However, accurate solution values of shear layer velocity, temperature and turbulence are extremely important for evaluating the usually small noise differentials of potential applications to commercial transport aircraft propulsion integration. This paper describes a set of calibration computations for an isolated separate flow bypass ratio five engine nozzle model and the same nozzle system with a pylon. These configurations have measured data along with prior CFD solutions and noise predictions using a proven structured mesh method, which can be used for comparison to the unstructured mesh solutions obtained in this investigation. This numerical investigation utilized the TetrUSS system that includes a Navier-Stokes solver, the associated unstructured mesh generation tools, post-processing utilities, plus some recently added enhancements to the system. New features necessary for this study include the addition of two equation turbulence models to the USM3D code, an h-refinement utility to enhance mesh density in the shear mixing region, and a flow adaptive mesh redistribution method. In addition, a computational procedure was developed to optimize both solution accuracy and mesh economy. Noise predictions were completed using an unstructured mesh version of the JeT3D code.

  14. The prediction of noise radiation from supersonic elliptic jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Philip J.; Bhat, Thonse R. S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the prediction of noise radiation from supersonic elliptic jets. The noise is associated with the large scale structures in the jet mixing layer. These structures are described as instability waves. The local characteristics of the instability waves are determined from a compressible, linear, analysis. The jet mean velocity and density are described in elliptic cylindrical coordinates. The local eigensolution for the instability waves is determined from a finite difference solution of the non-separable boundary value problem. This inner solution which is formulated in terms of the method of multiple scales is matched with the radiated field using the method of matched asymptotic expansions. The form of the far-field directivity is derived. Predictions are presented for the noise radiation by the several modes of instability in the elliptic jet. The radiated field is not axisymmetric and certain modes radiate strongly in the directions of the major and minor axes of the jet. The extension of the present work to other geometries and flow fields is discussed.

  15. Broadband Liner Optimization for the Source Diagnostic Test Fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nark, Douglas M.; Jones, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    The broadband component of fan noise has grown in relevance with the utilization of increased bypass ratio and advanced fan designs. Thus, while the attenuation of fan tones remains paramount, the ability to simultaneously reduce broadband fan noise levels has become more appealing. This paper describes a broadband acoustic liner optimization study for the scale model Source Diagnostic Test fan. Specifically, in-duct attenuation predictions with a statistical fan source model are used to obtain optimum impedance spectra over a number of flow conditions for three liner locations in the bypass duct. The predicted optimum impedance information is then used with acoustic liner modeling tools to design liners aimed at producing impedance spectra that most closely match the predicted optimum values. Design selection is based on an acceptance criterion that provides the ability to apply increased weighting to specific frequencies and/or operating conditions. Typical tonal liner designs targeting single frequencies at one operating condition are first produced to provide baseline performance information. These are followed by multiple broadband design approaches culminating in a broadband liner targeting the full range of frequencies and operating conditions. The broadband liner is found to satisfy the optimum impedance objectives much better than the tonal liner designs. In addition, the broadband liner is found to provide better attenuation than the tonal designs over the full range of frequencies and operating conditions considered. Thus, the current study successfully establishes a process for the initial design and evaluation of novel broadband liner concepts for complex engine configurations.

  16. Recording of ocean-bottom seismic noise and of a strong earthquake in the Himalayas by broadband digital OBS installed on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. G. Levchenko; S. L. Soloviev; A. V. Son'kin; E. V. Voronina

    1994-01-01

    A broadband digital-analog ocean-bottom seismograph (OBS) with frequency pass band 0.003-30 Hz was installed in October 1991 on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge in the area of the Azores, where it operated for 3 days in programmed mode. The general structure of long-period ocean bottom seismic noise previously observed in several sea-floor experiments was confirmed, i.e. storm microseisms lie in the range

  17. Towards Full Aircraft Airframe Noise Prediction: Lattice Boltzmann Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Fares, Ehab; Casalino, Damiano

    2014-01-01

    Computational results for an 18%-scale, semi-span Gulfstream aircraft model are presented. Exa Corporation's lattice Boltzmann PowerFLOW(trademark) solver was used to perform time-dependent simulations of the flow field associated with this high-fidelity aircraft model. The simulations were obtained for free-air at a Mach number of 0.2 with the flap deflected at 39 deg (landing configuration). We focused on accurately predicting the prominent noise sources at the flap tips and main landing gear for the two baseline configurations, namely, landing flap setting without and with gear deployed. Capitalizing on the inherently transient nature of the lattice Boltzmann formulation, the complex time-dependent flow features associated with the flap were resolved very accurately and efficiently. To properly simulate the noise sources over a broad frequency range, the tailored grid was very dense near the flap inboard and outboard tips. Extensive comparison of the computed time-averaged and unsteady surface pressures with wind tunnel measurements showed excellent agreement for the global aerodynamic characteristics and the local flow field at the flap inboard and outboard tips and the main landing gear. In particular, the computed fluctuating surface pressure field for the flap agreed well with the measurements in both amplitude and frequency content, indicating that the prominent airframe noise sources at the tips were captured successfully. Gear-flap interaction effects were remarkably well predicted and were shown to affect only the inboard flap tip, altering the steady and unsteady pressure fields in that region. The simulated farfield noise spectra for both baseline configurations, obtained using a Ffowcs-Williams and Hawkings acoustic analogy approach, were shown to be in close agreement with measured values.

  18. Near-field noise prediction for aircraft in cruising flight: Methods manual. [laminar flow control noise effects analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tibbetts, J. G.

    1979-01-01

    Methods for predicting noise at any point on an aircraft while the aircraft is in a cruise flight regime are presented. Developed for use in laminar flow control (LFC) noise effects analyses, they can be used in any case where aircraft generated noise needs to be evaluated at a location on an aircraft while under high altitude, high speed conditions. For each noise source applicable to the LFC problem, a noise computational procedure is given in algorithm format, suitable for computerization. Three categories of noise sources are covered: (1) propulsion system, (2) airframe, and (3) LFC suction system. In addition, procedures are given for noise modifications due to source soundproofing and the shielding effects of the aircraft structure wherever needed. Sample cases, for each of the individual noise source procedures, are provided to familiarize the user with typical input and computed data.

  19. Interim prediction method for externally blown flap noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorsch, R. G.; Clark, B. J.; Reshotko, M.

    1975-01-01

    An interim procedure for predicting externally blown flap (EBF) noise spectra anywhere below a powered lift aircraft is presented. Both engine-under-the-wing and engine-over-the-wing EBF systems are included. The method uses data correlations for the overall sound pressure level based on nozzle exit area and exhaust velocity along with OASPL directivity curves and normalized one-third-octave spectra. Aircraft motion effects are included by taking into account the relative motion of the source with respect to the observer and the relative velocity effects on source strength.

  20. Signal, noise, and bias for a broadband, division-of-amplitude Stokes polarimeter.

    PubMed

    Tyler, David W; Mudge, Jason D

    2010-08-16

    We analyze estimation error as a function of spectral bandwidth for division-of-amplitude (DoAm) Stokes polarimeters. Our approach allows quantitative assessment of the competing effects of noise and deterministic error, or bias, as bandwidth is varied.We use the signal-to-rms error (SRR) as a metric. Rather than calculating the SRR of the estimated Stokes parameters themselves, we use the singular-value decomposition to calculate the SRRs of the coefficients of the measured data vector projected onto the measurement matrix left singular vectors.We argue that calculating the SRRs for left singular vector coefficients will allow development of reconstruction filters to minimize Stokes estimation error. For the example case of a source with constant polarization over a relatively wide band, we show that as the spectral filter bandwidth is increased to include wavelengths significantly different than the design wavelength, the SRRs of the estimated left singular vector coefficients will a.) increase monotonically if relatively few photo-detection events (PDEs) are recorded, b.) after a sharp peak close to the design wavelength, decrease monotonically if relatively many PDEs are recorded, and c.) have well-defined maxima for nominal PDE counts. Given some idea of the source brightness relative to detector noise, one can specify a spectral filter bandwidth minimizing the variance and bias effects and optimizing Stokes parameter estimation. Our approach also allows one to specify the bandwidth over which the response of "achromatic" optics must be reasonably invariant with wavelength for rms Stokes estimation error to remain below some desired maximum. Finally, we point out that our method can be generalized not only to other types of polarimeters, but also to any sensing scheme that can be represented by a linear system for limiting values of a certain parameter. PMID:20721188

  1. Prediction of unsuppressed jet engine exhaust noise in flight from static data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    In order to assess the impact of aircraft noise on the environment in the vicinity of an airport, it is essential that a methodology be developed for predicting in-flight exhaust noise from static data. Such a methodology is presented in this paper and is compared with experimental data for several unsuppressed turbojet engines. For each engine, static data over a range of jet velocities are compared with the predicted jet mixing noise and shock-cell noise. The static engine noise over and above the jet and shock noises is identified as 'excess' noise. The excess noise data are then empirically correlated to smooth the spectral and directivity relations and account for variations in test conditions. This excess noise is then projected to flight based on the assumption that the only effects of flight are a Doppler frequency shift and a level change. The effects of flight on jet mixing noise and shock noise are computed by published NASA methods.

  2. AN INVESTIGATION OF A THEORETICAL TOOL FOR PREDICTING PERFORMANCE OF AN ACTIVE NOISE

    E-print Network

    loudspeakers with both sound reproduction and active noise control in mind. 1. Introduction Active noiseAN INVESTIGATION OF A THEORETICAL TOOL FOR PREDICTING PERFORMANCE OF AN ACTIVE NOISE CONTROL SYSTEM University, Box 534, SE-751 21, Uppsala, Swe- den, e-mail: annea.barkefors@signal.uu.se Active noise control

  3. Computational methods in the prediction of advanced subsonic and supersonic propeller induced noise: ASSPIN users' manual

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. H. Dunn; G. M. Tarkenton

    1992-01-01

    This document describes the computational aspects of propeller noise prediction in the time domain and the use of high speed propeller noise prediction program ASSPIN (Advanced Subsonic and Supersonic Propeller Induced Noise). These formulations are valid in both the near and far fields. Two formulations are utilized by ASSPIN: (1) one is used for subsonic portions of the propeller blade;

  4. Upper mantle structure of the Congo Craton and the East African Rift from broadband ambient noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emry, Erica; Shen, Yang; Nyblade, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    The relationship between lithospheric structure, mantle flow, and continental rifting in Africa is the subject of ongoing discussion. Distinct regions within the African continent have been seismically imaged individually following the deployment of several temporary regional arrays, especially throughout South Africa and sections of the East African Rift System. However, many questions remain regarding the basic structure of the upper mantle beneath some regions where seismic coverage is sparse. We use the temporal overlap of several temporary and permanent seismic arrays located throughout Africa and the surrounding regions in order to better image the upper mantle beneath portions of sub-Saharan Africa where regional seismic arrays have not yet been placed. We do this by seismic ambient noise tomography using the recently developed frequency-time normalization (FTN) method to extract empirical Green's functions (EGFs) over a broad frequency range. We cross correlate the normalized continuous records and stack the cross correlations to obtain EGFs for each temporally coincident station-station pair. We invert EGFs using recently developed full-waveform inversion methods in order to obtain the upper mantle structure of several regions within sub-Saharan Africa, in particular the Congo Craton and key regions beneath the East African Rift. We will present results from preliminary inversions that highlight these regions of focus.

  5. Three-dimensional effects on pure tone fan noise due to inflow distortion. [rotor blade noise prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayashi, H.

    1978-01-01

    Two dimensional, quasi three dimensional and three dimensional theories for the prediction of pure tone fan noise due to the interaction of inflow distortion with a subsonic annular blade row were studied with the aid of an unsteady three dimensional lifting surface theory. The effects of compact and noncompact source distributions on pure tone fan noise in an annular cascade were investigated. Numerical results show that the strip theory and quasi three-dimensional theory are reasonably adequate for fan noise prediction. The quasi three-dimensional method is more accurate for acoustic power and model structure prediction with an acoustic power estimation error of about plus or minus 2db.

  6. Auralization of Hybrid Wing Body Aircraft Flyover Noise from System Noise Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rizzi, Stephen A.; Aumann, Aric R.; Lopes, Leonvard V.; Burley, Casey L.

    2013-01-01

    System noise assessments of a state-of-the-art reference aircraft (similar to a Boeing 777-200ER with GE90-like turbofan engines) and several hybrid wing body (HWB) aircraft configurations were recently performed using NASA engine and aircraft system analysis tools. The HWB aircraft were sized to an equivalent mission as the reference aircraft and assessments were performed using measurements of airframe shielding from a series of propulsion airframe aeroacoustic experiments. The focus of this work is to auralize flyover noise from the reference aircraft and the best HWB configuration using source noise predictions and shielding data based largely on the earlier assessments. For each aircraft, three flyover conditions are auralized. These correspond to approach, sideline, and cutback operating states, but flown in straight and level flight trajectories. The auralizations are performed using synthesis and simulation tools developed at NASA. Audio and visual presentations are provided to allow the reader to experience the flyover from the perspective of a listener in the simulated environment.

  7. Fan Noise Source Diagnostic Test Computation of Rotor Wake Turbulence Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nallasamy, M.; Envia, E.; Thorp, S. A.; Shabbir, A.

    2002-01-01

    An important source mechanism of fan broadband noise is the interaction of rotor wake turbulence with the fan outlet guide vanes. A broadband noise model that utilizes computed rotor flow turbulence from a RANS code is used to predict fan broadband noise spectra. The noise model is employed to examine the broadband noise characteristics of the 22-inch Source Diagnostic Test fan rig for which broadband noise data were obtained in wind tunnel tests at the NASA Glenn Research Center. A 9-case matrix of three outlet guide vane configurations at three representative fan tip speeds are considered. For all cases inlet and exhaust acoustic power spectra are computed and compared with the measured spectra where possible. In general, the acoustic power levels and shape of the predicted spectra are in good agreement with the measured data. The predicted spectra show the experimentally observed trends with fan tip speed, vane count, and vane sweep. The results also demonstrate the validity of using CFD-based turbulence information for fan broadband noise calculations.

  8. Fan Noise Source Diagnostic Test Computation of Rotor Wake Turbulence Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nallasamy, M.; Envia, E.; Thorp, S. A.; Shabbir, A.

    2002-08-01

    An important source mechanism of fan broadband noise is the interaction of rotor wake turbulence with the fan outlet guide vanes. A broadband noise model that utilizes computed rotor flow turbulence from a RANS code is used to predict fan broadband noise spectra. The noise model is employed to examine the broadband noise characteristics of the 22-inch Source Diagnostic Test fan rig for which broadband noise data were obtained in wind tunnel tests at the NASA Glenn Research Center. A 9-case matrix of three outlet guide vane configurations at three representative fan tip speeds are considered. For all cases inlet and exhaust acoustic power spectra are computed and compared with the measured spectra where possible. In general, the acoustic power levels and shape of the predicted spectra are in good agreement with the measured data. The predicted spectra show the experimentally observed trends with fan tip speed, vane count, and vane sweep. The results also demonstrate the validity of using CFD-based turbulence information for fan broadband noise calculations.

  9. A Superior Kirchhoff Method for Aeroacoustic Noise Prediction: The Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings Equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brentner, Kenneth S.

    1997-01-01

    The prediction of aeroacoustic noise is important; all new aircraft must meet noise certification requirements. Local noise standards can be even more stringent. The NASA noise reduction goal is to reduce perceived noise levels by a factor of two in 10 years. The objective of this viewgraph presentation is to demonstrate the superiority of the FW-H approach over the Kirchoff method for aeroacoustics, both analytically and numerically.

  10. Towards an Airframe Noise Prediction Methodology: Survey of Current Approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farassat, Fereidoun; Casper, Jay H.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present a critical survey of the current airframe noise (AFN) prediction methodologies. Four methodologies are recognized. These are the fully analytic method, CFD combined with the acoustic analogy, the semi-empirical method and fully numerical method. It is argued that for the immediate need of the aircraft industry, the semi-empirical method based on recent high quality acoustic database is the best available method. The method based on CFD and the Ffowcs William- Hawkings (FW-H) equation with penetrable data surface (FW-Hpds ) has advanced considerably and much experience has been gained in its use. However, more research is needed in the near future particularly in the area of turbulence simulation. The fully numerical method will take longer to reach maturity. Based on the current trends, it is predicted that this method will eventually develop into the method of choice. Both the turbulence simulation and propagation methods need to develop more for this method to become useful. Nonetheless, the authors propose that the method based on a combination of numerical and analytical techniques, e.g., CFD combined with FW-H equation, should also be worked on. In this effort, the current symbolic algebra software will allow more analytical approaches to be incorporated into AFN prediction methods.

  11. Broadband ocean bottom seismometer in the Gulf of Cadiz (offshore SW Iberia and NW of Moroccan margin): Characterization of ambient noise and tomographic model of the crustal structure.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corela, C. J.; Silveira, G. M.; Matias, L. M.; Geissler, W. H.; Schimmel, M.

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we use the continuous data recorded by 24 broadband ocean bottom seismometers (OBS-BB) deployed in the Gulf of Cadiz, in the framework of the NEAREST project, from September 2007 to July of 2008. Our goals are: i) to understand the instrument and the environmental conditions that control the observed seismic noise; and ii) to obtain reliable broadband surface wave dispersion measurements.The noise sources are investigated through the probability density functions (PDFs) of power spectral density (PSDs), which provides insights on the generation and propagating of seismic noise in the Gulf of Cadiz.We show the results of the Rayleigh wave group velocity tomography performed using ambient seismic noise observed on the 24 broadband OBS and on 7 broadband land stations located in the south of Portugal. The time-series, for the 11 months, were cross-correlated to obtain the empirical Green's functions between all vertical sensors pairs, namely the OBS-vertical, the OBS-hydrophone and the vertical component of the land seismic stations. To improve the signal-to-noise ratio, the individual cross-correlograms were summed using a time-frequency domain phase weighted stack.The stacked cross-correlograms enabled us to compute short-period surface-wave group-velocity measurements for all the interstation paths. We used these measurements to construct maps of Rayleigh-wave group-velocity lateral perturbations, at different periods. Despite the great difference in the crustal structure below the OBS (thin continental or oceanic type) and the land stations (typical continental crust, 30 km thick) we were able to derive high S/N cross-correlations between these different types of sensors.This study was co-sponsored by several projects namely the QuakeLoc-PT (PTDC/GEO-FIQ/3522/2012), AQUAREL (PTDC/CTE-GIX/116819/2010), NEAREST FP6-2005-GLOBAL-4 (OJ 2005 C177/15), WILAS (PTDC/CTE-GIX/097946/2008), and PEST-OE/CTE/LA-0019/2013-2014.

  12. Prediction of far-field harmonic noise from propellers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-11-01

    A FORTRAN program for estimating the discrete frequency free-field noise from an isolated straight blade single propeller which is in uniform motion or stationary in a lossless atmosphere is given. Blade sweep is unlikely, however, to have a significant effect up to tip Mach numbers of 0.9. It is assumed that the noise sources are compact chordwise so that they are line sources; that assumption excludes advanced propellers and prop fans. The input to the program is ambient static pressure and temperature, source/receiver relative geometry, propeller operating conditions, and blade geometry and lift coefficient at a number of radial stations. If the load distribution is not known, a default distribution is provided for which power supplied and propeller thrust generated is required. Predictions are compared with available limited data measured in a wind-tunnel, and a sketch shows a typical correlation. The program is provided on disc as ESDUpac 9133, and information is given on the format for the input and output, illustrated by two worked examples. A graphical method for the maximum harmonic levels from a static propeller is given in ESDU 76020.

  13. The Role of Instability Waves in Predicting Jet Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, M. E.; Leib, S. J.

    2004-01-01

    There has been an ongoing debate about the role of linear instability waves in the prediction of jet noise. Parallel mean flow models, such as the one proposed by Lilley, usually neglect these waves because they cause the solution to become infinite. The resulting solution is then non-causal and can, therefore, be quite different from the true causal solution for the chaotic flows being considered here. The present paper solves the relevant acoustic equations for a non-parallel mean flow by using a vector Green s function approach and assuming the mean flow to be weakly non-parallel, i.e., assuming the spread rate to be small. It demonstrates that linear instability waves must be accounted for in order to construct a proper causal solution to the jet noise problem. . Recent experimental results (e.g., see Tam, Golebiowski, and Seiner,1996) show that the small angle spectra radiated by supersonic jets are quite different from those radiated at larger angles (say, at 90deg) and even exhibit dissimilar frequency scalings (i.e., they scale with Helmholtz number as opposed to Strouhal number). The present solution is (among other things )able to explain this rather puzzling experimental result.

  14. Prediction of BVI noise patterns and correlation with wake interaction locations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael A. Marcolini; Ruth M. Martin; Peter F. Lorber; T. A. Egolf

    1992-01-01

    High resolution fluctuating airloads data were acquired during a test of a contemporary design United Technologies model rotor in the Duits-Nederlandse Windtunnel (DNW). The airloads are used as input to the noise prediction program WOPWOP, in order to predict the blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise field on a large plane below the rotor. Trends of predicted advancing and retreating side BVI

  15. Estimation and prediction of noise power based on variational Bayesian and adaptive ARMA time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jingyi; Li, Yonggui; Zhu, Yonggang; Li, Binwu

    2014-04-01

    Estimation and prediction of noise power are very important for communication anti-jamming and efficient allocation of spectrum resources in adaptive wireless communication and cognitive radio. In order to estimate and predict the time-varying noise power caused by natural factors and jamming in the high frequency channel, Variational Bayesian algorithm and adaptive ARMA time series are proposed. Through establishing the time-varying noise power model, which controlled by the noise variance rate, the noise power can be estimated with Variational Bayesian algorithm, and the results show that the estimation error is related to observation interval. What's more, through the analysis of the correlation characteristics of the estimation power, noise power can be predicted based on adaptive ARMA time series, and the results show that it will be available to predict the noise power in next 5 intervals with the proportional error less than 0.2.

  16. Broadband sub-millimeter wave amplifer module with 38dB gain and 8.3dB noise figure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkozy, S.; Leong, K.; Lai, R.; Leakey, R.; Yoshida, W.; Mei, X.; Lee, J.; Liu, P.-H.; Gorospe, B.; Deal, W. R.

    2011-05-01

    Broadband sub-millimeter wave technology has received significant attention for potential applications in security, medical, and military imaging. Despite theoretical advantages of reduced size, weight, and power compared to current millimeter-wave systems, sub-millimeter-wave systems are hampered by a fundamental lack of amplification with sufficient gain and noise figure properties. We report on the development of a sub-millimeter wave amplifier module as part of a broadband pixel operating from 300-350 GHz, biased off of a single 2V power supply. Over this frequency range, > 38 dB gain and < 8.3 dB noise figure are obtained and represent the current state-of-art performance capabilities. The prototype pixel chain consists of two WR3 waveguide amplifier blocks, and a horn antenna and diode detector. The low noise amplifier Sub-Millimeter-wave Monolithic Integrated Circuit (SMMIC) was originally developed under the DARPA SWIFT and THz Electronics programs and is based on sub 50 nm Indium Arsenide Composite Channel (IACC) transistor technology with a projected maximum oscillation frequency fmax > 1.0 THz. This development and demonstration may bring to life future sub-millimeter-wave and THz applications such as solutions to brown-out problems, ultra-high bandwidth satellite communication cross-links, and future planetary exploration missions.

  17. Towards Full Aircraft Airframe Noise Prediction: Detached Eddy Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Mineck, Raymond E.

    2014-01-01

    Results from a computational study on the aeroacoustic characteristics of an 18%-scale, semi-span Gulf-stream aircraft model are presented in this paper. NASA's FUN3D unstructured compressible Navier-Stokes solver was used to perform steady and unsteady simulations of the flow field associated with this high-fidelity aircraft model. Solutions were obtained for free-air at a Mach number of 0.2 with the flap deflected at 39 deg, with the main gear off and on (the two baseline configurations). Initially, the study focused on accurately predicting the prominent noise sources at both flap tips for the baseline configuration with deployed flap only. Building upon the experience gained from this initial effort, subsequent work involved the full landing configuration with both flap and main landing gear deployed. For the unsteady computations, we capitalized on the Detached Eddy Simulation capability of FUN3D to capture the complex time-dependent flow features associated with the flap and main gear. To resolve the noise sources over a broad frequency range, the tailored grid was very dense near the flap inboard and outboard tips and the region surrounding the gear. Extensive comparison of the computed steady and unsteady surface pressures with wind tunnel measurements showed good agreement for the global aerodynamic characteristics and the local flow field at the flap inboard tip. However, the computed pressure coefficients indicated that a zone of separated flow that forms in the vicinity of the outboard tip is larger in extent along the flap span and chord than measurements suggest. Computed farfield acoustic characteristics from a FW-H integral approach that used the simulated pressures on the model solid surface were in excellent agreement with corresponding measurements.

  18. Method for predicting impulsive noise generated by wind turbine rotors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. A. Viterna

    1982-01-01

    Large wind turbines can generate both broad band and impulsive noises. These noises can be controlled by proper choice of rotor design parameters such as rotor location with respect to the supporting tower, tower geometry and tip speed. A method was developed to calculate the impulsive noise generated when the wind turbine blade experiences air forces that are periodic functions

  19. Prediction of unsuppressed jet engine exhaust noise in flight from static data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    A methodology developed for predicting in-flight exhaust noise from static data is presented and compared with experimental data for several unsuppressed turbojet engines. For each engine, static data over a range of jet velocities are compared with the predicted jet mixing noise and shock-cell noise. The static engine noise over and above the jet and shock noises is identified as excess noise. The excess noise data are then empirically correlated to smooth the spectral and directivity relations and account for variations in test conditions. This excess noise is then projected to flight based on the assumption that the only effects of flight are a Doppler frequency shift and a level change given by 40 log (1 - m sub 0 cos theta), where M sub 0 is the flight Mach number and theta is the observer angle relative to the jet axis.

  20. A predictive QoS routing scheme for broadband low Earth orbit satellite networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Özgür Erçetin; Srikanth Krishnamurthy; Son Dao; L. Tassiulas

    2000-01-01

    Low Earth orbit satellite networks can augment terrestrial wireless networks to provide global broadband services to users regardless of the users' locations. Delivering QoS guarantees to the users of LEO satellite networks is complicated since the footprints of the LEO satellites move as the satellites traverse their orbits, and thus, causing frequent user handovers between the satellites. Traffic on inter-satellite

  1. Maneuvering Rotorcraft Noise Prediction: A New Code for a New Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brentner, Kenneth S.; Bres, Guillaume A.; Perez, Guillaume; Jones, Henry E.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the unique aspects of the development of an entirely new maneuver noise prediction code called PSU-WOPWOP. The main focus of the code is the aeroacoustic aspects of the maneuver noise problem, when the aeromechanical input data are provided (namely aircraft and blade motion, blade airloads). The PSU-WOPWOP noise prediction capability was developed for rotors in steady and transient maneuvering flight. Featuring an object-oriented design, the code allows great flexibility for complex rotor configuration and motion (including multiple rotors and full aircraft motion). The relative locations and number of hinges, flexures, and body motions can be arbitrarily specified to match the any specific rotorcraft. An analysis of algorithm efficiency is performed for maneuver noise prediction along with a description of the tradeoffs made specifically for the maneuvering noise problem. Noise predictions for the main rotor of a rotorcraft in steady descent, transient (arrested) descent, hover and a mild "pop-up" maneuver are demonstrated.

  2. Prediction of noise reduction through vehicle path rerouting.

    PubMed

    Makarewicz, Rufin

    2010-01-01

    Traffic noise, produced by moving vehicles, is described in terms of the day-night average sound level L(dn) and the day-evening-night level L(den). Both levels depend on the path of noise sources, such as road vehicles or aircraft. Usually, noise source path is rectilinear. Substituting a circle arc of radius R for the straight path segment yields noise reduction DeltaL=DeltaL(dn)=DeltaL(den). Assuming that noise propagation is governed by geometrical spreading, air absorption, and ground effect, relationship between DeltaL and R is derived. For example, replacement of a straight road at the distance of 100 m with the road of radius R=270 m and the angle Phi=68 degrees yields the noise reduction of 4 dB. In the case of road traffic noise, the presented results seem to be a viable alternative to barrier construction. PMID:20058966

  3. Measurements and predictions of flyover and static noise of a TF30 afterburning turbofan engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, F. W., Jr.; Lasagna, P. L.; Oas, S. C.

    1978-01-01

    The noise of the TF30 afterburning turbofan engine in an F-111 airplane was determined from static (ground) and flyover tests. A survey was made to measure the exhaust temperature and velocity profiles for a range of power settings. Comparisons were made between predicted and measured jet mixing, internal, and shock noise. It was found that the noise produced at static conditions was dominated by jet mixing noise, and was adequately predicted by current methods. The noise produced during flyovers exhibited large contributions from internally generated noise in the forward arc. For flyovers with the engine at nonafterburning power, the internal noise, shock noise, and jet mixing noise were accurately predicted. During flyovers with afterburning power settings, however, additional internal noise believed to be due to the afterburning process was evident; its level was as much as 8 decibels above the nonafterburning internal noise. Power settings that produced exhausts with inverted velocity profiles appeared to be slightly less noisy than power settings of equal thrust that produced uniform exhaust velocity profiles both in flight and in static testing.

  4. Flight effects on exhaust noise for turbojet and turbofan engines - Comparison of experimental data with prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    Recent experiments on the effects of flight on jet engine exhaust noise have produced apparently conflicting results. Some of these results do not agree with projections based on classical jet noise theories nor with experimental results from model jet simulated flight tests. It has been shown that in some of the cases reported, the proper corrections were not made to account for the distributed nature of the jet noise sources. It is shown herein that the remaining discrepancies can be reconciled by considering the combined effects of jet-mixing noise, internally-generated engine exhaust noise, and shock noise. This paper demonstrates that static and in-flight jet engine exhaust noise can be predicted with reasonable accuracy when the multiple-source nature of the problem is taken into account. Jet-mixing noise is predicted from an improved version of the NASA interim prediction method. Provisional methods of estimating internally-generated noise and shock noise flight effects are used, based partly on existing prediction methods and partly on recently reported engine data.

  5. Evaluation and prediction of blade-passing frequency noise generated by a centrifugal blower

    SciTech Connect

    Ohta, Y.; Outa, E.; Tajima, K. [Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1996-07-01

    The blade-passing frequency noise, abbreviated to BPF noise, of a low-specific-speed centrifugal blower is analyzed by separating the frequency response of the transmission passage and the intensity of the noise source. Frequency response has previously been evaluated by the authors using a one-dimensional linear wave model, and the results have agreed well with the experimental response in a practical range of the blower speed. In the present study, the intensity of the noise source is estimated by introducing the quasi-steady model of the blade wake impingement on the scroll surface. The effective location of the noise source is determined by analyzing the cross-correlation between measured data of the blower suction noise and pressure fluctuation on the scroll surface. Then, the surface density distribution of a dipole noise source is determined from pressure fluctuations expressed in terms of quasi-steady dynamic pressure of the traveling blade wake. Finally, the free-field noise level is predicted by integrating the density spectrum of the noise source over the effective source area. The sound pressure level of the blower suction noise is easily predicted by multiplying the free-field noise level by the frequency-response characteristics of the noise transmission passage.

  6. Broadband channel capacities

    SciTech Connect

    Giovannetti, Vittorio; Maccone, Lorenzo [Research Laboratory of Electronics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology 50 Vassar Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Lloyd, Seth [Research Laboratory of Electronics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology 50 Vassar Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Shor, Peter W. [AT and T Labs-Research, 180 Park Avenue, Florham Park, New Jersey 07932 (United States)

    2003-12-01

    We study the communication capacities of bosonic broadband channels in the presence of different sources of noise. In particular we analyze lossy channels in the presence of white noise and thermal bath. In this context, we provide a solution for the entanglement-assisted capacity and upper and lower bounds for the classical and quantum capacities.

  7. Prediction of BVI noise patterns and correlation with wake interaction locations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcolini, Michael A.; Martin, Ruth M.; Lorber, Peter F.; Egolf, T. A.

    High resolution fluctuating airloads data were acquired during a test of a contemporary design United Technologies model rotor in the Duits-Nederlandse Windtunnel (DNW). The airloads are used as input to the noise prediction program WOPWOP, in order to predict the blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise field on a large plane below the rotor. Trends of predicted advancing and retreating side BVI noise levels and directionality as functions of flight condition are presented. The measured airloads have been analyzed to determine the BVI locations on the blade surface, and are used to interpret the predicted BVI noise radiation patterns. Predicted BVI locations are obtained using the free wake model in CAMRAD/JA, the UTRC Generalized Forward Flight Distorted Wake Model, and the UTRC FREEWAKE analysis. These predicted BVI locations are compared with those obtained from the measured pressure data.

  8. Numerical Prediction of Laminar Instability Noise for NACA 0012 Aerofoil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michele de Gennaro; Andreas Hueppe; Helmut Kuehnelt; Manfred Kaltenbacher

    2011-01-01

    Aerofoil self-generated noise is recognized to be of fundamental importance in the frame of applied aeroacoustics and the use of computational methods to assess the acoustic behaviour of airframe components challenges an even larger community of engineers and scientists. Several noise generation mechanisms can be found which are mainly related to the physical development of turbulence over the boundary layer.

