Science.gov

Sample records for broiler anatomical compartments

  1. Differential gene expression in anatomical compartments of the human eye

    PubMed Central

    Diehn, Jennifer J; Diehn, Maximilian; Marmor, Michael F; Brown, Patrick O

    2005-01-01

    Background The human eye is composed of multiple compartments, diverse in form, function, and embryologic origin, that work in concert to provide us with our sense of sight. We set out to systematically characterize the global gene expression patterns that specify the distinctive characteristics of the various eye compartments. Results We used DNA microarrays representing approximately 30,000 human genes to analyze gene expression in the cornea, lens, iris, ciliary body, retina, and optic nerve. The distinctive patterns of expression in each compartment could be interpreted in relation to the physiology and cellular composition of each tissue. Notably, the sets of genes selectively expressed in the retina and in the lens were particularly large and diverse. Genes with roles in immune defense, particularly complement components, were expressed at especially high levels in the anterior segment tissues. We also found consistent differences between the gene expression patterns of the macula and peripheral retina, paralleling the differences in cell layer densities between these regions. Based on the hypothesis that genes responsible for diseases that affect a particular eye compartment are likely to be selectively expressed in that compartment, we compared our gene expression signatures with genetic mapping studies to identify candidate genes for diseases affecting the cornea, lens, and retina. Conclusion Through genome-scale gene expression profiling, we were able to discover distinct gene expression 'signatures' for each eye compartment and identified candidate disease genes that can serve as a reference database for investigating the physiology and pathophysiology of the eye. PMID:16168081

  2. The fourth-compartment syndrome: its anatomical basis and clinical cases.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, H; Kojima, T; Fukumoto, K

    1999-01-01

    We propose a new term, the "fourth-compartment syndrome" to describe chronic dorsal wrist pain of the fourth compartment. Five main causes responsible for this syndrome are thought to be as follows: 1. Ganglion involvement, including an occult ganglion; 2. Extensor digitorum brevis manus muscle; 3. Abnormal extensor indicis muscle; 4. Tenosynovialitis; 5. Anomaly or deformity of carpal bones. Should the above mentioned conditions occur in the fourth compartment, pressure within the fourth compartment increases, ultimately compressing the posterior interosseous nerve directly or indirectly. Anatomical studies of the fourth compartment of the wrist and the posterior interosseous nerve are presented and the fourth-compartment syndrome is summarized with twelve clinical cases (six cases of occult ganglions, two cases of extensor digitorum brevis manus, two cases of tenosynovialitis, one case of abnormal extensor indicis muscle, and one case of carpal bossing). PMID:10080065

  3. Pharmacokinetics of antiretroviral drugs in anatomical sanctuary sites: the fetal compartment (placenta and amniotic fluid).

    PubMed

    Else, Laura J; Taylor, Stephen; Back, David J; Khoo, Saye H

    2011-01-01

    HIV resides within anatomical 'sanctuary sites' where local drug exposure and viral dynamics may differ significantly from the systemic compartment. Widespread implementation of antiretroviral therapy has seen a significant decline in the incidence of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV. In addition to suppression of maternal plasma/genital viral loads, antiretroviral agents that cross the placenta and achieve adequate concentrations in the fetal compartment may exert a greater prophylactic effect. Penetration of antiretrovirals in the fetal compartment is expressed by accumulation ratios derived from the measurement of drug concentrations in paired maternal plasma and umbilical cord samples. The nucleoside analogues and nevirapine accumulate extensively in cord blood and in the surrounding amniotic fluid, whereas the protease inhibitors (PIs) exhibit low-to-moderate placental accumulation. Early data suggest that high placental/neonatal concentrations are achieved with raltegravir, but to a lesser extent with etravirine and maraviroc (rank order of accumulation: raltegravir/nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor [tenofovir > zidovudine/lamivudine/emtricitabine/stavudine/abacavir] > non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor [nevirapine > etravirine] > PI > maraviroc/enfuvirtide). More comprehensive in vivo pharmacokinetic data are required to justify the potential use of these agents as safe and effective options during pregnancy. PMID:22155898

  4. Increase of forage dryness induces differentiated anatomical response in the sheep rumen compartments.

    PubMed

    Scocco, Paola; Mercati, Francesca; Tardella, Federico Maria; Catorci, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how the Surface Enlargement Factor (SEF) and the epithelial keratinization degree of sheep rumen change in response to phytomass production, and to forage fiber and water content during the pasture vegetative cycle. The study used eighteen sheep nourished with dry hay and cereals during the winter season and with fresh hay during the pasture vegetative cycle. We collected samples from rumen indicative regions for two consecutive years characterized by different rainfall and pasture productivity values. We evaluated the densities (D) of rumen papillae to estimate the rumen SEF, and the keratinization percentage of the epithelial lining; these parameters showed differentiated modifications in the four ruminal analyzed compartments in response to pasture seasonal conditions. In addition, we performed Canonical Redundancy Analysis (RDA) on the "keratinization and SEF" matrix constrained by phytomass, water, and crude fiber contents of pasture at different time in the two considered years to highlight how rumen features answer to pasture conditions. Atrium (A) and ventral sac (VS) keratinization showed a strict positive correlation to crude fiber, while SEF of VS was positively related to phytomass and forage water content. The degree of keratinization of the rumen VS epithelium proved to be a useful parameter for evaluating anatomical variations in the short term period related to pasture features; in addition, its monitoring could be carried out through biopsy, thus avoiding the killing of animals. The study also leads to the application of the 3Rs (Replacement; Reduction; and Refinement). Microsc. Res. Tech. 79:738-743, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27271434

  5. Anatomical heterogeneity of tendon: Fascicular and interfascicular tendon compartments have distinct proteomic composition

    PubMed Central

    Thorpe, Chavaunne T.; Peffers, Mandy J.; Simpson, Deborah; Halliwell, Elizabeth; Screen, Hazel R. C.; Clegg, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    Tendon is a simple aligned fibre composite, consisting of collagen-rich fascicles surrounded by a softer interfascicular matrix (IFM). The composition and interactions between these material phases are fundamental in ensuring tissue mechanics meet functional requirements. However the IFM is poorly defined, therefore tendon structure-function relationships are incompletely understood. We hypothesised that the IFM has a more complex proteome, with faster turnover than the fascicular matrix (FM). Using laser-capture microdissection and mass spectrometry, we demonstrate that the IFM contains more proteins, and that many proteins show differential abundance between matrix phases. The IFM contained more protein fragments (neopeptides), indicating greater matrix degradation in this compartment, which may act to maintain healthy tendon structure. Protein abundance did not alter with ageing, but neopeptide numbers decreased in the aged IFM, indicating decreased turnover which may contribute to age-related tendon injury. These data provide important insights into how differences in tendon composition and turnover contribute to tendon structure-function relationships and the effects of ageing. PMID:26842662

  6. Associations among Inflammatory Biomarkers in the Circulating, Plasmatic, Salivary and Intraluminal Anatomical Compartments in Apparently Healthy Preschool Children from the Western Highlands of Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Soto-Méndez, María José; Romero-Abal, María Eugenia; Aguilera, Concepción María; Rico, María Cruz; Solomons, Noel W.; Schümann, Klaus; Gil, Angel

    2015-01-01

    Background Undernutrition and inflammation are related in many ways; for instance, non-hygienic environments are associated with both poor growth and immunostimulation in children. Objective To describe any existing interaction among different inflammation biomarkers measured in the distinct anatomical compartments of whole blood, feces, plasma and saliva. Methods In this descriptive, cross-sectional study, samples of whole blood, feces, plasma and saliva were collected on the 8th and last week of observation among 87 attendees (42 girls and 45 boys) of 3 daycare centers offering a common 40-day rotating menu in Guatemala’s Western Highlands. Analyses included white blood cell count (WBC), fecal calprotectin, and plasmatic and salivary cytokines including IL-1B, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and TNF-α. Associations were assessed using Spearman rank-order and goodness-of-fit correlations, as indicated, followed by backwards-elimination multiple regression analyses to determine predictor variables for IL-10 in both anatomical compartments. Results Of a total of 66 cross-tabulations in the Spearman hemi-matrix, 22 (33%) were significantly associated. All 10 paired associations among the salivary cytokines had a significant r value, whereas 7 of 10 possible associations among plasma cytokines were significant. Associations across anatomical compartments, however, were rarely significant. IL-10 in both biological fluids were higher than corresponding reference values. When a multiple regression model was run in order to determine independent predictors for IL-10 in each anatomical compartment separately, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α emerged as predictors in plasma (r2 = 0.514) and IL-1B, IL-8 and TNF-α remained as independent predictors in saliva (r2 = 0.762). Significant cross-interactions were seen with WBC, but not with fecal calprotectin. Conclusion Interactions ranged from robust within the same anatomical compartment to limited to nil across distinct anatomical compartments. The

  7. Anatomical and biomechanical traits of broiler chickens across ontogeny. Part II. Body segment inertial properties and muscle architecture of the pelvic limb

    PubMed Central

    Tickle, Peter G.; Rankin, Jeffery W.; Codd, Jonathan R.; Hutchinson, John R.

    2014-01-01

    In broiler chickens, genetic success for desired production traits is often shadowed by welfare concerns related to musculoskeletal health. Whilst these concerns are clear, a viable solution is still elusive. Part of the solution lies in knowing how anatomical changes in afflicted body systems that occur across ontogeny influence standing and moving. Here, to demonstrate these changes we quantify the segment inertial properties of the whole body, trunk (legs removed) and the right pelvic limb segments of five broilers at three different age groups across development. We also consider how muscle architecture (mass, fascicle length and other properties related to mechanics) changes for selected muscles of the pelvic limb. All broilers used had no observed lameness, but we document the limb pathologies identified post mortem, since these two factors do not always correlate, as shown here. The most common leg disorders, including bacterial chondronecrosis with osteomyelitis and rotational and angular deformities of the lower limb, were observed in chickens at all developmental stages. Whole limb morphology is not uniform relative to body size, with broilers obtaining large thighs and feet between four and six weeks of age. This implies that the energetic cost of swinging the limbs is markedly increased across this growth period, perhaps contributing to reduced activity levels. Hindlimb bone length does not change during this period, which may be advantageous for increased stability despite the increased energetic costs. Increased pectoral muscle growth appears to move the centre of mass cranio-dorsally in the last two weeks of growth. This has direct consequences for locomotion (potentially greater limb muscle stresses during standing and moving). Our study is the first to measure these changes in the musculoskeletal system across growth in chickens, and reveals how artificially selected changes of the morphology of the pectoral apparatus may cause deficits in

  8. Compartments within a compartment

    PubMed Central

    Blacque, Oliver E; Sanders, Anna AWM

    2014-01-01

    The primary cilium has emerged as a hotbed of sensory and developmental signaling, serving as a privileged domain to concentrate the functions of a wide number of channels, receptors and downstream signal transducers. This realization has provided important insight into the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the ciliopathies, an ever expanding spectrum of multi-symptomatic disorders affecting the development and maintenance of multiple tissues and organs. One emerging research focus is the subcompartmentalised nature of the organelle, consisting of discrete structural and functional subdomains such as the periciliary membrane/basal body compartment, the transition zone, the Inv compartment and the distal segment/ciliary tip region. Numerous ciliopathy, transport-related and signaling molecules localize at these compartments, indicating specific roles at these subciliary sites. Here, by focusing predominantly on research from the genetically tractable nematode C. elegans, we review ciliary subcompartments in terms of their structure, function, composition, biogenesis and relationship to human disease. PMID:24732235

  9. Compartments of the foot: topographic anatomy.

    PubMed

    Faymonville, C; Andermahr, J; Seidel, U; Müller, L P; Skouras, E; Eysel, P; Stein, G

    2012-12-01

    Recent publications have renewed the debate regarding the number of foot compartments. There is also no consensus regarding allocation of individual muscles and communication between compartments. The current study examines the anatomic topography of the foot compartments anew using 32 injections of epoxy-resin and subsequent sheet plastination in 12 cadaveric foot specimens. Six compartments were identified: dorsal, medial, lateral, superficial central, deep forefoot, and deep hindfoot compartments. Communication was evident between the deep hindfoot compartment and the superficial central and deep central forefoot compartments. In the hindfoot, the neurovascular bundles were located in separate tissue sheaths between the central hindfoot compartment and the medial compartment. In the forefoot, the medial and lateral bundles entered the deep central forefoot compartment. The deep central hindfoot compartment housed the quadratus plantae muscle, and after calcaneus fracture could develop an isolated compartment syndrome. PMID:22638720

  10. Compartment syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... caused by repetitive activities, such as running. The pressure in a compartment only increases during that activity. Compartment syndrome is most common in the lower leg and forearm. It can also occur in the hand, foot, thigh, and upper arm.

  11. Anatomical and biomechanical traits of broiler chickens across ontogeny. Part I. Anatomy of the musculoskeletal respiratory apparatus and changes in organ size

    PubMed Central

    Tickle, Peter G.; Paxton, Heather; Rankin, Jeffery W.; Hutchinson, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic selection for improved meat yields, digestive efficiency and growth rates have transformed the biology of broiler chickens. Modern birds undergo a 50-fold multiplication in body mass in just six weeks, from hatching to slaughter weight. However, this selection for rapid growth and improvements in broiler productivity is also widely thought to be associated with increased welfare problems as many birds suffer from leg, circulatory and respiratory diseases. To understand growth-related changes in musculoskeletal and organ morphology and respiratory skeletal development over the standard six-week rearing period, we present data from post-hatch cadaveric commercial broiler chickens aged 0, 2, 4 and 6 weeks. The heart, lungs and intestines decreased in size for hatch to slaughter weight when considered as a proportion of body mass. Proportional liver size increased in the two weeks after hatch but decreased between 2 and 6 weeks. Breast muscle mass on the other hand displayed strong positive allometry, increasing in mass faster than the increase in body mass. Contrastingly, less rapid isometric growth was found in the external oblique muscle, a major respiratory muscle that moves the sternum dorsally during expiration. Considered together with the relatively slow ossification of elements of the respiratory skeleton, it seems that rapid growth of the breast muscles might compromise the efficacy of the respiratory apparatus. Furthermore, the relative reduction in size of the major organs indicates that selective breeding in meat-producing birds has unintended consequences that may bias these birds toward compromised welfare and could limit further improvements in meat-production and feed efficiency. PMID:25071981

  12. Compartment syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Jobe MT. Compartment syndromes and Volkmann contracture. In: Canale ST, Beaty JH, eds. Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics . 12th ed. ... and Shoulder Service, UCSF Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, San Francisco, CA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, ...

  13. Compartment syndromes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mubarak, S. J.; Pedowitz, R. A.; Hargens, A. R.

    1989-01-01

    The compartment syndrome is defined as a condition in which high pressure within a closed fascial space (muscle compartment) reduces capillary blood perfusion below the level necessary for tissue viability'. This condition occurs in acute and chronic (exertional) forms, and may be secondary to a variety of causes. The end-result of an extended period of elevated intramuscular pressure may be the development of irreversible tissue injury and Volkmann's contracture. The goal of treatment of the compartment syndrome is the reduction of intracompartmental pressure thus facilitating reperfusion of ischaemic tissue and this goal may be achieved by decompressive fasciotomy. Controversy exists regarding the critical pressure-time thresholds for surgical decompression and the optimal diagnostic methods of measuring intracompartmental pressures. This paper will update and review some current knowledge regarding the pathophysiology, aetiology, diagnosis, and treatment of the acute compartment syndrome.

  14. Coping with the diagnostic complexities of the compartment syndrome

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mubarak, S. J.; Hargens, A. R.; Karkal, S. S.

    1988-01-01

    This review recognizes that, given the various complexities associated with the condition, no pat answers can be given to fit every patient with the compartment syndrome. The authors first give a definition of the syndrome, together with a brief account of how this self-perpetuating pathologic cycle is triggered. Next, they delineate specific anatomical features of compartments that are likely to be involved, and follow this with an inventory of symptoms and signs to look for in suspected cases. After sorting out the entities that can mimic the compartment syndrome, the authors describe three essential techniques of measuring tissue pressure, which can prove invaluable in diagnosing the compartment syndrome.

  15. Compartmented electrode structure

    DOEpatents

    Vissers, Donald R.; Shimotake, Hiroshi; Gay, Eddie C.; Martino, Fredric J.

    1977-06-14

    Electrodes for secondary electrochemical cells are provided with compartments for containing particles of the electrode reactant. The compartments are defined by partitions that are generally impenetrable to the particles of reactant and, in some instances, to the liquid electrolyte used in the cell. During cycling of the cell, reactant material initially loaded into a particular compartment is prevented from migrating and concentrating within the lower portion of the electrode or those portions of the electrode that exhibit reduced electrical resistance.

  16. Compartment Syndrome in Children.

    PubMed

    Hosseinzadeh, Pooya; Hayes, Christopher B

    2016-07-01

    Compartment syndrome in children can present differently than adults. Increased analgesic need should be considered the first sign of evolving compartment syndrome in children. Children with supracondylar humerus fractures, floating elbow injuries, operatively treated forearm fractures, and tibia fractures are at high risk for developing compartment syndrome. Elbow flexion beyond 90° in supracondylar humerus fractures and closed treatment of forearm fractures in floating elbow injuries are associated with increased risk of compartment syndrome. Prompt diagnosis and treatment with fasciotomy in children result in excellent long-term outcomes. PMID:27241380

  17. Single compartment drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Cima, Michael J.; Lee, Heejin; Daniel, Karen; Tanenbaum, Laura M.; Mantzavinou, Aikaterini; Spencer, Kevin C.; Ong, Qunya; Sy, Jay C.; Santini, John; Schoellhammer, Carl M.; Blankschtein, Daniel; Langer, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    Drug design is built on the concept that key molecular targets of disease are isolated in the diseased tissue. Systemic drug administration would be sufficient for targeting in such a case. It is, however, common for enzymes or receptors that are integral to disease to be structurally similar or identical to those that play important biological roles in normal tissues of the body. Additionally, systemic administration may not lead to local drug concentrations high enough to yield disease modification because of rapid systemic metabolism or lack of sufficient partitioning into the diseased tissue compartment. This review focuses on drug delivery methods that physically target drugs to individual compartments of the body. Compartments such as the bladder, peritoneum, brain, eye and skin are often sites of disease and can sometimes be viewed as “privileged,” since they intrinsically hinder partitioning of systemically administered agents. These compartments have become the focus of a wide array of procedures and devices for direct administration of drugs. We discuss the rationale behind single compartment drug delivery for each of these compartments, and give an overview of examples at different development stages, from the lab bench to phase III clinical trials to clinical practice. We approach single compartment drug delivery from both a translational and a technological perspective. PMID:24798478

  18. Pathogenesis of ascites in broilers raised at low altitude: aetiological considerations based on echocardiographic findings.

    PubMed

    Olkowski, A A; Abbott, J A; Classen, H L

    2005-05-01

    This study reports novel insight into the aetiology of pulmonary hypertension and ascites in broiler chickens. The scope of measurements was focused on anatomical and functional parameters, and blood flow patterns in leghorns (resistant to ascites), fast-growing broilers (susceptible to ascites), broilers developing ascites, and ascitic broilers evaluated in vivo using echocardiography, and further examined in the context of postmortem findings. Both, in vivo observed features and postmortem findings, showed clear differences between broilers and leghorns, and between normal and ascitic broilers. Abnormalities in the heart chamber geometry and blood flow patterns were detected upon echocardiographic examination in all ascitic broilers. Right and left atrio-ventricular (AV) valve regurgitation were common findings in ascitic broilers and some apparently normal broilers, with left AV valve insufficiency being a predominant feature with respect to degree and frequency of occurrence. Blood flow disturbances were not detected in leghorns. Left ventricular fractional shortening (functional parameter) was considerably reduced (P < 0.01) in ascitic birds (mean: 21.7 +/- 2.0 SE) in comparison with normal broilers (mean: 39.1 +/- 3.6 SE), or leghorns (mean: 43.3 +/- 2.4 SE). The presented findings indicate that pathological and functional changes in the left ventricle and atrium play a significant role in the pathogenesis of ascites in broilers. Severe dilation of the left atrium and pulmonary veins seen on postmortem examination, as well as regurgitant blood flow in the left atrium, demonstrated by Doppler study in ascitic birds, provide evidence that chronically elevated pressure in the left atrium is involved in the aetiology of pulmonary hypertension and ascites in fast-growing broilers. PMID:15882400

  19. Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Braver, Richard T

    2016-04-01

    Increased tissue pressure within a fascial compartment may be the result from any increase in volume within its contents, or any decrease in size of the fascial covering or its distensibility. This may lead to symptoms of leg tightness, pain or numbness brought about by exercise. There are multiple differential diagnoses of exercise induced leg pain and the proper diagnoses of chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) is made by a careful history and by exclusion of other maladies and confirmed by compartment syndrome testing as detailed in this text. Surgical fasciotomies for the anterior, lateral, superficial and deep posterior compartments are described in detail along with ancillary procedures for chronic shin splints that should allow the athlete to return to competitive activity. PMID:27013413

  20. Chronic exertional compartment syndrome.

    PubMed

    George, Christopher A; Hutchinson, Mark R

    2012-04-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome is a relatively common, but often overlooked cause of leg pain in athletes. A careful history and physical examination is essential in the diagnosis of CECS. Affected individuals have recurrent, activity-related leg pain that recurs at a consistent duration or intensity and is only relieved by rest. Measurement of baseline and postexercise compartment pressures confirms the diagnosis and helps in the planning of treatment. Surgical treatment with fasciotomy of the involved compartments is successful in allowing patients to return to full activity levels. With surgical treatment, it is critical to address all affected compartments as well as releasing any fascial defects, both of which may cause recurrent symptoms if neglected. With appropriate diagnosis and treatment, excellent outcomes can be achieved and allow athletes to return to full, unrestricted activity levels. PMID:22341019

  1. Abdominal Compartment Hypertension and Abdominal Compartment Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Maluso, Patrick; Olson, Jody; Sarani, Babak

    2016-04-01

    Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) are rare but potentially morbid diagnoses. Clinical index of suspicion for these disorders should be raised following massive resuscitation, abdominal wall reconstruction/injury, and in those with space-occupying disorders in the abdomen. Gold standard for diagnosis involves measurement of bladder pressure, with a pressure greater than 12 mm Hg being consistent with IAH and greater than 25 mm Hg being consistent with ACS. Decompressive laparotomy is definitive therapy but paracentesis can be equally therapeutic in properly selected patients. Left untreated, ACS can lead to multisystem organ failure and death. PMID:27016163

  2. Spacecraft Compartment Venting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scialdone, John J.

    1998-01-01

    At various time concerns have been expressed that rapid decompressions of compartments of gas pockets and thermal blankets during spacecraft launches may have caused pressure differentials across their walls sufficient to cause minor structural failures, separations of adhesively-joined parts, ballooning, and flapping of blankets. This paper presents a close form equation expressing the expected pressure differentials across the walls of a compartment as a function of the external to the volume pressure drops, the pressure at which the rates occur and the vent capability of the compartment. The pressure profiles measured inside the shrouds of several spacecraft propelled by several vehicles and some profiles obtained from ground vacuum systems have been included. The equation can be used to design the appropriate vent, which will preclude excessive pressure differentials. Precautions and needed approaches for the evaluations of the expected pressures have been indicated. Methods to make a rapid assessment of the response of the compartment to rapid external pressure drops have been discussed. These are based on the evaluation of the compartment vent flow conductance, the volume and the length of time during which the rapid pressure drop occurs.

  3. Gluteal Compartment Syndrome Secondary to Pelvic Trauma.

    PubMed

    Diaz Dilernia, Fernando; Zaidenberg, Ezequiel E; Gamsie, Sebastian; Taype Zamboni, Danilo E R; Carabelli, Guido S; Barla, Jorge D; Sancineto, Carlos F

    2016-01-01

    Gluteal compartment syndrome (GCS) is extremely rare when compared to compartment syndrome in other anatomical regions, such as the forearm or the lower leg. It usually occurs in drug users following prolonged immobilization due to loss of consciousness. Another possible cause is trauma, which is rare and has only few reports in the literature. Physical examination may show tense and swollen buttocks and severe pain caused by passive range of motion. We present the case of a 70-year-old man who developed GCS after prolonged anterior-posterior pelvis compression. The physical examination revealed swelling, scrotal hematoma, and left ankle extension weakness. An unstable pelvic ring injury was diagnosed and the patient was taken to surgery. Measurement of the intracompartmental pressure was measured in the operating room, thereby confirming the diagnosis. Emergent fasciotomy was performed to decompress the three affected compartments. Trauma surgeons must be aware of the possibility of gluteal compartment syndrome in patients who have an acute pelvic trauma with buttock swelling and excessive pain of the gluteal region. Any delay in diagnosis or treatment can be devastating, causing permanent disability, irreversible loss of gluteal muscles, sciatic nerve palsy, kidney failure, or even death. PMID:27579205

  4. Gluteal Compartment Syndrome Secondary to Pelvic Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Taype Zamboni, Danilo E. R.; Carabelli, Guido S.; Barla, Jorge D.; Sancineto, Carlos F.

    2016-01-01

    Gluteal compartment syndrome (GCS) is extremely rare when compared to compartment syndrome in other anatomical regions, such as the forearm or the lower leg. It usually occurs in drug users following prolonged immobilization due to loss of consciousness. Another possible cause is trauma, which is rare and has only few reports in the literature. Physical examination may show tense and swollen buttocks and severe pain caused by passive range of motion. We present the case of a 70-year-old man who developed GCS after prolonged anterior-posterior pelvis compression. The physical examination revealed swelling, scrotal hematoma, and left ankle extension weakness. An unstable pelvic ring injury was diagnosed and the patient was taken to surgery. Measurement of the intracompartmental pressure was measured in the operating room, thereby confirming the diagnosis. Emergent fasciotomy was performed to decompress the three affected compartments. Trauma surgeons must be aware of the possibility of gluteal compartment syndrome in patients who have an acute pelvic trauma with buttock swelling and excessive pain of the gluteal region. Any delay in diagnosis or treatment can be devastating, causing permanent disability, irreversible loss of gluteal muscles, sciatic nerve palsy, kidney failure, or even death. PMID:27579205

  5. A modern definition of mediastinal compartments.

    PubMed

    Carter, Brett W; Tomiyama, Noriyuki; Bhora, Faiz Y; Rosado de Christenson, Melissa L; Nakajima, Jun; Boiselle, Phillip M; Detterbeck, Frank C; Marom, Edith M

    2014-09-01

    Division of the mediastinum into compartments is used to help narrow the differential diagnosis of newly detected mediastinal masses, to assist in planning biopsy and surgical procedures, and to facilitate communication among clinicians of multiple disciplines. Several traditional mediastinal division schemes exist based upon arbitrary landmarks on the lateral chest radiograph. We describe a modern, computed tomography-based mediastinal division scheme, which has been accepted by the International Thymic Malignancy Interest Group as a new standard. This clinical classification defines a prevascular (anterior), a visceral (middle), and a paravertebral (posterior) compartment, with anatomic boundaries defined clearly by computed tomography. It is our intention that this definition be used in the reporting of clinical cases and the design of prospective clinical trials. PMID:25396318

  6. The Crew Compartment Trainer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    STS-93 crew emergency egress training in the Crew Compartment Trainer (CCT). The five crewmembers of STS-93 in the middeck mock-up are from left to right: Mission Specialist Michel Tognini, Mission Specialist Catherine 'Cady' Coleman, Pilot Jeffrey Ashby, Commander Eileen Collins and Mission Specialist Stephen Hawley.

  7. [Chronic exertional compartment syndrome].

    PubMed

    Rom, Eyal; Tenenbaum, Shay; Chechick, Ofir; Burstein, Gideon; Amit, Yehuda; Thein, Ran

    2013-10-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome is an uncommon phenomenon first reported in the mid 50's. This condition is characterized by sharp pain during physical activity, causing reduction in activity frequency or intensity and even abstention. This syndrome is caused by elevation of the intra-compartmental pressure which leads to decreased tissue perfusion, thus ischemic damage to the tissue ensues. Chronic exertional syndrome is usually related to repetitive physical activity, usually in young people and athletes. The physical activity performed by the patient causes a rise in intra-compartmental pressure and thereby causes pain. The patient discontinues the activity and the pain subsides within minutes of rest. Chronic exertional syndrome is reported to occur in the thigh, shoulder, arm, hand, foot and gluteal region, but most commonly in the leg, especially the anterior compartment. The diagnosis of chronic exertional syndrome is primarily based on patients' medical history, supported by intramuscular pressure measurement of the specific compartment involved. Treatment of chronic exertional syndrome, especially the anterior and lateral compartment of the leg is mainly by surgery i.e. fasciotomy. If the patient is reluctant to undergo a surgical procedure, the conservative treatment is based on abstention from the offending activity, changing footwear or using arch support. However, the conservative approach is not as successful as surgical treatment. PMID:24450036

  8. Acute Compartment Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Andrew H

    2016-07-01

    Acute compartment syndrome (ACS) is a well-known pathophysiologic complication of trauma or tissue ischemia. ACS affects the appearance, function, and even the viability of the involved limb, and demands immediate diagnosis and treatment. However, ACS is difficult to diagnose and the only effective treatment is decompressive surgical fasciotomy. The clinical signs and symptoms may easily be attributed to other aspects of the injury, which further complicates the diagnosis. This article highlights the latest information regarding the diagnosis of ACS, how to perform fasciotomies, how to manage fasciotomy wounds, and also reviews complications and outcomes of ACS. PMID:27241376

  9. Compartment Syndrome of the Hand.

    PubMed

    Oak, Nikhil R; Abrams, Reid A

    2016-07-01

    Hand compartment syndrome has many etiologies; untreated, it has dire functional consequences. Intracompartmental pressure exceeding capillary filling pressure causes decreased tissue perfusion resulting in progressive ischemic death of compartment contents. Clinical findings can evolve. Serial physical examinations are recommended and, if equivocal, interstitial pressure monitoring is indicated. Definitive management is emergent fasciotomies with incisions designed to decompress the involved hand compartments, which could include the thenar, hypothenar, and interosseous compartments, and the carpal tunnel. Careful wound care, edema management, splinting, and hand therapy are critical. Therapy should start early postoperatively, possibly before wound closure. PMID:27241383

  10. Psittacine paranasal sinus--a new definition of compartments.

    PubMed

    Artmann, A; Henninger, W

    2001-12-01

    Documentation of the psittacine paranasal sinuses has been limited. To provide more published detail, spiral computed tomography (CT) was used to scan the cephalic and cervical region from cadavers of 10 psittacine birds (Ara ararauna, Ara chloroptera, Ara macao, and Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus). Skeletal studies, histologic examinations, and evaluation of deep-frozen sections and anatomic preparations confirmed the results of the CT scans. New morphologic details of the paranasal sinus and some compartments were discovered. The paranasal sinuses of these macaws consist of two unpaired rostral compartments, followed caudally by eight paired compartments. Histologic examinations revealed that the walls of the paranasal sinuses consist of flat or cubic monolayer epithelium with underlying connective tissue. The described method of CT examination of these macaws, especially the positioning, scan orientation and parameters, and documentation of the normal paranasal sinus, provides a basis for future clinical use of CT. PMID:12785700

  11. COMPARTMENTED REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Cain, F.M. Jr.

    1962-09-11

    A method of making a nuclear reactor fuel element of the elongated red type is given wherein the fissionable fuel material is enclosed within a tubular metal cladding. The method comprises coating the metal cladding tube on its inside wall with a brazing alloy, inserting groups of cylindrical pellets of fissionable fuel material into the tube with spacing members between adjacent groups of pellets, sealing the ends of the tubes to leave a void space therewithin, heating the tube and its contents to an elevated temperature to melt the brazing alloy and to expand the pellets to their maximum dimensions under predetermined operating conditions thereby automatically positioning the spacing members along the tube, and finally cooling the tube to room temperature whereby the spacing disks become permanently fixed at their edges in the brazing alloy and define a hermetically sealed compartment for each fl group of fuel pellets. Upon cooling, the pellets contract thus leaving a space to accommodate thermal expansion of the pellets when in use in a reactor. The spacing members also provide lateral support for the tubular cladding to prevent collapse thereof when subjected to a reactor environment. (AEC)

  12. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (ascites syndrome) in broilers: a review.

    PubMed

    Wideman, R F; Rhoads, D D; Erf, G F; Anthony, N B

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) syndrome in broilers (also known as ascites syndrome and pulmonary hypertension syndrome) can be attributed to imbalances between cardiac output and the anatomical capacity of the pulmonary vasculature to accommodate ever-increasing rates of blood flow, as well as to an inappropriately elevated tone (degree of constriction) maintained by the pulmonary arterioles. Comparisons of PAH-susceptible and PAH-resistant broilers do not consistently reveal differences in cardiac output, but PAH-susceptible broilers consistently have higher pulmonary arterial pressures and pulmonary vascular resistances compared with PAH-resistant broilers. Efforts clarify the causes of excessive pulmonary vascular resistance have focused on evaluating the roles of chemical mediators of vasoconstriction and vasodilation, as well as on pathological (structural) changes occurring within the pulmonary arterioles (e.g., vascular remodeling and pathology) during the pathogenesis of PAH. The objectives of this review are to (1) summarize the pathophysiological progression initiated by the onset of pulmonary hypertension and culminating in terminal ascites; (2) review recent information regarding the factors contributing to excessively elevated resistance to blood flow through the lungs; (3) assess the role of the immune system during the pathogenesis of PAH; and (4) present new insights into the genetic basis of PAH. The cumulative evidence attributes the elevated pulmonary vascular resistance in PAH-susceptible broilers to an anatomically inadequate pulmonary vascular capacity, to excessive vascular tone reflecting the dominance of pulmonary vasoconstrictors over vasodilators, and to vascular pathology elicited by excessive hemodynamic stress. Emerging evidence also demonstrates that the pathogenesis of PAH includes characteristics of an inflammatory/autoimmune disease involving multifactorial genetic, environmental, and immune system components. Pulmonary

  13. Estimation of adipose compartment volumes in CT images of a mastectomy specimen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imran, Abdullah-Al-Zubaer; Pokrajac, David D.; Maidment, Andrew D. A.; Bakic, Predrag R.

    2016-03-01

    Anthropomorphic software breast phantoms have been utilized for preclinical quantitative validation of breast imaging systems. Efficacy of the simulation-based validation depends on the realism of phantom images. Anatomical measurements of the breast tissue, such as the size and distribution of adipose compartments or the thickness of Cooper's ligaments, are essential for the realistic simulation of breast anatomy. Such measurements are, however, not readily available in the literature. In this study, we assessed the statistics of adipose compartments as visualized in CT images of a total mastectomy specimen. The specimen was preserved in formalin, and imaged using a standard body CT protocol and high X-ray dose. A human operator manually segmented adipose compartments in reconstructed CT images using ITK-SNAP software, and calculated the volume of each compartment. In addition, the time needed for the manual segmentation and the operator's confidence were recorded. The average volume, standard deviation, and the probability distribution of compartment volumes were estimated from 205 segmented adipose compartments. We also estimated the potential correlation between the segmentation time, operator's confidence, and compartment volume. The statistical tests indicated that the estimated compartment volumes do not follow the normal distribution. The compartment volumes are found to be correlated with the segmentation time; no significant correlation between the volume and the operator confidence. The performed study is limited by the mastectomy specimen position. The analysis of compartment volumes will better inform development of more realistic breast anatomy simulation.

  14. Multiple variations of the tendons of the anatomical snuffbox

    PubMed Central

    Thwin, San San; Zaini, Fazlin; Than, Myo

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Multiple tendons of the abductor pollicis longus (APL) in the anatomical snuffbox of the wrist can lead to the development of de Quervain's syndrome, which is caused by stenosing tenosynovitis. A cadaveric study was performed to establish the variations present in the tendons of the anatomical snuffbox in a Malaysian population, in the hope that this knowledge would aid clinical investigation and surgical treatment of de Quervain's tenosynovitis. METHODS Routine dissection of ten upper limbs was performed to determine the variations in the tendons of the anatomical snuffbox of the wrist. RESULTS In all the dissected upper limbs, the APL tendon of the first extensor compartment was found to have several (3–14) tendon slips. The insertion of the APL tendon slips in all upper limbs were at the base of the first metacarpal bone, trapezium and fascia of the opponens pollicis muscle; however, in seven specimens, they were also found to be attached to the fleshy belly of the abductor pollicis brevis muscle. In two specimens, double tendons of the extensor pollicis longus located in the third extensor compartment were inserted into the capsule of the proximal interphalangeal joints before being joined to the extensor expansion. In two other specimens, the first extensor compartment had two osseofibrous tunnels divided by a septum that separated the APL tendon from the extensor pollicis brevis tendon. CONCLUSION Multiple variations were found in the anatomical snuffbox region of the dissected upper limbs. Knowledge of these variations would be useful in interventional radiology and orthopaedic surgery. PMID:24452976

  15. Endoscopic compartment release for chronic exertional compartment syndrome.

    PubMed

    Knight, Justin R; Daniels, Marissa; Robertson, William

    2013-05-01

    Exertional compartment syndrome of the leg is a condition that can cause chronic debilitating pain in active persons during a variety of aerobic activities. Nonoperative treatments using stretching protocols and activity modifications are often unsuccessful, and thus several operative strategies have been used to treat this condition. A novel technique for endoscopically assisted fasciotomy for chronic exertional compartment syndrome is described. By use of a small laterally based incision and an arthroscope, polydioxanone sutures are passed percutaneously along the anterior and lateral compartments with the Spectrum suture-shuttling device (ConMed Linvatec, Largo, FL). These sutures are used to retract the skin and subcutaneous tissues over the respective compartments. This method allows excellent visualization of the intercompartmental septum, the superficial peroneal nerve, and all perforating vessels. The anterior and lateral compartments can be safely and completely released with this minimally invasive approach. The patient is allowed to return to full activity at 6 weeks postoperatively, because of the decreased soft-tissue disruption. PMID:23875149

  16. Endoscopic Compartment Release for Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Justin R.; Daniels, Marissa; Robertson, William

    2013-01-01

    Exertional compartment syndrome of the leg is a condition that can cause chronic debilitating pain in active persons during a variety of aerobic activities. Nonoperative treatments using stretching protocols and activity modifications are often unsuccessful, and thus several operative strategies have been used to treat this condition. A novel technique for endoscopically assisted fasciotomy for chronic exertional compartment syndrome is described. By use of a small laterally based incision and an arthroscope, polydioxanone sutures are passed percutaneously along the anterior and lateral compartments with the Spectrum suture-shuttling device (ConMed Linvatec, Largo, FL). These sutures are used to retract the skin and subcutaneous tissues over the respective compartments. This method allows excellent visualization of the intercompartmental septum, the superficial peroneal nerve, and all perforating vessels. The anterior and lateral compartments can be safely and completely released with this minimally invasive approach. The patient is allowed to return to full activity at 6 weeks postoperatively, because of the decreased soft-tissue disruption. PMID:23875149

  17. Dual-Compartment Inflatable Suitlock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Kriss J.; Guirgis, Peggy L.; Boyle, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    There is a need for an improvement over current NASA Extravehicular Activity (EVA) technology. The technology must allow the capacity for quicker, more efficient egress/ingress, allow for shirtsleeve suit maintenance, be compact in transport, and be applicable to environments ranging from planetary surface (partial-g) to orbital or deep space zero-g environments. The technology must also be resistant to dust and other foreign contaminants that may be present on or around a planetary surface. The technology should be portable, and be capable of docking with a variety of habitats, ports, stations, vehicles, and other pressurized modules. The Dual-Compartment Inflatable Suitlock (DCIS) consists of three hard inline bulkheads, separating two cylindrical membrane-walled compartments. The Inner Bulkhead can be fitted with a variety of hatch types, docking flanges, and mating hardware, such as the Common Berthing Mechanism (CBM), for the purpose of mating with vehicles, habitats, and other pressurized modules. The Inner Bulkhead and Center Bulkhead function as the end walls of the Inner Compartment, which during operations, would stay pressurized, either matching the pressure of the habitat or acting as a lower-pressure transitional volume. The Inner Compartment contains donning/doffing fixtures and inner suit-port hatches. The Center Bulkhead has two integrated suit-ports along with a maintenance hatch. The Center Bulkhead and Outer Bulkhead function as the end walls of the Outer Compartment, which stays at vacuum during normal operations. This allows the crewmember to quickly don a suit, and egress the suitlock without waiting for the Outer Compartment to depressurize. The Outer Compartment can be pressurized infrequently for both nominal and off-nominal suit maintenance tasks, allowing shirtsleeve inspections and maintenance/repair of the environmental suits. The Outer Bulkhead has a pressure-assisted hatch door that stays open and stowed during EVA operations, but can

  18. Effect of Origanum chemotypes on broiler intestinal bacteria.

    PubMed

    Betancourt, Liliana; Rodriguez, Fernando; Phandanouvong, Vienvilay; Ariza-Nieto, Claudia; Hume, Michael; Nisbet, David; Afanador-Téllez, German; Van Kley, Alexandra Martynova; Nalian, Armen

    2014-10-01

    Essential oils have been proposed as alternatives to antibiotic use in food animal production. This study evaluated 3 chemotypes of the Origanum genus, containing varying amounts of secondary metabolites carvacrol, thymol, and sabinene, in the broiler chicken diet. Aerial parts of Origanum vulgare L. (OL), O. vulgare L. ssp. hirtum (OH), and O. majorana (OM) were collected from a greenhouse located in the high altitude Sabana de Bogotá (Savanna of Bogotá) and O. vulgare L. ssp. hirtum (OG) produced and ground in Greece. Oregano essential oils (OEO) from these plants were obtained by steam distillation and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer. Six treatments were evaluated: 200 mg/kg of OEO from OH, OL, and OM, 50 mg/kg of OEO from OG, 500 mg/kg of chlortetracycline, and without additives. Broiler chicks were maintained at 2,600 m above sea level, placed in brooder cages under a completely randomized design. Template DNA was isolated from duodenal, jejunal, ileal, and cecal contents in each group and bacterial 16S rDNA patterns were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Dendrograms of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis band patterns revealed 2 main clusters, OEO-treated chicks and nontreated control chicks, in each intestinal segment. Band patterns from different gut compartments revealed major bacterial population shifts in the foregut (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum) compared with the hindgut (cecum and colon) at all ages evaluated (P < 0.05). The OEO groups showed less shift (62.7% similarity coefficient) between these 2 compartments versus the control groups (53.7% similarity coefficient). A reduction of 59% in mortality from ascites was seen in additive-supplemented groups compared with the control group. This study represents the first work to evaluate the effects of the 3 main chemotypes of Origanum genus in broilers. PMID:25071230

  19. The subcutaneous fat compartments in relation to aesthetically important facial folds and rhytides.

    PubMed

    Gierloff, M; Stöhring, C; Buder, T; Wiltfang, J

    2012-10-01

    The ideal treatment of the nasolabial fold, the tear trough, the labiomandibular fold and the mentolabial sulcus is still discussed controversially. The detailed topographical anatomy of the fat compartments may clarify the anatomy of facial folds and may offer valuable information for choosing the adequate treatment modality. Nine non-fixed cadaver heads in the age range between 72 and 89 years (five female and four male) were investigated. Computed tomographic scans were performed after injection of a radiographic contrast medium directly into the fat compartments surrounding prominent facial folds. The data were analysed after multiplanar image reconstruction. The fat compartments surrounding the facial folds could be defined in each subject. Different arrangement patterns of the fat compartments around the facial rhytides were found. The nasolabial fold, the tear trough and the labiomandibular fold represent an anatomical border between adjacent fat compartments. By contrast, the glabellar fold and the labiomental sulcus have no direct relation to the boundaries of facial fat. Deep fat, underlying a facial rhytide, was identified underneath the nasolabial crease and the labiomental sulcus. In conclusion, an improvement by a compartment-specific volume augmentation of the nasolabial fold, the tear trough and the labiomandibular fold is limited by existing boundaries that extend into the skin. In the area of the nasolabial fold and the mentolabial sulcus, deep fat exists which can be used for augmentation and subsequent elevation of the folds. The treatment of the tear trough deformity appears anatomically the most challenging area since the superficial and deep fat compartments are separated by an osseo-cutaneous barrier, the orbicularis retaining ligament. In severe cases, a surgical treatment should be considered. By contrast, the glabellar fold shows the most simple anatomical architecture. The fold lies above one subcutaneous fat compartment that can be used

  20. Dual-Compartment Inflatable Suitlock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, Scott; Kennedy, Kriss J.; Guirgis, Peggy L.

    2012-01-01

    A paper discusses a dual-compartment inflatable suitlock (DCIS) for Extra - vehicular Activity (EVA) that will allow for dust control, suit maintenance, and efficient EVA egress/ingress. The expandable (inflatable technologies) aspect of the design will allow the unit to stow in a compact package for transport. The DCIS consists of three hard, in line bulkheads, separating two cylindrical membrane-walled compartments. The inner bulkhead can be fitted with a variety of hatch types, docking flanges, and mating hardware, such as the common berthing mechanism (CBM), for the purpose of mating with vehicles, habitats, and other pressurized modules. The inner bulkhead and center bulkhead function as the end walls of the inner compartment, which, during operations, would stay pressurized, either matching the pressure of the habitat or acting as a lower-pressure transitional volume. The suited crewmember can quickly don a suit, and egress the suitlock without waiting for the compartment to depressurize. The outer compartment can be pressurized infrequently, when a long dwell time is expected prior to the next EVA, or during off-nominal suit maintenance tasks, allowing shirtsleeve inspections and maintenance of the space suits. The outer bulkhead has a pressure-assisted hatch door that stays open and stowed routinely, but can be closed for suit maintenance and pressurization as needed.

