Science.gov

Sample records for bromadiolone-resistant norway rats

  1. Mitochondrial DNA phylogeography of the Norway rat.

    PubMed

    Song, Ying; Lan, Zhenjiang; Kohn, Michael H

    2014-01-01

    Central Eastern Asia, foremost the area bordering northern China and Mongolia, has been thought to be the geographic region where Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) have originated. However recent fossil analyses pointed to their origin in southern China. Moreover, whereas analyses of fossils dated the species' origin as ∼ 1.2-1.6 million years ago (Mya), molecular analyses yielded ∼ 0.5-2.9 Mya. Here, to study the geographic origin of the Norway rat and its spread across the globe we analyzed new and all published mitochondrial DNA cytochrome-b (cyt-b; N = 156) and D-loop (N = 212) sequences representing wild rats from four continents and select inbred strains. Our results are consistent with an origin of the Norway rat in southern China ∼ 1.3 Mya, subsequent prehistoric differentiation and spread in China and Asia from an initially weakly structured ancestral population, followed by further spread and differentiation across the globe during historic times. The recent spreading occurred mostly from derived European populations rather than from archaic Asian populations. We trace laboratory strains to wild lineages from Europe and North America and these represent a subset of the diversity of the rat; leaving Asian lineages largely untapped as a resource for biomedical models. By studying rats from Europe we made the observation that mtDNA diversity cannot be interpreted without consideration of pest control and, possibly, the evolution of rodenticide resistance. However, demographic models explored by forward-time simulations cannot fully explain the low mtDNA diversity of European rats and lack of haplotype sharing with their source from Asia. Comprehensive nuclear marker analyses of a larger sample of Norway rats representing the world are needed to better resolve the evolutionary history of wild rats and of laboratory rats, as well as to better understand the evolution of anticoagulant resistance. PMID:24586325

  2. Mitochondrial DNA Phylogeography of the Norway Rat

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ying; Lan, Zhenjiang; Kohn, Michael H.

    2014-01-01

    Central Eastern Asia, foremost the area bordering northern China and Mongolia, has been thought to be the geographic region where Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) have originated. However recent fossil analyses pointed to their origin in southern China. Moreover, whereas analyses of fossils dated the species' origin as ∼1.2–1.6 million years ago (Mya), molecular analyses yielded ∼0.5–2.9 Mya. Here, to study the geographic origin of the Norway rat and its spread across the globe we analyzed new and all published mitochondrial DNA cytochrome-b (cyt-b; N = 156) and D-loop (N = 212) sequences representing wild rats from four continents and select inbred strains. Our results are consistent with an origin of the Norway rat in southern China ∼1.3 Mya, subsequent prehistoric differentiation and spread in China and Asia from an initially weakly structured ancestral population, followed by further spread and differentiation across the globe during historic times. The recent spreading occurred mostly from derived European populations rather than from archaic Asian populations. We trace laboratory strains to wild lineages from Europe and North America and these represent a subset of the diversity of the rat; leaving Asian lineages largely untapped as a resource for biomedical models. By studying rats from Europe we made the observation that mtDNA diversity cannot be interpreted without consideration of pest control and, possibly, the evolution of rodenticide resistance. However, demographic models explored by forward-time simulations cannot fully explain the low mtDNA diversity of European rats and lack of haplotype sharing with their source from Asia. Comprehensive nuclear marker analyses of a larger sample of Norway rats representing the world are needed to better resolve the evolutionary history of wild rats and of laboratory rats, as well as to better understand the evolution of anticoagulant resistance. PMID:24586325

  3. Cardiac and thermal homeostasis in the aging Brown Norway rat.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Brown Norway (BN) rat is a popular strain for aging studies. There is little information on effects of age on baseline cardiac and thermoregulatory parameters in undisturbed BN rats even though cardiac and thermal homeostasis is linked to many pathological deficits in the age...

  4. Hypotension- and osmotically induced thirst in old Brown Norway rats

    PubMed Central

    Thunhorst, Robert L.; Beltz, Terry G.; Johnson, Alan Kim

    2009-01-01

    Compared to young cohorts, old rats drink less water in response to several thirst-inducing stimuli. In these experiments, we characterized water drinking in response to hypotension and cellular dehydration in young (4 mo), middle-aged adult (12 mo) and old (29–30 mo) male Brown Norway rats. We injected the vasodilator, minoxidil as an intravenous bolus in a range of doses (0–20 mg/kg), so that drinking responses could be compared at equivalent reductions of arterial pressure. Old rats had greatly diminished reflex tachycardia and became significantly more hypotensive after minoxidil compared with young and middle-aged rats. When compared at equivalent reductions of arterial pressure, old rats drank one-third as much as middle-aged rats, and one-fifth as much as young rats. In addition, there were age-related deficits in drinking in response to a range of administered loads of sodium (0.15–2 M NaCl, 2 ml/100 g body wt). Urinary excretion of water and sodium in response to the loads was equivalent across ages. Both middle-aged and old rats were less able than young rats to repair their water deficits after sodium loading, attributable almost entirely to their reduced drinking responses compared with young rats. Lastly, age-related declines in drinking appeared to be more severe in response to hypotension than in response to cellular dehydration. PMID:19420291

  5. Norway.

    PubMed

    1992-08-01

    Norway with a territory of 386,000 sq. km or 150,000 sq. miles is slightly larger than New Mexico. In 1991 the population was estimated at 4.3 million with an annual growth rate of .5% and a literacy rate of 100%. The infant mortality rate is 7/1000 live births, and lie expectancy is 73 years for men and 80 years for women. Norway's government is a hereditary constitutional monarchy since independence n 1905. Ethnically, Norwegians are predominantly Germanic, but there are indigenous communities of Sami (Lapps) in the north, and in recent years almost 150,000 immigrants, foreign workers, and asylum-seekers have settled there. Norway's health system includes free hospital care, physicians compensation, cash benefits during illness and pregnancy, and other medical and dental plans. Until the 1981 election, Norway has been governed by Labor Party governments since 1935, except for 3 periods (1963, 1965-71, and 1972-73). Gro Harlem Brundtland is again the prime minister after forming her 3rd government in 10 years. Norway holds national elections in September 1993. Norway's large shipping fleet is modern; metals, pulp and paper products, chemicals, shipbuilding, and fishing are traditional industries, and major oil and gas discoveries in the mid-1970s transformed the economy. High oil prices in the 1983-85 period raised consumer spending, wages, and inflation. Norway is aspiring to restructure its nonoil economy in favor of efficient, nontraditional industry. The prime minister has indicated that Norway may apply for European Community (EC) membership before the end of 1992. Its main trading partners are the EC countries and its Scandinavian neighbors with the US in 5th place. PMID:12178045

  6. Cardiac and thermal homeostasis in the aging Brown Norway rat.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Christopher J

    2008-12-01

    The cardiovascular and thermoregulatory systems are considered to be susceptible in the aged population, but little is known about baseline cardiac and thermoregulatory homeostasis in rodent models of aging. Radiotransmitters were implanted in male, Brown Norway rats obtained at 4, 12, and 24 months to monitor the electrocardiogram (ECG), interbeat interval (IBI), heart rate (HR), core temperature (Tc), and motor activity (MA). There was no significant effect of age on resting HR and MA. Daytime Tc of the 24-month-old rats was significantly elevated above those of the 4- and 12-month-old groups. Variability of the IBI was highest in the 24-month-old rats. The elevation in daytime Tc beginning around 8 months of age may be a physiological biomarker of aging and may be an important factor to consider in studies using caloric restriction-induced hypothermia to increase longevity. PMID:19126843

  7. Analysis of vkorc1 polymorphisms in Norway rats using the roof rat as outgroup

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Certain mutations in the vitamin K epoxide reductase subcomponent 1 gene (vkorc1) mediate rodent resistance to warfarin and other anticoagulants. Testing for resistance often involves analysis of the vkorc1. However, a genetic test for the roof rat (Rattus rattus) has yet to be developed. Moreover, an available roof rat vkorc1 sequence would enable species identification based on vkorc1 sequence and the evaluation of natural selection on particular vkorc1 polymorphisms in the Norway rat (R. norvegicus). Results We report the coding sequence, introns and 5' and 3' termini for the vkorc1 gene of roof rats (R. r. alexandrinus and R. r. frugivorus) from Uganda, Africa. Newly designed PCR primers now enable genetic testing of the roof rat and Norway rat. Only synonymous and noncoding polymorphisms were found in roof rats from Uganda. Both nominal subspecies of roof rats were indistinguishable from each other but were distinct from R. losea and R. flavipectus; however, the roof rat also shares at least three coding sequence polymorphisms with R. losea and R. flavipectus. Many of recently published vkorc1 synonymous and non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Norway rats are likely SNPs from roof rats and/or other Rattus species. Tests applied to presumably genuine Norway rat vkorc1 SNPs are consistent with a role for selection in two populations carrying the derived Phe63Cys and Tyr139Cys mutations. Conclusion Geographic mapping of vkorc1 SNPs in roof rats should be facilitated by our report. Our assay should be applicable to most species of Rattus, which are intermediate in genetic distance from roof and Norway rats. Vkorc1-mediated resistance due to non-synonymous coding SNPs is not segregating in roof rats from Uganda. By using the roof rat sequence as a reference vkorc1, SNPs now can be assigned to the correct rat species with more confidence. Sampling designs and genotyping strategies employed so far have helped detect candidate mutations

  8. A Two-Year Ecological Study of Norway Rats (Rattus norvegicus) in a Brazilian Urban Slum.

    PubMed

    Panti-May, Jesús A; Carvalho-Pereira, Ticiana S A; Serrano, Soledad; Pedra, Gabriel G; Taylor, Josh; Pertile, Arsinoê C; Minter, Amanda; Airam, Vladimir; Carvalho, Mayara; Júnior, Nivison N; Rodrigues, Gorete; Reis, Mitermayer G; Ko, Albert I; Childs, James E; Begon, Mike; Costa, Federico

    2016-01-01

    The Norway or brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) is among the most ubiquitous of rodents. However, the lack of studies describing Norway rat populations from tropical areas have limited our understanding regarding their demography and seasonal dynamics. In this study, we describe seasonal pattern in the abundance, reproductive parameters, and morphometrics of Norway rat populations in Salvador, Brazil. Rodents were trapped over four seasonal trapping periods (2013-2014) from three valleys. A total of 802 Norway rats were trapped over the course of the study over 7653 trap-nights. Norway rat abundance was high, but there was no significant differences between seasons. The reproductive parameters (e.g. frequency of pregnant and lactating females) did not show statistical differences between seasons. Female rats collected in the rainy season were heavier and older than females from the dry season. Salvador rats had a high incidence of pregnancy and birth rate (estimated birth rate of 79 young per year) compared to previous studies. The information generated is critical for the understanding of the ecology of Norway rat, the main reservoir of Leptospira in Salvador. However, future studies examining the effect of rodent control programs aimed at reducing populations, and determining rates of recovery, will further clarify our understanding of population dynamics. PMID:27015422

  9. A Two-Year Ecological Study of Norway Rats (Rattus norvegicus) in a Brazilian Urban Slum

    PubMed Central

    Panti-May, Jesús A.; Carvalho-Pereira, Ticiana S. A.; Serrano, Soledad; Pedra, Gabriel G.; Taylor, Josh; Pertile, Arsinoê C.; Minter, Amanda; Airam, Vladimir; Carvalho, Mayara; Júnior, Nivison N.; Rodrigues, Gorete; Reis, Mitermayer G.; Ko, Albert I.; Childs, James E.; Begon, Mike; Costa, Federico

    2016-01-01

    The Norway or brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) is among the most ubiquitous of rodents. However, the lack of studies describing Norway rat populations from tropical areas have limited our understanding regarding their demography and seasonal dynamics. In this study, we describe seasonal pattern in the abundance, reproductive parameters, and morphometrics of Norway rat populations in Salvador, Brazil. Rodents were trapped over four seasonal trapping periods (2013–2014) from three valleys. A total of 802 Norway rats were trapped over the course of the study over 7653 trap-nights. Norway rat abundance was high, but there was no significant differences between seasons. The reproductive parameters (e.g. frequency of pregnant and lactating females) did not show statistical differences between seasons. Female rats collected in the rainy season were heavier and older than females from the dry season. Salvador rats had a high incidence of pregnancy and birth rate (estimated birth rate of 79 young per year) compared to previous studies. The information generated is critical for the understanding of the ecology of Norway rat, the main reservoir of Leptospira in Salvador. However, future studies examining the effect of rodent control programs aimed at reducing populations, and determining rates of recovery, will further clarify our understanding of population dynamics. PMID:27015422

  10. Ovalbumin aeroallergen exposure-response in Brown Norway rats.

    PubMed

    Siegel, P D; Al-Humadi, N H; Millecchia, L L; Robinson, V A; Hubbs, A F; Nelson, E R; Fedan, J S

    2000-03-01

    A major route of exposure to allergens is through the respiratory tract. Comparatively few animal studies have used aerosolized high-molecular-weight allergens for sensitization, and in these studies, proper characterization of the aeroallergen exposure was usually missing. The purpose of this study was to profile the exposure-response relationship in Brown Norway rats (BNR) to well-characterized ovalbumin (OVA) aerosols. Rats were exposed 30 min/wk x 6 wk to respirable OVA aerosols from <1 mg/m(3) to 64 mg/m(3) air. Ovalbumin-specific circulating immunoglobulin (Ig)E, IgG, and IgA were measured throughout the study period. Rats were sacrificed 1 day after the last exposure. Pulmonary tissue was processed for histopathological and histochemical analysis. Tracheas were isolated, perfused, and assessed for in vitro responsiveness to methacholine. Serum concentrations of OVA-specific antibodies increased with both exposure concentration and number of exposures. The number of BNR with measurable titers also increased with both dose and time. Pulmonary inflammatory changes were noted only in BNR exposed to higher OVA concentrations (15 and 64 mg/m(3) air). Increased tracheal reactivity to methacholine was not found in any of the sensitized BNR. In summary, sustained aeroallergen concentration-dependent changes in specific antibody responses and pulmonary inflammation have been demonstrated. PMID:10715627

  11. Multiple Paternity in Urban Norway Rats: Extended Ranging for Mates.

    PubMed

    Glass, Gregory E; Klein, Sabra L; Norris, Douglas E; Gardner, Lynne C

    2016-05-01

    Norway rats are an abundant synanthropic species in urban settings and serve as reservoirs for many pathogens. Attempts to control their populations have met with little success. Recent genetic studies suggest that local populations are structured and few individuals move significant distances, but there is substantial gene flow. To understand these observations and their implications on control strategies, we genotyped 722 rats from 20 alleys in Baltimore to establish paternity for 180 embryos. Up to 88 males may have contributed to the litters. All litters were sired by ≥2 males, with an average of 4.9 (range 2-7) males. For dams and sires with known locations, most matings (71.7%; n = 46) occurred among animals from different alleys. The average distance between sires and dams was 114 meters (range 8-352 meters). In 10/17 (58.8%) litters, the majority of the identified sires were captured in different alleys than the females. Sires were significantly less related to females than were the males captured in the females' alleys. Although rats may generally restrict their movements, either receptive females and/or breeding males engage in mate-seeking behaviors that extend beyond movement patterns at other times. This geographically extends the sizes of local populations and buffers them from the impacts of control strategies that focus on local infestations. PMID:26885622

  12. Spontaneous immune complex orchitis in brown Norway rats.

    PubMed

    Fürbeth, C; Hübner, G; Thoenes, G H

    1989-01-01

    Immune complexes occur spontaneously in the testis of Brown-Norway (BN) inbred rats between the basal lamina of the seminiferous tubules and the outer lamina of the myoid testicular cells. The deposits can be detected immunohistologically (IgG; C3) and by electron microscopy. The immune complexes appear between the 8th and 12th weeks of life, increase in amount up to the 30th week and decrease thereafter. After about the 20th week, of life, 15% of the animals show destruction of the germinal epithelium accompanied by an infiltration of lymphocytes and plasma cells. The final stage of this disease, which initially shows no signs of inflammation, is characterized by diffuse tubular atrophy. However, up to the 70th week of life, 85% of the animals with immune complexes show no pathological alterations. Antibodies eluated from the testes react with spermatocytes I and structures close to the lumen of the seminiferous tubules, but not with mature sperms. Serum antibodies to sperms occur in about 25% of the BN rats, but the presence of these antibodies shows no correlation with the immunohistological findings. This newly described spontaneous immune complex orchitis is regarded as a further example of an in-situ-induced immune complex disease. The observations made here can be compared with those in (peri-) membraneous glomerulonephritis, another example of a disorder resulting from in-situ-formation of immune deposits. PMID:2567548

  13. Preliminary Survey of Ectoparasites and Associated Pathogens from Norway Rats in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Frye, M. J.; Firth, C.; Bhat, M.; Firth, M. A.; Che, X.; Lee, D.; Williams, S. H.; Lipkin, W. I.

    2015-01-01

    The Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) is a reservoir of many zoonotic pathogens and lives in close proximity to humans in urban environments. Human infection with rodent-borne disease occurs either directly through contact with a rat or its excreta, or indirectly via arthropod vectors such as fleas and ticks. Here, we report on the diversity and abundance of ectoparasitic arthropod species and associated pathogenic bacteria from 133 Norway rats trapped over a 10-mo period in Manhattan, New York, NY. Norway rats were host to the tropical rat mite [Ornithonyssus bacoti (Hirst)], the spiny rat mite (Laelaps echidnina Berlese), Laelaps nuttalli Hirst, the spined rat louse [Polyplax spinulosa (Burmeister)], and the Oriental rat flea [(Xenopsylla cheopis) (Rothschild)], with an average of 1.7 species per individual. A flea index of 4.1 X. cheopis was determined, whereas previous studies in New York City reported 0.22 fleas per rat. Multiple species of pathogenic Bartonella were identified from Oriental rat fleas that were related to Bartonella tribocorum, Bartonella rochalimae, and Bartonella elizabethae. However, no evidence of Yersinia pestis or Rickettsia spp. infection was detected in fleas. The identification of multiple medically important ectoparasite species in New York City underscores the need for future efforts to fully characterize the diversity and distribution of ectoparasites on Norway rats, and assess the risk to humans of vector-borne disease transmission. PMID:26336309

  14. Toxicogenomics of subchronic hexachlorobenzene exposure in Brown Norway rats.

    PubMed Central

    Ezendam, Janine; Staedtler, Frank; Pennings, Jeroen; Vandebriel, Rob J; Pieters, Raymond; Boffetta, Paolo; Harleman, Johannes H; Vos, Joseph G

    2004-01-01

    Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) is a persistent environmental pollutant with toxic effects in man and rat. Reported adverse effects are hepatic porphyria, neurotoxicity, and adverse effects on the reproductive and immune system. To obtain more insight into HCB-induced mechanisms of toxicity, we studied gene expression levels using DNA microarrays. For 4 weeks, Brown Norway rats were fed a diet supplemented with 0, 150, or 450 mg HCB/kg. Spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN), thymus, blood, liver, and kidney were collected and analyzed using the Affymetrix rat RGU-34A GeneChip microarray. Most significant (p < 0.001) changes, compared to the control group, occurred in spleen, followed by liver, kidney, blood, and MLN, but only a few genes were affected in thymus. This was to be expected, as the thymus is not a target organ of HCB. Transcriptome profiles confirmed known effects of HCB such as stimulatory effects on the immune system and induction of enzymes involved in drug metabolism, porphyria, and the reproductive system. In line with previous histopathological findings were increased transcript levels of markers for granulocytes and macrophages. New findings include the upregulation of genes encoding proinflammatory cytokines, antioxidants, acute phase proteins, mast cell markers, complements, chemokines, and cell adhesion molecules. Generally, gene expression data provide evidence that HCB induces a systemic inflammatory response, accompanied by oxidative stress and an acute phase response. In conclusion, this study confirms previously observed (immuno)toxicological effects of HCB but also reveals several new and mechanistically relevant gene products. Thus, transcriptome profiles can be used as markers for several of the processes that occur after HCB exposure. PMID:15159207

  15. Completion of the life cycle of Sarcocystis zuoi , a parasite from the Norway rat, Rattus norvegicus.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jun-Jie; Meng, Yu; Guo, Yan-Mei; Liao, Jie-Ying; Song, Jing-Ling

    2012-06-01

    Transmission experiments were performed to elucidate the life cycle of Sarcocystis zuoi found in Norway rats ( Rattus norvegicus ) in China. Two king rat snakes ( Elaphe carinata ) fed sarcocysts from the muscles of 4 naturally infected Norway rats shed sporocysts measuring 10.8 ± 0.7 × 8.0 ± 0.7 µm, with a prepatent period of 8-9 days. Sporocysts from the intestine of 2 experimentally infected king rat snakes were given to the laboratory Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats ( R. norvegicus ) and Kunming (KM) mice ( Mus musculus ). Microscopic sarcocysts developed in the skeletal muscles of SD rats. No sarcocysts were observed in KM mice. Characters of ultrastructure and molecule of sarcocysts from SD rats were confirmed as S. zuoi . Our results indicate that king rat snake is the definitive host of S. zuoi . PMID:22150019

  16. METABOLIC RATE AS A FUNCTION OF AGE IN BROWN NORWAY AND LONG-EVANS RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Brown Norway (BN) rats are commonly used in aging studies but relatively little is known on their metabolism as it varies with age. In fact, there is considerable disagreement on the wholebody metabolism of aging rats with some studies indicating a decrease and others showing an...