  9. Prediction of jet exhaust noise on airframe surfaces during flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butzel, L. M.

    1981-01-01

    The behavior of pressure fluctuations measured on the airframe of a prototype high lift jet transport (YC-14) is presented. The data are characterized in terms of a particular jet exhaust flow field idealization, jet mixing noise, and exhaust shock noise. Generalized spectrum shapes and scaling relations for peak level and frequency of peak level are developed, and the frequency is found to depend on jet exhaust velocity and aircraft velocity. Comparisons are made with near-field engine exhaust noise of a conventional jet, and results suggest that the same two exhaust noises are important for both aircraft types. Surface fluctuating pressure data are assessed, and results suggest that the jet mixing and exhaust shock noise source characterizations for the YC-14 have useful applicability to conventionally configured jets.

  10. Development in Source Modeling and Sound Propagation for Jet Noise Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leib, Steward

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the research carried out under this cooperative agreement was to develop tools that could be used to improve upon the current state of the art in the prediction of noise emitted by turbulent exhaust jets. Both the source modeling and sound propagation aspects of the prediction of jet noise by acoustic analogy were examined with a view toward the development of methods which yield improved predictions over a wider range of operating conditions.

  11. Surface integral analogy approaches for predicting noise from 3D high-lift low-noise wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Hua-Dong; Davidson, Lars; Eriksson, Lars-Erik; Peng, Shia-Hui; Grundestam, Olof; Eliasson, Peter E.

    2014-06-01

    Three surface integral approaches of the acoustic analogies are studied to predict the noise from three conceptual configurations of three-dimensional high-lift low-noise wings. The approaches refer to the Kirchhoff method, the Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings (FW-H) method of the permeable integral surface and the Curle method that is known as a special case of the FW-H method. The first two approaches are used to compute the noise generated by the core flow region where the energetic structures exist. The last approach is adopted to predict the noise specially from the pressure perturbation on the wall. A new way to construct the integral surface that encloses the core region is proposed for the first two methods. Considering the local properties of the flow around the complex object-the actual wing with high-lift devices-the integral surface based on the vorticity is constructed to follow the flow structures. The surface location is discussed for the Kirchhoff method and the FW-H method because a common surface is used for them. The noise from the core flow region is studied on the basis of the dependent integral quantities, which are indicated by the Kirchhoff formulation and by the FW-H formulation. The role of each wall component on noise contribution is analyzed using the Curle formulation. Effects of the volume integral terms of Lighthill's stress tensors on the noise prediction are then evaluated by comparing the results of the Curle method with the other two methods.

  12. Predicted changes in advanced turboprop noise with shaft angle of attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padula, S. L.; Block, P. J. W.

    1984-01-01

    Advanced turboprop blade designs and new propeller installation schemes motivated an effort to include unsteady loading effects in existing propeller noise prediction computer programs. The present work validates the prediction capability while studing the effects of shaft inclination on the radiated sound field. Classical methods of propeller performance analysis supply the time-dependent blade loading needed to calculate noise. Polar plots of the sound pressure level (SPL) of the first four harmonics and overall SPL are indicative of the change in directivity pattern as a function of propeller angle of attack. Noise predictions are compared with newly available wind tunnel data and the accuracy and applicability of the prediction method are discussed. It is concluded that unsteady blade loading caused by inclining the propeller with respect to the flow changes the directionality and the intensity of the radiated noise. These changes are well modeled by the present quasi-steady prediction method.

  13. Understanding Slat Noise Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khorrami, Medhi R.

    2003-01-01

    Model-scale aeroacoustic tests of large civil transports point to the leading-edge slat as a dominant high-lift noise source in the low- to mid-frequencies during aircraft approach and landing. Using generic multi-element high-lift models, complementary experimental and numerical tests were carefully planned and executed at NASA in order to isolate slat noise sources and the underlying noise generation mechanisms. In this paper, a brief overview of the supporting computational effort undertaken at NASA Langley Research Center, is provided. Both tonal and broadband aspects of slat noise are discussed. Recent gains in predicting a slat s far-field acoustic noise, current shortcomings of numerical simulations, and other remaining open issues, are presented. Finally, an example of the ever-expanding role of computational simulations in noise reduction studies also is given.

  14. Prediction of the noise from a propeller at angle of attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krejsa, Eugene A.

    1990-01-01

    An analysis is presented to predict the noise of a propeller at angle of attack. The analysis is an extension of that reported by Mani which predicted the change in noise due to angle of attack to both unsteady loading and to azimuthal variation of the radiation efficiency of steady noise sources. Mani's analysis, however, was limited to small angles of attack. The analysis reported herein removes this small angle limitation. Results from the analysis are compared with the data of Woodward for a single rotation propeller and a counter rotating propeller. The comparison shows that including the effect of angle of attack on the steady noise sources significantly improves the agreement with data. Including higher order effects of angle of attack, while changing the predicted noise at far forward and aft angles, has little effect near the propeller plane.

  15. Blade-Vortex Interaction (BVI) Noise and Airload Prediction Using Loose Aerodynamic/Structural Coupling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sim, B. W.; Lim, J. W.

    2007-01-01

    Predictions of blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise, using blade airloads obtained from a coupled aerodynamic and structural methodology, are presented. This methodology uses an iterative, loosely-coupled trim strategy to cycle information between the OVERFLOW-2 (CFD) and CAMRAD-II (CSD) codes. Results are compared to the HART-II baseline, minimum noise and minimum vibration conditions. It is shown that this CFD/CSD state-of-the-art approach is able to capture blade airload and noise radiation characteristics associated with BVI. With the exception of the HART-II minimum noise condition, predicted advancing and retreating side BVI for the baseline and minimum vibration conditions agrees favorably with measured data. Although the BVI airloads and noise amplitudes are generally under-predicted, this CFD/CSD methodology provides an overall noteworthy improvement over the lifting line aerodynamics and free-wake models typically used in CSD comprehensive analysis codes.

  16. Study on instrument flight procedures noise prediction based on 4D trajectory operation simulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wang Chao; Xiao Hui-hui

    2010-01-01

    Instrument flight procedures noise prediction is an important basis of optimized land use programming and the feasibity of new-built and extened-built airport in the vicinity of an airport. This paper adopts EPNL and SEL as flight procedures noise assessment index, it combines the 4D trajectory information of flight procedures, airport type and NPD curve etc, and computes the noise value

  17. ``Buzz-saw'' noise: A comparison of modal measurements with an improved prediction method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. McAlpine; M. J. Fisher; B. J. Tester

    2007-01-01

    ``Buzz-saw'' noise is radiated from a turbofan inlet duct when the fan tip speed is supersonic. In a recent article the effect of an acoustic liner on buzz-saw noise has been examined. Spectral measurements in a rigid and an acoustically lined inlet duct have been compared. Also these measurements have been utilized to assess a buzz-saw noise prediction method. The

  18. “Buzz-saw” noise: A comparison of modal measurements with an improved prediction method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. McAlpine; M. J. Fisher; B. J. Tester

    2007-01-01

    “Buzz-saw” noise is radiated from a turbofan inlet duct when the fan tip speed is supersonic. In a recent article the effect of an acoustic liner on buzz-saw noise has been examined. Spectral measurements in a rigid and an acoustically lined inlet duct have been compared. Also these measurements have been utilized to assess a buzz-saw noise prediction method. The

  19. The Uses and Abuses of the Acoustic Analogy in Helicopter Rotor Noise Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farassat, F.; Brentner, Kenneth S.

    1987-01-01

    This paper is theoretical in nature and addresses applications of the acoustic analogy in helicopter rotor noise prediction. It is argued that in many instances the acoustic analogy has not been used with care in rotor noise studies. By this it is meant that approximate or inappropriate formulations have been used. By considering various mechanisms of noise generation, such abuses are identified and the remedy is suggested. The mechanisms discussed are thickness, loading, quadrupole, and blade-vortex interaction noise. The quadrupole term of the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equation is written in a new form which separates the contributions of regions of high gradients such as shock surfaces. It is shown by order of magnitude studies that such regions are capable of producing noise with the same directivity as the thickness noise. The inclusion of this part of quadrupole sources in current acoustic codes is quite practical. Some of the difficulties with the use of loading noise formulations of the first author in predictions of blade-vortex interaction noise are discussed. It appears that there is a need for development of new theoretical results based on the acoustic analogy in this area. Because of the impulsive character of the blade surface pressure, a time scale of integration different from that used in loading and thickness computations must he used in a computer code for prediction of blade-vortex interaction noise.

  20. A moving medium formulation for prediction of propeller noise at incidence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ghader Ghorbaniasl; Chris Lacor

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a time domain formulation for the sound field radiated by moving bodies in a uniform steady flow with arbitrary orientation. The aim is to provide a formulation for prediction of noise from body so that effects of crossflow on a propeller can be modeled in the time domain. An established theory of noise generation by a moving

  1. Efficient Prediction of Helicopter BVI Noise under Different Conditions of Wake and Blade Deformation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshinobu Inada; Choongmo Yang; Noriki Iwanaga; Takashi Aoyama

    2008-01-01

    Predictions of helicopter BVI noise using three-dimensional Euler code with a single blade grid are conducted under three different conditions: BVI noise caused by (1) interaction between rotating blades and vortex shed from fixed wing vortex generator, (2) interaction between rotating blades and tip vortices shed from preceding blades, and (3) interaction between rotating blades with elastic deformation and shed

  2. Predicting DTI Tractography Uncertainty from Diffusion-Weighted-Image Noise Jadrian Miles1

    E-print Network

    Laidlaw, David

    4027 Predicting DTI Tractography Uncertainty from Diffusion-Weighted-Image Noise Jadrian Miles1 , and David H. Laidlaw1 1 Computer Science Department, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, United indicated that the angle between the tangents at corresponding positions on noise-free and noisy streamlines

  3. Tyre/road interaction noise—Numerical noise prediction of a patterned tyre on a rough road surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Boy, D. J.; Dowling, A. P.

    2009-06-01

    The noise which results from the interaction of pneumatic tyres with a rough road surface is a significant contributor to an increasing local environmental problem. Above a steady forward vehicle speed of 40 km/h this is the dominant noise source of a modern car in good working condition, and is a significant contributor to the overall radiated noise during acceleration. In order to determine the noise produced by a patterned tyre rolling on a rough road surface, the vibration characteristics of the tyre must be known. A method has been presented by O'Boy and Dowling [Tyre/road interaction noise: a 3d viscoelastic multilayer model of a tyre belt, Journal of Sound and Vibration, volume 322, issues 4-5, 22 May 2009, pages 829-850] which provides these vibration characteristics for a tyre belt composed of multiple viscoelastic layers, each layer having a different thickness and material properties. In this paper, we use this model of the tyre belt to determine the parameters of an equivalent simple bending plate model which can be adapted to yield the response of a tyre which includes sidewalls. A method is then described which uses this response to determine the acceleration of the tyre surface as it rolls over a rough road. These accelerations are then used to predict the far-field radiated noise for a patterned tyre on two rough road surfaces. Comparisons with experimental data are provided at each stage.

  4. Critical assessment of indoor noise propagation and prediction in power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brittain, Frank H.

    2005-09-01

    Accurate prediction of indoor noise propagation in power plants is important to help estimate occupational noise exposures, and to help predict community noise radiated by plant walls-from levels predicted just inside of each wall. Unfortunately, the basic theories of room acoustics are not applicable. Most power plant rooms are both too large, and too odd shaped for basic room theory, including the Sabine and Norris-Erying theories, to be applicable. Even more important, basic room theory requires empty rooms, and power plant spaces are densely packed with equipment, piping, cable trays, etc. (called fittings). This paper reviews basic room theory, and outlines deficiencies for use in predicting noise propagation inside power plant buildings. Examples are given of walk-away measurements showing that there is no reverberant field, and that reverberation measurements do not correlate well with walk-away test data. Using measurements as an alternative to levels predicted just inside of plant walls to help predict community noise radiated by each wall are discussed. Software for predicting noise in industrial spaces is identified, and their suitability for power plants, which have unusually high fitting densities, is also discussed.

  5. Prediction of XV-15 tilt rotor discrete frequency aeroacoustic noise with WOPWOP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffen, Charles D.; George, Albert R.

    1990-01-01

    The results, methodology, and conclusions of noise prediction calculations carried out to study several possible discrete frequency harmonic noise mechanisms of the XV-15 Tilt Rotor Aircraft in hover and helicopter mode forward flight are presented. The mechanisms studied were thickness and loading noise. In particular, the loading noise caused by flow separation and the fountain/ground plane effect were predicted with calculations made using WOPWOP, a noise prediction program developed by NASA Langley. The methodology was to model the geometry and aerodynamics of the XV-15 rotor blades in hover and steady level flight and then create corresponding FORTRAN subroutines which were used an input for WOPWOP. The models are described and the simplifying assumptions made in creating them are evaluated, and the results of the computations are presented. The computations lead to the following conclusions: The fountain/ground plane effect is an important source of aerodynamic noise for the XV-15 in hover. Unsteady flow separation from the airfoil passing through the fountain at high angles of attack significantly affects the predicted sound spectra and may be an important noise mechanism for the XV-15 in hover mode. The various models developed did not predict the sound spectra in helicopter forward flight. The experimental spectra indicate the presence of blade vortex interactions which were not modeled in these calculations. A need for further study and development of more accurate aerodynamic models, including unsteady stall in hover and blade vortex interactions in forward flight.

  6. Predicting Antenna Noise Temperature Due to Rain Clouds at Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Frequencies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank S. Marzano

    2007-01-01

    Model-oriented methods to predict antenna noise temperature due to rainfall along slant paths are developed and illustrated for communication systems at Ka-band and above. The adopted Sky Noise Eddington Model (SNEM) relies on an accurate analytical solution of the radiative transfer equation and on stratiform and convective rainfall stratified structures, synthetically generated from cloud-resolving model statistics. The approach to predict

  7. Comparison of Noise Source Localization Data with Flow Field Data Obtained in Cold Supersonic Jets and Implications Regarding Broadband Shock Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podboy, Gary; Wernet, Mark; Clem, Michelle; Fagan, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Phased array noise source localization have been compared with 2 types of flow field data (BOS and PIV). The data show that: 1) the higher frequency noise in a BBSN hump is generated further downstream than the lower frequency noise. This is due to a) the shock spacing decreasing and b) the turbulent structure size increasing with distance downstream. 2) BBSN can be created by very weak shocks. 3) BBSN is not created by the strong shocks just downstream of the nozzle because the turbulent structures have not grown large enough to match the shock spacing. 4) The point in the flow where the shock spacing equals the average size of the turbulent structures is a hot spot for shock noise. 5) Some of the shocks responsible for producing the first hump also produce the second hump.

  8. Interior noise control prediction study for high-speed propeller-driven aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rennison, D. C.; Wilby, J. F.; Marsh, A. H.; Wilby, E. G.

    1979-01-01

    An analytical model was developed to predict the noise levels inside propeller-driven aircraft during cruise at M = 0.8. The model was applied to three study aircraft with fuselages of different size (wide body, narrow body and small diameter) in order to determine the noise reductions required to achieve the goal of an A-weighted sound level which does not exceed 80 dB. The model was then used to determine noise control methods which could achieve the required noise reductions. Two classes of noise control treatments were investigated: add-on treatments which can be added to existing structures, and advanced concepts which would require changes to the fuselage primary structure. Only one treatment, a double wall with limp panel, provided the required noise reductions. Weight penalties associated with the treatment were estimated for the three study aircraft.

  9. Improved NASA-ANOPP Noise Prediction Computer Code for Advanced Subsonic Propulsion Systems. Volume 2; Fan Suppression Model Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kontos, Karen B.; Kraft, Robert E.; Gliebe, Philip R.

    1996-01-01

    The Aircraft Noise Predication Program (ANOPP) is an industry-wide tool used to predict turbofan engine flyover noise in system noise optimization studies. Its goal is to provide the best currently available methods for source noise prediction. As part of a program to improve the Heidmann fan noise model, models for fan inlet and fan exhaust noise suppression estimation that are based on simple engine and acoustic geometry inputs have been developed. The models can be used to predict sound power level suppression and sound pressure level suppression at a position specified relative to the engine inlet.

  10. The Acoustic Analogy: A Powerful Tool in Aeroacoustics with Emphasis on Jet Noise Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farassat, F.; Doty, Michael J.; Hunter, Craig A.

    2004-01-01

    The acoustic analogy introduced by Lighthill to study jet noise is now over 50 years old. In the present paper, Lighthill s Acoustic Analogy is revisited together with a brief evaluation of the state-of-the-art of the subject and an exploration of the possibility of further improvements in jet noise prediction from analytical methods, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) predictions, and measurement techniques. Experimental Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) data is used both to evaluate turbulent statistics from Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) CFD and to propose correlation models for the Lighthill stress tensor. The NASA Langley Jet3D code is used to study the effect of these models on jet noise prediction. From the analytical investigation, a retarded time correction is shown that improves, by approximately 8 dB, the over-prediction of aft-arc jet noise by Jet3D. In experimental investigation, the PIV data agree well with the CFD mean flow predictions, with room for improvement in Reynolds stress predictions. Initial modifications, suggested by the PIV data, to the form of the Jet3D correlation model showed no noticeable improvements in jet noise prediction.

  11. Contributions of Computational Aeroacoustics to Jet Noise Research and Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailly, C.; Bogey, C.

    2004-08-01

    A brief review of recent progress in the field of computational aeroacoustics (CAA) is proposed. This paper is complementary to the previous reviews of Tam [(1995a) "Computational aeroacoustics: issues and methods", AIAA J. 33(10), 1788-1796], Lele [(1997) "Computational Aeroacoustics: a review", AIAA Paper 97-0018, 35th Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, Nevada] and Glegg [(1999) "Recent advances aeroacoustics: the influence of computational fluid dynamics", 6th International Congress on Sound and Vibration, Copenhagen, Danemark, 5-8 July, 43-58] on advances in CAA. After a short introduction concerning the current motivations of jet noise studies, connections between computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and CAA using hybrid approaches are discussed in the first part. The most spectacular advances are probably provided by the direct computation of jet noise, and some recent results are shown in the second part.

  12. Prediction of hydrodynamic noise of open cavity flow

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donghan Geng; Yu Wang

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the hydrodynamically generated noise by the flow over an open cavity is studied. First, aeroacoustic theories\\u000a and computational aeroacoustic (CAA) methodologies are reviewed in light of hydrodynamic acoustics, based on which, a hybrid\\u000a method is presented. In the coupling procedure, the unsteady cavity flow field is computed using large-eddy simulation (LES),\\u000a while the radiated sound is calculated

  13. Noise prediction for channels with side information at the transmitter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Uri Erez; Ram Zamir

    2000-01-01

    Abstract—The computation of channel capacity with side information at the transmitter side (but not at the receiver side) requires, in general, exten- sion of the input alphabet to a space of “strategies,” and is often hard. We consider the special case of a discrete memoryless modulo-additive noise channel , where the encoder observes causally the random state,that governs the distribution

  14. Development of an Empirical Methods for Predicting Jet Mixing Noise of Cold Flow Rectangular Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, James W.

    1999-01-01

    This report presents an empirical method for predicting the jet mixing noise levels of cold flow rectangular jets. The report presents a detailed analysis of the methodology used in development of the prediction method. The empirical correlations used are based on narrow band acoustic data for cold flow rectangular model nozzle tests conducted in the NASA Langley Jet Noise Laboratory. There were 20 separate nozzle test operating conditions. For each operating condition 60 Hz bandwidth microphone measurements were made over a frequency range from 0 to 60,000 Hz. Measurements were performed at 16 polar directivity angles ranging from 45 degrees to 157.5 degrees. At each polar directivity angle, measurements were made at 9 azimuth directivity angles. The report shows the methods employed to remove screech tones and shock noise from the data in order to obtain the jet mixing noise component. The jet mixing noise was defined in terms of one third octave band spectral content, polar and azimuth directivity, and overall power level. Empirical correlations were performed over the range of test conditions to define each of these jet mixing noise parameters as a function of aspect ratio, jet velocity, and polar and azimuth directivity angles. The report presents the method for predicting the overall power level, the average polar directivity, the azimuth directivity and the location and shape of the spectra for jet mixing noise of cold flow rectangular jets.

  15. Journal of Biomechanics 40 (2007) 861870 Snoring source identification and snoring noise prediction

    E-print Network

    Luo, Xiaoyu

    2007-01-01

    prediction Z.S. Liua,Ã, X.Y. Luob , H.P. Leea,c , C. Lua a Institute of High Performance Computing, 1 Science Park Road, #01-01 The Capricorn, Singapore Science Park II, Singapore 117528, Singapore b Department of the upper airway in the nasal cavity is generated. The snoring noise level is predicted for a prescribed

  16. The effects of vortex modeling on blade-vortex interaction noise prediction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judith M. Gallman; Chee Tung; Scott L. Low

    1995-01-01

    The use of a blade vortex interaction noise prediction scheme, based on CAMRAD\\/JA, FPR and RAPP, quantifies the effects of errors and assumptions in the modeling of the helicopter's shed vortex on the acoustic predictions. CAMRAD\\/JA computes the wake geometry and inflow angles that are used in FPR to solve for the aerodynamic surface pressures. RAPP uses these surface pressures

  17. Comparison of Transmission Error Predictions with Noise Measurements for Several Spur and Helical Gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houser, Donald R.; Oswald, Fred B.; Valco, Mark J.; Drago, Raymond J.; Lenski, Joseph W., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Measured sound power data from eight different spur, single and double helical gear designs are compared with predictions of transmission error by the Load Distribution Program. The sound power data was taken from the recent Army-funded Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission project. Tests were conducted in the NASA gear noise rig. Results of both test data and transmission error predictions are made for each harmonic of mesh frequency at several operating conditions. In general, the transmission error predictions compare favorably with the measured noise levels.

  18. Prediction of noise field of a propfan at angle of attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Envia, Edmane

    1991-01-01

    A method for predicting the noise field of a propfan operating at an angle of attack to the oncoming flow is presented. The method takes advantage of the high-blade-count of the advanced propeller designs to provide an accurate and efficient formula for predicting their noise field. The formula, which is written in terms of the Airy function and its derivative, provides a very attractive alternative to the use of numerical integration. A preliminary comparison shows rather favorable agreement between the predictions from the present method and the experimental data.

  19. A Noise Level Prediction Method Based on Electro-Mechanical Frequency Response Function for Capacitors

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Lingyu; Ji, Shengchang; Shen, Qi; Liu, Yuan; Li, Jinyu; Liu, Hao

    2013-01-01

    The capacitors in high-voltage direct-current (HVDC) converter stations radiate a lot of audible noise which can reach higher than 100 dB. The existing noise level prediction methods are not satisfying enough. In this paper, a new noise level prediction method is proposed based on a frequency response function considering both electrical and mechanical characteristics of capacitors. The electro-mechanical frequency response function (EMFRF) is defined as the frequency domain quotient of the vibration response and the squared capacitor voltage, and it is obtained from impulse current experiment. Under given excitations, the vibration response of the capacitor tank is the product of EMFRF and the square of the given capacitor voltage in frequency domain, and the radiated audible noise is calculated by structure acoustic coupling formulas. The noise level under the same excitations is also measured in laboratory, and the results are compared with the prediction. The comparison proves that the noise prediction method is effective. PMID:24349105

  20. A noise level prediction method based on electro-mechanical frequency response function for capacitors.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lingyu; Ji, Shengchang; Shen, Qi; Liu, Yuan; Li, Jinyu; Liu, Hao

    2013-01-01

    The capacitors in high-voltage direct-current (HVDC) converter stations radiate a lot of audible noise which can reach higher than 100 dB. The existing noise level prediction methods are not satisfying enough. In this paper, a new noise level prediction method is proposed based on a frequency response function considering both electrical and mechanical characteristics of capacitors. The electro-mechanical frequency response function (EMFRF) is defined as the frequency domain quotient of the vibration response and the squared capacitor voltage, and it is obtained from impulse current experiment. Under given excitations, the vibration response of the capacitor tank is the product of EMFRF and the square of the given capacitor voltage in frequency domain, and the radiated audible noise is calculated by structure acoustic coupling formulas. The noise level under the same excitations is also measured in laboratory, and the results are compared with the prediction. The comparison proves that the noise prediction method is effective. PMID:24349105

  1. Analysis of impact/impulse noise for predicting noise induced hearing loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vipperman, Jeffrey S.; Prince, Mary M.; Flamm, Angela M.

    2003-04-01

    Studies indicate that the statistical properties and temporal structure of the sound signal are important in determining the extent of hearing hazard. As part of a pilot study to examine hearing conservation program effectiveness, NIOSH collected noise samples of impact noise sources in an automobile stamping plant, focusing on jobs with peak sound levels (Lpk) of greater than 120 dB. Digital tape recordings of sounds were collected using a Type I Precision Sound Level Meter and microphone connected to a DAT tape recorder. The events were archived and processed as .wav files to extract single events of interest on CD-R media and CD audio media. A preliminary analysis of sample wavelet files was conducted to characterize each event using metrics such as the number of impulses per unit time, the repetition rate or temporal pattern of these impulses, index of peakedness, crest factor, kurtosis, coefficient of kurtosis, rise time, fall time, and peak time. The spectrum, duration, and inverse of duration for each waveform were also computed. Finally, the data were evaluated with the Auditory Hazard Assessment Algorithm (AHAAH). Improvements to data collection for a future study examining different strategies for evaluating industrial noise exposure will be discussed.

  2. Development of a Jet Noise Prediction Method for Installed Jet Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Craig A.; Thomas, Russell H.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes development of the Jet3D noise prediction method and its application to heated jets with complex three-dimensional flow fields and installation effects. Noise predictions were made for four separate flow bypass ratio five nozzle configurations tested in the NASA Langley Jet Noise Laboratory. These configurations consist of a round core and fan nozzle with and without pylon, and an eight chevron core nozzle and round fan nozzle with and without pylon. Predicted SPL data were in good agreement with experimental noise measurements up to 121 inlet angle, beyond which Jet3D under predicted low frequency levels. This is due to inherent limitations in the formulation of Lighthill's Acoustic Analogy used in Jet3D, and will be corrected in ongoing development. Jet3D did an excellent job predicting full scale EPNL for nonchevron configurations, and captured the effect of the pylon, correctly predicting a reduction in EPNL. EPNL predictions for chevron configurations were not in good agreement with measured data, likely due to the lower mixing and longer potential cores in the CFD simulations of these cases.

  3. Predictability experiments with persistence forecasts in a red-noise atmosphere

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KLAUS FRAEDRICH; CHRISTINE ZIEHMANN-SCHLUMBOHM

    1994-01-01

    SUMMARY Individual and lagged ensemble forecasts of persistence in a red-noise atmosphere are analysed to obtain information on predictability experiments performed in an imperfect model\\/ensemble environment. By examining the lead-time-dependent error budgets of individual and ensemble forecasts, various measures of predictability are analytically determined: the initial and saturation error, the error growth rates, the limit of predictability, error and squared

  4. Ray-tracing evaluation of empirical models for predicting noise in industrial workshops

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Murray Hodgson

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of empirical models for predicting steady-state noise levels and reverberation times in typical industrial workshops, predictions by these models were compared with predictions by a ray-tracing model, nominally using the same input data. Comparisons were made for three workshops—‘long’, ‘flat’ and ‘quasi-cubic’ in shape—with reflective and absorbent ceilings, when empty and with four densities of fittings.

  5. Numerical simulation for prediction of aerodynamic noise characteristics on a HAWT of NREL phase VI

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jang-Oh Mo; Young-Ho Lee

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to numerically predict the characteristics of aerodynamic noise generated from rotating wind\\u000a turbine blades according to wind speeds using commercial CFD code, FLUENT. The near-field flow around a HAWT of NREL Phase\\u000a VI is simulated directly by LES, whereas the far-field aerodynamic noise for frequencies below 500 Hz is modeled using FW-H\\u000a analogy. As

  6. Broadband sound absorption by lattices of microperforated cylindrical shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Chocano, Victor M.; Cabrera, Suitberto; Sánchez-Dehesa, José

    2012-10-01

    Absorption of broadband noise by sonic crystals consisting of microperforated cylindrical shells is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The theoretical study has been performed in the framework of multiple scattering method, where a model for the T matrix of the microperforated shells has been developed. It has been predicted an extraordinary broadband sound absorption that is explained in terms of the multiple scattering phenomena occurring at the surfaces of the absorptive units—the microperforated panels. Our proposal has been supported by experiments performed on a structure consisting of 3 rows of cylindrical shells 3 meters height.

  7. Predictive value of directional sensitivity diagrams of hearing aids for word discrimination in noise.

    PubMed

    van der Laan, K T; Wit, H P

    1983-01-01

    In an anechoic room the directional characteristics of 17 different hearing aids were evaluated using KEMAR. Word discrimination scores in the presence of speech-like masking noise--a reliable parameter for the performance of a hearing aid--were compared with the directional sensitivity of the hearing aid under study for different signals. The directional characteristics of a hearing aid have the best predictive value for word discrimination scores in the presence of masking noise if this masking noise is used to measure these characteristics. PMID:6844872

  8. Development of hybrid method for the prediction of underwater propeller noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seol, Hanshin; Suh, Jung-Chun; Lee, Soogab

    2005-11-01

    Noise reduction and control is an important problem in the performance of underwater acoustic systems and in the habitability of the passenger ship for crew and passenger. Furthermore, sound generated by a propeller is critical in underwater detection and it is often related to the survivability of the vessel especially for military purpose. This paper presents a numerical study on the non-cavitating and blade sheet cavitation noises of the underwater propeller. A brief summary of numerical method with verification and results are presented. The noise is predicted using time-domain acoustic analogy. The flow field is analyzed with potential-based panel method, and then the time-dependent pressure and sheet cavity volume data are used as the input for Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings formulation to predict the far-field acoustics. Noise characteristics are presented according to noise sources and conditions. Through this study, the dominant noise source of the underwater propeller is analyzed, which will provide a basis for proper noise control strategies.

  9. How does image noise affect actual and predicted human gaze allocation in assessing image quality?

    PubMed

    Röhrbein, Florian; Goddard, Peter; Schneider, Michael; James, Georgina; Guo, Kun

    2015-07-01

    A central research question in natural vision is how to allocate fixation to extract informative cues for scene perception. With high quality images, psychological and computational studies have made significant progress to understand and predict human gaze allocation in scene exploration. However, it is unclear whether these findings can be generalised to degraded naturalistic visual inputs. In this eye-tracking and computational study, we methodically distorted both man-made and natural scenes with Gaussian low-pass filter, circular averaging filter and Additive Gaussian white noise, and monitored participants' gaze behaviour in assessing perceived image qualities. Compared with original high quality images, distorted images attracted fewer numbers of fixations but longer fixation durations, shorter saccade distance and stronger central fixation bias. This impact of image noise manipulation on gaze distribution was mainly determined by noise intensity rather than noise type, and was more pronounced for natural scenes than for man-made scenes. We furthered compared four high performing visual attention models in predicting human gaze allocation in degraded scenes, and found that model performance lacked human-like sensitivity to noise type and intensity, and was considerably worse than human performance measured as inter-observer variance. Furthermore, the central fixation bias is a major predictor for human gaze allocation, which becomes more prominent with increased noise intensity. Our results indicate a crucial role of external noise intensity in determining scene-viewing gaze behaviour, which should be considered in the development of realistic human-vision-inspired attention models. PMID:25982711

  10. The Acoustic Analogy and the Prediction of the Noise of Rotating Blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farassat, F.; Brentner, Kenneth S.

    The acoustic analogy was introduced into acoustics by Lighthill in 1952 to understand and predict the noise generated by the jet of an aircraft turbojet engine. The idea behind the acoustic analogy is simple but powerful. The entire noise generation process is mathematically reduced to the study of wave propagation in a quiescent medium with the effect of flow replaced by quadrupole sources. In jet noise theory, Lighthill was able to obtain significant and useful qualitative results from the acoustic analogy. The acoustic analogy has influenced the theoretical and experimental research on jet noise since the early 1950s. This paper, however, focuses on another area in which the acoustic analogy has had a significant impact, namely, the prediction of the noise of rotating machinery. The governing equation for this problem was derived by Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings in 1969. This equation is a wave equation for perturbation density with three source terms, which have become known as thickness, loading, and the quadrupole source terms, respectively. The Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FW-H) equation has been used for the successful prediction of the noise of helicopter rotors, propellers, and fans. Several reasons account for the success and popularity of the acoustic analogy. First, the problems of acoustics and aerodynamics are separated. Second, because the FW-H equation is linear, powerful analytical methods from linear operator theory can be used to obtain closed-form solutions. Third, advances in digital computers and computational fluid dynamics algorithms have resulted in high-resolution near-field aerodynamic calculations that are suitable for noise prediction. We present some of the mathematical results for noise prediction based on the FW-H equation, including examples for helicopter rotors. In particular, we discuss the prediction of blade-vortex interaction noise and high-speed impulsive noise of helicopter rotors. For high-speed propellers, we briefly discuss the derivation of a singularity-free solution of the FW-H equation for a supersonic panel on a blade.

  11. The prediction of airborne and structure-borne noise potential for a tire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Nicholas Y.