  1. Gluteal Compartment Syndrome following an Iliac Bone Marrow Aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Vega-Najera, Carlos; Leal-Contreras, Carlos; Leal-Berumen, Irene

    2013-01-01

    The compartment syndrome is a condition characterized by a raised hydraulic pressure within a closed and non expandable anatomical space. It leads to a vascular insufficiency that becomes critical once the vascular flow cannot return the fluids back to the venous system. This causes a potential irreversible damage of the contents of the compartment, especially within the muscle tissues. Gluteal compartment syndrome (GCS) secondary to hematomas is seldom reported. Here we present a case of a 51-year-old patient with history of a non-Hodgkin lymphoma who underwent a bone marrow aspiration from the posterior iliac crest that had excessive bleeding at the puncture zone. The patient complained of increasing pain, tenderness, and buttock swelling. Intraoperative pressure validation of the gluteal compartment was performed, and a GCS was diagnosed. The patient was treated with a gluteal region fasciotomy. The patient recovered from pain and swelling and was discharged shortly after from the hospital. We believe clotting and hematologic disorders are a primary risk factor in patients who require bone marrow aspirations or biopsies. It is important to improve awareness of GCS in order to achieve early diagnosis, avoid complications, and have a better prognosis. PMID:24392235

  2. Anatomical parameters of cardiopulmonary system in three different lines of chickens: further evidence for involvement in ascites syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hassanzadeh, Mohammad; Gilanpour, Hassan; Charkhkar, Saied; Buyse, Johan; Decuypere, Eddy

    2005-06-01

    The present study was designed to compare the anatomical parameters of the cardiopulmonary system in three different lines of chickens with different susceptibility to ascites syndrome. Eggs from three different genetic lines-commercial broiler and layer lines and one native to Iran--were incubated and hatched, and 1-day-old chicks used. The relative heart and lung weights, the volumes of the heart, lung and thorax cavity, the incidence of ascites, and the related physiological parameters in these chickens were followed. Lung weight as a percentage of body weight, the relative lung and heart volume, and the volumes of the thorax cavity, before and after removing heart and lung tissues, were lower in fast-growing broiler chickens compared with the layer and native chickens. Additionally, most of these parameters (e.g. relative lung weight, lung volume and thorax cavity) were significantly decreased with age in broiler chickens but were increased in layer and native chickens, which was concomitant with the incidence of ascites in broiler chickens. Our data indicate that all cardiopulmonary parameters investigated are extremely unfavourable to broiler chickens and suggest a reduction in gas exchange area in broilers, and therefore higher susceptibility to pulmonary hypertension and ascites. PMID:16191701

  3. Evolution of trochlear compartment geometry in total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Demey, Guillaume; Nover, Luca; Dejour, David

    2016-01-01

    Background The study aimed to compare trochlear profiles in recent total knee arthroplasty (TKA) models and to determine whether they feature improvements compared to their predecessors. The hypothesis was that recent TKA models have more anatomic trochlear compartments and would display no signs of trochlear dysplasia. Methods The authors analyzed the geometry of the 6 following TKA models using engineering software: PFC and Attune (DePuy), NexGen and Persona (Zimmer), Noetos and KneeTec (Tornier). The mediolateral trochlear profiles were plotted at various flexion angles (0°, 15°, 30° and 45°) to deduce the sulcus angle. Results Analysis of sulcus angles reveals general convergence of recent designs towards anatomic values. At 0° of flexion, sulcus angles of recent implant models were between 156.0–157.4°, while those of previous generation models between 154.5–165.5°. At 30° of flexion, sulcus angles of recent models also lie within 145.7–148.6°, but those of previous models are between 149.5–152.0°. All three manufacturers deepened their trochlear profile at 30° of flexion in recent models compared to earlier designs. Sulcus angles converge towards anatomic values but still exceed radiologic signs of dysplasia by 2–5°. Conclusions Recent TKA designs have more anatomic trochlear geometries than earlier TKA models by the same manufacturers, but trochlear compartments still exceed radiologic signs of trochlear dysplasia by 2° to 5°. The hypothesis that recent TKA models display no signs of trochlear dysplasia is therefore refuted. Surgeons should be aware of design limitations to optimize choice of implant and extensor mechanisms alignment. Level of evidence: IV geometric implant analysis. PMID:26855943

  4. The Orbital Workshop Shower Compartment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    This photograph shows technicians performing a checkout of the Metabolic Analyzer (center background) and the Ergometer (foreground) in the Orbital Workshop (OWS). The shower compartment is at right. The Ergometer (Skylab Experiment M171) evaluated man's metabolic effectiveness and cost of work in space environment. Located in the experiment and work area of the OWS, the shower compartment was a cylindrical cloth enclosure that was folded flat when not in use. The bottom ring of the shower was fastened to the floor and contained foot restraints. The upper ring contained the shower head and hose. To use the shower, the astronaut filled a pressurized portable bottle with heated water and attached the bottle to the ceiling. A flexible hose cornected the water bottle to a handheld shower head. The astronaut pulled the cylindrical shower wall up into position and bathed, using liquid soap. Both soap and water were carefully rationed, having been premeasured for economical use.

  5. The Orbital Workshop Shower Compartment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    In this photograph, the Orbital Workshop shower compartment was unfolded by technicians for inspection. The shower compartment was a cylindrical cloth enclosure that was folded flat when not in use. The bottom ring of the shower was fastened to the floor and contained foot restraints. The upper ring contained the shower head and hose. To use the shower, the astronaut filled a pressurized portable bottle with heated water and attached the bottle to the ceiling. A flexible hose cornected the water bottle to a handheld shower head. The astronaut pulled the cylindrical shower wall up into position and bathed, using liquid soap. Both soap and water were carefully rationed, having been premeasured for economical use.

  6. The Orbital Workshop Sleep Compartment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    This wide-angle view is of the Orbital Workshop (OWS) sleep compartment, located in the lower level of the OWS. Each crewman was assigned a small space for sleeping and zipped themselves into sleeping bags stretched against the wall. Because of the absence of gravity, sleeping comfort was achieved in any position relative to the spacecraft; body support was not necessary. Sleeping could be accommodated quite comfortably in a bag that held the body at a given place in Skylab.

  7. Method and apparatus to assess compartment syndrome

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ueno, Toshiaki (Inventor); Hargens, Alan R. (Inventor); Yost, William T. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A method and apparatus for measuring pressure buildup in a body compartment that encases muscular tissue. The method includes assessing the body compartment configuration and identifying the effect of pulsatile components on at least one compartment dimension. This process is used in preventing tissue necrosis, and in decisions of whether to perform surgery on the body compartment for prevention of Compartment Syndrome. An apparatus is used for measuring excess pressure in the body compartment having components for imparting ultrasonic waves such as a transducer, placing the transducer to impart the ultrasonic waves, capturing the reflected imparted ultrasonic waves, and converting them to electrical signals, a pulsed phase-locked loop device for assessing a body compartment configuration and producing an output signal, and means for mathematically manipulating the output signal to thereby categorize pressure build-up in the body compartment from the mathematical manipulations.

  8. Control system maintains compartment at constant temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindberg, J. G.

    1966-01-01

    Gas-filled permeable insulating material maintains an enclosed compartment at a uniform temperature. The material is interposed between the two walls of a double-walled enclosure surrounding the compartment.

  9. Wound Complications Following Resection of Adductor Compartment Tumours

    PubMed Central

    Grimer, Robert J.; Carter, Simon R.; Tillman, Roger M.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose Limb salvage surgery of soft tissue sarcomas is associated with both a risk of local recurrence and wound complications. Although the lower limb appears to be at greater risk of wound-related morbidity, few studies separate anatomical compartments. We believe that the adductor compartment of the thigh has a particularly high rate of complications and so performed a retrospective analysis of all soft tissue sarcomas arising in this region undergoing limb salvage. Patients Patients with intermediate and high grade adductor compartment tumours were identified from our database and the case notes were reviewed for patient, tumour, surgical and wound variables, identifying those with wound complications both before and after discharge. Results Of 49 patients who underwent limb salvage surgery, 22 (42.9%) developed complications. Twelve patients (24.5%) required further surgery prior to wound healing and 10 patients had delays in post-operative radiotherapy. There were significant differences in the rates of preceding surgery, open biopsy performed at other centres and previous radiotherapy to this region between the complicated and uncomplicated groups. Discussion The management of these difficult tumours carries a high rate of wound complications and requires careful planning prior to tissue biopsy. Open biopsies should be performed by the tumour surgeon to allow easy inclusion of this site in the definitive procedure. In previously irradiated or operated limbs, alternative strategies for wound management may need to be considered. PMID:18521315

  10. Reference Man anatomical model

    SciTech Connect

    Cristy, M.

    1994-10-01

    The 70-kg Standard Man or Reference Man has been used in physiological models since at least the 1920s to represent adult males. It came into use in radiation protection in the late 1940s and was developed extensively during the 1950s and used by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in its Publication 2 in 1959. The current Reference Man for Purposes of Radiation Protection is a monumental book published in 1975 by the ICRP as ICRP Publication 23. It has a wealth of information useful for radiation dosimetry, including anatomical and physiological data, gross and elemental composition of the body and organs and tissues of the body. The anatomical data includes specified reference values for an adult male and an adult female. Other reference values are primarily for the adult male. The anatomical data include much data on fetuses and children, although reference values are not established. There is an ICRP task group currently working on revising selected parts of the Reference Man document.

  11. 14 CFR 29.853 - Compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compartment interiors. 29.853 Section 29.853 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Fire Protection § 29.853 Compartment interiors. For each compartment to...

  12. Forearm Compartment Syndrome Caused by Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Sayar, Ufuk; Mataracı, İlker

    2014-01-01

    Compartment syndrome is commonly seen following lower extremity ischemia. However, upper extremities' compartment syndrome, especially after any vascular surgical procedures, is infrequent. Herein we report a case of an acute forearm compartment syndrome that was developed after delayed brachial artery embolectomy. PMID:25120938

  13. 49 CFR 38.127 - Sleeping compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sleeping compartments. 38.127 Section 38.127... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Intercity Rail Cars and Systems § 38.127 Sleeping compartments. (a) Sleeping compartments required to be accessible shall be designed so as to allow a person using...

  14. 49 CFR 38.127 - Sleeping compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sleeping compartments. 38.127 Section 38.127... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Intercity Rail Cars and Systems § 38.127 Sleeping compartments. (a) Sleeping compartments required to be accessible shall be designed so as to allow a person using...

  15. 49 CFR 38.127 - Sleeping compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sleeping compartments. 38.127 Section 38.127... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Intercity Rail Cars and Systems § 38.127 Sleeping compartments. (a) Sleeping compartments required to be accessible shall be designed so as to allow a person using...

  16. 49 CFR 38.127 - Sleeping compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sleeping compartments. 38.127 Section 38.127... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Intercity Rail Cars and Systems § 38.127 Sleeping compartments. (a) Sleeping compartments required to be accessible shall be designed so as to allow a person using...

  17. 14 CFR 23.771 - Pilot compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pilot compartment. 23.771 Section 23.771... Cargo Accommodations § 23.771 Pilot compartment. For each pilot compartment— (a) The compartment and its equipment must allow each pilot to perform his duties without unreasonable concentration or fatigue;...

  18. 14 CFR 27.771 - Pilot compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pilot compartment. 27.771 Section 27.771... Pilot compartment. For each pilot compartment— (a) The compartment and its equipment must allow each pilot to perform his duties without unreasonable concentration or fatigue; (b) If there is provision...

  19. 14 CFR 25.771 - Pilot compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pilot compartment. 25.771 Section 25.771... Pilot compartment. (a) Each pilot compartment and its equipment must allow the minimum flight crew... pilot, the airplane must be controllable with equal safety from either pilot seat. (d) The...

  20. 14 CFR 29.771 - Pilot compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pilot compartment. 29.771 Section 29.771... Pilot compartment. For each pilot compartment— (a) The compartment and its equipment must allow each pilot to perform his duties without unreasonable concentration or fatigue; (b) If there is provision...

  1. 14 CFR 29.771 - Pilot compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pilot compartment. 29.771 Section 29.771... Pilot compartment. For each pilot compartment— (a) The compartment and its equipment must allow each pilot to perform his duties without unreasonable concentration or fatigue; (b) If there is provision...

  2. 14 CFR 27.771 - Pilot compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pilot compartment. 27.771 Section 27.771... Pilot compartment. For each pilot compartment— (a) The compartment and its equipment must allow each pilot to perform his duties without unreasonable concentration or fatigue; (b) If there is provision...

  3. 49 CFR 38.127 - Sleeping compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sleeping compartments. 38.127 Section 38.127... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Intercity Rail Cars and Systems § 38.127 Sleeping compartments. (a) Sleeping compartments required to be accessible shall be designed so as to allow a person using...

  4. Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome Testing.

    PubMed

    Flick, David; Flick, Renee

    2015-01-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome is diagnosed based on historical and physical exam findings combined with elevated intracompartmental pressures. Direct static testing with a large bore needle device is the most common instrument used for diagnosis. Based on the most recent systematic reviews, there is poor evidence for the traditional diagnostic pressures used in practice with no standardization of the procedure. New research has introduced a standardized approach with dynamic testing of the limb with transducer-tipped catheters. Less invasive methods of testing using radiologic techniques are currently under investigation. A detailed understanding of the anatomy and physiology of the limb is paramount in executing a safe and accurate procedure. PMID:26359839

  5. Independent Passive Mechanical Behavior of Bovine Extraocular Muscle Compartments

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Andrew; Yoo, Lawrence; Chaudhuri, Zia; Demer, Joseph L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Intramuscular innervation of horizontal rectus extraocular muscles (EOMs) is segregated into superior and inferior (transverse) compartments, while all EOMs are also divided into global (GL) and orbital (OL) layers with scleral and pulley insertions, respectively. We sought evidence of potential independent action by examining passive mechanical coupling between EOM compartments. Methods. Putative compartments of each of the six whole bovine anatomical EOMs were separately clamped to a physiologically controlled, dual channel microtensile load cell (5-mN force resolution) driven by independent, high-speed, linear motors having 20-nm position resolution. One channel at a time was extended or retracted by 3 to 5 mm, with the other channel stationary. Fiducials distributed on the EOM global surface enabled optical tracking of local deformation. Loading rates of 5 to 100 mm/sec were applied to explore speeds from slow vergence to saccades. Control loadings employed transversely loaded EOM and isotropic latex. Results. All EOM bellies and tendons exhibited substantial compartmental independence when loaded in the physiologic direction, both between OL and GL, and for arbitrary transverse parsings of EOM width ranging from 60%:40% to 80%:20%. Intercompartmental force coupling in the physiologic direction was less than or equal to 10% in all six EOMS even for saccadic loading rates. Coupling was much higher for nonphysiologic transverse EOM loading and isotropic latex. Optical tracking demonstrated independent strain distribution between EOM compartments. Conclusions. Substantial mechanical independence exists among physiologically loaded fiber bundles in bovine EOMs and tendons, providing biomechanical support for the proposal that differential compartmental function in horizontal rectus EOMs contributes to novel torsional and vertical actions. PMID:23188730

  6. Broiler litter: Waste or resource?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since the turn of the 21st century, Georgia has ranked 1st in the country in the number of broiler chickens, with about 1.4 billion sold each year. At the Watkinsville Research Center, several field experiments have been and are currently being conducted in collaboration with scientists at the Univ...

  7. Belgian citizens' and broiler producers' perceptions of broiler chicken welfare in Belgium versus Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vanhonacker, F; Tuyttens, F A M; Verbeke, Wim

    2016-07-01

    New EU regulations require more stringent country-of-origin labeling, while imports of broiler meat from non-EU countries are increasing. In light of these trends, we have studied citizens' and producers' perceptions of broiler meat originating from Belgium versus Brazil and their perception of broiler production in Belgium versus Brazil. A particular focus was the association between country of origin and perceived level of animal welfare. We also investigated the perception of scaling-up and outdoor access in terms of perceived level of animal welfare. Cross-sectional survey data was collected among Flemish citizens (n = 541) and broiler producers (n = 114). In accordance with literature on general farm animal welfare, both stakeholder types claimed to allocate great importance to broiler welfare and generally agreed with the Welfare Quality model of broiler welfare. Citizens disagreed with the producers that 1) consumers are not willing to pay more for higher welfare products, 2) that broilers suffer little, 3) that broiler welfare in current Belgian production units is generally non-problematic, 4) that scaling-up production units would not have a positive impact on profitability nor a profoundly negative impact on broiler welfare, and 5) that the impact of providing broilers with outdoor access is negative for consumers, farmers, and broilers. Country of origin had a strong influence on the perception of both broiler production and broiler meat. Belgian citizens, and producers (much more than citizens) considered nearly all aspects related to broiler production and broiler meat to be significantly superior for chicken produced in Belgium compared to Brazil. Further research should focus on how these perceptions influence purchase intentions and production decisions. Future avenues for research are to quantify market opportunities for country-of-origin labeling and to investigate to which extent stakeholders' perceptions correspond with reality. PMID:26976912

  8. Analysis of lymphatic drainage in various forms of leg edema using two compartment lymphoscintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Bräutigam, P; Földi, E; Schaiper, I; Krause, T; Vanscheidt, W; Moser, E

    1998-06-01

    The anatomical and functional status of the epifascial and subfascial lymphatic compartments was analyzed using two compartment lymphoscintigraphy in five groups of patients (total 55) with various forms of edema of the lower extremities. Digital whole body scintigraphy enabled semiquantitative estimation of radiotracer transport with comparison of lymphatic drainage between those individuals without (normal) and those with leg edema by calculating the uptake of the radiopharmaceutical transported to regional lymph nodes. A visual assessment of the lymphatic drainage pathways of the legs was also performed. In patients with cyclic idiopathic edema, an accelerated rate of lymphatic transport was detected (high lymph volume overload or dynamic insufficiency). In those with venous (phlebo) edemas, high volume lymphatic overload (dynamic insufficiency) of the epifascial compartment was scintigraphically detected by increased tracer uptake in regional nodes. In patients with deep femoral venous occlusion (post-thrombotic syndrome). subfascial lymphatic transport was uniformly markedly reduced (safety valve lymphatic insufficiency). On the other hand, in the epifascial compartment, lymph transport was accelerated. In those patients with recurrent or extensive skin ulceration, lymph transport was reduced. Patients with lipedema (obesity) scintigraphically showed no alteration in lymphatic transport. This study demonstrates that lymphatic drainage is notably affected (except in obesity termed lipedema) in various edemas of the leg. Lymphatic drainage varied depending on the specific compartment and the pathophysiologic mechanism accounting for the edema. Two compartment lymphoscintigraphy is a valuable diagnostic tool for accurate assessment of leg edema of known and unknown origin. PMID:9664268

  9. An inadequate pulmonary vascular capacity and susceptibility to pulmonary arterial hypertension in broilers.

    PubMed

    Wideman, R F; Chapman, M E; Hamal, K R; Bowen, O T; Lorenzoni, A G; Erf, G F; Anthony, N B

    2007-05-01

    Broilers are susceptible to pulmonary hypertension syndrome (PHS; ascites syndrome) when their pulmonary vascular capacity is anatomically or functionally inadequate to accommodate the requisite cardiac output without an excessive elevation in pulmonary arterial pressure. The consequences of an inadequate pulmonary vascular capacity have been demonstrated experimentally and include elevated pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) attributable to noncompliant, fully engorged vascular channels; sustained pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH); systemic hypoxemia and hypercapnia; specific right ventricular hypertrophy, and right atrioventricular valve failure (regurgitation), leading to central venous hypertension and hepatic cirrhosis. Pulmonary vascular capacity is broadly defined to encompass anatomical constraints related to the compliance and effective volume of blood vessels, as well as functional limitations related to the tone (degree of constriction) maintained by the primary resistance vessels (arterioles) within the lungs. Surgical occlusion of 1 pulmonary artery halves the anatomical pulmonary vascular capacity, doubles the PVR, triggers PAH, eliminates PHS-susceptible broilers, and reveals PHS-resistant survivors whose lungs are innately capable of handling sustained increases in pulmonary arterial pressure and cardiac output. We currently are using i.v. microparticle injections to increase the PVR and trigger PAH sufficient in magnitude to eliminate PHS-susceptible individuals while allowing PHS-resistant individuals to survive as progenitors of robust broiler lines. The microparticles obstruct pulmonary arterioles and cause local tissues and responding leukocytes to release vasoactive substances, including the vasodilator NO and the highly effective vasoconstrictors thromboxane A(2) and serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)]. Nitric oxide is the principal vasodilator responsible for modulating (attenuating) the PAH response and ensuing mortality triggered by

  10. Independent Active Contraction of Extraocular Muscle Compartments

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Andrew; Yoo, Lawrence; Demer, Joseph L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Intramuscular innervation of horizontal rectus extraocular muscle (EOMs) is segregated into superior and inferior (transverse) compartments, whereas all EOMs are also divided into global (GL) and orbital (OL) layers with scleral and pulley insertions, respectively. Mechanical independence between both types of compartments has been demonstrated during passive tensile loading. We examined coupling between EOM compartments during active, ex vivo contraction. Methods. Fresh bovine EOMs were removed, and one compartment of each was coated with hydrophobic petrolatum. Contraction of the uncoated compartment was induced by immersion in a solution of 50 mM CaCl2 at 38°C labeled with sodium fluorescein dye, whereas tensions in both compartments were monitored by strain gauges. Control experiments omitted petrolatum so that the entire EOM contracted. After physiological experiments, EOMs were sectioned transversely to demonstrate specificity of CaCl2 permeation by yellow fluorescence dye excited by blue light. Results. In control experiments without petrolatum, both transverse and GL and OL compartments contracted similarly. Selective compartmental omission of petrolatum caused markedly independent compartmental contraction whether measured at the GL or the OL insertions or for transverse compartments at the scleral insertion. Although some CaCl2 spread occurred, mean (±SD) tension in the coated compartments averaged only 10.5 ± 3.3% and 6.0 ± 1.5% in GL/OL and transverse compartments, respectively relative to uncoated compartments. Fluorescein penetration confirmed selective CaCl2 permeation. Conclusions. These data confirm passive tensile findings of mechanical independence of EOM compartments and extend results to active contraction. EOMs behave actively as if composed of mechanically independent parallel fiber bundles having different insertional targets, consistent with the active pulley and transverse compartmental hypotheses. PMID:25503460

  11. Occipital neuralgia: anatomic considerations.

    PubMed

    Cesmebasi, Alper; Muhleman, Mitchel A; Hulsberg, Paul; Gielecki, Jerzy; Matusz, Petru; Tubbs, R Shane; Loukas, Marios

    2015-01-01

    Occipital neuralgia is a debilitating disorder first described in 1821 as recurrent headaches localized in the occipital region. Other symptoms that have been associated with this condition include paroxysmal burning and aching pain in the distribution of the greater, lesser, or third occipital nerves. Several etiologies have been identified in the cause of occipital neuralgia and include, but are not limited to, trauma, fibrositis, myositis, fracture of the atlas, and compression of the C-2 nerve root, C1-2 arthrosis syndrome, atlantoaxial lateral mass osteoarthritis, hypertrophic cervical pachymeningitis, cervical cord tumor, Chiari malformation, and neurosyphilis. The management of occipital neuralgia can include conservative approaches and/or surgical interventions. Occipital neuralgia is a multifactorial problem where multiple anatomic areas/structures may be involved with this pathology. A review of these etiologies may provide guidance in better understanding occipital neuralgia. PMID:25244129

  12. Broiler Growers. People on the Farm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC. Office of Governmental and Public Affairs.

    This booklet, one in a series about life on modern farms, describes the daily life of the Maurice Layton family, broiler (chicken) growers in Mississippi. Beginning with early morning chores, the booklet traces the family's activities through a typical day while explaining how a broiler farm operates. Although the booklet focuses on broiler…

  13. Fumonisin toxicity in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Ledoux, D R; Brown, T P; Weibking, T S; Rottinghaus, G E

    1992-07-01

    The effects of dietary fumonisin B1 were evaluated in young broiler chicks. The experimental design consisted of 5 treatments each with 9 randomly allotted male broiler chicks. Day-old chicks were fed diets containing 0 (feed control), 100, 200, 300, or 400 mg fumonisin B1/kg feed for 21 days. Response variables measured were chick performance, organ weights, serum biochemistry, and histologic parameters. Body weights and average daily gain dramatically decreased with increasing dietary fumonisin B1, and liver, proventriculus, and gizzard weights increased. Diarrhea, thymic cortical atrophy, multifocal hepatic necrosis, biliary hyperplasia, and rickets were present in chicks fed diets containing fumonisin B1. Serum calcium, cholesterol, and aspartate aminotransferase levels all increased at higher fumonisin dietary levels. Results indicate that fumonisin, from Fusarium moniliforme culture material, is toxic in young chicks. PMID:1515495

  14. Photoperiod effects on broiler behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated the effects of 3 photoperiod regimes on behavior of commercial broilers. The photoperiods were 23h for all treatments from 1-6d. Treatments 1 and 2, 20L:4D and 18L:6D respectively, were applied from 7-36d and increased to 23L:1D at 37d. Treatment 3 was a step-down/step-up pro...

  15. Chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the superficial posterior compartment: Soleus syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Christopher E; Parekh, Bela J; Adams, Samuel B; Parekh, Selene G

    2015-01-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) represents the second most-common cause of exertional leg pain with incidence of 27-33%. CECS of the superficial posterior compartment, or soleus syndrome, is rare and has only been discussed briefly in the literature. We discuss the management of two patients with bilateral soleus syndrome or CECS of the superficial posterior compartment. PMID:26538766

  16. Chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the superficial posterior compartment: Soleus syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gross, Christopher E; Parekh, Bela J; Adams, Samuel B; Parekh, Selene G

    2015-01-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) represents the second most-common cause of exertional leg pain with incidence of 27-33%. CECS of the superficial posterior compartment, or soleus syndrome, is rare and has only been discussed briefly in the literature. We discuss the management of two patients with bilateral soleus syndrome or CECS of the superficial posterior compartment. PMID:26538766

  17. 14 CFR 25.787 - Stowage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Stowage compartments. 25.787 Section 25.787 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... equipment (such as life rafts), and any other stowage compartment must be designed for its placarded...

  18. 14 CFR 25.787 - Stowage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Stowage compartments. 25.787 Section 25.787 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... equipment (such as life rafts), and any other stowage compartment must be designed for its placarded...

  19. 14 CFR 25.787 - Stowage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Stowage compartments. 25.787 Section 25.787 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... equipment (such as life rafts), and any other stowage compartment must be designed for its placarded...

  20. 14 CFR 25.787 - Stowage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Stowage compartments. 25.787 Section 25.787 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... equipment (such as life rafts), and any other stowage compartment must be designed for its placarded...

  1. 14 CFR 25.787 - Stowage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stowage compartments. 25.787 Section 25.787 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Personnel and Cargo Accommodations § 25.787 Stowage compartments. (a)...

  2. Renal compartment segmentation in DCE-MRI images.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xin; Le Minh, Hung; Tim Cheng, Kwang-Ting; Sung, Kyung Hyun; Liu, Wenyu

    2016-08-01

    Renal compartment segmentation from Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) images is an important task for functional kidney evaluation. Despite advancement in segmentation methods, most of them focus on segmenting an entire kidney on CT images, there still lacks effective and automatic solutions for accurate segmentation of internal renal structures (i.e. cortex, medulla and renal pelvis) from DCE-MRI images. In this paper, we introduce a method for renal compartment segmentation which can robustly achieve high segmentation accuracy for a wide range of DCE-MRI data, and meanwhile requires little manual operations and parameter settings. The proposed method consists of five main steps. First, we pre-process the image time series to reduce the motion artifacts caused by the movement of the patients during the scans and enhance the kidney regions. Second, the kidney is segmented as a whole based on the concept of Maximally Stable Temporal Volume (MSTV). The proposed MSTV detects anatomical structures that are homogeneous in the spatial domain and stable in terms of temporal dynamics. MSTV-based kidney segmentation is robust to noises and does not require a training phase. It can well adapt to kidney shape variations caused by renal dysfunction. Third, voxels in the segmented kidney are described by principal components (PCs) to remove temporal redundancy and noises. And then k-means clustering of PCs is applied to separate voxels into multiple clusters. Fourth, the clusters are automatically labeled as cortex, medulla and pelvis based on voxels' geometric locations and intensity distribution. Finally, an iterative refinement method is introduced to further remove noises in each segmented compartment. Experiments on 14 real clinical kidney datasets and 12 synthetic dataset demonstrate that results produced by our method match very well with those segmented manually and the performance of our method is superior to the other five existing methods. PMID:27236222

  3. The complexity of anatomical systems

    PubMed Central

    Grizzi, Fabio; Chiriva-Internati, Maurizio

    2005-01-01

    Background The conception of anatomical entities as a hierarchy of infinitely graduated forms and the increase in the number of observed anatomical sub-entities and structural variables has generated a growing complexity, thus highlighting new properties of organised biological matter. Results (1) Complexity is so pervasive in the anatomical world that it has come to be considered as a primary characteristic of anatomical systems. (2) Anatomical entities, when viewed at microscopic as well as macroscopic level of observation, show a different degree of complexity. (3) Complexity can reside in the structure of the anatomical system (having many diverse parts with varying interactions or an intricate architecture) or in its behaviour. Often complexity in structure and behaviour go together. (4) Complex systems admit many descriptions (ways of looking at the system) each of which is only partially true. Each way of looking at a complex system requires its own description, its own mode of analysis and its own breaking down of the system in different parts; (5) Almost all the anatomical entities display hierarchical forms: their component structures at different spatial scales or their process at different time scales are related to each other. Conclusion The need to find a new way of observing and measuring anatomical entities, and objectively quantifying their different structural changes, prompted us to investigate the non-Euclidean geometries and the theories of complexity, and to apply their concepts to human anatomy. This attempt has led us to reflect upon the complex significance of the shape of an observed anatomical entity. Its changes have been defined in relation to variations in its status: from a normal (i.e. natural) to a pathological or altered state introducing the concepts of kinematics and dynamics of anatomical forms, speed of their changes, and that of scale of their observation. PMID:16029490

  4. Tracking in anatomic pathology.

    PubMed

    Pantanowitz, Liron; Mackinnon, Alexander C; Sinard, John H

    2013-12-01

    Bar code-based tracking solutions, long present in clinical pathology laboratories, have recently made an appearance in anatomic pathology (AP) laboratories. Tracking of AP "assets" (specimens, blocks, slides) can enhance laboratory efficiency, promote patient safety, and improve patient care. Routing of excess clinical material into research laboratories and biorepositories are other avenues that can benefit from tracking of AP assets. Implementing tracking is not as simple as installing software and turning it on. Not all tracking solutions are alike. Careful analysis of laboratory workflow is needed before implementing tracking to assure that this solution will meet the needs of the laboratory. Such analysis will likely uncover practices that may need to be modified before a tracking system can be deployed. Costs that go beyond simply that of purchasing software will be incurred and need to be considered in the budgeting process. Finally, people, not technology, are the key to assuring quality. Tracking will require significant changes in workflow and an overall change in the culture of the laboratory. Preparation, training, buy-in, and accountability of the people involved are crucial to the success of this process. This article reviews the benefits, available technology, underlying principles, and implementation of tracking solutions for the AP and research laboratory. PMID:23634908

  5. Anatomic Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Murawski, Christopher D.; Wolf, Megan R.; Araki, Daisuke; Muller, Bart; Tashman, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Anatomic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is common procedure performed by orthopedic surgeons, particularly in association with sports-related injuries. Whereas traditional reconstruction techniques used a single bundle graft that was typically placed in a non-anatomic position, a renewed interest in anatomy has facilitated the popularization of anatomic reconstruction techniques. Recently, a focus has been placed on individualizing ACL surgery based on each patient’s native anatomical characteristics (e.g., insertion site size, notch size, and shape), thereby dictating the ultimate procedure of choice. As subjective outcome measurements have demonstrated varying outcomes with respect to single- versus double-bundle ACL reconstruction, investigators have turned to more objective techniques, such as in vivo kinematics, as a means of evaluating joint motion and cartilage contact mechanics. Further investigation in this area may yield important information with regard to the potential progression to osteoarthritis after ACL reconstruction, including factors affecting or preventing it. PMID:26069663

  6. A veterinary digital anatomical database.

    PubMed Central

    Snell, J. R.; Green, R.; Stott, G.; Van Baerle, S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the Veterinary Digital Anatomical Database Project. The purpose of the project is to investigate the construction and use of digitally stored anatomical models. We will be discussing the overall project goals and the results to date. Digital anatomical models are 3 dimensional, solid model representations of normal anatomy. The digital representations are electronically stored and can be manipulated and displayed on a computer graphics workstation. A digital database of anatomical structures can be used in conjunction with gross dissection in teaching normal anatomy to first year students in the professional curriculum. The computer model gives students the opportunity to "discover" relationships between anatomical structures that may have been destroyed or may not be obvious in the gross dissection. By using a digital database, the student will have the ability to view and manipulate anatomical structures in ways that are not available through interactive video disk (IVD). IVD constrains the student to preselected views and sections stored on the disk. Images Figure 1 PMID:1807707

  7. Environmental contamination by vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) in Swedish broiler production

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Vancomycin resistant enterococci are a frequent cause of nosocomial infections and their presence among farm animals is unwanted. Using media supplemented with vancomycin an increase in the proportion of samples from Swedish broilers positive for vancomycin resistant enterococci has been detected. The situation at farm level is largely unknown. The aims of this study were to obtain baseline knowledge about environmental contamination with vancomycin resistant enterococci in Swedish broiler production and the association between environmental contamination and colonisation of birds. Methods Environmental samples were taken before, during and after a batch of broilers at three farms. Samples were cultured both qualitatively and semi-quantitatively for vancomycin resistant enterococci. In addition, caecal content from birds in the batch following at each farm was cultured qualitatively for vancomycin resistant enterococci. Results The number of samples positive for vancomycin resistant enterococci varied among the farms. Also the amount of vancomycin resistant enterococci in the positive samples and the proportion of caecal samples containing vancomycin resistant enterococci varied among the farms. Still, the temporal changes in environmental contamination followed a similar pattern in all farms. Conclusion Vancomycin resistant enterococci persist in the compartments even after cleaning and the temporal changes in environmental contamination were similar among farms. There were however differences among farms regarding both degree of contamination and proportion of birds colonized with vancomycin resistant enterococci. The proportion of colonized birds and the amount of vancomycin resistant enterococci in the compartments seems to be associated. If the factor(s) causing the differences among farms could be identified, it might be possible to reduce both the risk for colonisation by vancomycin resistant enterococci of the subsequent flock and the risk for

  8. 14 CFR 29.853 - Compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and acoustical insulation and insulation covering, air ducting, joint and edge covering, cargo compartment liners, insulation blankets, cargo covers, and transparencies, molded and thermoformed parts, air... in a common housing, seat belts, shoulder harnesses, and cargo and baggage tiedown...

  9. Microscale and nanoscale compartments for biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Retterer, Scott T; Simpson, Michael L

    2012-08-01

    Compartmentalization is essential in the organization of biological systems, playing a fundamental role in modulating biochemical activity. An appreciation of the impact that biological compartments have on chemical reactions and an understanding of the physical and chemical phenomena that affect their assembly and function have inspired the development of synthetic compartments. Organic compartments assembled from amphiphilic molecules or derived from biological materials, have formed the basis of initial work in the field. However, inorganic and hybrid organic-inorganic compartments that capitalize on the optical and catalytic properties of metal and semiconductor materials are emerging. Methods for arraying these microcompartment and nanocompartment materials in higher order systems promise to enable the scaling and integration of these technologies for industrial and commercial applications. PMID:22321942

  10. Compartment syndrome after tibial plateau fracture☆

    PubMed Central

    Pitta, Guilherme Benjamin Brandão; dos Santos, Thays Fernanda Avelino; dos Santos, Fernanda Thaysa Avelino; da Costa Filho, Edelson Moreira

    2014-01-01

    Fractures of the tibial plateau are relatively rare, representing around 1.2% of all fractures. The tibia, due to its subcutaneous location and poor muscle coverage, is exposed and suffers large numbers of traumas, not only fractures, but also crush injuries and severe bruising, among others, which at any given moment, could lead compartment syndrome in the patient. The case is reported of a 58-year-old patient who, following a tibial plateau fracture, presented compartment syndrome of the leg and was submitted to decompressive fasciotomy of the four right compartments. After osteosynthesis with internal fixation of the tibial plateau using an L-plate, the patient again developed compartment syndrome. PMID:26229779

  11. Aircraft Cargo Compartment Fire Test Simulation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blumke, R. E.

    1977-01-01

    The objective of the test was to assess fire containment and fire extinguishment in the cargo by reducing the ventilation through the cargo compartment. Parameters which were measured included ignition time, burnthrough time, and physical damage to the cargo liner, composition of selected combustible gases, temperature-time histories, heat flux, and detector response. The ignitor load was made of a typical cargo consisting of filled cardboard cartons occupying 50% of the compartment volume.

  12. Broiler litter ammonia emissions near sidewalls, feeders and waterers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia (NH3) volatilized from broiler litter diminishes indoor air quality which can potentially decrease bird productivity. Emissions of NH3 exhausted from broiler houses pose environmental concerns for ecosystem biodiversity, aquatic nutrient enrichment and particulate formation in the atmospher...

  13. Anatomical pathology is dead? Long live anatomical pathology.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, John M; Francis, Glenn D

    2011-10-01

    The standard diagnostic instrument used for over 150 years by anatomical pathologists has been the optical microscope and glass slide. The advent of immunohistochemistry in the routine laboratory in the 1980s, followed by in situ hybridisation in the 1990s, has increased the armamentaria available to the diagnostic pathologist, and this technology has led to changed patient management in a limited number of neoplastic diseases. The first decade of the 21 century has seen an increasing number of publications using proteomic technologies that promise to change disease diagnosis and management, the traditional role of an anatomical pathologist. Despite the plethora of publications on proteomics and pathology, to date there are actually limited data where proteomic technologies do appear to be of greater diagnostic value than the standard histological slide. Though proteomic techniques will become more prevalent in the future, it will need the expertise of an anatomical pathologist to dissect out and validate this added information. PMID:21876472

  14. DIETARY AMINO ACID RESPONSES OF BROILER CHICKENS: A REVIEW

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In commercial practice, formulating diets to adequate amino acid (AA) minimums is critical to optimize live production and meat yield of broiler chickens. The modern broiler has lower feed intake per unit BW gain while having the potential to accrete more white meat than the commercial broiler of p...

  15. An anatomically realistic temperature phantom for radiofrequency heating measurements

    PubMed Central

    Graedel, Nadine N.; Polimeni, Jonathan R.; Guerin, Bastien; Gagoski, Borjan; Wald, Lawrence L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose An anthropomorphic phantom with realistic electrical properties allows for a more accurate reproduction of tissue current patterns during excitation. A temperature map can then probe the worst-case heating expected in the un-perfused case. We describe an anatomically realistic human head phantom that allows rapid 3D temperature mapping at 7 T. Methods The phantom was based on hand-labeled anatomical imaging data and consists of four compartments matching the corresponding human tissues in geometry and electrical properties. The increases in temperature resulting from radiofrequency excitation were measured with MR thermometry using a temperature sensitive contrast agent (TmDOTMA−) validated by direct fiber optic temperature measurements. Results Acquisition of 3D temperature maps of the full phantom with a temperature accuracy better than 0.1°C was achieved with an isotropic resolution of 5 mm and acquisition times of 2–4 minutes. Conclusion Our results demonstrate the feasibility of constructing anatomically realistic phantoms with complex geometries incorporating the ability to measure accurate temperature maps in the phantom. The anthropomorphic temperature phantom is expected to provide a useful tool for the evaluation of the heating effects of both conventional and parallel transmit pulses and help validate electromagnetic and temperature simulations. PMID:24549755

  16. Delayed Presentation of Acute Gluteal Compartment Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Tasch, James J.; Misodi, Emmanuel O.

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 23 Final Diagnosis: Acute gluteal compartment syndrome Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Gluteal fasciotomy Specialty: Critical Care Medicine Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Acute gluteal compartment syndrome is a rare condition that usually results from prolonged immobilization following a traumatic event, conventionally involving the presence of compounding factors such as alcohol or opioid intoxication. If delay in medical treatment is prolonged, severe rhabdomyolysis may ensue, leading to acute renal failure and potentially death. Case Report: We report the case of a 23-year-old male with a recent history of incarceration and recreational drug use, who presented with reports of severe right-sided buttock pain and profound right-sided neurological loss following a questionable history involving prolonged immobilization after a fall from a standing position. The patient required an emergent gluteal fasciotomy immediately upon admission and required temporary hemodialysis. After an extended hospital stay, he ultimately recovered with only mild deficits in muscular strength in the right lower extremity. Conclusions: This report demonstrates the importance of early recognition of gluteal compartment syndrome to prevent morbidity and mortality. Compartment syndrome presents in many unique ways, and healthcare practitioners must have a keen diagnostic sense to allow for early surgical intervention. Proper wick catheter measurements should be utilized more frequently, instead of relying on clinical symptomatology such as loss of peripheral pulses for diagnosis of compartment syndrome. PMID:27432320

  17. Anatomically accurate individual face modeling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Prakash, Edmond C; Sung, Eric

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a new 3D face model of a specific person constructed from the anatomical perspective. By exploiting the laser range data, a 3D facial mesh precisely representing the skin geometry is reconstructed. Based on the geometric facial mesh, we develop a deformable multi-layer skin model. It takes into account the nonlinear stress-strain relationship and dynamically simulates the non-homogenous behavior of the real skin. The face model also incorporates a set of anatomically-motivated facial muscle actuators and underlying skull structure. Lagrangian mechanics governs the facial motion dynamics, dictating the dynamic deformation of facial skin in response to the muscle contraction. PMID:15455936

  18. Post-dialysis urea concentration: comparison between one- compartment model and two-compartment model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamrin, N. S. Ahmad; Ibrahim, N.

    2014-11-01

    The reduction of the urea concentration in blood can be numerically projected by using one-compartment model and two-compartment model with no variation in body fluid. This study aims to compare the simulated values of post-dialysis urea concentration for both models with the clinical data obtained from the hospital. The clinical assessment of adequacy of a treatment is based on the value of Kt/V. Further, direct calculation using clinical data and one-compartment model are presented in the form of ratio. It is found that the ratios of postdialysis urea concentration simulated using two-compartment model are higher compared to the ratios of post-dialysis urea concentration using one-compartment model. In addition, most values of post-dialysis urea concentration simulated using two-compartment model are much closer to the clinical data compared to values simulated using one-compartment model. Kt/V values calculated directly using clinical data are found to be higher than Kt/V values derived from one-compartment model.

  19. The psoas compartment block for hip surgery: the past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    de Leeuw, M A; Zuurmond, W W A; Perez, R S G M

    2011-01-01

    A posterior lumbar plexus block or psoas compartment block (PCB) is an effective locoregional anesthetic technique for analgesia and anesthesia of the entire lower extremity including the hip. Since the first description in the early seventies, this technique has been modified based on advanced knowledge of the anatomical localization of the lumbar plexus and the improvement of technical equipment. This paper provides an overview of the history, clinical efficacy, and risk profile of the PCB focused on hip surgery. Current status and future expectations are discussed. PMID:21716721

  20. Variant course of extensor pollicis longus tendon in the second wrist extensor compartment.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Jun; Lee, Jae Hoon; Baek, Jong Hun

    2016-05-01

    Among the muscles involved in thumb movement, the extensor pollicis longus (EPL) tendon of the hand is considered the most consistent structure with the least variation among individuals. There have been a few reports regarding different types of supernumerary tendons; however, an abnormal course of the EPL tendon is extremely rare. We describe a case of a variant course of a single EPL tendon appearing in the second extensor compartment of the wrist. This case was observed incidentally during wrist surgery, and demonstrates a unique variation of tendon course, which has not been reported previously. The knowledge of this anatomic variation is helpful in surgical planning and for making accurate diagnoses. PMID:26253859

  1. Vertical transmission and clinical signs in broiler breeders and broilers experiencing adenoviral gizzard erosion.

    PubMed

    Grafl, Beatrice; Aigner, Franz; Liebhart, Dieter; Marek, Ana; Prokofieva, Irina; Bachmeier, Josef; Hess, Michael

    2012-12-01

    The present report documents an outbreak of adenoviral gizzard erosion in 22 broiler flocks in Germany. The clinical picture was characterized by uneven growth of affected broilers that resulted in considerably lower than average weight at slaughtering. Fowl adenovirus serotype 1 (FAdV-1) was isolated from gizzard lesions and histological examinations demonstrated FAdV-1-positive intranuclear inclusion bodies in gizzard epithelial cells of affected broilers by in-situ hybridization. Birds from all affected flocks originated from one broiler breeder farm. During production of affected birds, broiler breeders were between 27 and 32 weeks old. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and specific virus neutralization assay of sera from parent birds demonstrated an acute FAdV-1 infection within the first 5 weeks of the production cycle. Clinically, broiler breeders exhibited a moderate fall in the hatchability of their chicks, while egg production remained normal. No further clinical signs could be observed. Genetically identical FAdV-1 strains were isolated from gizzards of embryos at the lowest point of hatchability and from affected broiler flocks raised on independent farms. For the first time, direct detection of viable FAdV-1 from gizzards of embryos and progenies of one FAdV-1-seropositive broiler breeder farm in the course of an outbreak of adenoviral gizzard erosion could be demonstrated, highlighting the importance of vertical transmission of this disease. Additionally, growth retardation and subsequent reduced average weight at the time of slaughter of broiler chickens underline the economic impact of adenoviral gizzard erosion for poultry production. PMID:23237373

  2. Delayed Presentation of Acute Gluteal Compartment Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tasch, James J; Misodi, Emmanuel O

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Acute gluteal compartment syndrome is a rare condition that usually results from prolonged immobilization following a traumatic event, conventionally involving the presence of compounding factors such as alcohol or opioid intoxication. If delay in medical treatment is prolonged, severe rhabdomyolysis may ensue, leading to acute renal failure and potentially death. CASE REPORT We report the case of a 23-year-old male with a recent history of incarceration and recreational drug use, who presented with reports of severe right-sided buttock pain and profound right-sided neurological loss following a questionable history involving prolonged immobilization after a fall from a standing position. The patient required an emergent gluteal fasciotomy immediately upon admission and required temporary hemodialysis. After an extended hospital stay, he ultimately recovered with only mild deficits in muscular strength in the right lower extremity. CONCLUSIONS This report demonstrates the importance of early recognition of gluteal compartment syndrome to prevent morbidity and mortality. Compartment syndrome presents in many unique ways, and healthcare practitioners must have a keen diagnostic sense to allow for early surgical intervention. Proper wick catheter measurements should be utilized more frequently, instead of relying on clinical symptomatology such as loss of peripheral pulses for diagnosis of compartment syndrome. PMID:27432320

  3. 36 CFR 1192.127 - Sleeping compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sleeping compartments. 1192.127 Section 1192.127 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Intercity Rail Cars and Systems §...

  4. What's new in acute compartment syndrome?

    PubMed

    Harvey, Edward J; Sanders, David W; Shuler, Michael S; Lawendy, Abdel-Rahman; Cole, Ashley L; Alqahtani, Saad M; Schmidt, Andrew H

    2012-12-01

    Acute compartment syndrome (ACS) after trauma is often the result of increased size of the damaged tissues after acute crush injury or from reperfusion of ischemic areas. It usually is not solely caused by accumulation of free blood or fluid in the compartment, although that can contribute in some cases. There is no reliable and reproducible test that confirms the diagnosis of ACS. A missed diagnosis or failure to cut the fascia to release pressure within a few hours can result in severe intractable pain, paralysis, and sensory deficits. Reduced blood circulation leads to oxygen and nutrient deprivation, muscle necrosis, and permanent disability. Currently, the diagnosis of ACS is made on the basis of physical examination and repeated needle sticks over a short time frame to measure intracompartmental pressures. Missed compartment syndromes continue to be one of most common causes of malpractice lawsuits. Existing technology for continuous pressure measurements are insensitive, particularly in the deep tissues and compartments, and their use is restricted to highly trained personnel. Newer concepts of the pathophysiology accompanied by new diagnostic and therapeutic modalities have recently been advanced. Among these are the concept of inflammatory mediators as markers and anti-inflammatories as medical adjunct therapy. New diagnostic modalities include near-infrared spectroscopy, ultrafiltration catheters, and radio-frequency identification implants. These all address current shortcomings in the diagnostic armamentarium that trauma surgeons can use. The strengths and weaknesses of these new concepts are discussed to allow the trauma surgeon to follow current evolution of the field. PMID:22913965

  5. 36 CFR 1192.127 - Sleeping compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sleeping compartments. 1192.127 Section 1192.127 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES FOR TRANSPORTATION...

  6. 36 CFR 1192.127 - Sleeping compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sleeping compartments. 1192.127 Section 1192.127 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES FOR TRANSPORTATION...

  7. 36 CFR 1192.127 - Sleeping compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sleeping compartments. 1192.127 Section 1192.127 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES FOR TRANSPORTATION...

  8. 36 CFR 1192.127 - Sleeping compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Sleeping compartments. 1192.127 Section 1192.127 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES FOR TRANSPORTATION...