  17. DIESEL AND CARBON PARTICLES ENHANCE HOUSE DUST MITE-INDUCED PULMONARY HYPERSENSITIVITY IN BROWN NORWAY RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diesel and Carbon Particles Enhance House Dust Mite-Induced Pulmonary Hypersensitivity in Brown Norway Rats. P. Singh1, M.J. Daniels2, D. Winsett2, J. Richards2, K. Crissman2, M. Madden2 and M.I. Gilmour2. 1NCSU, Raleigh, NC and 2 USEPA, Research Triangle Park, NC.

    Ep...

  18. The development and use of a test to identify resistance to the anticoagulant difenacoum in the Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus).

    PubMed Central

    Redfern, R.; Gill, J. E.

    1978-01-01

    Feeding tests were carried out in the laboratory to obtain basic data on the susceptibility of wild Norway rats to difenacoum. The results were used to derive a standard test procedure for the identification of difenacoum resistance in warfarin-susceptible and resistant rats. Details are given of tests on rats from suspected difenacoum-resistant infestations on farms. PMID:731023

  19. The development and use of a test to identify resistance to the anticoagulant difenacoum in the Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus).

    PubMed

    Redfern, R; Gill, J E

    1978-12-01

    Feeding tests were carried out in the laboratory to obtain basic data on the susceptibility of wild Norway rats to difenacoum. The results were used to derive a standard test procedure for the identification of difenacoum resistance in warfarin-susceptible and resistant rats. Details are given of tests on rats from suspected difenacoum-resistant infestations on farms. PMID:731023

  20. Leptospira in breast tissue and milk of urban Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    PubMed

    DE Oliveira, D; Figueira, C P; Zhan, L; Pertile, A C; Pedra, G G; Gusmão, I M; Wunder, E A; Rodrigues, G; Ramos, E A G; Ko, A I; Childs, J E; Reis, M G; Costa, F

    2016-08-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonosis caused by bacteria of the genus Leptospira. The disease is globally distributed and a major public health concern. The Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) is the main reservoir of the pathogen in urban slums of developing and developed countries. The potential routes of intra-specific leptospire transmission in rats are largely unknown. Herein, we identified pathogenic Leptospira spp. in breast tissue and milk of naturally infected rats. We examined kidney, breast tissue and milk from 24 lactating rats for the presence of leptospires using immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and scanning electronic microscopy. All 24 rats had evidence for Leptospira in the kidneys, indicating chronic carriage. The majority of kidney-positive rats had detectable leptospires in milk (18, 75%) and breast tissue (16, 67%), as evidenced by immunofluorescence assay and immunohistochemistry. Four (17%) milk samples and two (8%) breast tissue samples were positive by quantitative real-time PCR. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed the presence of leptospires in breast tissue. No major pathological changes in breast tissue were found. This study, for the first time, identified leptospires in the milk and breast tissue of wild Norway rats, suggesting the possibility of milk-borne transmission of leptospirosis to neonates. PMID:27019024

  1. EFFECTS OF ALLERGIC AIRWAYS DISEASE ON INFLUENZA VIRUS INFECTION IN BROWN NORWAY RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EFFECTS OF ALLERGIC AIRWAYS DISEASE ON INFLUENZA VIRUS INFECTION IN BROWN NORWAY RATS (P. Singhl, D.W. Winsett2, M.J. Daniels2,
    C.A.J. Dick', K.B. Adlerl and M.I. Gilmour2, INCSU, Raleigh, N.C., 2NHEERL/ORD/ USEPA, RTP, N.C. and 3UNC, Chapel Hill, N.C.)The interaction between ...

  2. [Typological features of behavior and memory in Norway rats selected for absence of aggression toward a man].

    PubMed

    Loskutova, L V; Dubrovina, N I; Pliusnina, I F

    2003-01-01

    Features of behavior and retrieval of passive conditioned avoidance on a new and forgotten stimuli were compared in Wistar rats and Norway rats bred for the absence of aggression toward a man. As distinct from white rats, grey rats were characterized by low anxiety and high locomotor exploratory activity in the elevated plus maze and dark-light chamber. Norway rats demonstrated better avoidance performance with active defensive behavioral strategy than Wistar rats. Latent inhibition during conditioning with a previously forgotten situational stimulus was the same in both rat strains. The results are discussed in terms of the use of grey rats as a model for an in-depth analysis of the mechanisms of memory optimization. PMID:14959488

  3. Avian Pathogenicity Genes and Antibiotic Resistance in Escherichia coli Isolates from Wild Norway Rats ( Rattus norvegicus ) in British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Himsworth, Chelsea G; Zabek, Erin; Desruisseau, Andrea; Parmley, E Jane; Reid-Smith, Richard; Leslie, Mira; Ambrose, Neil; Patrick, David M; Cox, William

    2016-04-28

    We report avian pathogenic and antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli in wild Norway rats ( Rattus norvegicus ) trapped at a commercial chicken hatchery in British Columbia, Canada, and provide evidence that rats can become colonized with, and possibly act as a source of, poultry pathogens present in their environment. PMID:27054468

  4. RNASeq-derived transcriptome comparisons reveal neuromodulatory deficiency in the CO2 insensitive brown Norway rat

    PubMed Central

    Puissant, Madeleine M; Echert, Ashley E; Yang, Chun; Mouradian, Gary C; Novotny, Tyler; Liu, Pengyuan; Liang, Mingyu; Hodges, Matthew R

    2015-01-01

    Raphé-derived serotonin (5-HT) and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) play important roles in fundamental, homeostatic control systems such as breathing and specifically the ventilatory CO2 chemoreflex. Brown Norway (BN) rats exhibit an inherent and severe ventilatory insensitivity to hypercapnia but also exhibit relatively normal ventilation at rest and during other conditions, similar to multiple genetic models of 5-HT system dysfunction in mice. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that the ventilatory insensitivity to hypercapnia in BN rats is due to altered raphé gene expression and the consequent deficiencies in raphé-derived neuromodulators such as TRH. Medullary raphé transcriptome comparisons revealed lower expression of multiple 5-HT neuron-specific genes in BN compared to control Dahl salt-sensitive rats, predictive of reduced central nervous system monoamines by bioinformatics analyses and confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography measurements. In particular, raphé Trh mRNA and peptide levels were significantly reduced in BN rats, and injections of the stable TRH analogue Taltirelin (TAL) stimulated breathing dose-dependently, with greater effects in BN versus control Sprague–Dawley rats. Importantly, TAL also effectively normalized the ventilatory CO2 chemoreflex in BN rats, but TAL did not affect CO2 sensitivity in control Sprague–Dawley rats. These data establish a molecular basis of the neuromodulatory deficiency in BN rats, and further suggest an important functional role for TRH signalling in the mammalian CO2 chemoreflex. PMID:25630262

  5. Bacteria Isolated from Conspecific Bite Wounds in Norway and Black Rats: Implications for Rat Bite–Associated Infections In People

    PubMed Central

    Zabek, Erin; Tang, Patrick; Parsons, Kirbee L.; Koehn, Martha; Jardine, Claire M.; Patrick, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Bites associated with wild and domestic Norway and black rats (Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus) may have a variety of health consequences in people. Bite-related infections are among the most significant of these consequences; however, there is little data on the infectious agents that can be transmitted from rats to people through biting. This is problematic because without an accurate understanding of bite-related infection risks, it is difficult for health professionals to evaluate the adequacy of existing guidelines for empirical therapy. The objectives of this study were to increase our knowledge of the bacterial species associated with rat bites by studying bite wounds that wild rats inflict upon one another and to review the literature regarding rat bites and bite wound management. Wild Norway and black rats (n=725) were trapped in Vancouver, Canada, and examined for bite wounds in the skin. All apparently infected wounds underwent aerobic and anaerobic culture, and isolated bacteria were identified. Thirty-six rats had bite wound–related infections, and approximately 22 different species of bacteria belonging to 18 genera were identified. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common isolate; however, the majority of infections (72.5%) were polymicrobial. Rat bites can result in infection with a number of aerobic and anaerobic Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. In humans, these wounds are best managed through early recognition and cleansing. The benefit of prophylactic antimicrobial treatment is debatable, but given the deep puncturing nature of rodent bites, we suggest that they should be considered a high risk for infection. Antibiotics selected should include coverage for a broad range of bacterial species. PMID:24528094

  6. Field trials of flocoumafen against warfarin-resistant infestations of the Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus Berk.).

    PubMed Central

    Buckle, A. P.

    1986-01-01

    The anticoagulant rodenticide flocoumafen was tested against warfarin-resistant Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus Berk.) infesting farm buildings. Complete control was obtained in 10-21 days (mean 14.2 days) in six treatments in which baits poisoned with 0.005% flocoumafen were maintained, in surplus, until rats ceased to feed from them. A further six treatments, in which the application of poisoned bait was restricted to periodic placements of 50 g, were also completely successful in 15-30 days (mean 21.0 days). Less poisoned bait was used in the restricted flocoumafen treatments than in the unrestricted treatments but the time taken to control the rat infestations was significantly longer. PMID:3755451

  7. Genome sequence of the brown Norway rat yields insights into mammalian evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbs, Richard A.; Weinstock, George M.; Metzker, Michael L.; Muzny, Donna M.; Sodergren, Erica J.; Scherer, Steven; Scott, Graham; Steffen, David; Worley, Kim C.; Burch, Paula E.; Okwuonu, Geoffrey; Hines, Sandra; Lewis, Lora; DeRamo, Christine; Delgado, Oliver; Dugan-Rocha, Shannon; Miner, George; Morgan, Margaret; Hawes, Alicia; Gill, Rachel; Holt, Robert A.; Adams, Mark D.; Amanatides, Peter G.; Baden-Tillson, Holly; Barnstead, Mary; Chin, Soo; Evans, Cheryl A.; Ferriera, Steven; Fosler, Carl; Glodek, Anna; Gu, Zhiping; Jennings, Don; Kraft, Cheryl L.; Nguyen, Trixie; Pfannkoch, Cynthia M.; Sitter, Cynthia; Sutton, Granger G.; Venter, J. Craig; Woodage, Trevor; Smith, Douglas; Lee, Hong-Maei; Gustafson, Erik; Cahill, Patrick; Kana, Arnold; Doucette-Stamm, Lynn; Weinstock, Keith; Fechtel, Kim; Weiss, Robert B.; Dunn, Diane M.; Green, Eric D.; Blakesley, Robert W.; Bouffard, Gerard G.; de Jong, Pieter J.; Osoegawa, Kazutoyo; Zhu, Baoli; Marra, Marco; Schein, Jacqueline; Bosdet, Ian; Fjell, Chris; Jones, Steven; Krzywinski, Martin; Mathewson, Carrie; Siddiqui, Asim; Wye, Natasja; McPherson, John; Zhao, Shaying; Fraser, Claire M.; Shetty, Jyoti; Shatsman, Sofiya; Geer, Keita; Chen, Yixin; Abramzon, Sofyia; Nierman, William C.; Havlak, Paul H.; Chen, Rui; Durbin, K. James; Egan, Amy; Ren, Yanru; Song, Xing-Zhi; Li, Bingshan; Liu, Yue; Qin, Xiang; Cawley, Simon; Cooney, A.J.; D'Souza, Lisa M.; Martin, Kirt; Wu, Jia Qian; Gonzalez-Garay, Manuel L.; Jackson, Andrew R.; Kalafus, Kenneth J.; McLeod, Michael P.; Milosavljevic, Aleksandar; Virk, Davinder; Volkov, Andrei; Wheeler, David A.; Zhang, Zhengdong; Bailey, Jeffrey A.; Eichler, Evan E.; Tuzun, Eray; Birney, Ewan; Mongin, Emmanuel; Ureta-Vidal, Abel; Woodwark, Cara; Zdobnov, Evgeny; Bork, Peer; Suyama, Mikita; Torrents, David; Alexandersson, Marina; Trask, Barbara J.; Young, Janet M.; et al.

    2004-02-02

    The laboratory rat (Rattus norvegicus) is an indispensable tool in experimental medicine and drug development, having made inestimable contributions to human health. We report here the genome sequence of the Brown Norway (BN) rat strain. The sequence represents a high-quality 'draft' covering over 90 percent of the genome. The BN rat sequence is the third complete mammalian genome to be deciphered, and three-way comparisons with the human and mouse genomes resolve details of mammalian evolution. This first comprehensive analysis includes genes and proteins and their relation to human disease, repeated sequences, comparative genome-wide studies of mammalian orthologous chromosomal regions and rearrangement breakpoints, reconstruction of ancestral karyotypes and the events leading to existing species, rates of variation, and lineage-specific and lineage-independent evolutionary events such as expansion of gene families, orthology relations and protein evolution.

  8. Norway rats reciprocate help according to the quality of help they received

    PubMed Central

    Dolivo, Vassilissa; Taborsky, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Direct reciprocity, according to the decision rule ‘help someone who has helped you before’, reflects cooperation based on the principle of postponed benefits. A predominant factor influencing Homo sapiens' motivation to reciprocate is an individ­ual's perceived benefit resulting from the value of received help. But hitherto it has been unclear whether other species also base their decision to cooperate on the quality of received help. Previous experiments have demonstrated that Norway rats, Rattus norvegicus, cooperate using direct reciprocity decision rules in a variant of the iterated Prisoner's Dilemma, where they preferentially help cooperators instead of defectors. But, as the quality of obtained benefits has not been varied, it is yet unclear whether rats use the value of received help as decision criterion to pay help back. Here, we tested whether rats distinguish between different cooperators depending purely on the quality of their help. Our data show that a rat's propensity to reciprocate help is, indeed, adjusted to the perceived quality of the partner's previous help. When cooperating with two conspecific partners expending the same effort, rats apparently rely on obtained benefit to adjust their level of returned help. PMID:25716088

  9. Spatial Reference Memory in Normal Aging Fischer 344 × Brown Norway F1 Hybrid Rats

    PubMed Central

    McQuail, Joseph A.; Nicolle, Michelle M.

    2014-01-01

    Fischer 344 × Brown Norway F1 (F344×BN-F1) hybrid rats express greater longevity with improved health relative to aging rodents of other strains; however, few behavioral reports have thoroughly evaluated cognition across the F344×BN-F1 lifespan. Consequently, this study evaluated spatial reference memory in F344×BN-F1 rats at 6, 18, 24 or 28 months (mo) of age in the Morris water maze. Reference memory decrements were observed between 6 mo and 18 mo and between 18 mo and 24 mo. At 28 mo, spatial learning was not worse than 24 mo, but swim speed was significantly slower. Reliable individual differences revealed that ~50% of 24-28 mo performed similarly to 6 mo while others were spatial learning-impaired. Aged rats were impaired at learning within daily training sessions, but not impaired at retaining information between days of training. Aged rats were also slower to learn to escape onto the platform, regardless of strategy. In summary, these data clarify the trajectory of cognitive decline in aging F344×BN-F1 rats and elucidate relevant behavioral parameters. PMID:25086838

  10. Norway rats reciprocate help according to the quality of help they received.

    PubMed

    Dolivo, Vassilissa; Taborsky, Michael

    2015-02-01

    Direct reciprocity, according to the decision rule 'help someone who has helped you before', reflects cooperation based on the principle of postponed benefits. A predominant factor influencing Homo sapiens' motivation to reciprocate is an individual's perceived benefit resulting from the value of received help. But hitherto it has been unclear whether other species also base their decision to cooperate on the quality of received help. Previous experiments have demonstrated that Norway rats, Rattus norvegicus, cooperate using direct reciprocity decision rules in a variant of the iterated Prisoner's Dilemma, where they preferentially help cooperators instead of defectors. But, as the quality of obtained benefits has not been varied, it is yet unclear whether rats use the value of received help as decision criterion to pay help back. Here, we tested whether rats distinguish between different cooperators depending purely on the quality of their help. Our data show that a rat's propensity to reciprocate help is, indeed, adjusted to the perceived quality of the partner's previous help. When cooperating with two conspecific partners expending the same effort, rats apparently rely on obtained benefit to adjust their level of returned help. PMID:25716088

  11. Thermoregulatory, cardiovascular, and metabolic responses to mild caloric restriction in the Brown Norway rat

    PubMed Central

    Aydin, Cenk; Gordon, Christopher J

    2013-01-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) has been demonstrated to prolong the life span of a variety of species. CR-induced reduction in core temperature (Tc) is considered a key mechanism responsible for prolonging life span in rodents; however, little is known about the regulation of CR-induced hypothermia as a function of the circadian cycle. We assessed how mild CR that resulted in a 10% reduction in body weight affected the 24 h patterns of Tc as well as heart rate (HR) and motor activity (MA) of the Brown Norway rat. Telemetered rats were allowed to feed for 20 weeks ad libitum (AL) or given a CR diet. Tc, HR, and MA of CR rats exhibited nocturnal reductions and diurnal elevations, opposite to that of AL rats. The effects of CR appeared to peak at ∼4 weeks. Metabolic rate (MR) and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) were measured overnight after 18 weeks of CR. MR and RER were elevated markedly at the time of feeding in CR rats and then declined during the night. We found that the pattern of Tc was altered with CR, characterized by elimination of high nocturnal Tc's typically observed in AL animals. In terms of mechanisms to prolong life span in CR animals, we suggest that the shift in the pattern of Tc during CR (i.e., elimination of high Tc's) may be as critical as the overall mean reduction in Tc. Future studies should address how the time of feeding may affect the thermoregulatory response in calorically restricted rats. PMID:24303105

  12. Thermoregulatory, cardiovascular, and metabolic responses to mild caloric restriction in the Brown Norway rat.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Cenk; Gordon, Christopher J

    2013-07-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) has been demonstrated to prolong the life span of a variety of species. CR-induced reduction in core temperature (Tc) is considered a key mechanism responsible for prolonging life span in rodents; however, little is known about the regulation of CR-induced hypothermia as a function of the circadian cycle. We assessed how mild CR that resulted in a 10% reduction in body weight affected the 24 h patterns of Tc as well as heart rate (HR) and motor activity (MA) of the Brown Norway rat. Telemetered rats were allowed to feed for 20 weeks ad libitum (AL) or given a CR diet. Tc, HR, and MA of CR rats exhibited nocturnal reductions and diurnal elevations, opposite to that of AL rats. The effects of CR appeared to peak at ∼4 weeks. Metabolic rate (MR) and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) were measured overnight after 18 weeks of CR. MR and RER were elevated markedly at the time of feeding in CR rats and then declined during the night. We found that the pattern of Tc was altered with CR, characterized by elimination of high nocturnal Tc's typically observed in AL animals. In terms of mechanisms to prolong life span in CR animals, we suggest that the shift in the pattern of Tc during CR (i.e., elimination of high Tc's) may be as critical as the overall mean reduction in Tc. Future studies should address how the time of feeding may affect the thermoregulatory response in calorically restricted rats. PMID:24303105

  13. Field trials of a new sub-acute rodenticide flupropadine, against wild Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    PubMed Central

    Buckle, A. P.

    1985-01-01

    Fifteen experimental treatments with rodenticidal baits containing 0.1, 0.15 or 0.2% flupropadine were conducted on farmsteads against Rattus norvegicus infestations. Eight treatments were completely successful and the others gave kills ranging from 36 to 72% in 28 days. Treatments with 0.1 and 0.15% flupropadine were less successful against large infestations than against small ones. Flupropadine was most successful at 0.2% but still gave incomplete kills on farms where abundant alternative food was available. The compound was more effective than acute poisons in achieving complete control of Norway rat infestations, but was less reliable in doing so than anticoagulants. On the other hand, many flupropadine treatments gave quicker control and used smaller quantities of bait than anticoagulant treatments. PMID:3840823

  14. Ozone induces glucose intolerance and systemic metabolic effects in young and aged brown Norway rats

    SciTech Connect

    Bass, V.; Gordon, C.J.; Jarema, K.A.; MacPhail, R.C.; Cascio, W.E.; Phillips, P.M.; Ledbetter, A.D.; Schladweiler, M.C.; Andrews, D.; Miller, D.; Doerfler, D.L.; Kodavanti, U.P.