    Tire/pavement interaction noise is a major component of both exterior pass-by noise and vehicle interior noise. The current testing methods for ranking tires from loud to quiet require expensive equipment, multiple tires, and/or long experimental set-up and run times. If a laboratory based off-vehicle test could be used to identify the airborne and structure-borne potential of a tire from its dynamic characteristics, a relative ranking of a large group of tires could be performed at relatively modest expense. This would provide a smaller sample set of tires for follow-up testing and thus save expense for automobile OEMs. The focus of this research was identifying key noise features from a tire/pavement experiment. These results were compared against a stationary tire test in which the natural response of the tire to a forced input was measured. Since speed was identified as having some effect on the noise, an input function was also developed to allow the tires to be ranked at an appropriate speed. A relative noise model was used on a second sample set of tires to verify if the ranking could be used against interior vehicle measurements. While overall level analysis of the specified spectrum had mixed success, important noise generating features were identified, and the methods used could be improved to develop a standard off-vehicle test to predict a tire's noise potential.

  12. Velocity measurements in a turbulent trailing vortex and their application to BWI noise prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devenport, William J.; Glegg, Stewart A. L.

    1991-01-01

    The objectives were to observe the turbulence structure and spectral characteristics of the trailing vortex shed by a rectangular NACA 0012 wing over a range of conditions and to incorporate these observations into the blade-wake interaction (BWI) noise-prediction method of Glegg (1989). The following sections are presented: (1) measurements performed during the first year of this two year investigation; (2) presentation and discussion of a representative sample of the results; (3) implications for the BWI noise prediction method; and (4) re-evaluation of work planned for the second year.

  13. Flow structure generated by perpendicular blade vortex interaction and implications for helicopter noise predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devenport, William J.; Glegg, Stewart A. L.

    1994-01-01

    Activities carried out in support of research on flow structure generated by perpendicular blade vortex interaction and implications for helicopter noise prediction are summarized. Progress in the following areas is described: (1) construction of 8 inch-chord NACA 0012 full-span blade; (2) Acquisition of two full-span blades; (3) preparation for hot wire measurements; (4) related work on a modified Betz's theory; and (5) work related to helicopter noise prediction. In addition, a list of publications based on the results of prior experimentation is presented.

  14. ANOPP programmer's reference manual for the executive System. [aircraft noise prediction program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillian, R. E.; Brown, C. G.; Bartlett, R. W.; Baucom, P. H.

    1977-01-01

    Documentation for the Aircraft Noise Prediction Program as of release level 01/00/00 is presented in a manual designed for programmers having a need for understanding the internal design and logical concepts of the executive system software. Emphasis is placed on providing sufficient information to modify the system for enhancements or error correction. The ANOPP executive system includes software related to operating system interface, executive control, and data base management for the Aircraft Noise Prediction Program. It is written in Fortran IV for use on CDC Cyber series of computers.

  15. Advanced turboprop noise prediction: Development of a code at NASA Langley based on recent theoretical results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farassat, F.; Dunn, M. H.; Padula, S. L.

    1986-01-01

    The development of a high speed propeller noise prediction code at Langley Research Center is described. The code utilizes two recent acoustic formulations in the time domain for subsonic and supersonic sources. The structure and capabilities of the code are discussed. Grid size study for accuracy and speed of execution on a computer is also presented. The code is tested against an earlier Langley code. Considerable increase in accuracy and speed of execution are observed. Some examples of noise prediction of a high speed propeller for which acoustic test data are available are given. A brisk derivation of formulations used is given in an appendix.

  16. Aerodynamic loads and blade vortex interaction noise prediction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Schaffar; J. Haertig; P. Gnemmi

    1990-01-01

    The vortex lattice method is described and applied in order to predict the aerodynamic loads on a thin two-bladed rotor. A local conformal mapping for each position in span is used to transform the thin rotor into a thick one. The pressure coefficients obtained for the thick rotor are fed into an acoustic code which is based on the Ffowcs-Williams-Hawkings

  17. Air Force procedure for predicting aircraft noise around airbases: Noise Exposure Model (NOISEMAP). User's manual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moulton, Carey L.

    1990-02-01

    This report describes the NOISEMAP 6.0 Noise Exposure Model and is intended as a user's guide for these programs. The report provides operating details on the MCM, OMEGA 10 and 11, and NMAP60 computer programs (which are all encompassed by the term NOISEMAP 6.0). The BASEOPS and NMPLOT programs are also discussed but only in relation to their interaction with NOISEMAP 6.0. Information regarding the changes made between NOISEMAP 6.0 and older versions are listed and a methodology for converting older NOISEMAP decks to this new version is discussed. The limitations of NOISEMAP 6.0 are detailed. An example case is provided for a small joint-use airfield. Three general aviation categories are employed (single, twin, and jet) and one military designation. Appendix C provides a complete listing of all the military and civilian aircraft which are contained in NOISEFILE 6.0 including power settings and airspeeds.

  18. Noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical frequency comb spectroscopy: a sensitive technique for high-resolution broadband molecular detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodabakhsh, Amir; Johansson, Alexandra C.; Foltynowicz, Aleksandra

    2015-04-01

    Noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical frequency comb spectroscopy (NICE-OFCS) is a recently developed technique that utilizes phase modulation to obtain immunity to frequency-to-amplitude noise conversion by the cavity modes and yields high absorption sensitivity over a broad spectral range. We describe the principles of the technique and discuss possible comb-cavity matching solutions. We present a theoretical description of NICE-OFCS signals detected with a Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) and validate the model by comparing it to experimental CO2 spectra around 1,575 nm. Our system is based on an Er:fiber femtosecond laser locked to a cavity and phase-modulated at a frequency equal to a multiple of the cavity free spectral range (FSR). The NICE-OFCS signal is detected by a fast-scanning FTS equipped with a high-bandwidth commercial detector. We demonstrate a simple method of passive locking of the modulation frequency to the cavity FSR that significantly improves the long-term stability of the system, allowing averaging times on the order of minutes. Using a cavity with a finesse of ~9,000, we obtain absorption sensitivity of 6.4 × 10-11 cm-1 Hz-1/2 per spectral element and concentration detection limit for CO2 of 450 ppb Hz-1/2, determined by multiline fitting.

  19. On Acoustic Source Specification for Rotor-Stator Interaction Noise Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nark, Douglas M.; Envia, Edmane; Burley, Caesy L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the use of measured source data to assess the effects of acoustic source specification on rotor-stator interaction noise predictions. Specifically, the acoustic propagation and radiation portions of a recently developed coupled computational approach are used to predict tonal rotor-stator interaction noise from a benchmark configuration. In addition to the use of full measured data, randomization of source mode relative phases is also considered for specification of the acoustic source within the computational approach. Comparisons with sideline noise measurements are performed to investigate the effects of various source descriptions on both inlet and exhaust predictions. The inclusion of additional modal source content is shown to have a much greater influence on the inlet results. Reasonable agreement between predicted and measured levels is achieved for the inlet, as well as the exhaust when shear layer effects are taken into account. For the number of trials considered, phase randomized predictions follow statistical distributions similar to those found in previous statistical source investigations. The shape of the predicted directivity pattern relative to measurements also improved with phase randomization, having predicted levels generally within one standard deviation of the measured levels.

  20. Noise Certification Predictions for FJX-2-Powered Aircraft Using Analytic Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berton, Jeffrey J.

    1999-01-01

    Williams International Co. is currently developing the 700-pound thrust class FJX-2 turbofan engine for the general Aviation Propulsion Program's Turbine Engine Element. As part of the 1996 NASA-Williams cooperative working agreement, NASA agreed to analytically calculate the noise certification levels of the FJX-2-powered V-Jet II test bed aircraft. Although the V-Jet II is a demonstration aircraft that is unlikely to be produced and certified, the noise results presented here may be considered to be representative of the noise levels of small, general aviation jet aircraft that the FJX-2 would power. A single engine variant of the V-Jet II, the V-Jet I concept airplane, is also considered. Reported in this paper are the analytically predicted FJX-2/V-Jet noise levels appropriate for Federal Aviation Regulation certification. Also reported are FJX-2/V-Jet noise levels using noise metrics appropriate for the propeller-driven aircraft that will be its major market competition, as well as a sensitivity analysis of the certification noise levels to major system uncertainties.

  1. Open Rotor Noise Prediction Methods at NASA Langley- A Technology Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farassat, F.; Dunn, Mark H.; Tinetti, Ana F.; Nark, Douglas M.

    2009-01-01

    Open rotors are once again under consideration for propulsion of the future airliners because of their high efficiency. The noise generated by these propulsion systems must meet the stringent noise standards of today to reduce community impact. In this paper we review the open rotor noise prediction methods available at NASA Langley. We discuss three codes called ASSPIN (Advanced Subsonic-Supersonic Propeller Induced Noise), FW - Hpds (Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings with penetrable data surface) and the FSC (Fast Scattering Code). The first two codes are in the time domain and the third code is a frequency domain code. The capabilities of these codes and the input data requirements as well as the output data are presented. Plans for further improvements of these codes are discussed. In particular, a method based on equivalent sources is outlined to get rid of spurious signals in the FW - Hpds code.

  2. Computational methods in the prediction of advanced subsonic and supersonic propeller induced noise: ASSPIN users' manual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, M. H.; Tarkenton, G. M.

    1992-04-01

    This document describes the computational aspects of propeller noise prediction in the time domain and the use of high speed propeller noise prediction program ASSPIN (Advanced Subsonic and Supersonic Propeller Induced Noise). These formulations are valid in both the near and far fields. Two formulations are utilized by ASSPIN: (1) one is used for subsonic portions of the propeller blade; and (2) the second is used for transonic and supersonic regions on the blade. Switching between the two formulations is done automatically. ASSPIN incorporates advanced blade geometry and surface pressure modelling, adaptive observer time grid strategies, and contains enhanced numerical algorithms that result in reduced computational time. In addition, the ability to treat the nonaxial inflow case has been included.

  3. Computational methods in the prediction of advanced subsonic and supersonic propeller induced noise: ASSPIN users' manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, M. H.; Tarkenton, G. M.

    1992-01-01

    This document describes the computational aspects of propeller noise prediction in the time domain and the use of high speed propeller noise prediction program ASSPIN (Advanced Subsonic and Supersonic Propeller Induced Noise). These formulations are valid in both the near and far fields. Two formulations are utilized by ASSPIN: (1) one is used for subsonic portions of the propeller blade; and (2) the second is used for transonic and supersonic regions on the blade. Switching between the two formulations is done automatically. ASSPIN incorporates advanced blade geometry and surface pressure modelling, adaptive observer time grid strategies, and contains enhanced numerical algorithms that result in reduced computational time. In addition, the ability to treat the nonaxial inflow case has been included.

  4. Ray-Tracing prediction of noise levels in a nuclear power-generating station

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Murray Hodgson

    1997-01-01

    This paper details the application of ray-tracing techniques to the prediction of noise levels inside power-generating stations. An existing nuclear powergenerating station was modelled as a test case. Measurements of sound propagation were made in the building before startup. Sound-propagation predictions were then made using ray tracing. These were fitted to the measurement data in order to characterize the acoustical

  5. Semidistributed model of millimeter-wave FET for parameter and noise figure predictions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurent Escotte; Jean-Claude Mollier

    1990-01-01

    An electrical FET model, derived from a partition of the actual transistor along its gate width into N identical sections, is presented. This sliced model has two important advantages compared to distributed models: first, the derivation of its element values is obtained by directly applying Kirchhoff's laws, and second, inserting the noise sources is easy and makes possible the prediction

  6. Comparison of Model Prediction With Measurements of Galactic Background Noise at L-Band

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Comparison of Model Prediction With Measurements of Galactic Background Noise at L-Band David M. Le--The spectral window at L-band (1.413 GHz) is im- portant for passive remote sensing of surface parameters with measurements made with several modern L-band remote sensing radiometers. The comparison validates the model

  7. Lifetime prediction for electronic components and circuits using the phase noise measuring method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Hoffmann; R. Vogt

    1982-01-01

    A method of lifetime prediction for electronic components and circuits using the temporal evolution of the phase noise level (PNL) as quality criterion is presented. The PNL is shown to be a direct measure for the advance of deficiency processes. A measuring device to determine PNL, and a mathematical method to evaluate the measured data are described. Measurements between 180

  8. Comparison of predictive measures of speech recognition after noise reduction processing.

    PubMed

    Smeds, Karolina; Leijon, Arne; Wolters, Florian; Hammarstedt, Anders; Båsjö, Sara; Hertzman, Sofia

    2014-09-01

    A number of measures were evaluated with regard to their ability to predict the speech-recognition benefit of single-channel noise reduction (NR) processing. Three NR algorithms and a reference condition were used in the evaluation. Twenty listeners with impaired hearing and ten listeners with normal hearing participated in a blinded laboratory study. An adaptive speech test was used. The speech test produces results in terms of signal-to-noise ratios that correspond to equal speech recognition performance (in this case 80% correct) with and without the NR algorithms. This facilitates a direct comparison between predicted and experimentally measured effects of noise reduction algorithms on speech recognition. The experimental results were used to evaluate nine different predictive measures, one in two variants. The best predictions were found with the Coherence Speech Intelligibility Index (CSII) [Kates and Arehart (2005), J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 117(4), 2224-2237]. In general, measures using correlation between the clean speech and the processed noisy speech, as well as other measures that are based on short-time analysis of speech and noise, seemed most promising. PMID:25190409

  9. Acoustic field calibration for noise prediction: the CALCOM'10 data set

    E-print Network

    Jesus, Sérgio M.

    Acoustic field calibration for noise prediction: the CALCOM'10 data set N´elson Martins, Paulo to an acoustic propagation code, to solve an acoustic forward problem. Inevitably, this knowledge is often of characterizing the candidate ocean area, in terms of the environmental properties relevant to acoustic

  10. Prediction of Excess Noise Factor and Frequency Response for Thin Avalanche Photodiodes

    E-print Network

    Hayat, Majeed M.

    Prediction of Excess Noise Factor and Frequency Response for Thin Avalanche Photodiodes Majeed M@bu.edu teich@bu.edu SUMMARY Recent experimental measurements from InP and InAlAs avalanche photodiodes (APDs of the avalanching mechanism is reduced. For thin multiplication-region APDs, this e ect is proportionally higher

  11. Prediction of noise emission from power plant by a mathematical model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Krittika Lertsawat; Supichai Tangjaitrong; Prathan Areebhol

    1999-01-01

    The principles of outdoor sound propagation were used to develop a power plant noise prediction model in order to illustrate the accuracy level of the mathematical model. Sound Pressure Level (SPL) measurements were conducted during dry season at Rayong Combined Cycle Power Plant (RPP) following the ISO 1996\\/1 and the equal angle method. Measurement and calculation methods for determining the

  12. A TOOL FOR PREDICTING VIBRATION AND STRUCTURE-BORNE NOISE IMMISSIONS CAUSED BY RAILWAYS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Kuppelwieser; A. Ziegler

    1996-01-01

    Due to Swiss environment legislation, the Swiss Federal Railways (SBB) has to minimize the negative influences of vibration in buildings near railways. For every newly constructed or extended railway track, costly measurements and calculations have to be undertaken to assess future immissions of vibration and structure-borne noise. To predict such immissions and determine corresponding measures in a less expensive and

  13. Core-Noise Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.

    2012-01-01

    This presentation is a technical summary of and outlook for NASA-internal and NASA-sponsored external research on core noise funded by the Fundamental Aeronautics Program Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) Project. Sections of the presentation cover: the SFW system-level noise metrics for the 2015 (N+1), 2020 (N+2), and 2025 (N+3) timeframes; SFW strategic thrusts and technical challenges; SFW advanced subsystems that are broadly applicable to N+3 vehicle concepts, with an indication where further noise research is needed; the components of core noise (compressor, combustor and turbine noise) and a rationale for NASA's current emphasis on the combustor-noise component; the increase in the relative importance of core noise due to turbofan design trends; the need to understand and mitigate core-noise sources for high-efficiency small gas generators; and the current research activities in the core-noise area, with additional details given about forthcoming updates to NASA's Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP) core-noise prediction capabilities, two NRA efforts (Honeywell International, Phoenix, AZ and University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, respectively) to improve the understanding of core-noise sources and noise propagation through the engine core, and an effort to develop oxide/oxide ceramic-matrix-composite (CMC) liners for broadband noise attenuation suitable for turbofan-core application. Core noise must be addressed to ensure that the N+3 noise goals are met. Focused, but long-term, core-noise research is carried out to enable the advanced high-efficiency small gas-generator subsystem, common to several N+3 conceptual designs, needed to meet NASA's technical challenges. Intermediate updates to prediction tools are implemented as the understanding of the source structure and engine-internal propagation effects is improved. The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program has the principal objective of overcoming today's national challenges in air transportation. The SFW Quiet-Aircraft Subproject aims to develop concepts and technologies to reduce perceived community noise attributable to aircraft with minimal impact on weight and performance. This reduction of aircraft noise is critical to enabling the anticipated large increase in future air traffic.

  14. Broadband Models for Predicting Bistatic Bottom, Surface, and Volume Scattering Strengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauss, Roger C.; Gragg, Robert F.; Wurmser, Daniel; Fialkowski, Joseph M.; Nero, Redwood W.

    2002-09-01

    Multistatic active system performance can be driven by reverberation from the ocean boundaries and biologics. Providing accurate sonar performance predictions of reverberation, in turn, relies on providing accurate estimates of bistatic scattering strengths. This report presents new three-dimensional models that provide physics-based estimates of the dependence of scattering strength on the incident and scattered grazing angles, the bistatic angle, the acoustic frequency (10 to 10000 Hz), and physical descriptors of the environment (such as bottom properties for the bottom model, wind speed for the surface model, and fish properties for the volume model). The bottom model describes scattering from rough, elastic interfaces while the surface model describes scattering from both the rough air-sea interface and subsurface bubbles. The volume models describe scattering from dispersed bladdered fish, including boundary-interference effects. For all, parameter studies along with data-model comparisons demonstrate the importance of using physics-based scattering models to describe the complex acoustic interaction processes at the active performance/reverberation models (such as the Comprehensive Acoustic System Simulation (CASS) or the Bistatic Range-dependent Active System Performance (BiRASP) models) and inverse algorithms (such as environmentally adaptive techniques).

  15. Conducted EMI Noise Prediction and Characterization for Multi-phase-leg Converters Based on Modular-Terminal-Behavioral (MTB) Equivalent EMI Noise Source Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qian Liu; Fred Wang; Dushan Boroyevich

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a new frequency-domain method for predicting conducted electromagnetic interference (EMI) noise in phase-leg-based power converters. Based on modular-terminal-behavioral (MTB) equivalent EMI source model for a switch module (half of a phase-leg) developed at a given operating condition, the proposed approach applies the MTB model to predict EMI noise for the converter consisting of multiple phase-legs. Use of

  16. The state of the art of predicting noise-induced sleep disturbance in field settings.

    PubMed

    Fidell, Sanford; Tabachnick, Barbara; Pearsons, Karl S

    2010-01-01

    Several relationships between intruding noises (largely aircraft) and sleep disturbance have been inferred from the findings of a handful of field studies. Comparisons of sleep disturbance rates predicted by the various relationships are complicated by inconsistent data collection methods and definitions of predictor variables and predicted quantities. None of the relationships is grounded in theory-based understanding, and some depend on questionable statistical assumptions and analysis procedures. The credibility, generalizability, and utility of sleep disturbance predictions are also limited by small and nonrepresentative samples of test participants, and by restricted (airport-specific and relatively short duration) circumstances of exposure. Although expedient relationships may be the best available, their predictions are of only limited utility for policy analysis and regulatory purposes, because they account for very little variance in the association between environmental noise and sleep disturbance, have characteristically shallow slopes, have not been well validated in field settings, are highly context-dependent, and do not squarely address the roles and relative importance of nonacoustic factors in sleep disturbance. Such relationships offer the appearance more than the substance of precision and objectivity. Truly useful, population-level prediction and genuine understanding of noise-induced sleep disturbance will remain beyond reach for the foreseeable future, until the findings of field studies of broader scope and more sophisticated design become available. PMID:20472953

  17. Mean Flow and Noise Prediction for a Separate Flow Jet With Chevron Mixers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, L. Danielle; Bridges, James; Khavaran, Abbas

    2004-01-01

    Experimental and numerical results are presented here for a separate flow nozzle employing chevrons arranged in an alternating pattern on the core nozzle. Comparisons of these results demonstrate that the combination of the WIND/MGBK suite of codes can predict the noise reduction trends measured between separate flow jets with and without chevrons on the core nozzle. Mean flow predictions were validated against Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), pressure, and temperature data, and noise predictions were validated against acoustic measurements recorded in the NASA Glenn Aeroacoustic Propulsion Lab. Comparisons are also made to results from the CRAFT code. The work presented here is part of an on-going assessment of the WIND/MGBK suite for use in designing the next generation of quiet nozzles for turbofan engines.

  18. Analysis of Acoustic Modeling and Sound Propagation in Aircraft Noise Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plotkin, Kenneth J.; Shepherd, Kevin P. (Technical Monitor)

    2006-01-01

    An analysis has been performed of measured and predicted aircraft noise levels around Denver International Airport. A detailed examination was made of 90 straight-out departures that yielded good measurements on multiple monitors. Predictions were made with INM 5, INM 6 and the simulation model NMSIM. Predictions were consistently lower than measurements, less so for the simulation model than for the integrated models. Lateral directivity ("installation effect") patterns were seen which are consistent with other recent measurements. Atmospheric absorption was determined to be a significant factor in the underprediction. Calculations of atmospheric attenuation were made over a full year of upper air data at seven locations across the United States. It was found that temperature/humidity effects could cause variations of up to +/-4 dB, depending on season, for the sites examined. It was concluded that local temperature and humidity should be accounted for in aircraft noise modeling.

  19. Open Rotor Noise Prediction at NASA Langley - Capabilities, Research and Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farassat, Fereidoun

    2010-01-01

    The high fuel prices of recent years have caused the operating cost of the airlines to soar. In an effort to bring down the fuel consumption, the major aircraft engine manufacturers are now taking a fresh look at open rotors for the propulsion of future airliners. Open rotors, also known as propfans or unducted fans, can offer up to 30 per cent improvement in efficiency compared to high bypass engines of 1980 vintage currently in use in most civilian aircraft. NASA Langley researchers have contributed significantly to the development of aeroacoustic technology of open rotors. This report discusses the current noise prediction technology at Langley and reviews the input data requirements, strengths and limitations of each method as well as the associated problems in need of attention by the researchers. We present a brief history of research on the aeroacoustics of rotating blade machinery at Langley Research Center. We then discuss the available noise prediction codes for open rotors developed at NASA Langley and their capabilities. In particular, we present the two useful formulations used for the computation of noise from subsonic and supersonic surfaces. Here we discuss the open rotor noise prediction codes ASSPIN and one based on Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equation with penetrable data surface (FW - Hpds). The scattering of sound from surfaces near the rotor are calculated using the fast scattering code (FSC) which is also discussed in this report. Plans for further improvements of these codes are given.

  20. Helicopter rotor rotational noise predictions based on measured high-frequency blade loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hosier, R. N.; Ramakrishnan, R.

    1974-01-01

    In tests conducted at the Langley helicopter rotor test facility, simultaneous measurements of up to 200 harmonics of the fluctuating aerodynamic blade surface pressures and far-field radiated noise were made on a full-scale nontranslating rotor system. After their characteristics were determined, the measured blade surface pressures were converted to loading coefficients and used in an existing theory to predict the far-field rotational noise. A comparison of the calculated and measured noise shows generally good agreement up to 300 to 600 Hz, depending on the discreteness of the loading spectrum. Specific attention is given to the effects of the blade loading coefficients, chordwise loading distributions, blade loading phases, and observer azimuthal position on the calculations.

  1. Prediction of blade-vortex interaction noise from measured blade pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, Y.

    1981-01-01

    The impulsive nature of noise due to the interaction of a rotor blade with a tip vortex is studied. The time signature of this noise is calculated theoretically based on the measured blade surface pressure fluctuation of an operational load survey rotor in slow descending flight and is compared with the simultaneous microphone measurement. Particularly, the physical understanding of the characteristic features of a waveform is extensively studied in order to understand the generating mechanism and to identify the important parameters. The interaction trajectory of a tip vortex on an acoustic planform is shown to be a very important parameter for the impulsive shape of the noise. The unsteady nature of the pressure distribution at the very leading edge is also important to the pulse shape. The theoretical model using noncompact liner acoustics predicts the general shape of interaction impulse pretty well except for peak amplitude which requires more continuous information along the span at the leading edge.

  2. Time-varying prediction filter for structural noise reduction in ultrasonic NDE.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, M A G; Hernández, M G; Anaya, J J

    2006-12-22

    Predominant physical phenomenon in highly scattering materials is the attenuation due to dispersion. Therefore, received echo has high frequencies more severely attenuated than low frequencies and the structural noise can be modeled as a non-stationary random process. Most of the proposed techniques for enhancing the flaw visibility do not exploit the frequency dependency of the incoming flaw signal, assuming homogeneous behaviour of the insonified material. In this work, a new technique based on exploiting the non-stationary nature of the incoming UT signal is presented. Proposed technique is based on the prediction error obtained with a linear and time-varying parametric model of the noise. By this method, when the analyzed UT echo has only structural noise, the prediction error is low, however, if it contains a flaw, high prediction error occurs because a flaw is a non-predictable alteration of the material structure. Experiments with stainless steel show that this method has an excellent performance on SNR enhancement. PMID:16797660

  3. Large Civil Tiltrotor (LCTR2) Interior Noise Predictions due to Turbulent Boundary Layer Excitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grosveld, Ferdinand W.

    2013-01-01

    The Large Civil Tiltrotor (LCTR2) is a conceptual vehicle that has a design goal to transport 90 passengers over a distance of 1800 km at a speed of 556 km/hr. In this study noise predictions were made in the notional LCTR2 cabin due to Cockburn/Robertson and Efimtsov turbulent boundary layer (TBL) excitation models. A narrowband hybrid Finite Element (FE) analysis was performed for the low frequencies (6-141 Hz) and a Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) was conducted for the high frequency one-third octave bands (125- 8000 Hz). It is shown that the interior sound pressure level distribution in the low frequencies is governed by interactions between individual structural and acoustic modes. The spatially averaged predicted interior sound pressure levels for the low frequency hybrid FE and the high frequency SEA analyses, due to the Efimtsov turbulent boundary layer excitation, were within 1 dB in the common 125 Hz one-third octave band. The averaged interior noise levels for the LCTR2 cabin were predicted lower than the levels in a comparable Bombardier Q400 aircraft cabin during cruise flight due to the higher cruise altitude and lower Mach number of the LCTR2. LCTR2 cabin noise due to TBL excitation during cruise flight was found not unacceptable for crew or passengers when predictions were compared to an acoustic survey on a Q400 aircraft.

  4. The effects of vortex modeling on blade-vortex interaction noise prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallman, Judith M.; Tung, Chee; Low, Scott L.

    1995-01-01

    The use of a blade vortex interaction noise prediction scheme, based on CAMRAD/JA, FPR and RAPP, quantifies the effects of errors and assumptions in the modeling of the helicopter's shed vortex on the acoustic predictions. CAMRAD/JA computes the wake geometry and inflow angles that are used in FPR to solve for the aerodynamic surface pressures. RAPP uses these surface pressures to predict the acoustic pressure. Both CAMRAD/JA and FPR utilize the Biot-Savart Law to determine the influence of the vortical velocities on the blade loading and both codes use an algebraic vortex model for the solid body rotation of the vortex core. Large changes in the specification of the vortex core size do not change the inplane wake geometry calculated by CAMRAD/JA and only slightly affect the out-of-plane wake geometry. However, the aerodynamic surface pressure calculated by FPR changes in both magnitude and character with small changes to the core size used by the FPR calculations. This in turn affects the acoustic predictions. Shifting the CAMRAD/JA wake geometry away from the rotor plane by 1/4 chord produces drastic changes in the acoustic predictions indicating that the prediction of acoustic pressure is extremely sensitive to the miss distance between the vortex and the blade and that this distance must be calculated as accurately as possible for acceptable noise predictions. The inclusion or exclusion of a vortex in the FPR-RAPP calculation allows for the determination of the relative importance of that vortex as a BVI noise source.

  5. The effects of vortex modeling on blade-vortex interaction noise prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallman, Judith M.; Tung, Chee; Low, Scott L.

    The use of a blade vortex interaction noise prediction scheme, based on CAMRAD/JA, FPR and RAPP, quantifies the effects of errors and assumptions in the modeling of the helicopter's shed vortex on the acoustic predictions. CAMRAD/JA computes the wake geometry and inflow angles that are used in FPR to solve for the aerodynamic surface pressures. RAPP uses these surface pressures to predict the acoustic pressure. Both CAMRAD/JA and FPR utilize the Biot-Savart Law to determine the influence of the vortical velocities on the blade loading and both codes use an algebraic vortex model for the solid body rotation of the vortex core. Large changes in the specification of the vortex core size do not change the inplane wake geometry calculated by CAMRAD/JA and only slightly affect the out-of-plane wake geometry. However, the aerodynamic surface pressure calculated by FPR changes in both magnitude and character with small changes to the core size used by the FPR calculations. This in turn affects the acoustic predictions. Shifting the CAMRAD/JA wake geometry away from the rotor plane by 1/4 chord produces drastic changes in the acoustic predictions indicating that the prediction of acoustic pressure is extremely sensitive to the miss distance between the vortex and the blade and that this distance must be calculated as accurately as possible for acceptable noise predictions. The inclusion or exclusion of a vortex in the FPR-RAPP calculation allows for the determination of the relative importance of that vortex as a BVI noise source.

  6. An iso-deviant strategy for efficient ambient noise predictions with EAGLE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rike, Erik R.; Delbalzo, Donald R.

    2001-05-01

    Transmission loss (TL) computations in littoral areas require a dense spatial and azimuthal grid to achieve acceptable accuracy and detail, which is very slow. This problem of accuracy versus speed led to a new concept, OGRES (Objective Grid/Radials using Environmentally sensitive Selection), which produces sparse, irregular acoustic grids, with controlled accuracy. Recent work to further increase accuracy and efficiency with better metrics and interpolation led to EAGLE (Efficient Acoustic Gridder for Littoral Environments). On each iteration, EAGLE produces an acoustic field with approximately constant spatial uncertainty (hence, iso-deviance), yielding TL predictions with ever-increasing resolution and accuracy. This work adapts EAGLE to ambient noise computations. The Dynamic Ambient Noise Model (DANM) allows accurate, detailed estimation of the mean and variance of ambient noise in both space and time, but its TL computations are too slow for many applications. In the present work, a series of EAGLE acoustic field predictions was used by DANM (and compared to the dense full-grid solution) to determine the relationship between transmission loss uncertainty and noise-field uncertainty for a complex littoral area. An example is presented where approximately an order of magnitude efficiency improvement (over regular grids) is demonstrated. [Work sponsored by ONR under the LADC project.

  7. Development of Jet Noise Power Spectral Laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khavaran, Abbas; Bridges, James

    2011-01-01

    High-quality jet noise spectral data measured at the Aero-Acoustic Propulsion Laboratory (AAPL) at NASA Glenn is used to develop jet noise scaling laws. A FORTRAN algorithm was written that provides detailed spectral prediction of component jet noise at user-specified conditions. The model generates quick estimates of the jet mixing noise and the broadband shock-associated noise (BBSN) in single-stream, axis-symmetric jets within a wide range of nozzle operating conditions. Shock noise is emitted when supersonic jets exit a nozzle at imperfectly expanded conditions. A successful scaling of the BBSN allows for this noise component to be predicted in both convergent and convergent-divergent nozzles. Configurations considered in this study consisted of convergent and convergent- divergent nozzles. Velocity exponents for the jet mixing noise were evaluated as a function of observer angle and jet temperature. Similar intensity laws were developed for the broadband shock-associated noise in supersonic jets. A computer program called sJet was developed that provides a quick estimate of component noise in single-stream jets at a wide range of operating conditions. A number of features have been incorporated into the data bank and subsequent scaling in order to improve jet noise predictions. Measurements have been converted to a lossless format. Set points have been carefully selected to minimize the instability-related noise at small aft angles. Regression parameters have been scrutinized for error bounds at each angle. Screech-related amplification noise has been kept to a minimum to ensure that the velocity exponents for the jet mixing noise remain free of amplifications. A shock-noise-intensity scaling has been developed independent of the nozzle design point. The computer program provides detailed narrow-band spectral predictions for component noise (mixing noise and shock associated noise), as well as the total noise. Although the methodology is confined to single streams, efforts are underway to generate a data bank and algorithm applicable to dual-stream jets. Shock-associated noise in high-powered jets such as military aircraft can benefit from these predictions.

  8. Noise sampling issues for impact/impulse noise surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prince, Mary M.; Vipperman, Jeffrey S.

    2003-04-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) has been recognized as a serious health concern for decades. ISO Standard 1999:1990 provides a means to predict noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) based on LAeq measurements in the working environments of workers. This standard seems to work well for predicting hearing loss in continuous noise fields. However, it is possible that ISO 1999 does not apply well to impact, impulsive, or other transient noise fields. NIOSH and University of Pittsburgh are currently developing noise-sampling strategies to measure impact and impulse noise in a manufacturing environment with the aim of developing new impulsive noise metrics. As part of the study, broadband impact/impulse pressure measurements will be made. Issues such as instrumentation, data quality, repeatability, spatial sampling, equipment portability, and calibration are addressed. Also, the annotation, digitization, and editing of the waveforms will be discussed. As part of the project, an archival database of manufacturing impulse/impact will be created to support the future algorithmic development. The ultimate goal of the project is to develop new metrics to characterize the hazards of impact/impulse noise that will complement ISO 1999 for predicting NIHL.