  9. Acute bilateral spontaneous forearm compartment syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dalton, David M; Munigangaiah, Sudarshan; Subramaniam, Tava; McCabe, John P

    2014-01-01

    Acute spontaneous compartment syndrome of the forearm is rarely reported in the literature. It is typically associated with trauma or thromboembolism in the acute setting and repetitive exertional stress in the chronic setting. However it is rare for it to present bilaterally with no apparent underlying cause. We report the case of a young 31-year-old lady who presented to our Emergency Department with bilateral compartment syndrome of the forearm. Her presenting complaints included acute severe pain and swelling of the forearms bilaterally, with a decreased range of movement of the wrist and fingers. She also complained of numbness in all fingers. She had no history of recent trauma and ultrasound scans showed no evidence of vascular compromise. Past medical history was notable only for idiopathic hypertension and coeliac disease. The patient was taken to theatre urgently where flexor and extensor compartments and carpal tunnel were decompressed. Pronator Teres was found to be dusky initially but turned pink after decompression. All other muscles were normal. An interesting fact of this case was that combination of the high compartment pressures and anaesthetic related hypotension caused the forearm pulses to become impalpable at induction, these returned intra-operatively. The patient has been seen in the outpatient department following discharge. She is well apart from some mildly reduced grip strength in her right hand likely due to carpal tunnel decompression. No cause was found for the scenario after extensive medical investigation. PMID:24641749

  10. Compartment Syndrome Resulting from Carbon Monoxide Poisoning.

    PubMed

    Serbest, Sancar; Belhan, Oktay; Gürger, Murat; Tosun, Haci Bayram

    2015-12-01

    Every year, especially in the cooler Fall and Winter months, hundreds of people die because of carbon monoxide poisoning. This occurs usually as an accident. It is a significant cause of poisoning worldwide. We present a case of compartment syndrome in both lower extremities with accompanying acute renal failure and systemic capillary leakage syndrome because of carbon monoxide poisoning. PMID:26588033

  11. Anatomical study of total cystoprostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Benoit, G; Boccon-Gibod, L; Steg, A

    1985-01-01

    The authors describe an anatomical study of total cystoprostatectomy. They show that Denonvilliers' fascia is made up of many membranous layers starting at the bladder. They recall the fact that the preprostatic veins are attached at the bottom, not only to the venae dorsales penis, but also to the venae pudendae internae which runs under the levator ani muscle. These preprostatic veins lie inside a vessel-bearing blade of tissue made of muscular and collagenous tissue derived from the anterior vesical wall. This anatomical study recalls the fact that the interprostatorectal dissection line is behind Denonvilliers' fascia and that the preprostatic vein dissection line is on the anterior aspect of the membranous urethra. PMID:4043160

  12. [International anatomical terminology: controversial issues].

    PubMed

    Bolgov, Yu A

    2012-01-01

    The article contains an analysis of problems related to the content of the International anatomical terminology (IAT): the relationship and differences between the terms and concepts as the elements of the professional language of morphologists; forms in which concepts are reflected in IAT; classification of the IAT terms according to the principle of their relationship to the categories of concrete and abstract concepts. PMID:23659048

  13. The anatomical basis of prosopagnosia

    PubMed Central

    Meadows, J. C.

    1974-01-01

    Evidence is presented that patients with prosopagnosia have right anterior inferior occipital lesions in the region of the occipital temporal junction. Many if not all cases have an additional lesion in the left hemisphere; this is often but apparently not always symmetrical with the right hemisphere lesion. This evidence is discussed in relation to the anatomical connections of these regions and the results of experiments in animals. Images PMID:4209556

  14. Exertional Compartment Syndrome of the Medial Foot Compartment: Diagnosis and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Izadi, Faye E; Richie Jr, Douglas H

    2014-06-25

    Abstract Exertional compartment syndrome (ECS) in the foot is rarely reported and often confused with plantar fasciitis as a cause of arch pain in the running athlete. We describe a case involving a 19 year old competitive collegiate runner who developed a chronic case of bilateral medial arch pain during training, which was initially diagnosed as plantar fasciitis but failed to respond to conventional treatment. After symptoms began to suggest exertional compartment syndrome, the diagnosis was confirmed by measuring an elevated resting pressure in the medial compartment of both feet. The patient underwent a bilateral medial compartment fasciotomy, which allowed a full return to activity, and has remained pain free after a one year follow up. PMID:24963970

  15. Exertional compartment syndrome of the medial foot compartment--diagnosis and treatment: a case report.

    PubMed

    Izadi, Faye E; Richie, Douglas H

    2014-07-01

    Exertional compartment syndrome in the foot is rarely reported and often confused with plantar fasciitis as a cause of arch pain in the running athlete. We describe a case involving a 19-year-old competitive collegiate runner who developed a chronic case of bilateral medial arch pain during training, which was initially diagnosed as plantar fasciitis but failed to respond to conventional treatment. After symptoms began to suggest exertional compartment syndrome, the diagnosis was confirmed by measuring an elevated resting pressure in the medial compartment of both feet. The patient underwent a bilateral medial compartment fasciotomy, which allowed a full return to activity, and has remained pain free after a 1-year follow-up. PMID:25076087

  16. The subparaneurial compartment: A new concept in the clinicoanatomic classification of peripheral nerve lesions.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Nikhil K; Capek, Stepan; de Ruiter, Godard C W; Amrami, Kimberly K; Spinner, Robert J

    2015-10-01

    Based on our experience in treating peripheral non-neural sheath derived pathology, we have identified a novel pattern of lesion progression along the anatomic course of nerves. This report highlights the existence of a subparaneurial compartment around peripheral nerves. We first applied an anatomic framework to review MR images and intraoperative photographs of patients treated by the senior author in the last 10 years. After identifying a pattern that was consistent with subparaneurial lesion progression, we searched for other examples of cases that might exhibit this pattern. Four examples of subparaneurial pathology were identified, a hemangioma of the ulnar nerve, a ganglion cyst of the common fibular nerve, a lymphoma of the sciatic nerve and a lipoma of the ulnar nerve. All four patients were operated on and had intraoperative photographs; three had high resolution MR imaging. This report highlights the existence of pathology contained within a subparaneurial compartment, outside of the epineurium, that follows the course of the nerve and surrounds it circumferentially. The subparaneurial localization of peripheral nerve lesions has hitherto received little attention. Identification of this new pattern on preoperative MRI may have implications for surgical management. PMID:26133748

  17. Patterning and Compartment Formation in the Diencephalon

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Mallika; Li, James Y. H.

    2012-01-01

    The diencephalon gives rise to structures that play an important role in connecting the anterior forebrain with the rest of the central nervous system. The thalamus is the major diencephalic derivative that functions as a relay station between the cortex and other lower order sensory systems. Almost two decades ago, neuromeric/prosomeric models were proposed describing the subdivision and potential segmentation of the diencephalon. Unlike the laminar structure of the cortex, the diencephalon is progressively divided into distinct functional compartments consisting principally of thalamus, epithalamus, pretectum, and hypothalamus. Neurons generated within these domains further aggregate to form clusters called nuclei, which form specific structural and functional units. We review the recent advances in understanding the genetic mechanisms that are involved in the patterning and compartment formation of the diencephalon. PMID:22593732

  18. Monoterpene biosynthesis potential of plant subcellular compartments.

    PubMed

    Dong, Lemeng; Jongedijk, Esmer; Bouwmeester, Harro; Van Der Krol, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Subcellular monoterpene biosynthesis capacity based on local geranyl diphosphate (GDP) availability or locally boosted GDP production was determined for plastids, cytosol and mitochondria. A geraniol synthase (GES) was targeted to plastids, cytosol, or mitochondria. Transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana indicated local GDP availability for each compartment but resulted in different product levels. A GDP synthase from Picea abies (PaGDPS1) was shown to boost GDP production. PaGDPS1 was also targeted to plastids, cytosol or mitochondria and PaGDPS1 and GES were coexpressed in all possible combinations. Geraniol and geraniol-derived products were analyzed by GC-MS and LC-MS, respectively. GES product levels were highest for plastid-targeted GES, followed by mitochondrial- and then cytosolic-targeted GES. For each compartment local boosting of GDP biosynthesis increased GES product levels. GDP exchange between compartments is not equal: while no GDP is exchanged from the cytosol to the plastids, 100% of GDP in mitochondria can be exchanged to plastids, while only 7% of GDP from plastids is available for mitochondria. This suggests a direct exchange mechanism for GDP between plastids and mitochondria. Cytosolic PaGDPS1 competes with plastidial GES activity, suggesting an effective drain of isopentenyl diphosphate from the plastids to the cytosol. PMID:26356766

  19. [Acute compartment syndrome after a bowling game].

    PubMed

    Meyer, C Y; Braun, K F; Huber-Wagner, S; Neu, J

    2015-11-01

    A 28-year-old male patient was initially conservatively treated by a general physician for muscle strain of the right calf after a bowling game. Due to increasing pain and swelling of the lower leg 5 days later, the differential diagnosis of a deep vein thrombosis was considered. Furthermore, the onset of neurological deficits and problems with raising the foot prompted inclusion of compartment syndrome in the differential diagnosis for the first time. Admission to hospital for surgical intervention was scheduled for the following day. At this point in time the laboratory results showed a negative d-dimer value and greatly increased C-reactive protein level. On day 6 a dermatofasciotomy was performed which revealed extensive muscular necrosis with complete palsy of the peroneal nerve. In the following lawsuit the patient accused the surgeon of having misdiagnosed the slow-onset compartment syndrome and thus delaying correct and mandatory treatment. The arbitration board ruled that the surgeon should have performed fasciotomy immediately on day 5 at the patient's consultation. The clinical presentation of progressive pain, swelling of the lower leg in combination with peroneal palsy must lead to the differential diagnosis of compartment syndrome resulting in adequate therapy. The delay of immediate surgery, therefore, was assessed to be faulty as this knowledge is to be expected of a surgeon. PMID:26440405

  20. [Arthritis of the Medial Knee Joint Compartment].

    PubMed

    Matziolis, G; Röhner, E

    2015-10-01

    23 % of all persons older than 65 years suffer from osteoarthritis of the medial compartment of the knee joint, a very common situation in orthopaedic practice 1. As a result of the demographic trend the number of patients is expected to increase in the future. Based on specific joint biomechanics and kinematics the medial knee joint compartment is more frequently affected than the lateral. Only an understanding of the functional anatomy and underlying pathology allows a critical evaluation of different available conservative and operative treatment options. This article gives an overview of diagnostic and therapeutic strategies of osteoarthritis of the medial knee joint. Frequently performed surgeries, e.g. high tibial osteotomy (HTO), unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) will be presented in a comparative manner. The actual scientific evidence will be given with the goal of an evidence based therapy that is adopted to stage and pathology of osteoarthritis of the medial compartment of the knee joint. PMID:26451864

  1. Compartment-Specific Phosphorylation of Squid Neurofilaments.

    PubMed

    Grant, Philip; Pant, Harish C

    2016-01-01

    Studies of the giant axon and synapse of third-order neurons in the squid stellate ganglion have provided a vast literature on neuronal physiology and axon transport. Large neuronal size also lends itself to comparative biochemical studies of cell body versus axon. These have focused on the regulation of synthesis, assembly, posttranslational modification and function of neuronal cytoskeletal proteins (microtubules (MTs) and neurofilaments (NFs)), the predominant proteins in axoplasm. These contribute to axonal organization, stability, transport, and impulse transmission responsible for rapid contractions of mantle muscles underlying jet propulsion. Studies of vertebrate NFs have established an extensive literature on NF structure, organization, and function; studies of squid NFs, however, have made it possible to compare compartment-specific regulation of NF synthesis, assembly, and function in soma versus axoplasm. Since NFs contain over 100 eligible sites for phosphorylation by protein kinases, the compartment-specific patterns of phosphorylation have been a primary focus of biochemical studies. We have learned that NF phosphorylation is tightly compartmentalized; extensive phosphorylation occurs only in the axonal compartment in squid and in vertebrate neurons. This extensive phosphorylation plays a key role in organizing NFs, in association with microtubules (MTs), into a stable, dynamic functional lattice that supports axon growth, diameter, impulse transmission, and synaptic activity. To understand how cytoskeletal phosphorylation is topographically regulated, the kinases and phosphatases, bound to NFs isolated from cell bodies and axoplasm, have also been studied. PMID:26795486

  2. 14 CFR 91.613 - Materials for compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... compartment interiors. (a) No person may operate an airplane that conforms to an amended or supplemental type... SFAR the airplane meets the compartment interior requirements set forth in § 25.853 (a), (b), (b-1),...

  3. 14 CFR 25.855 - Cargo or baggage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... quantities of smoke or extinguishing agent into compartments occupied by the crew or passengers, and (3) The... that no inadvertent operation of smoke or fire detectors in any compartment would occur as a result...

  4. 14 CFR 25.855 - Cargo or baggage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... compartments, as defined in § 25.857, must have a liner, and the liner must be separate from (but may be attached to) the airplane structure. (c) Ceiling and sidewall liner panels of Class C compartments...

  5. 14 CFR 25.855 - Cargo or baggage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... compartments, as defined in § 25.857, must have a liner, and the liner must be separate from (but may be attached to) the airplane structure. (c) Ceiling and sidewall liner panels of Class C compartments...

  6. 14 CFR 25.855 - Cargo or baggage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... compartments, as defined in § 25.857, must have a liner, and the liner must be separate from (but may be attached to) the airplane structure. (c) Ceiling and sidewall liner panels of Class C compartments...

  7. 14 CFR 25.855 - Cargo or baggage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... compartments, as defined in § 25.857, must have a liner, and the liner must be separate from (but may be attached to) the airplane structure. (c) Ceiling and sidewall liner panels of Class C compartments...

  8. 46 CFR 174.075 - Compartments assumed flooded: general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Units § 174.075 Compartments assumed flooded: general. The individual flooding of each of the... § 174.065 (a). Simultaneous flooding of more than one compartment must be assumed only when indicated...

  9. 46 CFR 174.075 - Compartments assumed flooded: general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Units § 174.075 Compartments assumed flooded: general. The individual flooding of each of the... § 174.065 (a). Simultaneous flooding of more than one compartment must be assumed only when indicated...

  10. 46 CFR 174.075 - Compartments assumed flooded: general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Units § 174.075 Compartments assumed flooded: general. The individual flooding of each of the... § 174.065 (a). Simultaneous flooding of more than one compartment must be assumed only when indicated...

  11. 46 CFR 174.075 - Compartments assumed flooded: general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Units § 174.075 Compartments assumed flooded: general. The individual flooding of each of the... § 174.065 (a). Simultaneous flooding of more than one compartment must be assumed only when indicated...

  12. 46 CFR 174.075 - Compartments assumed flooded: general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Units § 174.075 Compartments assumed flooded: general. The individual flooding of each of the... § 174.065 (a). Simultaneous flooding of more than one compartment must be assumed only when indicated...

  13. Broiler Contamination and Human Campylobacteriosis in Iceland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To examine whether there is a relationship between the degree of Campylobacter contamination observed in product lots of retail Icelandic broiler chicken carcasses and human disease, isolates from individual product lots were genetically matched (using flaA Short Variable Region) to isolates from ca...

  14. ARGININE AND COCCIDIOSIS RESPONSES IN BROILER CHICKS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arginine (Arg) is an essential amino acid in broilers that has numerous physiological and immunological functions, in addition to being required for growth. The experiment was a 3 x 2 factorial design of dietary Arg (1.00, 1.25, and 1.50% of diet) and coccidiosis (with and with out a field isolate ...

  15. Broiler cake potential to emit ammonia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spatial differences for ammonia (NH3) flux from litter are evident within broiler houses especially when considering friable litter and caked surfaces. The objectives of this study were to quantify NH3 generation potential between different sources of cake (two separate farms having variable length...

  16. Broiler house litter sampling: the final frontier

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Today, the sustainability of broiler operations reaches beyond the need for litter nutrient management plans that came to the forefront of the industry’s attention in the last fifteen years. Thorough characterization of litter within houses provides the basis for emission models to benefit growers,...

  17. Evaluation of ammonia emissions from broiler litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia emissions from poultry litter results in air pollution and can cause high levels of ammonia in poultry houses, which negatively impacts bird performance. The objectives of this study were to: (1) conduct a nitrogen (N) mass balance in broiler houses by measuring the N inputs (bedding, chick...

  18. Temporary Storage of Poultry Broiler Litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transportation and storage of poultry broiler litter during the winter months is critical to implementing comprehensive nutrient/waste management plans, but acceptable temporary storage near the site of spreading can be difficult to arrange. Alternative, less expensive methods for temporary storage...

  19. Brooding light intensity effects on broiler performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Light intensity is an environmental factor which is used with a high degree of variation throughout the US Broiler Industry. Light intensity influences bird activity, immune response, growth rate and has been used to alleviate mortality issues related to metabolic disease (spiking mortality). The ...

  20. Temporary Storage of Poultry Broiler Litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Row crop farmers have been reluctant to use broiler litter on their crops because of the difficulty getting it transported and spread at planting time in the spring. Temporary field storage near the site of spreading will help with this problem and encourage more row crop farmers to use poultry lit...

  1. Solar heating for a commercial broiler house

    SciTech Connect

    Rokeby, T.R.C.; Pitts, D.J.; Redfern, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    A solar air heater with rock storage has been used to provide heated ventilating air to an 8000-bird broiler chicken house. The system has operated successfully for four years. Fuel savings of 71% were recorded. Feed conversion and live weight were better than average. Overall system efficiency was 28.5% for a two week period in January 1981.

  2. Solar heating for a commercial broiler house

    SciTech Connect

    Rokeby, T.R.C.; Pitts, D.J.; Redfern, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    A solar air heater with rock storage has been used to provide heated ventilating air to an 8000-bird broiler chicken house. The system has operated successfully for four years. Fuel savings of 71% were recorded. Feed conversion and live weight were better than average. Overall system efficiency was 28.5% for a two week period in January, 1981. 7 refs.

  3. Lateral sellar compartment O.T. (cavernous sinus): history, anatomy, terminology.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, D

    1998-08-01

    Claudios Galen (119-199 a.d.) dissected lower animals with parasellar carotid retia bathed in venous blood and transposed his findings to human anatomy. Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564) corrected most of Galen's errors but apparently never looked into this small, extradural compartment, nor, apparently, did Winslow (Exposition Anatomique de la Structure du Corps Humain. London: N. Prevast, 1734), who christened it the "cavernous sinus," (CS) presumably thinking that it would resemble the corpora cavernosa of the penis. Multiple surgical explorations, gross dissections, microscopic views, and vascular casts from early fetuses to an 81 year old have been examined and reviewed. The CS is not a dural sinus nor is it cavernous. The compartment is extradural, and the venous structures contained within consist of a greatly variable plexus of extremely thin-walled veins. The name, CS, is a barrier to the understanding of the structure and function of this extradural anatomical jewel box, which contains fat, myelinated and nonmyelinated nerves, arteries, and a plexus of veins. It is proposed that this name be changed, because it is inaccurate and misleading. The replacement should leave no doubt about its meaning. The lateral sellar compartment is descriptive and accurate. The veins within are a parasellar plexus. PMID:9713986

  4. Compartment Syndrome of the Hand: A Little Thought about Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Reichman, Eric F.

    2016-01-01

    Compartment syndrome of the forearm is a well described entity but there have been relatively few case reports in the emergency medicine literature of hand compartment syndromes (HCS). Prompt recognition and treatment of this potential limb threat are essential to minimize morbidity and mortality. Presented is a case of a documented hand compartment syndrome following a motor vehicle collision. PMID:27293917

  5. 14 CFR 29.1193 - Cowling and engine compartment covering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cowling and engine compartment covering. 29... Protection § 29.1193 Cowling and engine compartment covering. (a) Each cowling and engine compartment... of § 29.1187. (c) On rotorcraft with a diaphragm isolating the engine power section from the...

  6. 14 CFR 27.773 - Pilot compartment view.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pilot compartment view. 27.773 Section 27... § 27.773 Pilot compartment view. (a) Each pilot compartment must be free from glare and reflections that could interfere with the pilot's view, and designed so that— (1) Each pilot's view is...

  7. 14 CFR 29.773 - Pilot compartment view.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pilot compartment view. 29.773 Section 29... Accommodations § 29.773 Pilot compartment view. (a) Nonprecipitation conditions. For nonprecipitation conditions, the following apply: (1) Each pilot compartment must be arranged to give the pilots a...

  8. 14 CFR 25.857 - Cargo compartment classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cargo compartment classification. 25.857....857 Cargo compartment classification. (a) Class A; A Class A cargo or baggage compartment is one in... detector or fire detector system to give warning at the pilot or flight engineer station. (c) Class C....

  9. 14 CFR 29.773 - Pilot compartment view.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pilot compartment view. 29.773 Section 29... Accommodations § 29.773 Pilot compartment view. (a) Nonprecipitation conditions. For nonprecipitation conditions, the following apply: (1) Each pilot compartment must be arranged to give the pilots a...

  10. 14 CFR 23.773 - Pilot compartment view.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pilot compartment view. 23.773 Section 23... Personnel and Cargo Accommodations § 23.773 Pilot compartment view. (a) Each pilot compartment must be— (1) Arranged with sufficiently extensive, clear and undistorted view to enable the pilot to safely...

  11. 14 CFR 27.773 - Pilot compartment view.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pilot compartment view. 27.773 Section 27... § 27.773 Pilot compartment view. (a) Each pilot compartment must be free from glare and reflections that could interfere with the pilot's view, and designed so that— (1) Each pilot's view is...

  12. 14 CFR 23.773 - Pilot compartment view.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pilot compartment view. 23.773 Section 23... Personnel and Cargo Accommodations § 23.773 Pilot compartment view. (a) Each pilot compartment must be— (1) Arranged with sufficiently extensive, clear and undistorted view to enable the pilot to safely...

  13. Chronic exertional compartment syndrome in adductor pollicis muscle: case report.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang-Hun; Lee, Kwang-Hyun; Lee, Seung-Hun; Kim, Yee-Suk; Chung, Ung-Seo

    2012-11-01

    We report a case of chronic exertional compartment syndrome in the adductor pollicis that was confirmed by measuring elevated compartment pressure. Specific finding of magnetic resonance imaging, increased T2 signal intensity in the involved compartment, was also useful for the diagnosis. Pain was relieved by fasciotomy through a volar approach. PMID:23040640

  14. Epidemiology of Campylobacter spp. at two Dutch broiler farms.

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs-Reitsma, W. F.; van de Giessen, A. W.; Bolder, N. M.; Mulder, R. W.

    1995-01-01

    Broiler flocks on two Dutch poultry farms were screened weekly for the presence of campylobacter in fresh caecal droppings during eight consecutive production cycles. Hatchery and fresh litter samples were taken at the start of each new cycle. Water, feed, insects, and faeces of domestic animals, present on the farms were also included in the sampling. Penner serotyping of isolates was used to identify epidemiological factors that contribute to campylobacter colonization in the broiler flocks. Generally, broiler flocks became colonized with campylobacter at about 3-4 weeks of age with isolation percentages of 100%, and stayed colonized up to slaughter. A similar pattern of serotypes was found within the various broiler houses on one farm during one production cycle. New flocks generally showed also a new pattern of serotypes. Most serotypes isolated from the laying hens, pigs, sheep and cattle were different from those isolated from the broilers at the same time. Campylobacter serotypes from darkling beetles inside the broiler houses were identical to the ones isolated from the broilers. No campylobacter was isolated from any of the hatchery, water, feed or fresh litter samples. Conclusive evidence of transmission routes was not found, but results certainly point towards horizontal transmission from the environment. Horizontal transmission from one broiler flock to the next one via a persistent contamination within the broiler house, as well as vertical transmission from breeder flocks via the hatchery to progeny, did not seem to be very likely. PMID:7781729

  15. Effect of different types of litter material for rearing broilers.

    PubMed

    Swain, B K; Sundaram, R N

    2000-07-01

    1. Coir dust was evaluated as broiler litter in comparison with sawdust and rice husk using 135 commercial broilers. Forty-five broiler chicks were reared to 42 d on a 50 mm layer of each of these litters. 2. Birds reared on coir dust showed no difference in food consumption, body weight gain, food conversion efficiency production number and survivability in comparison to those reared on saw dust and rice husk. 3. It was concluded that coir dust is suitable as broiler litter when cheaply available. PMID:11081418

  16. Brain anatomical network and intelligence.

    PubMed

    Li, Yonghui; Liu, Yong; Li, Jun; Qin, Wen; Li, Kuncheng; Yu, Chunshui; Jiang, Tianzi

    2009-05-01

    Intuitively, higher intelligence might be assumed to correspond to more efficient information transfer in the brain, but no direct evidence has been reported from the perspective of brain networks. In this study, we performed extensive analyses to test the hypothesis that individual differences in intelligence are associated with brain structural organization, and in particular that higher scores on intelligence tests are related to greater global efficiency of the brain anatomical network. We constructed binary and weighted brain anatomical networks in each of 79 healthy young adults utilizing diffusion tensor tractography and calculated topological properties of the networks using a graph theoretical method. Based on their IQ test scores, all subjects were divided into general and high intelligence groups and significantly higher global efficiencies were found in the networks of the latter group. Moreover, we showed significant correlations between IQ scores and network properties across all subjects while controlling for age and gender. Specifically, higher intelligence scores corresponded to a shorter characteristic path length and a higher global efficiency of the networks, indicating a more efficient parallel information transfer in the brain. The results were consistently observed not only in the binary but also in the weighted networks, which together provide convergent evidence for our hypothesis. Our findings suggest that the efficiency of brain structural organization may be an important biological basis for intelligence. PMID:19492086

  17. Anatomical heterogeneity of Alzheimer disease

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Young; Jeon, Seun; Seo, Sang Won; Kim, Geon Ha; Cho, Hanna; Ye, Byoung Seok; Yoon, Cindy W.; Kim, Hee Jin; Chin, Juhee; Park, Kee Hyung; Heilman, Kenneth M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Because the signs associated with dementia due to Alzheimer disease (AD) can be heterogeneous, the goal of this study was to use 3-dimensional MRI to examine the various patterns of cortical atrophy that can be associated with dementia of AD type, and to investigate whether AD dementia can be categorized into anatomical subtypes. Methods: High-resolution T1-weighted volumetric MRIs were taken of 152 patients in their earlier stages of AD dementia. The images were processed to measure cortical thickness, and hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis was performed using Ward's clustering linkage. The identified clusters of patients were compared with an age- and sex-matched control group using a general linear model. Results: There were several distinct patterns of cortical atrophy and the number of patterns varied according to the level of cluster analyses. At the 3-cluster level, patients were divided into (1) bilateral medial temporal–dominant atrophy subtype (n = 52, ∼34.2%), (2) parietal-dominant subtype (n = 28, ∼18.4%) in which the bilateral parietal lobes, the precuneus, along with bilateral dorsolateral frontal lobes, were atrophic, and (3) diffuse atrophy subtype (n = 72, ∼47.4%) in which nearly all association cortices revealed atrophy. These 3 subtypes also differed in their demographic and clinical features. Conclusions: This cluster analysis of cortical thickness of the entire brain showed that AD dementia in the earlier stages can be categorized into various anatomical subtypes, with distinct clinical features. PMID:25344382

  18. Brain Anatomical Network and Intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jun; Qin, Wen; Li, Kuncheng; Yu, Chunshui; Jiang, Tianzi

    2009-01-01

    Intuitively, higher intelligence might be assumed to correspond to more efficient information transfer in the brain, but no direct evidence has been reported from the perspective of brain networks. In this study, we performed extensive analyses to test the hypothesis that individual differences in intelligence are associated with brain structural organization, and in particular that higher scores on intelligence tests are related to greater global efficiency of the brain anatomical network. We constructed binary and weighted brain anatomical networks in each of 79 healthy young adults utilizing diffusion tensor tractography and calculated topological properties of the networks using a graph theoretical method. Based on their IQ test scores, all subjects were divided into general and high intelligence groups and significantly higher global efficiencies were found in the networks of the latter group. Moreover, we showed significant correlations between IQ scores and network properties across all subjects while controlling for age and gender. Specifically, higher intelligence scores corresponded to a shorter characteristic path length and a higher global efficiency of the networks, indicating a more efficient parallel information transfer in the brain. The results were consistently observed not only in the binary but also in the weighted networks, which together provide convergent evidence for our hypothesis. Our findings suggest that the efficiency of brain structural organization may be an important biological basis for intelligence. PMID:19492086

  19. Digital imaging in anatomic pathology.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, M J; Sotnikov, A V

    1996-10-01

    Advances in computer technology continue to bring new innovations to departments of anatomic pathology. This article briefly reviews the present status of digital optical imaging, and explores the directions that this technology may lead over the next several years. Technical requirements for digital microscopic and gross imaging, and the available options for image archival and retrieval are summarized. The advantages of digital images over conventional photography in the conference room, and the usefulness of digital imaging in the frozen section suite and gross room, as an adjunct to surgical signout and as a resource for training and education, are discussed. An approach to the future construction of digital histologic sections and the computer as microscope is described. The digital technologic applications that are now available as components of the surgical pathologist's workstation are enumerated. These include laboratory information systems, computerized voice recognition, and on-line or CD-based literature searching, texts and atlases and, in some departments, on-line image databases. The authors suggest that, in addition to these resources that are already available, tomorrow's surgical pathology workstation will include network-linked digital histologic databases, on-line software for image analysis and 3-D image enhancement, expert systems, and ultimately, advanced pattern recognition capabilities. In conclusion, the authors submit that digital optical imaging is likely to have a significant and positive impact on the future development of anatomic pathology. PMID:8853053

  20. Conventional fascial technique versus mesh repair for advanced pelvic organ prolapse: Analysis of recurrences in treated and untreated compartments.

    PubMed

    Damiani, G R; Riva, D; Pellegrino, A; Gaetani, M; Tafuri, S; Turoli, D; Croce, P; Loverro, G

    2016-04-01

    117 women with severe pelvic organ prolapse (POP; stage > 2) were enrolled to elucidate a 24-month outcome of POP surgery, using conventional or mesh repair with 3 techniques. 59 patients underwent conventional repair and 58 underwent mesh repair. Two types of mesh were used: a trocar-guided transobturator polypropylene (Avaulta, Bard Inc.) and a porcine dermis mesh (Pelvisoft, Bard Inc.). Women with recurrences, who underwent previous unsuccessful conventional repair, were randomised. Primary outcome was the evaluation of anatomic failures (prolapse stage > 1) in treated and untreated compartments. Anatomic failure was observed in 11 of 58 patients (19%; CI 8.9-29) in the mesh group and in 16 of 59 patients (27.1%; p value = 0.3) in the conventional group. 9 of 11 failures in the mesh group (15.5%; CI 6.2-24.8) were observed in the untreated compartment (de novo recurrences), 14.3% in Pelvisoft and 16.7% in Avaulta arm, while only 1 recurrence in the untreated compartment (1.7%) was observed in the conventional group (odds ratio 10.6, p = 0.03). PMID:26492359

  1. Orbital compartment syndrome following aneurysm surgery.

    PubMed

    Gauden, Andrew J; Hardy, Thomas; Mack, Heather G; Danesh-Meyer, Helen V; Kaye, Andrew H

    2012-07-01

    Orbital compartment syndrome (OCS) is a rare cause of blindness following intracranial surgery. We report a patient with OCS following intracranial cerebrovascular surgery precipitated by severe straining. OCS occurred due to a rapid increase in intraorbital pressure within the rigid confines of the orbit causing hypoperfusion of critical neural structures, which resulted in visual loss and a complete external ophthalmoplegia. Treatment involved urgent surgical soft tissue decompression of the orbit, corticosteroids and osmotic agents. It is important to consider OCS as a cause of blindness in the neurosurgical postoperative setting as without rapid treatment this condition has a very poor prognosis. PMID:22555128

  2. Ultrasonic Apparatus and Method to Assess Compartment Syndrome

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, William T. (Inventor); Ueno, Toshiaki (Inventor); Hargens, Alan R. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A process and apparatus for measuring pressure buildup in a body compartment that encases muscular tissue. The method includes assessing the body compartment configuration and identifying the effect of pulsatible components on compartment dimensions and muscle tissue characteristics. This process is used in preventing tissue necrosis, and in decisions of whether to perform surgery on the body compartment for prevention of Compartment Syndrome. An apparatus is used for measuring pressure build-up in the body compartment having components for imparting ultrasonic waves such as a transducer, placing the transducer to impart the ultrasonic waves, capturing the imparted ultrasonic waves, mathematically manipulating the captured ultrasonic waves and categorizing pressure build-up in the body compartment from the mathematical manipulations.

  3. Anatomic consideration for preventive implantation.

    PubMed

    Denissen, H W; Kalk, W; Veldhuis, H A; van Waas, M A

    1993-01-01

    The aim of preventive implant therapy is to prevent or delay loss of alveolar ridge bone mass. For use in an anatomic study of 60 mandibles, resorption of the alveolar ridge was classified into four preventive stages: (1) after extraction of teeth; (2) after initial resorption; (3) when the ridge has atrophied to a knife-edge shape; and (4) when only basal bone remains. Implantation in stage 3 necessitates removal of the knife-edge ridge to create space for cylindrical implants. Therefore, implantation in stage 2 is advocated to prevent the development of stage 3. The aim of implantation in stage 4 is to prevent total loss of function of the atrophic mandible. PMID:8359876

  4. Digital photography in anatomical pathology.

    PubMed

    Leong, F J; Leong, A S

    2004-01-01

    Digital imaging has made major inroads into the routine practice of anatomical pathology and replaces photographic prints and Kodachromes for reporting and conference purposes. More advanced systems coupled to computers allow greater versatility and speed of turnaround as well as lower costs of incorporating macroscopic and microscopic pictures into pathology reports and publications. Digital images allow transmission to remote sites via the Internet for consultation, quality assurance and educational purposes, and can be stored on and disseminated by CD-ROM. Total slide digitisation is now a reality and will replace glass slides to a large extent. Three-dimensional images of gross specimens can be assembled and posted on websites for interactive educational programmes. There are also applications in research, allowing more objective and automated quantitation of a variety of morphological and immunohistological parameters. Early reports indicate that medical vision systems are a reality and can provide for automated computer-generated histopathological diagnosis and quality assurance. PMID:15048004

  5. Gluteal compartment syndrome after prolonged immobilisation.

    PubMed

    Liu, H L; Wong, David S Y

    2009-04-01

    Muscles in the gluteal region are confined by distinct fascial attachments which can potentially result in compartment syndrome. A 74-year-old chronic drinker was admitted to the medical ward after being found drunk on the street. He noticed acute painful swelling of the right side of his buttock the following morning and recalled a slip and fall prior to his blackout. The whole right half of the buttock was tense with erythematous overlying skin. Examination revealed sciatic nerve palsy and myoglobinuria. Emergency fasciotomy and debridement were performed. Intra-operative pressure measurement confirmed a grossly elevated intra-compartmental pressure. Gluteal compartment syndrome is an extremely rare condition and has only been scantily documented previously in case reports. Early diagnosis is crucial but delay recognition is common from lack of knowledge of the condition and readily results in permanent sciatic nerve injury and acute renal shutdown from myoglobinuria. Awareness of the condition, early diagnosis and prompt exploration provide the only chance of avoiding these devastating consequences. Acute swelling diffusely affecting the whole or one side of the buttock, a history of trauma and prolonged local pressure impingement associated with pain out of proportion to the clinical signs should raise a suspicion of this rare condition. PMID:19423461

  6. Remote detection of pressure compartments. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Surdam, R.C.; Boyd, N.; Jiao, Z.; Maucione, D.; Kubicheck, S.

    1996-02-01

    A significant portion of the Cretaceous shale section in the Rocky Mountain Laramide Basins (RMLB) is anomalously pressured and gas saturated. The top of the anomalously pressured zone is identified by marked increases in sonic transit time, hydrocarbon production index (P.I.), clay diagenesis (smectite to illite), and vitrinite reflectance gradients. The driving mechanism of anomalous pressure development and compartmentalization is the generation and storage of liquid hydrocarbons that subsequently partially react to gas, converting the fluid-flow system to a multiphase regime in which capillarity controls permeability; the result is elevated displacement pressure within the shales. Sandstone reservoirs within this anomalously pressured shale section are subdivided stratigraphically and diagenetically into relatively small, isolated pressure or fluid-flow compartments. The saturation of these compartments with hydrocarbons and the subsequent oil-to-gas reaction causes explusion of a significant portion of the free water, resulting in anomalously pressured gas accumulations characterized by depletion drive. The determination of the position and configuration of the pressure boundary between normal and anomalously pressured regimes and the detection and delineation of porosity/permeability `sweet spots` below this boundary are the two most important elements in exploring for basin center gas in the RMLB.

  7. Valine Nutrient Recommendations for Ross × Ross 308 Broilers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies delineating dietary Val needs of modern commercial broilers are sparse. Three studies were conducted to determine the dietary Val nutrient minimum of Ross × Ross 308 male broilers. Three time periods were evaluated independently, 0 to 14 d (starter), 14 to 28 d (grower) and 28 to 42 d (finis...

  8. Broiler Litter Improves Cotton Yield above Inorganic Fertilizers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broiler litter which is a mixture of broiler chicken manure and bedding material (usually wood chips) is a complete fertilizer containing nearly all essential plant nutrients. It is generated in huge quantities in the same states where cotton is a dominant crop. Applying litter to agricultural fiel...

  9. Effect of dietary antimicrobials on immune status in broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary antimicrobials (anticoccidials plus antibiotic growth promoters) on the development of post-hatch immune systems in commercial broiler chickens. One hundred and five day-old broiler chicks were raised on the used litter and provi...

  10. Assessing Thermal Comfort of Broiler Chicks During Brooding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proper management of the thermal environment during brooding is essential to performance in broilers. Brooding programs used in the broiler industry are prescriptive, but little information exists about thermal comfort in chicks. Identifying thermal conditions that chicks prefer would allow for be...

  11. Colonization of broilers by Campylobacter jejuni internalized within Acanthamoeba castellanii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We present the first report that Campylobacter jejuni, internalized within Acanthamoeba castellanii, colonized broilers. After 1, 3, 7 and 14 days post challenge none of the broilers challenged with negative controls were colonized, but were with internalized C. jejuni. The biology of protozoa-Cam...

  12. Lighting during grow-out and Salmonella in broiler flocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lighting is used during broiler grow-out to modify bird behavior to reach the goals of production. The protocols for lighting intensity vary. In a field project, we evaluated if the lighting protocol impacts the burden of Salmonella in grow-out broiler flocks. Conventional grow-out flocks reared ...

  13. Impact of broiler slaughter scalding method on processing wastewater stream

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact of broiler scalding method on the resulting processing wastewater stream was evaluated. On 3 separate days, 5 to 7 wk old broilers were subjected to a 10 h feed withdrawal, cooped, transported, weighed (live weight), shackled, and then stunned (14.5 V DC, 500 Hz for 10 s) and bled (2 min)...

  14. Changes in soil test phosphorus from broiler litter additions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutrient surpluses on the Delmarva Peninsula have lead to a continual accumulation of soil test P (STP), a potential source for transport of P to surface waters. This paper examines the effects of initial soil test P concentrations and broiler litter additions on STP accumulation. Broiler litter wa...

  15. Bacteria Recovery from Genetically Featherless Broiler Carcasses after Forced Evacuation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to determine the external microbiology of genetically featherless broiler carcasses after forced evacuation of clocal fecal material. Full-fed featherless broilers were shackled, stunned, suffocated, weighed and divided into three treatments groups (S, W and SW). Carcasses fr...

  16. Dietary glycine and threonine interactive effects in broilers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is little information regarding the interaction of dietary threonine and glycine on potential metabolic sparing effects, live production, or breast meat yield of broilers. To test these potential interactions, 432 one-day-old Ross 308 male broilers were fed a common diet up to 21 days of age a...

  17. Solar and wind energy utilization in broiler production

    SciTech Connect

    Brinsfield, R.B.; Yaramanoglu, M.; Wheaton, F.

    1984-01-01

    Available solar and wind energy and both the electrical and thermal energy demand of a typical broiler facility were mathematically modeled based on 10 years of weather data for Salisbury, Maryland. The available energy was then compared with the broiler facility demands as a means of sizing solar and wind energy collection equipment to meet the demands.

  18. Serotyping of Salmonella Isolates from Broiler Vertical Integrations in Colombia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study analyzed 106 Salmonella isolates from different points in broiler vertical integrations of two important poultry areas of Colombia. It was possible to identify the presence of Salmonella in five categories: breeder farm (17.9%), hatchery (6.6 %), broiler farm (38.7 %), processing plant (9...

  19. Fumonisin mycotoxicosis in broilers: performance and pathology.

    PubMed

    Brown, T P; Rottinghaus, G E; Williams, M E

    1992-01-01

    Fusarium moniliforme culture material containing fumonisin B1 at 300 mg/kg was incorporated into a broiler starter ration and fed ad libitum to 1-day-old broiler chicks for 2 weeks in two experiments. Clinical features of the disease produced included diarrhea, a 19% reduction in body weight, a 30% increase in relative liver weight, and a worsening of feed conversion by 20 points at 2 weeks of age. Histologically, chicks fed fumonisin had multifocal hepatic necrosis, biliary hyperplasia, muscle necrosis, intestinal goblet-cell hyperplasia, and rickets. Simultaneous feeding of 0.5% aluminosilicate had no effect on the clinical disease or lesions. The clinical disease and lesions induced mimicked those of a viral enteritis. PMID:1627116

  20. Brain Morphometry Using Anatomical Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bansal, Ravi; Gerber, Andrew J.; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2008-01-01

    The efficacy of anatomical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in studying the morphological features of various regions of the brain is described, also providing the steps used in the processing and studying of the images. The ability to correlate these features with several clinical and psychological measures can help in using anatomical MRI to…

  1. The Orbital Workshop Waste Management Compartment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    This image is a wide-angle view of the Orbital Workshop waste management compartment. The waste management facilities presented a unique challenge to spacecraft designers. In addition to collection of liquid and solid human wastes, there was a medical requirement to dry all solid human waste products and to return the residue to Earth for examination. Liquid human waste (urine) was frozen for return to Earth. Total quantities of each astronaut's liquid and solid wastes were precisely measured. Cabin air was drawn into the toilet, shown on the wall at right in this photograph, and over the waste products to generate a flow of the waste in the desired direction. The air was then filtered for odor control and antiseptic purposes prior to being discharged back into the cabin.

  2. The extracellular compartments of frog skeletal muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Neville, M C; Mathias, R T

    1979-01-01

    1. Detailed studies of solute efflux from frog sartorius muscle and single muscle fibres were carried out in order to characterize a 'special region' (Harris, 1963) in the extracellular space of muscle and determine whether this 'special region' is the sarcoplasmic reticulum. 2. The efflux of radioactive Na, Cl, glusose, 3-O-methylglucose, xylose, glycine, leucine, cycloleucine, Rb, K, inulin (mol. wt. 5000) and dextran (mol. wt. 17,000) from previously loaded muscles was studied. In all cases except dextran the curve had three components, a rapid (A) component which could be equated with efflux from the extracellular space proper, a slow (C) component representing cellular solute and an intermediate (B) component. The distribution space for the B component was 8% of muscle volume in summer frogs and 12% in winter frogs and appeared to be equal for all compounds studied. We tested the hypothesis that the B component originated from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. 3. The C component was missing from the dextran curves. Both dextran and inulin entered the compartment of origin of the B component (compartment B) to the same extent as small molecules. 4. For all compounds studies, the efflux rate constant for the A component could be predicted from the diffusion coefficient. For the B component the efflux rate constant was 6--10 times slower than that for the A component but was still proportional to the diffusion coefficient for the solute in question. 5. When Na and sucrose efflux from single fibres was followed, a B component was usually observed. The average distribution space for this component was small, averaging 1.5% of fibre volume. There was no difference between the average efflux rate constants for Na and sucrose. 6. In an appendix, the constraints placed on the properties of a hypothetical channel between the sarcoplasmic reticulum and the T-system by the linear electrical parameters of frog skeletal muscle are derived. It is shown that the conductance of such

  3. Significance and function of different spinal collateral compartments following thoracic aortic surgery: immediate versus long-term flow compensation.

    PubMed

    Meffert, Philipp; Bischoff, Moritz S; Brenner, Robert; Siepe, Matthias; Beyersdorf, Friedhelm; Kari, Fabian A

    2014-05-01

    Iatrogenic paraplegia has been accompanying cardiovascular surgery since its beginning. As a result, surgeons have been developing many theories about the exact mechanisms of this devastating complication. Thus, the impact of single arteries that contribute to the spinal perfusion is one of the most discussed subjects in modern surgery. The subsequent decision of reattachment or the permanent disconnection of these intercostal arteries divides the surgical community. On the one hand, the anatomical or vascular approach pleads for the immediate reimplantation to reconstruct the anatomical situation. On the other hand, the decision of the permanent disconnection aims at avoiding stealing phenomenon away from the spinal vascular network. This spinal collateral network can be described as consisting of three components-the intraspinal and two paraspinal compartments-that feed the nutrient arteries of the spinal cord. The exact functional impact of the different compartments of the collateral network remains poorly understood. In this review, the function of the intraspinal compartment in the context of collateral network principle as an immediate emergency backup system is described. The exact structure and architectural principles of the intraspinal compartment are described. The critical parameters with regard to the risk of postoperative spinal cord ischaemia are the number of anterior radiculomedullary arteries (ARMAs) and the distance between them in relation to the longitudinal extent of aortic disease. The paraspinal network as a sleeping reserve is proposed as the long-term backup system. This sleeping reserve has to be activated by arteriogenic stimuli. These are presented briefly, and prior findings regarding arteriogenesis are discussed in the light of the collateral network concept. Finally, the role of preoperative visualization of the ARMAs in order to evaluate the risk of postoperative paraplegia is emphasized. PMID:24078102

  4. Dynamic Compartments in the Imperative π-Calculus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, Mathias; Lhoussaine, Cédric; Niehren, Joachim

    Dynamic compartments with mutable configurations and variable volumes are of basic interest for the stochastic modeling of biochemistry in cells. We propose a new language to express dynamic compartments that we call the imperative π -calculus. It is obtained from the attributed π -calculus by adding imperative assignment operations to a global store. Previous approaches to dynamic compartments are improved in flexibility or efficiency. This is illustrated by an appropriate model of osmosis and a correct encoding of bioambBioAmbients.

  5. Vehicle hydraulic system that provides heat for passenger compartment

    DOEpatents

    Bartley, Bradley E.; Blass, James R.; Gibson, Dennis H.

    2001-01-01

    A vehicle includes a vehicle housing which defines a passenger compartment. Attached to the vehicle housing is a hydraulic system, that includes a hydraulic fluid which flows through at least one passageway within the hydraulic system. Also attached to the vehicle housing is a passenger compartment heating system. The passenger compartment heating system includes a heat exchanger, wherein a portion of the heat exchanger is a segment of the at least one passageway of the hydraulic system.