    2013-12-15

    Air pollutants have been associated with increased diabetes in humans. We hypothesized that ozone would impair glucose homeostasis by altering insulin signaling and/or endoplasmic reticular (ER) stress in young and aged rats. One, 4, 12, and 24 month old Brown Norway (BN) rats were exposed to air or ozone, 0.25 or 1.0 ppm, 6 h/day for 2 days (acute) or 2 d/week for 13 weeks (subchronic). Additionally, 4 month old rats were exposed to air or 1.0 ppm ozone, 6 h/day for 1 or 2 days (time-course). Glucose tolerance tests (GTT) were performed immediately after exposure. Serum and tissue biomarkers were analyzed 18 h after final ozone for acute and subchronic studies, and immediately after each day of exposure in the time-course study. Age-related glucose intolerance and increases in metabolic biomarkers were apparent at baseline. Acute ozone caused hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance in rats of all ages. Ozone-induced glucose intolerance was reduced in rats exposed for 13 weeks. Acute, but not subchronic ozone increased α{sub 2}-macroglobulin, adiponectin and osteopontin. Time-course analysis indicated glucose intolerance at days 1 and 2 (2 > 1), and a recovery 18 h post ozone. Leptin increased day 1 and epinephrine at all times after ozone. Ozone tended to decrease phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate-1 in liver and adipose tissues. ER stress appeared to be the consequence of ozone induced acute metabolic impairment since transcriptional markers of ER stress increased only after 2 days of ozone. In conclusion, acute ozone exposure induces marked systemic metabolic impairments in BN rats of all ages, likely through sympathetic stimulation. - Highlights: • Air pollutants have been associated with increased diabetes in humans. • Acute ozone exposure produces profound metabolic alterations in rats. • Age influences metabolic risk factors in aging BN rats. • Acute metabolic effects are reversible and repeated exposure reduces these effects. • Ozone

  15. Brown Norway chromosome 1 congenic reduces symptoms of renal disease in fatty Zucker rats.

    PubMed

    Warden, Craig H; Slupsky, Carolyn; Griffey, Stephen M; Bettaieb, Ahmed; Min, Esther; Le, Anh; Fisler, Janis S; Hansen, Susan; Haj, Fawaz; Stern, Judith S

    2014-01-01

    We previously reported that a congenic rat with Brown Norway (BN) alleles on chromosome 1 reduces renal disease of 15-week old fatty Zucker rats (ZUC). Development of renal disease in fatty BN congenic and fatty ZUC rats from 9 through 28 weeks is now examined. Analysis of urine metabolites by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy revealed a significantly increased urinary loss of glucose, myo-inositol, urea, creatine, and valine in ZUC. Food intake was lower in the BN congenic rats at weeks 9-24, but they weighed significantly more at 28 weeks compared with the ZUC group. Fasting glucose was significantly higher in ZUC than congenic and adiponectin levels were significantly lower in ZUC, but there was no significant genotype effect on Insulin levels. Glucose tolerance tests exhibited no significant differences between ZUC and congenic when values were normalized to basal glucose levels. Quantitative PCR on livers revealed evidence for higher gluconeogenesis in congenics than ZUC at 9 weeks. Plasma urea nitrogen and creatinine were more than 2-fold higher in 28-week ZUC. Twelve urine protein markers of glomerular, proximal and distal tubule disease were assayed at three ages. Several proteins that indicate glomerular and proximal tubular disease increased with age in both congenic and ZUC. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) level, a marker whose levels decrease with distal tubule disease, was significantly higher in congenics. Quantitative histology of 28 week old animals revealed the most significant genotype effect was for tubular dilation and intratubular protein. The congenic donor region is protective of kidney disease, and effects on Type 2 diabetes are likely limited to fasting glucose and adiponectin. The loss of urea together with a small increase of food intake in ZUC support the hypothesis that nitrogen balance is altered in ZUC from an early age. PMID:24498189

  16. Mechanism of airway hyperresponsiveness to adenosine induced by allergen challenge in actively sensitized Brown Norway rats

    PubMed Central

    Hannon, J P; Tigani, B; Williams, I; Mazzoni, L; Fozard, J R

    2001-01-01

    We have explored the role of allergen sensitization and challenge in defining the response of the airways of the Brown Norway (BN) rat to adenosine. In naïve animals or in rats sensitized to ovalbumin (OA) adenosine induced only weak bronchoconstrictor responses. Challenge of sensitized animals with OA induced a marked airway hyperresponsiveness to adenosine which was not seen with methacholine or bradykinin. The augmented bronchoconstrictor response to adenosine was not affected by acute bivagotomy or atropine nor mimicked by an i.v. injection of capsaicin. It was, however, blocked selectively by disodium cromoglycate methysergide or ketanserin and reduced in animals treated sub-chronically with compound 48/80. The augmented response to adenosine was associated with increases in the plasma concentrations of both histamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), which were attenuated by pretreatment with disodium cromoglycate, and degranulation of mast cells in the lung. Parenchymal strips from lungs removed from sensitized rats challenged with OA gave augmented bronchoconstrictor responses to adenosine relative to strips from sensitized animals challenged with saline. Responses were inhibited by methysergide and disodium cromoglycate. These data demonstrate a marked augmentation of the bronchoconstrictor response to adenosine in actively sensitized BN rats challenged with OA. The augmented response is primarily a consequence of mast cell activation, leading to the release of 5-HT, which in turn induces bronchoconstriction. Our data further suggest the involvement of a discrete lung-based population of mast cells containing and releasing mainly 5-HT and brought into play by prior exposure to allergen. PMID:11264245

  17. Impact of diet on ozone-induced pulmonary and systemic effects in female Brown Norway (BN) rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Impact of diet on ozone-induced pulmonary and systemic effects in female Brown Norway (BN) ratsV.L. Bass1, M.C. Schladweiler2, S. Snow5, C.J. Gordon4, K.A. Jarema4, P. Phillips4, A.D. Ledbetter2, D.B. Miller3, J.E. Richards2, U.P. Kodavanti2. 1. SPH, UNC, Chapel Hill2. EPHD, NHE...

  18. Assessment of the allergic potential of food protein extracts and proteins on oral application using the brown Norway rat model.

    PubMed Central

    Knippels, Léon M J; Penninks, André H

    2003-01-01

    The need for widely accepted and validated animal models to test the potential allergenicity and potency of novel (biotechnology-derived) proteins has become an important issue for their safety evaluation. In this article, we summarize the results of the development of an oral sensitization protocol for food proteins in the rat. Young Brown Norway rats were exposed to either various purified allergenic proteins (e.g., ovalbumin, partly purified), a whole food (cow's milk), or total protein extracts (hen's egg white, peanut) by daily gavage dosing during 42 days without the use of an adjuvant. The results showed that Brown Norway rats can be sensitized orally to the various allergenic food proteins tested, resulting in antigen-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) G and IgE responses, without the use of adjuvants. Animals orally exposed to cow's milk or total protein extracts of egg white also developed specific IgE and IgG antibodies that recognized the same proteins compared with antibodies from patients allergic to egg white or cow's milk. We also studied local and systemic immune-mediated effects. In ovalbumin-sensitized rats, some clinical symptoms of food allergy were studied upon an oral challenge with ovalbumin. The results demonstrated that gut permeability was increased and that in some animals breathing frequency and systolic blood pressure were temporarily decreased. The results obtained show that the Brown Norway rat provides a suitable animal model for food allergy research and for the study of relative allergenicity of existing and novel food proteins. PMID:12573912

  19. Ultrasonic vocalizations of female Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) in response to social partners.

    PubMed

    Börner, Annegret; Hjemdahl, Rebecca; Götz, Thomas; Brown, Gillian R

    2016-02-01

    In many species of animals, male vocalizations function to attract mating partners and coordinate sexual interactions. Whereas male vocalizations have been well studied in several species, the function of female vocalizations in mating contexts is not fully understood. In Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus), both males and females produce ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) during sexual encounters with opposite sex partners. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that female vocalizations play a role in sociosexual interactions by examining how rates of 50 kHz USV production vary in relation to the sex and gonadal status of the partner, and by examining whether the proportion of frequency modulated (FM) and constant frequency calls differs between these categories of social partner. The results showed that females produced a higher total number of 50 kHz USVs to intact males than castrated males, and produced similar numbers of calls to both categories of females. Females also produced a higher proportion of FM calls to male partners than to female partners, and spent more time in the vicinity of male than female partners, regardless of the partners' gonadal status. Female USVs therefore potentially provide a measure of sexual motivation and may function to promote female mate choice in this species with multimale mating and a high risk of infanticide. PMID:26689446

  20. Cholesterol diet counteracts repeated anesthesia/infusion-induced cognitive deficits in male Brown Norway rats

    PubMed Central

    Hohsfield, Lindsay A.; Ehrlich, Daniela; Humpel, Christian

    2015-01-01

    A variety of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases are associated with alterations in cholesterol levels and metabolism. Moreover, convincing evidence shows that high cholesterol diet can lead to learning and memory impairments. On the other hand, a significant body of research has also demonstrated that learning is improved by elevated dietary cholesterol. Despite these conflicting findings, it is clear that cholesterol plays an important role in these cognitive properties. However, it remains unclear how this blood-brain barrier (BBB)-impenetrable molecule affects the brain and under what circumstances it provides either detrimental or beneficial effects to learning and memory. The aim of this study was to characterize the effects of 5% cholesterol diet on six-month-old inbred Brown Norway rats. More important, we sought to examine the role that cholesterol can play when repeated anesthesia and intravenous infusion disrupts cognitive function. This present study supports previous work showing that enriched cholesterol diet leads to significant alterations in neuroinflammation and BBB disruption. Following repeated anesthesia and intravenous infusion of saline we observe that animals under normal diet conditions exhibit significant deficiencies in spatial learning and cholinergic neuron populations compared to animals under enriched cholesterol diet, which do not show such deficiencies. These findings indicate that cholesterol diet can protect against or counteract anesthesia/infusion-induced cognitive deficits. Ultimately, these results suggest that cholesterol homeostasis serves an important functional role in the brain and that altering this homeostasis can either exert positive or negative effects on cognitive properties. PMID:23973449

  1. Brown Norway rat asthma model of diphenylmethane 4,4'-diisocyanate.

    PubMed

    Pauluhn, Jürgen

    2005-12-01

    Allergic asthma is a complex chronic inflammatory disease of the airways and its etiology is multifactorial. It involves the recruitment and activation of many inflammatory and structural cells, all of which release inflammatory mediators that result in typical pathological changes of asthma. The features of asthma addressed in this Brown Norway (BN) rat animal model include an analysis of cellular infiltrations in the lung, inflammatory factors in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), total immunoglobulin E (IgE) production in serum, and changes in delayed-onset respiratory reactions upon four inhalation challenges (every 2 wk) with polymeric diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI) aerosol in two groups of topically sensitized rats. The dependence on the induction-related variables was analyzed by using almost identical surface area doses but different total doses per animal. This regimen caused acute exacerbations of delayed-onset respiratory reactions, for which intensity increased with each challenge. After the fourth challenge BAL neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils, cell counts, protein, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) as well as lung weights were significantly increased in sensitized rats relative to naive but challenged controls. Histopathology revealed activated bronchial lymphatic tissue, increased recruitment of inflammatory cells, the beginning of peribronchial/peribronchiolar fibrosis, thickening of alveolar septae, and vascular hypertrophy. Total IgE in serum was significantly increased in sensitized rats. Thus, high-dose topical induction to, and repeated inhalation challenges with, MDI was associated with a marked neutrophilic and a less consistent eosinophilic inflammatory response. With regard to the relative sensitivity of endpoints, those that integrate independently a series of complex physiological events appeared to be most practical to probe positive responses in this animal model. These include postchallenge changes in Penh to identify respiratory

  2. Development and Characterization of an Effective Food Allergy Model in Brown Norway Rats

    PubMed Central

    Abril-Gil, Mar; Garcia-Just, Alba; Pérez-Cano, Francisco J.; Franch, Àngels; Castell, Margarida

    2015-01-01

    Background Food allergy (FA) is an adverse health effect produced by the exposure to a given food. Currently, there is no optimal animal model of FA for the screening of immunotherapies or for testing the allergenicity of new foods. Objective The aim of the present study was to develop an effective and rapid model of FA in Brown Norway rats. In order to establish biomarkers of FA in rat, we compared the immune response and the anaphylactic shock obtained in this model with those achieved with only intraperitoneal immunization. Methods Rats received an intraperitoneal injection of ovalbumin (OVA) with alum and toxin from Bordetella pertussis, and 14 days later, OVA by oral route daily for three weeks (FA group). A group of rats receiving only the i.p. injection (IP group) were also tested. Serum anti-OVA IgE, IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b and IgA antibodies were quantified throughout the study. After an oral challenge, body temperature, intestinal permeability, motor activity, and mast cell protease II (RMCP-II) levels were determined. At the end of the study, anti-OVA intestinal IgA, spleen cytokine production, lymphocyte composition of Peyer’s patches and mesenteric lymph nodes, and gene expression in the small intestine were quantified. Results Serum OVA-specific IgG1, IgG2a and IgG2b concentrations rose with the i.p. immunization but were highly augmented after the oral OVA administration. Anti-OVA IgE increased twofold during the first week of oral OVA gavage. The anaphylaxis in both IP and FA groups decreased body temperature and motor activity, whereas intestinal permeability increased. Interestingly, the FA group showed a much higher RMCP II serum protein and intestinal mRNA expression. Conclusions These results show both an effective and relatively rapid model of FA assessed by means of specific antibody titres and the high production of RMCP-II and its intestinal gene expression. PMID:25923134

  3. Multiple Paternity in the Norway Rat, Rattus norvegicus, from Urban Slums in Salvador, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, Federico; Richardson, Jonathan L; Dion, Kirstin; Mariani, Carol; Pertile, Arsinoe C; Burak, Mary K; Childs, James E; Ko, Albert I; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2016-03-01

    The Norway rat, Rattus norvegicus, is one of the most important pest species globally and the main reservoir of leptospires causing human leptospirosis in the urban slums of tropical regions. Rodent control is a frequent strategy in those settings to prevent the disease but rapid growth from residual populations and immigration limit the long-term effectiveness of interventions. To characterize the breeding ecology of R. norvegicus and provide needed information for the level of genetic mixing, which can help identify inter-connected eradication units, we estimated the occurrence of multiple paternity, distances between mothers and sires, and inbreeding in rats from urban slum habitat in Salvador, Brazil. We genotyped 9 pregnant females, their 66 offspring, and 371 males at 16 microsatellite loci. Multiple paternity was observed in 22% (2/9) of the study litters. Of the 12 sires that contributed to the 9 litters, we identified 5 (42%) of those sires among our genotyped males. Related males were captured in close proximity to pregnant females (the mean inter-parent trapping distance per litter was 70 m, ±58 m SD). Levels of relatedness between mother-sire pairs were higher than expected and significantly higher than relatedness between all females and non-sire males. Our findings indicate multiple paternity is common, inbreeding is apparent, and that mother-sire dyads occur in close proximity within the study area. This information is relevant to improve the spatial definition of the eradication units that may enhance the effectiveness of rodent management programs aimed at preventing human leptospirosis. High levels of inbreeding may also be a sign that eradication efforts are successful. PMID:26733693

  4. Immunological Interactive Effects between Pollen Grains and Their Cytoplasmic Granules on Brown Norway Rats

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Grass pollen is one of the most important aeroallergen vectors in Europe. Under some meteorological factors, pollen grains can release pollen cytoplasmic granules (PCGs). PCGs induce allergic responses. Several studies have shown that during a period of thunderstorms the number of patients with asthma increases because of higher airborne concentrations of PCGs. Objective The aims of the study were to assess the allergenicity of interactive effects between pollen and PCGs and to compare it with allergenicity of Timothy grass pollen and PCGs in Brown Norway rats. Methods Rats were sensitized (day 0) and challenged (day 21) with pollen grains and/or PCGs. Four groups were studied: pollen-pollen (PP), PCGs-PCGs (GG), pollen-PCGs (PG), and PCGs-pollen (GP). Blood samples, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and bronchial lymph node were collected at day 25. IgE and IgG1 levels in sera were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Alveolar cells, protein, and cytokine concentrations were quantified in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. T-cell proliferation, in response to pollen or granules, was performed by lymph node assay. Results Interactive effects between pollen and PCGs increased IgE and IgG1 levels when compared with those of the negative control. These increases were lower than those of the PP group but similar to the levels obtained by the GG group. Whatever was used in the sensitization and/or challenge phase, PCGs increased lymphocyte and Rantes levels compared with those of the pollen group. The interactive effects increased IL-1α and IL-1β compared with those of the PP and GG groups. Conclusions Immunologic interactive effects have been shown between pollen and PCGs. For humoral and cellular allergic responses, interactive effects between the 2 aeroallergenic sources used in this study seem to be influenced mainly by PCGs. PMID:23283149

  5. Predator-induced plasticity in sleep architecture in wild-caught Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    PubMed

    Lesku, John A; Bark, Rebekah J; Martinez-Gonzalez, Dolores; Rattenborg, Niels C; Amlaner, Charles J; Lima, Steven L

    2008-06-01

    Sleep is a prominent behaviour in the lives of animals, but the unresponsiveness that characterizes sleep makes it dangerous. Mammalian sleep is composed of two neurophysiological states: slow wave sleep (SWS) and rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep. Given that the intensity of stimuli required to induce an arousal to wakefulness is highest during deep SWS or REM sleep, mammals may be most vulnerable during these states. If true, then animals should selectively reduce deep SWS and REM sleep following an increase in the risk of predation. To test this prediction, we simulated a predatory encounter with 10 wild-caught Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus), which are perhaps more likely to exhibit natural anti-predator responses than laboratory strains. Immediately following the encounter, rats spent more time awake and less time in SWS and REM sleep. The reduction of SWS was due to the shorter duration of SWS episodes, whereas the reduction of REM sleep was due to a lower number of REM sleep episodes. The onset of SWS and REM sleep was delayed post-encounter by about 20 and 100 min, respectively. The reduction of REM sleep was disproportionately large during the first quarter of the sleep phase, and slow wave activity (SWA) (0.5-4.5 Hz power density) was lower during the first 10 min of SWS post-encounter. An increase in SWA and REM sleep was observed later in the sleep phase, which may reflect sleep homeostasis. These results suggest that aspects of sleep architecture can be adjusted to the prevailing risk of predation. PMID:18313152

  6. Airway hyperresponsiveness to adenosine induced by lipopolysaccharide in Brown Norway rats

    PubMed Central

    Tigani, B; Hannon, J P; Rondeau, C; Mazzoni, L; Fozard, J R

    2002-01-01

    We have explored the effects of bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) on the response of the airways of Brown Norway (BN) rats to adenosine. Comparisons have been drawn with the effects on responses to methacholine and 5-hydroxytryptamine.In vehicle-challenged animals, adenosine, given i.v. was only a weak bronchoconstrictor. In contrast, 1 h following intratracheal administration of LPS, 0.3 mg kg−1, bronchoconstrictor responses to adenosine were markedly and selectively enhanced. At this time point, there were no significant changes in leukocyte numbers, eosinophil peroxidase and myeloperoxidase activities or protein concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. Twenty-four hours after challenge, the sensitivity of the airways to both adenosine and methacholine was reduced relative to the earlier time point and there were substantial increases in each marker of inflammation in BAL fluid.The bronchoconstrictor response to adenosine was blocked selectively by methysergide, disodium cromoglycate and the broad-spectrum adenosine receptor antagonist, 8-SPT, but not by DPCPX or ZM 243185, selective antagonists for the A1 and A2A receptors, respectively.Thus, the response to adenosine augmented following LPS is mast cell mediated and involves a receptor which can be blocked by 8-SPT but not by selective A1 or A2A receptor antagonists. It thus bears similarity to the augmented response to adenosine induced by allergen challenge in actively sensitized BN rats. Exposure to LPS could be a factor along with allergen in determining the increased sensitivity of the airways of asthmatics to adenosine. PMID:11976275

  7. Anticoagulant resistance in the United Kingdom and a new guideline for the management of resistant infestations of Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus Berk.).