  9. The Application of a Boundary Integral Equation Method to the Prediction of Ducted Fan Engine Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, M. H.; Tweed, J.; Farassat, F.

    1999-01-01

    The prediction of ducted fan engine noise using a boundary integral equation method (BIEM) is considered. Governing equations for the BIEM are based on linearized acoustics and describe the scattering of incident sound by a thin, finite-length cylindrical duct in the presence of a uniform axial inflow. A classical boundary value problem (BVP) is derived that includes an axisymmetric, locally reacting liner on the duct interior. Using potential theory, the BVP is recast as a system of hypersingular boundary integral equations with subsidiary conditions. We describe the integral equation derivation and solution procedure in detail. The development of the computationally efficient ducted fan noise prediction program TBIEM3D, which implements the BIEM, and its utility in conducting parametric noise reduction studies are discussed. Unlike prediction methods based on spinning mode eigenfunction expansions, the BIEM does not require the decomposition of the interior acoustic field into its radial and axial components which, for the liner case, avoids the solution of a difficult complex eigenvalue problem. Numerical spectral studies are presented to illustrate the nexus between the eigenfunction expansion representation and BIEM results. We demonstrate BIEM liner capability by examining radiation patterns for several cases of practical interest.

  10. Interior Noise Predictions in the Preliminary Design of the Large Civil Tiltrotor (LCTR2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grosveld, Ferdinand W.; Cabell, Randolph H.; Boyd, David D.

    2013-01-01

    A prediction scheme was established to compute sound pressure levels in the interior of a simplified cabin model of the second generation Large Civil Tiltrotor (LCTR2) during cruise conditions, while being excited by turbulent boundary layer flow over the fuselage, or by tiltrotor blade loading and thickness noise. Finite element models of the cabin structure, interior acoustic space, and acoustically absorbent (poro-elastic) materials in the fuselage were generated and combined into a coupled structural-acoustic model. Fluctuating power spectral densities were computed according to the Efimtsov turbulent boundary layer excitation model. Noise associated with the tiltrotor blades was predicted in the time domain as fluctuating surface pressures and converted to power spectral densities at the fuselage skin finite element nodes. A hybrid finite element (FE) approach was used to compute the low frequency acoustic cabin response over the frequency range 6-141 Hz with a 1 Hz bandwidth, and the Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) approach was used to predict the interior noise for the 125-8000 Hz one-third octave bands.

  11. Measurement and prediction of noise from low-altitude military aircraft operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barry, Bernard F.; Payne, Richard C.; Harris, Anthony L.; Weston, Ralph J.

    1992-04-01

    In response to the rapid growth in demand for information on noise levels around military airfields in the UK, NPL developed AIRNOISE, a mathematical model for computing aircraft noise contours. Since its first applications in 1981, the model has been used to determine zones of eligibility within the MoD compensation scheme. The model has been subject to continuous development, e.g., the incorporation of Harrier V/STOL operations. We have now extended the model to include noise from high-speed, low-level operations. The model predicts not only maximum levels but the complete time-history, so that the time-onset rate can be estimated. To aid refinement and validation of the model, a special exercise has been conducted in which Tornado, Harrier, Jaguar, Hawk, F-15 and F-16 aircraft have flown straight and level at heights between about 100 and 400 feet, at various speeds and engine power settings over an array of microphones. This paper describes the trial and the results obtained. The prediction model is outlined and comparisons made between predictions and measurements.

  12. A Three-Dimensional Hybrid LES-Acoustic Analogy Method for Predicting Open-Cavity Noise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huanxin Lai; Kai H. Luo

    2007-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) hybrid LES-acoustic analogy method for computational aeroacoustics (CAA) is presented for the prediction\\u000a of open-cavity noise. The method uses large-eddy simulation (LES) to compute the acoustic source while the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings\\u000a (FW-H) acoustic analogy is employed for the prediction of the far-field sound. As a comparison, a two-dimensional (2D) FW-H\\u000a analogy is also included. The hybrid method

  13. Comparison of methods of predicting community response to impulsive and nonimpulsive noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fidell, Sanford; Pearsons, Karl S.

    1994-02-01

    Several scientific, regulatory, and policy-coordinating bodies have developed methods for predicting community response to sonic booms. The best known of these is the dosage-response relationship of Working Group 84 of the National Academy of Science's Committee on Hearing, Bioacoustics and Biomechanics. This dosage-response relationship between C-weighted DayNight Average Sound Level and the prevalence of annoyance with high energy impulsive sounds was derived from limited amounts of information about community response to regular, prolonged, and expected exposure to artillery and sonic booms. U.S. Army Regulation 201 adapts this approach to predictions of the acceptability of impulsive noise exposure in communities. This regulation infers equivalent degrees of effect with respect to a well known dosage-response relationship for general (nonimpulsive) transportation noise. Differences in prevalence of annoyance predicted by various relationships lead to different predictions of the compatibility of land uses with sonic boom exposure. An examination of these differences makes apparent several unresolved issues in current practice for predicting and interpreting the prevalence of annoyance due to sonic boom exposure.

  14. Comparison of methods of predicting community response to impulsive and nonimpulsive noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fidell, Sanford; Pearsons, Karl S.

    1994-01-01

    Several scientific, regulatory, and policy-coordinating bodies have developed methods for predicting community response to sonic booms. The best known of these is the dosage-response relationship of Working Group 84 of the National Academy of Science's Committee on Hearing, Bioacoustics and Biomechanics. This dosage-response relationship between C-weighted DayNight Average Sound Level and the prevalence of annoyance with high energy impulsive sounds was derived from limited amounts of information about community response to regular, prolonged, and expected exposure to artillery and sonic booms. U.S. Army Regulation 201 adapts this approach to predictions of the acceptability of impulsive noise exposure in communities. This regulation infers equivalent degrees of effect with respect to a well known dosage-response relationship for general (nonimpulsive) transportation noise. Differences in prevalence of annoyance predicted by various relationships lead to different predictions of the compatibility of land uses with sonic boom exposure. An examination of these differences makes apparent several unresolved issues in current practice for predicting and interpreting the prevalence of annoyance due to sonic boom exposure.

  15. The Prediction of Noise Due to Jet Turbulence Convecting Past Flight Vehicle Trailing Edges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Steven A. E.

    2014-01-01

    High intensity acoustic radiation occurs when turbulence convects past airframe trailing edges. A mathematical model is developed to predict this acoustic radiation. The model is dependent on the local flow and turbulent statistics above the trailing edge of the flight vehicle airframe. These quantities are dependent on the jet and flight vehicle Mach numbers and jet temperature. A term in the model approximates the turbulent statistics of single-stream heated jet flows and is developed based upon measurement. The developed model is valid for a wide range of jet Mach numbers, jet temperature ratios, and flight vehicle Mach numbers. The model predicts traditional trailing edge noise if the jet is not interacting with the airframe. Predictions of mean-flow quantities and the cross-spectrum of static pressure near the airframe trailing edge are compared with measurement. Finally, predictions of acoustic intensity are compared with measurement and the model is shown to accurately capture the phenomenon.

  16. Development of Computational Aeroacoustics Code for Jet Noise and Flow Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keith, Theo G., Jr.; Hixon, Duane R.

    2002-07-01

    Accurate prediction of jet fan and exhaust plume flow and noise generation and propagation is very important in developing advanced aircraft engines that will pass current and future noise regulations. In jet fan flows as well as exhaust plumes, two major sources of noise are present: large-scale, coherent instabilities and small-scale turbulent eddies. In previous work for the NASA Glenn Research Center, three strategies have been explored in an effort to computationally predict the noise radiation from supersonic jet exhaust plumes. In order from the least expensive computationally to the most expensive computationally, these are: 1) Linearized Euler equations (LEE). 2) Very Large Eddy Simulations (VLES). 3) Large Eddy Simulations (LES). The first method solves the linearized Euler equations (LEE). These equations are obtained by linearizing about a given mean flow and the neglecting viscous effects. In this way, the noise from large-scale instabilities can be found for a given mean flow. The linearized Euler equations are computationally inexpensive, and have produced good noise results for supersonic jets where the large-scale instability noise dominates, as well as for the tone noise from a jet engine blade row. However, these linear equations do not predict the absolute magnitude of the noise; instead, only the relative magnitude is predicted. Also, the predicted disturbances do not modify the mean flow, removing a physical mechanism by which the amplitude of the disturbance may be controlled. Recent research for isolated airfoils' indicates that this may not affect the solution greatly at low frequencies. The second method addresses some of the concerns raised by the LEE method. In this approach, called Very Large Eddy Simulation (VLES), the unsteady Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations are solved directly using a high-accuracy computational aeroacoustics numerical scheme. With the addition of a two-equation turbulence model and the use of a relatively coarse grid, the numerical solution is effectively filtered into a directly calculated mean flow with the small-scale turbulence being modeled, and an unsteady large-scale component that is also being directly calculated. In this way, the unsteady disturbances are calculated in a nonlinear way, with a direct effect on the mean flow. This method is not as fast as the LEE approach, but does have many advantages to recommend it; however, like the LEE approach, only the effect of the largest unsteady structures will be captured. An initial calculation was performed on a supersonic jet exhaust plume, with promising results, but the calculation was hampered by the explicit time marching scheme that was employed. This explicit scheme required a very small time step to resolve the nozzle boundary layer, which caused a long run time. Current work is focused on testing a lower-order implicit time marching method to combat this problem.

  17. Development of Computational Aeroacoustics Code for Jet Noise and Flow Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keith, Theo G., Jr.; Hixon, Duane R.

    2002-01-01

    Accurate prediction of jet fan and exhaust plume flow and noise generation and propagation is very important in developing advanced aircraft engines that will pass current and future noise regulations. In jet fan flows as well as exhaust plumes, two major sources of noise are present: large-scale, coherent instabilities and small-scale turbulent eddies. In previous work for the NASA Glenn Research Center, three strategies have been explored in an effort to computationally predict the noise radiation from supersonic jet exhaust plumes. In order from the least expensive computationally to the most expensive computationally, these are: 1) Linearized Euler equations (LEE). 2) Very Large Eddy Simulations (VLES). 3) Large Eddy Simulations (LES). The first method solves the linearized Euler equations (LEE). These equations are obtained by linearizing about a given mean flow and the neglecting viscous effects. In this way, the noise from large-scale instabilities can be found for a given mean flow. The linearized Euler equations are computationally inexpensive, and have produced good noise results for supersonic jets where the large-scale instability noise dominates, as well as for the tone noise from a jet engine blade row. However, these linear equations do not predict the absolute magnitude of the noise; instead, only the relative magnitude is predicted. Also, the predicted disturbances do not modify the mean flow, removing a physical mechanism by which the amplitude of the disturbance may be controlled. Recent research for isolated airfoils' indicates that this may not affect the solution greatly at low frequencies. The second method addresses some of the concerns raised by the LEE method. In this approach, called Very Large Eddy Simulation (VLES), the unsteady Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations are solved directly using a high-accuracy computational aeroacoustics numerical scheme. With the addition of a two-equation turbulence model and the use of a relatively coarse grid, the numerical solution is effectively filtered into a directly calculated mean flow with the small-scale turbulence being modeled, and an unsteady large-scale component that is also being directly calculated. In this way, the unsteady disturbances are calculated in a nonlinear way, with a direct effect on the mean flow. This method is not as fast as the LEE approach, but does have many advantages to recommend it; however, like the LEE approach, only the effect of the largest unsteady structures will be captured. An initial calculation was performed on a supersonic jet exhaust plume, with promising results, but the calculation was hampered by the explicit time marching scheme that was employed. This explicit scheme required a very small time step to resolve the nozzle boundary layer, which caused a long run time. Current work is focused on testing a lower-order implicit time marching method to combat this problem.

  18. A semi-analytical model for the prediction of underwater noise from offshore pile driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsouvalas, A.; Metrikine, A. V.

    2013-06-01

    Underwater noise from offshore pile driving gained considerable attention in recent years mainly due to the large scale construction of offshore wind farms. The most common foundation type of a wind turbine is a monopile, upon which the wind tower rests. The pile is driven into place with the help of hydraulic hammers. During the hammering of the pile, high levels of noise are generated which are known to produce deleterious effects on both mammals and fish. In this work, a linear semi-analytical model is developed for predicting the levels of underwater noise for a wide range of system parameters. The model incorporates all major parts of the system. The hydraulic hammer is substituted by an external force, the pile is described as a thin circular cylindrical shell, the water is modelled as a compressible fluid and the water-saturated seabed is defined by distributed springs and dashpots in all directions. The solution of the coupled vibroacoustic problem is based on the representation of the response of the complete system on the modal basis of the in vacuo shell structure. The influence that the inter-modal coupling, the choice of the soil parameters and the acoustic impedance of the seabed have on the generated noise levels is studied in the frequency domain. Strong and weak points of the present model are discussed on the basis of a comparison with a set of available experimental data. The obtained results show the capability of the model to predict the underwater noise levels both qualitatively and quantitatively.

  19. Zwicker Tone Illusion Noise Reduction

    E-print Network

    van Hemmen, J. Leo

    results motivated by the hole burning concept of the noise-reduction model presented here. 3 #12; 2. For instance, after switching o#11; a broad-band noise with a spectral gap, one per- ceives it as a lingering the Zwicker tone is a broad-band noise with a spectral gap presented during several seconds. #15; When

  20. Experimental characterization of vertical-axis wind turbine noise.

    PubMed

    Pearson, C E; Graham, W R

    2015-01-01

    Vertical-axis wind turbines are wind-energy generators suitable for use in urban environments. Their associated noise thus needs to be characterized and understood. As a first step, this work investigates the relative importance of harmonic and broadband contributions via model-scale wind-tunnel experiments. Cross-spectra from a pair of flush-mounted wall microphones exhibit both components, but further analysis shows that the broadband dominates at frequencies corresponding to the audible range in full-scale operation. This observation has detrimental implications for noise-prediction reliability and hence also for acoustic design optimization. PMID:25618090

  1. Experimental study of tyre/road contact forces in rolling conditions for noise prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cesbron, Julien; Anfosso-Lédée, Fabienne; Duhamel, Denis; Ping Yin, Hai; Le Houédec, Donatien

    2009-02-01

    This paper deals with the experimental study of dynamical tyre/road contact for noise prediction. In situ measurements of contact forces and close proximity noise levels were carried out for a slick tyre rolling on six different road surfaces between 30 and 50 km/h. Additional texture profiles of the tested surfaces were taken on the wheel track. Normal contact stresses were measured at a sampling frequency of 10752 Hz using a line of pressure sensitive cells placed both along and perpendicular to the rolling direction. The contact areas obtained during rolling were smaller than in static conditions. This is mainly explained by the dynamical properties of tyre compounds, like the viscoelastic behaviour of the rubber. Additionally the root-mean-square of the resultant contact forces at various speeds was in the same order for a given road surface, while their spectra were quite different. This is certainly due to a spectral influence of bending waves propagating in the tyre during rolling, especially when the wavelength is small in comparison with the size of the contact patch. Finally, the levels of contact forces and close proximity noise measured at 30 km/h were correlated. Additional correlations with texture levels were performed. The results show that the macro-texture generates contact forces linearly around 800 Hz and consequently noise levels between 500 and 1000 Hz via the vibrations transmitted to the tyre.

  2. METHODS AND TOOLS FOR MONITORING AND PREDICTION OF THE LARGE-SCALE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF RAILWAY NOISE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. B. J. ELBERS

    2000-01-01

    Due to environmental impact regulations there is a demand for methods and tools to determine noise reception levels near railway lines. Currently, a wide variety of methods and tools is available. Fast computers now enable us to develop powerful tools that combine simplified prediction methods with GIS systems. These new systems allow the study of noise reception levels and environmental

  3. Methods and Tools for Monitoring and Prediction of the Large-Scale Environmental Impact of Railway Noise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. B. J. Elbers

    2000-01-01

    Due to environmental impact regulations there is a demand for methods and tools to determine noise reception levels near railway lines. Currently, a wide variety of methods and tools is available. Fast computers now enable us to develop powerful tools that combine simplified prediction methods with GIS systems. These new systems allow the study of noise reception levels and environmental

  4. Measurement and prediction of ultralow frequency ocean ambient noise off the eastern U.S. coast.

    PubMed

    Wilson, D Keith; Frisk, George V; Lindstrom, Timothy E; Sellers, Cynthia J

    2003-06-01

    Ultralow frequency (0.02-2 Hz) acoustic ambient noise was monitored from January to April 1991 at six ocean bottom stations off the eastern U.S. coast. The depths of the stations ranged from about 100 m to 2500 m. The measured spectra are in good agreement with predictions made using Cato's theory [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 89, 1076-1095 (1991)] for noise generation by surface-wave orbital motion after extending the calculations to incorporate horizontally stratified environments. Contributions from both the linear, single-frequency (virtual monopole) and the nonlinear, double-frequency (dipole) mechanisms are clearly recognizable in the data. The predictions make use of directional wave data obtained from surface buoys deployed during the SWADE experiment and an ocean bottom model derived from compressional wave speed data measured during the EDGE deep seismic reflection survey. The results demonstrate conclusively that nonlinear surface-wave interactions are the dominant mechanism for generating deep-ocean ULF noise in the band 0.2-0.7 Hz. PMID:12822784

  5. Analytical prediction of break-out noise from a reactive rectangular plenum with four flexible walls.

    PubMed

    Venkatesham, B; Tiwari, Mayank; Munjal, M L

    2010-10-01

    This paper describes an analytical calculation of break-out noise from a rectangular plenum with four flexible walls by incorporating three-dimensional effects along with the acoustical and structural wave coupling phenomena. The breakout noise from rectangular plenums is important and the coupling between acoustic waves within the plenum and structural waves in the flexible plenum walls plays a critical role in prediction of the transverse transmission loss. The first step in breakout noise prediction is to calculate the inside plenum pressure field and the normal flexible plenum wall vibration by using an impedance-mobility approach, which results in a compact matrix formulation. In the impedance-mobility compact matrix (IMCM) approach, it is presumed that the coupled response can be described in terms of finite sets of the uncoupled acoustic subsystem and the structural subsystem. The flexible walls of the plenum are modeled as an unfolded plate to calculate natural frequencies and mode shapes of the uncoupled structural subsystem. The second step is to calculate the radiated sound power from the flexible walls using Kirchhoff-Helmholtz (KH) integral formulation. Analytical results are validated with finite element and boundary element (FEM-BEM) numerical models. PMID:20968352

  6. Source Methodology for Turbofan Noise Prediction (SOURCE3D Technical Documentation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Harold D.

    1999-01-01

    This report provides the analytical documentation for the SOURCE3D Rotor Wake/Stator Interaction Code. It derives the equations for the rotor scattering coefficients and stator source vector and scattering coefficients that are needed for use in the TFANS (Theoretical Fan Noise Design/Prediction System). SOURCE3D treats the rotor and stator as isolated source elements. TFANS uses this information, along with scattering coefficients for inlet and exit elements, and provides complete noise solutions for turbofan engines. SOURCE3D is composed of a collection of FORTRAN programs that have been obtained by extending the approach of the earlier V072 Rotor Wake/Stator Interaction Code. Similar to V072, it treats the rotor and stator as a collection of blades and vanes having zero thickness and camber contained in an infinite, hardwall annular duct. SOURCE3D adds important features to the V072 capability-a rotor element, swirl flow and vorticity waves, actuator disks for flow turning, and combined rotor/actuator disk and stator/actuator disk elements. These items allow reflections from the rotor, frequency scattering, and mode trapping, thus providing more complete noise predictions than previously. The code has been thoroughly verified through comparison with D.B. Hanson's CUP2D two- dimensional code using a narrow annulus test case.

  7. Quantification of advanced turboprop aircraft flyover noise annoyance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccurdy, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to quantify the annoyance to advanced turboprop (propfan) aircraft flyover noise. A computer synthesis system was used to generate 45 realistic, time varying simulations of propeller aircraft flyover noise in which the tonal content was systematically varied to represent the factorial combinations of five fundamental frequencies, three frequency envelope shapes, and three tone-to-broadband noise ratios. In the experiment, 64 subjects judged the annoyance of recordings of the 45 synthesized flyover noises presented at three sound levels in a test facility which simulates the outdoor acoustic environment. Analyses of the judgements showed that frequency envelope shape did not significantly affect annoyance. The interaction of fundamental frequency with tone-to-broadband noise ratio did have a large and complex effect on annoyance. Duration corrected A-weighted sound pressure level with a modified tone correction predicted annoyance better than any other measurement procedure.

  8. Enhanced Fan Noise Modeling for Turbofan Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krejsa, Eugene A.; Stone, James R.

    2014-01-01

    This report describes work by consultants to Diversitech Inc. for the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) to revise the fan noise prediction procedure based on fan noise data obtained in the 9- by 15 Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel at GRC. The purpose of this task is to begin development of an enhanced, analytical, more physics-based, fan noise prediction method applicable to commercial turbofan propulsion systems. The method is to be suitable for programming into a computational model for eventual incorporation into NASA's current aircraft system noise prediction computer codes. The scope of this task is in alignment with the mission of the Propulsion 21 research effort conducted by the coalition of NASA, state government, industry, and academia to develop aeropropulsion technologies. A model for fan noise prediction was developed based on measured noise levels for the R4 rotor with several outlet guide vane variations and three fan exhaust areas. The model predicts the complete fan noise spectrum, including broadband noise, tones, and for supersonic tip speeds, combination tones. Both spectra and directivity are predicted. Good agreement with data was achieved for all fan geometries. Comparisons with data from a second fan, the ADP fan, also showed good agreement.

  9. Development of computer program ENMASK for prediction of residual environmental masking-noise spectra, from any three independent environmental parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Y.-S.; Liebich, R. E.; Chun, K. C.

    2000-03-31

    Residual environmental sound can mask intrusive4 (unwanted) sound. It is a factor that can affect noise impacts and must be considered both in noise-impact studies and in noise-mitigation designs. Models for quantitative prediction of sensation level (audibility) and psychological effects of intrusive noise require an input with 1/3 octave-band spectral resolution of environmental masking noise. However, the majority of published residual environmental masking-noise data are given with either octave-band frequency resolution or only single A-weighted decibel values. A model has been developed that enables estimation of 1/3 octave-band residual environmental masking-noise spectra and relates certain environmental parameters to A-weighted sound level. This model provides a correlation among three environmental conditions: measured residual A-weighted sound-pressure level, proximity to a major roadway, and population density. Cited field-study data were used to compute the most probable 1/3 octave-band sound-pressure spectrum corresponding to any selected one of these three inputs. In turn, such spectra can be used as an input to models for prediction of noise impacts. This paper discusses specific algorithms included in the newly developed computer program ENMASK. In addition, the relative audibility of the environmental masking-noise spectra at different A-weighted sound levels is discussed, which is determined by using the methodology of program ENAUDIBL.

  10. Modeling and Prediction of the Noise from Non-Axisymmetric Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leib, Stewart J.

    2014-01-01

    The new source model was combined with the original sound propagation model developed for rectangular jets to produce a new version of the rectangular jet noise prediction code. This code was validated using a set of rectangular nozzles whose geometries were specified by NASA. Nozzles of aspect ratios two, four and eight were studied at jet exit Mach numbers of 0.5, 0.7 and 0.9, for a total of nine cases. Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes solutions for these jets were provided to the contactor for use as input to the code. Quantitative comparisons of the predicted azimuthal and polar directivity of the acoustic spectrum were made with experimental data provided by NASA. The results of these comparisons, along with a documentation of the propagation and source models, were reported in a journal article publication (Ref. 4). The complete set of computer codes and computational modules that make up the prediction scheme, along with a user's guide describing their use and example test cases, was provided to NASA as a deliverable of this task. The use of conformal mapping, along with simplified modeling of the mean flow field, for noise propagation modeling was explored for other nozzle geometries, to support the task milestone of developing methods which are applicable to other geometries and flow conditions of interest to NASA. A model to represent twin round jets using this approach was formulated and implemented. A general approach to solving the equations governing sound propagation in a locally parallel nonaxisymmetric jet was developed and implemented, in aid of the tasks and milestones charged with selecting more exact numerical methods for modeling sound propagation, and developing methods that have application to other nozzle geometries. The method is based on expansion of both the mean-flowdependent coefficients in the governing equation and the Green's function in series of orthogonal functions. The method was coded and tested on two analytically prescribed mean flows which were meant to represent noise reduction concepts being considered by NASA. Testing (Ref. 5) showed that the method was feasible for the types of mean flows of interest in jet noise applications. Subsequently, this method was further developed to allow use of mean flow profiles obtained from a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) solution of the flow. Preliminary testing of the generalized code was among the last tasks completed under this contract. The stringent noise-reduction goals of NASA's Fundamental Aeronautics Program suggest that, in addition to potentially complex exhaust nozzle geometries, next generation aircraft will also involve tighter integration of the engine with the airframe. Therefore, noise generated and propagated by jet flows in the vicinity of solid surfaces is expected to be quite significant, and reduced-order noise prediction tools will be needed that can deal with such geometries. One important source of noise is that generated by the interaction of a turbulent jet with the edge of a solid surface (edge noise). Such noise is generated, for example, by the passing of the engine exhaust over a shielding surface, such as a wing. Work under this task supported an effort to develop a RANS-based prediction code for edge noise based on an extension of the classical Rapid Distortion Theory (RDT) to transversely sheared base flows (Refs. 6 and 7). The RDT-based theoretical analysis was applied to the generic problem of a turbulent jet interacting with the trailing edge of a flat plate. A code was written to evaluate the formula derived for the spectrum of the noise produced by this interaction and results were compared with data taken at NASA Glenn for a variety of jet/plate configurations and flow conditions (Ref. 8). A longer-term goal of this task was to work toward the development of a high-fidelity model of sound propagation in spatially developing non-axisymmetric jets using direct numerical methods for solving the relevant equations. Working with NASA Glenn Acoustics Branch personnel, numerical methods and boundary cond

  11. Predicting the Inflow Distortion Tone Noise of the NASA Glenn Advanced Noise Control Fan with a Combined Quadrupole-Dipole Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, L. Danielle

    2012-01-01

    A combined quadrupole-dipole model of fan inflow distortion tone noise has been extended to calculate tone sound power levels generated by obstructions arranged in circumferentially asymmetric locations upstream of a rotor. Trends in calculated sound power level agreed well with measurements from tests conducted in 2007 in the NASA Glenn Advanced Noise Control Fan. Calculated values of sound power levels radiated upstream were demonstrated to be sensitive to the accuracy of the modeled wakes from the cylindrical rods that were placed upstream of the fan to distort the inflow. Results indicate a continued need to obtain accurate aerodynamic predictions and measurements at the fan inlet plane as engineers work towards developing fan inflow distortion tone noise prediction tools.

  12. Adaptive noise-predictive maximum likelihood detection using tentative decision and partial path selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Joohyun; Lee, Jaejin

    2007-03-01

    We present a noise-predictive maximum likelihood (NPML) detection scheme considering both low complexity and effective adaptation. First, for achieving low complexity, we exploit the modified Viterbi decoding method that partially selects the survival paths. The partial path selection method limits the number of selected paths among all survival paths at the Viterbi trellis and selects a path with minimum metric among the selected paths while the original Viterbi algorithm considers all paths and decides the best path. Next, for effective adaptation, we propose an adaptive NPML scheme exploiting a tentative decision value of the Viterbi decoding process.

  13. Super-Trellis Based Noise Predictive Joint Bit Detection and Runlength Limited Decoding for High-Density Optical Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiao-Ming; Theis, Oliver

    2009-03-01

    Super-trellis based noise predictive detection is investigated for high density optical storage, where runlength limited (RLL) encoder, non-return-to-zero inverted (NRZI) precoder, partial response (PR) channel, and noise predictor (NP) together are interpreted as an equivalent RLL-NRZI-PR-NP channel. Two approaches are shown to combine an RLL decoding trellis with the NRZI-PR channel by means of looking either backward or forward the RLL decoding trellis, which is extended to construct an RLL-NRZI-PR-NP super-trellis. To maintain a reasonable detector complexity, reduced-state noise predictive detectors are derived. Three different d = 1 RLL codes are compared with respect to the complexity of noise predictive detectors, showing the complexity advantage of our recently designed d = 1, k = 9 RLL code. Simulation results show that bit error rate performance gain obtained by the proposed detector increases as storage density increases.

  14. A computer program for the prediction of near field noise of aircraft in cruising flight: User's guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tibbetts, J. G.

    1980-06-01

    Detailed instructions for using the near field cruise noise prediction program, a program listing, and a sample case with output are presented. The total noise for free field lossless conditions at selected observer locations is obtained by summing the contributions from up to nine acoustic sources. These noise sources, selected at the user's option, include the fan/compressor, turbine, core (combustion), jet, shock, and airframe (trailing edge and turbulent boundary layers). The effects of acoustic suppression materials such as engine inlet treatment may also be included in the noise prediction. The program is available for use on the NASA/Langley Research Center CDC computer. Comparisons of the program predictions with measured data are also given, and some possible reasons for their lack of agreement presented.

  15. Simplified combustion noise theory yielding a prediction of fluctuating pressure level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, R. G.

    1984-01-01

    The first order equations for the conservation of mass and momentum in differential form are combined for an ideal gas to yield a single second order partial differential equation in one dimension and time. Small perturbation analysis is applied. A Fourier transformation is performed that results in a second order, constant coefficient, nonhomogeneous equation. The driving function is taken to be the source of combustion noise. A simplified model describing the energy addition via the combustion process gives the required source information for substitution in the driving function. This enables the particular integral solution of the nonhomogeneous equation to be found. This solution multiplied by the acoustic pressure efficiency predicts the acoustic pressure spectrum measured in turbine engine combustors. The prediction was compared with the overall sound pressure levels measured in a CF6-50 turbofan engine combustor and found to be in excellent agreement.

  16. Methods and Tools for Monitoring and Prediction of the Large-Scale Environmental Impact of Railway Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ELBERS, F. B. J.

    2000-03-01

    Due to environmental impact regulations there is a demand for methods and tools to determine noise reception levels near railway lines. Currently, a wide variety of methods and tools is available. Fast computers now enable us to develop powerful tools that combine simplified prediction methods with GIS systems. These new systems allow the study of noise reception levels and environmental impact on a large-scale (complete network, national or international), while more detailed and labour-intensive methods and tools are used when demanded by law. This paper presents a brief overview of the noise prediction methods and tools used in the Netherlands. The focus is on the advantages and restrictions of the different methods. Finally, the paper gives an overview of the actual advantages and restrictions of the recently extended Gerano method Gerano98 (Geographic Railway Noise). Gerano was originally based on the “basic Dutch calculation rules for railway noise”. Gerano98 was extended using simplified prediction schemes for the most relevant parts of the “detailed Dutch calculation rules for railway noise”. This most recent calculation method, combined with geographic input features, provides the possibility of determining noise impact and the noise measures to be taken on both the medium and large scale. Examples of the application of the methods and tools to specific (medium- and large-scale) projects are provided. The medium-scale project presents the results of a selection of the prefered line between Amsterdam and Zwolle. The large-scale project (the complete Dutch railway network) shows the results of the comparison of noise measures at source with noise barriers or housing insulation. For both projects the applicability and the usefulness of the methods in these situations is discussed. In conclusion four developments of the Gerano concept are described which have recently been finished or will be so in the near future.

  17. Computation of interactional aerodynamics for noise prediction of heavy lift rotorcraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennes, Christopher C.

    Many computational tools are used when developing a modern helicopter. As the design space is narrowed, more accurate and time-intensive tools are brought to bear. These tools are used to determine the effect of a design decision on the performance, handling, stability and efficiency of the aircraft. One notable parameter left out of this process is acoustics. This is due in part to the difficulty in making useful acoustics calculations that reveal the differences between various design configurations. This thesis presents a new approach designed to bridge the gap in prediction capability between fast but low-fidelity Lagrangian particle methods, and slow but high-fidelity Eulerian computational fluid dynamics simulations. A multi-pronged approach is presented. First, a simple flow solver using well-understood and tested flow solution methodologies is developed specifically to handle bodies in arbitrary motion. To this basic flow solver two new technologies are added. The first is an Immersed Boundary technique designed to be tolerant of geometric degeneracies and low-resolution grids. This new technique allows easy inclusion of complex fuselage geometries at minimal computational cost, improving the ability of a solver to capture the complex interactional aerodynamic effects expected in modern rotorcraft design. The second new technique is an extension of a concept from flow visualization where the motion of tip vortices are tracked through the solution using massless particles convecting with the local flow. In this extension of that concept, the particles maintain knowledge of the expected and actual vortex strength. As a post-processing step, when the acoustic calculations are made, these particles are used to augment the loading noise calculation and reproduce the highly-impulsive character of blade-vortex interaction noise. In combination these new techniques yield a significant improvement to the state of the art in rotorcraft blade-vortex interaction noise prediction.