  6. Singapore's anatomical future: quo vadis?

    PubMed

    Ang, Eng-Tat; Sugand, Kapil; Hartman, Mikael; Seow, Choon-Sheong; Bay, Boon-Huat; Abrahams, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The disciplines of anatomy and surgery are not dichotomous since one is dependent on the other. Traditionally, surgeons predominantly taught gross and clinical anatomy. In this review, we examine the context of how human anatomy is taught nowadays. In essence, we discovered that there are certain discernable trends consistently observable between the American and British systems. In Singapore, the British Russell Group first influenced its education landscape but now more so by the American Ivy League. Singapore now has three medical schools all offering differing anatomy curricula, which serves as an opportune time for it to consider if there is a best approach given that the practice of surgery is also evolving in parallel. This review discusses the various pedagogies and issues involved, and will serve as a forum and stimulus for discussion. By tweaking the curriculum correctly and the lessons learnt, future doctors and surgeons in training will receive a better anatomical education, not just in Singapore but the world in general. Key recommendations include the use of body painting, clay, plasticine to facilitate the learning of anatomy, and the implementation of a body donation program. Furthermore, strategic mergers with key stakeholders will also ensure the survival of the discipline. PMID:22566391

  7. Delayed onset thigh compartment syndrome secondary to contusion.

    PubMed

    Joglekar, Siddharth B; Rehman, Saqib

    2009-08-01

    While thigh compartment syndrome is relatively uncommon, it can occur in various situations. Multiple reports document thigh contusions as a cause of acute compartment syndrome; however, compartment syndrome of the thigh presenting primarily in a delayed fashion secondary to a contusion has not been described. This article reports a case of thigh compartment syndrome. A 39-year-old man sustained a left thigh contusion while playing basketball. He continued to play and also worked at the office over the next 2 days. Fifty-two hours postinjury, he developed severe pain in the thigh after a long walk. Increased swelling of the thigh followed, with numbness in the anterolateral thigh and pain with knee motion. He presented 60 hours postinjury with a compartment syndrome, and a lateral decompressive fasciotomy of the thigh was performed 62 hours postinjury. The wound was closed after 5 days. Three months postoperatively, the patient returned to playing basketball with no deficits. Treatment of established compartment syndrome in such cases is controversial, with some reports recommending nonoperative management. Contusion-related compartment syndromes are frequently associated with intramuscular bleeding in the involved compartment, which may accumulate slowly or worsen with further activity. Guidelines regarding return to sports need to be established in individuals sustaining severe contusions during sports-related activities to prevent compartment syndrome. Any individual sustaining such an injury should be under surveillance for delayed onset symptoms or signs of this potentially devastating syndrome. PMID:19708619

  8. 7 CFR 58.510 - Rooms and compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... compartments shall be ventilated to maintain sanitary conditions, preclude the growth of mold and air borne bacterial contaminants, prevent undue condensation of water vapor and minimize or eliminate...

  9. 7 CFR 58.510 - Rooms and compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... compartments shall be ventilated to maintain sanitary conditions, preclude the growth of mold and air borne bacterial contaminants, prevent undue condensation of water vapor and minimize or eliminate...

  10. Drug sensitivity of coccidia from broiler breeder pullets and from broilers in the same integrated company.

    PubMed

    Mathis, G F; McDougald, L R; McMurray, B

    1984-01-01

    Coccidia isolated from 12 breeder pullet farms and 18 broiler farms were tested for sensitivity to anticoccidial drugs. The species Eimeria acervulina, E. maxima, and E. tenella were common in the isolates and were fully pathogenic. Broiler coccidia were generally resistant to Zoalene but sensitive to nicarbazin. About half of the isolates had reduced sensitivity to amprolium and monensin. Most of the breeder pullet coccidia were resistant to Zoalene and amprolium, but almost all were highly sensitive to nicarbazin and monensin. There was some difference in responses of broiler isolates to various ionophores. Isolates responded best to salinomycin and lasalocid, which had not been previously used on the farms. Monensin controlled coccidia slightly better when given at 120 ppm than when given at 100 ppm. These results suggest that broiler coccidia have lost some responsiveness to ionophores as a result of long-term exposure, but that breeder pullet coccidia, which have never been exposed to those drugs, have retained their sensitivity. Resistance or sensitivity to other drugs was consistent with history of use: more isolates were sensitive to older drugs that had not been used for several years than was reported in previous surveys. PMID:6743177

  11. Thermal manipulations during broiler incubation alter performance of broilers to 70 days of age.

    PubMed

    Piestun, Y; Druyan, S; Brake, J; Yahav, S

    2013-05-01

    Recent decades have seen significant progress in the genetic selection of fast-growing broiler chickens. Whereas in many countries the average marketing age is 5 to 6 wk, the US, French, and other markets demand heavier broilers (~4 kg) that require a longer posthatching growing period. With greater age and greater BW, the ability to cope with hot weather conditions deteriorates, which can result in increased economic losses during periods of hot weather. Recent studies have demonstrated a long-lasting effect of intermittent thermal manipulation (TM) during embryogenesis, when it was applied for 12 h/d between embryonic (E) days E7 and E16, which was shown by improved thermotolerance during acute posthatching heat stress as well as improved feed conversion ratio (FCR) and breast muscle yield. The present study was designed to elucidate the effect of TM during embryogenesis on Cobb 500 broiler performance up to 70 d of age. Hatchability and male BW were not affected by TM, but TM females demonstrated a lower (P = 0.024) BW during the entire 70-d posthatching study. However, following embryonic TM, both sexes exhibited lower (P = 0.028 and P = 0.018 for males and females, respectively) feed intake and body temperature accompanied by improved FCR and greater breast muscle weight. In light of the present and previous studies, it was concluded that intermittent TM during broiler embryonic development had a long-lasting effect on energy balance that led to improved FCR and breast muscle yield. PMID:23571323

  12. Isolated Acute Exertional Compartment Syndrome (AECS) of the Extensor Carpi Ulnaris

    PubMed Central

    J, Mika; O, Brinkmann; TO, Clanton; G, Szalay; Rw, Kinne

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Only two cases of an isolated compartment syndrome of the extensor carpi ulnaris have been described previously [1,2]. In both cases, the onset was acute. In the first case, histological examination revealed no necrosis. The second case was regarded to be due to a previously unknown anatomic variation and no necrotic tissue was recognized upon gross examination. This case report describes a third case of an isolated acute exertional compartment syndrome (AECS) of the extensor carpi ulnaris muscle with focal areas of necrotic tissue. Case Report: We report the third case of an isolated AECS of the extensor carpi ulnaris muscle. A 35 year-old left-handed man, a motor mechanic by profession, presented to the emergency department with excruciating pain at the ulnar side of the left dorsal forearm. The previous day, he had repetitively used a sliding hammer with his left arm. Since then he had experienced severe pain despite the use of over-the-counter non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Here, in contrast to the previously reported cases, the histological examination revealed focal areas of necrotic tissue. No anatomic variations were found during surgical decompression. Postoperatively, the patient had complete pain relief and return of function. Conclusion: This report again indicates that the extensor carpi ulnaris is especially prone to develop the AECS syndrome and raises the question whether involvement of the other extensor muscles may rather be secondary to the excessive swelling of the extensor carpi ulnaris and not to strenuous exercise. This should be taken into consideration when humans load their forearm repeatedly during heavy labor or sports. In addition, we are showing that even with histologically confirmed areas of partial muscle necrosis the patient can return to normal muscle function. PMID:27299113

  13. The anatomical school of Padua.

    PubMed

    Porzionato, Andrea; Macchi, Veronica; Stecco, Carla; Parenti, Anna; De Caro, Raffaele

    2012-06-01

    The University of Padua is one of the most ancient in the world, being founded in 1222, and the most important anatomists of the XVI, XVII, and XVIII centuries studied and taught here. Probably, the first professor of anatomy and surgery was Bruno da Longobucco (c. 1200-c. 1286), who had previously studied at the Salerno School of Medicine. While professor in Padua, Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564) published De Humani Corporis Fabrica (1543), which is considered as the birth of the modern anatomy. Following professors were Realdo Colombo (c. 1516-1559), Gabriel Fallopius (1523-1562), Hieronymus Fabricius ab Aquapendente (1533-1619), Iulius Casserius (1552-1616), Johann Wesling (1598-1649), and Johann Georg Wirsung (1589-1643). Many other foreign scholars studied in the University of Padua, such as Thomas Linacre (c. 1460-1524), the founder of the Royal College of Physicians, Werner Rolfinck (1599-1673), and Olof Rudbeck (1630-1702), who created anatomical theatres in Germany and Sweden, respectively, on the basis of the Paduan model. The anatomy of the XVII century characteristically widened the scope of its enquiry to function, as in the Exercitatio Anatomica De Motu Cordis et Sanguinis in Animalibus (1628) by William Harvey (1578-1657). Further evolution was then given by the anatomy in the XVIII century, which tried to correlate alterations of structure with clinical symptoms. The most important anatomist of this century is Giovanni Battista Morgagni (1682-1771), whose masterpiece De Sedibus et Causis Morborum per Anatomen Indagatis (1761) is a landmark contribution that is viewed as the beginning of modern pathologic anatomy. This year falls the 300th anniversary of Morgagni's inaugural lecture on medical education, Nova Institutionum Medicarum Idea (1712), which is still relevant in its effort to stress the importance of a deep knowledge of all the preclinical and clinical aspects of medical science. PMID:22581496

  14. 14 CFR 135.170 - Materials for compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Aircraft and Equipment § 135.170 Materials for compartment interiors. (a) No person may operate an airplane... issuance of the initial airworthiness certificate under that SFAR, the airplane meets the compartment... a large airplane unless it meets the following additional airworthiness requirements: (1) Except...

  15. 46 CFR 169.625 - Compartments containing diesel machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Compartments containing diesel machinery. 169.625... SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.625 Compartments containing diesel machinery... stresses induced by weight and engine vibration and to minimize transfer of vibration to the...

  16. 14 CFR 25.857 - Cargo compartment classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cargo compartment classification. 25.857 Section 25.857 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25.857 Cargo compartment classification....

  17. Compartment Syndrome of the Arm After Cable-Wakeboard Accident.

    PubMed

    Barendse-Hofmann, Minke G; Steenvoorde, Pascal; van Doorn, Louk; Zeillemaker, Anneke

    2009-02-01

    A compartment syndrome is an increased tissue pressure within a closed osteofascial compartment. This compromises blood flow to the muscles and nerves within that compartment, which -if not treated adequately in an early stage-results in permanent tissue and nerve damage. It most frequently occurs in the lower leg, but can also occur elsewhere when muscles are enclosed in tight fascial compartments, such as the forearm and hand. In this report a patient is described who developed an acute compartment syndrome of the arm after a cable-wakeboard accident in which his arm was strangulated. Cable-wakeboarding is an extreme sport that has become very popular over the last years. Early recognition and treatment of an acute compartment syndrome is of extreme importance since in short term necrotic muscles can lead to severe irreversible complications. Accidents with cable-wakeboarding often occur during the start. This is caused by the strong forces that are on the cable during the start. Strangulation injuries of the arm can cause a compartment syndrome of the arm. Possibly a wet-suit or dry-suit offers some protection. However, the duration of strangulation determines much of the damage. Although diagnosis of a compartment syndrome can be difficult, a high index of suspicion combined with fast and adequate treatment with a fasciotomy improve outcome and prognosis. PMID:26814537

  18. 14 CFR 25.857 - Cargo compartment classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... access provisions are being used, no hazardous quantity of smoke, flames, or extinguishing agent, will enter any compartment occupied by the crew or passengers; (3) There is a separate approved smoke... compartment but in which— (1) There is a separate approved smoke detector or fire detector system to...

  19. Spontaneous Compartment Syndrome of the Hand in Systemic Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Tanagho, Andy; Hatab, Sameh; Youssef, Sally; Ansara, Sameh

    2015-09-01

    Compartment syndrome refers to a condition of compromised circulation within a limited space due to increased pressure within that space. The reduced tissue perfusion results in reduced venous drainage, leading to increased interstitial tissue pressure and subsequent compromised arterial flow. Although not as common as compartment syndrome of the leg and forearm, compartment syndrome of the hand is not rare and can lead to devastating sequelae as a result of tissue necrosis. Compartment syndrome of the hand has several etiologies, including trauma, arterial injury, thermal injury, and constrictive bandaging. The cardinal clinical sign is pain that is aggravated by passive stretching of the muscles within the involved compartments. Extremity function is usually restored with expeditious fasciotomy of the involved myofascial compartments, and complications, such as intrinsic muscular dysfunction and Volkmann's ischemic contracture, can usually be prevented. There are no reported cases of compartment syndrome of the hand in patients with systemic sclerosis or Raynaud's phenomenon. Systemic sclerosis is a form of scleroderma that affects the skin and internal organs. The limited cutaneous subset affects the skin of the extremities but is associated with a set of characteristic features that includes calcinosis, Raynaud's phenomenon, esophageal involvement, sclerodactyly, and telangiectasia. This report describes an unusual case of a patient who had spontaneous compartment syndrome of the hand. The patient's concomitant limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis may have played a role in this unusual occurrence. The diagnosis was based on the clinical picture, and the symptoms resolved after surgical decompression. PMID:26375546

  20. 14 CFR 23.1192 - Engine accessory compartment diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1192 Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. For aircooled radial engines, the engine power section and all portions of the exhaust sytem must be isolated from the...

  1. 14 CFR 23.1192 - Engine accessory compartment diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1192 Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. For aircooled radial engines, the engine power section and all portions of the exhaust sytem must be isolated from the...

  2. 46 CFR 169.625 - Compartments containing diesel machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Compartments containing diesel machinery. 169.625... SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.625 Compartments containing diesel machinery... stresses induced by weight and engine vibration and to minimize transfer of vibration to the...

  3. 46 CFR 169.625 - Compartments containing diesel machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Compartments containing diesel machinery. 169.625... SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.625 Compartments containing diesel machinery... stresses induced by weight and engine vibration and to minimize transfer of vibration to the...

  4. 46 CFR 169.625 - Compartments containing diesel machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Compartments containing diesel machinery. 169.625... SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.625 Compartments containing diesel machinery... stresses induced by weight and engine vibration and to minimize transfer of vibration to the...

  5. 14 CFR 29.855 - Cargo and baggage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cargo and baggage compartments. 29.855 Section 29.855 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Fire Protection § 29.855 Cargo and baggage compartments. (a)...

  6. Unrecognized acute exertional compartment syndrome of the leg and treatment.

    PubMed

    Popovic, Nebojsa; Bottoni, Craig; Cassidy, Charles

    2011-04-01

    Acute-on-chronic exertional compartment syndrome is rare and may be easily missed without a high degree of awareness and clinical suspicion. We report a case of unrecognized acute-on-chronic exertional compartment syndrome in a recreational soccer player. The late sequela of this condition, foot drop, was successfully treated with transfer of the peroneus longus tendon. PMID:21667742

  7. 14 CFR 25.857 - Cargo compartment classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... access provisions are being used, no hazardous quantity of smoke, flames, or extinguishing agent, will enter any compartment occupied by the crew or passengers; (3) There is a separate approved smoke... compartment but in which— (1) There is a separate approved smoke detector or fire detector system to...

  8. 14 CFR 23.1192 - Engine accessory compartment diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1192 Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. For aircooled radial engines, the engine power section and all portions of the exhaust sytem must be isolated from the...

  9. 14 CFR 91.613 - Materials for compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Materials for compartment interiors. 91.613 Section 91.613 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... compartment interiors. (a) No person may operate an airplane that conforms to an amended or supplemental...

  10. 46 CFR 169.627 - Compartments containing diesel fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Compartments containing diesel fuel tanks. 169.627 Section 169.627 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.627 Compartments containing diesel fuel...

  11. 46 CFR 169.627 - Compartments containing diesel fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compartments containing diesel fuel tanks. 169.627 Section 169.627 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.627 Compartments containing diesel fuel...

  12. 46 CFR 169.627 - Compartments containing diesel fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Compartments containing diesel fuel tanks. 169.627 Section 169.627 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.627 Compartments containing diesel fuel...

  13. 46 CFR 169.627 - Compartments containing diesel fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Compartments containing diesel fuel tanks. 169.627 Section 169.627 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.627 Compartments containing diesel fuel...

  14. 46 CFR 169.625 - Compartments containing diesel machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compartments containing diesel machinery. 169.625... SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.625 Compartments containing diesel machinery. (a) Spaces containing machinery must be fitted with adequate dripproof ventilators, trunks,...

  15. 14 CFR 25.772 - Pilot compartment doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pilot compartment doors. 25.772 Section 25... § 25.772 Pilot compartment doors. For an airplane that has a lockable door installed between the pilot... passengers require use of the flightdeck door in order to reach the emergency exits provided for them; and...

  16. 14 CFR 25.772 - Pilot compartment doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pilot compartment doors. 25.772 Section 25... § 25.772 Pilot compartment doors. For an airplane that has a lockable door installed between the pilot... passengers require use of the flightdeck door in order to reach the emergency exits provided for them; and...

  17. 14 CFR 25.772 - Pilot compartment doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pilot compartment doors. 25.772 Section 25... § 25.772 Pilot compartment doors. For an airplane that has a lockable door installed between the pilot... passengers require use of the flightdeck door in order to reach the emergency exits provided for them; and...

  18. 14 CFR 25.772 - Pilot compartment doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pilot compartment doors. 25.772 Section 25... § 25.772 Pilot compartment doors. For an airplane that has a lockable door installed between the pilot... passengers require use of the flightdeck door in order to reach the emergency exits provided for them; and...

  19. 14 CFR 25.772 - Pilot compartment doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pilot compartment doors. 25.772 Section 25... § 25.772 Pilot compartment doors. For an airplane that has a lockable door installed between the pilot... passengers require use of the flightdeck door in order to reach the emergency exits provided for them; and...

  20. 14 CFR 27.787 - Cargo and baggage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... emergency landing conditions of § 27.561. (b) There must be means to prevent the contents of any compartment...) Under the emergency landing conditions of § 27.561, cargo and baggage compartments must— (1) Be... any of the escape facilities provided for use after an emergency landing; or (2) Have...

  1. 14 CFR 29.787 - Cargo and baggage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... emergency landing conditions of § 29.561. (b) There must be means to prevent the contents of any compartment...) Under the emergency landing conditions of § 29.561, cargo and baggage compartments must— (1) Be... any of the escape facilities provided for use after an emergency landing; or (2) Have...

  2. 14 CFR 23.1192 - Engine accessory compartment diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1192 Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. For aircooled radial engines, the engine power section and all portions of the exhaust sytem must be isolated from the...

  3. Developmental Dynamics of Radial Vulnerability in the Cerebral Compartments in Preterm Infants and Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Kostović, Ivica; Kostović-Srzentić, Mirna; Benjak, Vesna; Jovanov-Milošević, Nataša; Radoš, Milan

    2014-01-01

    The developmental vulnerability of different classes of axonal pathways in preterm white matter is not known. We propose that laminar compartments of the developing cerebral wall serve as spatial framework for axonal growth and evaluate potential of anatomical landmarks for understanding reorganization of the cerebral wall after perinatal lesions. The 3-T MRI (in vivo) and histological analysis were performed in a series of cases ranging from 22 postconceptional weeks to 3 years. For the follow-up scans, three groups of children (control, normotypic, and preterms with lesions) were examined at the term equivalent age and after the first year of life. MRI and histological abnormalities were analyzed in the following compartments: (a) periventricular, with periventricular fiber system; (b) intermediate, with periventricular crossroads, sagittal strata, and centrum semiovale; (c) superficial, composed of gyral white matter, subplate, and cortical plate. Vulnerability of thalamocortical pathways within the crossroads and sagittal strata seems to be characteristic for early preterms, while vulnerability of long association pathways in the centrum semiovale seems to be predominant feature of late preterms. The structural indicator of the lesion of the long association pathways is the loss of delineation between centrum semiovale and subplate remnant, which is possible substrate of the diffuse periventricular leukomalacia. The enhanced difference in MR signal intensity of centrum semiovale and subplate remnant, observed in damaged children after first year, we interpret as structural plasticity of intact short cortico-cortical fibers, which grow postnatally through U-zones and enter the cortex through the subplate remnant. Our findings indicate that radial distribution of MRI signal abnormalities in the cerebral compartments may be related to lesion of different classes of axonal pathways and have prognostic value for predicting the likely outcome of prenatal and

  4. Compartment in vertical flow reactor for ferruginous mine water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hur, Won; Cheong, Young-Wook; Yim, Gil-Jae; Ji, Sang-Woo; Hong, Ji-Hye

    2014-05-01

    Mine effluents contain varying concentrations of ferrous ion along with other metal ions. Fe(II) that quickly oxidizes to form precipitates in the presence of oxygen under net alkaline or neutral conditions. Thus, passive treatment methods are designed for the mine water to reside in an open containment area so as to allow simultaneous oxidation and precipitation of Fe(II), such as in a lagoon or an oxidation pond. A vertical flow reactor (VFR) was also suggested to remediate ferruginous mine drainage passing down through an accreting bed of ochre. However, VFR has a limited operation time until the system begins to overflow. It was also demonstrated that two-compartment VFR has a longer operation time than single compartment VFR of same size. In this study, a mathematical model was developed as a part of efforts to explore the operation of VFR, showing dynamic changes in head differences, ochre depth and Fe(II)/Fe(III) concentration in the effluent flow. The analysis shows that Fe(II) oxidation and ochre formation should be balanced with permeability of ochre bed to maximize VFR operation time and minimize residual Fe(II) in the effluent. The model demonstrates that two compartment VFR can have a longer operation time than a single-compartment VFR and that an optimum compartment ratio exists that maximize VFR operation time. Accelerated Fe(II) oxidation significantly affects the optimum ratio of compartment area and reduced residual Fe(II) in the effluent. VFR operation time can be significantly prolonged by increasing the rate of ochre formation not by accelerated Fe(II) oxidation. Taken together, ochre forms largely in the first compartment while overflowed mine water with reduced iron contents is efficiently filtered in the second compartment. These results provide us a better understanding of VFR operation and optimum design criteria for maximum operation time in a two-compartment VFR. Rapid ochre accretion in the first compartment maintains constant hydraulic

  5. Structural and functional analysis of endosomal compartments in epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Bay, Andres E Perez; Schreiner, Ryan; Rodriguez-Boulan, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial cells display segregated early endosomal compartments, termed apical sorting endosomes and basolateral sorting endosomes, that converge into a common late endosomal-lysosomal degradative compartment and common recycling endosomes (CREs). Unlike recycling endosomes of nonpolarized cells, CREs have the ability to sort apical and basolateral plasma membrane proteins into distinct apical and basolateral recycling routes, utilizing mechanisms similar to those employed by the trans Golgi network in the biosynthetic pathway. The apical recycling route includes an additional compartment, the apical recycling endosomes, consisting of multiple vesicles bundled around the basal body. Recent evidence indicates that, in addition to their role in internalizing ligands and recycling their receptors back to the cell surface, endosomal compartments act as intermediate stations in the biosynthetic routes to the plasma membrane. Here we review methods employed by our laboratory to study the endosomal compartments of epithelial cells and their multiple trafficking roles. PMID:26360040

  6. Safe arthroscopic access to the central compartment of the hip.

    PubMed

    Dienst, Michael; Seil, Romain; Kohn, Dieter M

    2005-12-01

    This technical note describes a new method that allows access to the central compartment of the hip under arthroscopic control via the peripheral compartment with less risk of labral perforation and/or cartilage scuffing. After placement of the anterolateral portal in the peripheral compartment without traction, the anterior head area with the anterior acetabular labrum and the anterior surface of the femoral head are inspected. Under arthroscopic control, a guidewire is introduced through the anterior portal in between the anterior labrum and anterior femoral head cartilage and into the central compartment. The arthroscope is then removed from the anterolateral portal, the hip distracted, and the arthroscope introduced via cannulated instruments over the guidewire into the central compartment. Further portal placement can be controlled arthroscopically. PMID:16376244

  7. Anatomical Basis for the Cardiac Interventional Electrophysiologist

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Quintana, Damián; Doblado-Calatrava, Manuel; Cabrera, José Angel; Macías, Yolanda; Saremi, Farhood

    2015-01-01

    The establishment of radiofrequency catheter ablation techniques as the mainstay in the treatment of tachycardia has renewed new interest in cardiac anatomy. The interventional arrhythmologist has drawn attention not only to the gross anatomic details of the heart but also to architectural and histological characteristics of various cardiac regions that are relevant to the development or recurrence of tachyarrhythmias and procedural related complications of catheter ablation. In this review, therefore, we discuss some anatomic landmarks commonly used in catheter ablations including the terminal crest, sinus node region, Koch's triangle, cavotricuspid isthmus, Eustachian ridge and valve, pulmonary venous orifices, venoatrial junctions, and ventricular outflow tracts. We also discuss the anatomical features of important structures in the vicinity of the atria and pulmonary veins, such as the esophagus and phrenic nerves. This paper provides basic anatomic information to improve understanding of the mapping and ablative procedures for cardiac interventional electrophysiologists. PMID:26665006

  8. Bacterial Succession in the Broiler Gastrointestinal Tract.

    PubMed

    Ranjitkar, Samir; Lawley, Blair; Tannock, Gerald; Engberg, Ricarda M

    2016-04-15

    A feeding trial was performed with broilers receiving a diet of wheat-based feed (WBF), maize-based feed (MBF), or maize-based concentrates supplemented with 15% or 30% crimped kernel maize silage (CKMS-15 or CKMS-30, respectively). The aim of the study was to investigate the bacterial community compositions of the crop, gizzard, ileum, and cecum contents in relation to the feeding strategy and age (8, 15, 22, 25, 29, or 36 days). Among the four dietary treatments, bacterial diversity was analyzed for MBF and CKMS-30 by 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Since the diets had no significant influence on bacterial diversity, data were pooled for downstream analysis. With increasing age, a clear succession of bacterial communities and increased bacterial diversity were observed.Lactobacillaceae(belonging mainly to the genusLactobacillus) represented most of theFirmicutesat all ages and in all segments of the gut except the cecum. The development of a "mature" microbiota in broilers occurred during the period from days 15 to 22. Striking increases in the relative abundances ofLactobacillus salivarius(17 to 36%) and clostridia (11 to 18%), and a concomitant decrease in the relative abundance ofLactobacillus reuteri, were found in the ileum after day 15. The concentration of deconjugated bile salts increased in association with the increased populations ofL. salivariusand clostridia. BothL. salivariusand clostridia deconjugate bile acids, and increases in the abundances of these bacteria might be associated with growth reduction and gastrointestinal (GI) disorders occurring in the critical period of broiler life between days 20 and 30. PMID:26873323

  9. Microwave tomography of extremities: 2. Functional fused imaging of flow reduction and simulated compartment syndrome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, Serguei; Kellam, James; Nair, Bindu; Williams, Thomas; Quinn, Michael; Sizov, Yuri; Nazarov, Alexei; Pavlovsky, Andrey

    2011-04-01

    Medical imaging has recently expanded into the dual- or multi-modality fusion of anatomical and functional imaging modalities. This significantly improves the diagnostic power while simultaneously increasing the cost of already expensive medical devices or investigations and decreasing their mobility. We are introducing a novel imaging concept of four-dimensional (4D) microwave tomographic (MWT) functional imaging: three dimensional (3D) in the spatial domain plus one dimensional (1D) in the time, functional dynamic domain. Instead of a fusion of images obtained by different imaging modalities, 4D MWT fuses absolute anatomical images with dynamic, differential images of the same imaging technology. The approach was successively validated in animal experiments with short-term arterial flow reduction and a simulated compartment syndrome in an initial simplified experimental setting using a dedicated MWT system. The presented fused images are not perfect as MWT is a novel imaging modality at its early stage of the development and ways of reading reconstructed MWT images need to be further studied and understood. However, the reconstructed fused images present clear evidence that microwave tomography is an emerging imaging modality with great potentials for functional imaging.

  10. Microwave tomography of extremities: 2) Functional fused imaging of flow reduction and simulated compartment syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Semenov, Serguei; Kellam, James; Nair, Bindu; Williams, Thomas; Quinn, Michael; Sizov, Yuri; Nazarov, Alexei; Pavlovsky, Andrey

    2011-01-01

    Medical imaging has recently expanded into the dual- or multi-modality fusion of anatomical and functional imaging modalities. This significantly improves the diagnostic power while simultaneously increasing the cost of an already expensive medical devices or investigations and decreasing their mobility. We are introducing a novel imaging concept of four-dimensional (4D) Microwave Tomographic (MWT) functional imaging: three-dimensional (3D) in spatial domain plus one-dimension (1D) in the time, functional dynamic domain. Instead of a fusion of images obtained by different imaging modalities, 4D MWT fuses absolute anatomical images with dynamic, differential images of the same imaging technology. The approach was successively validated in animal experiments with short term arterial flow reduction and a simulated compartment syndrome in an initial simplified experimental setting using dedicated microwave tomographic system. The presented fused images are not perfect as MWT is a novel imaging modality at its early stage of the development and ways of reading of reconstructed MWT images need to be further studied and understood. However, the reconstructed fused images present clear evidence that microwave tomography is an emerging imaging modality with great potentials for functional imaging. PMID:21364266

  11. Microwave tomography of extremities: 2. Functional fused imaging of flow reduction and simulated compartment syndrome.

    PubMed

    Semenov, Serguei; Kellam, James; Nair, Bindu; Williams, Thomas; Quinn, Michael; Sizov, Yuri; Nazarov, Alexei; Pavlovsky, Andrey

    2011-04-01

    Medical imaging has recently expanded into the dual- or multi-modality fusion of anatomical and functional imaging modalities. This significantly improves the diagnostic power while simultaneously increasing the cost of already expensive medical devices or investigations and decreasing their mobility. We are introducing a novel imaging concept of four-dimensional (4D) microwave tomographic (MWT) functional imaging: three dimensional (3D) in the spatial domain plus one dimensional (1D) in the time, functional dynamic domain. Instead of a fusion of images obtained by different imaging modalities, 4D MWT fuses absolute anatomical images with dynamic, differential images of the same imaging technology. The approach was successively validated in animal experiments with short-term arterial flow reduction and a simulated compartment syndrome in an initial simplified experimental setting using a dedicated MWT system. The presented fused images are not perfect as MWT is a novel imaging modality at its early stage of the development and ways of reading reconstructed MWT images need to be further studied and understood. However, the reconstructed fused images present clear evidence that microwave tomography is an emerging imaging modality with great potentials for functional imaging. PMID:21364266

  12. Anatomic Considerations in Frontal Sinus Surgery.

    PubMed

    Folbe, Adam J; Svider, Peter F; Eloy, Jean Anderson

    2016-08-01

    Comprehension of the complex anatomic variants comprising the frontal sinus outflow tract is essential for successful surgical intervention. Deviation from sound technique increases the potential for a variety of deleterious sequelae, including recurrent disease as well as catastrophic intracranial and orbital injury. Furthermore, incomplete removal of elements occluding the frontal recess can result in severe stenosis that can increase the difficulty of further interventions. This review covers anatomic considerations that should be kept in mind when performing frontal sinus surgery. PMID:27329978

  13. [Establishment of anatomical terminology in Japan].

    PubMed

    Shimada, Kazuyuki

    2008-12-01

    The history of anatomical terminology in Japan began with the publication of Waran Naikei Ihan-teimŏ in 1805 and Chŏtei Kaitai Shinsho in 1826. Although the establishment of Japanese anatomical terminology became necessary during the Meiji era when many western anatomy books imported into Janan were translated, such terminology was not unified during this period and varied among translators. In 1871, Tsukumo Ono's Kaibŏgaku Gosen was published by the Ministry of Education. Although this book is considered to be the first anatomical glossary terms in Japan, its contents were incomplete. Overseas, the German Anatomical Society established a unified anatomical terminology in 1895 called the Basle Nomina Anatomica (B.N.A.). Based on this development, Kaibŏgaku Meishŭ which follows the BNA, by Buntarŏ Suzuki was published in 1905. With the subsequent establishment in 1935 of Jena Nomina Anatomica (J.N.A.), the unification of anatomical terminology was also accelerated in Japan, leading to the further development of terminology. PMID:19108488

  14. Anatomical and physiological development of the human inner ear.

    PubMed

    Lim, Rebecca; Brichta, Alan M

    2016-08-01

    We describe the development of the human inner ear with the invagination of the otic vesicle at 4 weeks gestation (WG), the growth of the semicircular canals from 5 WG, and the elongation and coiling of the cochlea at 10 WG. As the membranous labyrinth takes shape, there is a concomitant development of the sensory neuroepithelia and their associated structures within. This review details the growth and differentiation of the vestibular and auditory neuroepithelia, including synaptogenesis, the expression of stereocilia and kinocilia, and innervation of hair cells by afferent and efferent nerve fibres. Along with development of essential sensory structures we outline the formation of crucial accessory structures of the vestibular system - the cupula and otolithic membrane and otoconia as well as the three cochlea compartments and the tectorial membrane. Recent molecular studies have elaborated on classical anatomical studies to characterize the development of prosensory and sensory regions of the fetal human cochlea using the transcription factors, PAX2, MAF-B, SOX2, and SOX9. Further advances are being made with recent physiological studies that are beginning to describe when hair cells become functionally active during human gestation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled . PMID:26900072

  15. Medial Compartment Decompression by Fibular Osteotomy to Treat Medial Compartment Knee Osteoarthritis: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zong-You; Chen, Wei; Li, Cun-Xiang; Wang, Juan; Shao, De-Cheng; Hou, Zhi-Yong; Gao, Shi-Jun; Wang, Fei; Li, Ji-Dong; Hao, Jian-Dong; Chen, Bai-Cheng; Zhang, Ying-Ze

    2015-12-01

    Compared with high tibial osteotomy and total knee arthroplasty, the authors found a simpler surgical procedure, partial fibular osteotomy, could effectively relieve knee pain and also correct the varus deformity for patients with medial compartment knee osteoarthritis (OA). From January 1996 to April 2012, a total of 156 patients with medial compartment OA were treated by proximal fibular osteotomy in the authors' hospital. A 2-cm-long section of fibula was resected 6 to 10 cm below the fibular head. A total of 110 patients with follow-up of more than 2 years were included in the study, including 34 males and 76 females with an average age of 59.2 years. Anteroposterior and lateral weight-bearing radiographs, the femorotibial angle (FTA) and lateral joint space, and the American Knee Society Score (KSS) and the visual analog scale (VAS) score of the knee joint were evaluated preoperatively and at final follow-up, respectively. At final follow-up, mean FTA and lateral joint space were 179.4°±1.8° and 6.9±0.7 mm, respectively, which were significantly smaller than those measured preoperatively (182.7°±2.0° and 12.2±1.1 mm, respectively; both P<.001). Mean KSS at final follow-up was 92.3±31.7, significantly higher than the mean preoperative score of 45.0±21.3 (P<.001). Mean VAS score and interquartile range were 2.0 and 2.0, significantly lower than the preoperative data (7 and 1.0, respectively; P<.001). The authors found that proximal fibular osteotomy can significantly improve both the radiographic appearance and function of the affected knee joint and also achieve long-term pain relief. This procedure may be an alternative treatment option for medial compartment OA. PMID:26652332

  16. Proximal tibial fractures with impending compartment syndrome managed by fasciotomy and internal fixation: A retrospective analysis of 15 cases

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Naveen; Singh, Varun; Agrawal, Ashish; Bhargava, Rakesh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Proximal tibia fractures with compartment syndrome present a challenge for orthopedic surgeons. More often than not these patients are subjected to multiple surgeries and are complicated by infection osteomyelitis and poor rehabilitation. There is no consensus in the management of these fractures. Most common mode is to do early fasciotomy with external fixation, followed by second stage definitive fixation. We performed a retrospective study of proximal tibia fractures with impending compartment syndrome treated by single stage fasciotomy and internal fixation. Results in terms of early fracture union, minimum complications and early patient mobilization were very good. Materials and Methods: Fifteen patients who were operated between July 2011 and June 2012 were selected for the study. All documents from their admission until the last followup in December 2013 were reviewed, data regarding complications collected and results were evaluated using Oxford Knee scoring system. Results: At the final outcome, there was anatomical or near anatomical alignment with no postoperative problems with range of motion of near complete flexion (>120) in all patients within 3 months. 13 patients started full weight bearing walking at 3 months. Delayed union in two patients and skin necrosis in one patient was observed. Conclusions: Since the results are encouraging and the rehabilitation time is much less when compared to conventional approaches, it is recommended using this protocol to perform early fasciotomy with the definitive internal fixation as single stage surgery to obtain excellent followup results and to reduce rehabilitation time, secondary trauma, expense of treatment and infection rate. PMID:26538755

  17. Targeting intracellular compartments by magnetic polymeric nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kocbek, Petra; Kralj, Slavko; Kreft, Mateja Erdani; Kristl, Julijana

    2013-09-27

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) show a great promise for a wide specter of bioapplications, due to their characteristic magnetic properties exhibited only in the presence of magnetic field. Their advantages in the fields of magnetic drug targeting and imaging are well established and their safety is assumed, since iron oxide nanoparticles have already been approved for in vivo application, however, according to many literature reports the bare metal oxide nanoparticles may cause toxic effects on treated cells. Therefore, it is reasonable to prevent the direct interactions between metal oxide core and surrounding environment. In the current research ricinoleic acid coated maghemite nanoparticles were successfully synthesized, characterized and incorporated in the polymeric matrix, resulting in nanosized magnetic polymeric particles. The carrier system was shown to exhibit superparamagnetic properties and was therefore responsive towards external magnetic field. Bioevaluation using T47-D breast cancer cells confirmed internalization of magnetic polymeric nanoparticles (MNPs) and their intracellular localization in various subcellular compartments, depending on presence/absence of external magnetic field. However, the number of internalized MNPs observed by fluorescent and transmission electron microscopy was relatively low, making such way of targeting effective only for delivery of highly potent drugs. The scanning electron microscopy of treated cells revealed that MNPs influenced the cell adhesion, when external magnetic field was applied, and that treatment resulted in damaged apical plasma membrane right after exposure to the magnetic carrier. On the other hand, MNPs showed only reversibly reduced cellular metabolic activity in concentrations up to 200 μg/ml and, in the tested concentration the cell cycle distribution was within the normal range, indicating safety of the established magnetic carrier system for the treated cells. PMID:23603023

  18. Yucca schidigera and Quillaja saponaria supplementation in broiler diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yucca schidigera and quillaja saponaria are both rich in saponins and polyphenolic compounds, and have been associated with supplementary effects that improve livestock production with some ammonia emission reduction characteristics. Thus, a broiler study evaluated live performance, carcass characte...

  19. Phytotoxicity as an indicator of stability of broiler production residues.

    PubMed

    Mendes, P M; Becker, R; Corrêa, L B; Bianchi, I; Dai Prá, M A; Lucia, T; Corrêa, E K

    2016-02-01

    Beddings used for successive broiler lots act as substrate to absorb water and feed from the excreta and may be subsequently used as agricultural fertilizers. This study evaluated the physicochemical characteristics and the phytotoxicity of beddings used to raise five consecutive broiler lots in five aviaries. Samples were collected for beddings not used yet and for beddings used at each of the five broiler lots. Lettuce and cucumber seeds were considered as phytotoxicity bioindicators. As beddings were used for greater number of lots, N, Ca, K, Mg and P contents generally increased, but the C content decreased, the pH alkalinized and humidity was reduced (P < 0.05). The germination index for lettuce and cucumber seeds was reduced with increased bedding (P < 0.05). Beddings used for at least five broiler lots presented decreased C:N ratio and would not recommended for agricultural use due to its toxicity for both tested seeds. PMID:26686067

  20. Hydrogen Peroxide Probes Directed to Different Cellular Compartments

    PubMed Central

    Malinouski, Mikalai; Zhou, You; Belousov, Vsevolod V.; Hatfield, Dolph L.; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2011-01-01

    Background Controlled generation and removal of hydrogen peroxide play important roles in cellular redox homeostasis and signaling. We used a hydrogen peroxide biosensor HyPer, targeted to different compartments, to examine these processes in mammalian cells. Principal Findings Reversible responses were observed to various redox perturbations and signaling events. HyPer expressed in HEK 293 cells was found to sense low micromolar levels of hydrogen peroxide. When targeted to various cellular compartments, HyPer occurred in the reduced state in the nucleus, cytosol, peroxisomes, mitochondrial intermembrane space and mitochondrial matrix, but low levels of the oxidized form of the biosensor were also observed in each of these compartments, consistent with a low peroxide tone in mammalian cells. In contrast, HyPer was mostly oxidized in the endoplasmic reticulum. Using this system, we characterized control of hydrogen peroxide in various cell systems, such as cells deficient in thioredoxin reductase, sulfhydryl oxidases or subjected to selenium deficiency. Generation of hydrogen peroxide could also be monitored in various compartments following signaling events. Conclusions We found that HyPer can be used as a valuable tool to monitor hydrogen peroxide generated in different cellular compartments. The data also show that hydrogen peroxide generated in one compartment could translocate to other compartments. Our data provide information on compartmentalization, dynamics and homeostatic control of hydrogen peroxide in mammalian cells. PMID:21283738

  1. Striatal patch compartment lesions reduce stereotypy following repeated cocaine administration.

    PubMed

    Murray, Ryan C; Logan, Mary C; Horner, Kristen A

    2015-08-27

    Stereotypy can be characterized as inflexible, repetitive behaviors that occur following repeated exposure to psychostimulants, such as cocaine (COC). Stereotypy may be related to preferential activation of the patch (striosome) compartment of striatum, as enhanced relative activation of the patch compartment has been shown to positively correlate with the emergence of stereotypy following repeated psychostimulant treatment. However, the specific contribution of the patch compartment to COC-induced stereotypy following repeated exposure is unknown. To elucidate the involvement of the patch compartment to the development of stereotypy following repeated COC exposure, we determined if destruction of this sub-region altered COC-induced behaviors. The neurons of the patch compartment were ablated by bilateral infusion of the neurotoxin dermorphin-saporin (DERM-SAP; 17 ng/μl) into the striatum. Animals were allowed to recover for eight days following the infusion, and then were given daily injections of COC (25mg/kg) or saline for one week, followed by a weeklong drug-free period. Animals were then given a challenge dose of saline or COC, observed for 2h in activity chambers and sacrificed. The number of mu-labeled patches in the striatum were reduced by DERM-SAP pretreatment. In COC-treated animals DERM-SAP pretreatment significantly reduced the immobilization and intensity of stereotypy but increased locomotor activity. DERM-SAP pretreatment attenuated COC-induced c-Fos expression in the patch compartment, while enhancing COC-induced c-Fos expression in the matrix compartment. These data indicate that the patch compartment contributes to repetitive behavior and suggests that alterations in activity in the patch vs matrix compartments may underlie to this phenomenon. PMID:26100338

  2. Bacteria recovery from genetically featherless broiler carcasses after forced cloacal fecal expulsion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to determine external microbiology of genetically featherless broiler carcasses after forced cloacal fecal expulsion. Full-fed featherless broilers were placed into coops, transported, unloaded, shackled, stunned, suffocated, weighed and divided into three treatments groups. ...

  3. Study on price transmission in China's broiler industry chain based on MCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shiwei; Dong, Xiaoxia; Li, Zhemin; Cui, Liguo; Kong, Fantao; Li, Ganqiong; Yu, Haipeng

    This paper studies price transmission mechanism of China's broiler industry chain with Market-chain Cooperated Model (MCM), according to the monthly price data of corn, broiler compound feed, broiler chicks, live chicken and eviscerated chicken from 1994 June to 2011 October. The result shows that the price system of China's broiler industry chain exists price transmission relationship, the price of representative products from upstream and midstream conducts obviously to downstream, and broiler compound feed price plays an important role in the price system. The result also indicates that the interior adjusting of broiler industry chain cannot guarantee that the entire price system recover to balance quickly. Therefore, the government needs to regulate timely the price system of broiler industry chain, especially the price change of feed and live broiler to maintain the price system relative stable.

  4. Effect of commercial broiler processing on prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of salmonellae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Broiler processing includes interventions specifically designed to lessen bacterial contamination of carcasses. Purpose: This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence, serotype and antimicrobial resistance profiles of Salmonella on broiler carcasses collected from commercial pr...

  5. Decay of maternal antibodies in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Gharaibeh, Saad; Mahmoud, Kamel

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the decay rate of maternal antibodies against major broiler chicken pathogens. A total of 30 one-day-old broiler chicks were obtained from a commercial hatchery and reared in isolation. These chicks were retrieved from a parent flock that received a routine vaccination program. Chicks were bled at hatch and sequentially thereafter every 5 d through 30 d of age. Maternal antibody titers were measured by ELISA for avian encephalomyelitis (AEV), avian influenza virus (AIV), chicken anemia virus (CAV), infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV), Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), Mycoplasma synoviae (MS), and reovirus (Reo). Maternal antibody titers for Newcastle disease virus (NDV) were measured using a hemagglutination inhibition test. Half-life estimates of maternal antibody titers were 5.3, 4.2, 7, 5.1, 3.9, 3.8, 4.9, 4.1, 6.3, and 4.7 d for AEV, AIV, CAV, IBDV, IBV, ILTV, MG, MS, NDV, and Reo, respectively. The statistical analysis revealed significant differences among half-lives of maternal antibody titers against certain pathogens. Furthermore, all maternal antibody titers were depleted by 10 d of age except for IBDV. PMID:23960115

  6. Skeletal development and performance of broilers

    SciTech Connect

    El-Deeb, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of high dietary copper supplementation has been shown to promote growth rate. The results of the experiments reported herein indicated that copper supplementation of 100 ppm with zinc at the requirement level had no effect on growth rate or bone mineralization. However, when various levels of copper and zinc were added to the diet, significant changes in bone mineralization and liver zinc and copper concentrations occurred. In further studies, the effect of dietary supplementation with vitamin D{sub 3} or its metabolite 1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3} on the incidence of tibial dyschondroplasia and related bone abnormalities in broiler chicks was investigated. The results indicated that feeding 1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3} at 5ug/Kg diet as the sole source of vitamin D{sub 3} steroid was sufficient to maintain a calcium homeostasis in the chicks. The effect of growth hormone (GH) injections on the metabolism of tibial epiphyseal growth plant (EGP) in broiler chicks either genetically susceptible or resistant to tibial dyschondroplasia (HTD and LTD respectively) was investigated. GH injection increased {sup 3}H-thymidine uptake, indicating a direct effect of GH on cell replication in EGP.

  7. Linking xylem water storage with anatomical parameters in five temperate tree species.

    PubMed

    Jupa, Radek; Plavcová, Lenka; Gloser, Vít; Jansen, Steven

    2016-06-01

    The release of water from storage compartments to the transpiration stream is an important functional mechanism that provides the buffering of sudden fluctuations in water potential. The ability of tissues to release water per change in water potential, referred to as hydraulic capacitance, is assumed to be associated with the anatomy of storage tissues. However, information about how specific anatomical parameters determine capacitance is limited. In this study, we measured sapwood capacitance (C) in terminal branches and roots of five temperate tree species (Fagus sylvatica L., Picea abies L., Quercus robur L., Robinia pseudoacacia L., Tilia cordata Mill.). Capacitance was calculated separately for water released mainly from capillary (CI; open vessels, tracheids, fibres, intercellular spaces and cracks) and elastic storage compartments (CII; living parenchyma cells), corresponding to two distinct phases of the moisture release curve. We found that C was generally higher in roots than branches, with CI being 3-11 times higher than CII Sapwood density and the ratio of dead to living xylem cells were most closely correlated with C In addition, the magnitude of CI was strongly correlated with fibre/tracheid lumen area, whereas CII was highly dependent on the thickness of axial parenchyma cell walls. Our results indicate that water released from capillary compartments predominates over water released from elastic storage in both branches and roots, suggesting the limited importance of parenchyma cells for water storage in juvenile xylem of temperate tree species. Contrary to intact organs, water released from open conduits in our small wood samples significantly increased CI at relatively high water potentials. Linking anatomical parameters with the hydraulic capacitance of a tissue contributes to a better understanding of water release mechanisms and their implications for plant hydraulics. PMID:27083523

  8. Compartment Syndrome of the Calf Due to Nicolau Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Enshaei, Ali; Afshar, Ahmadreza

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of Nicolau syndrome in a 15 months old girl following an intramuscular injection of penicillin 6.3.3 in her left buttock. This case is unique because she developed compartment syndrome in her left calf far from her injection site. Her toe’s tips gangrened in the course of her ailment. We hypothesized that the compartment syndrome might be produced by a probable intra-arterial injection that had produced embolic obstruction of the small and medium size arteries in her leg or a probable perineural or periarteial injection had produced secondary sympathetic stimulation, extensive vasospasm, compromised microcirculation and the development of compartment syndrome. PMID:26894227

  9. [Probiotics in broilers' rearing: A strategy for intensive production models].