    PubMed

    Buckle, Alan

    2013-03-01

    Anticoagulant resistance was first discovered in UK Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus Berk.) in 1958 and has been present ever since. The possible detrimental impact of resistance on effective rodent control was quickly recognised, and, for almost three decades, extensive research was conducted on the geographical distribution and severity of anticoagulant resistance in UK rats. Various schemes for the eradication of resistant rats were also implemented. At first, surveys showed resistance only to the first-generation anticoagulants, such as warfarin, chlorophacinone and coumatetralyl, but, later, resistance to the more potent second-generation anticoagulants, such as difenacoum and bromadiolone, was also discovered. Unlike some European countries, where only one or two resistance mutations occur, virtually all known rat resistance mutations occur in the United Kingdom, and five (Leu128Gln, Tyr139Ser, Tyr139Cys, Tyr139Phe and Leu120Gln) are known to have significant impacts on anticoagulant efficacy. Little is currently known of the geographical extent of anticoagulant resistance among Norway rats in the United Kingdom because no comprehensive survey has been conducted recently. At an operational level, anticoagulants generally retain their utility for Norway rat control, but it is impossible to control resistant rats in some areas because of restrictions on the use of the more potent resistance-breaking compounds. This paper reviews the development of resistance in Norway rats in the United Kingdom, outlines the present situation for resistance management and introduces a new resistance management guideline from the UK Rodenticide Resistance Action Group. PMID:22730379

  8. Mast Cell Inhibition Attenuates Cardiac Remodeling and Diastolic Dysfunction in Middle-aged, Ovariectomized Fischer 344 × Brown Norway Rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao; da Silva, Jaqueline; Alencar, Allan; Zapata-Sudo, Gisele; Lin, Marina R; Sun, Xuming; Ahmad, Sarfaraz; Ferrario, Carlos M; Groban, Leanne

    2016-07-01

    The incidence of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) increases in women after menopause, yet the mechanisms are unclear. Because mast cells participate in the pathological processes of various cardiac diseases, we hypothesized that mast cell inhibition would protect against estrogen loss-induced LVDD. The mast cell stabilizer, cromolyn sodium (30 mg·kg·d), or vehicle was administered subcutaneously by osmotic minipump to ovariectomized (OVX) female Fischer 344 × Brown Norway (F344BN) rats starting at 4 weeks after surgery. Eight weeks after OVX, systolic blood pressure increased by 20% in OVX versus sham rats, and this effect was attenuated after 4 weeks of cromolyn treatment. Also, cromolyn mitigated the adverse reductions in myocardial relaxation (e') and increases in left ventricle (LV) filling pressures (E/e'), LV mass, wall thicknesses, and interstitial fibrosis from OVX. Although cardiac mast cell number was increased after OVX, cardiac chymase activity was not overtly altered by estrogen status and tended to decrease by cromolyn. Contrariwise, Ang II content was greater in hearts of OVX versus sham rats, and cromolyn attenuated this effect. Taken together, mast cell inhibition with cromolyn attenuates LV remodeling and LVDD in OVX-Fischer 344 × Brown Norway rats possibly through actions on the heart level and/or through vasodilatory effects at the vascular level. PMID:26981683

  9. Comparison of immune status and 1,2-dimethylhydrazine induced tumorigenesis in brown--Norway and Fischer rats. Emphasis on splenic and colonic lymphocyte function.

    PubMed

    Locniskar, M; Nauss, K M; Kauffman, P; Newberne, P M

    1985-01-01

    Sym 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced colon tumorigenesis was studied in immunologically different strains of rat: the Brown--Norway which is known to be immunologically a low-responder and the Fischer a high-responder. Brown--Norway rats received a total dose of 75, 150 or 225 mg DMH/kg or vehicle and Fischer rats received 150 mg DMH/kg or vehicle over a 3-week period. Rats were killed 5 months after the final treatment. Lymphocytes were isolated from the spleen and colon from rats treated with 150 mg DMH/kg or vehicle. Natural killer (NK) cell activity and the autologous mixed lymphocyte response (AMLR) as well as colon tumor incidence were compared between the two strains. Splenic and colonic intraperithelial lymphocytes (IEL) from the Brown--Norway strain demonstrated low NK activity and reduced splenic T lymphocyte proliferation in response to autologous non-T lymphocytes. As well, colonic lamina propria lymphocyte (LPL) proliferation was low and Brown--Norway rats had a low incidence of DMH-induced colon neoplasms (7%). In comparison, the Fischer rats had more effective splenic and IEL NK killing, enhanced splenic AMLR, enhanced LPL proliferation and a higher incidence of colon tumors (20%). PMID:3871659

  10. Age- and brain region-specific differences in mitochondrial bioenergetics in Brown Norway rats.

    PubMed

    Pandya, Jignesh D; Royland, Joyce E; MacPhail, Robert C; Sullivan, Patrick G; Kodavanti, Prasada Rao S

    2016-06-01

    Mitochondria are central regulators of energy homeostasis and play a pivotal role in mechanisms of cellular senescence. The objective of the present study was to evaluate mitochondrial bioenergetic parameters in 5 brain regions (brain stem [BS], frontal cortex, cerebellum, striatum, hippocampus [HIP]) of 4 diverse age groups (1 month [young], 4 months [adult], 12 months [middle-aged], 24 months [old age]) to understand age-related differences in selected brain regions and their possible contribution to age-related chemical sensitivity. Mitochondrial bioenergetic parameters and enzyme activities were measured under identical conditions across multiple age groups and brain regions in Brown Norway rats (n = 5/group). The results indicate age- and brain region-specific patterns in mitochondrial functional endpoints. For example, an age-specific decline in ATP synthesis (State III respiration) was observed in BS and HIP. Similarly, the maximal respiratory capacities (State V1 and V2) showed age-specific declines in all brain regions examined (young > adult > middle-aged > old age). Amongst all regions, HIP had the greatest change in mitochondrial bioenergetics, showing declines in the 4, 12, and 24-months age groups. Activities of mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex and electron transport chain complexes I, II, and IV enzymes were also age and brain region specific. In general, changes associated with age were more pronounced with enzyme activities declining as the animals aged (young > adult > middle-aged > old age). These age- and brain region-specific observations may aid in evaluating brain bioenergetic impact on the age-related susceptibility to environmental chemical stressors. PMID:27143418

  11. Age-related Declines in Thirst and Salt Appetite Responses in Male Fischer 344 x Brown Norway Rats

    PubMed Central

    Thunhorst, Robert L.; Beltz, Terry; Johnson, Alan Kim

    2014-01-01

    The F344xBN strain is the first generational cross between Fischer 344 (F344) and Brown Norway (BN) rats. The F344xBN strain is widely used in aging studies as it is regarded as a model of “healthy” aging (Sprott, 1991). In the present work, male F344xBN rats aged 4 mo (young, n = 6) and 20 mo (old, n = 9) received a series of experimental challenges to body fluid homeostasis to determine their thirst and salt appetite responses. Corresponding urinary responses were measured in some of the studies. Following sodium depletion, old rats ingested less saline solution (0.3 M NaCl) than young rats on a body weight basis, but both ages drank enough saline solution to completely repair the accrued sodium deficits. Following intracellular dehydration, old rats drank less water than young rats, again on a body weight basis, and were less able than young rats to drink amounts of water proportionate to the osmotic challenge. Compared with young rats, old rats drank less of both water and saline solution after combined food and fluid restriction, and also were refractory to the stimulatory effects of low doses of captopril on water drinking and sodium ingestion. Age differences in urinary water and sodium excretion could not account for the age differences in accumulated water and sodium balances. These results extend observations of diminished behavioral responses of aging animals to the F344xBN rat strain and support the idea that impairments in behavior contribute more to the waning ability of aging animals to respond to body fluid challenges than do declines in kidney function. In addition, the results suggest that behavioral defense of sodium homeostasis is less diminished with age in the F344xBN strain compared to other strains so far studied. PMID:24952266

  12. Characteristics of the Built Environment and the Presence of the Norway Rat in New York City: Results From a Neighborhood Rat Surveillance Program, 2008-2010.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sarah; Bragdon, Caroline; Olson, Carolyn; Merlino, Mario; Bonaparte, Sancia

    2016-06-01

    Characteristics of an urban setting such as New York City (NYC), including readily available putrescible waste and ample underground infrastructure, make it highly attractive to the Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus). To identify property and neighborhood characteristics associated with rat presence, recent inspectional results were analyzed from over 77,000 properties in the Bronx and Manhattan. Variables capturing the location and density of factors believed to promote rat populations were tested individually and in combination in models predicting rat activity. We found that property-specific characteristics typically associated with high garbage volume, including large numbers of residential units, public ownership, and open-space designation (parks, outdoor recreation, or vacant land) were the most important factors in explaining increased rat presence across neighborhoods in NYC. Interventions that involved improved garbage management and street sanitation within a designated area reduced the likelihood of finding rats, especially in medium- and high-poverty neighborhoods. Neighborhood characteristics, such as being near a railroad or subway line, having a school nearby, the presence of numerous restaurants, or having older infrastructure, also contributed to the increased likelihood of rats. Our results support the use of built environment data to target community-level interventions and capture emerging rat infestations. PMID:27348979

  13. Species Abundance Distribution of Ectoparasites on Norway Rats (Rattus norvegicus) from a Localized Area in Southwest China

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xian Guo; Dong, Wen Ge; Men, Xing Yuan; Qian, Ti Jun; Wu, Dian; Ren, Tian Guang; Qin, Feng; Song, Wen Yu; Yang, Zhi Hua; Fletcher, Quinn E

    2016-01-01

    Background: The species of ectoparasites that live on a specific host in a geographical region form an ectoparasite community. Species abundance distributions describe the number of individuals observed for each different species that is encountered within a community. Based on properties of the species abundance distribution, the expected total number of species present in the community can be estimated. Methods: Preston’s lognormal distribution model was used to fit the expected species abundance distribution curve. Using the expected species abundance distribution curve, we estimated the total number of expected parasite species present and the amount of species that were likely missed by our sampling in the field. Results: In total, 8040 ectoparasites (fleas, sucking lice, gamasid mites and chigger mites) were collected from 431 Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) from a localized area in southwest China. These ectoparasites were identified to be 47 species from 26 genera in 10 families. The majority of ectoparasite species were chigger mites (family Trombiculidae) while the majority of individuals were sucking lice in the family Polyplacidae. The expected species abundance distribution curve demonstrated the classic pattern that the majority of ectoparasite species were rare and that there were a few common species. The total expected number of ectoparasite species on R. norvegicus was estimated to be 85 species, and 38 species were likely missed by our sampling in the field. Conclusions: Norway rats harbor a large suite of ectoparasites. Future field investigations should sample large numbers of host individuals to assess ectoparasite populations. PMID:27308277

  14. Genetic mapping of Eutr1, a locus controlling E2-induced pyometritis in the Brown Norway rat, to RNO5.

    PubMed

    Gould, Karen A; Pandey, Jyotsna; Lachel, Cynthia M; Murrin, Clare R; Flood, Lisa A; Pennington, Karen L; Schaffer, Beverly S; Tochacek, Martin; McComb, Rodney D; Meza, Jane L; Wendell, Douglas L; Shull, James D

    2005-11-01

    In certain rat strains, chronic estrogen administration can lead to pyometritis, an inflammation of the uterus accompanied by infection and the accumulation of intraluminal pus. In this article, we report that the Brown Norway (BN) rat is highly susceptible to pyometritis induced by 17beta-estradiol (E2). The susceptibility of the BN rat to E2-induced pyometritis appears to segregate as a recessive trait in crosses to the resistant August x Copenhagen Irish (ACI) strain. In a (BN x ACI)F(2) population, we find strong evidence for a major genetic determinant of susceptibility to E2-induced pyometritis on rat chromosome 5 (RNO5). Our data are most consistent with a model in which the BN allele of this locus, designated Eutr1 (Estrogen-induced uterine response 1), acts in an incompletely dominant manner to control E2-induced pyometritis. Furthermore, we have confirmed the contribution of Eutr1 to E2-induced uterine pyometritis using an RNO5 congenic rat strain. In addition to Eutr1, we obtained evidence suggestive of linkage for five additional loci on RNO2, 4, 11, 17, and X that control susceptibility to E2-induced pyometritis in the (BN x ACI)F(2) population. PMID:16284801

  15. CHARACTERIZATION OF IMMEDIATE AND LATE PHASE AIRWAY RESPONSES TO HOUSE DUST MITE CHALLENGE IN BROWN NORWAY RATS AND CORRELATIONS AMONG PHYSIOLOGICAL MEDIATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    CHARACTERIZATION OF IMMEDIATE AND LATE PHASE AIRWAY RESPONSES TO HOUSE DUST MITE CHALLENGE IN BROWN NORWAY RATS AND CORRELATIONS AMONG PATHOPHYSIOLOGICAL MEDIATORS (P.
    SinghI, D.W. Winsett2, M.J. Daniels2, J. Richards2, K. Crissman2, D.L. Doerfler2 and M.I. Gilmour2, 1NCSU, Ra...

  16. Effect of High Fructose and High Fat Diets on Pulmonary Sensitivity, Motor Activity, and Body Composition of Brown Norway Rats Exposed to Ozone

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diet-induced obesity has been suggested to lead to increased susceptibility to air pollutants such as ozone (03); however, there is little experimental evidence. Thirty day old male and female Brown Norway rats were fed a normal, high-fructose or high-fat diet for 12 weeks and th...

  17. Patterns in Leptospira Shedding in Norway Rats (Rattus norvegicus) from Brazilian Slum Communities at High Risk of Disease Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Federico; Wunder, Elsio A.; De Oliveira, Daiana; Bisht, Vimla; Rodrigues, Gorete; Reis, Mitermayer G.; Ko, Albert I.; Begon, Mike; Childs, James E.

    2015-01-01

    Background We address some critical but unknown parameters of individuals and populations of Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) that influence leptospiral infection, maintenance and spirochetal loads shed in urine, which contaminates the environment ultimately leading to human infection. Methodology/Principal Findings Our study, conducted in Salvador, Brazil, established the average load of leptospires in positive kidneys to be 5.9 x 106 per mL (range 3.1-8.2 x106) genome equivalents (GEq), similar to the 6.1 x 106 per ml (range 2.2-9.4 x106) average obtained from paired urines, with a significant positive correlation (R2=0.78) between the two. Based on bivariate and multivariate modeling, we found with both kidney and urine samples that leptospiral loads increased with the age of rats (based on the index of body length to mass), MAT titer and the presence of wounding/scars, and varied with site of capture. Some associations were modified by sex but trends were apparent. Combining with data on the demographic properties and prevalence of leptospiral carriage in rat populations in Salvador, we estimated that daily leptospiral loads shed in the urine of a population of 82 individuals exceeded 9.1 x 1010 leptospires. Conclusions/Significance These factors directly influence the risk of leptospiral acquisition among humans and provide essential epidemiological information linking properties of rat populations with risk of human infection. PMID:26047009

  18. Adoptive transfer of allergen-specific CD4+ T cells induces airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness in brown-Norway rats.

    PubMed

    Haczku, A; Macary, P; Huang, T J; Tsukagoshi, H; Barnes, P J; Kay, A B; Kemeny, D M; Chung, K F; Moqbel, R

    1997-06-01

    Following allergen exposure, sensitized Brown-Norway rats develop airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and eosinophilic inflammation together with an increase in activated T cells (CD25+) in the airways. We tested the hypothesis that CD4+ T cells are involved directly in the acquisition of AHR. Spleen T cells from animals that were injected intraperitoneally on three consecutive days with ovalbumin/Al(OH)3, showed a dose-dependent proliferative response in vitro to ovalbumin, but not to bovine serum albumin, as measured by [3H]thymidine uptake. For total T-cell transfer, spleen cells obtained from donor rats 4 days after sensitization were depleted of adherent cells by a nylon wool column separation. CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were purified by immunomagnetic beads cell separation. Recipient naive rats were injected intravenously with 50 x 10(6) total T cells, 20 x 10(6) and 5 x 10(6) CD4+ cells, and 5 x 10(6) CD8+ cells, and were exposed to ovalbumin aerosol 24 hr afterwards. After a further 24 hr, airway responsiveness to acetylcholine (ACh) was measured and provocative concentration (PC) values PC100, PC200 and PC300) (the ACh concentration needed to achieve 100, 200 and 300% increase in lung resistance above baseline) were calculated. Airway responsiveness was significantly increased in recipients of sensitized total T cells compared with recipients of cells from saline-injected donor rats (P < 0.05). There were significantly increased eosinophil major basic protein (MBP)+ cell counts/mm2 in airway submucosal tissue in the hyperreactive rats and a significant correlation was found between the number of MBP+ cells and PC100 (r = 0.75; P < 0.03) in recipients of sensitized total T cells. Purified CD4+ T cells from sensitized donors induced AHR in naive recipients (P < 0.05), while sensitized CD8+ and naive CD4+ cells failed to do so. Our data indicate that T cells may induce AHR through an eosinophilic airway inflammation and that CD4+ T cells may have a direct effect in

  19. The development of a blood clotting response test for discriminating between difenacoum-resistant and susceptible Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus, Berk.).

    PubMed

    Gill, J E; Kerins, G M; Langton, S D; MacNicoll, A D

    1993-01-01

    1. A new test for identifying levels of difenacoum resistance in the Norway rat is described, based upon the differential physiological response to difenacoum administration. 2. This test is based on changes in blood clotting activity over 4 days, following administration of the rodenticide difenacoum in conjunction with menadione (vitamin K3). 3. The anticoagulant effect is reduced only in rats that are resistant or tolerant to difenacoum. 4. This test procedure is quicker than traditional feeding tests, and identifies the degree of resistance in both laboratory and wild rats that have difenacoum resistance genes. PMID:8097452

  20. Assessment of the Sensitizing Potential of Processed Peanut Proteins in Brown Norway Rats: Roasting Does Not Enhance Allergenicity

    PubMed Central

    Kroghsbo, Stine; Rigby, Neil M.; Johnson, Philip E.; Adel-Patient, Karine; Bøgh, Katrine L.; Salt, Louise J.; Mills, E. N. Clare; Madsen, Charlotte B.

    2014-01-01

    Background IgE-binding of process-modified foods or proteins is the most common method for examination of how food processing affects allergenicity of food allergens. How processing affects sensitization capacity is generally studied by administration of purified food proteins or food extracts and not allergens present in their natural food matrix. Objectives The aim was to investigate if thermal processing increases sensitization potential of whole peanuts via the oral route. In parallel, the effect of heating on sensitization potential of the major peanut allergen Ara h 1 was assessed via the intraperitoneal route. Methods Sensitization potential of processed peanut products and Ara h 1 was examined in Brown Norway (BN) rats by oral administration of blanched or oil-roasted peanuts or peanut butter or by intraperitoneal immunization of purified native (N-), heated (H-) or heat glycated (G-)Ara h 1. Levels of specific IgG and IgE were determined by ELISA and IgE functionality was examined by rat basophilic leukemia (RBL) cell assay. Results In rats dosed orally, roasted peanuts induced significant higher levels of specific IgE to NAra h 1 and 2 than blanched peanuts or peanut butter but with the lowest level of RBL degranulation. However, extract from roasted peanuts was found to be a superior elicitor of RBL degranulation. Process-modified Ara h 1 had similar sensitizing capacity as NAra h 1 but specific IgE reacted more readily with process-modified Ara h 1 than with native. Conclusions Peanut products induce functional specific IgE when dosed orally to BN rats. Roasted peanuts do not have a higher sensitizing capacity than blanched peanuts. In spite of this, extract from roasted peanuts is a superior elicitor of RBL cell degranulation irrespectively of the peanut product used for sensitization. The results also suggest that new epitopes are formed or disclosed by heating Ara h 1 without glucose. PMID:24805813

  1. Age-related differences in pulmonary effects of acute and subchronic episodic ozone exposures in Brown Norway rats.

    PubMed

    Snow, Samantha J; Gordon, Christopher J; Bass, Virginia L; Schladweiler, Mette C; Ledbetter, Allen D; Jarema, Kimberly A; Phillips, Pamela M; Johnstone, Andrew F; Kodavanti, Urmila P

    2016-06-01

    Ozone (O3) is known to induce adverse pulmonary and systemic health effects. Importantly, children and older persons are considered at-risk populations for O3-induced dysfunction, yet the mechanisms accounting for the age-related pulmonary responses to O3 are uncertain. In this study, we examined age-related susceptibility to O3 using 1 mo (adolescent), 4 mo (young adult), 12 mo (adult) and 24 mo (senescent) male Brown Norway rats exposed to filtered air or O3 (0.25 and 1.00 ppm), 6 h/day, two days/week for 1 week (acute) or 13 weeks (subchronic). Ventilatory function, assessed by whole-body plethysmography, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) biomarkers of injury and inflammation were used to examine O3-induced pulmonary effects. Relaxation time declined in all ages following the weekly exposures; however, this effect persisted only in the 24 mo rats following a five days recovery, demonstrating an inability to induce adaptation commonly seen with repeated O3 exposures. PenH was increased in all groups with an augmented response in the 4 mo rats following the subchronic O3 exposures. O3 led to increased breathing frequency and minute volume in the 1 and 4 mo animals. Markers of pulmonary permeability were increased in all age groups. Elevations in BALF γ-glutamyl transferase activity and lung inflammation following an acute O3 exposure were noted in only the 1 and 4 mo rats, which likely received an increased effective O3 dose. These data demonstrate that adolescent and young adult animals are more susceptible to changes in ventilation and pulmonary injury/inflammation caused by acute and episodic O3 exposure. PMID:27097751

  2. Characterization of the Immunogenicity and Allergenicity of Two Cow's Milk Hydrolysates--A Study in Brown Norway Rats.

    PubMed

    Bøgh, K L; Barkholt, V; Madsen, C B

    2015-05-01

    Hypoallergenic infant formulas based on hydrolysed milk proteins are used in the diet for cow's milk allergic infants. For a preclinical evaluation of the immunogenicity and allergenicity of new protein ingredients for such hypoallergenic infant formulas as well as for the investigation of which characteristics of hydrolysates that contribute to allergenicity, in vivo models are valuable tools. In this study, we examine the immunogenicity and allergenicity of two hydrolysates in a Brown Norway (BN) rat model, using i.p. dosing, which allows for the use of small quantities. Intact BLG, hydrolysed BLG and a hydrolysed whey product suitable for use in extensively hydrolysed formulas were thoroughly characterized for protein chemical features and administered to BN rats by i.p. immunization with or without adjuvant. Sera were analysed for specific IgG and IgE for evaluation of sensitizing capacity, immunogenicity and antibody-binding capacity. For evaluation of eliciting capacity a skin test was performed. The study showed that the hydrolysates had no residual allergenicity, lacking the capacity to sensitize and elicit reactions in the BN rats. Dosing with or without adjuvant induced a large difference in immunogenicity. Only antibodies from rats sensitized to intact BLG with adjuvant were able to bind the hydrolysates, and the whey-based hydrolysate only showed immunogenicity when dosed with adjuvant. This study showed that hydrolysates can be evaluated by an i.p. animal model, but that the choice of in vitro tests used for evaluation of antibody responses may greatly influence the result as well as may the use of adjuvant. PMID:25619117

  3. Assessment of biochemical and behavioral effects of carbaryl and methomyl in Brown-Norway rats from preweaning to senescence.