  18. Separation of airborne and structureborne noise radiated by plates constructed of conventional and composite materials with applications for prediction of interior noise paths in propeller driven aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGary, M. C.

    The anticipated application of advanced turboprop propulsion systems and the use of composite materials in primary structure is expected to increase the interior noise of future aircraft to unacceptably high levels. The absence of technically and economically feasible noise source-path diagnostics tools has been a prime obstacle in the development of efficient noise control treatments for propeller driven aircraft. A new diagnostic method which permits the separation and prediction of the fully coherent airborne and structureborne components of the sound radiated by plates or thin shells has been developed. Analytical and experimental studies of the proposed method were performed on plates constructed of both conventional and composite materials. The results of the study indicate that the proposed method can be applied to a variety of aircraft materials, could be used in flight, and has fewer encumbrances than the other diagnostic tools currently available. The study has also revealed that the noise radiation of vibrating plates in low frequency regime due to combined airborne and structureborne inputs possesses a strong synergistic nature. The large influence of the interaction between the airborne and structureborne terms has been hitherto ignored by researchers of aircraft interior noise problems. noise problems.

  19. Assessment of Radiated Fan Noise Prediction Capabilities Using Static Engine Test Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nark, Douglas M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes further assessment of the CDUCT-LaRC code via comparison with static engine test data. In an effort to improve confidence in the use of CDUCT-LaRC for liner optimization studies addressing realistic three-dimensional geometries, inlet radiated fan noise predictions were performed at 54% and 87% engine speed settings. Predictions were then compared with far-field measurements to assess the approach and implementation. The particular configurations were chosen to exercise the three-dimensional capability of CDUCT-LaRC and it s applicability to realistic configurations and conditions. At the 54% engine speed setting, the predictions capture the general directivity and acoustic treatment effects quite well. Comparisons of the predicted and measured directivity at the 87% power setting were more problematic. This was likely due in part to the difficulties in source specification and possibly the nonlinear nature of buzz-saw tones at this engine operating condition. Overall, the approach captured the basic trends and provided a conservative estimate of liner effects from which relative performance metrics could be inferred.

  20. Advanced turboprop aircraft flyover noise annoyance - Comparison of different propeller configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccurdy, David A.

    1989-01-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to compare the annoyance of flyover noise from advanced turboprop aircraft having different propeller configurations with the annoyance of conventional turboprop and jet aircraft flyover noise. It was found that advanced turboprops with single-rotating propellers were, on average, slightly less annoying than the other aircraft. Fundamental frequency and tone-to-broadband noise ratio affected annoyance response to advanced turboprops but the effects varied with propeller configuration and noise metric. The addition of duration corrections and corrections for tones above 500 Hz to the noise measurement procedures improved prediction ability.

  1. Separation of airborne and structureborne noise radiated by plates constructed of conventional and composite materials with applications for prediction of interior noise paths in propeller driven aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGary, M. C.

    1986-01-01

    The anticipated application of advanced turboprop propulsion systems and use of composite materials in primary structure is expected to increase the interior noise of future aircraft to unacceptability high levels. The absence of technically and economically feasible noise source-path diagnostic tools has been a primer obstacle in the development of efficient noise control treatments for propeller driven aircraft. A new diagnostic method which permits the separation and prediction of the fully coherent airborne and structureborne components of the sound radiated by plates or thin shells has been developed. Analytical and experimental studies of the proposed method were performed on plates constructed of both conventional and composite materials. The results of the study indicate that the proposed method can be applied to a variety of aircraft materials, could be used in flight, and has fewer encumbrances than the other diagnostic tools currently available. The study has also revealed that the noise radiation of vibrating plates in the low frequency regime due to combined airborne and structureborne inputs possesses a strong synergistic nature. The large influence of the interaction between the airborne and structureborne terms has been hitherto ignored by researchers of aircraft interior noise problems.

  2. Prediction of stochastic blade responses using a filtered noise turbulence model in the FLAP (Force and Loads Analysis Program) code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thresher, R. W.; Holley, W. E.; Wright, A. D.

    1988-11-01

    Accurately predicting wind turbine blade loads and resulting stresses is important for predicting the fatigue life of components. There is a clear need within the wind industry for validated codes that can predict not only the deterministic loads from the mean wind velocity, wind shear, and gravity, but also the stochastic loads from turbulent inflow. The FLAP code has already been validated for predicting deterministic loads. This paper concentrates on validating the FLAP code for predicting stochastic turbulence loads using the filtered-noise turbulence model as input.

  3. Prediction of stochastic blade responses using a filtered noise turbulence model in the FLAP (Force and Loads Analysis Program) code

    SciTech Connect

    Thresher, R.W.; Holley, W.E.; Wright, A.D.

    1988-11-01

    Accurately predicting wind turbine blade loads and resulting stresses is important for predicting the fatigue life of components. There is a clear need within the wind industry for validated codes that can predict not only the deterministic loads from the mean wind velocity, wind shear, and gravity, but also the stochastic loads from turbulent inflow. The FLAP code has already been validated for predicting deterministic loads. This paper concentrates on validating the FLAP code for predicting stochastic turbulence loads using the filtered-noise turbulence model as input. 26 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. A reduced-scale railway noise barrier's insertion loss and absorption coefficients: comparison of field measurements and predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busch, T. A.; Nugent, R. E.

    2003-10-01

    In situ testing determined the insertion loss ( IL) and absorption coefficients of a candidate absorptive noise barrier (soundwall) to abate railway noise for residents of Anaheim, CA. A 4000 m barrier is proposed south of the tracks, but residential areas to the north have expressed concerns that barrier reflections will increase their noise exposure. To address these concerns, a 3.66 m high by 14.6 m long demonstration barrier was built in the parking lot of Edison Field, Anaheim, as part of a public open house, thereby allowing for acoustical measurements. Insertion loss ( IL) was measured in third-octave bands assuming 1/2-scale construction. The IL for three, scaled railway noise sub-sources (rail/wheel interface, locomotive, and train horn) was measured at six, scaled distances. The highest total, A-weighted IL, after corrections for finite-barrier and point-source speaker effects was 22 dB(A) for rail/wheel noise, 18 dB(A) for locomotive noise, and 20 dB(A) for train horn noise. These results can be compared favourably to IL predictions made using algorithms from the US Federal Rail Administration (FRA) noise assessment guidelines. For the actual barrier installation, shielded residential receivers located south of the project are expected to see their future noise exposures reduced from an unmitigated 78 CNEL to 65 CNEL. Absorption coefficients were measured using time delay spectrometry. At lower frequencies, measured absorption coefficients were notably less than the reverberation room results advertised in the manufacturer's literature, but generally conformed with impedance tube results. At higher frequencies the correspondence between measured absorption coefficients and reverberation room results was much improved. For the actual barrier installation, unshielded residential receivers to the north are expected to experience noise exposure increases of less than 1 dB(A). This factor of increase is consistent with a finding of no impact when assessed using FRA guidelines for allowable increases of noise exposure.

  5. Experimental assessment of a turbulence ingestion noise theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonich, John; Schlinker, Robert; Amiet, Roy

    A model helicopter rotor was tested in a closed anechoic chamber to assess the accuracy of a rotor noise theory for nonisotropic turbulence ingestion. The measured aerodynamic properties were used as inputs to a noise prediction procedure. The agreement between the experimental data and predictions is good, although the analysis generally overpredicts the quasi-tonal low to mid range frequencies and underpredicts the higher broadband signals. The predicted sound power level as a function of polar angle is in close agreement with measurements, except near the rotor plane, which is not modeled by the present analysis.

  6. A moving medium formulation for prediction of propeller noise at incidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghorbaniasl, Ghader; Lacor, Chris

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a time domain formulation for the sound field radiated by moving bodies in a uniform steady flow with arbitrary orientation. The aim is to provide a formulation for prediction of noise from body so that effects of crossflow on a propeller can be modeled in the time domain. An established theory of noise generation by a moving source is combined with the moving medium Green's function for derivation of the formulation. A formula with Doppler factor is developed because it is more easily interpreted and is more helpful in examining the physic of systems. Based on the technique presented, the source of asymmetry of the sound field can be explained in terms of physics of a moving source. It is shown that the derived formulation can be interpreted as an extension of formulation 1 and 1A of Farassat based on the Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings (FW-H) equation for moving medium problems. Computational results for a stationary monopole and dipole point source in moving medium, a rotating point force in crossflow, a model of helicopter blade at incidence and a propeller case with subsonic tips at incidence verify the formulation.

  7. Color image lossy compression based on blind evaluation and prediction of noise characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponomarenko, Nikolay N.; Lukin, Vladimir V.; Egiazarian, Karen O.; Lepisto, Leena

    2011-03-01

    The paper deals with JPEG adaptive lossy compression of color images formed by digital cameras. Adaptation to noise characteristics and blur estimated for each given image is carried out. The dominant factor degrading image quality is determined in a blind manner. Characteristics of this dominant factor are then estimated. Finally, a scaling factor that determines quantization steps for default JPEG table is adaptively set (selected). Within this general framework, two possible strategies are considered. A first one presumes blind estimation for an image after all operations in digital image processing chain just before compressing a given raster image. A second strategy is based on prediction of noise and blur parameters from analysis of RAW image under quite general assumptions concerning characteristics parameters of transformations an image will be subject to at further processing stages. The advantages of both strategies are discussed. The first strategy provides more accurate estimation and larger benefit in image compression ratio (CR) compared to super-high quality (SHQ) mode. However, it is more complicated and requires more resources. The second strategy is simpler but less beneficial. The proposed approaches are tested for quite many real life color images acquired by digital cameras and shown to provide more than two time increase of average CR compared to SHQ mode without introducing visible distortions with respect to SHQ compressed images.

  8. Fuselage panel noise attenuation by piezoelectric switching control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makihara, Kanjuro; Miyakawa, Takeya; Onoda, Junjiro; Minesugi, Kenji

    2010-08-01

    This paper describes a problem that we encountered in our noise attenuation project and our solution for it. We intend to attenuate low-frequency noise that transmits through aircraft fuselage panels. Our method of noise attenuation is implemented with a piezoelectric semi-active system having a selective switch instead of an active energy-supply system. The semi-active controller is based on the predicted sound pressure distribution obtained from acoustic emission analysis. Experiments and numerical simulations demonstrate that the semi-active method attenuates acoustic levels of not only the simple monochromatic noise but also of broadband noise. We reveal that tuning the electrical parameters in the circuit is the key to effective noise attenuation, to overcome the acoustic excitation problem due to sharp switching actions, as well as to control chattering problems. The results obtained from this investigation provide meaningful insights into designing noise attenuation systems for comfortable aircraft cabin environments.

  9. The Prediction of Noise Scattered by a Wing/Ducted Fan Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tweed, John; Dunn, Mark H.

    1999-01-01

    In this proof of concept research, a computational method was developed for predicting the sound field created by the scattering of ducted fan engine noise by a blended wing-body (BWB). It was assumed that all acoustic processes were linear and time harmonic with excitation frequency co. Inflow effects were neglected and no penetration boundary conditions were applied to the engine nacelle and BWB surfaces. A scattering approach was adopted in which the total acoustic field is written as the sum of known incident (from the engine duct) and unknown scattered parts. We further assume that the incident field is independent of the scattered field. Application of the above conditions to the equations of linearized acoustics yields the Helmholtz equation (reduced wave equation) for the scattered pressure with Neumann boundary conditions.

  10. Long-term broadband technology forecasting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KJELL STORDAHL

    The paper gives an overview of the relevant broadband technologies, describes their market positions and possibilities. Diffusion models are used to make long-term broadband forecasts for the Western European residential market. The forecasts are separated for the main broadband technologies ADSL, ADSL2+\\/VDSL, Cable modem and other technologies (FTTx, BWA) based on market share predictions for each technology. The long-term forecasts

  11. [Sensitivity of the neurons in the auditory inferior colliculus of mice to the direction of the shift of broadband spectral notch noise].

    PubMed

    Vartanian, I A; Malinina, E S

    2002-09-01

    Series of a notch noise with regular shifts of the notch center frequency: one--from low frequencies to high frequencies and the other--from high frequencies to the low, were synthesized. The notch noise series imitated sound source vertical moving. Single neuron's responses of inferior colliculus of the house mouse (Mus musculus) to the notch-noises altered with notch central frequency varying through excitatory and inhibitory frequency response areas in neurones' receptive fields. The neural responses alteration to the notch noise varying depended on the bandwidth of notch. Disinhibition in inhibitory side band could be higher if the notch overlying the inhibitory areas followed the notch overlying the excitatory areas. The data obtained make it possible to consider the excitatory and inhibitory interaction as a mechanism of neural sensitivity to the notch moving direction. Neurones' response set could provide information about sound source moving over auditory space. PMID:12503421

  12. Identification of the CAGE, Prism, and Book Isomers of Water Hexamer and the Predicted Lowest Energy Heptamer and Nonamer Clusters by Broadband Rotational Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, Cristobal; Muckle, Matt T.; Zaleski, Daniel P.; Seifert, Nathan; Pate, Brooks H.; Kisiel, Zbigniew; Temelso, Berhane; Shields, George C.

    2012-06-01

    The water hexamer is predicted to be the smallest water cluster with a three-dimensional hydrogen bonding network as its minimum energy structure. Calculations indicate that there are several possible low-energy isomers, with different levels of theory identifying different isomers as the global minimum. Previous experimental work has provided evidence for the cage, book, and cyclic isomers but no experiment has identified multiple coexisting structures. Using broadband rotational spectroscopy in pulsed supersonic expansion these three isomers have now been unambiguously identified and their oxygen framework structures determined by means of H_218O substitution. Relative isomer populations at different expansion conditions establish that the cage isomer is the minimum energy structure. The comparison of experimental and theoretical rotational constants shows that significant improvement in the agreement is achieved when vibrationally averaged (0 K) theoretical structures are used. For the water hexamer isomers, only the prism shows effects from tunneling associated with the rearrangement of the H-bond network. This tunneling is quenched upon the incorporation of a single H_218O monomer into the prism cluster. Rotational spectra consistent with predictions for the lowest energy heptamer and nonamer structures have also been identified and the structure of the heptamer oxygen atom framework has also been determined using H_218O substitution.

  13. A Comparison of Computational Aeroacoustic Prediction Methods for Transonic Rotor Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brentner, Kenneth S.; Lyrintzis, Anastasios; Koutsavdis, Evangelos K.

    1996-01-01

    This paper compares two methods for predicting transonic rotor noise for helicopters in hover and forward flight. Both methods rely on a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solution as input to predict the acoustic near and far fields. For this work, the same full-potential rotor code has been used to compute the CFD solution for both acoustic methods. The first method employs the acoustic analogy as embodied in the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FW-H) equation, including the quadrupole term. The second method uses a rotating Kirchhoff formulation. Computed results from both methods are compared with one other and with experimental data for both hover and advancing rotor cases. The results are quite good for all cases tested. The sensitivity of both methods to CFD grid resolution and to the choice of the integration surface/volume is investigated. The computational requirements of both methods are comparable; in both cases these requirements are much less than the requirements for the CFD solution.

  14. Binaural prediction of speech intelligibility in reverberant rooms with multiple noise sources.

    PubMed

    Lavandier, Mathieu; Jelfs, Sam; Culling, John F; Watkins, Anthony J; Raimond, Andrew P; Makin, Simon J

    2012-01-01

    When speech is in competition with interfering sources in rooms, monaural indicators of intelligibility fail to take account of the listener's abilities to separate target speech from interfering sounds using the binaural system. In order to incorporate these segregation abilities and their susceptibility to reverberation, Lavandier and Culling [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 127, 387-399 (2010)] proposed a model which combines effects of better-ear listening and binaural unmasking. A computationally efficient version of this model is evaluated here under more realistic conditions that include head shadow, multiple stationary noise sources, and real-room acoustics. Three experiments are presented in which speech reception thresholds were measured in the presence of one to three interferers using real-room listening over headphones, simulated by convolving anechoic stimuli with binaural room impulse-responses measured with dummy-head transducers in five rooms. Without fitting any parameter of the model, there was close correspondence between measured and predicted differences in threshold across all tested conditions. The model's components of better-ear listening and binaural unmasking were validated both in isolation and in combination. The computational efficiency of this prediction method allows the generation of complex "intelligibility maps" from room designs. PMID:22280586

  15. A method for predicting DCT-based denoising efficiency for grayscale images corrupted by AWGN and additive spatially correlated noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubel, Aleksey S.; Lukin, Vladimir V.; Egiazarian, Karen O.

    2015-03-01

    Results of denoising based on discrete cosine transform for a wide class of images corrupted by additive noise are obtained. Three types of noise are analyzed: additive white Gaussian noise and additive spatially correlated Gaussian noise with middle and high correlation levels. TID2013 image database and some additional images are taken as test images. Conventional DCT filter and BM3D are used as denoising techniques. Denoising efficiency is described by PSNR and PSNR-HVS-M metrics. Within hard-thresholding denoising mechanism, DCT-spectrum coefficient statistics are used to characterize images and, subsequently, denoising efficiency for them. Results of denoising efficiency are fitted for such statistics and efficient approximations are obtained. It is shown that the obtained approximations provide high accuracy of prediction of denoising efficiency.

  16. A comparison of the noise characteristics of full scale and model helicopter rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leverton, J. W.; Pollard, J. S.

    1973-01-01

    Full scale and model rotor noise results are compared in terms of the spectral content, the directivity patterns, and the dependence on tip speed and rotor thrust/pitch angle. Each of the three main noise sources (rotational, low-frequency broadband, and high-frequency broadband) are reviewed separately, and account is taken of the measurement angle relative to the rotor disc. Blade 'scaling' effects are discussed together with the agreement between existing theoretical and semiempirical prediction methods. It is shown that in general good agreement is obtained between the full scale and model rotors for the spectral content and the velocity and thrust dependencies, while the 'scaling' factors associated with the low-frequency broadband noise do not seem to be appropriate.

  17. Automated, Accurate Macromodelling of Digital Aggressors for Power/Ground/Substrate Noise Prediction

    E-print Network

    Roychowdhury, Jaijeet

    . A major noise source is simultaneous switching noise (SSN) or delta-I noise, due to the inductance effects ¡ £ ¥ ¡ ¨ [2]. With millions of transistors on a single chip, the SSN can easily reach hundreds of millivolts, people have tried to come up with much faster/smaller/simpler models which are still reasonably ac

  18. A prediction model for the vortex shedding noise from the wake of an airfoil or axial flow fan blades

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Lee; M. K. Chung; Y.-H. Kim

    1993-01-01

    An analytical model is presented for predicting the vortex shedding noise generated from the wake of axial flow fan blades. The downstream wake of a fan blade is assumed to be dominated by the von Karman vortex street, and the strength and the shedding frequency of the wake vortex are determined from the wake structure model. The fluctuating pressure and

  19. UNDERSTANDING THE INFLUENCE OF NOISE, SAMPLING DENSITY AND DATA DISTRIBUTION ON SPATIAL PREDICTION QUALITY THROUGH THE USE OF

    E-print Network

    Obradovic, Zoran

    UNDERSTANDING THE INFLUENCE OF NOISE, SAMPLING DENSITY AND DATA DISTRIBUTION ON SPATIAL PREDICTION 99164 USA E-mail: zoran@eecs.wsu.edu Tim Fiez Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Washington State-supported simulation, Regression analysis, Least-squares methods, Agriculture ABSTRACT The influence of data parameters

  20. Determining the strength of rotating broadband sources in ducts by inverse methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. R. Lowis; P. F. Joseph

    2006-01-01

    Aeroengine broadband fan noise is a major contributor to the community noise exposure from aircraft. It is currently believed that the dominant broadband noise mechanisms are due to interaction of the turbulent wake from the rotor with the stator, and interaction of the turbulent boundary layers on the rotor blades with their trailing edges. Currently there are no measurement techniques

  1. The "Jerk" Method for Predicting Intrusions and Eruptions of Piton De La Fournaise (La Réunion Island) from the Analysis of the Broadband Seismological Rer Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roult, G. C.; Beauducel, F.; Ferrazzini, V.; Boissier, P.; Villeneuve, N.

    2014-12-01

    The predictability of volcanic eruptions remains a challenging problem and forecast of volcano behavior (intrusion versus eruption) is a difficult task. Since 1979, the Volcano Observatory of Piton de la Fournaise (OVPF) maintains SP and BB seismic stations, tiltmeters, extensometers and GPS stations. In addition, the RER GEOSCOPE broadband station was installed in 1986, 8.5 km north of the summit crater. The analysis of 83 seismic crises from December 1985 to December 2010 (preceding 54 eruptions, 26 intrusions, 2 summit pit craters,1 caldera collapse) allowed us to identify short-term long period seismic transients (period > 100 s) for most events (Roult et al., 2012). These precursors observed on the horizontal components are tilt signals induced by the inflation/deflation of the volcano. We analyzed 17 eruptions and 7 intrusions spanning the 2005-2010 period with the aim of distinguishing whether an injection of magma will stop or if it can evolve towards an eruption. Transient signature is an acceleration step that can be large or not, with slopes more or less steep according to the acceleration rate. We show a clear differentiation between the acceleration rate of the intrusions (low rate) and the acceleration rate of the eruptions (high rate). With a ratio estimated to 7, the acceleration rate allows to determine a threshold value and to discriminate between intrusive and eruptive events. The real-time calculation of the ground acceleration of the horizontal components of the RER station after removal of the theoretical tide effect is integrated since April 2014 to the Piton de la Fournaise volcano monitoring. In June 2014, the "JERK"method predicted an eruption 50 minutes before the eruption onset. We applied the "material failure prediction" of Voight and Cornelius (1991) with the aim to predict the onset time of the eruptions. Preliminary tests on the 17 eruptions of the 2005-2010 period have shown that the summit eruptions were relatively well predicted (error of a few minutes). The distal eruptions seem to be systematically predicted too early. This approach will be added to the monitoring system. Roult et al., 2012. JVGR, 241-242, 78-104Voight and Cornelius, 1991. Letters to Nature, 350, 695-698.

  2. Aircraft noise prediction program propeller analysis system IBM-PC version user's manual version 2.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nolan, Sandra K.

    1988-01-01

    The IBM-PC version of the Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP) Propeller Analysis System (PAS) is a set of computational programs for predicting the aerodynamics, performance, and noise of propellers. The ANOPP-PAS is a subset of a larger version of ANOPP which can be executed on CDC or VAX computers. This manual provides a description of the IBM-PC version of the ANOPP-PAS and its prediction capabilities, and instructions on how to use the system on an IBM-XT or IBM-AT personal computer. Sections within the manual document installation, system design, ANOPP-PAS usage, data entry preprocessors, and ANOPP-PAS functional modules and procedures. Appendices to the manual include a glossary of ANOPP terms and information on error diagnostics and recovery techniques.

  3. Combustion noise from gas turbine aircraft engines measurement of far-field levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krejsa, Eugene A.

    Combustion noise can be a significant contributor to total aircraft noise. Measurement of combustion noise is made difficult by the fact that both jet noise and combustion noise exhibit broadband spectra and peak in the same frequency range. Since in-flight reduction of jet noise is greater than that of combustion noise, the latter can be a major contributor to the in-flight noise of an aircraft but will be less evident, and more difficult to measure, under static conditions. Several methods for measuring the far-field combustion noise of aircraft engines are discussed in this paper. These methods make it possible to measure combustion noise levels even in situations where other noise sources, such as jet noise, dominate. Measured far-field combustion noise levels for several turbofan engines are presented. These levels were obtained using a method referred to as three-signal coherence, requiring that fluctuating pressures be measured at two locations within the engine core in addition to the far-field noise measurement. Cross-spectra are used to separate the far-field combustion noise from far-field noise due to other sources. Spectra and directivities are presented. Comparisons with existing combustion noise predictions are made.

  4. Coaxial supersonic jet-flows, shock structure and related problems with noise-suppression assessment and prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dosanjh, D. S.; Mcafee, R. S., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    It is now reasonably well established that the intense noise radiated by a single turbulent, heated, under or overexpanded round jet of high specific thrust can be significantly reduced if instead, 'equivalent' multinozzle coaxial supersonic jet flows of the same total thrust and mass flow rate were to be operated in the inverted pressure mode. A summary of some of the relevant observations on the coaxial supersonic jet flows and their shock structure is presented. Attention is given to the scope of the optical studies, the development of shock structure, the effects of exit stagger, coaxial supersonic jet flows with inner nozzle overexpanded, the role of the lip thickness, the role of the exit area ratios, cold/heated coaxial supersonic jet flows, acoustic observations, the conventional pressure mode of operation, comparative noise reduction assessment, and problems and prospects of noise prediction.

  5. Coaxial supersonic jet-flows, shock structure and related problems with noise-suppression assessment and prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dosanjh, D. S.; McAfee, R. S., Jr.

    1983-04-01

    It is now reasonably well established that the intense noise radiated by a single turbulent, heated, under or overexpanded round jet of high specific thrust can be significantly reduced if instead, 'equivalent' multinozzle coaxial supersonic jet flows of the same total thrust and mass flow rate were to be operated in the inverted pressure mode. A summary of some of the relevant observations on the coaxial supersonic jet flows and their shock structure is presented. Attention is given to the scope of the optical studies, the development of shock structure, the effects of exit stagger, coaxial supersonic jet flows with inner nozzle overexpanded, the role of the lip thickness, the role of the exit area ratios, cold/heated coaxial supersonic jet flows, acoustic observations, the conventional pressure mode of operation, comparative noise reduction assessment, and problems and prospects of noise prediction.

  6. Traffic noise prediction with the parabolic equation method: validation of a split-step Padé approach in complex environments.

    PubMed

    Gauvreau, Benoit; Bérengier, Michel; Blanc-Benon, Philippe; Depollier, Claude

    2002-12-01

    This study deals with sound propagation in typical traffic noise conditions. The numerical results are obtained through the split-step Padé method and the discrete random Fourier modes technique. These are first evaluated qualitatively, by color contour maps showing noise propagation, diffraction by an impedance discontinuity or a screen edge, and scattering by atmospheric turbulence. Next, our numerical results are quantitatively validated by comparison with analytical models and other parabolic equation models. For all the atmospheric conditions and geometrical configurations available in literature, the agreement between the different methods is very good, except for some cases involving the atmospheric turbulence. However, in those particular cases, the split-step Padé results are shown to be more consistent with physical theory. Finally, our method seems to be very powerful and reliable for traffic noise prediction. PMID:12508988

  7. Prediction of speech intelligibility in spatial noise and reverberation for normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners.

    PubMed

    Beutelmann, Rainer; Brand, Thomas

    2006-07-01

    Binaural speech intelligibility of individual listeners under realistic conditions was predicted using a model consisting of a gammatone filter bank, an independent equalization-cancellation (EC) process in each frequency band, a gammatone resynthesis, and the speech intelligibility index (SII). Hearing loss was simulated by adding uncorrelated masking noises (according to the pure-tone audiogram) to the ear channels. Speech intelligibility measurements were carried out with 8 normal-hearing and 15 hearing-impaired listeners, collecting speech reception threshold (SRT) data for three different room acoustic conditions (anechoic, office room, cafeteria hall) and eight directions of a single noise source (speech in front). Artificial EC processing errors derived from binaural masking level difference data using pure tones were incorporated into the model. Except for an adjustment of the SII-to-intelligibility mapping function, no model parameter was fitted to the SRT data of this study. The overall correlation coefficient between predicted and observed SRTs was 0.95. The dependence of the SRT of an individual listener on the noise direction and on room acoustics was predicted with a median correlation coefficient of 0.91. The effect of individual hearing impairment was predicted with a median correlation coefficient of 0.95. However, for mild hearing losses the release from masking was overestimated. PMID:16875230

  8. 5th International Meeting Wind Turbine Noise

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 5th International Meeting on Wind Turbine Noise Denver 28 ­ 30 August 2013 Wind Turbine Noise Broadband noise generated aerodynamically is the dominant noise source for a modern wind turbine(Brooks et, clean energy. While profiting from wind energy, the noise produced by a modern wind turbine becomes

  9. Raspberry, not a car: context predictability and a phonological advantage in early and late learners’ processing of speech in noise

    PubMed Central

    Gor, Kira

    2014-01-01

    Second language learners perform worse than native speakers under adverse listening conditions, such as speech in noise (SPIN). No data are available on heritage language speakers’ (early naturalistic interrupted learners’) ability to perceive SPIN. The current study fills this gap and investigates the perception of Russian speech in multi-talker babble noise by the matched groups of high- and low-proficiency heritage speakers (HSs) and late second language learners of Russian who were native speakers of English. The study includes a control group of Russian native speakers. It manipulates the noise level (high and low), and context cloze probability (high and low). The results of the SPIN task are compared to the tasks testing the control of phonology, AXB discrimination and picture-word discrimination, and lexical knowledge, a word translation task, in the same participants. The increased phonological sensitivity of HSs interacted with their ability to rely on top–down processing in sentence integration, use contextual cues, and build expectancies in the high-noise/high-context condition in a bootstrapping fashion. HSs outperformed oral proficiency-matched late second language learners on SPIN task and two tests of phonological sensitivity. The outcomes of the SPIN experiment support both the early naturalistic advantage and the role of proficiency in HSs. HSs’ ability to take advantage of the high-predictability context in the high-noise condition was mitigated by their level of proficiency. Only high-proficiency HSs, but not any other non-native group, took advantage of the high-predictability context that became available with better phonological processing skills in high-noise. The study thus confirms high-proficiency (but not low-proficiency) HSs’ nativelike ability to combine bottom–up and top–down cues in processing SPIN. PMID:25566130

  10. Analytical prediction of the interior noise for cylindrical models of aircraft fuselages for prescribed exterior noise fields. Phase 2: Models for sidewall trim, stiffened structures and cabin acoustics with floor partition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. D. Pope; E. G. Wilby

    1982-01-01

    An airplane interior noise prediction model is developed to determine the important parameters associated with sound transmission into the interiors of airplanes, and to identify apropriate noise control methods. Models for stiffened structures, and cabin acoustics with floor partition are developed. Validation studies are undertaken using three test articles: a ring stringer stiffened cylinder, an unstiffened cylinder with floor partition,

  11. Aeroacoustic noise prediction for SRM Sylvain Parrangab, Javier Ojedaa, Sofiane Khelladib, Mohamed Gabsia

    E-print Network

    for reliability, low cost and high torque at low speed makes the switched reluctance motor (SRM) look like a good, Paris, France 2014-01-10 Abstract High speed motors produce an important aeroacoustic noise which to electrical motors. Keywords SRM, aeroacoustic, noise, Acoustic measurements, Fluid dynamics 1 Introduction

  12. PREDICTION OF SUPERSONIC JET NOISE FROM A STATISTICAL ACOUSTIC MODEL AND A COMPRESSIBLE TURBULENCE CLOSURE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Bailly; S. Candel; P. Lafon

    1996-01-01

    Acoustic radiation of shock free supersonic jets is modified in comparison with subsonic jet noise because of Mach wave emission. Intense noise is radiated when turbulent structures are convected supersonically relative to the ambient sound speed. Using the framework of Lighthill's equation, Ffowcs Williams and Maidanik developed an approximation of Lighthill's term for a supersonically converted acoustic source in a

  13. Evaluation and prediction of noise pollution levels in urban areas of Cdiz (Spain)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Silvia Rivas; Ricardo Hernandez; Jose Luis Cueto

    2003-01-01

    In the European policy, one of the most important objectives is to achieve a high level of health and environmental protection. The latest studies have shown that more than 20% of the world population lives under unacceptable noise levels and near 60% of the European population is exposed to worrying noise levels during the day. So, nowadays one of the

  14. High-frequency noise and spectrum occupancy measurements for Virginia and Texas with comparisons to International Radio Consultative Committee predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Serafin P.

    1997-09-01

    There is ongoing interest in the high-frequency (HF) band of the spectrum, both in terms of the noise levels and the available spectrum bandwidth. In particular, current HF radar systems such as the U.S. Navy's Relocatable Over-the-Horizon Radar (ROTHR) or the Australian Jindalee radar must operate against the external noise and share the spectrum with other HF band users. Current estimates of external noise levels are based on International Radio Consultative Committee (CCIR) [1988]. These predictions are based primarily on measurements made several decades ago at a few sites around the world. There are no current generally accepted estimates for available spectrum bandwidth. The Radar Division at the Naval Research Laboratory, in support of the U.S. Navy's ROTHR, developed a semiportable HF spectrum monitoring system to make HF noise and available bandwidth measurements. HF measurements were made over the 5- to 28-MHz frequency range at three locations. Measurements were made in Virginia at the end of August 1994, in Texas at the end of November 1994, and aboard the U.S.S. Ashland off the coast of Virginia in May 1995. These measurements are presented, as well as comparisons with CCIR predictions for the same period.

  15. Random noise attenuation by f-x spatial projection-based complex empirical mode decomposition predictive filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yan-Yan; Li, Guo-Fa; Wang, Yao-Jun; Zhou, Hui; Zhang, Bao-Jiang

    2015-03-01

    The frequency-space ( f-x) empirical mode decomposition (EMD) denoising method has two limitations when applied to nonstationary seismic data. First, subtracting the first intrinsic mode function (IMF) results in signal damage and limited denoising. Second, decomposing the real and imaginary parts of complex data may lead to inconsistent decomposition numbers. Thus, we propose a new method named f-x spatial projection-based complex empirical mode decomposition (CEMD) prediction filtering. The proposed approach directly decomposes complex seismic data into a series of complex IMFs (CIMFs) using the spatial projection-based CEMD algorithm and then applies f-x predictive filtering to the stationary CIMFs to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. Synthetic and real data examples were used to demonstrate the performance of the new method in random noise attenuation and seismic signal preservation.