    PubMed

    Blajman, Jesica E; Zbrun, María V; Astesana, Diego M; Berisvil, Ayelén P; Romero Scharpen, Analía; Fusari, Marcia L; Soto, Lorena P; Signorini, Marcelo L; Rosmini, Marcelo R; Frizzo, Laureano S

    2015-01-01

    The broiler industry has become an important economic activity in Argentina. Global production of broiler meat has been growing in Argentina faster than for any other meats, possibly due to declining poultry prices and increasing incomes. Modern rearing systems can produce broilers ready to slaughter in 50 days, with the required 2.7kg of weight and a feed conversion of about 1.6kg feed/kg of meat. Nevertheless, broilers raised under these intensive conditions are exposed to various stressors every day. For many years, feed supplementation with antibiotics was widely used to stabilize the gut flora, improve general parameters and prevent avian diseases. However, the utility of antibiotics has been questioned because of the emergence and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in meat. Therefore, there is a renewed interest in finding viable alternatives to antibiotics. One potential method is the supplementation of broiler diets with probiotics. This review provides an updated summary of the use of probiotics to improve sanitary conditions and enhance performance in broilers, demonstrating the role of probiotics as a reliable option to replace antimicrobial growth promoters. PMID:26614253

  10. Dynamics of water soluble phosphorus from surface applied broiler litter.

    PubMed

    Tasistro, Armando S; Picone, Liliana; Cabrera, Miguel

    2010-08-01

    Deionized water is routinely used as an extractant to determine soluble phosphorus (P) in broiler litter, but under N.E. Georgia conditions this technique may underestimate the hazard of P loss in runoff because the alkalinity of the broiler litter-water suspension limits the solubility of P compounds that may be solubilized after being spread on acidic field conditions. In this study under controlled conditions we measured soluble P in thatch and top soil after applying untreated broiler litter, residue of broiler litter after water extraction (WER), or residue of broiler litter after extraction with a 2-(N-morpholino) ethanesulfonic acid (MES) buffer at pH 6 (BER). During the 60 d incubation, the WER released 18% more Total Dissolved P (TDP) than was determined through a conventional water extraction procedure, whereas the BER released 28% less TDP than the WER, which reflects the greater amount of TDP removed from the broiler litter by the buffer at pH 6.0. However, the total amount of TDP extracted by the MES buffer, which includes that removed at the initial extraction plus that released during the incubation, was 30% greater than the total amount of TDP extracted with water from the untreated litter plus the TDP extracted with water from the WER during the incubation. This result suggests the need to fine-tune the solid: liquid ratio and shaking time when the MES buffer is used. PMID:20661791

  11. Anomalous bilateral contribution of extensor pollicis longus and muscle fusion of the first compartment of the wrist

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Rodrigo César; de Oliveira, Kennedy Martinez; Léo, Jorge Alfredo; Elias, Bruno Adriano Borges; dos Santos, Paulo Ricardo; de Santiago, Hildemberg Agostinho Rocha

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of the anatomical variations of the muscles of the first dorsal compartments of the wrist is clinically relevant to De Quervain's tenosynovitis and to reconstructive surgeries. In the literature, there are many reports of the presence of multiple insertion tendons in the first dorsal compartment of the wrist, but few reports describe occurrences of fusion and muscle contributions. This case report describes an anomalous bilateral contribution of the extensor pollicis longus. This anomalous contribution was found through a slender auxiliary tendon that crossed laterally under the extensor retinaculum, entered the first dorsal compartment of the wrist and merged with the tendon of the extensor pollicis brevis muscle. In the same cadaver in which this contribution was present, there was atypical muscle fusion of the abductor pollicis longus muscle and extensor pollicis brevis muscle. In conclusion, anomalous bilateral contribution of the extensor pollicis longus muscle and atypical muscle fusion, concomitant with a variant insertion pattern, are the highlight of this case report. Furthermore, it is concluded that additional tendons may be effectively used in reconstructive surgeries, but that there is a need for knowledge of the possible numerical and positional variations of these tendons, with a view to making more effective surgical plans. PMID:27069895

  12. Effect of wooden breast condition on water-holding capacity of broiler breast pectoralis major

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wooden breast condition (WBC) is an emerging muscle abnormality with broiler breast meat. Limited studies have shown that WBC significantly affects meat quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of WBC on water-holding capacity (WHC) of broiler breast pectoralis major. Broiler...

  13. Recovery of consciousness in broilers following combined dc and ac stunning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broilers in the United States are typically electrically stunned using low voltage-high frequency pulsed DC water bath stunners and in the European Union broilers are electrocuted using high voltage-low frequency AC. DC stunned broilers regain consciousness in the absence of exsanguination and AC st...

  14. Spatial contrasts of seasonal and intraflock broiler litter trace gas emissions, physical and chemical properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Comprehensive mitigation strategies for gaseous emissions from broiler operations require knowledge of litter physical and chemical properties, gas evolution, bird effects as well as broiler house management and type of structure. This research estimated broiler litter surface gas flux for ammonia ...

  15. House-Level Risk Factors for the Occurrence of Campylobacter in Broilers in Iceland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction Horizontal transmission from the environment is thought to be an important source of Campylobacter to broilers. Our objective was to identify broiler house characteristics and house-level management practices associated with the colonization of broiler flocks with Campylobacter in Icel...

  16. Interaction of calcium and phytate in broiler diets: 2. Effects on total and soluble phosphorus excretion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary calcium (Ca) can influence the amount of phytate excreted from broilers and therefore change the solubility of phosphorus (P) in manures. We investigate the effects of dietary Ca and phytate on P excretion in broilers by feeding 12 dietary treatments to broilers from 16 to 20 days of age. T...

  17. Effects of broiler litter management on runoff N and P from bermudagrass forage based system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Management of broiler litter to provide nutrients for crop growth has generally been based on crop N requirements. Because broiler litter has a lower N/P ratio than harvested crops, N-based broiler management often oversupplies the crop-soil system with P, which can be lost into the environment and ...

  18. Surface transport of nutrients from surface broadcast and subsurface-banded broiler litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broiler chicken litter is commonly used as a fertilizer on pastures and cropland in major broiler-producing states. However, phosphorus (P) loss from fields fertilized with broiler litter contributes to eutrophication and growth of toxic algae in surface waters. Recently, to reduce surface transpo...

  19. Efficacy of Activated Carbon from Broiler Litter in the Removal of Litter Generated Ammonia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the past 10 years, the production of broilers has increased by 29 percent to approximately 9 billion in 2005. Ammonia (NH3) pollution from broiler excreta is a primary concern for industry viability which requires innovative treatment options. This research focused on the use of broiler litter ...

  20. Spatial and temporal analysis of microbial populations in production broiler house litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broiler production is the leading agricultural commodity in Mississippi. The economic advantage of this resource exceeds all other principal agricultural commodities in Mississippi combined. Broiler litter is an essential component to broiler production, however it is known to harbor both human an...

  1. 113. INTERIOR COMMUNICATIONS COMPARTMENT PORT LOOKING TO STARBOARD SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    113. INTERIOR COMMUNICATIONS COMPARTMENT - PORT LOOKING TO STARBOARD SHOWING MASTER GYRO AND INTERIOR COMMUNICATIONS SWITCHBOARD. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  2. Decompression of Neglected Compartment Syndrome of the Arm

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Matt DA

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Compartment syndrome of the arm is rare, and delay in diagnosis or treatment can be devastating. A case is reported of compartment syndrome of the whole arm occurring in a remote location and arrival at hospital 15 hours after injury with good results despite delayed treatment. Case Report: A 26 year old male presented with a combined crush injury and compartment syndrome of the arm, with delay in presentation due to remote injury and delay in rescue. Late (>16 hours)fasciotomy was performed with retention of the upper arm, elbow and proximal forearm with good residual function. Conclusion: Despite significant delay in treatment of compartment syndrome of the arm, useful function and tissue can be preserved with adequate decompression. PMID:27299052

  3. 10. Interior view of communications compartment. View toward front of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Interior view of communications compartment. View toward front of aircraft. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  4. 11. Interior view of communications compartment. View toward rear of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Interior view of communications compartment. View toward rear of aircraft. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  5. 9. Interior view of electronics compartment. View toward rear of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Interior view of electronics compartment. View toward rear of aircraft. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  6. 14 CFR 23.787 - Baggage and cargo compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... any compartment, located aft of the occupants and separated by structure, when the ultimate forward... resulting from the ultimate static load factors of § 23.561(b)(3), assuming the maximum allowed baggage...

  7. 14 CFR 23.787 - Baggage and cargo compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... any compartment, located aft of the occupants and separated by structure, when the ultimate forward... resulting from the ultimate static load factors of § 23.561(b)(3), assuming the maximum allowed baggage...

  8. 14 CFR 23.787 - Baggage and cargo compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... any compartment, located aft of the occupants and separated by structure, when the ultimate forward... resulting from the ultimate static load factors of § 23.561(b)(3), assuming the maximum allowed baggage...

  9. Dynamics of the Establishment of Multinucleate Compartments in Fusarium oxysporum

    PubMed Central

    Shahi, Shermineh; Beerens, Bas; Manders, Erik M. M.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear dynamics can vary widely between fungal species and between stages of development of fungal colonies. Here we compared nuclear dynamics and mitotic patterns between germlings and mature hyphae in Fusarium oxysporum. Using fluorescently labeled nuclei and live-cell imaging, we show that F. oxysporum is subject to a developmental transition from a uninucleate to a multinucleate state after completion of colony initiation. We observed a special type of hypha that exhibits a higher growth rate, possibly acting as a nutrient scout. The higher growth rate is associated with a higher nuclear count and mitotic waves involving 2 to 6 nuclei in the apical compartment. Further, we found that dormant nuclei of intercalary compartments can reenter the mitotic cycle, resulting in multinucleate compartments with up to 18 nuclei in a single compartment. PMID:25398376

  10. Dynamics of the establishment of multinucleate compartments in Fusarium oxysporum.

    PubMed

    Shahi, Shermineh; Beerens, Bas; Manders, Erik M M; Rep, Martijn

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear dynamics can vary widely between fungal species and between stages of development of fungal colonies. Here we compared nuclear dynamics and mitotic patterns between germlings and mature hyphae in Fusarium oxysporum. Using fluorescently labeled nuclei and live-cell imaging, we show that F. oxysporum is subject to a developmental transition from a uninucleate to a multinucleate state after completion of colony initiation. We observed a special type of hypha that exhibits a higher growth rate, possibly acting as a nutrient scout. The higher growth rate is associated with a higher nuclear count and mitotic waves involving 2 to 6 nuclei in the apical compartment. Further, we found that dormant nuclei of intercalary compartments can reenter the mitotic cycle, resulting in multinucleate compartments with up to 18 nuclei in a single compartment. PMID:25398376

  11. 3. INCLINE PLANE CAR INTERIOR, UPPER COMPARTMENT. Monongahela Incline ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. INCLINE PLANE CAR INTERIOR, UPPER COMPARTMENT. - Monongahela Incline Plane, Connecting North side of Grandview Avenue at Wyoming Street with West Carson Street near Smithfield Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  12. Astronaut Richard Covey working in the Crew Compartment Trainer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Astronaut Richard O. Covey retrieves a helmet from a stowed extravehicular mobility unit (EM) spacesuit in the airlock of the one-G crew compartment trainer (CCT) at JSC. Covey was training for the STS 26 flight.

  13. [Compartment syndrome following laparoscopic procedures in the lithotomy position].

    PubMed

    Donckers, Janneke; de Kruif, Jan H; van der Stappen, William A H

    2010-01-01

    A laparoscopic tubectomy in the lithotomy position was performed on a healthy 31-year-old woman, as treatment following an extra-uterine pregnancy. The operation proceeded without complications and took 60 minutes. However, on the third day following surgery the woman was diagnosed with compartment syndrome, which was treated with three-compartment fasciotomy. Compartment syndrome is a rare but dangerous complication of an operation in the lithotomy position. Since pressure on leg compartments increases with time spent in the lithotomy position, regardless of the type of stirrups used, it is important to maintain the position only as long as is necessary for the procedure. The patient's legs should be taken out of the lithotomy position as soon as possible, and the position resumed if necessary at a later stage in the procedure. This can easily be achieved with pneumatic stirrups. PMID:20619013

  14. Two clinical tests for assessing lateral compartment arthritis.

    PubMed

    Shakespeare, David

    2006-08-01

    Two clinical tests, the valgus tap test and the valgus skid test, are described which detect bone contact in the lateral compartment of the knee. They are useful in planning surgical intervention. PMID:16632364

  15. Diagnosis and treatment of acute extremity compartment syndrome.

    PubMed

    von Keudell, Arvind G; Weaver, Michael J; Appleton, Paul T; Appelton, Paul T; Bae, Donald S; Dyer, George S M; Heng, Marilyn; Jupiter, Jesse B; Vrahas, Mark S

    2015-09-26

    Acute compartment syndrome of the extremities is well known, but diagnosis can be challenging. Ineffective treatment can have devastating consequences, such as permanent dysaesthesia, ischaemic contractures, muscle dysfunction, loss of limb, and even loss of life. Despite many studies, there is no consensus about the way in which acute extremity compartment syndromes should be diagnosed. Many surgeons suggest continuous monitoring of intracompartmental pressure for all patients who have high-risk extremity injuries, whereas others suggest aggressive surgical intervention if acute compartment syndrome is even suspected. Although surgical fasciotomy might reduce intracompartmental pressure, this procedure also carries the risk of long-term complications. In this paper in The Lancet Series about emergency surgery we summarise the available data on acute extremity compartment syndrome of the upper and lower extremities in adults and children, discuss the underlying pathophysiology, and propose a clinical guideline based on the available data. PMID:26460664

  16. 2. INTERIOR, SOUTHWEST VIEW (STORAGE COMPARTMENTS). Vanadium Corporation of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. INTERIOR, SOUTHWEST VIEW (STORAGE COMPARTMENTS). - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, Mine Warehouse, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  17. Turbofan Engine Core Compartment Vent Aerodynamic Configuration Development Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hebert, Leonard J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the design methodology used in the development of the aerodynamic configuration of the nacelle core compartment vent for a typical Boeing commercial airplane together with design challenges for future design efforts. Core compartment vents exhaust engine subsystem flows from the space contained between the engine case and the nacelle of an airplane propulsion system. These subsystem flows typically consist of precooler, oil cooler, turbine case cooling, compartment cooling and nacelle leakage air. The design of core compartment vents is challenging due to stringent design requirements, mass flow sensitivity of the system to small changes in vent exit pressure ratio, and the need to maximize overall exhaust system performance at cruise conditions.

  18. FEATURE 3, LARGE GUN POSITION, SHOWING MULTIPLE COMPARTMENTS, VIEW FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FEATURE 3, LARGE GUN POSITION, SHOWING MULTIPLE COMPARTMENTS, VIEW FACING SOUTH. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Anti-Aircraft Battery Complex-Large Gun Position, East of Coral Sea Road, northwest of Hamilton Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  19. 19 CFR 123.24 - Sealing of conveyances or compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Shipments in Transit Through Canada or Mexico § 123.24 Sealing of conveyances or compartments. (a) Sealing required. Merchandise in...

  20. Anatomical variation of abductor pollicis longus in Indian population: A cadaveric study

    PubMed Central

    Tewari, Jerina; Mishra, Pravash Ranjan; Tripathy, Sujit Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Many authors have reported the anatomical variation of abductor pollicis longus (APL) around the wrist and its association with de Quervain tenosynovitis (DQT), first carpo-metacarpal arthritis, and trapezio-metacarpal subluxation. From Indian subcontinent, there is only one original article and a few case reports on the variability of APL tendon insertion. Materials and Methods: Fifty formaldehyde preserved cadaveric wrists were dissected to look for the anatomical variation of APL in the Indian population. Results: The APL was found with single tendon in 2, double in 31, triple in 8, and quadruple in 8 extremities. A maximum of 6 tendon-slips were found in one cadaveric wrist. In all hands, the APL had at least one attachment to first metacarpal bone and in 46 hands (92%), there was second insertion to the trapezium bone. Of all tendon-slips of APL (n = 126), 44% of tendons (68 tendons) were inserted into the base of the first metacarpal bone. This was followed by the insertion into the trapezium in 42% tendons (52 tendons). Conclusion: Bi-tendinous APL is commonly observed on the dorsal compartment of the wrist in Indian population and these tendon-slips are commonly attached to the first metacarpal base and trapezium. This variation must be understood by the Indian Orthopedic surgeons as the response to treatment of DQT and reason for first carpo-metacarpal arthritis can be dependent on this anatomical variation. PMID:26538762

  1. Abdominal Compartment Syndrome: Risk Factors, Diagnosis, and Current Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Luckianow, Gina M.; Ellis, Matthew; Governale, Deborah; Kaplan, Lewis J.

    2012-01-01

    Abdominal compartment syndrome's manifestations are difficult to definitively detect on physical examination alone. Therefore, objective criteria have been articulated that aid the bedside clinician in detecting intra-abdominal hypertension as well as the abdominal compartment syndrome to initiate prompt and potentially life-saving intervention. At-risk patient populations should be routinely monitored and tiered interventions should be undertaken as a team approach to management. PMID:22720147

  2. Acute pediatric leg compartment syndrome in chronic myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Eric; Truntzer, Jeremy; Trunzter, Jeremy; Klinge, Steve; Schwartz, Kevin; Schiller, Jonathan

    2014-11-01

    Acute compartment syndrome is an orthopedic surgical emergency and may result in devastating complications in the setting of delayed or missed diagnosis. Compartment syndrome has a variety of causes, including posttraumatic or postoperative swelling, external compression, burns, bleeding disorders, and ischemia-reperfusion injury. Rare cases of pediatric acute compartment syndrome in the setting of acute myeloid leukemia and, even less commonly, chronic myeloid leukemia have been reported. The authors report the first known case of pediatric acute compartment syndrome in a patient without a previously known diagnosis of chronic myeloid leukemia. On initial examination, an 11-year-old boy presented with a 2-week history of progressive left calf pain and swelling after playing soccer. Magnetic resonance imaging scan showed a hematoma in the left superficial posterior compartment. The patient had unrelenting pain, intermittent lateral foot parethesias, and inability to bear weight. Subsequently, he was diagnosed with acute compartment syndrome and underwent fasciotomy and evacuation of a hematoma. Laboratory results showed an abnormal white blood cell count of 440×10(9)/L (normal, 4.4-11×10(9)) and international normalized ratio of 1.3 (normal, 0.8-1.2). Further testing included the BCR-ABL1 fusion gene located on the Philadelphia chromosome, leading to a diagnosis of chronic myeloid leukemia. Monotherapy with imatinib mesylate (Gleevec) was initiated. This report adds another unique case to the growing literature on compartment syndrome in the pediatric population and reinforces the need to consider compartment syndrome, even in unlikely clinical scenarios. PMID:25361367

  3. Standardized anatomic space for abdominal fat quantification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Yubing; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Torigian, Drew A.

    2014-03-01

    The ability to accurately measure subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) from images is important for improved assessment and management of patients with various conditions such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, obstructive sleep apnea, cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, and degenerative disease. Although imaging and analysis methods to measure the volume of these tissue components have been developed [1, 2], in clinical practice, an estimate of the amount of fat is obtained from just one transverse abdominal CT slice typically acquired at the level of the L4-L5 vertebrae for various reasons including decreased radiation exposure and cost [3-5]. It is generally assumed that such an estimate reliably depicts the burden of fat in the body. This paper sets out to answer two questions related to this issue which have not been addressed in the literature. How does one ensure that the slices used for correlation calculation from different subjects are at the same anatomic location? At what anatomic location do the volumes of SAT and VAT correlate maximally with the corresponding single-slice area measures? To answer these questions, we propose two approaches for slice localization: linear mapping and non-linear mapping which is a novel learning based strategy for mapping slice locations to a standardized anatomic space so that same anatomic slice locations are identified in different subjects. We then study the volume-to-area correlations and determine where they become maximal. We demonstrate on 50 abdominal CT data sets that this mapping achieves significantly improved consistency of anatomic localization compared to current practice. Our results also indicate that maximum correlations are achieved at different anatomic locations for SAT and VAT which are both different from the L4-L5 junction commonly utilized.

  4. Return to activity following fasciotomy for chronic exertional compartment syndrome.

    PubMed

    Irion, Val; Magnussen, Robert A; Miller, Timothy L; Kaeding, Christopher C

    2014-10-01

    Diagnosis of chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) is relatively rare but has been well documented in athletes. There are, however, few reports regarding return to athletic activity after surgery among elite-level athletes. We hypothesized that a majority of elite-level athletes would successfully return to their previous level of competition following fasciotomy for CECS. A retrospective chart review was performed to identify elite-level athletes (collegiate or professional sport participation) who underwent fasciotomy for CECS over a 3-year period. Data collected included sport or activity, treatment and surgical details, time away from sport/activity after surgery, and ability to return to prior level of activity. Six males and seven females were included in the analysis. Patient age ranged from 17 to 24 years with a mean of 19.7 years. Six patients underwent unilateral lower extremity compartment release, and seven underwent bilateral lower extremity compartment release. The anterior and lateral compartments alone were released in 11 patients (84.6%). Two patients (15.4%) underwent four-compartment releases. Eleven patients (84.6%) were able to return to their previous elite level of sport participation at a mean of 10.6 weeks following surgical fasciotomy. Patients who had four-compartment release had a more than 3.5 week average longer return to full sporting activities (p = 0.011). Fasciotomy is effective in allowing elite athletes with CECS to return to sport. PMID:24664450

  5. Anatomic considerations for central venous cannulation

    PubMed Central

    Bannon, Michael P; Heller, Stephanie F; Rivera, Mariela

    2011-01-01

    Central venous cannulation is a commonly performed procedure which facilitates resuscitation, nutritional support, and long-term vascular access. Mechanical complications most often occur during insertion and are intimately related to the anatomic relationship of the central veins. Working knowledge of surface and deep anatomy minimizes complications. Use of surface anatomic landmarks to orient the deep course of cannulating needle tracts appropriately comprises the crux of complication avoidance. The authors describe use of surface landmarks to facilitate safe placement of internal jugular, subclavian, and femoral venous catheters. The role of real-time sonography as a safety-enhancing adjunct is reviewed. PMID:22312225

  6. Anatomical and clinical aspects of Klinefelter's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bird, Rebecca J; Hurren, Bradley J

    2016-07-01

    Klinefelter's syndrome, the most common sex disorder associated with chromosomal aberrations, is characterized by a plethora of clinical features. Parameters for diagnosis of the syndrome are constantly expanding as new anatomical and hormonal abnormalities are noted, yet Klinefelter's remains underdiagnosed and underreported. This review outlines the key anatomical characteristics associated with the syndrome, which are currently used for clinical diagnosis, or may provide means for improving diagnosis in the future. Clin. Anat. 29:606-619, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26823086

  7. Anatomical variants and pathologies of the vermix

    PubMed Central

    Deshmukh, Swati; Verde, Franco; Johnson, Pamela T.; Fishman, Elliot K.

    2015-01-01

    The appendix may demonstrate a perplexing range of normal and abnormal appearances on imaging exams. Familiarity with the anatomy and anatomical variants of the appendix is helpful in identifying the appendix on ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. Knowledge of the variety of pathologies afflicting the appendix and of the spectrum of imaging findings may be particularly useful to the emergency radiologist for accurate diagnosis and appropriate guidance regarding clinical and surgical management. In this pictorial essay, we review appendiceal embryology, anatomical variants such as Amyand hernias, and pathologies from appendicitis to carcinoid, mucinous, and nonmucinous epithelial neoplasms. PMID:24570122

  8. Compartment Syndrome of the Gluteus Medius Occurred without Bleeding or Trauma: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Gyu-Min; Park, Jun-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Compartment syndrome is an ischemic change resulting from an increase in compartment pressure. Initially, patients present with direct tenderness and swelling, and the weak circulation secondary to compartment syndrome can eventually lead to motor and sensory impairment. If the increase in pressure results in neurological impairment, emergency intervention is required to decompress the compartment. Typically, compartment syndrome develops on forearms or lower legs. The gluteal compartment is rarely the location of compartment syndrome and only a few cases have been presented in the literature with trauma or hematoma. We have treated a patient with gluteal compartment syndrome who presented with no history of trauma or hemorrhage and present that case report here.

  9. Effect of anatomic, semi-anatomic and non-anatomic occlusal surface tooth preparations on the adaptation of zirconia copings

    PubMed Central

    Asiri, Waleed; Hefne, Mohammed Jameel

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE To compare the accuracy of marginal and internal adaptation of zirconia (Zr) copings fabricated on anatomic (A), semi-anatomic (SA) and non-anatomic (NA) occlusal surface preparations. MATERIALS AND METHODS 45 extracted bicuspid teeth were prepared for receiving zirconia crowns, with different occlusal preparation designs A=15, SA=15 & NA=15. The Zr copings were fabricated by using CAD4DENT, CAD/CAM. The copings were adjusted, cemented and were cross sectioned centrally from buccal cusp tip to lingual cusp tip into mesial and distal halves. The copings were examined under electron microscope at ×200 magnification and the measurements were recorded at 9 predetermined areas in micrometers. RESULTS Overall mean gap values for the three groups was found to be 155.93±33.98 µm with Anatomical Occlusal preparation design having the least gap value of 139.23±30.85 µm showing the best adaptation among the groups. Post Hoc Tukey's test showed a statistically significant difference (P=.007) between the means of gap for A & NA preparation designs. Measurements recorded at 9 predetermined points showed variations for the three groups. CONCLUSION Anatomical occlusal preparation designs resulted in better marginal and internal adaptation of Zr copings. There is a considerable variation between the measured marginal and internal gap values for the Zr copings fabricated by the (CAD4DENT-CAD/CAM). This variation may be associated with the lack of standardization of the preparation of teeth, computerized designing of the coping for each tooth, cement used, uniform pressure application during the cementation of the copings, sectioning of the copings and the microscopic measurements. PMID:25551003

  10. Nutritional approaches to ameliorate pulmonary hypertension in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Khajali, F; Wideman, R F

    2016-02-01

    This article reviews recent nutritional approaches for counteracting the development of pulmonary hypertension syndrome (PHS; ascites) in broiler chickens especially when they are reared at high altitudes. High altitudes impose the sustained stress of hypobaric hypoxia, which reduces the availability of atmospheric oxygen to red blood cells passing through the lungs, thereby causing systemic arterial hypoxaemia (undersaturation of haemoglobin with oxygen), pulmonary arterial hypertension and PHS/ascites in susceptible broilers. Proper nutritional strategies are needed to reduce metabolic activity and prevent the development of ascites especially when modern broilers are reared in regions where the existing altitudes limit the availability of atmospheric oxygen. This article also addresses controversies with regard to broiler nutrition in relation to PHS. For example, the catabolism of protein from feed ingredients incurs increased oxygen consumption, suggesting that feeding reduced-protein diets to broiler chickens may result in reduced PHS incidences. However, experimental and field data indicate that feeding reduced-protein diets to broilers subjected to hypobaric hypoxia increases the development of PHS. Controversies on the nutrition of unsaturated fat in relation to PHS are also discussed. In conclusion, hypoxia, acidosis, vasoconstriction and enhanced metabolic rate are triggers of PHS. Feeding reduced-protein diets might promote the susceptibility of broilers to PHS by decreased dietary intake of arginine, decreased uric acid production and increased lipogenesis. Feeding high-protein diets, dietary arginine supplementation, partial substitution of sodium bicarbonate for sodium chloride, feeding low-fat diets and effective feed restriction programmes can be considered as nutritional approaches to prevent PHS. PMID:25817417

  11. Scoliosis and tibiotarsal deformities in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Droual, R; Bickford, A A; Farver, T B

    1991-01-01

    The incidence and degree of scoliosis were investigated in broiler chickens with and without intertarsal deformities associated with slipped gastrocnemius tendons. In both groups, the incidence of scoliosis was similar and there was a significant tendency for scoliosis to be convex on the right side. However, scoliosis was significantly greater in birds with intertarsal deformities, and in a significant proportion of these the joint with a slipped tendon was on the convex side of scoliosis. In birds with deformities, inequalities between right and left tibiotarsi were significantly greater, and tibiotarsi with greater length, narrower condyles and trochleae, and shallower trochlear grooves were significantly more often on the convex side of scoliosis. Significant positive correlations were found between scoliosis and rotational and bending deformities of the distal tibiotarsus on the convex side of scoliosis. These findings suggest a cause-and-effect relationship between scoliosis and tibiotarsal deformities associated with slipped tendons. PMID:2029256

  12. Giving Ourselves: The Ethics of Anatomical Donation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunderman, Richard B.

    2008-01-01

    In some European countries, such as Italy, medical education is threatened by a dearth of anatomical specimens. Such a shortage could spread to other nations, including the United States. This article addresses two ethical questions in body donation. Why might people choose to donate their bodies to education and science? What sorts of ethical…

  13. HPV Vaccine Effective at Multiple Anatomic Sites

    Cancer.gov

    A new study from NCI researchers finds that the HPV vaccine protects young women from infection with high-risk HPV types at the three primary anatomic sites where persistent HPV infections can cause cancer. The multi-site protection also was observed at l

  14. Evolution of the Anatomical Theatre in Padova

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macchi, Veronica; Porzionato, Andrea; Stecco, Carla; Caro, Raffaele

    2014-01-01

    The anatomical theatre played a pivotal role in the evolution of medical education, allowing students to directly observe and participate in the process of dissection. Due to the increase of training programs in clinical anatomy, the Institute of Human Anatomy at the University of Padova has renovated its dissecting room. The main guidelines in…

  15. Isolated Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome of the Lateral Lower Leg

    PubMed Central

    van Zantvoort, Aniek P.M.; de Bruijn, Johan A.; Winkes, Michiel B.; Dielemans, Jeanne P.; van der Cruijsen-Raaijmakers, Marike; Hoogeveen, Adwin R.; Scheltinga, Marc R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Exercise-induced lower leg pain may be caused by chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS). The anterior (ant-CECS) or deep posterior compartment (dp-CECS) is usually affected. Knowledge regarding CECS of the lateral compartment (lat-CECS) is limited. Purpose: To describe demographic characteristics and symptoms in a consecutive series of patients with isolated CECS of the lateral compartment of the leg. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: Since 2001, patients undergoing dynamic intracompartmental pressure (ICP) measurements for suspected CECS in a single institution were prospectively monitored. Individuals with a history possibly associated with lat-CECS and elevated ICP measurements (Pedowitz criteria) were identified. Exclusion criteria were concomitant ipsilateral ant-CECS/dp-CECS, acute compartment syndrome, recent significant trauma, peroneal nerve entrapment, or vascular claudication. Results: During an 11-year time period, a total of 26 patients with isolated lat-CECS fulfilled study criteria (15 females; median age, 21 years; range, 14-48 years). Frequently identified provocative sports were running (n = 4), walking (n = 4), field hockey (n = 3), soccer (n = 3), and volleyball (n = 2). Exercise-induced lateral lower leg pain (92%) and tightness (42%) were often reported. The syndrome was bilateral in almost two-thirds (62%, n = 16). Delay in diagnosis averaged 24 months (range, 2 months to 10 years). Conclusion: Young patients with exercise-induced pain in the lateral portions of the lower leg may suffer from isolated CECS of the lateral compartment. ICP measurements in the lateral compartment in these patients are recommended. PMID:26740955

  16. Effect of Dietary Beta-Glucan on the Performance of Broilers and the Quality of Broiler Breast Meat.

    PubMed

    Moon, Sun Hee; Lee, Inyoung; Feng, Xi; Lee, Hyun Yong; Kim, Jihee; Ahn, Dong Uk

    2016-03-01

    A total of 400, one day-old commercial broiler chicks were divided into five diet groups (negative control, positive control group with 55 ppm Zn-bacitracin, 15 ppm β-glucan, 30 ppm β-glucan, and 60 ppm β-glucan) and fed for six weeks. Ten broilers were allotted to each of 40 floor pens. Eight floor pens were randomly assigned to one of the 5 diets. Each diet was fed to the broilers for 6 weeks with free access to water and diet. The survival rate, growth rate, feed efficiency, and feed conversion rate of the broilers were calculated. At the end of the feeding trial, the birds were slaughtered, breast muscles deboned, and quality parameters of the breast meat during storage were determined. The high level of dietary β-glucan (60 ppm) showed better feed conversion ratio and survival rate than the negative control. The survival rate of 60 ppm β-glucan-treated group was the same as that of the antibiotic-treated group, which showed the highest survival rate among the treatments. There was no significant difference in carcass yield, water holding capacity, pH, color, and 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances values of chicken breast meat among the 5 treatment groups. Supplementation of 60 ppm β-glucan to broiler diet improved the survival rate and feed conversion rate of broilers to the same level as 55 ppm Zn-bacitracin group. The result indicated that use of β-glucan (60 ppm) can be a potential alternative to antibiotics to improve the survival and performance of broilers. However, dietary β-glucan showed no effects on the quality parameters of chicken breast meat. PMID:26950870

  17. Effect of Dietary Beta-Glucan on the Performance of Broilers and the Quality of Broiler Breast Meat

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Sun Hee; Lee, Inyoung; Feng, Xi; Lee, Hyun Yong; Kim, Jihee; Ahn, Dong Uk

    2016-01-01

    A total of 400, one day-old commercial broiler chicks were divided into five diet groups (negative control, positive control group with 55 ppm Zn-bacitracin, 15 ppm β-glucan, 30 ppm β-glucan, and 60 ppm β-glucan) and fed for six weeks. Ten broilers were allotted to each of 40 floor pens. Eight floor pens were randomly assigned to one of the 5 diets. Each diet was fed to the broilers for 6 weeks with free access to water and diet. The survival rate, growth rate, feed efficiency, and feed conversion rate of the broilers were calculated. At the end of the feeding trial, the birds were slaughtered, breast muscles deboned, and quality parameters of the breast meat during storage were determined. The high level of dietary β-glucan (60 ppm) showed better feed conversion ratio and survival rate than the negative control. The survival rate of 60 ppm β-glucan-treated group was the same as that of the antibiotic-treated group, which showed the highest survival rate among the treatments. There was no significant difference in carcass yield, water holding capacity, pH, color, and 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances values of chicken breast meat among the 5 treatment groups. Supplementation of 60 ppm β-glucan to broiler diet improved the survival rate and feed conversion rate of broilers to the same level as 55 ppm Zn-bacitracin group. The result indicated that use of β-glucan (60 ppm) can be a potential alternative to antibiotics to improve the survival and performance of broilers. However, dietary β-glucan showed no effects on the quality parameters of chicken breast meat. PMID:26950870

  18. Depuration and anatomical distribution of domoic acid in the surf clam Mesodesma donacium.

    PubMed

    Álvarez, Gonzalo; Uribe, Eduardo; Regueiro, Jorge; Martin, Helena; Gajardo, Teresa; Jara, Lorena; Blanco, Juan

    2015-08-01

    In northern Chile, domoic acid (DA) has been detected in several bivalve species. In Mesodesma donacium, one of the most important commercial species for local fishermen, no information is available on depuration, or on the anatomical distribution of this toxin and its potential use as a palliative measure to minimize the consequences of ASP outbreaks. Deputation of DA is very fast in M. donacium, and can be adequately described by means of a two-compartment model. The estimated rates for the first and second compartments were 1.27 d(-1) and 0.24 d(-1), respectively, with a transfer rate between compartments of 0.75. Having high depuration rates protects this species from being affected by Pseudo-nitzschia blooms for an extended period of time. Taking this into account, the time in which the bivalves are unsafe for consumers is very short, and therefore the economic losses that could result by the DA outbreaks in local fisheries should be moderate. In relation to anatomical distribution, at least during the uptake phase, the toxin was evenly distributed within the soft tissues, with a total toxin burden corresponding to 27%, 32% and 41% for Digestive Gland (DG), Foot (FT) and Other Body Fractions (OBF), respectively. Since the contribution of each organ to the toxin concentration is a function of both weight contribution and toxin burden, the pattern of toxin distribution showed the following trend: "all other body fractions" (OBF) > Foot (FT) > Digestive Gland (DG). Thus, the highest concentration of DA, with a contribution close to 72%, corresponds to the edible tissues (OBF + FT), while the DG (non-edible tissue) only contributes the remaining 28%. Consequently, in view of the anatomical distribution of domoic acid in M. donacium, the elimination of the digestive gland does not substantially reduce the toxicity of the final product and therefore selective evisceration would not improve their quality for human consumption. PMID:26003793

  19. Composting and gypsum amendment of broiler litter to reduce nutrient leaching loss.

    PubMed

    Adeli, Ardeshir; Sheng, J; Jenkins, J N; Feng, G

    2015-03-01

    The effect of composted litter relative to fresh litter on leaching losses of nutrients has not been well documented. Fresh and composted broiler litter was surface-applied to bermudagrass (hay) [ (L.) Pers.] established in undisturbed soil columns based on N need of the grass in the presence or absence of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum to evaluate an approach to reduce broiler litter nutrient leaching potential. Columns were periodically leached and biomass was harvested during the 60-d experiment. Total N applied to bermudagrass from broiler litter was 320 kg ha. Gypsum was mixed with fresh and composted litter at the rate based on 20% of litter weight. For composted broiler litter, NO-N, P, K, Cu, and Zn contents in the leachate obtained from the first leaching event were 58, 50, 40, 32, and 38% less than fresh broiler litter, respectively. Significant decreases in NO-N (13%), P (53%), Cu (17%), and Zn (28%) in leachate were obtained when gypsum was mixed with fresh broiler litter. Fresh broiler litter and composted broiler litter applications increased bermudagrass growth compared with the control and gypsum significantly increased yields when mixed with broiler litter. Composted broiler litter application significantly increased N and organic C in the soil compared with fresh litter. Results demonstrate that coapplication of composted broiler litter with FGD gypsum provide the most effective management option for minimizing leaching losses of nutrients while sustaining crop productivity. PMID:26023985

  20. Pathological features in dead on arrival broilers with special reference to heart disorders.

    PubMed

    Nijdam, E; Zailan, A R M; van Eck, J H H; Decuypere, E; Stegeman, J A

    2006-07-01

    A gross postmortem investigation was done on 302 broilers that died between catching and slaughter to establish predisposing factors for dying in this period. Special attention was paid to heart disorders, which were established by determining the ratio of the right ventricle mass to the total ventricle mass (RV:TV) and to postmortem changes in hearts and lungs of broilers that were dead on arrival (DOA). Macroscopic pathologic lesions were found in 89.4% of DOA broilers. Signs of infectious diseases appeared to be most frequent (64.9%), followed by heart and circulation disorders (42.4%), and trauma (29.5%). The RV:TV was significantly higher for DOA broilers in comparison with slaughtered broilers. The prevalence of hearts with an abnormal RV:TV in DOA broilers was 34.4 vs. 4.1% in slaughtered broilers. The DOA broilers with an abnormal heart ratio more frequently showed ascites and hydropericardium. Postmortem changes in lungs depend on the position of the carcass the first several hours after death. Broilers, which remain in dorsal recumbency for several hours after death, develop engorged lungs. A good health status as well as more attention for the catching and crating process is crucial in decreasing the percentage of DOA broilers. Prevention of an increased heart ratio and of ascites will improve the livability in the broiler house and also decrease the DOA rate enormously. PMID:16830873

  1. Isolation of Campylobacter from circulating blood of commercial broilers.

    PubMed

    Richardson, L J; Cox, N A; Buhr, R J; Harrison, M A

    2011-09-01

    Campylobacter spp. are present in organs and tissues of broiler chickens but the dissemination route is unclear. The aim of the current study was to determine Campylobacter prevalence within circulating blood of commercial broilers. Broilers were acquired from 19 flocks originating from three commercial poultry processing companies. Using aseptic blood collection techniques, 5 ml of circulating blood was collected from each bird and the sample analyzed for Campylobacter. The Campylobacter colonization status of each bird was determined by aseptically sampling and analyzing the ceca. Campylobacter was recovered from 58% (11/19) of flocks sampled. From the 248 total birds sampled, 12% and 46% of the birds had Campylobacter in the blood and ceca, respectively. This study documents Campylobacter prevalence in the circulating blood of commercially raised broilers. Campylobacter presence in the circulatory system may indicate the path used by the organism for rapid dissemination to organs and tissues. From a processing viewpoint, Campylobacter presence in circulating blood of market-age broilers may increase the likelihood of cross-contamination between birds during slaughter. PMID:22017033

  2. Nutritional properties of dried salmon silage for broiler feeding.

    PubMed

    Dale, Nick; Valenzuela, Carolina

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition, energy and amino acid profile of dried salmon silage (DSS) for broilers. The DSS was obtained by acid digestion of salmon mortalities and subsequently co-dried with wheat bran in a 70:30 ratio (70 parts silage and 30 parts wheat bran). Samples of DSS were evaluated for chemical composition, gross energy, nitrogen-corrected true metabolizable energy (TMEn ), mineral content, total and digestible amino acids for broilers, and amino acid score. The chemical composition of DSS was (mean ± SD): moisture (12.3 ± 0.8%), crude protein (44.0 ± 1.1%), ether extract (5.0 ± 2.4%), crude fiber (3.3 ± 0.4%) and ash (9.4 ± 0.6%). The gross energy and TMEn for broilers were 4 069 kcal/kg and 2 613 kcal/kg, respectively. The DSS mineral composition showed a high content of calcium (1.01%) and phosphorus (1.08%). The DSS had high levels of digestible methionine (0.74%), lysine (2.27%), and threonine (1.16%), and did not present limiting amino acids for broilers. Nutritional composition of DSS showed high protein content with an amino acid profile considered to be suitable as a protein source for broiler feeding. PMID:26259620

  3. From waste to energy -- Catalytic steam gasification of broiler litter

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J.A.; Sheth, A.C.

    1999-07-01

    In 1996, the production of broiler chickens in the US was approximately 7.60 billion head. The quantity of litter generated is enormous. In 1992, the Southeast region alone produced over five million tons of broiler litter. The litter removed from the broiler houses is rich in nutrients and often spread over land as a fertilizer. Without careful management, the associated agricultural runoff can cause severe environmental damage. With increasing broiler litter production, the implementation of alternative disposal technologies is essential to the sustainable development of the poultry industry. A process originally developed for the conversion of coals to clean gaseous fuel may provide an answer. Catalytic steam gasification utilities an alkali salt catalyst and steam to convert a carbonaceous feedstock to a gas mixture composed primarily of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, and methane. The low to medium energy content gas produced may be utilized as an energy source or chemical feedstock. Broiler litter is an attractive candidate for catalytic steam gasification due to its high potassium content. Experiments conducted in UTSI's bench-scale high-pressure fixed bed gasifier have provided data for technical and economic feasibility studies of the process. Experiments have also been performed to examine the effects of temperature, pressure, and additional catalysts on the gasification rate.

  4. Effect of arthritis in other compartment after unicompartmental arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Mofidi, Ali; Lu, Bo; Plate, Johannes F; Lang, Jason E; Poehling, Gary G; Jinnah, Riyaz H

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the outcome of robotic-assisted (MAKO Surgical Corp.) unicondylar replacement in the treatment for knee osteoarthritis after the initial surgical insult is worn off to evaluate the impact of residual patellofemoral and lateral osteoarthritis on the outcome of medial unicompartmental knee replacement. One hundred and thirty-four patients who underwent uncomplicated 144 robotic-assisted medial unicondylar replacements for knee arthritis were identified and studied. Original radiographs were used to classify severity of patellofemoral and lateral compartmental osteoarthritis in these patients. Severity of patellofemoral and lateral compartmental osteoarthritis was analyzed against Oxford and Knee Society scores and amount of ipsilateral residual knee symptoms at 6 months postoperative period. Preoperative Oxford and Knee Society scores, other comorbidities and long-term disability were studied as confounding variables. We found significant improvement in symptoms and scores in spite of other compartment diseases. Poorer outcome was seen in association with comorbidities and long-term disability but not when radiographic signs of arthritis in the other compartments were present. Six patients required revision of which three had (lateral facet) patellofemoral disease in the original X-rays. In conclusion, there is a higher amount of postoperative retained symptoms, but similar outcome when there is radiographic disease in the other compartments. However, when symptoms are severe enough to necessitate revision, this is due to the lateral facet of patellofemoral compartment and not lateral compartment disease. PMID:23771595

  5. Bilaterally Symmetrical Lower Extremity Compartment Syndrome following Massive Transfusion

    PubMed Central

    Karaoren, Gulsah; Bakan, Nurten; Tomruk, Senay Goksu; Topaç, Zelin; Kurtulmuş, Tuhan; Irkören, Saime

    2016-01-01

    Compartment syndrome is a serious condition characterized by raised intracompartmental pressure, which develops following trauma. Well leg compartment syndrome (WLCS) is a term reserved for compartment syndrome in a nontraumatic setting, usually resulting from prolonged lithotomy position during surgery. In literature, 8 cases have been reported regarding well leg compartment syndrome in a supine position and bilateral symmetrical involvement was observed in only 2 cases. In WLCS etiology, lengthy surgery, lengthy hypotension, and extremity malpositioning have been held responsible but one of the factors with a role in the etiology may have been the tissue oedema and impaired microcirculation formed from the effect of vasoactive mediators expressed into the circulation associated with the massive blood transfusion. The case is presented here regarding symmetrical lower extremity compartment syndrome after surgery in which massive transfusion was made for gross haemorrhage from an abdominal injury. In conclusion, blood transfusion applied at the required time is life-saving but potential risks must always be considered. PMID:26885421

  6. Deep peroneal nerve palsy with isolated lateral compartment syndrome secondary to peroneus longus tear: a report of two cases and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Hiramatsu, Kunihiko; Yonetani, Yasukazu; Kinugasa, Kazutaka; Nakamura, Norimasa; Yamamoto, Koji; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Hamada, Masayuki

    2016-06-01

    Drop foot is typically caused by neurologic disease such as lumbar disc herniation, but we report two rare cases of deep peroneal nerve palsy with isolated lateral compartment syndrome secondary to peroneus longus tears. Both patients developed mild pain in the lower legs while playing sport, and were aware of drop foot. As compartment pressures were elevated, fasciotomy was performed immediately, and the tendon of the peroneus longus was completely detached from its proximal origin. The patients were able to return their original sports after 3 months, and clinical examination revealed no hypesthesia or muscle weakness in the deep peroneal nerve area at the time of last follow-up. The common peroneal nerve pierced the deep fascia and lay over the fibular neck, which formed the floor of a short tunnel (the so-called fibular tunnel), then passed the lateral compartment just behind the peroneus longus. The characteristic anatomical situation between the fibular tunnel and peroneus longus might have caused deep peroneal nerve palsy in these two cases after hematoma adjacent to the fibular tunnel increased lateral compartment pressure. PMID:26362782

  7. Historical evolution of anatomical terminology from ancient to modern.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Tatsuo

    2007-06-01

    The historical development of anatomical terminology from the ancient to the modern can be divided into five stages. The initial stage is represented by the oldest extant anatomical treatises by Galen of Pergamon in the Roman Empire. The anatomical descriptions by Galen utilized only a limited number of anatomical terms, which were essentially colloquial words in the Greek of this period. In the second stage, Vesalius in the early 16th century described the anatomical structures in his Fabrica with the help of detailed magnificent illustrations. He coined substantially no anatomical terms, but devised a system that distinguished anatomical structures with ordinal numbers. The third stage of development in the late 16th century was marked by innovation of a large number of specific anatomical terms especially for the muscles, vessels and nerves. The main figures at this stage were Sylvius in Paris and Bauhin in Basel. In the fourth stage between Bauhin and the international anatomical terminology, many anatomical textbooks were written mainly in Latin in the 17th century, and in modern languages in the 18th and 19th centuries. Anatomical terms for the same structure were differently expressed by different authors. The last stage began at the end of the 19th century, when the first international anatomical terminology in Latin was published as Nomina anatomica. The anatomical terminology was revised repeatedly until the current Terminologia anatomica both in Latin and English. PMID:17585563

  8. Anatomical calibration for wearable motion capture systems: Video calibrated anatomical system technique.

    PubMed

    Bisi, Maria Cristina; Stagni, Rita; Caroselli, Alessio; Cappello, Angelo

    2015-08-01

    Inertial sensors are becoming widely used for the assessment of human movement in both clinical and research applications, thanks to their usability out of the laboratory. This work aims to propose a method for calibrating anatomical landmark position in the wearable sensor reference frame with an ease to use, portable and low cost device. An off-the-shelf camera, a stick and a pattern, attached to the inertial sensor, compose the device. The proposed technique is referred to as video Calibrated Anatomical System Technique (vCAST). The absolute orientation of a synthetic femur was tracked both using the vCAST together with an inertial sensor and using stereo-photogrammetry as reference. Anatomical landmark calibration showed mean absolute error of 0.6±0.5 mm: these errors are smaller than those affecting the in-vivo identification of anatomical landmarks. The roll, pitch and yaw anatomical frame orientations showed root mean square errors close to the accuracy limit of the wearable sensor used (1°), highlighting the reliability of the proposed technique. In conclusion, the present paper proposes and preliminarily verifies the performance of a method (vCAST) for calibrating anatomical landmark position in the wearable sensor reference frame: the technique is low time consuming, highly portable, easy to implement and usable outside laboratory. PMID:26077101

  9. Acute compartment syndrome of the foot in a 17-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Salvi, Andrea Emilio; Roda, Simone; Florschutz, Anthony Vatroslav

    2012-01-01

    Acute compartment syndrome is both a life and limb threatening surgical emergency, caused by an increase in compartment contents due to either trauma or surgery. We illustrate a foot compartment syndrome, clinically diagnosed, that took place after direct injury during a football match. Compartments release through fasciotomies promptly relieved symptoms. Educational images are furnished. PMID:23306283

  10. Compartment A101 passageway looking from forward to aft from commissary ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Compartment A-101 passageway looking from forward to aft from commissary compartment. Door at left leads to ship's brig. Ladder leads to compartment A-123. Compartment aft of ladder is bread room, A-102. (07) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  11. Fire safety evaluation of aircraft lavatory and cargo compartments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.; Hilado, C. J.; Anderson, R. A.; Tustin, E.; Arnold, D. E.; Gaume, J. G.; Binding, A. T.; Mikeska, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    Large-scale aircraft lavatory and cargo compartment fire tests are described. Tests were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of these compartments to contain fire and smoke. Two tests were conducted and are detailed. Test 1 involved a production Boeing 747 lavatory of the latest design installed in an enclosure outside the aircraft, to collect gases and expose animals to these gases. Results indicate that the interior of the lavatory was completely burned, evolving smoke and combustion products in the enclosure. Test 2 involved a simulated Douglas DC-10 cargo compartment retro-fitted with standard fiberglass liner. The fire caused excessive damage to the liner and burned through the ceiling in two areas. Test objectives, methods, materials, and results are presented and discussed.