    PubMed

    Moser, Virginia C; Phillips, Pamela M; McDaniel, Katherine L

    2015-05-01

    Factors impacting life stage-specific sensitivity to chemicals include toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic changes. To evaluate age-related differences in the biochemical and behavioral impacts of two typical N-methyl carbamate pesticides, we systematically compared their dose-response and time-course in preweanling (postnatal day, PND, 18) and adult male Brown Norway rats (n=9-10/dose or time) ranging from adolescence to senescence (1, 4, 12, 24 mo). Carbaryl was administered orally at 3, 7.5, 15, or 22.5mg/kg and data were collected at 40 min after dosing, or else given at 3 or 15 mg/kg and data collected at 30, 60, 120, and 240 min. Methomyl was studied only in adult and senescent rat (4, 12, 24 mo) in terms of dose-response (0.25. 0.6, 1.25, 2.5mg/kg) and time-course (1.25mg/kg at 30, 60, 120, 240 min). Motor activity as well as brain and erythrocyte (RBC) cholinesterase (ChE) activity were measured in the same animals. In the carbaryl dose-response, PND18 rats were the most sensitive to the brain ChE-inhibiting effects of carbaryl, but 12- and 24-mo rats showed more motor activity depression even at similar levels of brain ChE inhibition. We have previously reported that brain ChE inhibition, but not motor activity effects, closely tracked carbaryl tissue levels. There were no age-related differences in methomyl-induced ChE inhibition across doses, but greater motor activity depression was again observed in the 12- and 24-mo rats. Carbaryl time-course data showed that motor activity depression reached a maximum later, and recovered slower, in the 12- and 24-mo rats compared to the younger ages; slowest recovery and maximal effects were seen in the 24-mo rats. Acetylcholinesterase sensitivity (concentration-inhibition curves) was measured in vitro using control tissues from each age. Inhibitory concentrations of carbaryl were somewhat lower in PND18, 12-, and 24-mo tissues compared to 1- and 4-mo, but there were no differences with methomyl-treated tissues. Thus

  4. Toluene effects on oxidative stress in brain regions of young-adult, middle-age, and senescent Brown Norway rats

    SciTech Connect

    Kodavanti, Prasada Rao S.; Royland, Joyce E.; Richards, Judy E.; Besas, Jonathan; MacPhail, Robert C.

    2011-11-15

    The influence of aging on susceptibility to environmental contaminants is not well understood. To extend knowledge in this area, we examined effects in rat brain of the volatile organic compound, toluene. The objective was to test whether oxidative stress (OS) plays a role in the adverse effects caused by toluene exposure, and if so, if effects are age-dependent. OS parameters were selected to measure the production of reactive oxygen species (NADPH Quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), NADH Ubiquinone reductase (UBIQ-RD)), antioxidant homeostasis (total antioxidant substances (TAS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), {gamma}-glutamylcysteine synthetase ({gamma}-GCS), glutathione transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GRD)), and oxidative damage (total aconitase and protein carbonyls). In this study, Brown Norway rats (4, 12, and 24 months) were dosed orally with toluene (0, 0.65 or 1 g/kg) in corn oil. Four hours later, frontal cortex, cerebellum, striatum, and hippocampus were dissected, quick frozen on dry ice, and stored at - 80 Degree-Sign C until analysis. Some parameters of OS were found to increase with age in select brain regions. Toluene exposure also resulted in increased OS in select brain regions. For example, an increase in NQO1 activity was seen in frontal cortex and cerebellum of 4 and 12 month old rats following toluene exposure, but only in the hippocampus of 24 month old rats. Similarly, age and toluene effects on glutathione enzymes were varied and brain-region specific. Markers of oxidative damage reflected changes in oxidative stress. Total aconitase activity was increased by toluene in frontal cortex and cerebellum at 12 and 24 months, respectively. Protein carbonyls in both brain regions and in all age groups were increased by toluene, but step-down analyses indicated toluene effects were statistically significant only in 12 month old rats. These results indicate changes in OS parameters with age and toluene exposure

  5. Accumulation of dietary methylmercury in the testes of the adult brown norway rat: Impaired testicular and epididymal function

    SciTech Connect

    Friedmann, A.S.; Chen, H.; Zirkin, B.R.; Rabuck, L.D.

    1998-05-01

    The widespread consumption of fish containing elevated concentrations of methylmercury has prompted concern over the health effects of such a diet. Previous studies with rodents have indicated that exposure to dietary mercury (Hg) impairs male reproductive health. However, adverse effects were observed following doses in the range of milligrams per kilogram of body weight, whereas typical human consumption in the United States is in the range of micrograms per kilogram of body weight. This study examined the effects of dietary Hg on male rats using levels of the metal that are more similar to those typically consumed by humans. For 19 weeks, adult male Brown Norway rats were administered methylmercury twice weekly at 0.8, 8.0, or 80 {micro}g/kg. Intratesticular testosterone levels in the high-dose group were reduced by 44$, suggesting that steroidogenesis in these animals was dramatically impaired. Although sperm production was not significantly affected, numbers of sperm in the cauda epididymides of the high-dose group were reduced by 17%. Furthermore, there was a negative correlation between fertility and testicular Hg content. These results raise the possibility that exposure to Hg at levels consumed by humans may result in steroidogenic impairment, reduced sperm counts, and fertility problems.

  6. Pre-exposure to sulfur dioxide attenuates most allergic reactions upon trimellitic anhydride challenge in sensitized Brown Norway rats.

    PubMed

    Arts, Josje H E; Jacobs, Erik J; Kuper, C Frieke

    2010-02-01

    Irritant-induced inflammation of the airways may aggravate respiratory allergy induced by chemical respiratory allergens. Therefore, it was studied whether airway irritation by sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) would enhance respiratory allergic reactions to trimellitic anhydride (TMA), using a rat model. Brown Norway (BN) rats were topically sensitized, subsequently exposed for a single time or repeatedly to 300 ppm SO(2), and challenged by inhalation to a distinctly irritating or minimally irritating concentration of TMA after the (last) SO(2) exposure. Repeated exposure to SO(2) alone reduced breathing frequency during exposure, and caused epithelial alterations including hyperplasia and squamous metaplasia, and infiltration of polymorphonuclear inflammatory cells into nasal tissues, larynx, trachea, and bronchi/bronchioli. Histopathological changes were less prominent after 1 day of SO(2) exposure. Repeated pre-exposure to SO(2) reduced the number of TMA-induced apnoeas, in an SO(2) exposure duration-dependent manner. This effect of SO(2) on TMA-induced functional allergic reactions (apnoeas) was distinct only when the TMA challenge concentration was not too irritating itself. Repeated pre-exposure to SO(2) reduced TMA-induced laryngeal ulceration, goblet-cell hyperplasia, and inflammation in the lungs in most animals, regardless of the TMA challenge concentration. The SO(2)-induced replacement of normal respiratory epithelium by less sensitive, squamous epithelium may offer an explanation for the, unexpected, reduced allergic manifestation. However in a few animals, SO(2) appeared to facilitate TMA-induced irritation, probably due to incomplete protection. Overall, SO(2) exposure of TMA-sensitized rats reduced TMA-related allergic respiratory responses in most animals. PMID:20067440

  7. Carriage of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus by Wild Urban Norway Rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    PubMed Central

    Himsworth, Chelsea G.; Miller, Ruth R.; Montoya, Vincent; Hoang, Linda; Romney, Marc G.; Al-Rawahi, Ghada N.; Kerr, Thomas; Jardine, Claire M.; Patrick, David M.; Tang, Patrick; Weese, J. Scott

    2014-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an important cause of multi-drug-resistant infections in people, particularly indigent populations. MRSA can be transmitted between people and domestic animals, but the potential for transmission between people and commensal pests, particularly rodents, had not been investigated. The objective of this study was to identify the presence and characterize the ecology of MRSA in rats (Rattus spp.) from in an impoverished, inner-city neighborhood. Oropharyngeal swabs were collected from rats trapped in 33 city blocks and one location within the adjacent port. Bacterial culture was performed and MRSA isolates were characterized using a variety of methods, including whole-genome sequencing (WGS). The ecology of MRSA in rats was described using phylogenetic analysis, geospatial analysis, and generalized linear mixed models. MRSA was identified 22 of 637 (3.5%) rats tested, although prevalence varied from 0 – 50% among blocks. Isolates belonged to 4 clusters according to WGS, with the largest cluster (n = 10) containing isolates that were genetically indistinguishable from community-acquired USA300 MRSA strains isolated from people within the study area. MRSA strains demonstrated both geographic clustering and dispersion. The odds of an individual rat carrying MRSA increased with increased body fat (OR = 2.53, 95% CI = 1.33 – 4.82), and in the winter (OR = 5.29, 95% CI = 1.04 – 26.85) and spring (OR = 5.50, 95% CI = 1.10 – 27.58) compared to the fall. The results show that urban rats carried the same MRSA lineages occurring in local human and/or animal populations, supporting recent transmission from external sources. MRSA carriage was influenced by season, most likely as a result of temporal variation in rat behavior and rat-human interactions. PMID:24498421

  8. Comparative microarray analysis and pulmonary changes in Brown Norway rats exposed to ovalbumin and concentrated air particulates.

    PubMed

    Heidenfelder, Brooke L; Reif, David M; Harkema, Jack R; Cohen Hubal, Elaine A; Hudgens, Edward E; Bramble, Lori A; Wagner, James G; Morishita, Masako; Keeler, Gerald J; Edwards, Stephen W; Gallagher, Jane E

    2009-03-01

    The interaction between air particulates and genetic susceptibility has been implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma. The overall objective of this study was to determine the effects of inhalation exposure to environmentally relevant concentrated air particulates (CAPs) on the lungs of ovalbumin (ova) sensitized and challenged Brown Norway rats. Changes in gene expression were compared with lung tissue histopathology, morphometry, and biochemical and cellular parameters in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Ova challenge was responsible for the preponderance of gene expression changes, related largely to inflammation. CAPs exposure alone resulted in no significant gene expression changes, but CAPs and ova-exposed rodents exhibited an enhanced effect relative to ova alone with differentially expressed genes primarily related to inflammation and airway remodeling. Gene expression data was consistent with the biochemical and cellular analyses of the BALF, the pulmonary pathology, and morphometric changes when comparing the CAPs-ova group to the air-saline or CAPs-saline group. However, the gene expression data were more sensitive than the BALF cell type and number for assessing the effects of CAPs and ova versus the ova challenge alone. In addition, the gene expression results provided some additional insight into the TGF-beta-mediated molecular processes underlying these changes. The broad-based histopathology and functional genomic analyses demonstrate that exposure to CAPs exacerbates rodents with allergic inflammation induced by an allergen and suggests that asthmatics may be at increased risk for air pollution effects. PMID:19176365

  9. Effect of diesel exhaust particles on allergic reactions and airway responsiveness in ovalbumin-sensitized brown Norway rats.

    PubMed

    Dong, Caroline C; Yin, Xuejun J; Ma, Jane Y C; Millecchia, Lyndell; Wu, Zhong-Xin; Barger, Mark W; Roberts, Jenny R; Antonini, James M; Dey, Richard D; Ma, Joseph K H

    2005-11-01

    We have previously demonstrated that exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) prior to ovalbumin (OVA) sensitization in rats reduced OVA-induced airway inflammation. In the present study, Brown Norway rats were first sensitized to OVA (42.3 +/- 5.7 mg/m3) for 30 min on days 1, 8, and 15, then exposed to filtered air or DEP (22.7 +/- 2.5 mg/m3) for 4 h/day on days 24-28, and challenged with OVA on day 29. Airway responsiveness was examined on day 30, and animals were sacrificed on day 31. Ovalbumin sensitization and challenge resulted in a significant infiltration of neutrophils, lymphocytes, and eosinophils into the lung, elevated presence of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes in lung draining lymph nodes, and increased production of serum OVA-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)E and IgG. Diesel exhaust particles pre-exposure augmented OVA-induced production of allergen-specific IgE and IgG and pulmonary inflammation characterized by marked increases in T lymphocytes and infiltration of eosinophils after OVA challenge, whereas DEP alone did not have these effects. Although OVA-sensitized rats showed modest response to methacholine challenge, it was the combined DEP and OVA exposure that produced significant airway hyperresponsiveness in this animal model. The effect of DEP pre-exposure on OVA-induced immune responses correlated with an interactive effect of DEP with OVA on increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) by alveolar macrophages (AM) and alveolar type II (ATII) cells, NO levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, the induction of inducible NO synthase expression in AM and ATII cells, and a depletion of total intracellular glutathione (GSH) in AM and lymphocytes. These results show that DEP pre-exposure exacerbates the allergic responses to the subsequent challenge with OVA in OVA-sensitized rats. This DEP effect may be, at least partially, attributed to the elevated generation of ROS in AM and ATII cells, a depletion of GSH in AM and

  10. Ear mange mites (Notoedres muris) in black and Norway rats (Rattus rattus and Rattus norvegicus) from inner-city Vancouver, Canada.

    PubMed

    Anholt, Heather; Himsworth, Chelsea; Rothenburger, Jamie; Proctor, Heather; Patrick, David M

    2014-01-01

    The ear mange mite, Notoedres muris (Astigmata: Sarcoptidae), is a parasitic burrowing mite of black and Norway rats (Rattus rattus and Rattus norvegicus), which causes a proliferative dermatitis primarily affecting the ears. We characterize the ecology of N. muris in a group of black and Norway rats trapped in an inner-city area of Vancouver, Canada. Rats (n = 725) were trapped for 1 yr (September 2011-August 2012) in 43 city blocks (0.82 km(2)) and one property (0.03 km(2)) within an international shipping port at the northern border of the study area. Mite infestation was diagnosed in 15 of 32 rats (47%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 30.9-53.6%) trapped in a large indoor facility at the port property. No affected animals were identified outside this facility, either within the port property or in any of the blocks under study. There was a positive relationship between infestation and both weight and nose-to-rump length (proxies for age), suggesting transmission through intraspecific social contact within colonies. This is the first report of N. muris in Canada. The focal distribution of N. muris at the port may reflect an importation event. PMID:24171578

  11. Mercuric chloride-induced protein-losing enteropathy (PLE) in brown Norway (BN) rats

    SciTech Connect

    Knoflach, P.; Weiser, M.M.; Albini, B.

    1986-03-05

    Prolonged exposure to low doses of mercuric chloride (MC) may induce immunologically mediated kidney disease in man and animals. Mercury compounds are of growing importance as environmental pollutants. Twenty female BN rats were gavaged with 150 microgram MC/100 gm body weight 3x/wk for up to 39 wks. Starting with wk 2, rat intestines demonstrated linear IgG and IgA deposits along the vascular and intestinal basement membranes (VBM and IBM). Serum antibodies to IBM were observed during the first 4 wks of gavage. At wk 11, first granular deposits of IgG and C3 were observed along VBM. Only after wk 35 were granular deposits also seen along the IBM. Using radioactive chromium chloride, 50% of rats with granular deposits along BM showed significantly increased protein loss into the intestines. Thus, granular deposits of IgG and C3 along the IBM, probably representing immune complexes, may lead to PLE. This animal model may contribute to the understanding of the pathogenesis of PLE in man described in graft-vrs-host reactions following bone marrow grafts, allergic enteritides, inflammatory bowel disease, and arsenic intoxication, as well as the assessment of biological effects of environmental pollutants.

  12. Recent Segmental Duplications in the Working Draft Assembly of the Brown Norway Rat

    PubMed Central

    Tuzun, Eray; Bailey, Jeffrey A.; Eichler, Evan E.

    2004-01-01

    We assessed the content, structure, and distribution of segmental duplications (≥90% sequence identity, ≥5 kb length) within the published version of the Rattus norvegicus genome assembly (v.3.1). The overall fraction of duplicated sequence within the rat assembly (2.92%) is greater than that of the mouse (1%–1.2%) but significantly less than that of human (∼5%). Duplications were nonuniformly distributed, occurring predominantly as tandem and tightly clustered intrachromosomal duplications. Regions containing extensive interchromosomal duplications were observed, particularly within subtelomeric and pericentromeric regions. We identified 41 discrete genomic regions greater than 1 Mb in size, termed “duplication blocks.” These appear to have been the target of extensive duplication over millions of years of evolution. Gene content within duplicated regions (∼1%) was lower than expected based on the genome representation. Interestingly, sequence contigs lacking chromosome assignment (“the unplaced chromosome”) showed a marked enrichment for segmental duplication (45% of 75.2 Mb), indicating that segmental duplications have been problematic for sequence and assembly of the rat genome. Further targeted efforts are required to resolve the organization and complexity of these regions. PMID:15059990

  13. Comparison of the effects of semicarbazide and {beta}-aminopropionitrile on the arterial extracellular matrix in the Brown Norway rat

    SciTech Connect

    Mercier, Nathalie; Kakou, Augustine; Challande, Pascal; Lacolley, Patrick; Osborne-Pellegrin, Mary

    2009-09-15

    To investigate a putative role for semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) in arterial extracellular matrix (ECM) organization, we compared arteries of growing Brown Norway (BN) rats after chronic administration of semicarbazide (SCZ) and {beta}-aminopropionitrile (BAPN), two inhibitors with different properties and relative specificities for SSAO and lysyl oxidase (LOX). The BN model is particularly well adapted to evaluating effects of toxic compounds on the arterial elastic network. We measured aortic LOX and SSAO activities and quantified several ECM parameters. After a pilot study comparing doses previously studied and testing for additivity, we studied low and high equimolar doses of SCZ and BAPN. Both compounds similarly inhibited LOX, whereas SCZ inhibited SSAO far more effectively than BAPN. Both decreased carotid wall rupture pressure, increased tail tendon collagen solubility, decreased aortic insoluble elastin (% dry weight) and dose-dependently increased defects in the internal elastic lamina of abdominal aorta, iliac and renal arteries. Our results suggest that either these effects are mediated by LOX inhibition, SCZ being slightly more effective than BAPN in our conditions, or SSAO acts similarly to and in synergy with LOX on ECM, the greater SCZ effect reflecting the simultaneous inhibition of both enzymes. However, the high SCZ dose increased aortic collagen and ECM proteins other than insoluble elastin markedly more than did equimolar BAPN, possibly revealing a specific effect of SSAO inhibition. To discriminate between the two above possibilities, and to demonstrate unequivocally a specific effect of SSAO inhibition on ECM formation or organization, we must await availability of more specific inhibitors.

  14. Transfer of allergic airway responses with antigen-primed CD4+ but not CD8+ T cells in brown Norway rats.

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, A; Mishima, H; Renzi, P M; Xu, L J; Hamid, Q; Martin, J G

    1995-01-01

    Activated CD4+ helper T cells have been demonstrated in asthmatic airways and postulated to play a central role in eliciting allergic inflammation; direct evidence of their involvement seems to be lacking. We hypothesized that CD4+ T cells have the potential to induce allergic responses to antigen challenge, and tested this hypothesis in a model of allergic bronchoconstriction, the Brown Norway rat, using the approach of adoptive transfer. Animals were actively sensitized to either ovalbumin (OVA) or BSA and were used as donors of T cells. W3/25(CD4)+ or OX8(CD8)+ T cells were isolated from the cervical lymph nodes of sensitized donors and transferred to naive BN rats. 2 d after adoptive transfer recipient rats were challenged by OVA inhalation, and changes in lung resistance (RL), bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells, and serum levels of antigen-specific IgE were studied. After OVA challenge recipients of OVA-primed W3/25+ T cells exhibited sustained increases in RL throughout the entire 8-h observation period and had significant bronchoalveolar lavage eosinophilia, which was detected by immunocytochemistry using an antimajor basic protein mAb. Recipients of BSA-primed W3/25+ T cells or OVA-primed OX8+ T cells failed to respond to inhaled OVA. OVA-specific immunoglobulin E was undetectable by ELISA or skin testing in any of the recipient rats after adoptive transfer. In conclusion, antigen-induced airway bronchoconstriction and eosinophilia were successfully transferred by antigen-specific W3/25+ T cells in Brown Norway rats. These responses were dependent on antigen-primed W3/25+ T cells and appeared to be independent of IgE-mediated mast cell activation. This study provides clear evidence for T cell mediated immune mechanisms in allergic airway responses in this experimental model. Images PMID:7657805

  15. Host stress and immune responses during aerosol challenge of Brown Norway rats with Yersinia pestis

    PubMed Central

    Gater, Susan T.; Peters, Kristen N.; Kocsis, Andrew G.; Dhariwala, Miqdad O.; Anderson, Deborah M.; Anderson, Paul E.