  16. On the predictability of extreme events in records with linear and nonlinear long-range memory: Efficiency and noise robustness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mikhail I. Bogachev; Armin Bunde

    2011-01-01

    We study the predictability of extreme events in records with linear and nonlinear long-range memory in the presence of additive white noise using two different approaches: (i) the precursory pattern recognition technique (PRT) that exploits solely the information about short-term precursors, and (ii) the return interval approach (RIA) that exploits long-range memory incorporated in the elapsed time after the last

  17. An evaluation of a computer code based on linear acoustic theory for predicting helicopter main rotor noise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. J. Davis; T. A. Egolf

    1980-01-01

    Acoustic characteristics predicted using a recently developed computer code were correlated with measured acoustic data for two helicopter rotors. The analysis, is based on a solution of the Ffowcs-Williams-Hawkings (FW-H) equation and includes terms accounting for both the thickness and loading components of the rotational noise. Computations are carried out in the time domain and assume free field conditions. Results

  18. Prediction of Turbulence-Generated Noise in Unheated Jets. Part 1; JeNo Technical Manual (Version 1.0)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khavaran, Abbas; Bridges, James; Georgiadis, Nicholas

    2005-01-01

    The model-based approach, used by the JeNo code to predict jet noise spectral directivity, is described. A linearized form of Lilley's equation governs the non-causal Green s function of interest, with the non-linear terms on the right hand side identified as the source. A Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) solution yields the required mean flow for the solution of the propagation Green s function in a locally parallel flow. The RANS solution also produces time- and length-scales needed to model the non-compact source, the turbulent velocity correlation tensor, with exponential temporal and spatial functions. It is shown that while an exact non-causal Green s function accurately predicts the observed shift in the location of the spectrum peak with angle as well as the angularity of sound at low to moderate Mach numbers, the polar directivity of radiated sound is not entirely captured by this Green s function at high subsonic and supersonic acoustic Mach numbers. Results presented for unheated jets in the Mach number range of 0.51 to 1.8 suggest that near the peak radiation angle of high-speed jets, a different source/Green s function convolution integral may be required in order to capture the peak observed directivity of jet noise. A sample Mach 0.90 heated jet is also discussed that highlights the requirements for a comprehensive jet noise prediction model.

  19. Aircraft noise-induced awakenings are more reasonably predicted from relative than from absolute sound exposure levels.

    PubMed

    Fidell, Sanford; Tabachnick, Barbara; Mestre, Vincent; Fidell, Linda

    2013-11-01

    Assessment of aircraft noise-induced sleep disturbance is problematic for several reasons. Current assessment methods are based on sparse evidence and limited understandings; predictions of awakening prevalence rates based on indoor absolute sound exposure levels (SELs) fail to account for appreciable amounts of variance in dosage-response relationships and are not freely generalizable from airport to airport; and predicted awakening rates do not differ significantly from zero over a wide range of SELs. Even in conjunction with additional predictors, such as time of night and assumed individual differences in "sensitivity to awakening," nominally SEL-based predictions of awakening rates remain of limited utility and are easily misapplied and misinterpreted. Probabilities of awakening are more closely related to SELs scaled in units of standard deviates of local distributions of aircraft SELs, than to absolute sound levels. Self-selection of residential populations for tolerance of nighttime noise and habituation to airport noise environments offer more parsimonious and useful explanations for differences in awakening rates at disparate airports than assumed individual differences in sensitivity to awakening. PMID:24180775

  20. CMOS front-end amplifier for broadband DTV tuner 

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Guang

    2005-08-29

    In this work, the design of a CMOS broadband low noise amplifier with inherent high performance single-to-differential conversion is presented. These characteristics are driven by the double quadrature single conversion digital television tuner...

  1. CMOS front-end amplifier for broadband DTV tuner

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Guang

    2005-08-29

    In this work, the design of a CMOS broadband low noise amplifier with inherent high performance single-to-differential conversion is presented. These characteristics are driven by the double quadrature single conversion digital television tuner...

  2. Remaining problems in the prediction, measurement, evaluation, and control of aircraft noise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Shapiro

    1980-01-01

    In 1972 the Society of Automotive Engineers published a list of aircraft noise problem areas needing investigation. Looking through that list now, it can be seen that some significant advances have been made, but there is little, if anything, that can actually be deleted. The renewed interest in energy-efficient propeller-powered aircraft, using the recently developed prop-fans, has revived propeller noise

  3. Do ambient noise exposure levels predict hearing loss in a modern industrial cohort?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P M Rabinowitz; D Galusha; C Dixon-Ernst; M D Slade; M R Cullen

    2007-01-01

    Background: Much of what is known about the exposure–response relationship between occupational noise exposures and hearing loss comes from cross-sectional studies conducted before the widespread implementation of workplace hearing conservation programmes. Little is known about the current relationship of ambient noise exposure measurements to hearing loss risk.Aim: To examine the relationship between rates of high frequency hearing loss and measured

  4. Combustion Noise at Elevated Pressures in a Liquid-Fueled Premixed Combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darling, Douglas; Radhakrishnan, Krishnan; Oyediran, Ayo

    1997-01-01

    Noise generated in gas turbine combustors can exist in several forms-broadband noise, sharp resonant peaks, and regular or intermittent nonlinear pulsing. In the present study, dynamic pressure measurements were made in several JP-5-fueled combustor configurations, at various mean pressures and temperatures. The fluctuating pressure was measured at mean pressures from 6 to 14 atm and inlet temperatures from 550 K to 850 K. The goal of the present work was to study the effect of changes in mean flow conditions on combustor noise: both broadband noise and sharp tones were considered. In general, the shape of the broadband noise spectrum was consistent from one configuration to another. The shape of the spectrum was influenced by the acoustic filtering of the combustion zone. This filtering ensured the basic consistency of the spectra. In general, the trends in broadband noise observed at low mean pressures were also seen at high mean pressures; that is, the total sound level decreased with both increasing equivalence ratio and increasing inlet temperature. The combustor configurations without a central pilot experienced higher broadband noise levels and were more susceptible to narrow peak resonances than configurations with a central pilot. The sharp peaks were more sensitive to the mean flow than was the broadband noise, and the effects were not always the same. In some situations, increasing the equivalence ratio made the sharp peaks grow, while at other conditions, increasing the equivalence ratio made the sharp peaks shrink. Thus, it was difficult to predict when resonances would occur; however, they were reproducible. Acoustic coupling between the upstream and downstream regions of the combustor may play a role in the sharp-peaked oscillations. Noise was also observed near lean blow out. As with other types of noise, lean blow out noise was affected by the combustion chamber acoustics, which apparently maintains the fluctuations at a uniform frequency. However, the actual conditions when this type of noise was experienced appeared to simply follow the lean blow out limit as it varied with mean temperature and pressure.

  5. The uses and abuses of the acoustic analogy in helicopter rotor noise prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farassat, F.; Brentner, Kenneth S.

    1987-01-01

    The generation of noise by helicopter rotor blades is considered theoretically, reviewing recent analyses based on the acoustic analogy (where the effect of fluid motion is replaced by fictitious sources in an undisturbed fluid). The fundamental principles of the acoustic approach are explained and illustrated with diagrams; the governing Ffowcs-Williams/Hawkings equations are written with a reformulated quadrupole term; and the directivity of noise produced (1) by regions with steep gradients (such as shock surfaces) and (2) by boundary-layer quadrupoles (tip-vortex and blade wakes) is shown to be the same as that of thickness noise. The need to include both (1) and (2) in acoustic-analogy computations is indicated.

  6. High speed propeller performance and noise predictions at takeoff/landing conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nallasamy, M.; Woodward, R. P.; Groeneweg, J. F.

    1987-01-01

    The performance and noise of a high speed SR-7A model propeller under takeoff/landing conditions are considered. The blade loading distributions are obtained by solving the three-dimensional Euler equations and the sound pressure levels are computed using a time domain approach. At the nominal takeoff operating point, the blade sections near the hub are lightly or negatively loaded. The chordwise loading distributions are distinctly different from those of cruise conditions. The noise of the SR-7A model propeller at takeoff is dominated by the loading noise, similar to that at cruise conditions. The waveforms of the acoustic pressure signature are nearly sinusoidal in the plane of the propeller. The computed directivity of the blade passing frequency tone agrees fairly well with the data at nominal takeoff blade angle.

  7. High speed propeller performance and noise predictions at takeoff/landing conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nallasamy, M.; Woodward, R. P.; Groeneweg, J. F.

    1988-01-01

    The performance and noise of a high speed SR-7A model propeller under takeoff/landing conditions are considered. The blade loading distributions are obtained by solving the three-dimensional Euler equations and the sound pressure levels are computed using a time domain approach. At the nominal takeoff operating point, the blade sections near the hub are lightly or negatively loaded. The chordwise loading distributions are distinctly different from those of cruise conditions. The noise of the SR-7A model propeller at takeoff is dominated by the loading noise, similar to that at cruise conditions. The waveforms of the acoustic pressure signature are nearly sinusoidal in the plane of the propeller. The computed directivity of the blade passing frequency tone agrees fairly well with the data at nominal takeoff blade angle.

  8. Air Force procedure for predicting aircraft noise around airbases: Airbase operations program (BASEOPS) description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Robert A.; Mohlman, Henry T.

    1990-01-01

    A user manual is presented for the BASEOPS 3.00 program developed by AAMRL/BBE. The installation, use and limitations of this program is described. BASEOPS is the menu driven computerized airbase operations input program used in doing airbase noise assessments under the USAF Air Installation Compatible Use Zone (AICUZ) program. BASEOPS will create a file that can be directly interfaced to the NOISEMAP 6.0 program, used to calculate the total noise exposure from these input operations. BASEOPS contains default performance profiles (takeoff and landing) for Military Transient and Civil aircraft. The program also allows the user to create a NOISEMAP input file for any subset of the input data through a Global Editing Menu. This can be used for quickly creating multiple noise analyses for different operational input scenarios.

  9. Predictability of Minimum Noise in Electron Transport Through a Disordered Semiconductor

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, G.P.; Doolen, G.D.; Nagaev, K.E.; Rehacek, J.

    1998-05-11

    The authors present an inverse method for electron transport which allows one to minimize the value of shot noise for a given value of the conductance by optimizing the spatial structure of a disordered semiconductor region. The method is based on the Green's function approach which is usually applied to the direct transport problem. A specific experimentally realizable example of a two-dimensional disordered semiconductor is presented which demonstrates the method of minimization of shot noise for insulator, metallic, and transitional conductance regions.

  10. An Integrated Low-Speed Performance and Noise Prediction Methodology for Subsonic Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, E. D.; Mavris, D. N.

    2000-01-01

    An integrated methodology has been assembled to compute the engine performance, takeoff and landing trajectories, and community noise levels for a subsonic commercial aircraft. Where feasible, physics-based noise analysis methods have been used to make the results more applicable to newer, revolutionary designs and to allow for a more direct evaluation of new technologies. The methodology is intended to be used with approximation methods and risk analysis techniques to allow for the analysis of a greater number of variable combinations while retaining the advantages of physics-based analysis. Details of the methodology are described and limited results are presented for a representative subsonic commercial aircraft.

  11. The prediction of noise and installation effects of high-subsonic dual-stream jets in flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxena, Swati

    Both military and civil aircraft in service generate high levels of noise. One of the major contributors to this noise generated from the aircraft is the jet engine exhaust. This makes the study of jet noise and methods to reduce jet noise an active research area with the aim of designing quieter military and commercial aircraft. The current stringent aircraft noise regulations imposed by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and other international agencies, have further raised the need to perform accurate jet noise calculations for more reliable estimation of the jet noise sources. The main aim of the present research is to perform jet noise simulations of single and dual-stream jets with engineering accuracy and assess forward flight effects on the jet noise. Installation effects such as caused by the pylon are also studied using a simplified pylon nozzle configuration. Due to advances in computational power, it has become possible to perform turbulent flow simulations of high speed jets, which leads to more accurate noise predictions. In the present research, a hybrid unsteady RANS-LES parallel multi-block structured grid solver called EAGLEJet is written to perform the nozzle flow calculations. The far-field noise calculation is performed using solutions to the Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings equation. The present calculations use meshes with 5 to 11 million grid points and require about three weeks of computing time with about 100 processors. A baseline single stream convergent nozzle and a dual-stream coaxial convergent nozzle are used for the flow and noise analysis. Calculations for the convergent nozzle are performed at a high subsonic jet Mach number of Mj = 0.9, which is similar to the operating conditions for commercial aircraft engines. A parallel flow gives the flight effect, which is simulated with a co-flow Mach number, Mcf varying from 0.0 to 0.28. The grid resolution effects, statistical properties of the turbulence and the heated jet effects ( TTR = 2.7) are studied and related to the noise characteristics of the jet. Both flow and noise predictions show good agreement with PIV and microphone measurements. The potential core lengths and nozzle wall boundary characteristics are studied to understand the differences between the numerical potential core lengths as compared to experiments. The flight velocity exponent, m is calculated from the noise reduction in overall sound pressure levels (OASPL, dB) and relative velocity (V j -- Vcf) at all jet inlet (angular) angles. The variation of the exponent, m at lower (50° to 90°) and higher aft inlet angles (120° to 150°) is studied and compared with available measurements. Previous studies have shown a different variation of the exponent with inlet angles while the current numerical data match well with recent experiments conducted on the same nozzle geometry. Today, turbofans are the most efficient engines in service used in almost all major commercial aircraft. Turbofans have a dual-stream exhaust nozzle with primary and secondary flow whose flow and noise characteristics are different from that of single stream jets. A Boeing-designed coaxial nozzle, with area ratio of As/Ap = 3.0, is used to study dual-stream jet noise in the present research. In this configuration, the primary nozzle extends beyond the secondary nozzle, which is representative of large turbofan engines in commercial service. The flow calculations are performed at high subsonic Mach numbers in the primary and secondary nozzles (Mpj = 0.85, Msj = 0.95) with heated core flow, TTRp = 2.26 and unheated fan flow, TTRs = 1.0. The co-flow of Mcf = 0.2 is used. The subscript p, s and amb represent the primary (core) nozzle, the secondary (fan) nozzle, and the ambient flow conditions, respectively. The statistical properties in the primary and secondary shear layers are studied and compared with those of the single stream jets. It has been found that the eddy convection velocity is lower in dual-stream jets as compared to the single stream jet operating at a similar jet exit Mach number. The

  12. This work was done when the author was with HRL Laboratories, LLC. A Predictive QoS Routing Scheme for Broadband Low Earth Orbit Satellite

    E-print Network

    Krishnamurthy, Srikanth

    Scheme for Broadband Low Earth Orbit Satellite Networks Özgür Erçetin+ , Srikanth Krishnamurthy$ , Son of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742. Abstract Low Earth Orbit Satellite Networks can augment terrestrial communications services with limited geographic coverage. The Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellite networks can

  13. Development of hybrid method for the prediction of underwater propeller noise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hanshin Seol; Jung-Chun Suh; Soogab Lee

    2005-01-01

    Noise reduction and control is an important problem in the performance of underwater acoustic systems and in the habitability of the passenger ship for crew and passenger. Furthermore, sound generated by a propeller is critical in underwater detection and it is often related to the survivability of the vessel especially for military purpose. This paper presents a numerical study on

  14. The importance of quadrupole sources in prediction of transonic tip speed propeller noise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. B. Hanson; M. R. Fink

    1978-01-01

    A theoretical analysis is presented for the harmonic noise of high speed, open rotors. Far field acoustic radiation equations based on the Ffowcs-Williams\\/Hawkings theory are derived for a static rotor with thin blades and zero lift. Near the plane of rotation, the dominant sources are the volume displacement and the rho U(2) quadrupole, where u is the disturbance velocity component

  15. The importance of quadrupole sources in prediction of transonic tip speed propeller noise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. B. Hanson; M. R. Fink

    1979-01-01

    A theoretical analysis is presented for the harmonic noise of high speed, open rotors. Far field acoustic radiation equations based on the Ffowcs Williams\\/Hawkings theory are derived for a static rotor with thin blades and zero lift. Near the plane of rotation, the dominant sources are the volume displacement and the varrhou2 quadrupole, where u is the disturbance velocity component

  16. Prediction of acoustic scattering in the time domain and its applications to rotorcraft noise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seongkyu Lee

    2009-01-01

    This work aims at the development of a numerical method for the analysis of acoustic scattering in the time domain and its applications to rotorcraft noise. This purpose is achieved by developing two independent methods: (1) an analytical formulation of the pressure gradient for an arbitrary moving source and (2) a time-domain moving equivalent source method. First, the analytical formulation

  17. Loudness models in the very low frequency range: application to the prediction of airplane cockpit noise

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    to the experiment: 15 students and 16 older searchers of the laboratory, 12 women and 19 men. They did not relate according to ISO 532-B standard was a good gauge of qualitative evaluation. This was not true for loudness in "InterNoise 2012, New-York : France (2012)" #12;2 UNPLEASANTNESS EVALUATION 2.1 Experimental setup Six

  18. Prediction of Work Efficiency in Early Adolescence under the Effects of Noise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fosnaric, Samo; Planinsec, Jurij

    2008-01-01

    This is a short summary of research on how different stress factors in the work environment (climate, light, noise) affect work performance of early adolescents. Due to the complexity of the measurements, the research consisted of a small sample of male adolescents (N = 20); average age 13.5 years (SD = 0.25). Tasks were used which demanded…

  19. Simulation of a hot coaxial jet: Direct noise prediction and flow-acoustics correlations

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    are at high velocities, the primary stream is heated, and the Reynolds number based on the primary velocity. The jet aerodynamic field and the near-pressure field are both obtained directly from the LES. The far-field noise is calculated by solving the linear acoustic equations, from the unsteady LES data

  20. ROUTEMAP model for predicting noise exposure from aircraft operations on Military Training Routes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, Michael J.; Plotkin, Kenneth J.

    1988-09-01

    Low altitude, high speed training operations are routinely conducted along specially designated Military Training Routes (MTRs). The location of these routes is continually changed for a variety of reasons. Each new route requires an environmental assessment to determine the community noise impact. A computer program, ROUTEMAP, is described which calculates the noise level on the ground along an MTR corridor. Program ROUTEMAP is a menu-driven program that runs on any IBM PC or PC-compatible computer. ROUTEMAP requires MS DOS Version 2.0 or later, with at least one megabyte of available disk space, 640 K of random access memory, and an 8087/80287 math coprocessor. The model requires the Air Force planner to specify the nature of the flight activity for the segment of the route in question. The information needed for each aircraft type are the number of day and night operations during a month, and nominal values for the airspeed, engine power setting, and altitude. In addition, the user must input whether the activity is usually under visual or instrument flying rules and if there are single or multiple flight tracks within the route corridor. With this input data, the program computes the onset rate-adjusted monthly day-night average A-weighted sound level, L sub dnmr in dB for ground positions located within 13 miles of the route centerline. For comparison purposes, the program also computes the monthly average A-weighted noise exposure level without the penalty for high onset rates and without the penalty for operations during the night. The program also computes the probability of being highly annoyed as a function of the L sub dnmr values. This information, along with the noise-compatible land-use guides normally associated with planning around airbases, can be used to interpret the noise resulting from military training route operations.

  1. Rotorcraft noise: Status and recent developments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Albert R. George; Ben Wel-C. Sim; David R. Polak

    1993-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews rotorcraft noise mechanisms and their approximate importance for different types of rotorcraft in different flight regimes. Discrete noise is due to periodic flow disturbances and includes impulsive noise produced by phenomena which occur during a limited segment of a blade's rotation. Broadband noise results when rotors interact with random disturbances, such as turbulence, which can originate

  2. Broadband monopole optical nano-antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Rongguo; Ding, Jun; Arigong, Bayaner; Lin, Yuankun; Zhang, Hualiang

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, a novel design of broadband monopole optical nano-antennas is proposed. It consists of a corrugated halfelliptical patch inside an elliptical aperture. Full-wave electromagnetic simulations have been used to investigate the performance of the nano-antenna. The predicted performance of the proposed monopole nano-antenna is remarkably broadband. Moreover, the proposed broadband nano-antenna can respond to light waves with different polarizations. The proposed optical antenna will pave the way towards the development of high performance optical antennas and optical systems.

  3. Meteorological impacts on airport noise prediction by the 'Integrated Noise Model' application based on Hamiltonian Ray-Tracing program and measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. G. Tsouka; K. Abacoumkin

    1992-01-01

    The flexible Integrated Noise Model (INM) model assumes straight line noise propagation and takes into account only the main site ground temperature. Many authors have studied the strong noise dependence on meteorological parameters and the ground effects based on the Weyl-Van der Pol equation concerning only homogeneous atmosphere and linear propagation. This paper presents a methodology for the development of

  4. Metamaterial coatings for broadband asymmetric mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, A.; Hasegawa, K.; Podolskiy, V. A.; Deutsch, M.

    2007-07-01

    We report the design and fabrication of nanostructured metal-dielectric mirrors with high reflectance asymmetries in the visible spectral range. Applying dispersion engineering principles to model a broadband and large reflectance asymmetry, we obtain a dielectric function for this metamaterial, closely resembling the effective permittivity of disordered metal-dielectric nanocomposites. Coatings realized by using disordered nanocrystalline silver films on glass substrates confirm the theoretical predictions, exhibiting symmetric transmittance, accompanied by large broadband reflectance asymmetries.

  5. A Tool for Low Noise Procedures Design and Community Noise Impact Assessment: The Rotorcraft Noise Model (RNM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conner, David A.; Page, Juliet A.

    2002-01-01

    To improve aircraft noise impact modeling capabilities and to provide a tool to aid in the development of low noise terminal area operations for rotorcraft and tiltrotors, the Rotorcraft Noise Model (RNM) was developed by the NASA Langley Research Center and Wyle Laboratories. RNM is a simulation program that predicts how sound will propagate through the atmosphere and accumulate at receiver locations located on flat ground or varying terrain, for single and multiple vehicle flight operations. At the core of RNM are the vehicle noise sources, input as sound hemispheres. As the vehicle "flies" along its prescribed flight trajectory, the source sound propagation is simulated and accumulated at the receiver locations (single points of interest or multiple grid points) in a systematic time-based manner. These sound signals at the receiver locations may then be analyzed to obtain single event footprints, integrated noise contours, time histories, or numerous other features. RNM may also be used to generate spectral time history data over a ground mesh for the creation of single event sound animation videos. Acoustic properties of the noise source(s) are defined in terms of sound hemispheres that may be obtained from theoretical predictions, wind tunnel experimental results, flight test measurements, or a combination of the three. The sound hemispheres may contain broadband data (source levels as a function of one-third octave band) and pure-tone data (in the form of specific frequency sound pressure levels and phase). A PC executable version of RNM is publicly available and has been adopted by a number of organizations for Environmental Impact Assessment studies of rotorcraft noise. This paper provides a review of the required input data, the theoretical framework of RNM's propagation model and the output results. Code validation results are provided from a NATO helicopter noise flight test as well as a tiltrotor flight test program that used the RNM as a tool to aid in the development of low noise approach profiles.

  6. Analytical prediction of the interior noise for cylindrical models of aircraft fuselages for prescribed exterior noise fields. Phase 2: Models for sidewall trim, stiffened structures and cabin acoustics with floor partition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pope, L. D.; Wilby, E. G.

    1982-01-01

    An airplane interior noise prediction model is developed to determine the important parameters associated with sound transmission into the interiors of airplanes, and to identify apropriate noise control methods. Models for stiffened structures, and cabin acoustics with floor partition are developed. Validation studies are undertaken using three test articles: a ring stringer stiffened cylinder, an unstiffened cylinder with floor partition, and ring stringer stiffened cylinder with floor partition and sidewall trim. The noise reductions of the three test articles are computed using the heoretical models and compared to measured values. A statistical analysis of the comparison data indicates that there is no bias in the predictions although a substantial random error exists so that a discrepancy of more than five or six dB can be expected for about one out of three predictions.

  7. Simulation of a hot coaxial jet: Direct noise prediction and flow-acoustics correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogey, Christophe; Barré, Sébastien; Juvé, Daniel; Bailly, Christophe

    2009-03-01

    A coaxial jet originating from parallel coplanar pipe nozzles is computed by a compressible large eddy simulation (LES) using low-dissipation and low-dispersion schemes in order to determine its acoustic field and to study noise generation mechanisms. The jet streams are at high velocities, the primary stream is heated, and the Reynolds number based on the primary velocity and the secondary diameter is around 106. High levels of turbulence intensity are also specified at the nozzle exit. The jet aerodynamic field and the near-pressure field are both obtained directly from the LES. The far-field noise is calculated by solving the linear acoustic equations, from the unsteady LES data on a cylindrical surface surrounding the jet. A good agreement is observed in terms of directivity, levels, and narrow-band spectra with noise measurements carried out during the EU project CoJeN for a coaxial jet displaying same stream velocities and temperatures, coplanar nozzle outlets with identical area ratio, and a high Reynolds number. However, certainly due to differences in the properties of the nozzle-exit boundary layers with respect to the experiment, some unexpected peaks are noticed in the simulation spectra. They are attributed to the development of a Von Kármán street in the inner mixing layer and to vortex pairings in the outer shear layer. High correlation levels are also calculated between the pressure waves radiated in the downstream direction and flow quantities such as axial velocity, vorticity norm, density, and temperature, taken around the end of the primary and secondary potential cores. Noise generation in the coaxial jet therefore appears significant around the end of the two potential cores. These flow regions are characterized by intermittency, a dominant Strouhal number, and variations in the convection velocity as similarly found in single jets. The use of density or temperature to compute flow-noise correlations finally seems appropriate for a heated jet flow, but might lead to correlations with acoustic disturbances in the potential core.

  8. Fan Noise Prediction System Development: Source/Radiation Field Coupling and Workstation Conversion for the Acoustic Radiation Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, H. D.

    1993-01-01

    The Acoustic Radiation Code (ARC) is a finite element program used on the IBM mainframe to predict far-field acoustic radiation from a turbofan engine inlet. In this report, requirements for developers of internal aerodynamic codes regarding use of their program output an input for the ARC are discussed. More specifically, the particular input needed from the Bolt, Beranek and Newman/Pratt and Whitney (turbofan source noise generation) Code (BBN/PWC) is described. In a separate analysis, a method of coupling the source and radiation models, that recognizes waves crossing the interface in both directions, has been derived. A preliminary version of the coupled code has been developed and used for initial evaluation of coupling issues. Results thus far have shown that reflection from the inlet is sufficient to indicate that full coupling of the source and radiation fields is needed for accurate noise predictions ' Also, for this contract, the ARC has been modified for use on the Sun and Silicon Graphics Iris UNIX workstations. Changes and additions involved in this effort are described in an appendix.

  9. A summary and evaluation of semi-empirical methods for the prediction of helicopter rotor noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pegg, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    Existing prediction techniques are compiled and described. The descriptions include input and output parameter lists, required equations and graphs, and the range of validity for each part of the prediction procedures. Examples are provided illustrating the analysis procedure and the degree of agreement with experimental results.

  10. High speed rotor noise due to blade loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dash, R.

    1986-07-01

    An equation for the far field radiated sound due to dipole sources, which results from blade loading, is derived using the theories of Lowson (1965) and Ffowcs et. al. (1969). The power spectral density (PSD) of the pressure field in a far field is analyzed. The effects caused by the Doppler shift in the amplitude and in the PSD of load fluctuations are considered. The equation relates the PSD of a time-dependent dipole strength to the PSD of the pressure fluctuation in the distant radiation field. The theory is employed to study fan noise, and a modified form of the Gutin theory of propeller noise is developed. The application of the data to the prediction of helicopter rotor noise and broadband noise is discussed.

  11. Hearing through the noise: Predictability and tipping points in the climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ditlevsen, Peter

    2014-05-01

    It is taken for granted that the limited predictability in the initial value problem, the weather prediction, and the predictability of the statistics are two distinct problems. Predictability of the first kind in a chaotic dynamical system is limited due to critical dependence on initial conditions. Predictability of the second kind is possible in an ergodic system, where either the dynamics is known and the phase space attractor can be characterized by simulation or the system can be observed for such long times that the statistics can be obtained from temporal averaging, assuming that the attractor does not change in time. For the climate system the distinction between predictability of the first and the second kind is fuzzy. On the one hand, weather prediction is not related to the inverse of the Lyapunov exponent of the system, determined by the much shorter times in the turbulent boundary layer. These time scales are effectively averaged on the time scales of the flow in the free atmosphere. On the other hand, turning to climate change predictions, the time scales on which the system is considered quasi-stationary, such that the statistics can be predicted as a function of an external parameter, say atmospheric CO2, is still short in comparison to slow oceanic dynamics. On these time scales the state of these slow variables still depends on the initial conditions. This fuzzy distinction between predictability of the first and of the second kind is related to the lack of scale separation between fast and slow components of the climate system. The non-linear nature of the problem furthermore opens the possibility of multiple attractors, or multiple quasi-steady states. As the paleoclimatic record shows, the climate has been jumping between different quasi-stationary climates. The question is: Can such tipping points be predicted? This is a new kind of predictability (the third kind). The Dansgaard-Oeschger climate events observed in ice core records are analyzed in order to answer some of these questions. The result of the analysis points to a fundamental limitation in predictability of the third kind. References: P. D. Ditlevsen and S. Johnsen, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L19703, 2010 Peter D. Ditlevsen, Contemporary Physics, 50, 511-532, 2009 P. D. Ditlevsen, H. Svensmark and S. Johnsen, Nature 379, 810-812, 1996

  12. Localization of a noisy broadband surface target using time differences of multipath arrivals.

    PubMed

    Gebbie, John; Siderius, Martin; McCargar, Reid; Allen, John S; Pusey, Grant

    2013-07-01

    Previous studies [Tiemann et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 120, 2355-2365 (2006)] have reported the localization of marine mammals in 3-D from their clicks using multipath arrivals. Bathymetric variations were advantageously used to predict multipath arrival times with a raytracer. These arrivals are directly discernible from the time series for impulsive sources, such as whale clicks, but extension of the method to continuous broadband sources presents additional complications. By pulse compressing noise emitted from a small boat using two hydrophones, the hyperbolic direct-arrival ambiguity can be refined in both range and bearing. Acoustic-derived results are validated with target GPS measurements. PMID:23862911

  13. An advanced low-frequency noise model of GaInP-GaAs HBT for accurate prediction of phase noise in oscillators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Christophe Nallatamby; Michel Prigent; Marc Camiade; Arnaud Sion; Cyril Gourdon; Juan J. Obregon

    2005-01-01

    We present a new low-frequency noise model of a GaInP-GaAs HBT and the associated extraction process from measurements. Specific measurements enable us to locate the two dominant low-frequency noise sources. Their spectral densities extraction as a function of the emitter bias current is then performed and a normalized scalable model is deduced. The cyclostationarity of the low-frequency noise sources is

  14. Prediction of the noise of flow over a cylinder by direct computation and acoustic analogy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mani, Ali; Wang, Meng; Moin, Parviz

    2007-11-01

    The sound field of flow over a circular cylinder at ReD=3900 and Ma=0.4 is evaluated using Large-Eddy Simulation (LES). The acoustic results computed directly from LES are compared with those obtained using an integral solution of the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FW-H) equation in conjunction with the LES source field data. The modified FW-H solution is derived using a free-space Green function which accounts for the uniform mean flow and spanwise periodicity in the flow simulation. In the implementation of the FW-H solution, the cylinder surface and three porous surfaces with different distances from the cylinder are used as integration surfaces. The effect of turbulent flow structures crossing the integration boundary on the generation of artificial noise is studied. The quadrupole terms in the FW-H equation are found to be important in canceling artificial noise regardless of their physical significance. Alternative formulations of acoustic analogy that can better handle the boundary terms will be discussed.

  15. Quadrupole source in prediction of the noise of rotating blades - A new source description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farassat, F.

    1987-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to perform a theoretical study of the quadrupole term of the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FW-H) equation to obtain practical results for applications to rotating blades. The quadrupole term of the FW-H equation is algebraically manipulated into volume, surface and line sources using generalized function theory and differential geometry. The volume source is of the type in Lighthill's jet noise theory. The surface sources are on the blade and shock surfaces and the line source is at the trailing edge. It is shown that contribution of volume sources in the boundary layer and wakes can be written in the form of surface integrals. It is argued that the surface and line sources and the part of the volume sources in the boundary layer, wakes and vortices near the blades should be sufficient in calculation of the noise of high speed rotating blades. The integrals correspoding to the various sources appearing in the formula for calculation of the acoustic pressure are briefly derived.