  12. Chronic compartment syndrome. An unusual cause for claudication.

    PubMed Central

    Turnipseed, W; Detmer, D E; Girdley, F

    1989-01-01

    Chronic Compartment Syndrome (CCS) is usually caused by overuse injury in well-conditioned athletes (particularly runners). Less common causes of CCS include blunt trauma, venous insufficiency, and tumor. CCS is clinically manifested as claudication, tightness, and occasional paresthesia. Unlike other forms of overuse injury (tendonitis, stress fracture), CCS does not respond to rest, anti-inflammatory medications, or physical therapy. The diagnosis of this condition is confirmed by elevated compartment pressures (normal less than 15 mmHg; CCS greater than 20 mmHg). The only effective treatment is surgical compartment release. Two hundred nine patients have been surgically treated for CCS, 100 by subcutaneous fasciotomy (group I) and 109 by open fasciectomy (group II). These procedures were usually performed in ambulatory surgery using local anesthesia. Patients treated by open faciectomy instead of subcutaneous fasciotomy had fewer early postoperative wound complications (6% vs. 11%) and fewer late recurrences (2% vs. 11%). PMID:2802837

  13. Acute Compartment Syndrome of the Limbs: Current Concepts and Management

    PubMed Central

    Mabvuure, Nigel Tapiwa; Malahias, Marco; Hindocha, Sandip; Khan, Wasim; Juma, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Acute compartment syndrome (ACS) of the limb refers to a constellation of symptoms, which occur following a rise in the pressure inside a limb muscle compartment. A failure or delay in recognising ACS almost invariably results in adverse outcomes for patients. Unrecognised ACS can leave patients with nonviable limbs requiring amputation and can also be life–threatening. Several clinical features indicate ACS. Where diagnosis is unclear there are several techniques for measuring intracompartmental pressure described in this review. As early diagnosis and fasciotomy are known to be the best determinants of good outcomes, it is important that surgeons are aware of the features that make this diagnosis likely. This clinical review discusses current knowledge on the relevant clinical anatomy, aetiology, pathophysiology, risk factors, clinical features, diagnostic procedures and management of an acute presentation of compartment syndrome. PMID:23248724

  14. Development of a Patient-Specific Two-Compartment Anthropomorphic Breast Phantom

    PubMed Central

    Prionas, Nicolas D.; Burkett, George W.; McKenney, Sarah E.; Chen, Lin; Stern, Robin L.; Boone, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To develop a technique for the construction of a two-compartment anthropomorphic breast phantom specific to an individual patient’s pendant breast anatomy. Methods Three-dimensional breast images were acquired on a prototype dedicated breast computed tomography (bCT) scanner as part of an ongoing IRB-approved clinical trial of bCT. The images from the breast of a patient were segmented into adipose and glandular tissue regions and divided into 1.59 mm thick breast sections to correspond to the thickness of polyethylene stock. A computer controlled water-jet cutting machine was used to cut the outer breast edge and the internal regions corresponding to glandular tissue from the polyethylene. The stack of polyethylene breast segments was encased in a thermoplastic “skin” and filled with water. Water-filled spaces modeled glandular tissue structures and the surrounding polyethylene modeled the adipose tissue compartment. Utility of the phantom was demonstrated by inserting 200 μm microcalcifications as well as measuring point dose deposition during bCT scanning. Results Rigid registration of the original patient images with bCT images of the phantom showed similar tissue distribution. Linear profiles through the registered images demonstrated a mean coefficient of determination (r2) between grayscale profiles of 0.881. The exponent of the power law describing the anatomical noise power spectrum was identical in the coronal images of the patient’s breast and the phantom. Microcalcifications were visualized in the phantom at bCT scanning. Real-time air kerma rate was measured during bCT scanning and fluctuated with breast anatomy. On average, point dose deposition was 7.1% greater than mean glandular dose. Conclusions A technique to generate a two-compartment anthropomorphic breast phantom from bCT images has been demonstrated. The phantom is the first, to our knowledge, to accurately model the uncompressed pendant breast and the glandular tissue

  15. Development of a patient-specific two-compartment anthropomorphic breast phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prionas, Nicolas D.; Burkett, George W.; McKenney, Sarah E.; Chen, Lin; Stern, Robin L.; Boone, John M.

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a technique for the construction of a two-compartment anthropomorphic breast phantom specific to an individual patient's pendant breast anatomy. Three-dimensional breast images were acquired on a prototype dedicated breast computed tomography (bCT) scanner as part of an ongoing IRB-approved clinical trial of bCT. The images from the breast of a patient were segmented into adipose and glandular tissue regions and divided into 1.59 mm thick breast sections to correspond to the thickness of polyethylene stock. A computer-controlled water-jet cutting machine was used to cut the outer breast edge and the internal regions corresponding to glandular tissue from the polyethylene. The stack of polyethylene breast segments was encased in a thermoplastic ‘skin’ and filled with water. Water-filled spaces modeled glandular tissue structures and the surrounding polyethylene modeled the adipose tissue compartment. Utility of the phantom was demonstrated by inserting 200 µm microcalcifications as well as by measuring point dose deposition during bCT scanning. Affine registration of the original patient images with bCT images of the phantom showed similar tissue distribution. Linear profiles through the registered images demonstrated a mean coefficient of determination (r2) between grayscale profiles of 0.881. The exponent of the power law describing the anatomical noise power spectrum was identical in the coronal images of the patient's breast and the phantom. Microcalcifications were visualized in the phantom at bCT scanning. The real-time air kerma rate was measured during bCT scanning and fluctuated with breast anatomy. On average, point dose deposition was 7.1% greater than the mean glandular dose. A technique to generate a two-compartment anthropomorphic breast phantom from bCT images has been demonstrated. The phantom is the first, to our knowledge, to accurately model the uncompressed pendant breast and the glandular tissue

  16. Foodborne disease prevention and broiler chickens with reduced Campylobacter infection.

    PubMed

    Bahrndorff, Simon; Rangstrup-Christensen, Lena; Nordentoft, Steen; Hald, Birthe

    2013-03-01

    Studies have suggested that flies play a linking role in the epidemiology of Campylobacter spp. in broiler chickens and that fly screens can reduce the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. We examined the year-round and long-term effects of fly screens in 10 broiler chicken houses (99 flocks) in Denmark. Prevalence of Campylobacter spp.-positive flocks was significantly reduced, from 41.4% during 2003-2005 (before fly screens) to 10.3% in 2006-2009 (with fly screens). In fly screen houses, Campylobacter spp. prevalence did not peak during the summer. Nationally, prevalence of Campylobacter spp.-positive flocks in Denmark could have been reduced by an estimated 77% during summer had fly screens been part of biosecurity practices. These results imply that fly screens might help reduce prevalence of campylobacteriosis among humans, which is closely linked to Campylobacter spp. prevalence among broiler chicken flocks. PMID:23628089

  17. The fate and tissue disposition of deoxynivalenol in broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    PRALATNET, Sasithorn; POAPOLATHEP, Saranya; IMSILP, Kanjana; TANHAN, Phanwimol; ISARIYODOM, Supaporn; KUMAGAI, Susumu; POAPOLATHEP, Amnart

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the fate of deoxynivalenol (DON) in broilers, DON was administered either intravenously or orally to broilers at a dose of 1 mg/kg BW. Concentrations of DON in plasma were measurable up to 4 hr and 2 hr after intravenous and oral administration, respectively. Following intravenous administration, the values for the elimination half-life, the volume of distribution and the clearance were 1.25 ± 0.25 hr, 7.55 ± 2.03 l/kg and 4.16 ± 0.42 l/hr/kg, respectively. The oral bioavailability was 15.46 ± 4.02%. DON was detectable in all tissues examined after oral administration. These results suggest that DON is able to penetrate into the various tissues in broilers, though poorly absorbed from their gastrointestinal tract. PMID:25843039

  18. Integrating anatomical pathology to the healthcare enterprise.

    PubMed

    Daniel-Le Bozec, Christel; Henin, Dominique; Fabiani, Bettina; Bourquard, Karima; Ouagne, David; Degoulet, Patrice; Jaulent, Marie-Christine

    2006-01-01

    For medical decisions, healthcare professionals need that all required information is both correct and easily available. We address the issue of integrating anatomical pathology department to the healthcare enterprise. The pathology workflow from order to report, including specimen process and image acquisition was modeled. Corresponding integration profiles were addressed by expansion of the IHE (Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise) initiative. Implementation using respectively DICOM Structured Report (SR) and DICOM Slide-Coordinate Microscopy (SM) was tested. The two main integration profiles--pathology general workflow and pathology image workflow--rely on 13 transactions based on HL7 or DICOM standard. We propose a model of the case in anatomical pathology and of other information entities (orders, image folders and reports) and real-world objects (specimen, tissue samples, slides, etc). Cases representation in XML schemas, based on DICOM specification, allows producing DICOM image files and reports to be stored into a PACS (Picture Archiving and Communication System. PMID:17108550

  19. Detection of environmental effects through anatomic pathology.

    PubMed

    Miller, R W

    1985-01-01

    Anatomic pathology has produced considerable knowledge about environmental teratogens and carcinogens. A special disease registry established by a pathologist provided details of the association between oral contraceptives and hepatic neoplams. Pathologists were also involved in establishing in the link between diethylstilbestrol use and clear-cell adenocarcinomas of the vagina. An area of particular interest has been gender and ethnic differences in the incidence of certain diseases. Pathologists further make use of animal studies to investigate the pathogenesis of human tumors. Finally, stored serum or tissue is often used by pathologists to help diagnose diseases retrospectively. Human skin fibroblasts grown in culture and stored have been especially valuable for laboratory research. This chapter briefly highlights some of the milestones in the detection of enviromental effects through anatomic pathology. PMID:2997598

  20. Anatomic pathology laboratory information systems: a review.

    PubMed

    Park, Seung Lyung; Pantanowitz, Liron; Sharma, Gaurav; Parwani, Anil Vasdev

    2012-03-01

    The modern anatomic pathology laboratory depends on a reliable information infrastructure to register specimens, record gross and microscopic findings, regulate laboratory workflow, formulate and sign out report(s), disseminate them to the intended recipients across the whole health system, and support quality assurance measures. This infrastructure is provided by the Anatomical Pathology Laboratory Information Systems (APLIS), which have evolved over decades and now are beginning to support evolving technologies like asset tracking and digital imaging. As digital pathology transitions from "the way of the future" to "the way of the present," the APLIS continues to be one of the key effective enablers of the scope and practice of pathology. In this review, we discuss the evolution, necessary components, architecture and functionality of the APLIS that are crucial to today's practicing pathologist and address the demands of emerging trends on the future APLIS. PMID:22313836

  1. The Computerized Anatomical Man (CAM) model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, M. P.; Yucker, W. R.

    1973-01-01

    A computerized anatomical man (CAM) model, representing the most detailed and anatomically correct geometrical model of the human body yet prepared, has been developed for use in analyzing radiation dose distribution in man. This model of a 50-percentile standing USAF man comprises some 1100 unique geometric surfaces and some 2450 solid regions. Internal body geometry such as organs, voids, bones, and bone marrow are explicitly modeled. A computer program called CAMERA has also been developed for performing analyses with the model. Such analyses include tracing rays through the CAM geometry, placing results on magnetic tape in various forms, collapsing areal density data from ray tracing information to areal density distributions, preparing cross section views, etc. Numerous computer drawn cross sections through the CAM model are presented.

  2. U.S. broiler housing ammonia emissions inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gates, R. S.; Casey, K. D.; Wheeler, E. F.; Xin, H.; Pescatore, A. J.

    Using recently published baseline ammonia emissions data for U.S. broiler chicken housing, we present a method of estimating their contribution to an annual ammonia budget that is different from that used by USEPA. Emission rate increases in a linear relationship with flock age from near zero at the start of the flock to a maximum at the end of the flock, 28-65 days later. Market weight of chickens raised for meat varies from "broilers" weighing about 2 kg to "roasters" weighing about 3 kg. Multiple flocks of birds are grown in a single house annually, with variable downtime to prepare the house between flocks. The method takes into account weight and number of chickens marketed. Uncertainty in baseline emissions estimates is used so that inventory estimates are provided with error estimates. The method also incorporates the condition of litter that birds are raised upon and the varying market weight of birds grown. Using 2003 USDA data on broiler production numbers, broiler housing is estimated to contribute 8.8-11.7 kT ammonia for new and built-up litter, respectively, in Kentucky and 240-324 kT ammonia for new and built-up litter, respectively, nationally. Results suggest that a 10% uncertainty in annual emission rate is expected for the market weight categories of broilers, heavy broilers, and roasters. A 27-47% reduction in annual housing emission rate is predicted if new rather than built-up litter were used for every flock. The estimating method can be adapted to other meat bird building emissions and future ammonia emission strategies, with suitable insertion of an age-dependent emission factor or slope into a predictive model equation. The method can be readily applied and is an alternative to that used by USEPA.

  3. The effects of selective breeding on the architectural properties of the pelvic limb in broiler chickens: a comparative study across modern and ancestral populations

    PubMed Central

    Paxton, Heather; Anthony, Nicolas B; Corr, Sandra A; Hutchinson, John R

    2010-01-01

    Intensive artificial selection has led to the production of the modern broiler chicken, which over the last few decades has undergone a dramatic increase in growth rate and noticeable changes in body conformation. Unfortunately, this has been associated with musculoskeletal abnormalities which have altered the walking ability of these birds, raising obvious welfare concerns, as well as causing economic losses. Here we present a comparative study of ancestral and derived muscle anatomy in chickens to begin to tease apart how evolutionary alterations of muscle form in chickens have influenced their locomotor function and perhaps contributed to lameness. We measured the muscle architectural properties of the right pelvic limb in 50 birds, including the Giant Junglefowl, a commercial strain broiler and four pureline commercial broiler breeder lines (from which the broiler populations are derived) to identify which features of the broiler’s architectural design have diverged the most from the ancestral condition. We report a decline in pelvic limb muscle mass in the commercial line birds that may compromise their locomotor abilities because they carry a larger body mass. This greater demand on the pelvic limb muscles has mostly led to changes in support at the hip joint, revealing significantly larger abductors and additionally much larger medial rotators in the broiler population. Differences were seen within the commercial line bird populations, which are likely attributed to different selection pressures and may reflect differences in the walking ability of these birds. In addition, Junglefowl seem to have both greater force-generating capabilities and longer, presumably faster contracting muscles, indicative of superior musculoskeletal/locomotor function. We have provided baseline data for generating hypotheses to investigate in greater depth the specific biomechanical constraints that compromise the modern broiler’s walking ability and propose that these

  4. Endoscopic Ankle Lateral Ligament Graft Anatomic Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Michels, Frederick; Cordier, Guillaume; Guillo, Stéphane; Stockmans, Filip

    2016-09-01

    Chronic instability is a common complication of lateral ankle sprains. If nonoperative treatment fails, a surgical repair or reconstruction may be indicated. Today, endoscopic techniques to treat ankle instability are becoming more popular. This article describes an endoscopic technique, using a step-by-step approach, to reconstruct the ATFL and CFL with a gracilis graft. The endoscopic technique is reproducible and safe with regard to the surrounding anatomic structures. Short and midterm results confirm the benefits of this technique. PMID:27524711

  5. Quantifying anatomical shape variations in neurological disorders.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nikhil; Fletcher, P Thomas; Preston, J Samuel; King, Richard D; Marron, J S; Weiner, Michael W; Joshi, Sarang

    2014-04-01

    We develop a multivariate analysis of brain anatomy to identify the relevant shape deformation patterns and quantify the shape changes that explain corresponding variations in clinical neuropsychological measures. We use kernel Partial Least Squares (PLS) and formulate a regression model in the tangent space of the manifold of diffeomorphisms characterized by deformation momenta. The scalar deformation momenta completely encode the diffeomorphic changes in anatomical shape. In this model, the clinical measures are the response variables, while the anatomical variability is treated as the independent variable. To better understand the "shape-clinical response" relationship, we also control for demographic confounders, such as age, gender, and years of education in our regression model. We evaluate the proposed methodology on the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database using baseline structural MR imaging data and neuropsychological evaluation test scores. We demonstrate the ability of our model to quantify the anatomical deformations in units of clinical response. Our results also demonstrate that the proposed method is generic and generates reliable shape deformations both in terms of the extracted patterns and the amount of shape changes. We found that while the hippocampus and amygdala emerge as mainly responsible for changes in test scores for global measures of dementia and memory function, they are not a determinant factor for executive function. Another critical finding was the appearance of thalamus and putamen as most important regions that relate to executive function. These resulting anatomical regions were consistent with very high confidence irrespective of the size of the population used in the study. This data-driven global analysis of brain anatomy was able to reach similar conclusions as other studies in Alzheimer's disease based on predefined ROIs, together with the identification of other new patterns of deformation. The

  6. Evolution of the anatomical theatre in Padova.

    PubMed

    Macchi, Veronica; Porzionato, Andrea; Stecco, Carla; De Caro, Raffaele

    2014-01-01

    The anatomical theatre played a pivotal role in the evolution of medical education, allowing students to directly observe and participate in the process of dissection. Due to the increase of training programs in clinical anatomy, the Institute of Human Anatomy at the University of Padova has renovated its dissecting room. The main guidelines in planning a new anatomical theatre included: (1), the placement of the teacher and students on the same level in a horizontal anatomical theatre where it is possible to see (theatre) and to perform (dissecting room); (2), in the past, dissection activities were concentrated at the center of the theatre, while in the new anatomical theatre, such activities have been moved to the periphery through projection on surrounding screens-thus, students occupy the center of the theatre between the demonstration table, where the dissection can be seen in real time, and the wall screens, where particular aspects are magnified; (3), three groups of tables are placed with one in front with two lateral flanking tables in regards to the demonstration table, in a semicircular arrangement, and not attached to the floor, which makes the room multifunctional for surgical education, medical students and physician's continued professional development courses; (4), a learning station to introduce the students to the subject of the laboratory; (5), cooperation between anatomists and architects in order to combine the practical needs of a dissection laboratory with new technologies; (6), involvement of the students, representing the clients' needs; and (7), creation of a dissecting room of wide measurements with large windows, since a well-illuminated space could reduce the potentially negative psychological impact of the dissection laboratory on student morale. PMID:24706523

  7. Engineering anatomically shaped human bone grafts

    PubMed Central

    Grayson, Warren L.; Fröhlich, Mirjam; Yeager, Keith; Bhumiratana, Sarindr; Chan, M. Ete; Cannizzaro, Christopher; Wan, Leo Q.; Liu, X. Sherry; Guo, X. Edward; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2009-01-01

    The ability to engineer anatomically correct pieces of viable and functional human bone would have tremendous potential for bone reconstructions after congenital defects, cancer resections, and trauma. We report that clinically sized, anatomically shaped, viable human bone grafts can be engineered by using human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and a “biomimetic” scaffold-bioreactor system. We selected the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) condylar bone as our tissue model, because of its clinical importance and the challenges associated with its complex shape. Anatomically shaped scaffolds were generated from fully decellularized trabecular bone by using digitized clinical images, seeded with hMSCs, and cultured with interstitial flow of culture medium. A bioreactor with a chamber in the exact shape of a human TMJ was designed for controllable perfusion throughout the engineered construct. By 5 weeks of cultivation, tissue growth was evidenced by the formation of confluent layers of lamellar bone (by scanning electron microscopy), markedly increased volume of mineralized matrix (by quantitative microcomputer tomography), and the formation of osteoids (histologically). Within bone grafts of this size and complexity cells were fully viable at a physiologic density, likely an important factor of graft function. Moreover, the density and architecture of bone matrix correlated with the intensity and pattern of the interstitial flow, as determined in experimental and modeling studies. This approach has potential to overcome a critical hurdle—in vitro cultivation of viable bone grafts of complex geometries—to provide patient-specific bone grafts for craniofacial and orthopedic reconstructions. PMID:19820164

  8. Application OF LIBS To Estimate The Age Of Broiler Breeders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salam, Z. Abdel; Harith, M. A.

    2011-09-01

    Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is a well-known spectrochemical elemental analysis technique. In our investigations of the LIBS spectra it has been found that there is a remarkable correlation between the ionic to atomic spectral lines emission ratio and the surface hardness of eggshell for two Different Broiler Breeder at different age. The proposed technique has been applied successfully in poultry science to estimate the age of broiler breeders by measuring the surface hardness of their eggshell. The experiments have been performed on two different strains, Arbor Acres plus (AAP) and Hubard Classic (HC), and the results were satisfactory.

  9. Divergent selection for muscle color in broilers.

    PubMed

    Harford, I D; Pavlidis, H O; Anthony, N B

    2014-05-01

    One consumer-related physiological abnormality that is a recent concern for the poultry industry is atypical meat quality. Currently in the processing plant, meat is characterized on appearance such as tears, bruises, discoloration, or missing parts. Unfortunately, this method ignores physical properties such as palatability, texture, tenderness, taste, color, pH, and water-holding capacity (WHC). The growing demand for a convenient, economical, and palatable product has shifted the market toward value-added poultry products. The effect of a meat's physical properties on its marketability and versatility has become apparent to processors attempting to utilize poor quality meat. After 8 generations of divergent selection for muscle color or lightness (L*) in broilers, muscle quality parameters were investigated. The 2 broiler lines divergently selected for high (HMC) and low (LMC) muscle color along with their randombred control line (RBC) were included in the study. Heritability estimates for L* were 0.47 ± 0.05 and 0.51 ± 0.05 in the HMC and LMC lines, respectively. For generation 8, the mean L* for the HMC, RBC, and LMC lines were 53.91, 49.70, and 46.86, respectively. Selection for increased L* was found to result in increased breast fillet yellowness (b*), whereas selection for decreased L* resulted in an increase in breast fillet redness (a*). Selection for increased L* has resulted in increased rate of pH decline over time, whereas selection for decreased L* has resulted in a decreased rate of pH decline. The HMC line exhibited a higher percentage fillet drip loss than both the LMC and RBC lines, which did not differ from each other. Overall selection for L* was effective in modifying breast muscle color as well as correlated responses associated with atypical poultry meat such as drip loss and postmortem muscle pH. These selected lines can serve as resource populations for the study of PSE and DFD-like meat in poultry and demonstrate that L* selection

  10. Effects of fibrinopurulent polyserositis in broilers on post-harvest microbiological parameters relevant to public health of broiler meat.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Wiebke; Reich, Felix; Klein, Günter

    2015-05-01

    Fibrinopurulent polyserositis is of utmost importance in commercial broiler production worldwide. This multifactorial endemic disease is marked by severe clinical alterations post-mortem, yet its effects on food safety and processing hygiene criteria remain unclear. Current considerations presume that bacteraemia lead to meat being unfit for consumption. In the present study, we evaluated some microbiological criteria of affected broiler carcasses in comparison to unaffected control broiler carcasses. The results thereof indicated that the lesions did not result in higher bacterial counts or in an increased percentage of contaminated meat. The carry-over of associated zoonotic pathogens into the food chain seems to be not more prevalent in birds affected with non-systemic affections of polyserositis. PMID:25561407

  11. Risk factors for occurrence of cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli in Norwegian broiler flocks.

    PubMed

    Mo, Solveig Sølverød; Kristoffersen, Anja Bråthen; Sunde, Marianne; Nødtvedt, Ane; Norström, Madelaine

    2016-08-01

    A longitudinal study of 27 broiler farms including 182 broiler flocks was performed to determine risk factors for occurrence of cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli in Norwegian broiler flocks. Information regarding possible risk factors was collected by an online questionnaire and by samples obtained from broiler and parent flocks during the study period. Additional information was provided by the broiler production company. The prevalence of cephalosporin-resistant E. coli in parent flocks and broiler flocks sampled in the study was estimated. Cephalosporin-resistant E. coli was detected in 13.8% of the parent flocks and 22.5% of the broiler flocks included in the study. A multivariable generalized linear model was used to estimate risk factors. The risk for occurrence of cephalosporin-resistant E. coli was associated with the status of the previous flock in the broiler house (odds ratio=12.7), number of parent flocks supplying the broiler flock with day-old chickens (odds ratio=6.3), routines for disinfection of floor between production cycles (odds ratio=0.1), and transport personnel entering the room where the broilers are raised (odds ratio=9.3). Our findings highlights that implementation of a high level of biosecurity with a minimal number of people entering the broiler house during production cycles, as well as rigorous cleaning and disinfection routines between production cycles will contribute to a decrease in the occurrence of cephalosporin-resistant E. coli in broiler flocks provided that there is no selection pressure from antimicrobial use in the broiler production. PMID:27435654

  12. Automatic Segmentation of Drosophila Neural Compartments Using GAL4 Expression Data Reveals Novel Visual Pathways.

    PubMed

    Panser, Karin; Tirian, Laszlo; Schulze, Florian; Villalba, Santiago; Jefferis, Gregory S X E; Bühler, Katja; Straw, Andrew D

    2016-08-01

    Identifying distinct anatomical structures within the brain and developing genetic tools to target them are fundamental steps for understanding brain function. We hypothesize that enhancer expression patterns can be used to automatically identify functional units such as neuropils and fiber tracts. We used two recent, genome-scale Drosophila GAL4 libraries and associated confocal image datasets to segment large brain regions into smaller subvolumes. Our results (available at https://strawlab.org/braincode) support this hypothesis because regions with well-known anatomy, namely the antennal lobes and central complex, were automatically segmented into familiar compartments. The basis for the structural assignment is clustering of voxels based on patterns of enhancer expression. These initial clusters are agglomerated to make hierarchical predictions of structure. We applied the algorithm to central brain regions receiving input from the optic lobes. Based on the automated segmentation and manual validation, we can identify and provide promising driver lines for 11 previously identified and 14 novel types of visual projection neurons and their associated optic glomeruli. The same strategy can be used in other brain regions and likely other species, including vertebrates. PMID:27426516

  13. 12. Interior view of battle staff compartment showing the general's ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Interior view of battle staff compartment showing the general's chair. View toward front of aircraft. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  14. Gluteal compartment syndrome after prostatectomy caused by incorrect positioning.

    PubMed

    Heyn, Jens; Ladurner, R; Ozimek, A; Vogel, T; Hallfeldt, K K; Mussack, T

    2006-04-28

    Gluteal compartment syndrome is an uncommon and rare disease. Most reasonable causes for the development of this disease are trauma, drug induced coma, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, sickle cell associated muscle infarction, incorrect positioning during surgical procedures and prolonged pressure in patients with altered consciousness levels. The diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion, especially in postoperative patient where sedation or peridural anaesthesia can confound the neurological examination. Early signs include gluteal tenderness, decrease in vibratory sensation during clinical examination and increasing CK in laboratory findings. We present a case of a 52 year-old patient, who developed gluteal compartment syndrome after radical prostatectomy in lithotomic position. After operation, diuresis decreased [<50 ml/h] and CK [93927 U/l], LDH [1528 U/l], creatinin [1.5 mg/dl] and urea [20 mg/dl] increased in laboratory findings. Despite peridural anaesthesia, the patient complained about increasing pain in the gluteal region and both thighs. His thighs and the gluteal region were swollen. Passive stretch of the thighs caused enormous pain. The compartment pressure was 92 mmHg. Therefore, emergency fasciotomy was performed successfully. The gluteal compartment syndrome was most likely caused by elevated pressure on the gluteal muscle during operation. We suggest heightened awareness of positioning the patient on the operating table is important especially in obese patients with lengthy operating procedures. PMID:16720283

  15. 14 CFR 25.857 - Cargo compartment classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... compartment but in which— (1) There is a separate approved smoke detector or fire detector system to give... approved smoke or fire detector system to give warning at the pilot or flight engineer station; (3) There... access provisions are being used, no hazardous quantity of smoke, flames, or extinguishing agent,...

  16. 14 CFR 121.269 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... temperature. 121.269 Section 121.269 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....269 Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to insure that the extinguishing agent containers are installed in places where reasonable temperatures can...

  17. 14 CFR 125.167 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... temperature. 125.167 Section 125.167 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Requirements § 125.167 Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to ensure that the extinguishing agent containers are installed in places where reasonable temperatures...

  18. 9 CFR 354.221 - Rooms and compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Rooms and compartments. 354.221 Section 354.221 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... live rabbits or killing operations be permitted in rooms in which eviscerating operations are...

  19. 9 CFR 354.221 - Rooms and compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rooms and compartments. 354.221 Section 354.221 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... live rabbits or killing operations be permitted in rooms in which eviscerating operations are...

  20. 9 CFR 354.241 - Cleaning of rooms and compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cleaning of rooms and compartments. 354.241 Section 354.241 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... such regularity as may be necessary to maintain them in a sanitary condition. (f) The killing...

  1. 9 CFR 354.241 - Cleaning of rooms and compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cleaning of rooms and compartments. 354.241 Section 354.241 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... such regularity as may be necessary to maintain them in a sanitary condition. (f) The killing...

  2. 9 CFR 354.221 - Rooms and compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rooms and compartments. 354.221 Section 354.221 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... live rabbits or killing operations be permitted in rooms in which eviscerating operations are...

  3. 9 CFR 354.241 - Cleaning of rooms and compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cleaning of rooms and compartments. 354.241 Section 354.241 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... such regularity as may be necessary to maintain them in a sanitary condition. (f) The killing...

  4. 9 CFR 354.221 - Rooms and compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rooms and compartments. 354.221 Section 354.221 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... live rabbits or killing operations be permitted in rooms in which eviscerating operations are...

  5. 9 CFR 354.241 - Cleaning of rooms and compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cleaning of rooms and compartments. 354.241 Section 354.241 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... such regularity as may be necessary to maintain them in a sanitary condition. (f) The killing...

  6. An expanding forearm phlegmon and subsequent compartment syndrome.

    PubMed

    Agha, R A; Geh, J

    2016-03-01

    We present the case of a young, fit woman who developed a forearm phlegmon with subsequent compartment syndrome. Further investigation found her to be suffering from endocarditis and she had had recent dental work. Presentation and management is discussed, with learning points highlighted. PMID:26890848

  7. Two-Compartment Pharmacokinetic Models for Chemical Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanneganti, Kumud; Simon, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    The transport of potassium permanganate between two continuous-stirred vessels was investigated to help chemical and biomedical engineering students understand two-compartment pharmacokinetic models. Concepts of modeling, mass balance, parameter estimation and Laplace transform were applied to the two-unit process. A good agreement was achieved…

  8. 7 CFR 58.510 - Rooms and compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rooms and compartments. 58.510 Section 58.510 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF...

  9. 7 CFR 58.510 - Rooms and compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rooms and compartments. 58.510 Section 58.510 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF...

  10. 7 CFR 58.510 - Rooms and compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rooms and compartments. 58.510 Section 58.510 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF...

  11. 14 CFR 27.787 - Cargo and baggage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cargo and baggage compartments. 27.787 Section 27.787 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Personnel and Cargo Accommodations § 27.787 Cargo and...

  12. 14 CFR 29.787 - Cargo and baggage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cargo and baggage compartments. 29.787 Section 29.787 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Personnel and Cargo Accommodations § 29.787 Cargo and...

  13. 14 CFR 23.853 - Passenger and crew compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Passenger and crew compartment interiors. 23.853 Section 23.853 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection §...

  14. 14 CFR 23.853 - Passenger and crew compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Passenger and crew compartment interiors. 23.853 Section 23.853 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection §...

  15. 19 CFR 123.24 - Sealing of conveyances or compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sealing of conveyances or compartments. 123.24 Section 123.24 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CBP RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Shipments in Transit Through Canada or...

  16. Astronaut Richard Covey in the Crew Compartment trainer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Astronaut Richard O. Covey sits at the pilot's station in the one-G Crew Compartment trainer (CCT) at JSC. Astronaut Frederick H. (Rick) Hauck (almost obscured at left) is in the commander's station. Covey was named as pilot for the STS 26 mission to be flown in 1988.

  17. 14 CFR 125.167 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... temperature. 125.167 Section 125.167 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Requirements § 125.167 Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to ensure that the extinguishing agent containers are installed in places where reasonable temperatures...

  18. 14 CFR 121.269 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... temperature. 121.269 Section 121.269 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....269 Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to insure that the extinguishing agent containers are installed in places where reasonable temperatures can...

  19. 14 CFR 125.167 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... temperature. 125.167 Section 125.167 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Requirements § 125.167 Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to ensure that the extinguishing agent containers are installed in places where reasonable temperatures...

  20. 14 CFR 121.269 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... temperature. 121.269 Section 121.269 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....269 Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to insure that the extinguishing agent containers are installed in places where reasonable temperatures can...

  1. 14 CFR 121.269 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... temperature. 121.269 Section 121.269 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....269 Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to insure that the extinguishing agent containers are installed in places where reasonable temperatures can...

  2. 14 CFR 125.167 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... temperature. 125.167 Section 125.167 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Requirements § 125.167 Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to ensure that the extinguishing agent containers are installed in places where reasonable temperatures...

  3. 14 CFR 125.167 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... temperature. 125.167 Section 125.167 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Requirements § 125.167 Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to ensure that the extinguishing agent containers are installed in places where reasonable temperatures...

  4. 14 CFR 121.269 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... temperature. 121.269 Section 121.269 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....269 Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to insure that the extinguishing agent containers are installed in places where reasonable temperatures can...

  5. Acute Lower Leg Compartment Syndrome: A Rare Complication following CABG

    PubMed Central

    Galvin, Sean

    2016-01-01

    Compartment syndrome of lower legs following coronary artery bypass grafting is a rare complication which results from a combination of local and systemic factors. Early recognition is vital for good outcome. The case discussed describes this rare complication of CABG resulting in long term disability. PMID:27525152

  6. FEATURE 3, LARGE GUN POSITION, SHOWING MULTIPLE COMPARTMENTS, VIEW FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FEATURE 3, LARGE GUN POSITION, SHOWING MULTIPLE COMPARTMENTS, VIEW FACING SOUTH (with scale stick). - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Anti-Aircraft Battery Complex-Large Gun Position, East of Coral Sea Road, northwest of Hamilton Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  7. 19 CFR 123.24 - Sealing of conveyances or compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sealing of conveyances or compartments. 123.24 Section 123.24 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CBP RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Shipments in Transit Through Canada or...

  8. 14 CFR 121.314 - Cargo and baggage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cargo and baggage compartments. 121.314 Section 121.314 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND...

  9. Heat and moisture production by broilers during simulated cold weather transport.

    PubMed

    Watts, J M; Graff, L J; Strawford, M L; Crowe, T G; Burlinguette, N A; Classen, H L; Shand, P J

    2011-09-01

    To ensure broiler welfare during winter transport, it is necessary to manage heat and moisture accumulation within the transport vehicles. Hence, it is necessary to determine heat production (HP) and moisture production (MP) rates under representative conditions. An environmental chamber containing a standard transport drawer was used. Cold air was drawn from outside the building, warmed to the desired temperature, and passed through the drawer at 0.35 m(3)/s. Broilers were fasted for 7 h, placed into the drawer, and exposed to test conditions within the chamber for 3 h. Air temperature and RH were measured upstream and downstream of the insulated bird compartment at 1-min intervals. Differences in the paired temperature and RH values were used to calculate sensible HP and MP for each 1 min of confinement. Effects of temperatures between -8 and -18°C and a control (+20°C) were measured for birds in 2 conditions. In condition A, there were 15 birds/drawer. Birds were 32 to 33 d old and weighed 1.8 kg. Packing density was approximately 27 kg/drawer (31 kg/m(2)). In condition B, there were 19 or 22 birds/drawer. The drawers with 19 birds contained birds that were 39 to 40 d old that weighed 2.68 kg. In the drawers with 22 birds, the birds were 35 to 36 d old and weighed 2.29 kg. In either case, the packing density was approximately 50 kg/drawer (59 kg/m(2)). Thus, the birds in condition B were bigger, more numerous, and more tightly packed than the birds in condition A. Drawers were balanced for sex. At +20°C, HP and MP rates were similar to other published values. However, for both conditions, HP and MP rates increased with decreasing exposure temperatures. In condition A, HP was 6.08 ± 0.43 W/kg and MP was 4.46 g/h per kg at 20°C compared with 87.5 ± 10.3 W/kg and 22.08 ± 5.05 g/h per kg at -15°C. In condition B, HP was 8.12 ± 1.24 W/kg and MP was 5.53 ± 1.68 g/h per kg at 20°C compared with 45.92 ± 1.95 W/kg and 12.33 ± 0.22 g/h per kg at -18°C. PMID

  10. Treatment of broiler litter with organic acids.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, I E

    2001-04-01

    Experiments for treatment of contaminated broiler litter with citric, tartaric and salicylic acids were performed. At days 2 and 6 after the treatment, pH values (using a pH-meter), the ammonia concentrations (titration with 0.1 N HCl) and the microbial cells counts were determined in both experimental and control specimens of litter. The cost of acidification of litter was also determined. Our studies showed that the treatment of the contaminated litter with 5 per cent citric acid, 4 per cent tartaric acid and 1.5 per cent salicylic acid created an acid medium with pH under 5.0 and thus reduced the microbial counts to 2.2 x 10(3)colony forming units per gram manure litter. The treatment reduced the content of ammonia in the litter and in the air under the hygienic limits, i.e. 25-50 ppm. The cost of acidification of litter with these organic acids amounted to 0.1 $ per bird and 1.5 $ per 15 birds on one square metre in a growth period of 50 days. PMID:11356097

  11. Impact of Feeding Systems and Vaccination Programs on Salmonella Enteritidis Colonization and Clearance of E. Coli In Broiler Broiler Breeders Pullets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broiler breeder pullets from a single grandparent flock were in ovo-vaccinated with Marek's vaccines herpesvirus of turkey (HVT) + chicken herpesvirus (SB1) or a vector HVT + Infectious bursal disease (IBD) vaccine+SB1. The chicks were placed in an experimental broiler breeder facility at the Univer...

  12. The anatomical diaspora: evidence of early American anatomical traditions in North Dakota.

    PubMed

    Stubblefield, Phoebe R

    2011-09-01

    The current focus in forensic anthropology on increasing scientific certainty in ancestry determination reinforces the need to examine the ancestry of skeletal remains used for osteology instruction. Human skeletal remains were discovered on the University of North Dakota campus in 2007. After recovery, the osteological examination resulted in a profile for a 33- to 46-year-old woman of African descent with stature ranging from 56.3 to 61.0 in. The pattern of postmortem damage indicated that the remains had been prepared for use as an anatomical teaching specimen. Review of the American history of anatomical teaching revealed a preference for Black subjects, which apparently extended to states like North Dakota despite extremely low resident populations of people of African descent. This study emphasizes the need to examine the ancestry of older teaching specimens that lack provenience, rather than assuming they are derived from typical (i.e., Indian) sources of anatomical material. PMID:21447074

  13. A survey of commercially available broilers marketed as organic, free-range, and conventional broilers for cooked meat yields, meat composition, and relative value.

    PubMed

    Husak, R L; Sebranek, J G; Bregendahl, K

    2008-11-01

    The objective of this survey was to investigate qualitative and quantitative properties of meat from organic, free-range, and conventional broilers as currently provided to consumers. Fifteen broilers from 4 suppliers of each type were evaluated for raw meat yield, cooked meat yield, proximate composition, pH, color, lipid oxidation, fatty acid composition, and sensory attributes. Organic broilers yielded more dark (thigh) meat (P < 0.05) than free-range or conventional, when compared on a raw-meat basis, but conventional and free-range broilers yielded more (P < 0.05) cooked light (breast) meat than organic. Protein content of organic breast and thigh meat was greater (P < 0.05) than conventional in the raw and the cooked meat comparisons. The pH of breast meat from organic broilers was higher (P < 0.05) than free-range or conventional. Organic breast and thigh meat was less yellow (P < 0.05) than free-range or conventional. Fatty acid analysis showed that organic breasts and thighs were lower (P < 0.05) in saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids and higher (P < 0.05) in polyunsaturated fatty acids than free-range and conventional broilers. Shear force measurements were less (P < 0.05) for both breast and thigh meat from conventional broilers relative to free-range and organic broilers. Sensory panel results indicated that thighs from conventional broilers were more tender (P < 0.05) and less chewy (P < 0.05) than thighs from free-range and organic broilers, whereas other sensory properties did not differ. At the time of the study, March through May of 2006, the average retail prices for US broilers were USD 3.19, USD 2.78, and USD 1.29 per pound (USD 7.03, USD 6.13, and USD 2.84/kg) for organic, free-range, and conventional, respectively. Whereas a difference in the fatty acid composition was the largest difference observed between retail broilers in this survey, it is important to note that diets and production environments within the study were not controlled

  14. TOPICAL REVIEW: Anatomical imaging for radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Philip M.

    2008-06-01

    The goal of radiation therapy is to achieve maximal therapeutic benefit expressed in terms of a high probability of local control of disease with minimal side effects. Physically this often equates to the delivery of a high dose of radiation to the tumour or target region whilst maintaining an acceptably low dose to other tissues, particularly those adjacent to the target. Techniques such as intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), stereotactic radiosurgery and computer planned brachytherapy provide the means to calculate the radiation dose delivery to achieve the desired dose distribution. Imaging is an essential tool in all state of the art planning and delivery techniques: (i) to enable planning of the desired treatment, (ii) to verify the treatment is delivered as planned and (iii) to follow-up treatment outcome to monitor that the treatment has had the desired effect. Clinical imaging techniques can be loosely classified into anatomic methods which measure the basic physical characteristics of tissue such as their density and biological imaging techniques which measure functional characteristics such as metabolism. In this review we consider anatomical imaging techniques. Biological imaging is considered in another article. Anatomical imaging is generally used for goals (i) and (ii) above. Computed tomography (CT) has been the mainstay of anatomical treatment planning for many years, enabling some delineation of soft tissue as well as radiation attenuation estimation for dose prediction. Magnetic resonance imaging is fast becoming widespread alongside CT, enabling superior soft-tissue visualization. Traditionally scanning for treatment planning has relied on the use of a single snapshot scan. Recent years have seen the development of techniques such as 4D CT and adaptive radiotherapy (ART). In 4D CT raw data are encoded with phase information and reconstructed to yield a set of scans detailing motion through the breathing, or cardiac, cycle. In ART a set of

  15. Increased calcium deposits and decreased Ca2+ -ATPase in erythrocytes of ascitic broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Li, Kai; Zhao, Lihong; Geng, Guangrui; Ma, Liqin; Dong, Shishan; Xu, Tong; Wang, Jianlin; Wang, Huiyu; Tian, Yong; Qiao, Jian

    2011-06-01

    The decrease of erythrocyte deformability may be one of the predisposing factors for pulmonary hypertension and ascites in broiler chickens. In mammals, the cytoplasmic calcium is a major regulator of erythrocyte deformability. In this study, the erythrocyte deformability was measured, and the precise locations of Ca2+ and Ca2+ -ATPase in the erythrocytes were investigated in chickens with ascites syndrome induced by low ambient temperature. The results showed that ascitic broilers had higher filtration index of erythrocyte compared with control groups, indicating a decrease in erythrocyte deformability in ascitic broilers. The more calcium deposits were observed in the erythrocytes of ascitic broilers compared with those of the age-matched control birds. The Ca2+ -ATPase reactive grains were significantly decreased on the erythrocyte membranes of ascitic broilers. Our data suggest that accumulation of intracellular calcium and inhibition of Ca2+ -ATPase might be important factors for the reduced deformability of the erythrocytes of ascitic broilers. PMID:20728193

  16. Campylobacter and Salmonella in broiler processing – transport through chill

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When market age broilers are transported to processing plants, feces from individual birds in a Campylobacter positive flock can contaminate transport containers (1). Feces, and therefore Campylobacter, is deposited on the floor surface of transport cages. When placed in soiled transport cages pr...

  17. Fertilizer Effectiveness of Phosphorus Recovered from Broiler Litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus (P) can be recovered from broiler litter using a new process (‘quick wash’). However, limited information is available on the beneficial reuse of this P product as plant fertilizer. The objective of this study was to determine the agronomic effectiveness of this P material. A 7-wk greenho...

  18. Quality and safety of broiler meat in various chilling systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chilling is a critical step in poultry processing to attain high quality meat and to meet the USDA-FSIS temperature standards. This study was conducted to determine the effects of commercially available chilling systems on quality and safety of broiler meat. A total of 300 carcasses in two replica...

  19. Vertical stratification of ammonia in a broiler house

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The broiler industry is not immune to the problematic nature of ammonia production in animal rearing facilities. Though today’s headlines focus on environmental impact considerations, the detrimental effects of the house air quality on farmers and birds remain considerable for industry viability. Th...

  20. Effects of broiler litter application on nutrient accumulation in soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Excessive nutrient accumulation in soils due to land application of broiler litter is a growing environmental concern. A four-year study was conducted on a Pembroke silt loam soil (Mollic Paleudalf) cropped to orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) to evaluate accumulation of soil nutrients from broil...