    2012-01-01

    Inhalation exposure models are becoming the preferred method for the comparative study of respiratory infectious diseases due to their resemblance to the natural route of infection. To enable precise delivery of pathogen to the lower respiratory tract in a manner that imposes minimal biosafety risk, nose-only exposure systems have been developed. Early inhalation exposure technology for infectious disease research grew out of technology used in asthma research where predominantly the Collison nebulizer is used to generate an aerosol by beating a liquid sample against glass. Although infectious aerosol droplets of 1–5 μm in size can be generated, the Collison often causes loss of viability. In this work, we evaluate a gentler method for aerosolization of living cells and describe the use of the Sparging Liquid Aerosol Generator (SLAG) in a rat pneumonic plague model. The SLAG creates aerosols by continuous dripping of liquid sample on a porous metal disc. We show the generation of 0.5–1 μm Yersinia pestis aerosol particles using the SLAG with spray factors typically ranging from 10−7 to 10−8 with no detectable loss of bacterial viability. Delivery of these infectious particles via nose-only exposure led to the rapid development of lethal pneumonic plague. Further, we evaluated the effect of restraint-stress imposed by the nose-only exposure chamber on early inflammatory responses and bacterial deposition. Elevated serum corticosterone which peaked at 2 h post-procedure indicated the animals experienced stress as a result of restraint in the nose-only chamber. However, we observed no correlation between elevated corticosterone and the amount of bacterial deposition or inflammation in the lungs. Together these data demonstrate the utility of the SLAG and the nose-only chamber for aerosol challenge of rodents by Y. pestis. PMID:23226684

  16. Remote monitoring of the progression of primary pneumonic plague in Brown Norway rats in high-capacity, high-containment housing

    PubMed Central

    Coate, Eric A.; Kocsis, Andrew G.; Peters, Kristen N.; Anderson, Paul E.; Ellersieck, Mark R.; Fine, Deborah M.; Anderson, Deborah M.

    2014-01-01

    Development of new vaccines, diagnostics and therapeutics for biodefense or other relatively rare infectious diseases is hindered by the lack of naturally occurring human disease on which to conduct clinical trials of efficacy. To overcome this experimental gap, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration established the Animal Rule, in which efficacy testing in two well-characterized animal models that closely resemble human disease may be accepted in lieu of large scale clinical trials for diseases with limited natural human incidence. In this report, we evaluated the Brown Norway rat as a model for pneumonic plague and describe the natural history of clinical disease following inhalation exposure to Yersinia pestis. In high-capacity, high-containment housing, we monitored temperature, activity, heart rate and rhythm by capturing electronic impulses transmitted from abdominal telemeter implants. Using this system, we show that reduced activity and development of fever are sensitive indications of disease progression. Furthermore, we identified heart arrhythmias as contributing factors to the rapid progression to lethality following the fever response. Together these data validate the Brown Norway rat as an experimental model for human pneumonic plague and provide new insight that may ultimately lead to novel approaches in post-exposure treatment of this devastating infection. PMID:24719212

  17. Episodic ozone exposure in adult and senescent Brown Norway rats: acute and delayed effect on heart rate, core temperature and motor activity.

    PubMed

    Gordon, C J; Johnstone, A F; Aydin, C; Phillips, P M; MacPhail, R C; Kodavanti, U P; Ledbetter, A D; Jarema, K A

    2014-06-01

    Setting exposure standards for environmental pollutants may consider the aged as a susceptible population but the few published studies assessing susceptibility of the aged to air pollutants are inconsistent. Episodic ozone (O₃) is more reflective of potential exposures occurring in human populations and could be more harmful to the aged. This study used radiotelemetry to monitor heart rate (HR), core temperature (T(c)) and motor activity (MA) in adult (9-12 months) and senescent (20-24 months) male, Brown Norway rats exposed to episodic O₃ (6 h/day of 1 ppm O₃ for 2 consecutive days/week for 13 weeks). Acute O₃ initially led to marked drops in HR and T(c). As exposures progressed each week, there was diminution in the hypothermic and bradycardic effects of O₃. Senescent rats were less affected than adults. Acute responses were exacerbated on the second day of O₃ exposure with adults exhibiting greater sensitivity. During recovery following 2 d of O₃, adult and senescent rats exhibited an elevated T(c) and HR during the day but not at night, an effect that persisted for at least 48 h after O₃ exposure. MA was elevated in adults but not senescent rats during recovery from O₃. Overall, acute effects of O₃, including reductions in HR and T(c), were attenuated in senescent rats. Autonomic responses during recovery, included an elevation in T(c) with a pattern akin to that of a fever and rise in HR that were independent of age. An attenuated inflammatory response to O₃ in senescent rats may explain the relatively heightened physiological response to O₃ in younger rats. PMID:24779854

  18. Strain differences in cytochrome P450 mRNA and protein expression, and enzymatic activity among Sprague Dawley, Wistar, Brown Norway and Dark Agouti rats

    PubMed Central

    NISHIYAMA, Yoshihiro; NAKAYAMA, Shouta M.M.; WATANABE, Kensuke P.; KAWAI, Yusuke K.; OHNO, Marumi; IKENAKA, Yoshinori; ISHIZUKA, Mayumi

    2016-01-01

    Rat cytochrome P450 (CYP) exhibits inter-strain differences, but their analysis has been scattered across studies under different conditions. To identify these strain differences in CYP more comprehensively, mRNA expression, protein expression and metabolic activity among Wistar (WI), Sprague Dawley (SD), Dark Agouti (DA) and Brown Norway (BN) rats were compared. The mRNA level and enzymatic activity of CYP1A1 were highest in SD rats. The rank order of Cyp3a2 mRNA expression mirrored its protein expression, i.e., DA>BN>SD>WI, and was similar to the CYP3A2-dependent warfarin metabolic activity, i.e., DA>SD>BN>WI. These results suggest that the strain differences in CYP3A2 enzymatic activity are caused by differences in mRNA expression. Cyp2b1 mRNA levels, which were higher in DA rats, did not correlate with its protein expression or enzymatic activity. This suggests that the strain differences in enzymatic activity are not related to Cyp2b1 mRNA expression. In conclusion, WI rats tended to have the lowest CYP1A1, 2B1 and 3A2 mRNA expression, protein expression and enzymatic activity among the strains. In addition, SD rats had the highest CYP1A1 mRNA expression and activity, while DA rats had higher CYP2B1 and CYP3A2 mRNA and protein expression. These inter-strain differences in CYP could influence pharmacokinetic considerations in preclinical toxicological studies. PMID:26806536

  19. Pharmacological characterization of the late phase reduction in lung functions and correlations with microvascular leakage and lung edema in allergen-challenged Brown Norway rats.

    PubMed

    Mauser, Peter J; House, Aileen; Jones, Howard; Correll, Craig; Boyce, Christopher; Chapman, Richard W

    2013-12-01

    Late phase airflow obstruction and reduction in forced vital capacity are characteristic features of human asthma. Airway microvascular leakage and lung edema are also present in the inflammatory phase of asthma, but the impact of this vascular response on lung functions has not been precisely defined. This study was designed to evaluate the role of increased lung microvascular leakage and edema on the late phase changes in forced vital capacity (FVC) and peak expiratory flow (PEF) in allergen-challenged Brown Norway rats using pharmacological inhibitors of the allergic inflammatory response. Rats were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin aerosol and forced expiratory lung functions (FVC, PEF) and wet and dry lung weights were measured 48 h after antigen challenge. Ovalbumin challenge reduced FVC (63% reduction) and PEF (33% reduction) and increased wet (65% increase) and dry (51% increase) lung weights. The antigen-induced reduction in FVC and PEF was completely inhibited by oral treatment with betamethasone and partially attenuated by inhibitors of arachidonic acid metabolism including indomethacin (cyclooxygenase inhibitor), 7-TM and MK-7246 (CRTH2 antagonists) and montelukast (CysLT1 receptor antagonist). Antagonists of histamine H1 receptors (mepyramine) and 5-HT receptors (methysergide) had no significant effects indicating that these pre-formed mast cell mediators were not involved. There was a highly significant (P < 0.005) correlation for the inhibition of FVC reduction and increase in wet and dry lung weights by these pharmacological agents. These results strongly support the hypothesis that lung microvascular leakage and the associated lung edema contribute to the reduction in forced expiratory lung functions in antigen-challenged Brown Norway rats and identify an important role for the cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase products of arachidonic acid metabolism in these responses. PMID:23523662

  20. Kinetics of transforming growth factor-β1 and extracellular matrix in renal tubulointerstitial lesions of mercuric chloride-treated Brown Norway rats

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Kazuhiko; Uetsuka, Koji; Nakayama, Hiroyuki; Doi, Kunio

    1999-01-01

    Renal tubulointerstitial lesions in mercuric chloride(HgCl2)-treated Brown Norway rats were investigated focusing on the kinetics of transforming growth factor-β1(TGF-β1) and extracellular matrix (ECM). Rats were injected with 1 mg/kg b.w. of HgCl2 at days 0, 2, and 4, and 5 rats were killed at days 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 20, respectively. TGF-β1 mRNA expression in the renal cortex measured by competitive RT-PCR method reached a peak at day 6, mildly decreased at days 8 and 10, and increased again toward day 20. Signals of TGF-β1 mRNA examined by in situ hybridization method were recognized in the regenerative tubular epithelium at day 6, and in both tubular epithelium and infiltrated mononuclear cells at day 20. After tubular injury, strong immunoreactivity to TGF-β1 protein was found in desquamated tubular epithelial cells. Then, positive staining was found in the regenerative tubular epithelial cells. Later, infiltrated mononuclear cells also became positive for TGF-β1 protein. In the ECM, deposition of fibronectin was prominent throughout the experimental period. In conclusion, this strongly suggests that TGF-β1 derived from tubular epithelial cells and some macrophages might be related to the development of renal interstitial fibrosis in HgCl2-treated BN rats. PMID:10469268

  1. PREVALENCE AND CHARACTERISTICS OF ESCHERICHIA COLI AND SALMONELLA SPP. IN THE FECES OF WILD URBAN NORWAY AND BLACK RATS (RATTUS NORVEGICUS AND RATTUS RATTUS) FROM AN INNER-CITY NEIGHBORHOOD OF VANCOUVER, CANADA.

    PubMed

    Himsworth, Chelsea G; Zabek, Erin; Desruisseau, Andrea; Parmley, E Jane; Reid-Smith, Richard; Jardine, Claire M; Tang, Patrick; Patrick, David M

    2015-07-01

    Although rat feces are widely suspected to be a source of pathogenic bacteria, few investigators have studied fecal pathogens in rats. We investigated the prevalence and characteristics of Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. in Norway and black rats (Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus, respectively) from an urban neighborhood of Vancouver, Canada, collected September 2011-August 2012. Colon content was cultured for E. coli and Salmonella spp. and screened for the seven most-common enteropathogenic Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) serotypes by PCR. Isolates were tested for antimicrobial resistance and Salmonella isolates were serotyped. We detected E. coli in 397/633 (62.7%) urban rats. Forty-one of 397 (6.5%) E. coli isolates were resistant to ≥ 1 antimicrobial while 17 (4.3%) were multidrug resistant (including two isolates demonstrating extended-spectrum β-lactamase resistance). Ten of 633 (1.6%) urban rats were carrying STEC serotypes including O145, O103, O26, and O45. Norway rats were more likely to be carrying E. coli compared to black rats, and there was geographic clustering of specific resistance patterns and STEC serotypes. Salmonella spp. were detected in 3/633 (0.5%) rats including serotypes Derby, Indiana, and Enteritidis. In contrast to zoonotic pathogens for which rats are the natural reservoir (e.g., Leptospira interrogans, Rickettsia typhi, Seoul virus), rats likely acquired E. coli and Salmonella spp. from their environment. The ability of rats to be a 'sponge' for environmental pathogens has received little consideration, and the ecology and public health significance of these organisms in rats requires further investigation. PMID:25932669

  2. Activation of GPR30 improves exercise capacity and skeletal muscle strength in senescent female Fischer344 × Brown Norway rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao; Alencar, Allan; Lin, Marina; Sun, Xuming; Sudo, Roberto T; Zapata-Sudo, Gisele; Lowe, Dawn A; Groban, Leanne

    2016-06-17

    The molecular mechanisms of muscle weakness and sarcopenia in postmenopausal women are largely unknown. To determine the effect of a new estrogen receptor, GPR30, in the maintenance of exercise capacity and skeletal muscle function in females, the selective GPR30 agonist, G1 (100 μg/kg/day), or vehicle (V, soybean oil) was administered subcutaneously daily (n = 7 per group) to ovariectomized (OVX) 27-month-old Fischer 344 × Brown Norway (F344BN) female rats. Following 8 weeks of treatment, the exercise capacity (treadmill walk time to exhaustion) was reduced in OVX vs. sham rats (5.1 ± 1.4 vs. 11.0 ± 0.9 min, P < 0.05), and chronic G1 restored exercise capacity (12.9 ± 1.2 min; P < 0.05 vs. OVX-V). Similarly, the peak twitch of electrically stimulated soleus muscles was decreased by 22% in OVX vs. sham rats (P < 0.05), and G1 attenuated this decline (P < 0.05). Western blot analysis showed that chronic G1 treatment attenuated OVX-associated decreases in heat shock protein (HSP) 90, HSP70, and HSP27 expressions. In vitro studies using the L6 myoblast cell line demonstrated that G1 increased mRNA levels of HSPs in cultured cells. Collectively, these data demonstrate that the activation of GPR30 mitigates the adverse effects of estrogen loss on exercise capacity and skeletal muscle contractile function in old F344BN rats. The protective effects of GPR30 might be through its upregulation of heat shock proteins in skeletal muscle. PMID:27173878

  3. Effect of a cocoa-enriched diet on immune response and anaphylaxis in a food allergy model in Brown Norway rats.

    PubMed

    Abril-Gil, Mar; Pérez-Cano, Francisco J; Franch, Àngels; Castell, Margarida

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that cocoa intake decreased Th2 immune-related antibodies in rats. In consequence, we aimed to study in depth this cocoa action, particularly assessing its effect on a rat model of food allergy (FA) and also on an anaphylactic response. The involvement of the intestinal immune system was analyzed to allow the action mechanisms to be investigated. The role of cocoa flavonoids in the antiallergic properties of cocoa was also established. Brown Norway rats were fed either a reference diet or diets containing conventional cocoa (CC) or nonfermented cocoa (NFC). FA to ovalbumin (OVA) was induced and, later, an anaphylactic response was provoked. As expected, the synthesis of anti-OVA IgE and other Th2-related antibodies was inhibited by CC diet. In addition, the release of mast cell protease II after anaphylaxis was partially prevented by CC, although other variables were not modified. The CC diet also attenuated the increase of some Th2-related cytokines released from mesenteric lymph node and spleen cells, and modulated the intestinal gene expression of molecules involved in allergic response. These results demonstrated the local and systemic influence of CC diet. The effects of the NFC diet were weaker than those of CC, suggesting that cocoa components other than flavonoids play a role in cocoa's action. In conclusion, by acting on intestinal and systemic immune functions, a cocoa-enriched diet in rats exhibited a protective effect against FA and partially against anaphylaxis, making this a food of high interest to the fields of health and immunonutrition. PMID:26601599

  4. Effect of high-fructose and high-fat diets on pulmonary sensitivity, motor activity, and body composition of brown Norway rats exposed to ozone.

    PubMed

    Gordon, C J; Phillips, P M; Johnstone, A F M; Beasley, T E; Ledbetter, A D; Schladweiler, M C; Snow, S J; Kodavanti, U P

    2016-04-01

    Diet-induced obesity has been suggested to lead to increased susceptibility to air pollutants such as ozone (O3); however, there is little experimental evidence. Thirty day old male and female Brown Norway rats were fed a normal, high-fructose or high-fat diet for 12 weeks and then exposed to O3 (acute - air or 0.8 ppm O3 for 5 h, or subacute - air or 0.8 ppm O3 for 5 h/d 1 d/week for 4 weeks). Body composition was measured non-invasively using NMR. Ventilatory parameters and exploratory behavior were measured after the third week of subacute exposure. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and blood chemistry data were collected 18 h after acute O3 and 18 h after the fourth week of subacute O3. The diets led to increased body fat in male but not female rats. O3-induced changes in ventilatory function were either unaffected or improved with the fructose and fat diets. O3-induced reduction in exploratory behavior was attenuated with fructose and fat diets in males and partially in females. O3 led to a significant decrease in body fat of males fed control diet but not the fructose or fat diet. O3 led to significant increases in BALF eosinophils, increase in albumin, and reductions in macrophages. Female rats appeared to be more affected than males to O3 regardless of diet. Overall, treatment with high-fructose and high-fat diets attenuated some O3 induced effects on pulmonary function, behavior, and metabolism. Exacerbation of toxicity was observed less frequently. PMID:27092583

  5. Effect of CD8+ T-cell depletion on bronchial hyper-responsiveness and inflammation in sensitized and allergen-exposed Brown-Norway rats.

    PubMed

    Huang, T J; MacAry, P A; Kemeny, D M; Chung, K F

    1999-03-01

    We examined the role of CD8+ T cells in a Brown-Norway rat model of asthma, using a monoclonal antibody to deplete CD8+ T cells. Ovalbumin (OA)-sensitized animals were given anti-CD8 antibody (0.5 mg/rat) intravenously 1 week prior to exposure to 1% OA aerosol and were studied 18-24 hr after aerosol exposure. Following administration of anti-CD8 antibody, CD8+ cells were reduced to <1% of total lymphocytes in whole blood and in spleen. In sensitized animals, OA exposure induced bronchial hyper-responsiveness (BHR), accumulation of eosinophils, lymphocytes and neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, and also an increase in tissue eosinophils and CD2+, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in airways. Anti-CD8 antibody caused a further increase in allergen-induced BHR (P<0.03, compared with sham-treated animals), together with a significant increase in eosinophil number in BAL fluid (P<0.05). While CD2+ and CD4+ T cells in airways were not affected by anti-CD8 treatment, the level of CD8+ T cells was significantly reduced in sensitized, saline-exposed animals (P<0.04, compared with sham-treated rats), and sensitized and OA-challenged rats (P<0.002, compared with sham-treated rats). Using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, an increase of T helper (Th)2 cytokine [interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-5], and also of Th1 cytokine [interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and IL-2], mRNA in the lung of sensitized and OA-exposed animals was found; after CD8+ T-cell depletion, Th1 cytokine expression was significantly reduced (P<0.02), while Th2 cytokine expression was unchanged. CD8+ T cells have a protective role in allergen-induced BHR and eosinophilic inflammation, probably through activation of the Th1 cytokine response. PMID:10233723

  6. Range Measurement and a Habitat Suitability Map for the Norway Rat in a Highly Developed Urban Environment

    PubMed Central

    Oyedele, Dauda Taofik; Sah, Shahrul Anuar Mohd; Kairuddinand, Liyana; Wan Ibrahim, Wan Mohd Muhiyuddin

    2015-01-01

    Studies of habitat suitability (HS) are essential when animals’ habitats have been altered or when animals migrate to a habitat different from their natural habitat. This study assessed HS and used an integrated geographic information system in the assessment of Rattus norvegicus in a highly developed urban environment. Using data from the Campbell market and the police quarters of George Town, Malaysia, home range (through the use of 100% Minimum Convex Polygon [MCP], 95% MCP and 95% Harmonic Mean [HM]) was estimated. Home range for male rats at Campbell market reached an asymptote, with a slight increase, at 96 radio fixes (home range = 133.52 m2; core area = 29.39 m2). Female rats reached an asymptote at 62 radio fixes (home range = 13.38 m2; core area = 9.17 m2). At Campbell market, male rats emerged at 1900 hours every day, whereas females emerged at 2000 hours; at police quarters, the most common time of emergence for males was 2000 hours and for females was 2200. Raster charts of R. norvegicus showed that rat hot spots can be grouped into 4 zones (market, shop houses, settlement and general places). The standardised raster chart isolated the market as the major rallying points of the rats (hot spots) by producing the highest rats frequencies of 255. All of the habitat suitability thresholds, including the built-up points, skip bins, water source and nature of the site explored in this study, produced a structural pattern (monotonic increase or decrease) of habitat suitability. PMID:26868708

  7. Genomic analyses of the Formosan harvest mouse (Micromys minutus) and comparisons to the brown Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) and the house mouse (Mus musculus).