  16. Active control of nonlinear noise processes in a linear duct

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Strauch; Bernard Mulgrew

    1998-01-01

    This paper investigates two scenarios in active noise control (ANC) that lead to performance degradation with conventional linear control techniques. The first scenario addresses the noise itself. The low-frequency noise, traveling as plane waves in a duct, is usually assumed to be broadband random or periodic tonal noise. Linear techniques applied to actively control this noise have been shown to

  17. Noise Spectroscopy Used in Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žacik, Michal

    This thesis contains glossary topic of spectroscopic measurement methods in broad bands of frequency. There is designed experimental measurement method for simple samples and biological samples measurements for noise spectroscopy in frequency range of 0.1 - 6 GHz, using broadband noise generator. There is realized the workplace and the measurement method is verified by measuring on selected samples. Measurements a displayed and analyzed.

  18. Foraging bats avoid noise.

    PubMed

    Schaub, Andrea; Ostwald, Joachim; Siemers, Björn M

    2008-10-01

    Ambient noise influences the availability and use of acoustic information in animals in many ways. While much research has focused on the effects of noise on acoustic communication, here, we present the first study concerned with anthropogenic noise and foraging behaviour. We chose the greater mouse-eared bat (Myotis myotis) as a model species because it represents the especially vulnerable group of gleaning bats that rely on listening for prey rustling sounds to find food (i.e. 'passive listening'). In a choice experiment with two foraging compartments, we investigated the influence of background noise on foraging effort and foraging success. We tested the hypotheses that: (1) bats will avoid foraging areas with particularly loud background noise; and (2) the frequency-time structure of the noise will determine, in part, the degree to which it deters bats. We found a clear effect of the type of noise on the allocation of foraging effort to the compartments and on the distribution of prey capture events. When playing back silence, the bats made equal use of and were equally successful in both compartments. In the other three treatments (where a non-silent sound was played back), the bats avoided the playback compartment. The degree to which the background noise deterred bats from the compartment increased from traffic noise to vegetation movement noise to broadband computer-generated noise. Vegetation noise, set 12 dB below the traffic noise amplitude, had a larger repellent effect; presumably because of its acoustic similarity with prey sounds. Our experimental data suggest that foraging areas very close to highways and presumably also to other sources of intense, broadband noise are degraded in their suitability as foraging areas for such 'passive listening' bats. PMID:18805817

  19. Predictions of diotic tone-in-noise detection based on a nonlinear optimal combination of energy, envelope, and fine-structure cues

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Junwen; Vosoughi, Azadeh; Carney, Laurel H.

    2013-01-01

    Tone-in-noise detection has been studied for decades; however, it is not completely understood what cue or cues are used by listeners for this task. Model predictions based on energy in the critical band are generally more successful than those based on temporal cues, except when the energy cue is not available. Nevertheless, neither energy nor temporal cues can explain the predictable variance for all listeners. In this study, it was hypothesized that better predictions of listeners' detection performance could be obtained using a nonlinear combination of energy and temporal cues, even when the energy cue was not available. The combination of different cues was achieved using the logarithmic likelihood-ratio test (LRT), an optimal detector in signal detection theory. A nonlinear LRT-based combination of cues was proposed, given that the cues have Gaussian distributions and the covariance matrices of cue values from noise-alone and tone-plus-noise conditions are different. Predictions of listeners' detection performance for three different sets of reproducible noises were computed with the proposed model. Results showed that predictions for hit rates approached the predictable variance for all three datasets, even when an energy cue was not available. PMID:23862816

  20. Optimal launch power prediction of a 100G PM-DQPSK dispersion-managed link with the Gaussian noise model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, Telmo P.; Drummond, Miguel V.; Pavlovi?, Natasa B.; André, Paulo S.; Nogueira, Rogério N.

    2014-08-01

    Of all the non-linear fiber propagation models proposed over the years, the Gaussian Noise (GN) model is growing in popularity due to its simplicity and yet reliability when it comes to predict performance of uncompensated coherent transmission (UT) systems that rely on state-of-the art digital-signal processing (DSP) for dispersion compensation. However, many of the systems currently deployed rely on optical CD compensation. Overhauling or upgrading these systems with the most recent DSP is not always feasible. In this context, it is important to broad the range of the GNmodel to dispersion managed (DM) systems, so both scenarios can benefit from a low complexity, fast and reliable performance prediction tool. In this paper, we validate the first results comparing the performance in both accuracy and simulation time of the GN model simulating a realistic DM scenario that relies on periodical spans of non-dispersion shifted fiber (NDSF) to perform the dispersion compensation. The same realistic scenarios were modeled with commercial software and the GN model. The objective was to predict the optimal launch power for different link lengths, central wavelengths and channel spacing values. Preliminary results obtained with the GN model are in good agreement with the ones from the commercial software for several link distances tested up to 2400 Km.

  1. All-theoretical prediction of cabin noise due to impingement of propeller vortices on a wing structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, R.; Cole, J. E., III; Martini, K.; Westagard, A.

    1987-01-01

    Reported calculations of structure-borne cabin noise for a small twin engine aircraft powered by tractor propellers rely on the following three-stage methodological breakup of the problem: (1) the unsteady-aerodynamic prediction of wing lift harmonics caused by the whipping action of the vortex system trailed from each propeller; (2) the associated wing/fuselage structural response; (3) the cabin noise field for the computed wall vibration. The first part--the estimate of airloads--skirts a full-fledged aeroelastic situation by assuming the wing to be fixed in space while cancelling the downwash field of the cutting vortices. The model is based on an approximate high-frequency lifting-surface theory justified by the blade rate and flight Mach number of application. Its results drive a finite-element representation of the wing accounting for upper and lower skin surfaces, spars, ribs, and the presence of fuel. The fuselage, modeled as a frame-stiffened cylindrical shell, is bolted to the wing.

  2. STABILIZING HETEROSCEDASTIC NOISE WITH THE GENERALIZED ANSCOMBE TRANSFORM. APPLICATION TO ACCURATE PREDICTION OF

    E-print Network

    Sur, Frédéric

    PREDICTION OF THE RESOLUTION IN DISPLACEMENT AND STRAIN MAPS OBTAINED WITH THE GRID METHOD M. Grédiac1 , F Clermont-Ferrand, France 2 Laboratoire Lorrain de Recherche en Informatique et ses Applications, UMR CNRS 7503 Université de Lorraine, CNRS, INRIA projet Magrit, Campus Scientifique, BP 239 54506 Vandoeuvre

  3. CATS Benchmark Time Series Prediction by Kalman Smoother with Cross-Validated Noise

    E-print Network

    Särkkä, Simo

    . 1. The CATS benchmark time series. The purpose of the competition was to predict the missing data benchmark (Competition on Artificial Time Series). This artificial time series with 5,000 data was given was the mean square error, which was computed on the 100 missing values. The time series is shown in Figure 1

  4. Temporally Weighted Linear Prediction Features for Tackling Additive Noise in Speaker Verification

    E-print Network

    Joensuu, University of

    -frequency cepstral coefficient (MFCC) front-end, the conventional Fourier- based spectrum estimation is substituted machines [3] are commonly used. The standard spec- trum analysis method for speaker verification is the discrete Fourier transform, implemented as the fast Fourier transform (FFT). Linear prediction (LP

  5. Constrained model predictive control of jump linear systems with noise and non-observed Markov state

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alessandro N. Vargas; W. Furloni; J. B. R. do Val

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a variational method to the solution of the model predictive control (MPC) of discrete-time Markov jump linear systems (MJLS) subject to noisy inputs and a quadratic performance index. Constraints appear on system state and input control variables in terms of the first two moments of the processes. The information available to the controller does not involve observations

  6. Direct experimental verification of the theoretical model predicting rotor noise generation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Lewy; J. Lambourion; C. Malarmey; B. Rafine; M. Perulli

    1979-01-01

    The well-known theoretical model predicting the space structure of acoustic waves generated by a rotor can be directly verified by measuring pressure fluctuations on rotating blades. Such a comparison was obtained for the first time on an ONERA experimental ducted fan. Time variations of squared amplitudes of lines are studied. If various blade loading harmonics are considered along with an

  7. IUTAM Symposium on Computational AeroAcoustics for Aircraft Noise Prediction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tim Colonius; Arnab Samanta; Kristjan Gudmundsson

    We report on the development of parabolized stability equation models to predict the evo- lution of low frequencies, large-scale wavepacket structu res in turbulent jets and their radiated sound. We consider computations and data corresponding to high subsonic and supersonic jets from circular nozzles. Previous methods are extended to consider nonlinear interactions amongst the waves and use a Kirchhoff-surface type

  8. Meteorological impacts on airport noise prediction by the 'Integrated Noise Model' application based on Hamiltonian Ray-Tracing program and measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsouka, D. G.; Abacoumkin, K.

    The flexible Integrated Noise Model (INM) model assumes straight line noise propagation and takes into account only the main site ground temperature. Many authors have studied the strong noise dependence on meteorological parameters and the ground effects based on the Weyl-Van der Pol equation concerning only homogeneous atmosphere and linear propagation. This paper presents a methodology for the development of a new INM Lateral Attenuation algorithm based on refracted rays propagation - Hamiltonian Ray-Tracing program (HARPA) - and on a revised Weyl-Van der Pol model application.

  9. Broadband Faraday isolator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berent, Micha?; Rangelov, Andon A.; Vitanov, Nikolay V.

    2013-01-01

    Driving on an analogy with the technique of composite pulses in quantum physics, we propose a broadband Faraday rotator and thus a broadband optical isolator, which is composed of sequences of ordinary Faraday rotators and achromatic quarter-wave plates rotated at the predetermined angles.

  10. Prediction of Turbulence-Generated Noise in Unheated Jets. Part 2; JeNo Users' Manual (Version 1.0)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khavaran, Abbas; Wolter, John D.; Koch, L. Danielle

    2009-01-01

    JeNo (Version 1.0) is a Fortran90 computer code that calculates the far-field sound spectral density produced by axisymmetric, unheated jets at a user specified observer location and frequency range. The user must provide a structured computational grid and a mean flow solution from a Reynolds-Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) code as input. Turbulence kinetic energy and its dissipation rate from a k-epsilon or k-omega turbulence model must also be provided. JeNo is a research code, and as such, its development is ongoing. The goal is to create a code that is able to accurately compute far-field sound pressure levels for jets at all observer angles and all operating conditions. In order to achieve this goal, current theories must be combined with the best practices in numerical modeling, all of which must be validated by experiment. Since the acoustic predictions from JeNo are based on the mean flow solutions from a RANS code, quality predictions depend on accurate aerodynamic input.This is why acoustic source modeling, turbulence modeling, together with the development of advanced measurement systems are the leading areas of research in jet noise research at NASA Glenn Research Center.

  11. Numerical prediction of marine propeller noise in non-uniform inflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Yu-cun; Zhang, Huai-xin

    2013-03-01

    A numerical study on the acoustic radiation of a propeller interacting with non-uniform inflow has been conducted. Real geometry of a marine propeller DTMB 4118 is used in the calculation, and sliding mesh technique is adopted to deal with the rotational motion of the propeller. The performance of the DES (Detached Eddy Simulation) approach at capturing the unsteady forces and moments on the propeller is compared with experiment. Far-field sound radiation is predicted by the formation 1A developed by Farassat, an integral solution of FW-H (Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings) equation in time domain. The sound pressure and directivity patterns of the propeller operating in two specific velocity distributions are discussed.

  12. A reduced-scale railway noise barrier's insertion loss and absorption coefficients: comparison of field measurements and predictions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. A. Busch; R. E. Nugent

    2003-01-01

    In situ testing determined the insertion loss (IL) and absorption coefficients of a candidate absorptive noise barrier (soundwall) to abate railway noise for residents of Anaheim, CA. A 4000m barrier is proposed south of the tracks, but residential areas to the north have expressed concerns that barrier reflections will increase their noise exposure. To address these concerns, a 3.66m high

  13. MUSTARD: A coupled, stochastic\\/deterministic, discrete\\/continuous technique for predicting the impact of Random Telegraph Noise on SRAMs and DRAMs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karthik Aadithya; Sriramkumar Venogopalan; Alper Demir; Jaijeet Roychowdhury

    2011-01-01

    With aggressive technology scaling and heightened variability, SRAMs and DRAMs have become vulnerable to Random Telegraph Noise (RTN). The bias-dependent, random temporal nature of RTN presents significant challenges to understanding its effects on circuits. In this paper, we propose MUSTARD, a technique and tool for predicting the impact of RTN on SRAMs\\/DRAMs in the presence of variability. MUSTARD enables accurate,

  14. Jet noise modification by the 'whistler nozzle'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasan, M. A. Z.; Islam, O.; Hussain, A. K. M. F.

    1984-01-01

    The farfield noise characteristics of a subsonic whistler nozzle jet are measured as a function of Mach number (0.25, 0.37, and, 0.51), emission angle, and excitation mode. It is shown that a whistler nozzle has greater total and broadband acoustic power than an excited contraction nozzle; and that the intensity of far-field noise is a function of emission angle, Mach number, and whistler excitation stage. The whistler nozzle excitation produces broadband noise amplification with constant spectral shape; the broadband noise amplification (without associated whistler tones and harmonics) increases omnidirectionally with emission angle at all Mach numbers; and the broadband amplification factor decreases as Mach number and emission angle increase. Finally the whistler nozzle is described as a very efficient but inexpensive siren with applications in not only jet excitation but also acoustics.

  15. Separation of airborne and structureborne noise radiated by plates constructed of conventional and composite materials with applications for prediction of interior noise paths in propeller driven aircraft. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgary, M. C.

    1986-01-01

    The anticipated application of advanced turboprop propulsion systems and use of composite materials in primary structure is expected to increase the interior noise of future aircraft to unacceptability high levels. The absence of technically and economically feasible noise source-path diagnostic tools has been a primer obstacle in the development of efficient noise control treatments for propeller driven aircraft. A new diagnostic method which permits the separation and prediction of the fully coherent airborne and structureborne components of the sound radiated by plates or thin shells has been developed. Analytical and experimental studies of the proposed method were performed on plates constructed of both conventional and composite materials. The results of the study indicate that the proposed method can be applied to a variety of aircraft materials, could be used in flight, and has fewer encumbrances than the other diagnostic tools currently available. The study has also revealed that the noise radiation of vibrating plates in the low frequency regime due to combined airborne and structureborne inputs possesses a strong synergistic nature. The large influence of the interaction between the airborne and structureborne terms has been hitherto ignored by researchers of aircraft interior noise problems.

  16. Core Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.

    2011-01-01

    This presentation is a technical summary of and outlook for NASA-internal and NASA-sponsored external research on core (combustor and turbine) noise funded by the Fundamental Aeronautics Program Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) Project. Sections of the presentation cover: the SFW system-level noise metrics for the 2015, 2020, and 2025 timeframes; turbofan design trends and their aeroacoustic implications; the emerging importance of core noise and its relevance to the SFW Reduce-Perceived-Noise Technical Challenge; and the current research activities in the core noise area. Recent work1 on the turbine-transmission loss of combustor noise is briefly described, two2,3 new NRA efforts in the core-noise area are outlined, and an effort to develop CMC-based acoustic liners for broadband noise reduction suitable for turbofan-core application is delineated. The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program has the principal objective of overcoming today's national challenges in air transportation. The reduction of aircraft noise is critical to enabling the anticipated large increase in future air traffic. The Subsonic Fixed Wing Project's Reduce-Perceived-Noise Technical Challenge aims to develop concepts and technologies to dramatically reduce the perceived aircraft noise outside of airport boundaries.

  17. Propulsive lift noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, Martin R.

    1991-08-01

    Propulsive life noise is the increase in noise that occurs when airframe surfaces are placed in the propulsive system's exhaust to increase their lift force. Increased local flow velocities and turbulence levels, due to the propulsive system exhaust gases passing along the airframe lifting surfaces, cause an increase in maximum lift coefficient. The airplane's flight speed required for takeoff and landing can then be significantly reduced, allowing operation from shorter runways than those of conventional commercial airports. Unfortunately, interaction of high velocity turbulent exhaust flow with the airframe's solid surfaces generates additional noise radiation. Aeroacoustic processes that cause propulsive lift noise also are present in airframe noise and propulsive system installation noise. Research studies of propulsive lift noise led to development of improved methods of predicting noise radiation from surfaces in turbulent flows. Noise reduction and prediction methods of aircraft noise are discussed.

  18. Design and performance of a dual polarizing detector system for broadband astronomical spectroscopy at submillimeter wavelengths

    E-print Network

    Naylor, David A.

    control. The noise performance of the system is determined from analysis of electrical, opticalDesign and performance of a dual polarizing detector system for broadband astronomical spectroscopy detector system for use with a polarizing Fourier transform spectrometer to conduct broadband astronomical

  19. Broadband High Power Amplifier using Spatial Power Combining Pengcheng Jia 1

    E-print Network

    monolithic integrated circuit (MMIC) amplifiers in a broadband coaxial waveguide environment, while maintaining good linearity and improving phase noise of the MMIC amplifiers. Coaxial waveguide was used. Broadband slotline to microstrip line transition is integrated for better compatibility with commercial mmic

  20. Metamaterial broadband angular selectivity

    E-print Network

    Shen, Yichen

    We demonstrate how broadband angular selectivity can be achieved with stacks of one-dimensionally periodic photonic crystals, each consisting of alternating isotropic layers and effective anisotropic layers, where each ...

  1. A 1MHZ Bandwidth 3.6GHz 0.18- $muhbox m$ CMOS Fractional-N Synthesizer Utilizing a Hybrid PFD\\/DAC Structure for Reduced Broadband Phase Noise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott E. Meninger; Michael H. Perrott

    2006-01-01

    A frequency synthesizer architecture capable of simultaneously achieving high closed-loop bandwidth and low output phase noise is presented. The proposed topology uses a mismatch compensated, hybrid phase\\/frequency detector and digital-to-analog converter (PFD\\/DAC) circuit to perform active cancellation of fractional-N quantization noise. When compared to a classical second-order synthesizer, the prototype PFD\\/DAC synthesizer demonstrates 29 dB quantization noise suppression, without calibration,

  2. Noise response of cavities of varying dimensions at subsonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Block, P. J. W.

    1976-01-01

    An expression for the Strouhal number of lengthwise cavity oscillations is obtained which includes the effect of length-to-depth ratio. This expression, which agrees well with the experimental data, is also used to predict the Mach number at which cavity acoustic response is maximum. Interaction between lengthwise and depthwise modes is seen to occur at Mach numbers from 0.1 to 0.5. Cavity shape is shown to affect the noise spectra in generating either a broadband or narrowband signal.

  3. Fourth Aircraft Interior Noise Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, David G. (compiler)

    1992-01-01

    The fourth in a series of NASA/SAE Interior Noise Workshops was held on May 19 and 20, 1992. The theme of the workshop was new technology and applications for aircraft noise with emphasis on source noise prediction; cabin noise prediction; cabin noise control, including active and passive methods; and cabin interior noise procedures. This report is a compilation of the presentations made at the meeting which addressed the above issues.

  4. Comparison of advanced turboprop and conventional jet and propeller aircraft flyover noise annoyance - Preliminary results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccurdy, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to compare the flyover noise annoyance of proposed advanced turboprop aircraft with that of conventional turboprop and jet aircraft. The effects of fundamental frequency and tone-to-broadband noise ratio on advanced turboprop annoyance were also examined. A computer synthesis system was used to generate 18 realistic, time varyring simulations of propeller aircraft takeoff noise in which the harmonic content was systematically varied to represent the factorial combinations of six fundamental frequencies ranging from 67.5 Hz to 292.5 Hz and three tone-to-broadband noise ratios of 0, 15, and 30 dB. These advanced turboprop simulations along with recordings of five conventional turboprop takeoffs and five conventional jet takeoffs were presented at D-weighted sound pressure levels of 70, 80, and 90 dB to 32 subjects in an anechoic chamber. Analyses of the subjects' annoyance judgments compare the three categories of aircraft and examine the effects of the differences in harmonic content among the advanced turboprop noises. The annoyance prediction ability of various noise measurement procedures and corrections is also examined.

  5. Acoustic Prediction State of the Art Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahl, Milo D.

    2007-01-01

    The acoustic assessment task for both the Subsonic Fixed Wing and the Supersonic projects under NASA s Fundamental Aeronautics Program was designed to assess the current state-of-the-art in noise prediction capability and to establish baselines for gauging future progress. The documentation of our current capabilities included quantifying the differences between predictions of noise from computer codes and measurements of noise from experimental tests. Quantifying the accuracy of both the computed and experimental results further enhanced the credibility of the assessment. This presentation gives sample results from codes representative of NASA s capabilities in aircraft noise prediction both for systems and components. These include semi-empirical, statistical, analytical, and numerical codes. System level results are shown for both aircraft and engines. Component level results are shown for a landing gear prototype, for fan broadband noise, for jet noise from a subsonic round nozzle, and for propulsion airframe aeroacoustic interactions. Additional results are shown for modeling of the acoustic behavior of duct acoustic lining and the attenuation of sound in lined ducts with flow.

  6. The evolution of methods for noise prediction of high speed rotors and propellers in the time domain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Farassat

    1986-01-01

    Linear wave equation models which have been used over the years at NASA Langley for describing noise emissions from high speed rotating blades are summarized. The noise sources are assumed to lie on a moving surface, and analysis of the situation has been based on the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FW-H) equation. Although the equation accounts for two surface and one volume

  7. A psychoacoustic-masking model to predict the perception of speech-like stimuli in noise q

    E-print Network

    Alwan, Abeer

    shaped noise bursts, glides, and formant transitions of varying durations. The model is also successful) systems, speech coders, and hearing aids. Since human listeners are extremely adept at perceiving speech in noise, a better understanding of human perception may help improve the robustness of current designs

  8. Traffic noise prediction with the parabolic equation method: Validation of a split-step Padé approach in complex environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benoit Gauvreau; Michel Bérengier; Philippe Blanc-Benon; Claude Depollier

    2002-01-01

    This study deals with sound propagation in typical traffic noise conditions. The numerical results are obtained through the split-step Padé method and the discrete random Fourier modes technique. These are first evaluated qualitatively, by color contour maps showing noise propagation, diffraction by an impedance discontinuity or a screen edge, and scattering by atmospheric turbulence. Next, our numerical results are quantitatively

  9. An expert system for predicting the effects of speech interference due to noise pollution on humans using fuzzy approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zaheeruddin; V. K. Jain

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, an attempt has been made to develop an expert system using fuzzy approach to investigate the effects of noise pollution on speech interference. The speech interference measured in terms of speech intelligibility is considered to be a function of noise level, distance between speaker and listener, and the age of the listener. The main source of model

  10. Influences of modulation and spatial separation on detection of a masked broadband target1

    PubMed Central

    Kop?o, Norbert; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G.

    2008-01-01

    Experiments explored the influence of amplitude modulation and spatial separation on detectability of a broadband noise target masked by an independent broadband noise. Thresholds were measured for all combinations of six spatial configurations of target and masker and five modulation conditions. Masker level was either fixed (Experiment 1) or roved between intervals within a trial to reduce the utility of overall intensity as a cue (Experiment 2). After accounting for acoustic changes, thresholds depended on whether a target and a masker were colocated or spatially separated, but not on the exact spatial configuration. Moreover, spatial unmasking exceeded that predicted by better-ear acoustics only when modulation cues for detection were weak. Roving increased the colocated but not the spatially separated thresholds, resulting in an increase in spatial release from masking. Differences in both how performance changed over time and the influence of spatial separation support the idea that the cues underlying performance depend on the modulation characteristics of the target and masker. Analysis suggests that detection is based on overall intensity when target and masker modulation and spatial cues are the same, on spatial attributes when sources are separated and modulation provides no target glimpses, and on modulation discrimination in the remaining conditions. PMID:19062862

  11. Detection of Delamination in Composite Beams Using Broadband Acoustic Emission Signatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okafor, A. C.; Chandrashekhara, K.; Jiang, Y. P.

    1996-01-01

    Delamination in composite structure may be caused by imperfections introduced during the manufacturing process or by impact loads by foreign objects during the operational life. There are some nondestructive evaluation methods to detect delamination in composite structures such as x-radiography, ultrasonic testing, and thermal/infrared inspection. These methods are expensive and hard to use for on line detection. Acoustic emission testing can monitor the material under test even under the presence of noise generated under load. It has been used extensively in proof-testing of fiberglass pressure vessels and beams. In the present work, experimental studies are conducted to investigate the use of broadband acoustic emission signatures to detect delaminations in composite beams. Glass/epoxy beam specimens with full width, prescribed delamination sizes of 2 inches and 4 inches are investigated. The prescribed delamination is produced by inserting Teflon film between laminae during the fabrication of composite laminate. The objectives of this research is to develop a method for predicting delamination size and location in laminated composite beams by combining smart materials concept and broadband AE analysis techniques. More specifically, a piezoceramic (PZT) patch is bonded on the surface of composite beams and used as a pulser. The piezoceramic patch simulates the AE wave source as a 3 cycles, 50KHz, burst sine wave. One broadband AE sensor is fixed near the PZT patch to measure the AE wave near the AE source. A second broadband AE sensor, which is used as a receiver, is scanned along the composite beams at 0.25 inch step to measure propagation of AE wave along the composite beams. The acquired AE waveform is digitized and processed. Signal strength, signal energy, cross-correlation of AE waveforms, and tracking of specific cycle of AE waveforms are used to detect delamination size and location.

  12. Comparing prediction power and stability of broadband and hyperspectral vegetation indices for estimation of green leaf area index and canopy chlorophyll density

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. h. Broge; E. Leblanc

    2001-01-01

    Hyperspectral reflectance data representing a wide range of canopies were simulated using the combined PROSPECT+SAIL model. The simulations were used to study the stability of recently proposed vegetation indices (VIs) derived from adjacent narrowband spectral reflectance data across the visible (VIS) and near infrared (NIR) region of the electromagnetic spectrum. The prediction power of these indices with respect to green

  13. Supersonic Jet Exhaust Noise at High Subsonic Flight Speed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norum, Thomas D.; Garber, Donald P.; Golub, Robert A.; Santa Maria, Odilyn L.; Orme, John S.

    2004-01-01

    An empirical model to predict the effects of flight on the noise from a supersonic transport is developed. This model is based on an analysis of the exhaust jet noise from high subsonic flights of the F-15 ACTIVE Aircraft. Acoustic comparisons previously attainable only in a wind tunnel were accomplished through the control of both flight operations and exhaust nozzle exit diameter. Independent parametric variations of both flight and exhaust jet Mach numbers at given supersonic nozzle pressure ratios enabled excellent correlations to be made for both jet broadband shock noise and jet mixing noise at flight speeds up to Mach 0.8. Shock noise correlated with flight speed and emission angle through a Doppler factor exponent of about 2.6. Mixing noise at all downstream angles was found to correlate well with a jet relative velocity exponent of about 7.3, with deviations from this behavior only at supersonic eddy convection speeds and at very high flight Mach numbers. The acoustic database from the flight test is also provided.

  14. Noise radiation characteristics of the Westinghouse WWG-0600 (600kW) wind turbine generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, Kevin P.; Hubbard, Harvey H.

    1989-01-01

    Acoustic data are presented from five different WWG-0600 machines for the wind speed range 6.7 to 13.4 m/s, for a power output range of 51 to 600 kW and for upwind, downwind and crosswind locations. Both broadband and narrowband data are presented and are compared with calculations and with similar data from other machines. Predicted broadband spectra are in good agreement with measurements at high power and underestimate them at low power. Discrete frequency rotational noise components are present in all measurements and are believed due to terrain induced wind gradients. Predictions are in general agreement with measurements upwind and downwind but underestimate them in the crosswind direction.

  15. Analysis of highway noise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Michael Hogan

    1973-01-01

    Highway noise will be discussed from the standpoint of planning and designing highways as well as the corresponding questions of land use in the adjacent corridor. In the location decision of a highway corridor and in choosing the specific highway alignment, the noise impact upon the adjacent community can be evaluated by predictive methods and compared to existing noise levels

  16. Unified analysis of ducted turbomachinery noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zorumski, W. E.; Lester, H. C.

    1974-01-01

    The methodologies of Hanson and Zorumski are combined to yield a unified analysis of ducted turbomachinery noise. It is shown that the far-field broad-band and discrete noise spectral components can be expressed in terms of modal cross-spectral matrices and directivity vectors which are derivable from the duct analysis.

  17. Jet-Surface Interaction Test: Phased Array Noise Source Localization Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podboy, Gary G.

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect that a planar surface located near a jet flow has on the noise radiated to the far-field. Two different configurations were tested: 1) a shielding configuration in which the surface was located between the jet and the far-field microphones, and 2) a reflecting configuration in which the surface was mounted on the opposite side of the jet, and thus the jet noise was free to reflect off the surface toward the microphones. Both conventional far-field microphone and phased array noise source localization measurements were obtained. This paper discusses phased array results, while a companion paper discusses far-field results. The phased array data show that the axial distribution of noise sources in a jet can vary greatly depending on the jet operating condition and suggests that it would first be necessary to know or be able to predict this distribution in order to be able to predict the amount of noise reduction to expect from a given shielding configuration. The data obtained on both subsonic and supersonic jets show that the noise sources associated with a given frequency of noise tend to move downstream, and therefore, would become more difficult to shield, as jet Mach number increases. The noise source localization data obtained on cold, shock-containing jets suggests that the constructive interference of sound waves that produces noise at a given frequency within a broadband shock noise hump comes primarily from a small number of shocks, rather than from all the shocks at the same time. The reflecting configuration data illustrates that the law of reflection must be satisfied in order for jet noise to reflect off of a surface to an observer, and depending on the relative locations of the jet, the surface, and the observer, only some of the jet noise sources may satisfy this requirement.

  18. Quantum Measurement of Broadband Nonclassical Light Fields

    E-print Network

    P. Grünwald; D. Vasylyev; J. Häggblad; W. Vogel

    2014-11-14

    Based on the measurement of quantum correlation functions, the quantum statistical properties of spectral measurements are studied for broadband radiation fields. The spectral filtering of light before its detection is compared with the direct detection followed by the spectral analysis of the recorded photocurrents. As an example, the squeezing spectra of the atomic resonance fluorescence are studied for both types of filtering procedures. The conditions for which the detection of the nonclassical signatures of the radiation is possible are analyzed. For the considered example, photocurrent filtering appears to be the superior option to detect nonclassicality, due to the vacuum-noise effects in the optical filtering.

  19. A 2.5-dimensional method for the prediction of structure-borne low-frequency noise from concrete rail transit bridges.

    PubMed

    Li, Qi; Song, Xiaodong; Wu, Dingjun

    2014-05-01

    Predicting structure-borne noise from bridges subjected to moving trains using the three-dimensional (3D) boundary element method (BEM) is a time consuming process. This paper presents a two-and-a-half dimensional (2.5D) BEM-based procedure for simulating bridge-borne low-frequency noise with higher efficiency, yet no loss of accuracy. The two-dimensional (2D) BEM of a bridge with a constant cross section along the track direction is adopted to calculate the spatial modal acoustic transfer vectors (MATVs) of the bridge using the space-wave number transforms of its 3D modal shapes. The MATVs calculated using the 2.5D method are then validated by those computed using the 3D BEM. The bridge-borne noise is finally obtained through the MATVs and modal coordinate responses of the bridge, considering time-varying vehicle-track-bridge dynamic interaction. The presented procedure is applied to predict the sound pressure radiating from a U-shaped concrete bridge, and the computed results are compared with those obtained from field tests on Shanghai rail transit line 8. The numerical results match well with the measured results in both time and frequency domains at near-field points. Nevertheless, the computed results are smaller than the measured ones for far-field points, mainly due to the sound radiation from adjacent spans neglected in the current model. PMID:24815255

  20. Broadband detuned Sagnac interferometer for future generation gravitational wave astronomy

    E-print Network

    Voronchev, N V; Danilishin, S L

    2015-01-01

    Broadband suppression of quantum noise below the Standard Quantum Limit (SQL) becomes a top-priority problem for the future generation of large-scale terrestrial detectors of gravitational waves, as the interferometers of the Advanced LIGO project, predesigned to be quantum-noise-limited in the almost entire detection band, are phased in. To this end, among various proposed methods of quantum noise suppression or signal amplification, the most elaborate approach implies a so-called *xylophone* configuration of two Michelson interferometers, each optimised for its own frequency band, with a combined broadband sensitivity well below the SQL. Albeit ingenious, it is a rather costly solution. We demonstrate that changing the optical scheme to a Sagnac interferometer with weak detuned signal recycling and frequency dependent input squeezing can do almost as good a job, as the xylophone for significantly lower spend. We also show that the Sagnac interferometer is more robust to optical loss in filter cavity, used f...

  1. Terminals for Broad-band Office Communications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MANFRED TASTO

    1986-01-01

    The influence of broad-band communication networks on the evolution of office communication terminals is considered. Three trends are predicted:bulletthe evolution of presently existing dedicated terminals towards higher speed and more sophisticated functionality;bulletthe push of multifunctional workstations allowing simultaneous operation in several modes of communication, such as voice, data, text, facsimile, and graphics;bulletthe occurrence of new communication services relating to video

  2. Comparison of the Performance of Noise Metrics as Predictions of the Annoyance of Stage 2 and Stage 3 Aircraft Overflights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearsons, Karl S.; Howe, Richard R.; Sneddon, Matthew D.; Fidell, Sanford

    1996-01-01

    Thirty audiometrically screened test participants judged the relative annoyance of two comparison (variable level) and thirty-four standard (fixed level) signals in an adaptive paired comparison psychoacoustic study. The signal ensemble included both FAR Part 36 Stage 2 and 3 aircraft overflights, as well as synthesized aircraft noise signatures and other non-aircraft signals. All test signals were presented for judgment as heard indoors, in the presence of continuous background noise, under free-field listening conditions in an anechoic chamber. Analyses of the performance of 30 noise metrics as predictors of these annoyance judgments confirmed that the more complex metrics were generally more accurate and precise predictors than the simpler methods. EPNL was somewhat less accurate and precise as a predictor of the annoyance judgments than a duration-adjusted variant of Zwicker's Loudness Level.