  1. Dietary Nickel Chloride Induces Oxidative Intestinal Damage in Broilers

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Bangyuan; Cui, Hengmin; Peng, Xi; Fang, Jing; Zuo, Zhicai; Deng, Junliang; Huang, Jianying

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the oxidative damage induced by dietary nickel chloride (NiCl2) in the intestinal mucosa of different parts of the intestine of broilers, including duodenum, jejunum and ileum. A total of 240 one-day-old broilers were divided into four groups and fed on a corn-soybean basal diet as control diet or the same basal diet supplemented with 300, 600 or 900 mg/kg NiCl2 during a 42-day experimental period. The results showed that the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and the ability to inhibit hydroxy radical and glutathione (GSH) content were significantly (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01) decreased in the 300, 600 and 900 mg/kg groups in comparison with those of the control group. In contrast, malondialdehyde (MDA) content was significantly (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01) higher in the 300, 600 and 900 mg/kg groups than that in the control group. It was concluded that dietary NiCl2 in excess of 300 mg/kg could cause oxidative damage in the intestinal mucosa in broilers, which finally impaired the intestinal functions including absorptive function and mucosal immune function. The oxidative damage might be a main mechanism on the effects of NiCl2 on the intestinal health of broilers. PMID:23702803

  2. Apparent Metabolizable Energy of Glycerin for Broiler Chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three energy balance experiments were conducted to determine AMEn of glycerin using broiler chickens (1,104 total birds) of diverse ages. In experiment (Exp.) 1, two dietary treatments were fed from 4 to 11 d of age. Dietary treatments consisted of a control diet (no added glycerin) and a diet con...

  3. Internal and external carriage of inoculated salmonella in broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    External and internal persistence of inoculated Salmonella and spread to uninoculated broiler chicks in the same pens were studied by sampling ceca and rinses of feathered carcasses in two experiments. Half of the day-old chicks in pens were orally inoculated with a nalidixic-acid-resistant strain ...

  4. Salmonella-positive broiler carcasses contaminated by multiple serotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many laboratories that routinely sample broiler carcasses for Salmonella are primarily interested only in determining the presence or absence of Salmonella, so only one colony-forming unit may be selected. The objective of this study was to select several colonies from each of four selective plates...

  5. Epidemiological studies of congo red Escherichia coli in broiler chickens.

    PubMed Central

    Stebbins, M E; Berkhoff, H A; Corbett, W T

    1992-01-01

    This prospective cohort study was designed to confirm the association between Congo red binding Escherichia coli (CREC) and E. coli air sacculitis in commercial broilers. It was also designed to evaluate CREC as an air sacculitis risk factor and to explore the CREC relationship to other air sacculitis risk factors (poultry house temperature, air-ammonia levels, and presence of other diseases). In addition, this study was used to assess a possible role of the broiler-breeder flocks and hatchers in the spread of CREC air sacculitis. Congo red E. coli-associated airsacculitis risk was based on CREC exposure of the chicks in the hatchers. Breeder flocks with greater than 30 CREC colonies/plate from hatcher air sampling tests were placed in the high risk group; flocks with less than five CREC colonies/plate were placed in the low risk group. Increased risks of death due to air sacculitis (RR = 2.26), and increased death rates due to CREC air sacculitis (RR = 9.45) in high-risk flocks, identified CREC as an important air sacculitis risk factor. The attributable risk percent of CREC airsacculitis from hatcher exposure of CREC was 89.4%, pointing to the hatcher as the source of CREC infection. The association of specific broiler-breeder flocks to high levels of CREC in the hatchers, and subsequent air sacculitis, suggests that the broiler-breeders are the ultimate source of CREC. PMID:1423058

  6. Aerobic and anaerobic cecal bacterial flora of commercially processed broilers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Differences in the bacterial flora of aerobic and anaerobic cultures of broiler ceca collected from a commercial poultry processing facility were determined. Bacterial isolates from cecal cultures were selected based on the ability of the bacteria to grow in media supplemented with lactate and succ...

  7. Effects of broiler litter application on nutrient accumulations in soil.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Excessive nutrient accumulation in soils due to land application of broiler litter is a growing environmental concern. A four year study was conducted on a Pembroke silt loam soil (Mollic Paleudalf) cropped to orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) to evaluate accumulation of soil nutrients from broil...

  8. Salmonella in broiler flocks in the republic of Ireland.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Montserrat; Fanning, June; Murphy, Anne; Murray, Gerardine; Griffin, Margaret; Flack, Alma; Leonard, Nola; Egan, John

    2009-01-01

    In order to obtain an estimation of the prevalence of Salmonella spp. in flocks of broilers in the Republic of Ireland, a study was conducted in 2006 in a total of 362 broiler flocks associated with four integrated companies. Salmonella spp. was isolated from 27.3% of flocks, and eight Salmonella serovars were identified, none of which were Salmonella Enteritidis or Salmonella Typhimurium. The most prevalent serovar was Salmonella Mbandaka, followed by Salmonella Kentucky, which respectively accounted for 61.6% and 27.0% of positive samples. Notable differences were observed among the flocks associated with different integrated companies, both in the Salmonella spp. prevalence and in the serovar distribution. Results from routine official Salmonella testing in broiler production in 2006 showed similar serovar distribution within each integrated company from the associated hatchery and factory samples. In our study, differences in the prevalence of Salmonella at farm level did not correlate with differences in the percentages of positive chicken carcasses officially tested, which were low, for all the four companies investigated. Given the high prevalence of Salmonella Mbandaka, all human isolates obtained in the Republic of Ireland from 2003 to 2006 were compared to a subset of poultry isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, but an epidemiological link between the animal and the human strains could not be established. Finally the antimicrobial resistance analysis indicated a low proportion of resistant strains among the broiler flock isolates. PMID:19061369

  9. Developing an economically feasible solar brooding system for broiler production

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, N.E.; Handy, W.E.

    1981-01-01

    A computer simulation was used to establish the allowable first cost for a solar collector and storage tank for use in broiler production. To meet the cost constraints, a pressure-stabilized, cylindrical concentrator was selected for use in the system. 4 refs.

  10. Predictive algorithm for heating broiler houses with cord wood

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, S.A.; McLendon, B.D.; Stuckey, T.A.

    1983-06-01

    A 137 MJ/hr wood burner and a 3600 L underground energy storage tank were tested to determine experimentally a means for predicting the performance of the burner tank. Using results of the tests, a program was developed which could predict the amount of wood needed in heating a broiler house, thus reducing management time.

  11. Subsurface Banded Broiler Litter Improves Cotton Yield and Quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broiler litter is typically land-applied as a fertilizer by surface broadcasting, a practice that results in volatilization loss of N as NH3. This loss may be drastically reduced or eliminated by the use of a newly developed precision litter implement designed to apply the litter in bands just belo...

  12. Visible/NIR spectroscopy for Identifying Salmonella Infected Broilers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Visible/NIR spectroscopy has the potential to determine key wavelengths for bile detection on droppings. These wavelengths can be used for further development with hyperspectral and/or multispectral imaging methods for real-time monitoring broilers infected by Salmonella. From the preliminary test ...

  13. Broiler litter effects on forage quality in tall fescue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land application of broiler chicken (Gallus gallus) litter to forage crops is one of the most obvious methods of recycling nutrients. However, manure management remains one of the greatest challenges for livestock producers, particularly where animals are produced on relatively small land areas. Tal...

  14. Moisture management of broiler litter: Effects on ammonia generation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia (NH3) generation from broiler litter/facilities and estimates of emission factors are central topics associated with forthcoming air quality regulations for meat-bird production. Cooling pad use in warm weather, when not operated properly, may cause wetting of the litter surface. Whereas, ...

  15. Detection and location of 127 anatomical landmarks in diverse CT datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabbah, Mohammad A.; Murphy, Sean; Pello, Hippolyte; Courbon, Romain; Beveridge, Erin; Wiseman, Stewart; Wyeth, Daniel; Poole, Ian

    2014-03-01

    The automatic detection and localization of anatomical landmarks has wide application, including intra and interpatient registration, study location and navigation, and the targeting of specialized algorithms. In this paper, we demonstrate the automatic detection and localization of 127 anatomically defined landmarks distributed throughout the body, excluding arms. Landmarks are defined on the skeleton, vasculature and major organs. Our approach builds on the classification forests method,1 using this classifier with simple image features which can be efficiently computed. For the training and validation of the method we have used 369 CT volumes on which radiographers and anatomists have marked ground truth (GT) - that is the locations of all defined landmarks occurring in that volume. A particular challenge is to deal with the wide diversity of datasets encountered in radiology practice. These include data from all major scanner manufacturers, different extents covering single and multiple body compartments, truncated cardiac acquisitions, with and without contrast. Cases with stents and catheters are also represented. Validation is by a leave-one-out method, which we show can be efficiently implemented in the context of decision forest methods. Mean location accuracy of detected landmarks is 13.45mm overall; execution time averages 7s per volume on a modern server machine. We also present localization ROC analysis to characterize detection accuracy - that is to decide if a landmark is or is not present in a given dataset.

  16. [Sigismund Laskowski and his anatomical preparations technique].

    PubMed

    Gryglewski, Ryszard W

    2015-01-01

    Fixation of the entire bodies or individual organs, and later as well tissues and cellular structures, was and still is often a challenge for anatomists and histologists. Technique that combines extensive knowledge of natural sciences, as well as technical skills, was by those best researchers as Frederik Ruysch, brought to perfection. Preparations, if done with care and talent, are really propelling progress in anatomical studies and determining the quality of education for medical students and young physicians. And as it is true for many of today's medical disciplines and natural sciences, the nineteenth century was in many ways a breaking point for preparatory techniques in the realm of anatomy and histology. Among those who have achieved success, earning notoriety during their lifetime and often going into the annals of European most distinguished scholars were some Polish names: Louis Maurice Hirschfeld, whose preparations of the nervous system earned him well-deserved, international fame, Louis Charles Teichmann, who was the very first so precisely describing the lymphatic system and a creator of unique injection mass, Henry Kadyi, known for his outstanding preparations, especially of vascular system. Henry Frederick Hoyer sen., who was one of the first to use formalin regularly for accurate microscopic preparations, is seen by many as the founder of the Polish histology. In this group of innovators and precursors of modern preparation techniques place should be reserved for Zygmunt (Sigismund) Laskowski, Polish patriot, fighting in January Uprising, later an immigrant, a professor at the university sequentially Paris and Geneva. Acclaimed author of anatomical tables and certainly creator of one of the groundbreaking techniques in anatomical preparations. Based after many years of research on the simple glycerine-phenol mixture achieved excellent results both in fixation of entire bodies and organs or tissues. Quality of those preparations was as high and

  17. Jugular foramen: anatomic and computed tomographic study

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, D.L.; Williams, A.L.; Haughton, V.M.

    1984-01-01

    The computed tomographic (CT) appearance of the jugular foramen was examined in detail, and anatomic and CT sections were correlated. The pars nervosa and pars vascularis were identified, and, with intravenous contrast enhancement, a rapid sequence of scans at a gantry angle of +30/sup 0/ to the canthomeatal line demonstrated cranial nerves IX, X, and XI. The osseous margins of the jugular foramen were best shown by CT at planes of sections parallel and positive (0/sup 0/-30/sup 0/) to the canthomeatal line. CT can be used to evaluate osseous anatomy and the jugular foramen with precision sufficient to confidently exclude an intracanalicular mass.

  18. Anatomic Locking Plate Fixation for Scaphoid Nonunion

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Just; Sapienza, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Nonunion can occur relatively frequently after scaphoid fracture and appears to be associated with severity of injury. There have been a number of techniques described for bone grafting with or without screw fixation to facilitate fracture healing. However, even with operative fixation of scaphoid fractures with bone grafting nonunion or malunion rates of 5 to 10 percent are still reported. This is the first report of an anatomic locking plate for scaphoid fracture repair in a 25-year-old right hand dominant healthy male. PMID:27366338

  19. Effects of anatomical constraints on tumor growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capogrosso Sansone, B.; Delsanto, P. P.; Magnano, M.; Scalerandi, M.

    2001-08-01

    Competition for available nutrients and the presence of anatomical barriers are major determinants of tumor growth in vivo. We extend a model recently proposed to simulate the growth of neoplasms in real tissues to include geometrical constraints mimicking pressure effects on the tumor surface induced by the presence of rigid or semirigid structures. Different tissues have different diffusivities for nutrients and cells. Despite the simplicity of the approach, based on a few inherently local mechanisms, the numerical results agree qualitatively with clinical data (computed tomography scans of neoplasms) for the larynx and the oral cavity.

  20. Human vs model observers in anatomic backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckstein, Miguel P.; Abbey, Craig K.; Whiting, James S.

    1998-04-01

    Model observers have been compared to human performance detecting low contrast signals in a variety of computer generated background including white noise, correlated noise, lumpy backgrounds, and two component noise. The purpose of the present paper is to extend this work by comparing a cumber of previously proposed model observers to human visual detection performance in real anatomic backgrounds. Human and model observer performance are compared as a function of increasing added white noise. Our results show that three of the four models are good predictors of human performance.

  1. A comparison of post-mortem findings in broilers dead-on-farm and broilers dead-on-arrival at the abattoir.

    PubMed

    Kittelsen, K E; Granquist, E G; Kolbjørnsen, Ø; Nafstad, O; Moe, R O

    2015-11-01

    Broiler mortality during transport to abattoirs (dead-on-arrival/DOA) evokes concern due to compromised animal welfare and associated economic losses. The general aim of this study was to characterize pathological lesions associated with mortality in broilers close to slaughter. The specific aim was to investigate whether disease at the end of the growth period may be a predisposing factor for DOA by describing and comparing the pathological findings in broilers dead-on-farm (DOF) in the final days of the production cycle and in broilers DOA from the same flocks. Gross post-mortem examinations were performed on 607 broilers from 32 flocks, either DOF (371) or DOA (236). In DOF broilers, the most common pathological lesions were lung congestion (37.7%), endocarditis (29.4%), and ascites (24.0%), whereas the most common findings in broilers DOA were lung congestion (57.2%) and trauma (24.6%). Lung congestion was more prevalent among DOA broilers compared to DOF broilers (P-value of > 0.001). A possible cause behind the pathological finding lung congestion is sudden death syndrome (SDS). The study indicates that steps in the transportation process per se cause the majority of pathological lesions such as lung congestion and trauma that may have led to the mortalities registered. Pre-existing diseases such as ascites and osteomyelitis may also predispose for DOA. Thus, factors relating to on-farm health, catching, and transportation are all areas of future investigation in order to reduce transport mortalities and to enhance welfare in broilers. PMID:26500266

  2. Lighting during grow-out and Salmonella in broiler flocks

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Lighting is used during conventional broiler grow-out to modify bird behaviour to reach the goals of production and improve bird welfare. The protocols for lighting intensity vary. In a field study, we evaluated if the lighting practices impact the burden of Salmonella in broiler flocks. Methods Conventional grow-out flocks reared in the states of Alabama, Mississippi and Texas, USA in 2003 to 2006 were sampled 1 week before harvest (n = 58) and upon arrival for processing (n = 56) by collecting feathered carcass rinsate, crop and one cecum from each of 30 birds, and during processing by collecting rinsate of 30 carcasses at pre-chilling (n = 56) and post-chilling points (n = 54). Litter samples and drag swabs of litter were collected from the grow-out houses after bird harvest (n = 56). Lighting practices for these flocks were obtained with a questionnaire completed by the growers. Associations between the lighting practices and the burden of Salmonella in the flocks were tested while accounting for variation between the grow-out farms, their production complexes and companies. Results Longer relative duration of reduced lights during the grow-out period was associated with reduced detection of Salmonella on the exterior of birds 1 week before harvest and on the broiler carcasses at the post-chilling point of processing. In addition, starting reduced lights for ≥18 hours per day later in the grow-out period was associated with decreased detection of Salmonella on the exterior of broilers arriving for processing and in the post-harvest drag swabs of litter from the grow-out house. Conclusions The results of this field study show that lighting practices implemented during broiler rearing can impact the burden of Salmonella in the flock. The underlying mechanisms are likely to be interactive. PMID:20587037

  3. Effect of Chitosan on Salmonella Typhimurium in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Menconi, Anita; Pumford, Neil R.; Morgan, Marion J.; Bielke, Lisa R.; Kallapura, Gopala; Latorre, Juan D.; Wolfenden, Amanda D.; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl; Hargis, Billy M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Public concern with the incidence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, particularly among foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella, has been challenging the poultry industry to find alternative means of control. The purposes of the present study were to evaluate in vitro and in vivo effects of chitosan on Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (ST) infection in broiler chicks. For in vitro crop assay experiments, tubes containing feed, water, and ST were treated with either saline as a control or 0.2% chitosan. The entire assay was repeated in three trials. In two independent in vivo trials, 40 broiler chicks were assigned to an untreated control diet or dietary treatment with 0.2% chitosan for 7 days (20 broiler chicks/treatment). At day 4, chicks were challenged with 2×105 colony-forming units (CFU) ST/bird. In a third in vivo trial, 100 broiler chicks were assigned to untreated control diet or dietary treatment with 0.2% chitosan for 10 days (50 broiler chicks/treatment) to evaluate ST horizontal transmission. At day 3, 10 birds were challenged with 105 CFU ST/bird, and the remaining nonchallenged birds (n=40) were kept in the same floor pen. In all three in vitro trials, 0.2% chitosan significantly reduced total CFU of ST at 0.5 and 6 h postinoculation compared with control (p<0.05). In two in vivo trials, at 7 days, dietary 0.2% chitosan significantly reduced total CFU of recovered ST in the ceca in both experiments. Dietary 0.2% chitosan significantly reduced total ST CFU recovered in the ceca of horizontally challenged birds in the third in vivo trial. Chitosan at 0.2% significantly reduced the CFU of recovered ST in vitro and in vivo, proving to be an alternative tool to reduce crop, ceca, and consequently carcass ST contamination as well as decreasing the amount of ST shed to the environment. PMID:24237042

  4. Vocalisation sound pattern identification in young broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Fontana, I; Tullo, E; Scrase, A; Butterworth, A

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we describe the monitoring of young broiler chicken vocalisation, with sound recorded and assessed at regular intervals throughout the life of the birds from day 1 to day 38, with a focus on the first week of life. We assess whether there are recognisable, and even predictable, vocalisation patterns based on frequency and sound spectrum analysis, which can be observed in birds at different ages and stages of growth within the relatively short life of the birds in commercial broiler production cycles. The experimental trials were carried out in a farm where the broiler where reared indoor, and audio recording procedures carried out over 38 days. The recordings were made using two microphones connected to a digital recorder, and the sonic data was collected in situations without disturbance of the animals beyond that created by the routine activities of the farmer. Digital files of 1 h duration were cut into short files of 10 min duration, and these sound recordings were analysed and labelled using audio analysis software. Analysis of these short sound files showed that the key vocalisation frequency and patterns changed in relation to increasing age and the weight of the broilers. Statistical analysis showed a significant correlation (P<0.001) between the frequency of vocalisation and the age of the birds. Based on the identification of specific frequencies of the sounds emitted, in relation to age and weight, it is proposed that there is potential for audio monitoring and comparison with 'anticipated' sound patterns to be used to evaluate the status of farmed broiler chicken. PMID:26227085

  5. Reduction of ascites mortality in broilers by coenzyme Q10.

    PubMed

    Geng, A L; Guo, Y M; Yang, Y

    2004-09-01

    Effects of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) supplementation on growth performance and ascites were studied in broilers. One hundred eighty 1-d-old Arbor Acre male broiler chicks were randomly allocated into 3 groups with 6 replicates each. From d 8, the diets were supplemented with CoQ10 at levels of 0, 20, and 40 mg/kg, respectively. From d 15 to 21, all the chicks were exposed to low ambient temperature (15 to 18 degrees C) to induce ascites. Average feed intake, BW gain, and feed conversion ratio of the broilers during 0 to 3 wk, 3 to 6 wk, and 0 to 6 wk were measured. The results showed that there were no influences observed on broilers' growth performance, but the mortality due to ascites was reduced by CoQ10 supplementation (P < or = 0.05). Erythrocyte osmotic fragility (EOF) was significantly decreased by 40 mg/kg CoQ10 compared with the control, but no significant changes were observed on blood packed cell volume (PCV) among the treatments. Pulmonary arterial diastolic pressure was significantly decreased on d 36, but no significant changes were observed on right ventricular pressure (RVP), pulmonary arterial systolic pressure, and the maximum change ratio of right intraventricular pressure (+/- dp/ dtmax). Ascites heart index (AHI) was significantly decreased by 40 mg/kg CoQ10 supplementation (P < or = 0.05). The results of this study suggested that CoQ10 has a beneficial effect in reducing ascites mortality in broilers, and 40 mg/kg CoQ10 seems to be more effective than 20 mg/ kg CoQ10. PMID:15384911

  6. Bacterial chondronecrosis with osteomyelitis and lameness in broilers: a review.

    PubMed

    Wideman, Robert F

    2016-02-01

    This review focuses on a specific cause of lameness known as bacterial chondronecrosis with osteomyelitis (BCO) in broilers. Rapid increases in body weight impose excessive torque and shear stress on structurally immature epiphyseal and physeal cartilage, primarily in the proximal femora, proximal tibiae, and flexible thoracic vertebrae. Excessive mechanical stress creates osteochondrotic clefts among the chondrocytes of susceptible growth plates. These wound sites are colonized by hematogenously distributed opportunistic bacteria, culminating in the gross abscesses and necrotic voids that are pathognomonic for terminal BCO. Lameness attributable to characteristic BCO lesions can be reproduced by rearing broilers on wire flooring to create persistent footing instability and physiological stress, without the need to inoculate the birds with pathogenic bacteria that presumably are present but quiescent within the bird's microbial communities or in the environment. Experiments using the wire-flooring model revealed innate differences in the susceptibility of broiler lines to BCO, and demonstrated that BCO incidences can be reduced by prophylactically providing probiotics in the feed, by prophylactically adding 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 to the drinking water, or by therapeutically adding the antibiotic enrofloxacin to the drinking water. Hatchery and chick quality issues clearly influence the susceptibility of broilers to BCO. When broilers remain in a sitting posture for prolonged periods, the major arteries supplying their legs may be compressed. These episodes of inadequate blood flow may prevent chondrocyte maturation and trigger focal necrosis, thereby making the epiphyseal and physeal cartilage highly susceptible to osteochondrosis and BCO. Much remains to be revealed regarding the pathogenesis of BCO. Further revelations will be facilitated by the availability of the now-validated wire-flooring models that consistently trigger high incidences of BCO in experimental

  7. An l-Arginine supplement improves broiler hypertensive response and gut function in broiler chickens reared at high altitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khajali, Fariborz; Moghaddam, Maryam Heydary; Hassanpour, Hossein

    2014-08-01

    An experiment was carried out to examine the effects of supplemental dietary arginine (ARG) on growth, hypertensive response, and gut function in broilers reared at high altitude (2,100 m). A total of 120 day-old male broilers (Cobb 500) were divided equally into two treatment groups. Treatments included a control basal diet composed of corn and soybean meal and an experimental diet to which an l-ARG supplement was added at 10 g/kg. The trial lasted for 42 days. There were no treatment differences with regard to feed intake, body weight gain, or feed conversion ratio. However ARG supplementation did increase the plasma concentration of nitric oxide, a potent vasodilator ( P < 0.05), and attenuated indices of pulmonary hypertension as reflected by reductions in the hematocrit and the right to total ventricular weight ratio ( P < 0.05). Significantly enhanced intestinal mucosal development was observed in broilers receiving ARG supplement when compared with controls ( P < 0.05), suggesting that ARG supplementation increased the absorptive surface area of the jejunum and ileum. In conclusion, broiler diets supplemented with ARG beneficially improved pulmonary hemodynamics and appeared to enhance gut function.

  8. Stacking Time and Aluminum Sulfate Effects on Polyether Ionophores in Broiler Litter.

    PubMed

    Doydora, Sarah A; Sun, Peizhe; Cabrera, Miguel; Thompson, Aaron; Love-Myers, Kimberly; Rema, John; Calvert, Vaughn; Pavlostathis, Spyros G; Huang, Ching-Hua

    2015-11-01

    The use of ionophores as antiparasitic drugs plays an important role in US poultry production, especially in the broiler () industry. However, administered ionophores can pass through the bird's digestive system and appear in broiler litter, which, when applied to agricultural fields, can present an environmental hazard. Stacking (storing or stockpiling) broiler litter for some time might decrease the litter ionophore concentrations before land application. Because ionophores undergo abiotic hydrolysis at low pH, decreasing litter pH with acidic aluminum sulfate (alum) might also decrease ionophore concentrations. We assessed the change in ionophore concentrations in broiler litter in response to the length of time broiler litter was stored (stacking time) and alum addition. We spiked broiler litter with monensin and salinomycin, placed alum-amended litter (∼pH 4-5) and unamended litter (∼pH 8-9) into 1.8-m bins, and repeatedly sampled each bin for 112 d. Our findings showed that stacking broiler litter alone did not have an impact on monensin concentration, but it did slowly reduce salinomycin concentration by 55%. Adding alum to broiler litter reduced monensin concentration by approximately 20% relative to unamended litter, but it did not change salinomycin concentration. These results call for continued search for alternative strategies that could potentially reduce the concentration of ionophores in broiler litter before their application to agricultural soils. PMID:26641344

  9. Manganese levels and the morphology of the epiphyseal plate in broilers with slipped tendons.

    PubMed

    Thomas, K W; Lowther, D A

    1976-09-01

    Manganese deficiency in chickens results in perosis and a higher incidence of slipped tendon. Perosis is associated with a disorganization of the epiphyseal growth plates and changes in the chemical composition of the cartilage matrix. Male broilers with slipped tendons were selected from a commercial broiler farm over a 9 week growing period. Their growth rates, epiphyseal cartilage histology and tissue manganese concentrations were examined and compared with (a) normal broilers from the same farm, and (b) similar broilers raised on control and manganese deficient diets. Field broilers with slipped tendons showed no evidence of abnormality in the histological appearance of the proximal tibial growth plate at any of the ages examined. The manganese content of liver and epiphyseal cartilage from field broilers showing slipped tendon was comparable with that present in tissue from normal broilers wither from the field or raised on a chemically defined diey supplemented with managese. The slightly retared growth rate seen in the field broilers was attributed to feeding problems associated with the lameness condition. These results provide conclusive evidence that slipped tendon in field broilers is not dur to a manganese deficiency in the tissues, nor does it appear to be associated with abnormal proliferation of the chondrocytes in the epiphyseal plate. PMID:995818

  10. Arginine requirement of starting broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Cuca, M; Jensen, L S

    1990-08-01

    Three experiments were conducted to estimate the arginine requirement of male broiler chicks from 0 to 3 wk of age. The experiments were conducted in battery brooders with wires floors, and the birds received water and feed ad libitum. In the first experiment, chicks were fed a diet based on corn, soybean meal, casein, and corn-gluten meal containing 3,200 kcal ME per kg and either 20 or 23% crude protein. Regression analysis indicated an arginine requirement of 1.22% for maximum growth rate and feed efficiency with the 20% protein diet. For chicks fed the 23% protein diet, neither growth rate nor feed efficiency was significantly different among the diets containing arginine ranging from 1.13 to 1.43%. In the second experiment, a basal diet was used containing 17.5% casein and 22.5% protein with arginine ranging from 1.03 to 1.43%. An arginine requirement of 1.18% for maximum body weight gain was estimated by regression analysis, but no significant response to arginine above the basal level was observed for feed efficiency. Performance of chicks fed the basal diet was somewhat reduced because of a difficulty with adherence of feed to the beaks. In a third experiment, three basal diets containing 21, 22, or 23% protein were formulated from practical ingredients without use of casein. The requirement for maximum growth rate and feed efficiency was estimated to be 1.24 to 1.28% for the three diets. The results of these investigations indicate that the arginine requirement for starting chicks suggested by the National Research Council in 1984 of 1.44% in diets containing 3,200 kcal ME per kg is too high for practical diets. The data presented here support an arginine requirement of 1.25%. PMID:2235851

  11. Anatomical and molecular imaging of skin cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Hao; Sun, Jiangtao; Cai, Weibo

    2008-01-01

    Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer types. It is generally divided into two categories: melanoma (∼ 5%) and nonmelanoma (∼ 95%), which can be further categorized into basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and some rare skin cancer types. Biopsy is still the gold standard for skin cancer evaluation in the clinic. Various anatomical imaging techniques have been used to evaluate different types of skin cancer lesions, including laser scanning confocal microscopy, optical coherence tomography, high-frequency ultrasound, terahertz pulsed imaging, magnetic resonance imaging, and some other recently developed techniques such as photoacoustic microscopy. However, anatomical imaging alone may not be sufficient in guiding skin cancer diagnosis and therapy. Over the last decade, various molecular imaging techniques (in particular single photon emission computed tomography and positron emission tomography) have been investigated for skin cancer imaging. The pathways or molecular targets that have been studied include glucose metabolism, integrin αvβ3, melanocortin-1 receptor, high molecular weight melanoma-associated antigen, and several other molecular markers. Preclinical molecular imaging is thriving all over the world, while clinical molecular imaging has not lived up to the expectations because of slow bench-to-bedside translation. It is likely that this situation will change in the near future and molecular imaging will truly play an important role in personalized medicine of melanoma patients. PMID:21437135

  12. Anatomical modeling of the bronchial tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hentschel, Gerrit; Klinder, Tobias; Blaffert, Thomas; Bülow, Thomas; Wiemker, Rafael; Lorenz, Cristian

    2010-02-01

    The bronchial tree is of direct clinical importance in the context of respective diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It furthermore constitutes a reference structure for object localization in the lungs and it finally provides access to lung tissue in, e.g., bronchoscope based procedures for diagnosis and therapy. This paper presents a comprehensive anatomical model for the bronchial tree, including statistics of position, relative and absolute orientation, length, and radius of 34 bronchial segments, going beyond previously published results. The model has been built from 16 manually annotated CT scans, covering several branching variants. The model is represented as a centerline/tree structure but can also be converted in a surface representation. Possible model applications are either to anatomically label extracted bronchial trees or to improve the tree extraction itself by identifying missing segments or sub-trees, e.g., if located beyond a bronchial stenosis. Bronchial tree labeling is achieved using a naïve Bayesian classifier based on the segment properties contained in the model in combination with tree matching. The tree matching step makes use of branching variations covered by the model. An evaluation of the model has been performed in a leaveone- out manner. In total, 87% of the branches resulting from preceding airway tree segmentation could be correctly labeled. The individualized model enables the detection of missing branches, allowing a targeted search, e.g., a local rerun of the tree-segmentation segmentation.

  13. Digital imaging applications in anatomic pathology.

    PubMed

    Leong, F Joel W-M; Leong, Anthony S-Y

    2003-03-01

    Digital imaging has progressed at a rapid rate and is likely to eventually replace chemical photography in most areas of professional and amateur digital image acquisition. In pathology, digital microscopy has implications beyond that of taking a photograph. The arguments for adopting this new medium are compelling, and given similar developments in other areas of pathology and radiologic imaging, acceptance of the digital medium should be viewed as a component of the technological evolution of the laboratory. A digital image may be stored, replicated, catalogued, employed for educational purposes, transmitted for further interpretation (telepathology), analyzed for salient features (medical vision/image analysis), or form part of a wider digital healthcare strategy. Despite advances in digital camera technology, good image acquisition still requires good microscope optics and the correct calibration of all system components, something which many neglect. The future of digital imaging in pathology is very promising and new applications in the fields of automated quantification and interpretation are likely to have profound long-term influence on the practice of anatomic pathology. This paper discusses the state of the art of digital imaging in anatomic pathology. PMID:12605090

  14. CALIBRATION IS BOTH FUNCTIONAL AND ANATOMICAL

    PubMed Central

    Bingham, Geoffrey P.; Pan, Jing S.; Mon-Williams, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Bingham and Pagano (1998) described calibration as a mapping from embodied perceptual units to an embodied action unit and suggested that it is an inherent component of perception/action that yields accurate targeted actions. We tested two predictions of this ‘Mapping Theory’. First, calibration should transfer between limbs, because it involves a mapping from perceptual units to an action unit, and thus is functionally specific to the action (Pan, et al., submitted). We used distorted haptic feedback to calibrate feedforward right hand reaches and tested right and left hand reaches after calibration. The calibration transferred. Second, the Mapping Theory predicts that limb specific calibration should be possible because the units are embodied and anatomy contributes to their scaling. Limbs must be calibrated to one another given potential anatomical differences among limbs. We used distorted haptic feedback to calibrate feedforward reaches with right and left arms simultaneously in opposite directions relative to a visually specified target. Reaches tested after calibration revealed reliable limb specific calibration. Both predictions were confirmed. This resolves a prevailing controversy as to whether calibration is functional (Rieser, et al., 1995; Bruggeman & Warren, 2010) or anatomical (Durgin, et al., 1999; 2003). Necessarily, it is both. PMID:23855525

  15. [Anatomical visibility of the meridian information channels].

    PubMed

    Chang, Xi-lang

    2008-12-01

    The "structure imperfectness of signal channel rule" put forward by the author of the present paper may provide a theoretical evidence for the systematicness of meridian information channel. The conclusion that no special structure of the meridian-collateral system has been found is likely to serve as a piece of counterevidence. According to the latest structural view, the development of capillaries, lymphatic vessels and nerves needs target cells-released inducible factors. In the initial phase of the development of the organism, the asymmetry of the interspaces among cells results in the production and arrangement imbalance of the sequential factors which make the capillaries, lymphatic vessels and nerves distribute sequentially in time and space. Meridian-collateral, following the "systemic statistic distribution rule", is a general expression of this distribution pattern. As a systematic structure, the meridian-collateral system distributes in an optimized way in the human body and has both orderly and compatible characteristics. The author thinks that the meridian-collateral information channel is anatomically visible in the time and spatial structure, and in its logical structure and compatibility during the process of growth. Hence, many techniques of delicate anatomy, quantitative anatomy, growth anatomy, comparative anatomy, tridimensional remodeling of living creature and dynamical remodeling of growth all should be used as the important tools for studying the meridian information channel. The theory and the anatomical techniques determine what you would finally find. PMID:19288907

  16. Arthroscopic Anatomic Glenoid Reconstruction Without Subscapularis Split

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Ivan H.; Urquhart, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    The role of bone loss from the anterior glenoid in recurrent shoulder instability has been well established. We present a completely arthroscopic technique for reconstructing the anterior glenoid with distal tibial allograft and without a subscapularis split. We perform the arthroscopy in the lateral position. We measure and size an allograft distal tibial graft and place it arthroscopically. We use an inside-out medial portal to introduce the graft into the shoulder, passing it through the rotator interval and above the subscapularis. A double-cannula system is used to pass the graft, which is temporarily fixed with K-wires and held in place with cannulated screws. We then perform a Bankart-like repair of the soft tissues to balance the shoulder and augment our repair. Our technique is not only anatomic in the re-creation of the glenoid surface but also anatomic in the preservation of the coracoid and subscapularis tendon and repair of the capsulolabral complex. PMID:26697303

  17. Anatomic Optical Coherence Tomography of Upper Airways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin Loy, Anthony; Jing, Joseph; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Yong; Elghobashi, Said; Chen, Zhongping; Wong, Brian J. F.

    The upper airway is a complex and intricate system responsible for respiration, phonation, and deglutition. Obstruction of the upper airways afflicts an estimated 12-18 million Americans. Pharyngeal size and shape are important factors in the pathogenesis of airway obstructions. In addition, nocturnal loss in pharyngeal muscular tone combined with high pharyngeal resistance can lead to collapse of the airway and periodic partial or complete upper airway obstruction. Anatomical optical coherence tomography (OCT) has the potential to provide high-speed three-dimensional tomographic images of the airway lumen without the use of ionizing radiation. In this chapter we describe the methods behind endoscopic OCT imaging and processing to generate full three dimensional anatomical models of the human airway which can be used in conjunction with numerical simulation methods to assess areas of airway obstruction. Combining this structural information with flow dynamic simulations, we can better estimate the site and causes of airway obstruction and better select and design surgery for patients with obstructive sleep apnea.

  18. Magma chambers: Formation, local stresses, excess pressures, and compartments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudmundsson, Agust

    2012-09-01

    An existing magma chamber is normally a necessary condition for the generation of a large volcanic edifice. Most magma chambers form through repeated magma injections, commonly sills, and gradually expand and change their shapes. Highly irregular magma-chamber shapes are thermo-mechanically unstable; common long-term equilibrium shapes are comparatively smooth and approximate those of ellipsoids of revolution. Some chambers, particularly small and sill-like, may be totally molten. Most chambers, however, are only partially molten, the main part of the chamber being crystal mush, a porous material. During an eruption, magma is drawn from the crystal mush towards a molten zone beneath the lower end of the feeder dyke. Magma transport to the feeder dyke, however, depends on the chamber's internal structure; in particular on whether the chamber contains pressure compartments that are, to a degree, isolated from other compartments. It is only during large drops in the hydraulic potential beneath the feeder dyke that other compartments become likely to supply magma to the erupting compartment, thereby contributing to its excess pressure (the pressure needed to rupture a magma chamber) and the duration of the eruption. Simple analytical models suggest that during a typical eruption, the excess-pressure in the chamber decreases exponentially. This result applies to a magma chamber that (a) is homogeneous and totally fluid (contains no compartments), (b) is not subject to significant replenishment (inflow of new magma into the chamber) during the eruption, and (c) contains magma where exsolution of gas has no significant effect on the excess pressure. For a chamber consisting of pressure compartments, the exponential excess-pressure decline applies primarily to a single erupting compartment. When more than one compartment contributes magma to the eruption, the excess pressure may decline much more slowly and irregularly. Excess pressure is normally similar to the in

  19. p73-induced apoptosis: A question of compartments and cooperation

    SciTech Connect

    Dobbelstein, Matthias; Strano, Sabrina; Roth, Judith; Blandino, Giovanni . E-mail: blandino@ifo.it

    2005-06-10

    The transcriptionally active forms of p73 are capable of inducing apoptosis, and the isoforms termed TAp73 are important players when E2F and its oncogenic activators induce programmed cell death. However, the conditions under that TAp73 can kill a cell remain to be clarified. Recently, it has been found that p73 proteins are not merely floating in the nucleoplasm but rather can associate with specific compartments in the cell. Examples of intranuclear compartments associated with p73 proteins include the PML oncogenic domains and the nuclear matrix. In addition, p73 is found in the cytoplasm. It remains to be seen whether p73 might also associate with mitochondria, in analogy with p53. The relocalization of p73 is expected to be mediated by specific binding partners, mostly other proteins. Here, we discuss the possibility that the compartmentalization of p73, and the cooperation with the corresponding binding partners, might decide about its apoptosis-inducing activity.

  20. Endoscopic Thermal Fasciotomy for Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Voleti, Pramod B.; Lebrun, Drake G.; Roth, Cameron A.; Kelly, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome is an activity-induced condition that occurs when intracompartmental pressures within an osteofascial envelope increase during exercise, leading to reversible ischemic symptoms such as pain, cramping, numbness, or weakness. Nonoperative treatment options for this condition have shown limited success and are often undesirable for the patient given the requirement for activity modification. Traditional surgical treatment options involving open or subcutaneous fasciotomies have more favorable results, but these techniques are associated with significant morbidity. Endoscopically assisted fasciotomy techniques afford the advantages of being minimally invasive, providing excellent visualization, and allowing accelerated rehabilitation. The purpose of this article is to describe a technique for performing endoscopically assisted fasciotomies for chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the lower leg using an entirely endoscopic thermal ablating device. The endoscopic thermal fasciotomy technique is associated with minimal morbidity, ensures excellent hemostasis, and affords an early return to sports. PMID:26900549

  1. Endoscopic Thermal Fasciotomy for Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Voleti, Pramod B; Lebrun, Drake G; Roth, Cameron A; Kelly, John D

    2015-10-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome is an activity-induced condition that occurs when intracompartmental pressures within an osteofascial envelope increase during exercise, leading to reversible ischemic symptoms such as pain, cramping, numbness, or weakness. Nonoperative treatment options for this condition have shown limited success and are often undesirable for the patient given the requirement for activity modification. Traditional surgical treatment options involving open or subcutaneous fasciotomies have more favorable results, but these techniques are associated with significant morbidity. Endoscopically assisted fasciotomy techniques afford the advantages of being minimally invasive, providing excellent visualization, and allowing accelerated rehabilitation. The purpose of this article is to describe a technique for performing endoscopically assisted fasciotomies for chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the lower leg using an entirely endoscopic thermal ablating device. The endoscopic thermal fasciotomy technique is associated with minimal morbidity, ensures excellent hemostasis, and affords an early return to sports. PMID:26900549

  2. Distributed transit compartments for arbitrary lifespan distributions in aging populations.

    PubMed

    Koch, Gilbert; Schropp, Johannes

    2015-09-01

    Transit compartment models (TCM) are often used to describe aging populations where every individual has its own lifespan. However, in the TCM approach these lifespans are gamma-distributed which is a serious limitation because often the Weibull or more complex distributions are realistic. Therefore, we extend the TCM concept to approximately describe any lifespan distribution and call this generalized concept distributed transit compartment models (DTCMs). The validity of DTCMs is obtained by convergence investigations. From the mechanistic perspective the transit rates are directly controlled by the lifespan distribution. Further, DTCMs could be used to approximate the convolution of a signal with a probability density function. As example a stimulatory effect of a drug in an aging population with a Weibull-distributed lifespan is presented where distribution and model parameters are estimated based on simulated data. PMID:26100181

  3. Compartment syndrome after total knee arthroplasty: regarding a clinical case☆

    PubMed Central

    Pinheiro, Ana Alexandra da Costa; Marques, Pedro Miguel Dantas Costa; Sá, Pedro Miguel Gomes; Oliveira, Carolina Fernandes; da Silva, Bruno Pombo Ferreira; de Sousa, Cristina Maria Varino

    2015-01-01

    Although compartment syndrome is a rare complication of total knee arthroplasty, it is one of the most devastating complications. It is defined as a situation of increased pressure within a closed osteofascial space that impairs the circulation and the functioning of the tissues inside this space, thereby leading to ischemia and tissue dysfunction. Here, a clinical case of a patient who was followed up in orthopedic outpatient consultations due to right gonarthrosis is presented. The patient had a history of arthroscopic meniscectomy and presented knee flexion of 10° before the operation, which consisted of total arthroplasty of the right knee. The operation seemed to be free from intercurrences, but the patient evolved with compartment syndrome of the ipsilateral leg after the operation. Since compartment syndrome is a true surgical emergency, early recognition and treatment of this condition through fasciotomy is crucial in order to avoid amputation, limb dysfunction, kidney failure and death. However, it may be difficult to make the diagnosis and cases may not be recognized if the cause of compartment syndrome is unusual or if the patient is under epidural analgesia and/or peripheral nerve block, which thus camouflages the main warning sign, i.e. disproportional pain. In addition, edema of the limb that underwent the intervention is common after total knee arthroplasty operations. This study presents a review of the literature and signals that the possible rarity of cases is probably due to failure to recognize this condition in a timely manner and to placing these patients in other diagnostic groups that are less likely, such as neuropraxia caused by using a tourniquet or peripheral nerve injury. PMID:26401507

  4. Elimination Behavior of Shelter Dogs Housed in Double Compartment Kennels

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Denae; Newbury, Sandra; Kass, Philip; Hurley, Kate

    2014-01-01

    For animals in confinement housing the housing structure has tremendous potential to impact well being. Dogs in animal shelters are often housed in one of two types of confinement housing – single kennels and rooms or double compartment kennels and rooms most often separated by a guillotine door. This study examines the effect of housing on the location of elimination behavior in dogs housed in double compartment kennels were the majority of the dogs were walked daily. One side of the kennel contained the food, water and bed and the other side was empty and available except during cleaning time. Location of urination and defecation was observed daily for 579 dogs housed in indoor double compartment kennels for a total of 4440 days of observation. There were 1856 days (41.9%) when no elimination was noted in the kennel. Feces, urine or both were observed in the kennel on 2584 days (58.1%). When elimination occurred in the kennel the probability of fecal elimination on the opposite side of the bed/food/water was 72.5% (95% CI 69.05% to 75.69%). The probability of urination on the opposite side of the bed/food/water was 77.4% (95% CI 74.33% to 80.07%). This study demonstrates the strong preference of dogs to eliminate away from the area where they eat, drink and sleep. Double compartment housing not only allows this – it allows staff the ability to provide safe, efficient, humane daily care and confers the added benefits of reducing risks for disease transmission for the individual dog as well as the population. PMID:24825357

  5. Closeup view of the reflective insulation protecting the Crew Compartment ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of the reflective insulation protecting the Crew Compartment bulkhead, orbiter structure and landing gear housing in the void created by the removal of the Forward Reaction Control System Module from the forward section of the Orbiter Discovery. This image was taken from the service platform in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  6. Three STS 26 astronauts training in the Crew Compartment trainer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Three astronauts named in January 1987 as part of a five-member crew for NASA's first flight since the Challenger accident are shown in a photo session of July 1986. Left to right are Astronauts John M. (Mike) Lounge, Richard O. Covey and David C. Hilmers. Lounge and Hilmers will serve as Mission specialists for the STS 26 flight and Covey will serve as pilot. The three are on the middeck of JSC's one-G Crew Compartment Trainer (CCT).

  7. Closeup view if the starboard side of the crew compartment ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view if the starboard side of the crew compartment mid-deck of the Orbiter Discovery. This is a close up view of the galley for meal preparations. In the center right of the image is stowage lockers that are designated to store meals for the mission. This photograph was taken at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  8. Rare times rare: The hyponatremia, rhabdomyolysis, anterior compartment syndrome sequence

    PubMed Central

    Dubin, Ina; Gelber, Moshe

    2016-01-01

    Lesson Primary polydipsia occurs in up to 25% of patients with chronic psychiatric disorders (especially schizophrenia), related to the disease, its treatment or both. Urine output fails to match intake >10 L/day and water intoxication may develop. Rhabdomyolysis is a rare complication of hyponatremia, and an acute anterior compartment syndrome of the leg, an emergency, may be very rarely associated. PMID:27186379

  9. Bacterial assemblages differ between compartments within the coral holobiont

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweet, M. J.; Croquer, A.; Bythell, J. C.

    2011-03-01

    It is widely accepted that corals are associated with a diverse and host species-specific microbiota, but how they are organized within their hosts remains poorly understood. Previous sampling techniques (blasted coral tissues, coral swabs and milked mucus) may preferentially sample from different compartments such as mucus, tissue and skeleton, or amalgamate them, making comparisons and generalizations between studies difficult. This study characterized bacterial communities of corals with minimal mechanical disruption and contamination from water, air and sediments from three compartments: surface mucus layer (SML), coral tissue and coral skeleton. A novel apparatus (the `snot sucker') was used to separate the SML from tissues and skeleton, and these three compartments were compared to swab samples and milked mucus along with adjacent environmental samples (water column and sediments). Bacterial 16S rRNA gene diversity was significantly different between the various coral compartments and environmental samples (PERMANOVA, F = 6.9, df = 8, P = 0.001), the only exceptions being the complete crushed coral samples and the coral skeleton, which were similar, because the skeleton represents a proportionally large volume and supports a relatively rich microflora. Milked mucus differed significantly from the SML collected with the `snot sucker' and was contaminated with zooxanthellae, suggesting that it may originate at least partially from the gastrovascular cavity rather than the tissue surface. A common method of sampling the SML, surface swabs, produced a bacterial community profile distinct from the SML sampled using our novel apparatus and also showed contamination from coral tissues. Our results indicate that microbial communities are spatially structured within the coral holobiont, and methods used to describe these need to be standardized to allow comparisons between studies.