    PubMed

    Lin, Liang-Kong; Ma, Gwo-Chin; Chen, Tze-Ho; Lin, Wen-Hsiang; Lee, Dong-Jay; Wen, Pao-Ying; Wu, Sheng-Hai; Chen, Ming

    2013-10-01

    The harvest mouse, Micromys minutus (MMIN), has a very wide range of distribution (from the British Isles across the Euroasian continent to Japan and Taiwan). We studied an isolated population of MMIN in Taiwan, which is at the southeastern margin of the species' geographic distribution, and compared its genetic complement with those of the same species previously reported from other geographic locations and with two model rodent species, the house mouse (Mus musculus) and the brown Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus). The diploid number (2N) of MMIN was 68, consistent with that reported for other populations. However, variations were noted in the fundamental number (FN) and the shape and banding patterns of the individual chromosomes among populations. The FN of MMIN was estimated to be 72, including 2 bi-armed autosomes, 31 one-armed autosomes, and one pair of one-armed sex chromosomes. Here, we propose the first ideogram for MMIN. C-banding, Ag-NOR, and the locations of 18S rRNA gene sequences (MMIN chromosomes no. 10, 14, 19, 29, 31, 33, and X) mapped by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) are also reported. Additionally, we compared the 18S rDNA sequences and performed cross-species X chromosome painting (FISH) for M. minutus, M. musculus, and R. norvegicus. The results indicate that both genetic elements are rather conserved across species. Thus, implications for the phylogenetic position of Micromys were limited. PMID:24028897

  8. The role of endogenous steroid hormones in the generation of T helper 2‐mediated autoimmunity in mercuric chloride‐treated Brown–Norway rats

    PubMed Central

    Macphee, I A M; Turner, D R; Oliveira, D B G

    2000-01-01

    Injection of Brown–Norway rats with mercuric chloride (HgCl2) activates a T helper type 2 (Th2) autoimmune response, with production of a number of autoantibodies and vasculitis primarily affecting the gut. Glucocorticoids have been shown to suppress Th1 and to promote the development of Th2‐type responses. Conversely dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) promotes Th1 responses with suppression of Th2 responses. This study set out to define the role of these hormones in this animal model. Rats were adrenalectomized (Adx) with no steroid replacement (n = 11), Adx with basal steroid replacement given by a 25 mg corticosterone pellet inserted subcutaneously (n = 13), or sham‐Adx (n = 14) prior to administration of HgCl2. In both groups of Adx animals there was a delay in the production of immunoglobulin E (IgE) and serum concentrations on day 9 were marginally lower (P = 0·035, repeated measures anova). All of the animals Adx with no steroid replacement and two Adx animals with steroid replacement died between 10 and 14 days after HgCl2 challenge. There was no difference in the severity of caecal vasculitis between the groups. A significant increase in adrenal size was noted following administration of HgCl2. Administration of subcutaneous DHEA implants (100 mg and 200 mg) had no significant effect on IgE concentrations or severity of vasculitis. These observations do not support the hypothesis that corticosterone and DHEA play a central role in setting the Th1/Th2 balance in this experimental Th2‐mediated autoimmune disease; in contrast with the Th1‐mediated autoimmune disease experimental allergic encephalomyelitis where corticosterone plays a key role in immunoregulation. PMID:10651952

  9. Toluene effects on Oxidative Stress in Brain regions of Young-adult, Middleage,and Senescent Brown Norway Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    The influence of aging on susceptibility to environmental contaminants is not well understood. To extend knowledge in this area, we examined effects in rat brain of the volatile organic compound toluene. The objective was to test whether oxidative stress plays a role in the adver...

  10. A Mixed Methods Approach to Exploring the Relationship between Norway Rat (Rattus norvegicus) Abundance and Features of the Urban Environment in an Inner-City Neighborhood of Vancouver, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Himsworth, Chelsea G.; Parsons, Kirbee L.; Feng, Alice Y. T.; Kerr, Thomas; Jardine, Claire M.; Patrick, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Urban rats (Rattus spp.) are among the most ubiquitous pest species in the world. Previous research has shown that rat abundance is largely determined by features of the environment; however, the specific urban environmental factors that influence rat population density within cities have yet to be clearly identified. Additionally, there are no well described tools or methodologies for conducting an in-depth evaluation of the relationship between urban rat abundance and the environment. In this study, we developed a systematic environmental observation tool using methods borrowed from the field of systematic social observation. This tool, which employed a combination of quantitative and qualitative methodologies, was then used to identify environmental factors associated with the relative abundance of Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) in an inner-city neighborhood of Vancouver, Canada. Using a multivariate zero-inflated negative binomial model, we found that a variety of factors, including specific land use, building condition, and amount of refuse, were related to rat presence and abundance. Qualitative data largely supported and further clarified observed statistical relationships, but also identified conflicting and unique situations not easily captured through quantitative methods. Overall, the tool helped us to better understand the relationship between features of the urban environment and relative rat abundance within our study area and may useful for studying environmental determinants of zoonotic disease prevalence/distribution among urban rat populations in the future. PMID:24830847

  11. Sex Differences in Seoul Virus Infection Are Not Related to Adult Sex Steroid Concentrations in Norway Rats

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Sabra L.; Bird, Brian H.; Glass, Gregory E.

    2000-01-01

    Field studies of hantavirus infection in rodents report that a higher percentage of infected individuals are males than females. To determine whether males were more susceptible to hantavirus infection than females, adult male and female Long Evans rats (Rattus norvegicus) were inoculated with doses of Seoul virus ranging from 10−4 to 106 PFU. The 50% infective doses (ID50) were not significantly different for male and female rats (100.05 and 100.8 PFU, respectively). To determine whether sex differences in response to infection were related to circulating sex steroid hormones, sex steroid concentrations were manipulated and antibody responses and virus shedding were assessed following inoculation with the ID90. Regardless of hormone treatment, males had higher anti-Seoul virus immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgG2a (i.e., Th1) responses than females and IgG1 (i.e., Th2) responses similar to those of females. Males also shed virus in saliva and feces longer than females. Manipulation of sex steroids in adulthood did not alter immune responses or virus shedding, suggesting that sex steroids may organize adult responses to hantavirus earlier during ontogeny. PMID:10933735

  12. The impact of structural integrity and route of administration on the antibody specificity against three cow’s milk allergens - a study in Brown Norway rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Characterisation of the specific antibody response, including the epitope binding pattern, is an essential task for understanding the molecular mechanisms of food allergy. Examination of antibody formation in a controlled environment requires animal models. The purpose of this study was to examine the amount and types of antibodies raised against three cow’s milk allergens; β-lactoglobulin (BLG), α-lactalbumin (ALA) and β-casein upon oral or intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration. A special focus was given to the relative amount of antibodies raised against linear versus conformational epitopes. Methods Specific antibodies were raised in Brown Norway (BN) rats. BN rats were dosed either (1) i.p. with the purified native cow’s milk allergens or (2) orally with skimmed milk powder (SMP) alone or together with gluten, without the use of adjuvants. The allergens were denatured by reduction and alkylation, resulting in unfolding of the primary structure and a consequential loss of conformational epitopes. The specific IgG1 and IgE responses were analysed against both the native and denatured form of the three cow’s milk allergens, thus allowing examination of the relative amount of linear versus conformational epitopes. Results The inherent capacity to induce specific IgG1 and IgE antibodies were rather similar upon i.p. administration for the three cow’s milk allergens, with BLG = ALA > β-casein. Larger differences were found between the allergens upon oral administration, with BLG > ALA > β-casein. Co-administration of SMP and gluten had a great impact on the specific antibody response, resulting in a significant reduced amount of antibodies. Together results indicated that most antibodies were raised against conformational epitopes irrespectively of the administration route, though the relative proportions between linear and conformational epitopes differed remarkably between the allergens. Conclusions This study showed that the

  13. Exposure of brown Norway rats to diesel exhaust particles prior to ovalbumin (OVA) sensitization elicits IgE adjuvant activity but attenuates OVA-induced airway inflammation.

    PubMed

    Dong, Caroline C; Yin, Xuejun J; Ma, Jane Y C; Millecchia, Lyndell; Barger, Mark W; Roberts, Jenny R; Zhang, Xing-Dong; Antonini, James M; Ma, Joseph K H

    2005-11-01

    Exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) during the sensitization process has been shown to increase antigen-specific IgE production and aggravate allergic airway inflammation in human and animal models. In this study, we evaluated the effect of short-term DEP exposure on ovalbumin (OVA)-mediated responses using a post-sensitization model. Brown Norway rats were first exposed to filtered air or DEP (20.6 +/- 2.7 mg/m3) for 4 h/day for five consecutive days. One day after the final air or DEP exposure (day 1), rats were sensitized with aerosolized OVA (40.5 +/- 6.3 mg/m3), and then again on days 8 and 15, challenged with OVA on day 29, and sacrificed on days 9 or 30, 24 h after the second OVA exposure or the final OVA challenge, respectively. Control animals received aerosolized saline instead of OVA. DEP were shown to elicit an adjuvant effect on the production of antigen-specific IgE and IgG on day 30. At both time points, no significant airway inflammatory responses and lung injury were found for DEP exposure alone. However, the OVA-induced inflammatory cell infiltration, acellular lactate dehydrogenase activity and albumin content in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, and numbers of T cells and their CD4+ and CD8+ subsets in lung-draining lymph nodes were markedly reduced by DEP on day 30 compared with the air-plus-OVA exposure group. The OVA-induced nitric oxide (NO) in the BAL fluid and production of NO, interleukin (IL)-10, and IL-12 by alveolar macrophages (AM) were also significantly lowered by DEP on day 30 as well as day 9. DEP or OVA alone decreased intracellular glutathione (GSH) in AM and lymphocytes on days 9 and 30. The combined DEP and OVA exposure resulted in further depletion of GSH in both cell types. These results show that short-term DEP exposure prior to sensitization had a delayed effect on enhancement of the sensitization in terms of allergen-specific IgE and IgG production, but caused an attenuation of the allergen-induced airway

  14. Discovery of a Novel Coronavirus, China Rattus Coronavirus HKU24, from Norway Rats Supports the Murine Origin of Betacoronavirus 1 and Has Implications for the Ancestor of Betacoronavirus Lineage A

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Susanna K. P.; Woo, Patrick C. Y.; Li, Kenneth S. M.; Tsang, Alan K. L.; Fan, Rachel Y. Y.; Luk, Hayes K. H.; Cai, Jian-Piao; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Zheng, Bo-Jian; Wang, Ming

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT We discovered a novel Betacoronavirus lineage A coronavirus, China Rattus coronavirus (ChRCoV) HKU24, from Norway rats in China. ChRCoV HKU24 occupied a deep branch at the root of members of Betacoronavirus 1, being distinct from murine coronavirus and human coronavirus HKU1. Its unique putative cleavage sites between nonstructural proteins 1 and 2 and in the spike (S) protein and low sequence identities to other lineage A betacoronaviruses (βCoVs) in conserved replicase domains support ChRCoV HKU24 as a separate species. ChRCoV HKU24 possessed genome features that resemble those of both Betacoronavirus 1 and murine coronavirus, being closer to Betacoronavirus 1 in most predicted proteins but closer to murine coronavirus by G+C content, the presence of a single nonstructural protein (NS4), and an absent transcription regulatory sequence for the envelope (E) protein. Its N-terminal domain (NTD) demonstrated higher sequence identity to the bovine coronavirus (BCoV) NTD than to the mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) NTD, with 3 of 4 critical sugar-binding residues in BCoV and 2 of 14 contact residues at the MHV NTD/murine CEACAM1a interface being conserved. Molecular clock analysis dated the time of the most recent common ancestor of ChRCoV HKU24, Betacoronavirus 1, and rabbit coronavirus HKU14 to about the year 1400. Cross-reactivities between other lineage A and B βCoVs and ChRCoV HKU24 nucleocapsid but not spike polypeptide were demonstrated. Using the spike polypeptide-based Western blot assay, we showed that only Norway rats and two oriental house rats from Guangzhou, China, were infected by ChRCoV HKU24. Other rats, including Norway rats from Hong Kong, possessed antibodies only against N protein and not against the spike polypeptide, suggesting infection by βCoVs different from ChRCoV HKU24. ChRCoV HKU24 may represent the murine origin of Betacoronavirus 1, and rodents are likely an important reservoir for ancestors of lineage A βCoVs. IMPORTANCE While

  15. Vocational Training in Norway.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mortensen, Gunnar; Persson, Sven

    The purpose of this publication is to present Norway's industrial status, industrial manpower profile, and philosophy of vocational training. The relation between general and vocational education is discussed and Norway's educational system is outlined. Occupational areas receiving detailed discussion include (1) Agriculture, (2) Maritime…

  16. Oral administration of drugs with hypersensitivity potential induces germinal center hyperplasia in secondary lymphoid organ/tissue in Brown Norway rats, and this histological lesion is a promising candidate as a predictive biomarker for drug hypersensitivity occurrence in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Tamura, Akitoshi Miyawaki, Izuru; Yamada, Toru; Kimura, Juki; Funabashi, Hitoshi

    2013-08-15

    It is important to evaluate the potential of drug hypersensitivity as well as other adverse effects during the preclinical stage of the drug development process, but validated methods are not available yet. In the present study we examined whether it would be possible to develop a new predictive model of drug hypersensitivity using Brown Norway (BN) rats. As representative drugs with hypersensitivity potential in humans, phenytoin (PHT), carbamazepine (CBZ), amoxicillin (AMX), and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) were orally administered to BN rats for 28 days to investigate their effects on these animals by examinations including observation of clinical signs, hematology, determination of serum IgE levels, histology, and flow cytometric analysis. Skin rashes were not observed in any animals treated with these drugs. Increases in the number of circulating inflammatory cells and serum IgE level did not necessarily occur in the animals treated with these drugs. However, histological examination revealed that germinal center hyperplasia was commonly induced in secondary lymphoid organs/tissues in the animals treated with these drugs. In cytometric analysis, changes in proportions of lymphocyte subsets were noted in the spleen of the animals treated with PHT or CBZ during the early period of administration. The results indicated that the potential of drug hypersensitivity was identified in BN rat by performing histological examination of secondary lymphoid organs/tissues. Data obtained herein suggested that drugs with hypersensitivity potential in humans gained immune reactivity in BN rat, and the germinal center hyperplasia induced by administration of these drugs may serve as a predictive biomarker for drug hypersensitivity occurrence. - Highlights: • We tested Brown Norway rats as a candidate model for predicting drug hypersensitivity. • The allergic drugs did not induce skin rash, whereas D-penicillamine did so in the rats. • Some of allergic drugs increased

  17. Acid Hydrolysis of Wheat Gluten Induces Formation of New Epitopes but Does Not Enhance Sensitizing Capacity by the Oral Route: A Study in “Gluten Free” Brown Norway Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kroghsbo, Stine; Andersen, Nanna B.; Rasmussen, Tina F.; Madsen, Charlotte B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Acid hydrolyzed wheat proteins (HWPs) are used in the food and cosmetic industry as emulsifiers. Cases of severe food allergic reactions caused by HWPs have been reported. Recent data suggest that these reactions are caused by HWPs produced by acid hydrolysis. Objectives To examine the sensitizing capacity of gluten proteins per se when altered by acid or enzymatic hydrolysis relative to unmodified gluten in rats naïve to gluten. Methods High IgE-responder Brown Norway (BN) rats bred on a gluten-free diet were sensitized without the use of adjuvant to three different gluten products (unmodified, acid hydrolyzed and enzymatic hydrolyzed). Rats were sensitized by intraperitoneal (i.p.) immunization three times with 200 µg gluten protein/rat or by oral dosing for 35 days with 0.2, 2 or 20 mg gluten protein/rat/day. Sera were analyzed for specific IgG and IgE and IgG-binding capacity by ELISA. IgE functionality was measured by rat basophilic leukemia (RBL) assay. Results Regardless of the route of dosing, all products had sensitizing capacity. When sensitized i.p., all three gluten products induced a strong IgG1 response in all animals. Acid hydrolyzed gluten induced the highest level of specific IgE but with a low functionality. Orally all three gluten products induced specific IgG1 and IgE but with different dose-response relations. Sensitizing rats i.p. or orally with unmodified or enzymatic hydrolyzed gluten induced specific IgG1 responses with similar binding capacity which was different from that of acid hydrolyzed gluten indicating that acid hydrolysis of gluten proteins induces formation of ‘new’ epitopes. Conclusions In rats not tolerant to gluten acid hydrolysis of gluten enhances the sensitizing capacity by the i.p. but not by the oral route. In addition, acid hydrolysis induces formation of new epitopes. This is in contrast to the enzymatic hydrolyzed gluten having an epitope pattern similar to unmodified gluten. PMID:25207551

  18. Distribution of Leptospira interrogans by Multispacer Sequence Typing in Urban Norway Rats (Rattus norvegicus): A Survey in France in 2011-2013

    PubMed Central

    Bicout, Dominique J.; Kodjo, Angeli; Artois, Marc; Djelouadji, Zoheira

    2015-01-01

    Background Urban leptospirosis has increasingly been reported in both developing and developed countries. The control of the disease is limited because our understanding of basic aspects of the epidemiology, including the transmission routes of leptospires among rat populations, remains incomplete. Through the ability to distinguish among Leptospira strains in rats, multispacer sequence typing (MST) could provide a modern understanding of Leptospira epidemiology; however, to our knowledge, the distribution of Leptospira strains among urban rat colonies has not been investigated using MST. Aims and Methodology The objective of this study was to identify the Leptospira strains present in rats (Rattus norvegicus) in Lyon (France) using MST and to characterize their spatial distribution. Kidneys and urine were collected from rats trapped live in seven locations in the city and in one suburban location. Each location was considered to represent a rat colony. Bacterial cultures and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays were performed, and the L. interrogans DNA identified was then genotyped using MST. The distributions of Leptospira strains were spatially described. Key Results Among 84 wild rats, MST profiles were obtained in 35 of 37 rats that had a positive result for L. interrogans by bacterial culture and/or qPCR analyses. All of the MST profiles were related to reference strains previously isolated from human patients that belong to the serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae and the serovars [strain(s)] Copenhageni [Wijinberg or M20] (n = 26), Icterohaemorrhagiae [CHU Réunion] (n = 7), Icterohaemorrhagiae [R1] (n = 1) and Copenhageni [Shibaura 9] (n = 1). Each colony was infected with leptospires having the same MST profile. Major Conclusions This study demonstrated that MST could be used for the purpose of field studies, either on culture isolates or on DNA extracted from kidneys and urine, to distinguish among L. interrogans isolates in rats. MST could

  19. Norway's Regional College System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanisch, Thor Einar

    1981-01-01

    Examines the structure of Norway's short-cycle educational system. Describes how the district colleges function individually as units and collectively within a regional system to provide comprehensive, community-based educational opportunities. Discusses the incorporation of a variety of colleges into the regional system and encourages increased…

  20. Educational Assessment in Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tveit, Sverre

    2014-01-01

    Norway has seen major changes in the field of educational assessment over the past decade, following the 2001 '"PISA shock" that stimulated reform of the entire primary and secondary education systems: new outcome-based curricula with cross-disciplinary basic skills were accompanied by major revision of assessment regulations,…

  1. Norway: health system review.

    PubMed

    Ringard, Ånen; Sagan, Anna; Sperre Saunes, Ingrid; Lindahl, Anne Karin

    2013-01-01

    Norways five million inhabitants are spread over nearly four hundred thousand square kilometres, making it one of the most sparsely populated countries in Europe. It has enjoyed several decades of high growth, following the start of oil production in early 1970s, and is now one of the richest countries per head in the world. Overall, Norways population enjoys good health status; life expectancy of 81.53 years is above the EU average of 80.14, and the gap between overall life expectancy and healthy life years is around half the of EU average. The health care system is semi decentralized. The responsibility for specialist care lies with the state (administered by four Regional Health Authorities) and the municipalities are responsible for primary care. Although health care expenditure is only 9.4% of Norways GDP (placing it on the 16th place in the WHO European region), given Norways very high value of GDP per capita, its health expenditure per head is higher than in most countries. Public sources account for over 85% of total health expenditure; the majority of private health financing comes from households out-of-pocket payments.The number of practitioners in most health personnel groups, including physicians and nurses, has been increasing in the last few decades and the number of health care personnel per 100 000 inhabitants is high compared to other EU countries. However, long waiting times for elective care continue to be a problem and are cause of dissatisfaction among the patients. The focus of health care reforms has seen shifts over the past four decades. During the 1970s the focus was on equality and increasing geographical access to health care services; during the 1980s reforms aimed at achieving cost containment and decentralizing health care services; during the 1990s the focus was on efficiency. Since the beginning of the millennium the emphasis has been given to structural changes in the delivery and organization of health care and to policies

  2. Use of Monte Carlo simulations with a realistic rat phantom for examining the correlation between hematopoietic system response and red marrow absorbed dose in Brown Norway rats undergoing radionuclide therapy with {sup 177}Lu- and {sup 90}Y-BR96 mAbs

    SciTech Connect

    Larsson, Erik; Ljungberg, Michael; Martensson, Linda; Nilsson, Rune; Tennvall, Jan; Strand, Sven-Erik; Joensson, Bo-Anders