  3. Experimental assessment of helicopter rotor turbulence ingestion noise in hover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonich, J. C.; Schlinker, R. H.; Amiet, R. K.

    1989-07-01

    An experiment was conducted to assess the accuracy of a theory for non-isotropic turbulence ingestion. In order to generate non-isotropic turbulence in a controlled environment, a scale model rotor in a closed chamber was used so that the turbulence generated by the rotor was reingested by the recirculating flow. Simultaneous measurements of turbulence inflow properties and far field acoustics were acquired. Measurements confirmed that the inflow turbulence was highly non-isotropic. The measured aerodynamic properties were used as inputs for the noise prediction procedure. The general agreement between the non-isotropic noise prediction procedure and the experiment was good, although the procedure generally overpredicts the quasi-tonal low to mid range frequencies and underpredicts the higher broadband signals. The predicted sound power level as a function of polar angle was in close agreement with measurements, except near the rotor plane, which is not modeled by the present analysis. It is determined that the most sensitive parameter influencing the predicted noise was the turbulence intensity.

  4. Broadband Integrated Transmittances (BITS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Roger E.; Berrick, Stephen W.

    1995-02-01

    Broadband Integrated Transmittances (BITS) is an EOSAEL module that calculates transmittance for systems with broad spectral response. Path-integrated concentration data from COMBIC, other EOSAEL modules, or user models are used as input for BITS. The primary function of BITS is to provide rigorous transmittance calculations for broadband systems, replacing the Beer-Lambert law used in most obscuration models. To use BITS, the system detector, filters, optics, and source spectral functions must be defined. The spectral transmittances of the atmosphere and mass extinction coefficient spectral data for the obscurant are also required. The output consists of transmittance as a function of concentration length for Beer's law and band-integrated computation methods. The theory of the model, a description of the module organization, and an operations guide that provides input and output in EOSAEL format are provided in this user's guide. Example uses for BITS are also included.

  5. The evolution of methods for noise prediction of high speed rotors and propellers in the time domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farassat, F.

    Linear wave equation models which have been used over the years at NASA Langley for describing noise emissions from high speed rotating blades are summarized. The noise sources are assumed to lie on a moving surface, and analysis of the situation has been based on the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FW-H) equation. Although the equation accounts for two surface and one volume source, the NASA analyses have considered only the surface terms. Several variations on the FW-H model are delineated for various types of applications, noting the computational benefits of removing the frequency dependence of the calculations. Formulations are also provided for compact and noncompact sources, and features of Long's subsonic integral equation and Farassat's high speed integral equation are discussed. The selection of subsonic or high speed models is dependent on the Mach number of the blade surface where the source is located.

  6. Is broadband the future? An analysis of broadband technology potential and diffusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zizi Papacharissi; Anna Zaks

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the policy issues surrounding residential broadband technology, discusses how broadband extends Internet capabilities and at what cost, and makes recommendations for future applications of broadband. It focuses on residential broadband access, and in examining the future of broadband, it identifies three areas of concern: regulatory tendencies and tensions in the US, international diffusion of broadband, and the

  7. Combustion and core noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahan, J. Robert; Karchmer, Allen

    1991-08-01

    Two types of aircraft power plant are considered: the gas turbine and the reciprocating engine. The engine types considered are: the reciprocating engine, the turbojet engine, the turboprop engine, and the turbofan engine. Combustion noise in gas turbine engines is discussed, and reciprocating-engine combustion noise is also briefly described. The following subject areas are covered: configuration variables, operational variables, characteristics of combustion and core noise, sources of combustion noise, combustion noise theory and comparison with experiment, available prediction methods, diagnostic techniques, measurement techniques, data interpretation, and example applications.

  8. RIN-suppressed ultralow noise interferometric fiber optic gyroscopes (IFOGs) for improving inertial stabilization of space telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakimi, Farhad; Moores, John D.

    2013-03-01

    Pointing, acquisition, and tracking (PAT) systems in spaceborne optical communications terminals can exploit inertial sensors and actuators to counter platform vibrations and maintain steady beam pointing. Interferometric fiber optic gyroscopes (IFOGs) can provide sensitive angle rate measurements down to very low (sub-milliHertz) mechanical frequencies, potentially reducing the required beacon power and facilitating acquisition for a spaceborne optical communications terminals. Incoherent broadband light sources are used in IFOGs to alleviate detrimental effects of optical nonlinearities, backscattering, and polarization non-reciprocity. But incoherent broadband sources have excess noise or relative intensity noise (RIN), caused by the beating of different spectral components on the photodetector. Unless RIN noise is suppressed, IFOG performance cannot be improved once the light on the photodetector exceeds one photon per coherence time (~microWatts). We propose a simple method to dramatically suppress the RIN of an incoherent light source and thereby reduce the angle random walk (ARW) of an IFOG using such a source. We demonstrate 20 dB RIN suppression of a broadband EDFA source, which we predict could improve the angle random walk (ARW) of an IFOG using this source by 12 dB.

  9. Active control of three-dimension impulsive scattered radiation based on a prediction method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Ning; Qiu, Xiaojun; Feng, Shengzhen

    2012-07-01

    A method for predicting the scattered sound pressure induced by a three-dimension scatterer is proposed. This method is further used as an error sensing strategy in the active noise control (ANC) system for attenuating the three-dimension scattered radiation. Experiments are carried out to validate the prediction method, and a broadband feedforward ANC system combined with the given error sensing strategy is implemented to suppress an impulsive scattered sound pressure. It is found that the proposed ANC system based on the prediction method is effective, and about 8.2 dB attenuation of the scattered pressure is obtained at the observation point after the active control.

  10. Active Noise Control of Radiated Noise from Jets Originating NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doty, Michael J.; Fuller, Christopher R.; Schiller, Noah H.; Turner, Travis L.

    2013-01-01

    The reduction of jet noise using a closed-loop active noise control system with highbandwidth active chevrons was investigated. The high frequency energy introduced by piezoelectrically-driven chevrons was demonstrated to achieve a broadband reduction of jet noise, presumably due to the suppression of large-scale turbulence. For a nozzle with one active chevron, benefits of up to 0.8 dB overall sound pressure level (OASPL) were observed compared to a static chevron nozzle near the maximum noise emission angle, and benefits of up to 1.9 dB OASPL were observed compared to a baseline nozzle with no chevrons. The closed-loop actuation system was able to effectively reduce noise at select frequencies by 1-3 dB. However, integrated OASPL did not indicate further reduction beyond the open-loop benefits, most likely due to the preliminary controller design, which was focused on narrowband performance.

  11. Performance evaluation of signal dependent noise predictive maximum likelihood detector for two-dimensional magnetic recording read/write channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, S.; Okamoto, Y.; Nakamura, Y.; Osawa, H.; Kanai, Y.; Muraoaka, H.

    2015-05-01

    Two-dimensional magnetic recording is affected by the inter-track interference (ITI) from the adjacent tracks. We investigate the improvement of partial response maximum likelihood (PRML) systems with signal dependent noise predictor (SDNP) in the bit error rate performance. The systems reduce the influence of ITI by two dimensional finite impulse response filter using the waveforms reproduced by triple readers from the adjacent tracks. The results show that the SDNP provides larger improvement to PR(2,6,1)ML system compare with PR1ML system.

  12. The generation of electrostatic noise in the plasma sheet boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dusenbery, P. B.; Lyons, L. R.

    1985-01-01

    The one and two ion beam instability is considered as a possible explanation for the observations of broadband electrostatic noise in the plasma sheet region of the geomagnetic tail. When only hot streaming plasma sheet boundary layer ions are present, no broadband waves are excited. Cold, streaming ionospheric ions can generate electrostatic broadband waves propagating in the slow beam acoustic mode, but the growth rates of the waves are significantly enhanced when hot boundary layer ions are present. (Both the slow and fast beam acoustic modes can be excited, depending on the relative ion drift.) This model predicts that the wave intensity of the broad band noise should peak in the plasma sheet boundary layer. Observations of less intense electrostatic waves in the lobes and plasma sheet are likely a result of the absence of hot ion beams or large ion temperatures, respectively, which result in smaller growth rates. The ion beam instability may play an important role in the formation of the central plasma sheet.

  13. An assessment of computer model techniques to predict quantitative and qualitative measures of speech perception in university classrooms for varying room sizes and noise levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyeong-Seok

    The objective of this dissertation was to assess the use of computer modeling techniques to predict quantitative and qualitative measures of speech perception in classrooms under realistic conditions of background noise and reverberation. Secondary objectives included (1) finding relationships among acoustical measurements made in actual classrooms and in the computer models of the actual rooms as a prediction tool of 15 acoustic parameters at the design stage of projects and (2) finding relationships among speech perception scores and 15 acoustic parameters to determine the best predictors of speech perception in actual classroom conditions. Fifteen types of acoustical measurements were made in three actual classrooms with reverberation times of 0.5, 1.3, and 5.1 seconds. Speech perception tests using a Modified Rhyme Test list were also given to 22 subject in each room with five noise conditions of signal-to-noise ratios of 31, 24, 15, 0, -10. Computer models of the rooms were constructed using a commercially available computer model software program. The 15 acoustical measurements were made at 6 or 9 locations in the model rooms. Impulse responses obtained in the computer models of the rooms were convolved with the anechoically recorded speech tests used in the full size rooms to produce a compact disk with the MRT lists with the acoustical response of the computer model rooms. Speech perception tests using this as source material were given to the subjects over loudspeaker in an acoustic test booth. The results of the study showed correlations (R2) of between acoustical measures made in the full size classrooms and the computer models of the classrooms of 0.92 to 0.99 with standard errors of 0.033 to 7.311. Comparisons between speech perception scores tested in the rooms and acoustical measurements made in the rooms and in the computer models of the classrooms showed that the measures have similar prediction accuracy with other studies in the literatures. The computer models can accurately predict both quantitative and qualitative acoustical measures of speech intelligibility. This means that computer models can be used as a design tool during the early stage of a project.

  14. GHz Broadband High Power Antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podgorski, Andrew S.

    The purpose of this publication is to demonstrate the latest achievements in the area of broadband antennas operating in the frequency range up to 100 GHz. Emphasis is directed towards the application of broadband antennas into EMI/EMC/EMP testing, time domain material testing and possible future applications.

  15. Three-dimensional broadband intensity probe for measuring acoustical parameters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Khalid Hossain Miah

    2009-01-01

    Measuring different acoustical properties have been the key in reducing noise and improving the sound quality from various sources. In this report, a broadband (200 Hz -- 6.5 kHz) three-dimensional seven-microphone intensity probe system is developed to measure the sound intensity, and total energy density in different acoustical environments. Limitations of most commercial intensity probes in measuring the three-dimensional intensity

  16. Fiber-optic gyroscopes with broad-band sources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. K. Burns; Chin-Lin Chen; R. Moeller

    1983-01-01

    The use of broad-band sources, polarized and unpolarized, in fiber gyroscopes with linearly birefringent fibers, is studied theoretically. Polarization-mode coupling in the fiber is modeled using one-mode coupling center. Gyroscope output equations are obtained which are useful in interpreting an origin of fiber noise in the limiting cases of low and high fiber birefringence. Interference effects in the output are

  17. Thermal Noise of Epoxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fair, Hannah; Harry, Gregory; Newport, Jonathan; Penn, Steve

    2015-04-01

    Interferometric precision optical measurement is a powerful tool for investigating the smallest of physical phenomena. Examples of this include gravitational wave detection, precision spectroscopy, and laser ring gyroscopes. The limiting noises sources include thermal fluctuations from optical materials and structures. Epoxies can be used to construct hardware for these experiments, which can significantly contribute to the thermal noise. At American University, we are investigating the elastic properties of various epoxies to better predict thermal noise.

  18. Flap Side Edge Liners for Airframe Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Michael G. (Inventor); Khorrami, Mehdi R. (Inventor); Choudhari, Meelan M. (Inventor); Howerton, Brian M. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    One or more acoustic liners comprising internal chambers or passageways that absorb energy from a noise source on the aircraft are disclosed. The acoustic liners may be positioned at the ends of flaps of an aircraft wing to provide broadband noise absorption and/or dampen the noise producing unsteady flow features, and to reduce the amount of noise generated due to unsteady flow at the inboard and/or outboard end edges of a flap.

  19. Analysis of individual machine noise in construction (2)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroshi Yoshinaga; Hiroshi Yamamoto; Akira Hayashi; Kiyoshi Yoshida

    2006-01-01

    Numerous machines used to execute public works projects produce noise, and in the past noise measurements were performed assuming project noise is produced by a single sound source. But to perform practical noise prediction, the quantity of noise from each machine must be obtained. The authors analyzed simulated noise in semi-anechoic room and outdoor construction machinery noise with a straight

  20. The development of a method for predicting the noise exposure of payloads in the space shuttle orbiter vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilby, J. F.; Pope, L. D.

    1979-01-01

    The development of an analytical model for the prediction of sound levels in the payload bay of the space shuttle orbiter vehicle is outlined. Formulation of the analytical model and its validation by means of model scale and full scale tests are included. It is shown that the approach used in the development effort has resulted in a prediction procedure which can be expected to give reliable estimates of payload bay sound levels, even when a payload is present. Furthermore, the analytical model has the capability of being readily modified to include other excitations such as turbulent boundary layers and propeller near-field pressures, and to other aerospace vehicles.

  1. Influence of the Sampling Rate and Noise Characteristics on Prediction of the Maximal Safe Laser Exposure in Human Skin Using Pulsed Photothermal Radiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidovi?, L.; Milani?, M.; Majaron, B.

    2013-09-01

    Pulsed photothermal radiometry (PPTR) allows for noninvasive determination of the laser-induced temperature depth profile in strongly scattering samples, including human skin. In a recent experimental study, we have demonstrated that such information can be used to derive rather accurate predictions of the maximal safe radiant exposure on an individual patient basis. This has important implications for efficacy and safety of several laser applications in dermatology and aesthetic surgery, which are often compromised by risk of adverse side effects (e.g., scarring, and dyspigmentation) resulting from nonselective absorption of strong laser light in epidermal melanin. In this study, the differences between the individual maximal safe radiant exposure values as predicted from PPTR temperature depth profiling performed using a commercial mid-IR thermal camera (as used to acquire the original patient data) and our customized PPTR setup are analyzed. To this end, the latter has been used to acquire 17 PPTR records from three healthy volunteers, using 1 ms laser irradiation at 532 nm and a signal sampling rate of 20 000 . The laser-induced temperature profiles are reconstructed first from the intact PPTR signals, and then by binning the data to imitate the lower sampling rate of the IR camera (1000 fps). Using either the initial temperature profile in a dedicated numerical model of heat transfer or protein denaturation dynamics, the predicted levels of epidermal thermal damage and the corresponding are compared. A similar analysis is performed also with regard to the differences between noise characteristics of the two PPTR setups.

  2. An Adaptive Analog Noise-Predictive Decision-Feedback Equalizer * Michael Q. Le, Paul J. Hurst, John P. Keane

    E-print Network

    Hurst, Paul J.

    W at a data rate of 100 Mbps and occupies 1.3 mm2 of die area in a 0.5-µm CMOS process. * This research of the linear equalization used in both PRML and DFE detectors is that it typically introduces high- frequency-predictive decision-feedback equalizer (NPDFE). Area and power are saved by using analog rather than digital

  3. An evaluation of the accuracy of the Federal Transit Administration approved, groundborne noise and vibration prediction model for rail transit systems; a case study for a new subway line using post construction, transit operation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carman, Richard A.; Reyes, Carlos H.

    2005-09-01

    The groundborne noise and vibration model developed by Nelson and Saurenman in 1984, now recognized by the Federal Transit Administration as the approved model for new transit system facilities, is entering its third decade of use by engineers and consultants in the transit industry. The accuracy of the model has been explored in the past (e.g., Carman and Wolfe). New data obtained for a recently completed extension to a major heavy rail transit system provides an opportunity to evaluate the accuracy of the model once more. During the engineering design phase of the project, noise and vibration predictions were performed for numerous buildings adjacent to the new subway line. The values predicted by the model were used to determine the need for and type of noise and/or vibration control measures. After the start of transit operations on the new line, noise and vibration measurements were made inside several of the buildings to determine whether the criteria were in fact achieved. The measurement results are compared with the values predicted by the model. The predicted and measured, overall noise and vibration levels show very good agreement, whereas the spectral comparisons indicate some differences. Possible reasons for these differences are offered.

  4. Numerical evaluation of source-receiver transfer functions with the Fast Multipole Boundary Element Method for predicting pass-by noise levels of automotive vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huijssen, Jacobus; Fiala, Péter; Hallez, Raphael; Donders, Stijn; Desmet, Wim

    2012-04-01

    The Fast Multipole Boundary Element Method (FMBEM) is adopted for the numerical evaluation of source-receiver transfer functions for predicting ISO-362 pass-by noise levels of automotive vehicles. The pass-by noise configuration is discussed, as well as the FMBEM approach to evaluate the transfer functions in the frequency domain. An amplitude/phase frequency interpolation scheme with a geometrically based phase unwrapping scheme is presented that enables the long time frame reconstruction of the impulse responses from coarsely sampled frequency response functions. The performance of the interpolation scheme is compared to other schemes for 12 frequency response functions obtained from measurements on a passenger vehicle in a semi-anechoic room, and a sampling and interpolation scheme is proposed that yields a mean error of 0.5 dB in the third octave band SPLs. Several parameters related to the simulation method, the most important of which is the density of the BEM surface mesh, are investigated for their influence on the trade-off between accuracy and evaluation time. Guidelines for selecting these parameters are presented which can be used to predict sound pressure levels and third octave band levels up to the 2 kHz third octave band. Compared to more accurate simulations, these guidelines result in an average approximation error in the transfer functions of 1.3 dB in the third octave band SPLs while considerably reducing the evaluation time. Comparison of the simulated and the measured transfer functions show an average error of 4 dB in the third octave band SPLs.

  5. Broadband graphene polarizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Qiaoliang; Zhang, Han; Wang, Bing; Ni, Zhenhua; Lim, Candy Haley Yi Xuan; Wang, Yu; Tang, Ding Yuan; Loh, Kian Ping

    2011-07-01

    Conventional polarizers can be classified into three main modes of operation: sheet polarizer using anisotropic absorption media, prism polarizer by refraction and Brewster-angle polarizer by reflection. These polarizing components are not easily integrated with photonic circuits. The in-line fibre polarizer, which relies on polarization-selective coupling between the evanescent field and birefringent crystal or metal, is a promising alternative because of its compatibility with most fibre-optic systems. Here, we demonstrate the operation of a broadband fibre polarizer based on graphene, an ultrathin two-dimensional carbon material. The out-coupled light in the telecommunication band shows a strong s-polarization effect with an extinction ratio of 27 dB. Unlike polarizers made from thin metal film, a graphene polarizer can support transverse-electric-mode surface wave propagation due to its linear dispersion of Dirac electrons.

  6. NASA Jet Noise Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Brenda

    2012-01-01

    The presentation highlights jet-noise research conducted in the Subsonic Fixed Wing, Supersonics, and Environmentally Responsible Aviation Projects in the Fundamental Aeronautics Program at NASA. The research efforts discussed include NASA's updated Aircraft NOise Prediction Program (ANOPP2), acoustic-analogy-based prediction tools, jet-surface-interaction studies, plasma-actuator investigations, N+2 Supersonics Validation studies, rectangular-jet experiments, twin-jet experiments, and Hybrid Wind Body (HWB) activities.

  7. Spin noise amplification and giant noise in optical microcavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryzhov, I. I.; Poltavtsev, S. V.; Kozlov, G. G.; Kavokin, A. V.; Lagoudakis, P. V.; Zapasskii, V. S.

    2015-06-01

    When studying the spin-noise-induced fluctuations of Kerr rotation in a quantum-well microcavity, we have found a dramatic increase of the noise signal (by more than two orders of magnitude) in the vicinity of anti-crossing of the polariton branches. The effect is explained by nonlinear optical instability of the microcavity giving rise to the light-power-controlled amplification of the polarization noise signal. In the framework of the developed model of built-in amplifier, we also interpret the nontrivial spectral and intensity-related properties of the observed noise signal below the region of anti-crossing of polariton branches. The discovered effect of optically controllable amplification of broadband polarization signals in microcavities in the regime of optical instability may be of interest for detecting weak oscillations of optical anisotropy in fundamental research and for other applications in optical information processing.

  8. Listening effort and speech intelligibility in listening situations affected by noise and reverberation.

    PubMed

    Rennies, Jan; Schepker, Henning; Holube, Inga; Kollmeier, Birger

    2014-11-01

    This study compared the combined effect of noise and reverberation on listening effort and speech intelligibility to predictions of the speech transmission index (STI). Listening effort was measured in normal-hearing subjects using a scaling procedure. Speech intelligibility scores were measured in the same subjects and conditions: (a) Speech-shaped noise as the only interfering factor, (b) + (c) fixed signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of 0 or 7?dB and reverberation as detrimental factors, and (d) reverberation as the only detrimental factor. In each condition, SNR and reverberation were combined to produce STI values of 0.17, 0.30, 0.43, 0.57, and 0.70, respectively. Listening effort always decreased with increasing STI, thus enabling a rough prediction, but a significant bias was observed indicating that listening effort was lower in reverberation only than in noise only at the same STI for one type of impulse responses. Accordingly, speech intelligibility increased with increasing STI and was significantly better in reverberation only than in noise only at the same STI. Further analyses showed that the broadband reverberation time is not always a good estimate of speech degradation in reverberation and that different speech materials may differ in their robustness toward detrimental effects of reverberation. PMID:25373965

  9. Prediction of BVI Noise for an Active Twist Rotor Using a Loosely Coupled CFD/CSD Method and Comparison to Experimental Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogarty, David E.; Wilbur, Matthew L.; Sekula, Martin K.; Boyd, David Douglas, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Numerical predictions of the acoustic characteristics of an Active Twist Rotor (ATR), using two methods to compute the rotor blade aerodynamics and elastic blade motion are compared to experimental data from a wind tunnel test in the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) in 2000. The first method, a loosely coupled iterative method, utilizes the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code OVERFLOW 2 and the Computational Structural Dynamics (CSD) code CAMRAD II. The second method utilizes the CAMRAD II free-wake model only. The harmonic active-twist control to the main rotor blade system is identified with three parameters - harmonic actuation frequency, actuation amplitude, and control phase angle. The resulting aerodynamics and blade motion data from the two methods are then used in the acoustics code PSU-WOPWOP to predict acoustic pressure on a spherical array of equally spaced observers surrounding the rotor. This spherical distribution of pressure is used to compute the sound power level representing baseline and actuated conditions. Sound power levels for three categories of noise are defined as - blade-vortex interaction sound power level (BVIPWL), low frequency sound power level (LFPWL), and overall sound power level, OAPWL. Comparisons with measured data indicate the CFD/CSD analysis successfully captures the trends in sound power levels and the effects of active-twist control at advance ratios of 0.14 and 0.17. The free-wake model predictions show inconsistent sound power levels relative to the trends in the experimental and CFD data. This paper presents the first ever comparison between CFD/CSD acoustic predictions for an active-twist rotor and experimental measurements.

  10. Inlet noise on 0.5-meter-diameter NASA QF1 fan as measured in an unmodified compressor aerodynamic test facility and in an anechoic chamber

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. F. Gelder; R. F. Soltis

    1975-01-01

    Narrowband analysis revealed grossly similar sound pressure level spectra in each facility. Blade passing frequency (BPF) noise and multiple pure tone (MPT) noise were superimposed on a broadband (BB) base noise. From one-third octave bandwidth sound power analyses the BPF noise (harmonics combined), and the MPT noise (harmonics combined, excepting BPF's) agreed between facilities within 1.5 db or less over

  11. Rotary wing aerodynamically generated noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, F. J.; Morse, H. A.

    1982-01-01

    The history and methodology of aerodynamic noise reduction in rotary wing aircraft are presented. Thickness noise during hover tests and blade vortex interaction noise are determined and predicted through the use of a variety of computer codes. The use of test facilities and scale models for data acquisition are discussed.

  12. Aeroacoustic investigation on the noise from ultralight aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlen, Helmut; Dobrzynski, Werner; Heller, Hanno

    1987-08-01

    Flyover and ground/static noise measurements as well as wind tunnel tests on individual propellers of ultralight aircraft led to the identification of the essential noise sources and to recommendations for noise reduction. For undisturbed inflow conditions (tractor propellers) and blade tip Mach numbers below 0.5 the resulting propeller noise is of broadband nature, while above that limit discrete-frequency rotational-noise sources dominate. Additional sources occur with pusher-propeller configurations as a consequence of the disturbed inflow. It is demonstrated that ground/static noise measurements are not suitable for certification testing.

  13. Frequency-dependent noise sources in the North Atlantic Ocean

    E-print Network

    Stutzmann, Eléonore

    Frequency-dependent noise sources in the North Atlantic Ocean Amandine Sergeant and Eleonore in the North Atlantic Ocean by coupling noise polarization analysis and source mapping using an ocean wave the distribution of secondary microseism sources in the North Atlantic Ocean using 20 broadband stations located

  14. Seismic attenuation from recordings of ambient noise

    E-print Network

    only a few days of recordings by broad-band ocean bottom seismometers we are able to retrieve empiricalSeismic attenuation from recordings of ambient noise Cornelis Weemstra Lapo Boschi, Alexander ABSTRACT We apply seismic interferometry to data from an OBS survey offshore Norway and show that ambient

  15. Flight Acoustic Testing and For the Rotorcraft Noise Data Acquisition Model (RNM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, Casey L.; Smith, Charles D.; Conner, David A.

    2006-01-01

    Two acoustic flight tests have been conducted on a remote test range at Eglin Air Force Base in the panhandle of Florida. The first was the "Acoustics Week" flight test conducted in September 2003. The second was the NASA Heavy Lift Rotorcraft Acoustics Flight Test conducted in October-November 2005. Benchmark acoustic databases were obtained for a number of rotorcraft and limited fixed wing vehicles for a variety of flight conditions. The databases are important for validation of acoustic prediction programs such as the Rotorcraft Noise Model (RNM), as well as for the development of low noise flight procedures and for environmental impact assessments. An overview of RNM capabilities and a detailed description of the RNM/ART (Acoustic Repropagation Technique) process are presented. The RNM/ART process is demonstrated using measured acoustic data for the MD600N. The RNM predictions for a level flyover speed sweep show the highest SEL noise levels on the flight track centerline occurred at the slowest vehicle speeds. At these slower speeds, broadband noise content is elevated compared to noise levels obtained at the higher speeds. A descent angle sweep shows that, in general, ground noise levels increased with increasing descent rates. Vehicle orientation in addition to vehicle position was found to significantly affect the RNM/ART creation of source noise semi-spheres for vehicles with highly directional noise characteristics and only mildly affect those with weak acoustic directionality. Based on these findings, modifications are proposed for RNM/ART to more accurately define vehicle and rotor orientation.

  16. Flight Acoustic Testing and Data Acquisition For the Rotor Noise Model (RNM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conner, David A.; Burley, Casey L.; Smith, Charles D.

    2006-01-01

    Two acoustic flight tests have been conducted on a remote test range at Eglin Air Force Base in the panhandle of Florida. The first was the Acoustics Week flight test conducted in September 2003. The second was the NASA Heavy Lift Rotorcraft Acoustics Flight Test conducted in October-November 2005. Benchmark acoustic databases were obtained for a number of rotorcraft and limited fixed wing vehicles for a variety of flight conditions. The databases are important for validation of acoustic prediction programs such as the Rotorcraft Noise Model (RNM), as well as for the development of low noise flight procedures and for environmental impact assessments. An overview of RNM capabilities and a detailed description of the RNM/ART (Acoustic Repropagation Technique) process are presented. The RNM/ART process is demonstrated using measured acoustic data for the MD600N. The RNM predictions for a level flyover speed sweep show the highest SEL noise levels on the flight track centerline occurred at the slowest vehicle speeds. At these slower speeds, broadband noise content is elevated compared to noise levels obtained at the higher speeds. A descent angle sweep shows that, in general, ground noise levels increased with increasing descent rates. Vehicle orientation in addition to vehicle position was found to significantly affect the RNM/ART creation of source noise semi-spheres for vehicles with highly directional noise characteristics and only mildly affect those with weak acoustic directionality. Based on these findings, modifications are proposed for RNM/ART to more accurately define vehicle and rotor orientation.

  17. Analysis of Measured and Predicted Acoustics from an XV-15 Flight Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, D. Douglas, Jr.; Burley, Casey L.

    2001-01-01

    Flight acoustic and vehicle state data from an XV-15 acoustic flight test are examined. Flight predictions using TRAC are performed for a level flight (repeated) and four descent conditions (including a BVI). The assumptions and procedures used for TRAC flight predictions as well as the variability in flight measurements, which are used for input and comparison to predictions, are investigated in detail. Differences were found in the measured vehicle airspeed, altitude, glideslope, and vehicle orientation (yaw, pitch and roll angle) between each of the repeat runs. These differences violate some of the prediction assumptions and significantly impacted the resulting acoustic predictions. Multiple acoustic pulses, with a variable time between the pulses, were found in the measured acoustic time histories for the repeat runs. These differences could be attributed in part to the variability in vehicle orientation. Acoustic predictions that used the measured vehicle orientation for the repeat runs captured this multiple pulse variability. Thickness noise was found to be dominant on approach for all the cases, except the BVI condition. After the aircraft passed overhead, broadband noise and low frequency loading noise were dominant. The predicted LowSPL time histories compared well with measurement on approach to the array for the non-BVI conditions and poorly for the BVI condition. Accurate prediction of the lift share between the rotor and fuselage must be known in order to improve predictions. At a minimum, measurements of the rotor thrust and tip-path-plane angle are critical to further develop accurate flight acoustic prediction capabilities.

  18. Flow structure generated by perpendicular blade-vortex interaction and implications for helicopter noise prediction. Volume 1: Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wittmer, Kenneth S.; Devenport, William J.

    1996-01-01

    The perpendicular interaction of a streamwise vortex with an infinite span helicopter blade was modeled experimentally in incompressible flow. Three-component velocity and turbulence measurements were made using a sub-miniature four sensor hot-wire probe. Vortex core parameters (radius, peak tangential velocity, circulation, and centerline axial velocity deficit) were determined as functions of blade-vortex separation, streamwise position, blade angle of attack, vortex strength, and vortex size. The downstream development of the flow shows that the interaction of the vortex with the blade wake is the primary cause of the changes in the core parameters. The blade sheds negative vorticity into its wake as a result of the induced angle of attack generated by the passing vortex. Instability in the vortex core due to its interaction with this negative vorticity region appears to be the catalyst for the magnification of the size and intensity of the turbulent flowfield downstream of the interaction. In general, the core radius increases while peak tangential velocity decreases with the effect being greater for smaller separations. These effects are largely independent of blade angle of attack; and if these parameters are normalized on their undisturbed values, then the effects of the vortex strength appear much weaker. Two theoretical models were developed to aid in extending the results to other flow conditions. An empirical model was developed for core parameter prediction which has some rudimentary physical basis, implying usefulness beyond a simple curve fit. An inviscid flow model was also created to estimate the vorticity shed by the interaction blade, and to predict the early stages of its incorporation into the interacting vortex.

  19. Microwatt shot-noise measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacon, A. M.; Zhao, H. Z.; Wang, L. J.; Thomas, J. E.

    1995-08-01

    We report a simple scheme for sensitive measurements of optical-noise spectra. Optical noise is separated from electronic noise when the output of an analog spectrum analyzer is real-time squared and then lock-in detected. This method directly yields the desired mean-square noise voltage, i.e., the power spectrum of the optical noise on a linear scale. To demonstrate this technique, the mean-square shot noise of a laser beam is measured and found to vary linearly with the laser power from several milliwatts down to one microwatt, in excellent quantitative agreement with predictions.

  20. Broadband accelerator control network

    SciTech Connect

    Skelly, J.; Clifford, T.; Frankel, R.

    1983-01-01

    A broadband data communications network has been implemented at BNL for control of the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AG) proton accelerator, using commercial CATV hardware, dual coaxial cables as the communications medium, and spanning 2.0 km. A 4 MHz bandwidth Digital Control channel using CSMA-CA protocol is provided for digital data transmission, with 8 access nodes available over the length of the RELWAY. Each node consists of an rf modem and a microprocessor-based store-and-forward message handler which interfaces the RELWAY to a branch line implemented in GPIB. A gateway to the RELWAY control channel for the (preexisting) AGS Computerized Accelerator Operating system has been constructed using an LSI-11/23 microprocessor as a device in a GPIB branch line. A multilayer communications protocol has been defined for the Digital Control Channel, based on the ISO Open Systems Interconnect layered model, and a RELWAY Device Language defined as the required universal language for device control on this channel.