  10. Lemniscal and Extralemniscal Compartments in the VPM of the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Haidarliu, Sebastian; Yu, Chunxiu; Rubin, Naama; Ahissar, Ehud

    2008-01-01

    The ventral posteromedial thalamic nucleus (VPM) of the rat contains at least two major vibrissa-representing compartments: the dorsomedial (VPMdm), which belongs to the lemniscal afferent pathway, and the ventrolateral (VPMvl), which belongs to the extralemniscal afferent pathway. Although input–output projections and functional characteristics that distinguish these two compartments were recently clarified, a comprehensive structural analysis of these compartments and the border between them was lacking. This paper addresses structural and functional relationships between the VPMdm and VPMvl. We found that the size of the VPM is almost constant across individual rats. Next, we computed a canonical map of the VPM in the oblique plane, where structural borders are best visualized. Using the canonical map, and sequential slices cut in oblique and coronal planes, we determined the border between the VPMdm and VPMvl in the standard coronal plane, and verified it with in vivo extracellular recordings. The position of the border between these two vibrissal sub-nuclei changes along the rostrocaudal extent within the VPM due to the relative sizes of these sub-nuclei at any point. The border between the VPMdm and VPMvl, which was revealed by this technique, can now be included in atlases of the rat brain and should facilitate experimental correlation of tactile functions with thalamic regions. PMID:18958201

  11. The statolith compartment in Chara rhizoids contains carbohydrate and protein

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang-Cahill, F.; Kiss, J. Z.

    1995-01-01

    In contrast to higher plants, the alga Chara has rhizoids with single membrane-bound compartments that function as statoliths in gravity perception. Previous work has demonstrated that these statoliths contain barium sulfate crystals. In this study, we show that statoliths in Chara rhizoids react with a Coomassie Brilliant Blue cytochemical stain for proteins. While statoliths did not react with silver methenamine carbohydrate cytochemistry, the monoclonal antibody CCRC-M2, which is against a carbohydrate (sycamore-maple rhamnogalacturonan I), labeled the statolith compartment. These results demonstrate that in addition to barium sulfate, statoliths in Chara rhizoids have an organic matrix that consists of protein and carbohydrate moieties. Since the statoliths were silver methenamine negative, the carbohydrate in this compartment could be a 3-linked polysaccharide. CCRC-M2 also labeled Golgi cisternae, Golgi-associated vesicles, apical vesicles, and cell walls in the rhizoids. The specificity of CCRC-M2 immunolabeling was verified by several control experiments, including the demonstration that labeling was abolished when the antibody was preabsorbed with its antigen. Since in this and a previous study (John Z. Kiss and L. Andrew Staehelin, American Journal of Botany 80: 273-282, 1993) antibodies against higher plant carbohydrates crossreacted with cell walls of Chara in a specific manner, Characean algae may be a useful model system in biochemical and molecular studies of cell walls.

  12. Opioid overdose with gluteal compartment syndrome and acute peripheral neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Adrish, Muhammad; Duncalf, Richard; Diaz-Fuentes, Gilda; Venkatram, Sindhaghatta

    2014-01-01

    Patient: Male, 42 Final Diagnosis: Gluteal compartment syndrome • acute peripheral nauropathy Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Critical Care Medicine Objective: Management of emergency care Background: Heroin addiction is common, with an estimated 3.7 million Americans reporting to have used it at some point in their lives. Complications of opiate overdose include infection, rhabdomyolysis, respiratory depression and central or peripheral nervous system neurological complications. Conclusions: We present a 42-year-old male admitted after heroin use with heroin-related peripheral nervous system complication preceded by an acute gluteal compartment syndrome and severe rhabdomyolysis. Case Report: Early diagnosis and surgical intervention of the compartment syndrome can lead to full recovery while any delay in management can be devastating and can lead to permanent disability. The presence of peripheral nervous system injuries may portend a poor prognosis and can also lead to long term disability. Careful neurological evaluation for signs and symptoms of peripheral nervous system injuries is of paramount importance, as these may be absent at presentation in patients with opioid overdose. There is a potential risk of delaying a necessary treatment like fasciotomy in these patients by falsely attributing clinical symptoms to a preexisting neuropathy. Early EMG and nerve conduction studies should be considered when the etiology of underlying neurological weakness is unclear. PMID:24459539

  13. Effect of vacuum sealing drainage in osteofascial compartment syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Li, Weihua; Ji, Lei; Tao, Weidong

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the effect of vacuum sealing drainage in the patients with osteofascial compartment syndrome in comparison to conventional treatment. Methods: Fifty-two patients diagnosed with osteofascial compartment syndrome were enrolled in this study. They were randomly divided into two groups based on treatments: vacuum sealing drainage and conventional treatment. After operation, the length of hospital stay and antibiotics administration were recorded in the two groups, as well as swelling elimination and wound closure. Results: No significant difference was observed in terms of the baseline characteristics between the two groups. There are no obvious local or systemic complications in all cases. In contrast to conventional treatment group, the time of swelling elimination, wound closure, hospital stay and antibiotics application were reduced significantly in vacuum sealing drainage group. No allergic reactions or other side effects were observed after the application of vacuum sealing drainage material, indicating its safety. Conclusion: Vacuum sealing drainage is effective in treating osteofascial compartment syndrome with better clinical outcomes than conventional therapy. PMID:26629121

  14. Design/Development of Spacecraft and Module Crew Compartments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Jerry R.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the design and development of crew compartments for spacecraft and for modules. The Crew Compartment or Crew Station is defined as the spacecraft interior and all other areas the crewman interfaces inside the cabin, or may potentially interface.It uses examples from all of the human rated spacecraft. It includes information about the process, significant drivers for the design, habitability, definitions of models, mockups, prototypes and trainers, including pictures of each stage in the development from Apollo, pictures of the space shuttle trainers, and International Space Station trainers. It further reviews the size and shape of the Space Shuttle orbiter crew compartment, and the Apollo command module and the lunar module. It also has a chart which reviews the International Space Station (ISS) internal volume by stage. The placement and use of windows is also discussed. Interestingly according to the table presented, the number 1 rated piece of equipment for recreation was viewing windows. The design of crew positions and restraints, crew translation aids and hardware restraints is shown with views of the restraints and handholds used from the Apollo program through the ISS.

  15. Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome in a High School Soccer Player.

    PubMed

    Bresnahan, James J; Hennrikus, William L

    2015-01-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) is a relatively rare condition that affects young adult athletes and often causes them to present to the emergency department. If left untreated, those who continue to compete at high levels may experience debilitating leg pain. Physicians may have difficulty differentiating CECS from other syndromes of the lower leg such as medial tibial stress syndrome, stress fractures, and popliteal artery entrapment. The gold standard for diagnosing CECS is intramuscular compartment pressure monitoring before and/or after 10 minutes of exercise. Some patients may choose to stop participation in sports in order to relieve their pain, which otherwise does not respond well to nonoperative treatments. In patients who wish to continue to participate in sports and live an active life, fasciotomy provides relief in 80% or more. The typical athlete can return to training in about 8 weeks. This is a case of a high school soccer player who stopped competing due to chronic exertional compartment syndrome. She had a fascial hernia, resting intramuscular pressure of 30 mmHg, and postexercise intramuscular pressure of 99 mmHg. Following fasciotomy she experienced considerable life improvement and is once again training and playing soccer without symptoms. PMID:26229700

  16. Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome in a High School Soccer Player

    PubMed Central

    Bresnahan, James J.; Hennrikus, William L.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) is a relatively rare condition that affects young adult athletes and often causes them to present to the emergency department. If left untreated, those who continue to compete at high levels may experience debilitating leg pain. Physicians may have difficulty differentiating CECS from other syndromes of the lower leg such as medial tibial stress syndrome, stress fractures, and popliteal artery entrapment. The gold standard for diagnosing CECS is intramuscular compartment pressure monitoring before and/or after 10 minutes of exercise. Some patients may choose to stop participation in sports in order to relieve their pain, which otherwise does not respond well to nonoperative treatments. In patients who wish to continue to participate in sports and live an active life, fasciotomy provides relief in 80% or more. The typical athlete can return to training in about 8 weeks. This is a case of a high school soccer player who stopped competing due to chronic exertional compartment syndrome. She had a fascial hernia, resting intramuscular pressure of 30 mmHg, and postexercise intramuscular pressure of 99 mmHg. Following fasciotomy she experienced considerable life improvement and is once again training and playing soccer without symptoms. PMID:26229700

  17. RAB24 facilitates clearance of autophagic compartments during basal conditions

    PubMed Central

    Ylä-Anttila, Päivi; Mikkonen, Elisa; Happonen, Kaisa E; Holland, Petter; Ueno, Takashi; Simonsen, Anne; Eskelinen, Eeva-Liisa

    2015-01-01

    RAB24 belongs to a family of small GTPases and has been implicated to function in autophagy. Here we confirm the intracellular localization of RAB24 to autophagic vacuoles with immuno electron microscopy and cell fractionation, and show that prenylation and guanine nucleotide binding are necessary for the targeting of RAB24 to autophagic compartments. Further, we show that RAB24 plays a role in the maturation and/or clearance of autophagic compartments under nutrient-rich conditions, but not during short amino acid starvation. Quantitative electron microscopy shows an increase in the numbers of late autophagic compartments in cells silenced for RAB24, and mRFP-GFP-LC3 probe and autophagy flux experiments indicate that this is due to a hindrance in their clearance. Formation of autophagosomes is shown to be unaffected by RAB24-silencing with siRNA. A defect in aggregate clearance in the absence of RAB24 is also shown in cells forming polyglutamine aggregates. This study places RAB24 function in the termination of the autophagic process under nutrient-rich conditions. PMID:26325487

  18. 75 FR 75 - Special Conditions: Boeing Model 787-8 Airplane; Overhead Crew Rest Compartment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-04

    ... OCR compartment. (4) Structural failure or deformation of components that could block access to the..., mechanical or structural failure, or persons standing below or against the crew rest compartment outlets....

  19. View of compartment D16, passing room; shaft and universal joints ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of compartment D-16, passing room; shaft and universal joints at top of photograph transmit control forces to steering unit in compartment d-23. (p62) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  20. Forearm compartment syndrome after intravenous mannitol extravasation in a carbosulfan poisoning patient.

    PubMed

    Eroglu, Ahmet; Uzunlar, Halil

    2004-01-01

    We report a case of forearm compartment syndrome caused by extravasation of mannitol in an intoxicated patient. The pathophysiology and management of a forearm compartment syndrome from extravasation of mannitol are discussed in this case. PMID:15462158

  1. View of bulkhead mounted steam powered windlass in compartment B126 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of bulkhead mounted steam powered windlass in compartment B-126 used for servicng boiler room compartments B-3 and B-4. (052A) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  2. Effect of air deflectors on fan performance in tunnel-ventilated broiler houses with a dropped ceiling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Air velocity is a critical design parameter for modern commercial broiler houses, owing to the beneficial effects of increased cooling on live performance and thermal comfort in broiler chickens. As a result, design velocities have increased over the last 15 years and broiler growers have installed ...

  3. The effect of chilling broiler carcasses in cold air or ice water on the population of Campylobacter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broiler carcasses from a Campylobacter positive flock may remain contaminated with Campylobacter after processing. Most broiler companies in the U.S. use an ice water immersion method to bring carcasses down in temperature; air chilling of broiler carcasses is more common in Europe. The objective ...

  4. [Characteristics of duodenal ruptures depending on topographical and anatomical properties of this organ and circumstances of blunt abdominal trauma].

    PubMed

    Pigolkin, Iu I; Dubrovin, I A; Chirkov, R N; Dubrovina, I A; Khachaturian, B S; Mosoian, A S; Dallakian, V F

    2013-01-01

    We have studied specific morphological properties of duodenal rupture depending on the topographic and anatomical features of this organ and circumstances of blunt abdominal trauma suffered in a car crash (with the victim found in the passenger compartment or involved in an automobile-pedestrian accident) and a railway crash (a train-pedestrian accident) or resulting from a blunt-force trauma, a fall from height, a fall on the stomach, and traumatic compression of the body. We took into consideration the anatomical peculiarities of the duodenal rupture, such as its circular, horseshoe, and loop-like shape. The study has demonstrated that the frequency of duodenal injury associated with a blunt abdominal trauma shows a stronger dependence on the topographical and anatomical peculiarities of duodenum than on the circumstances of the case. Specifically, the circular duodenum and especially its descending portion are more readily subjected to the damage than the organs of a different shape. The position of the break with respect to the duodenal axis is an important diagnostic signs allowing to clarify circumstances of the blunt injury. Transverse ruptures are typical of strong impacts associated with the short-term interaction between the damaging object and the affected part of the body whereas longitudinal ruptures more commonly occur as a result the long-term traumatic impact. Bile imbibition of paraduodenal and peripancreatic retroperitoneal adipose tissue may be used as an additional diagnostic sign of duodenal rupture. PMID:24428049

  5. Nomina anatomica. Anatomic terminology and the old French terminology.

    PubMed

    Chiapas-Gasca, Karla; Passos, Luiz Fernando De Souza; Euzébio Ribeiro, Sandra Lúcia; Villaseñor-Ovies, Pablo

    A surprising finding in our seminars in Latin America and Spain was that approximately half of the participants continued to use the old French anatomical nomenclature. The substance of this paper is a table in which we compare the anatomical names for the items reviewed in our seminar, in a Spanish version of the old French nomenclature and in the Spanish, Portuguese, and English versions of the currently employed anatomical terms. PMID:23228528

  6. Analysis of factors important for the occurrence of Campylobacter in Danish broiler flocks.

    PubMed

    Sommer, H M; Heuer, O E; Sørensen, A I V; Madsen, M

    2013-08-01

    For more than a decade human campylobacteriosis has been the leading zoonosis in many developed countries. Consumption of poultry or poultry products has been identified as the primary source of infection in humans. This study was conducted to identify risk factors for the occurrence of Campylobacter in Danish broiler flocks. The study was based on a large data set consisting of Campylobacter positive status for nearly 6000 broiler flocks and 43 explanatory variables. Data were obtained from the Danish Campylobacter surveillance programme in poultry and from the responses to a standardized questionnaire answered via interviews with broiler farm owners. Two hundred and forty broiler farms, comprising 539 broiler houses, were included in the study and their Campylobacter status was followed over a 2-year period (1999-2000). The large number of observations made it possible to carry out a multivariate analysis including all 43 variables. A multivariate analysis was conducted using a generalized linear model, and the correlations between the houses from the same farms were accounted for by adding a variance structure to the model. The procedures for analyses included backward elimination, forward selection and expanding of the number of observations used in the variance analysis along with the reduction of the number of parameters in the model. The unit of analysis was 'broiler house', meaning that all results from a broiler house were aggregated into one prevalence figure (number of positive flocks/total number of flocks delivered over the 2-year period). The following factors were found to be significantly associated with the occurrence of Campylobacter in the broiler flocks: old broiler houses, late introduction of whole wheat in the feed, relatively high broiler age at slaughter, improper rodent control, large number of chimneys on the broiler house, farm located in an area with a high density of cattle farms, having more than one broiler house on the farm, and

  7. Saline drinking water in broiler and Leghorn chicks and the effect in broilers of increasing levels and age at time of exposure

    PubMed Central

    Mirsalimi, S. Mehdi; Julian, Richard J.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to assess the effect of increasing levels of salt and 5 g/L of salt (0.20% extra sodium) in the drinking water in broiler chickens at various ages up to five weeks of age and to compare the response of broiler chickens and White Leghorns to saline water (0.20% sodium). The effect was measured by the response of the right ventricle to pulmonary hypertension. The results indicated that broiler chickens under three weeks are more susceptible to saline water containing 0.20% sodium than those over three weeks of age, and that broilers given increasing levels of dietary salt may be more resistant to excess dietary salt than those that have had no previous exposure. The results also demonstrated that broiler chickens are more susceptible than White Leghorns to 0.20% extra dietary sodium in drinking water. We conclude that Leghorn chicks are more resistant to excess dietary sodium than broilers and that broilers become more resistant to saline water containing 0.20% sodium after three weeks of age. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:17424251

  8. Changes of hepatic biochemical parameters and proteomics in broilers with cold-induced ascites

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Ascites syndrome is still a problem for chicken industry in various parts of the world. Despite the intensive investigations of this syndrome for many years, its pathogenesis remains unclear. The objective of this study was to analyze the difference in hepatic proteomics between ascites and healthy broilers by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Changes of biochemical parameters of liver and blood were also determined. The results indicated that red blood cell counts (RBC), hematocrit (HCT) and haemoglobin (HGB) of ascites broilers were significantly greater than healthy broilers. Hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) level of ascites broilers was significantly increased, and the activity of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) was significantly decreased. Hepatic lactic acid (LD) level of ascitic broilers were significantly lower than healthy ones. Serum glucose and cholesterol level of ascites broilers were significantly increased, and serum globulin level was significantly decreased in ascites broilers. There was no significant difference in triglyceride (TG) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) level. The activity of liver hexokinase (HK) and succinodehydrogenase (SDH) in ascites broilers was significantly decreased, and there was no significant difference in the activity of liver pyruvate kinase (PK) and Na+-K+-ATPase. The hepatic proteomics analysis showed that 18 proteins expression difference were identified between ascites and healthy broilers. These proteins were mainly involved in: 1) cytoskeleton; 2) glucose, lipids and amino acid metabolism; 3) cell secretion; 4) cell apoptosis; 5) signal transduction; 6) immune and inflammatory response; and 7) cellular redox homeostasis. Mitochondrial isoform phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (M-PEPCK) mainly participates in gluconeogenesis of chicken liver. In conclusion, liver oxidative damage was significantly aggravated, but

  9. Changes of hepatic biochemical parameters and proteomics in broilers with cold-induced ascites.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongwei; Guo, Yuming; Ning, Dong; Peng, Yunzhi; Cai, Hong; Tan, Jianzhuang; Yang, Ying; Liu, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Ascites syndrome is still a problem for chicken industry in various parts of the world. Despite the intensive investigations of this syndrome for many years, its pathogenesis remains unclear. The objective of this study was to analyze the difference in hepatic proteomics between ascites and healthy broilers by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Changes of biochemical parameters of liver and blood were also determined. The results indicated that red blood cell counts (RBC), hematocrit (HCT) and haemoglobin (HGB) of ascites broilers were significantly greater than healthy broilers. Hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) level of ascites broilers was significantly increased, and the activity of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) was significantly decreased. Hepatic lactic acid (LD) level of ascitic broilers were significantly lower than healthy ones. Serum glucose and cholesterol level of ascites broilers were significantly increased, and serum globulin level was significantly decreased in ascites broilers. There was no significant difference in triglyceride (TG) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) level. The activity of liver hexokinase (HK) and succinodehydrogenase (SDH) in ascites broilers was significantly decreased, and there was no significant difference in the activity of liver pyruvate kinase (PK) and Na+-K+-ATPase. The hepatic proteomics analysis showed that 18 proteins expression difference were identified between ascites and healthy broilers. These proteins were mainly involved in: 1) cytoskeleton; 2) glucose, lipids and amino acid metabolism; 3) cell secretion; 4) cell apoptosis; 5) signal transduction; 6) immune and inflammatory response; and 7) cellular redox homeostasis. Mitochondrial isoform phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (M-PEPCK) mainly participates in gluconeogenesis of chicken liver. In conclusion, liver oxidative damage was significantly aggravated, but

  10. Protective Roles of Sodium Selenite against Aflatoxin B1-Induced Apoptosis of Jejunum in Broilers

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Xi; Zhang, Shengqiang; Fang, Jing; Cui, Hengmin; Zuo, Zhicai; Deng, Junliang

    2014-01-01

    The effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) exposure and sodium selenite supplementation on cell apoptosis of jejunum in broilers were studied. A total of 240 one-day-old male AA broilers were randomly assigned four dietary treatments containing 0 mg/kg of AFB1 (control), 0.3 mg/kg AFB1 (AFB1), 0.4 mg/kg supplement Se (+ Se) and 0.3 mg/kg AFB1 + 0.4 mg/kg supplement Se (AFB1 + Se), respectively. Compared with the control broilers, the number of apoptotic cells, the expression of Bax and Caspase-3 mRNA were significantly increased, while the expression of Bcl-2 mRNA and the Bcl-2/Bax ratio were significantly decreased in AFB1 broilers. The number of apoptotic cells and the expression of Caspase-3 mRNA in AFB1 + Se broilers were significantly higher than those in the control broilers, but significantly lower than those in AFB1 broilers. There were no significant changes in the expression of Bax mRNA between AFB1 + Se and control broilers; the expression of Bcl-2 mRNA and the Bcl-2/Bax ratio in AFB1 + Se broilers were significantly lower than those in the control broilers, but significantly higher than those in AFB1 broilers. In conclusion, 0.3 mg/kg AFB1 in the diet can increase cell apoptosis, decrease Bcl-2 mRNA expression, and increase of Bax and Caspase-3 mRNA expression in broiler’s jejunum. However, supplementation of dietary sodium selenite at the concentration of 0.4 mg/kg Se may ameliorate AFB1-induced apoptosis by increasing Bcl-2 mRNA expression, and decreasing Bax and Caspase-3 mRNA expression. PMID:25526081

  11. 30 CFR 56.19072 - Skips and cages in same compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Skips and cages in same compartment. 56.19072... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 56.19072 Skips and cages in same compartment. When combinations of cages and skips are used in the same compartment, the cages shall be enclosed to protect personnel from...

  12. 30 CFR 56.19072 - Skips and cages in same compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Skips and cages in same compartment. 56.19072... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 56.19072 Skips and cages in same compartment. When combinations of cages and skips are used in the same compartment, the cages shall be enclosed to protect personnel from...

  13. 30 CFR 56.19072 - Skips and cages in same compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Skips and cages in same compartment. 56.19072... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 56.19072 Skips and cages in same compartment. When combinations of cages and skips are used in the same compartment, the cages shall be enclosed to protect personnel from...

  14. 30 CFR 57.19072 - Skips and cages in same compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Skips and cages in same compartment. 57.19072... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 57.19072 Skips and cages in same compartment. When combinations of cages and skips are used in the same compartment, the cages shall be enclosed to protect personnel from...

  15. 30 CFR 57.19072 - Skips and cages in same compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Skips and cages in same compartment. 57.19072... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 57.19072 Skips and cages in same compartment. When combinations of cages and skips are used in the same compartment, the cages shall be enclosed to protect personnel from...

  16. 30 CFR 57.19072 - Skips and cages in same compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Skips and cages in same compartment. 57.19072... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 57.19072 Skips and cages in same compartment. When combinations of cages and skips are used in the same compartment, the cages shall be enclosed to protect personnel from...

  17. 30 CFR 56.19072 - Skips and cages in same compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Skips and cages in same compartment. 56.19072... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 56.19072 Skips and cages in same compartment. When combinations of cages and skips are used in the same compartment, the cages shall be enclosed to protect personnel from...

  18. 30 CFR 57.19072 - Skips and cages in same compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Skips and cages in same compartment. 57.19072... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 57.19072 Skips and cages in same compartment. When combinations of cages and skips are used in the same compartment, the cages shall be enclosed to protect personnel from...

  19. 30 CFR 57.19072 - Skips and cages in same compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Skips and cages in same compartment. 57.19072... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 57.19072 Skips and cages in same compartment. When combinations of cages and skips are used in the same compartment, the cages shall be enclosed to protect personnel from...

  20. 30 CFR 56.19072 - Skips and cages in same compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Skips and cages in same compartment. 56.19072... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 56.19072 Skips and cages in same compartment. When combinations of cages and skips are used in the same compartment, the cages shall be enclosed to protect personnel from...

  1. 46 CFR 105.25-7 - Ventilation systems for cargo tank or pumping system compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation systems for cargo tank or pumping system compartment. 105.25-7 Section 105.25-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO... pumping system compartment. (a) Each compartment shall be provided with a mechanical exhaust...

  2. View forward to aft of compartment B126. Note steam powered ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View forward to aft of compartment B-126. Note steam powered windlass for ash hoist that services boiler room compartment B-3 and compartment B-4. Ash hoist conveyor rail is at top left. Diving suit and helmet dating from 1950's is displayed in case at center of photograph. (049) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  3. 46 CFR 171.017 - One and two compartment standards of flooding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false One and two compartment standards of flooding. 171.017... standards of flooding. (a) One compartment standard of flooding. A vessel is designed to a one compartment standard of flooding if the margin line is not submerged when the total buoyancy between each set of...

  4. 46 CFR 171.017 - One and two compartment standards of flooding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false One and two compartment standards of flooding. 171.017... standards of flooding. (a) One compartment standard of flooding. A vessel is designed to a one compartment standard of flooding if the margin line is not submerged when the total buoyancy between each set of...

  5. 46 CFR 171.017 - One and two compartment standards of flooding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false One and two compartment standards of flooding. 171.017... standards of flooding. (a) One compartment standard of flooding. A vessel is designed to a one compartment standard of flooding if the margin line is not submerged when the total buoyancy between each set of...

  6. 46 CFR 171.017 - One and two compartment standards of flooding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false One and two compartment standards of flooding. 171.017... standards of flooding. (a) One compartment standard of flooding. A vessel is designed to a one compartment standard of flooding if the margin line is not submerged when the total buoyancy between each set of...

  7. 46 CFR 171.017 - One and two compartment standards of flooding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false One and two compartment standards of flooding. 171.017... standards of flooding. (a) One compartment standard of flooding. A vessel is designed to a one compartment standard of flooding if the margin line is not submerged when the total buoyancy between each set of...

  8. 14 CFR 25.858 - Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire... Construction Fire Protection § 25.858 Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection systems. If certification with cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection provisions is requested, the...

  9. 14 CFR 25.858 - Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire... Construction Fire Protection § 25.858 Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection systems. If certification with cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection provisions is requested, the...

  10. 14 CFR 25.858 - Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire... Construction Fire Protection § 25.858 Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection systems. If certification with cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection provisions is requested, the...

  11. 14 CFR 25.858 - Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire... Construction Fire Protection § 25.858 Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection systems. If certification with cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection provisions is requested, the...

  12. 14 CFR 25.858 - Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire... Construction Fire Protection § 25.858 Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection systems. If certification with cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection provisions is requested, the...

  13. 14 CFR 121.587 - Closing and locking of flightcrew compartment door.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... compartment door. 121.587 Section 121.587 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... locking of flightcrew compartment door. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, a pilot in command of an airplane that has a lockable flightcrew compartment door in accordance with §...

  14. 14 CFR 121.587 - Closing and locking of flightcrew compartment door.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... compartment door. 121.587 Section 121.587 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... locking of flightcrew compartment door. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, a pilot in command of an airplane that has a lockable flightcrew compartment door in accordance with §...

  15. 14 CFR 121.587 - Closing and locking of flightcrew compartment door.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... compartment door. 121.587 Section 121.587 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... locking of flightcrew compartment door. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, a pilot in command of an airplane that has a lockable flightcrew compartment door in accordance with §...

  16. 14 CFR 121.587 - Closing and locking of flightcrew compartment door.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... compartment door. 121.587 Section 121.587 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... locking of flightcrew compartment door. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, a pilot in command of an airplane that has a lockable flightcrew compartment door in accordance with §...

  17. 14 CFR 121.587 - Closing and locking of flightcrew compartment door.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... compartment door. 121.587 Section 121.587 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... locking of flightcrew compartment door. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, a pilot in command of an airplane that has a lockable flightcrew compartment door in accordance with §...

  18. Anatomic Brain Asymmetry in Vervet Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Fears, Scott C.; Scheibel, Kevin; Abaryan, Zvart; Lee, Chris; Service, Susan K.; Jorgensen, Matthew J.; Fairbanks, Lynn A.; Cantor, Rita M.; Freimer, Nelson B.; Woods, Roger P.

    2011-01-01

    Asymmetry is a prominent feature of human brains with important functional consequences. Many asymmetric traits show population bias, but little is known about the genetic and environmental sources contributing to inter-individual variance. Anatomic asymmetry has been observed in Old World monkeys, but the evidence for the direction and extent of asymmetry is equivocal and only one study has estimated the genetic contributions to inter-individual variance. In this study we characterize a range of qualitative and quantitative asymmetry measures in structural brain MRIs acquired from an extended pedigree of Old World vervet monkeys (n = 357), and implement variance component methods to estimate the proportion of trait variance attributable to genetic and environmental sources. Four of six asymmetry measures show pedigree-level bias and one of the traits has a significant heritability estimate of about 30%. We also found that environmental variables more significantly influence the width of the right compared to the left prefrontal lobe. PMID:22205941

  19. Coupling volume-excluding compartment-based models of diffusion at different scales: Voronoi and pseudo-compartment approaches.

    PubMed

    Taylor, P R; Baker, R E; Simpson, M J; Yates, C A

    2016-07-01

    Numerous processes across both the physical and biological sciences are driven by diffusion. Partial differential equations are a popular tool for modelling such phenomena deterministically, but it is often necessary to use stochastic models to accurately capture the behaviour of a system, especially when the number of diffusing particles is low. The stochastic models we consider in this paper are 'compartment-based': the domain is discretized into compartments, and particles can jump between these compartments. Volume-excluding effects (crowding) can be incorporated by blocking movement with some probability. Recent work has established the connection between fine- and coarse-grained models incorporating volume exclusion, but only for uniform lattices. In this paper, we consider non-uniform, hybrid lattices that incorporate both fine- and coarse-grained regions, and present two different approaches to describe the interface of the regions. We test both techniques in a range of scenarios to establish their accuracy, benchmarking against fine-grained models, and show that the hybrid models developed in this paper can be significantly faster to simulate than the fine-grained models in certain situations and are at least as fast otherwise. PMID:27383421

  20. Anatomic autoandrophilia in an adult male.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Anne A

    2009-12-01

    Some men are sexually aroused by impersonating the individuals to whom they are sexually attracted, or by permanently changing their bodies to become facsimiles of such individuals. Blanchard (J Sex Marital Ther 17:235-251, 1991) suggested that these paraphilic sexual interests, along with fetishism, represented erotic target location errors, i.e., developmental errors in locating erotic targets in the environment. Because the desire to impersonate or become a facsimile of the kind of person to whom one is attracted can have significant implications for identity, Freund and Blanchard (Br J Psychiatry 162:558-563, 1993) coined the term erotic target identity inversion to describe this type of erotic target location error. The best-known examples of erotic target identity inversions occur in men who are sexually attracted to women and who are also sexually aroused by the idea of impersonating or becoming women; these paraphilic interests manifest as transvestic fetishism and as one type of male-to-female transsexualism. Analogous erotic target identity inversions have been described in men who are sexually attracted to children and to female amputees. In theory, erotic target identity inversions should also occur in men who are sexually attracted to men. There have been no unambiguous descriptions, however, of men who are sexually attracted to men and also sexually aroused by the idea of changing their bodies to become more sexually attractive men. This report describes such a man, whose paraphilic interest would appropriately be called anatomic autoandrophilia. The demonstration that anatomic autoandrophilia exists in men is consistent with the theory that erotic target location errors constitute an independent paraphilic dimension. PMID:19093196

  1. MRI anatomical variants of mammillary bodies.

    PubMed

    Tagliamonte, Micaela; Sestieri, Carlo; Romani, Gian Luca; Gallucci, Massimo; Caulo, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    The mammillary bodies (MBs) are classically defined as a pair of small round structures located on the undersurface of the diencephalon. The systematic observation of MR brain images of patients with neurological diseases, but also of healthy subjects enrolled in research protocols, reveals, however, a greater anatomical variability. The aim of the present study was to define the spectrum of such variability using spatial normalized 3D TFE T1-weighted MR images in a group of 151 healthy right-handed young subjects (78 females, age range 16-39 years). The MBs were identified on reformatted coronal and axial images and classified according to morphological, positional and numerical criteria. On the basis of coronal images, MBs were first divided into symmetrical (86.1 %) and asymmetrical (13.9 %), depending on their respective height. Symmetrical MBs were further subdivided into three variants [type A (2.7 %), B (76.2 %), C (7.3 %)] according to the depth of the intermammillary sulcus. Two morphological variants were defined on axial images, depending on whether the MBs were circular (63.6 %) or elliptic (36.4 %). This latter group was further divided in two subgroups, depending on whether the MBs were parallel (21.9 %) or convergent (14.6 %). Finally, two subjects (1.3 %) presented a supernumeral MB. The transverse size of the third ventricle was greater in the type A compared to the type B and C groups. Gender did not significantly affect the frequency of MBs variants, except for the three symmetrical subgroups in which the variants A and C were more frequent in males than in females. These findings suggest the presence of an anatomical variability of the MBs, in contrast to their classical definition. Therefore, atypical presentation of MBs can be the expression of this variability rather than a marker of neurological disorders (i.e. cerebral malformation, mesial temporal sclerosis, Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome). PMID:24072163

  2. Growth Patterns Inferred from Anatomical Records 1

    PubMed Central

    Silk, Wendy Kuhn; Lord, Elizabeth M.; Eckard, Kathleen J.

    1989-01-01

    Our objective was to test whether accurate growth analyses can be obtained from anatomical records and some mathematical formulas. Roots of Zea mays L. were grown at one of two temperatures (19°C or 29°C) and were prepared with standard techniques for light microscopy. Positions of cell walls were digitized from micrographs. The digitized data were averaged and smoothed and used in formulas to estimate growth trajectories, Z(t), velocities, v(z), and strain rates, r(z), where Z(t) is the location occupied by the cellular particle at time t; and v(z) and r(z) are, respectively, the fields of growth velocity and strain rate. The relationships tested are: for Z(t), t = n * c; v(z) = l(z) * f; and r(z) = f * (∂/∂z (l(z))). In the formulas, n represents the number of cells between the origin and the position Z(t); l(z) is local cell length; the constant c, named the `cellochron,' denotes the time for successive cells to pass a spatial point distal to the meristem; l(z) is local cell length, and f is cell flux. Growth trajectories and velocity fields from the anatomical method are in good agreement with earlier analyses based on marking experiments at the two different temperatures. Growth strain rate fields show an unexpected oscillation which may be due to numerical artifacts or to a real oscillation in cell production rate. Images Figure 2 PMID:16666832

  3. Anatomical versus Non-Anatomical Single Bundle Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A Cadaveric Study of Comparison of Knee Stability

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hong-Chul; Yoon, Yong-Cheol; Wang, Joon-Ho

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to compare the initial stability of anatomical and non-anatomical single bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction and to determine which would better restore intact knee kinematics. Our hypothesis was that the initial stability of anatomical single bundle ACL reconstruction would be superior to that of non-anatomical single bundle ACL reconstruction. Methods Anterior tibial translation (ATT) and internal rotation of the tibia were measured with a computer navigation system in seven pairs of fresh-frozen cadaveric knees under two testing conditions (manual maximum anterior force, and a manual maximum anterior force combined with an internal rotational force). Tests were performed at 0, 30, 60, and 90 degrees of flexion with the ACL intact, the ACL transected, and after reconstruction of one side of a pair with either anatomical or non-anatomical single bundle ACL reconstruction. Results Under manual maximal anterior force, both reconstruction techniques showed no significant difference of ATT when compared to ACL intact knee state at 30° of knee flexion (p > 0.05). Under the combined anterior and internal rotatory force, non-anatomical single-bundle ACL reconstruction showed significant difference of ATT compared to those in ACL intact group (p < 0.05). In contrast, central anatomical single bundle ACL reconstruction showed no significant difference of ATT compared to those in ACL intact group (p > 0.05). Internal rotation of the tibia showed no significant difference in the ACL intact, the ACL transected, non-anatomical reconstructed and anatomical reconstructed knees. Conclusions Anatomical single bundle ACL reconstruction restored the initial stability closer to the native ACL under combined anterior and internal rotational forces when compared to non-anatomical ACL single bundle reconstruction. PMID:23205233

  4. The pseudo-compartment method for coupling partial differential equation and compartment-based models of diffusion

    PubMed Central

    Yates, Christian A.; Flegg, Mark B.

    2015-01-01

    Spatial reaction–diffusion models have been employed to describe many emergent phenomena in biological systems. The modelling technique most commonly adopted in the literature implements systems of partial differential equations (PDEs), which assumes there are sufficient densities of particles that a continuum approximation is valid. However, owing to recent advances in computational power, the simulation and therefore postulation, of computationally intensive individual-based models has become a popular way to investigate the effects of noise in reaction–diffusion systems in which regions of low copy numbers exist. The specific stochastic models with which we shall be concerned in this manuscript are referred to as ‘compartment-based’ or ‘on-lattice’. These models are characterized by a discretization of the computational domain into a grid/lattice of ‘compartments’. Within each compartment, particles are assumed to be well mixed and are permitted to react with other particles within their compartment or to transfer between neighbouring compartments. Stochastic models provide accuracy, but at the cost of significant computational resources. For models that have regions of both low and high concentrations, it is often desirable, for reasons of efficiency, to employ coupled multi-scale modelling paradigms. In this work, we develop two hybrid algorithms in which a PDE in one region of the domain is coupled to a compartment-based model in the other. Rather than attempting to balance average fluxes, our algorithms answer a more fundamental question: ‘how are individual particles transported between the vastly different model descriptions?’ First, we present an algorithm derived by carefully redefining the continuous PDE concentration as a probability distribution. While this first algorithm shows very strong convergence to analytical solutions of test problems, it can be cumbersome to simulate. Our second algorithm is a simplified and more efficient

  5. AVM Compartments: Do they modulate trasnidal pressures? An electrical network analysis

    PubMed Central

    Litao, Miguel Lorenzo Silva; Pilar-Arceo, Carlene PC; Legaspi, Gerardo Dizon

    2012-01-01

    Background: Arteriovenous malformation (AVM) compartments are thought as independently fed, hemodynamically independent components of the AVM nidus. Its possible role in modulating transnidal pressures have not been investigated to our knowledge. Objective: To investigate if AVM compartments play a role in modulating transnidal pressures by using electrical models as a method of investigation. Materials and Methods: Monocompartmental and multicompartmental AVM models were constructed using electrical circuits- building on Dr. Guglielmi's previous work. Each compartment was fed by two feeding arteries (resistors) and had a shared draining vein with other compartments in the AVM nidus. Each compartment is composed of a series of resistors which represents the pressure gradient along the AVM (arterial, arteriolar, venular, and venous). Pressure (voltage) readings were obtained within these nidal points. Results: The pressure gradient (venous-arterial) is more as there are less AVM compartments in the nidus model. The monocomparmental model had a pressure gradient of 66mmHg (V); while it was 64, 61, and 59 for the 2-, 3-, and 4-compartment models, respectively. In addition, the more the number of compartments, the greater the flow (mA) is in the whole AVM nidus, 33 ml/min for the monocompartmental AVM and 121ml/min for the 4-compartment AVM; though there was greater flow per compartment as there were less compartments, 33ml/min per compartment for the monocompartmental model versus 29ml/min for the 4-compartment model. Conclusion: Transnidal pressure gradients may be less the more compartments an AVM has. This electrical model represents an approach that can be used in investigating the hemodynamic contributions of AVM compartments. PMID:23559984

  6. Parametric Anatomical Modeling: a method for modeling the anatomical layout of neurons and their projections

    PubMed Central

    Pyka, Martin; Klatt, Sebastian; Cheng, Sen

    2014-01-01

    Computational models of neural networks can be based on a variety of different parameters. These parameters include, for example, the 3d shape of neuron layers, the neurons' spatial projection patterns, spiking dynamics and neurotransmitter systems. While many well-developed approaches are available to model, for example, the spiking dynamics, there is a lack of approaches for modeling the anatomical layout of neurons and their projections. We present a new method, called Parametric Anatomical Modeling (PAM), to fill this gap. PAM can be used to derive network connectivities and conduction delays from anatomical data, such as the position and shape of the neuronal layers and the dendritic and axonal projection patterns. Within the PAM framework, several mapping techniques between layers can account for a large variety of connection properties between pre- and post-synaptic neuron layers. PAM is implemented as a Python tool and integrated in the 3d modeling software Blender. We demonstrate on a 3d model of the hippocampal formation how PAM can help reveal complex properties of the synaptic connectivity and conduction delays, properties that might be relevant to uncover the function of the hippocampus. Based on these analyses, two experimentally testable predictions arose: (i) the number of neurons and the spread of connections is heterogeneously distributed across the main anatomical axes, (ii) the distribution of connection lengths in CA3-CA1 differ qualitatively from those between DG-CA3 and CA3-CA3. Models created by PAM can also serve as an educational tool to visualize the 3d connectivity of brain regions. The low-dimensional, but yet biologically plausible, parameter space renders PAM suitable to analyse allometric and evolutionary factors in networks and to model the complexity of real networks with comparatively little effort. PMID:25309338

  7. Parametric Anatomical Modeling: a method for modeling the anatomical layout of neurons and their projections.

    PubMed

    Pyka, Martin; Klatt, Sebastian; Cheng, Sen

    2014-01-01

    Computational models of neural networks can be based on a variety of different parameters. These parameters include, for example, the 3d shape of neuron layers, the neurons' spatial projection patterns, spiking dynamics and neurotransmitter systems. While many well-developed approaches are available to model, for example, the spiking dynamics, there is a lack of approaches for modeling the anatomical layout of neurons and their projections. We present a new method, called Parametric Anatomical Modeling (PAM), to fill this gap. PAM can be used to derive network connectivities and conduction delays from anatomical data, such as the position and shape of the neuronal layers and the dendritic and axonal projection patterns. Within the PAM framework, several mapping techniques between layers can account for a large variety of connection properties between pre- and post-synaptic neuron layers. PAM is implemented as a Python tool and integrated in the 3d modeling software Blender. We demonstrate on a 3d model of the hippocampal formation how PAM can help reveal complex properties of the synaptic connectivity and conduction delays, properties that might be relevant to uncover the function of the hippocampus. Based on these analyses, two experimentally testable predictions arose: (i) the number of neurons and the spread of connections is heterogeneously distributed across the main anatomical axes, (ii) the distribution of connection lengths in CA3-CA1 differ qualitatively from those between DG-CA3 and CA3-CA3. Models created by PAM can also serve as an educational tool to visualize the 3d connectivity of brain regions. The low-dimensional, but yet biologically plausible, parameter space renders PAM suitable to analyse allometric and evolutionary factors in networks and to model the complexity of real networks with comparatively little effort. PMID:25309338

  8. Evaluation of Hyperspectral Imaging and Predictive Modeling to Determine Fertility and Development of Broiler Hatching Eggs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A hyperspectral imaging system and a predictive modeling technique was evaluated for determining fertility and early embryo development of broiler chicken hatching eggs. Twenty-four broiler-strain eggs were collected (12 fertile, 12 infertile) for each of 8 replicate trials (n=192) and imaged on Da...

  9. Role of Volatile Fatty Acids in Development of the Cecal Microflora in Broiler Chickens during Growth

    PubMed Central

    van der Wielen, Paul W. J. J.; Biesterveld, Steef; Notermans, Servé; Hofstra, Harm; Urlings, Bert A. P.; van Knapen, Frans

    2000-01-01

    It is known that volatile fatty acids can inhibit growth of species of the family Enterobacteriaceae in vitro. However, whether these volatile fatty acids affect bacterial populations in the ceca of chickens is unknown. Therefore, a study was conducted to investigate if changes in volatile fatty acids in ceca of broiler chickens during growth affect bacterial populations. Results showed that members of the Enterobacteriaceae and enterococci are present in large numbers in 3-day-old broilers and start to decrease when broilers grow older. Lactobacilli are present in large numbers as well in 3-day-old broilers, but they remain stable during the growth of broilers. Acetate, butyrate, and propionate increase from undetectable levels in 1-day-old broilers to high concentrations in 15-day-old broilers, after which they stabilize. Significant negative correlations could be calculated between numbers of Enterobacteriaceae and concentrations of undissociated acetate, propionate, and butyrate. Furthermore, pure cultures of Enterobacteriaceae isolated from the ceca were grown in the presence of volatile fatty acids. Growth rates and maximal optical density decreased when these strains grew in the presence of increasing volatile fatty acid concentrations. It is concluded that volatile fatty acids are responsible for the reduction in numbers of Enterobacteriaceae in the ceca of broiler chickens during growth. PMID:10831435

  10. Effect of Immersion or Dry Chilling on Broiler Carcass Moisture Retention and Breast Fillet Functionality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to investigate the effect of chilling method on broiler carcass skin color, carcass moisture retention, and breast fillet quality and functionality. One hundred fifty eviscerated broilers carcasses were removed from a commercial processing line prior to chilling, transported to...

  11. Campylobacter detection in broiler ceca at processing - a three year 211 flock survey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter is associated with live broilers and chicken meat products. There is some discussion in the literature about the possibility that Campylobacter prevalence in broilers could be affected by season or weather conditions. The objective of this study was to measure the flock prevalence of...

  12. Effect of surface incorporation of broiler litter applied to no-till cotton on runoff quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 2-yr field study was conducted on an Atwood silt loam (fine-silty, mixed, thermic Typic Paleudalfs) marginal upland soil to evaluate if incorporation of broiler litter into the soil surface in a no-till cotton affect runoff nutrient concentrations. The treatments consisted of 7.8 Mg ha-1 broiler l...

  13. Runoff quality from no-till cotton fertilized with broiler litter in subsurface bands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surface broadcast of broiler litter to no-till row crops exposes broiler litter to the atmosphere and rain events, enhances the potential loss of nutrients to the air and surface runoff water and may limit benefit of litter to the crops. Subsurface banding of litter could alleviate these risks. A 2-...

  14. Performance in broiler chickens supplemented with Mexican oregano oil Lippia berlandieri Schauer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the inclusion of two qualities of Mexican oregano oil (MOO) in the broiler diet on broiler weight, feed intake, feed efficiency, average daily gain, and water intake. The qualities were MOO1 (4% thymol, 60% carvacrol) and MOO2 (40% thymol, 20% carvacro...

  15. Survival of naturally occurring Campylobacter in refrigerated and frozen rinsate from a broiler carcass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine if naturally occurring Campylobacter in a broiler rinsate could survive in cold storage. Ten commercial broiler carcasses were each rinsed with 500 ml of Butterfield’s buffer and all carcasses tested positive for the presence of 104-105/ml naturally occu...

  16. The effect of Brazilian propolis on serum thyroid hormones in broilers reared under chronic heat stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This experiment evaluated the effect of dietary supplement with green Brazilian propolis on serum thyroxin (T4) and tri-iodothyronine (T3) levels in broiler chickens exposed to chronic heat stress for 4 wks (from 15 to 42 d of age). Five hundred and four 15-d-old, male broiler chickens (Ross 708) w...

  17. Salmonella recovery from broilers and litter following gavage with Salmonella colonized darkling beetles and larvae.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transmission of Salmonella to broiler chicks with Salmonella colonized darkling beetles or larvae was evaluated by sampling litter and ceca during growout. In two trials, 1 or 2 day-of-hatch broiler chicks (in a pen of 40) were gavaged with either 4 darkling beetles, 4 beetle larvae, or 0.1 mL pept...

  18. Darkling Beetles as a Potential Transmission Source of Salmonella in Broiler Flocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The adult and larval darkling beetles (Alphitobius diaperinus Panzer) are common insect pests of commercial broiler operations. High populations of darkling beetles in commercial broiler operations can have a negative impact finanacially due to structural and insulation damage within the house, red...

  19. Effect of chilling method and post-mortem aging time on broiler breast fillet quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of chilling method and post-mortem aging time on broiler breast fillet quality. One hundred-fifty eviscerated broiler carcasses were removed from a commercial processing line prior to chilling and transported to the laboratory. Half of the carcasses we...

  20. Effect of pH and postmortem aging on protein extraction from broiler breast muscle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of extraction buffer pH and postmortem aging on the extraction of salt-soluble and water-soluble proteins from broiler pectoralis muscle. De-boned broiler breast fillets were collected at 4 h postmortem, packaged, and then stored at 4°C until...