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: Biokinetic and dosimetry studies in laboratory animals often precede clinical radionuclide therapies in humans. A reliable evaluation of therapeutic efficacy is essential and should be based on accurate dosimetry data from a realistic dosimetry model. The aim of this study was to develop an anatomically realistic dosimetry model for Brown Norway rats to calculate S factors for use in evaluating correlations between absorbed dose and biological effects in a preclinical therapy study. Methods: A realistic rat phantom (Roby) was used, which has some flexibility that allows for a redefinition of organ sizes. The phantom was modified to represent the anatomic geometry of a Brown Norway rat, which was used for Monte Carlo calculations of S factors. Kinetic data for radiolabeled BR96 monoclonal antibodies were used to calculate the absorbed dose. Biological data were gathered from an activity escalation study with {sup 90}Y- and {sup 177}Lu-labeled BR96 monoclonal antibodies, in which blood cell counts and bodyweight were examined up to 2 months follow-up after injection. Reductions in white blood cell and platelet counts and declines in bodyweight were quantified by four methods and compared to the calculated absorbed dose to the bone marrow or the total body. Results: A red marrow absorbed dose-dependent effect on hematological parameters was observed, which could be evaluated by a decrease in blood cell counts. The absorbed dose to the bone marrow, corresponding to the maximal tolerable activity that could safely be administered, was determined to 8.3 Gy for {sup 177}Lu and 12.5 Gy for {sup 90}Y. Conclusions: There was a clear correlation between the hematological effects, quantified with some of the studied parameters, and the calculated red marrow absorbed doses. The decline in body weight was stronger correlated to the total body absorbed dose, rather than the red marrow absorbed dose. Finally, when considering a constant activity concentration, the phantom

  3. Hospital financing in Norway.

    PubMed

    Carlsen, F

    1994-05-01

    The Norwegian block grant reform of 1980 replaced state reimbursements to hospitals by block grants allocated to counties according to objective criteria. The reform was accompanied by a general decentralization of budget authority to local level. The reform aimed to promote primary care, equalize the supply of health care across regions and give counties incentives to improve hospital efficiency. A decade later, the reform was reversed. The government has imposed restrictions which reduce the budget discretion of the counties and part of the block grant has been made dependent on the performance of the hospitals in the counties. The government has also issued a 'waiting-list guarantee' which states that patients who suffer from a serious disease are entitled to medical treatment within six months. This paper provides an overview of hospital financing in Norway during the last two decades and discusses why the block grant system did not fulfil the expectations of its architects. PMID:10136059

  4. Testosterone (T)-induced changes in arcuate nucleus cocaine-amphetamine-regulated transcript and NPY mRNA are attenuated in old compared to young male brown Norway rats: contribution of T to age-related changes in cocaine-amphetamine-regulated transcript and NPY gene expression.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Elliott H; Wolden-Hanson, Tami; Matsumoto, Alvin M

    2002-03-01

    The age-related decrease in serum T levels is associated with impairments in food intake and weight regulation and alterations in brain peptides that regulate energy balance. To test the hypothesis that reduced T levels contribute to altered hypothalamic cocaine-amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) and NPY gene expression, the mRNA content of these neuropeptides was measured by in situ hybridization in sham-operated (intact), castrated, and T-replaced castrated young and old male Brown Norway rats. T levels in T-replaced young and old rats were similar to those in intact young animals. Compared with castrated rats, arcuate nucleus CART mRNA was lower and NPY mRNA was higher in both young and old T-replaced castrated animals, suggesting reciprocal regulation of these peptides by T; these T-induced changes were localized primarily in the rostral arcuate and were markedly attenuated in old animals. Compared with intact animals, paraventricular nucleus CART mRNA was lower in castrated animals and similar in T-replaced young and old rats. We conclude that hypothalamic CART and NPY neurons remain responsive to T regulation in old rats, albeit less so than in young animals, suggesting that the age-related reduction of T contributes in part to altered brain neuropeptide gene expression favoring anorexia and wasting with aging. PMID:11861518

  5. Longyearbyen, Svalbard, Norway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Longyearbyen is the administrative center of Svalbard and is located on Spitsbergen, the largest island of the Svalbard archipelago, part of the Kingdom of Norway. It is the world's northernmost town with over 1000 people. The settlement was founded in 1906 by John Longyear, owner of the Arctic Coal Company. Until the early 1990s the coal mining industry was the major employer of Longyearbyen. Near Longyearbyen, the Global Crop Diversity Trust administers the Svalbard Global Seed Vault, an Arctic safe capable of storing millions of crop seeds as a safeguard against natural and human disasters. Last week, the first deposit of 250,000 different species of crop seeds was made into the repository. The perspective view was created by draping a simulated natural color image over an ASTER-derived digital elevation model.

    The image was acquired July 12, 2003, and is located at 78.2 degrees north latitude, 15.6 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  6. Inhibition of experimental autoimmune tubulointerstitial nephritis in Brown-Norway rats by (15S)-15-methyl prostaglandin E1. Analysis of the effect of prostaglandin E1 on the induction of the humoral immune response and the elicitation of humorally mediated inflammation.

    PubMed Central

    Ulich, T. R.; Ni, R. X.

    1986-01-01

    Brown-Norway (BN) rats develop tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN) after immunization with bovine tubular basement membrane (TBM) and adjuvants. Daily subcutaneous injections (either on Days 0-7 or Days 0-14) of (15S)-15-methyl prostaglandin E1 (M-PGE1) at a dose of 1 mg/kg/day markedly inhibited or completely abrogated the development of both the acute polymorphonuclear (Day 10) and the subsequent mononuclear (Day 14) inflammatory phases of BN rat TIN. Circulating anti-TBM antibody in Days 0-7 M-PGE1-treated rats was moderately diminished on Day 8 after immunization but not on Day 14. Circulating anti-TBM antibody in Days 0-14 M-PGE1-treated rats was only slightly diminished on Day 14. In experiments to test the effect of M-PGE1 on the elicitation phase of humorally mediated inflammation, M-PGE1 inhibited the acute inflammatory response observed 6 hours after intradermal injection of particulate TBM into TBM-sensitized BN rats. The inflammation in these skin tests was demonstrated by passive transfer experiments to be humorally mediated. The inhibition of acute humorally mediated intradermal inflammation was not attributable to neutropenia, because M-PGE1 caused a significant neutrophilia as demonstrated by peripheral blood smears. Although the inhibition of TIN in Days 0-14 M-PGE1-treated rats may have been due, in part, to dysfunction of the elicitation phase of humorally mediated inflammation, the inhibition of TIN in Days 0-7 M-PGE1-treated rats was more likely secondary to the diminished induction of either humoral or cellular immunity. Images Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:3740216

  7. Sleipner mishap jolts booming Norway

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-02

    This paper reports on Norway's buoyant offshore industry that was stunned when the concrete substructure for Sleipner natural gas field's main production platform sank in the Grandsfjord off Stavanger late last month. The accident, a blow to Norway's gas sales program in Europe, came with offshore activity in the Norwegian North Sea moving into a new boom period. Currently, 10 oil and gas fields are under development, and several projects are on the drawing board. Aker Oil and Gas, a leading offshore firm, says the country's construction industry will be working at capacity for the next 4 years. Norwegian oil production has been hovering just below 2 million b/d since the beginning of this year, making Norway the North Sea's largest producer, a position formerly held by the U.K. Gas production averages about 3 bcfd. With European gas demand sharply increasing, Norway is under pressure to increase output from new fields in the mid to late 1990s. The Sleipner setback forces state owned Den norske stats oljeselskap AS (Statoil) to cast around for supplies. Sleipner was to have begun deliveries to a consortium of continental gas companies in October 1993. Statoil believes it can fill the gap from existing fields in Norwegian waters.

  8. Sex Education in Multicultural Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartz, Tiffany

    2007-01-01

    Scandinavia has long been admired by American liberals and sex education advocates who cite comparable rates of adolescent sexuality, yet lower rates of teenage pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases and abortion in Scandinavia. The United States has, however, two variables with which Scandinavia in general, and Norway in particular, has not…

  9. [Endemic typhus imported to Norway].

    PubMed

    Jensenius, M; Maeland, A; Vene, S

    1997-06-30

    Murine typhus, caused by Rickettsia typhi, is an important zoonosis in all parts of the world. The disease is transmitted from rodents to humans by fleas. In this article we describe the first three cases of serologically proven murine typhus imported into Norway during the 1990s. The patients were Norwegian tourists who had visited respectively Guinea-Bissau, Crete and Thailand. They all became acutely ill with fever, chills and severe headache 1-10 days after return to Norway. None of them had a rash. Two patients were admitted to hospital, and one was treated with ciprofloxacin for suspected typhoid fever. All the patients recovered without sequelae. The diagnosis of murine typhus was based on detection of IgM-anti-bodies against R typhi in serum samples during reconvalescence. PMID:9265302

  10. Saltfjellet-Svartisen Park, Norway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The Arctic Circle cuts through the western coast of Norway and the Saltfjellet-Svartisen National Park. This area features many glacial fjords, alpine mountain formations with glacier tongues, as well as gently sloping mountain plateaus and forested lowland valleys. The largest city here is Mo I Rana, (just off the image to the east) with a population of 25,000 (26th most populous city in Norway). Once supported entirely by the town's steel mill, the area has developed into a tourist center.

    The image covers an area of 51 x 57 km, was acquired on August 23, 2006, and is located near 66.6 degrees north latitude, 13 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  11. General Practice in Northern Norway

    PubMed Central

    Black, D. P.

    1975-01-01

    A study was made of general practice in northern Norway where conditions are similar to parts of rural Canada. The Norwegian general practitioner has developed expertise in the preventive and psychosocial aspects of practice and the team concept is highly developed. Since the general practitioner is separated from the hospital, his facilities for procedures and diagnostic workups are primitive. Involvement of general practitioners in medical education is not yet well developed although all new graduates spend a compulsory period in rural practice. PMID:20469187

  12. Alternative Education and Home Schooling in Norway.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Christian W.

    2001-01-01

    Examines the issue of balance between community rules and personal freedom as it relates to who should control the education of children in Norway. Reviews the historical development of alternative education in Norway, including the growth of private schools and home schooling. Comments on future educational needs and the provision of good…

  13. A small molecule, orally active, α4β1/α4β7 dual antagonist reduces leukocyte infiltration and airway hyper-responsiveness in an experimental model of allergic asthma in Brown Norway rats

    PubMed Central

    Cortijo, Julio; Sanz, María-Jesús; Iranzo, Arantxa; Montesinos, José Luis; Nabah, Yafa Naim Abu; Alfón, José; Gómez, Luis A; Merlos, Manuel; Morcillo, Esteban J

    2006-01-01

    α4β1 and α4β7 integrins are preferentially expressed on eosinophils and mononuclear leukocytes and play critical roles in their recruitment to inflammatory sites. We investigated the effects of TR14035, a small molecule, α4β1/α4β7 dual antagonist, in a rat model of allergic asthma. Actively sensitized rats were challenged with aerosol antigen or saline on day 21, and the responses evaluated 24 and 48-h later. TR14035 (3 mg kg−1, p.o.) was given 1-h before and 4-h after antigen or saline challenge. Airway hyper-responsiveness to intravenous 5-hydroxytryptamine was suppressed in TR14035-treated rats. Eosinophil, mononuclear cell and neutrophil counts, and eosinophil peroxidase and protein content in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were decreased in TR14035-treated rats. Histological study showed a marked reduction of lung inflammatory lesions by TR14035. At 24-h postchallenge, antigen-induced lung interleukin (IL)-5 mRNA upregulation was suppressed in TR14035-treated rats. By contrast, IL-4 levels in BALF were not significantly affected by TR14035 treatment. IL-4 selectively upregulates vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), which is the main endothelial ligand of α4 integrins. Intravital microscopy within the rat mesenteric microcirculation showed that 24-h exposure to 1 μg per rat of IL-4 induced a significant increase in leukocyte rolling flux, adhesion and emigration. These responses were decreased by 48, 100 and 99%, respectively in animals treated with TR14035. In conclusion, TR14035, by acting on α4β1 and α4β7 integrins, is an orally active inhibitor of airway leukocyte recruitment and hyper-responsiveness in animal models with potential interest for the treatment of asthma. PMID:16432509

  14. Norway

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    ... rises precipitously to high plateaus, and is united with the ocean by numerous islands. This Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) ... orbit 8899 displays some of intricate patterns of the ocean currents in the Vestfjorden between the mainland and Lofoten islands, in ...

  15. Regulation and competition without privatization: Norway`s experience

    SciTech Connect

    Moen, J.; Hamrin, J.

    1996-03-01

    The competitive market for the hydro-based Norwegian electricity system is working well, with end-user prices only slightly above the wholesale market. Pool prices are reflecting only weather-related variations, and no market power abuses are evident. The challenge now is to restructure ownership of the wires and retail suppliers to lower wheeling costs and avoid cross-subsidization. Since the Norwegian Energy Act came into effect in 1991, the electricity industry in Norway has operated as one of the most deregulated electricity industries in the world. The Energy Act introduced third party access to the retail market and competition in electricity production. The generation, sale and purchase of electricity is now highly competitive, with customers free to buy electricity from any generator, trader or the electricity Pool. Transmission pricing was separated from power purchasing arrangements, so that the buying and selling of electricity as a product is distinct from the transmission of electricity as a service. Transmission and distribution networks continue to maintain natural monopolies, with network owners providing wheeling service across their networks to customers who are connected to them. These monopoly sectors of the industry are subject to regulation by the government-appointed regulatory body, Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Administration (NVE). Regulation is on a cost-of-service basis, with the revenue allowance determined by NVE. The main force behind the Norwegian reform was the desire for efficiency gains to be achieved through a total restructure of the commercial character of the energy service industry (ESI). Unlike the U.K., in Norway the monopoly franchise for both generation and retail supply was removed in one step without any transition period, and the old pool was reformed to provide the needed structure for this new competitive energy market.

  16. Cremation in Norway: regulation, changes and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Hadders, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Abstract In this article, I explore the development of modern cremation and cremation events in Norway. I focus on the multiple ontologies of cremation events and the relationships between the living mourners and the dead during the gradual transformation of the social person within Christian, secular as well as Hindu traditions in Norway. Within Christian tradition, this is a linear process that I intentionally contrast with the predominantly cyclical process within the Hindu tradition. I illustrate how various cosmological, eschatological, soteriological, economical, environmental, as well as socio-political factors regulate and shape the form and content of cremation events and disposal in Norway. PMID:24273434

  17. Select fire perforating system application in Norway

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    Phillips Petroleum Co. Norway, used the special features of the Halliburton Selector Fire (HSF) System to perforate selected reservoir sections over very long intervals in horizontal wells in Greater Ekofisk Area fields in the Norwegian North Sea. Basic operations of the tool and three case history applications were presented at Offshore Europe `95 in Aberdeen by E. Kleepa and R. Nilson, Halliburton Norway (Inc.) and K. Bersaas, Phillips Petroleum Co. Norway, in paper SPE 30409 ``Tubing conveyed perforating in the Greater Ekofisk Area using the Halliburton Select Fire System.`` Highlights are summarized here.

  18. Cremation in Norway: regulation, changes and challenges.

    PubMed

    Hadders, Hans

    2013-05-01

    In this article, I explore the development of modern cremation and cremation events in Norway. I focus on the multiple ontologies of cremation events and the relationships between the living mourners and the dead during the gradual transformation of the social person within Christian, secular as well as Hindu traditions in Norway. Within Christian tradition, this is a linear process that I intentionally contrast with the predominantly cyclical process within the Hindu tradition. I illustrate how various cosmological, eschatological, soteriological, economical, environmental, as well as socio-political factors regulate and shape the form and content of cremation events and disposal in Norway. PMID:24273434

  19. Intercepting the first rat ashore.

    PubMed

    Russell, James C; Towns, David R; Anderson, Sandra H; Clout, Mick N

    2005-10-20

    A single Norway rat released on to a rat-free island was not caught for more than four months, despite intensive efforts to trap it. The rat first explored the 9.5-hectare island and then swam 400 metres across open water to another rat-free island, evading capture for 18 weeks until an aggressive combination of detection and trapping methods were deployed simultaneously. The exceptional difficulty of this capture indicates that methods normally used to eradicate rats in dense populations are unlikely to be effective on small numbers, a finding that could have global implications for conservation on protected islands. PMID:16237434

  20. Differential sensitivity to LPS-induced myocardial dysfunction in the isolated Brown Norway and Dahl S rat hearts: roles of mitochondrial function, NFκB activation and TNF-α production

    PubMed Central

    An, Jianzhong; Du, Jianhai; Wei, Na; Guan, Tongju; Camara, Amadou K.S.; Shi, Yang

    2011-01-01

    Recently we reported that BN rats were more resistant to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced myocardial dysfunction than SS rats. This differential sensitivity was exemplified by reduced production of proinflammatory cytokines and diminished NFκB pathway activation. To further clarify the mechanisms of different susceptibility of these two strains to endotoxin, this study was designed to examine the alterations of cardiac and mitochondrial bioenergetics, proinflammatory cytokines, and signaling pathways after hearts were isolated and exposed to LPS ex vivo. Isolated BN and SS hearts were perfused with LPS (4 μg/ml) for 30 min in the Langendorff preparation. LPS depressed cardiac function as evident by reduced left ventricular developed pressure as well as decreased peak rate of contraction and relaxation in SS hearts, but not in BN heart. These findings are consistent with our previous in vivo data. Under complex I substrates a higher O2 consumption and H2O2 production were observed in mitochondria from SS hearts than that from BN hearts. LPS significantly increased H2O2 levels in both SS and BN heart mitochondria; however the increase in O2 consumption and H2O2 production in BN heart mitochondria was much lower than that in SS heart mitochondria. Additionally LPS significantly decreased complex I activity in SS hearts but not in BN hearts. Furthermore, LPS induced higher levels of TNF-α and increased phosphorylation of IκB and p65 more in SS hearts than BN hearts. Our results clearly demonstrate that less mitochondrial dysfunction combined with a reduced production of TNF-α and diminished activation of NFκB are involved in the mechanisms by which isolated BN hearts were more resistant to LPS-induced myocardial dysfunction. PMID:22089203

  1. Database on unstable rock slopes in Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppikofer, Thierry; Nordahl, Bo; Bunkholt, Halvor; Nicolaisen, Magnus; Hermanns, Reginald L.; Böhme, Martina; Yugsi Molina, Freddy X.

    2014-05-01

    Several large rockslides have occurred in historic times in Norway causing many casualties. Most of these casualties are due to displacement waves triggered by a rock avalanche and affecting coast lines of entire lakes and fjords. The Geological Survey of Norway performs systematic mapping of unstable rock slopes in Norway and has detected up to now more than 230 unstable slopes with significant postglacial deformation. This systematic mapping aims to detect future rock avalanches before they occur. The registered unstable rock slopes are stored in a database on unstable rock slopes developed and maintained by the Geological Survey of Norway. The main aims of this database are (1) to serve as a national archive for unstable rock slopes in Norway; (2) to serve for data collection and storage during field mapping; (3) to provide decision-makers with hazard zones and other necessary information on unstable rock slopes for land-use planning and mitigation; and (4) to inform the public through an online map service. The database is organized hierarchically with a main point for each unstable rock slope to which several feature classes and tables are linked. This main point feature class includes several general attributes of the unstable rock slopes, such as site name, general and geological descriptions, executed works, recommendations, technical parameters (volume, lithology, mechanism and others), displacement rates, possible consequences, hazard and risk classification and so on. Feature classes and tables linked to the main feature class include the run-out area, the area effected by secondary effects, the hazard and risk classification, subareas and scenarios of an unstable rock slope, field observation points, displacement measurement stations, URL links for further documentation and references. The database on unstable rock slopes in Norway will be publicly consultable through the online map service on www.skrednett.no in 2014. Only publicly relevant parts of

  2. Picein and piceol concentrations in Norway spruce.

    PubMed

    Løkke, H

    1990-06-01

    The concentrations of the glucoside picein and its aglucone piceol (4-hydroxy acetophenone) in the needles of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karsten) are considered indicators of plant stress. By use of two clones and a natural population of Norway spruce it was shown that the picein concentration was dependent on the site and the provenance of the trees. No effects were observed by normal treatment with the herbicides atrazine, glyphosate, and hexazinone, or by drought. The significance of different environmental factors is discussed. PMID:2364913

  3. The cost of multiple sclerosis in Norway.

    PubMed

    Svendsen, B; Myhr, K-M; Nyland, H; Aarseth, J H

    2012-02-01

    Health economic aspects have been increasingly important during introduction of new treatments for multiple sclerosis. As a partial response for Norway, a cost-of-illness study was carried out to estimate the yearly cost of the illness to society and relate costs and patients' quality of life to illness severity. Estimated cost to society was Euro 439 million in 2002 exclusive of the cost of reduced quality of life. The cost per patient was close to Euro 65,000. Account taken of methodological differences, the results compare to results for Sweden, Norway's closest neighboring country. The illness reduced patients' quality of life with 0.26. More patients were early retired because of their MS in Norway than in any of nine other European countries comprised by a recent European study, illustrating a liberal practice in Norway. The Norwegian cost of unpaid assistance was almost identical to the Swedish cost that was the lowest found across the countries in the European study. When related to illness severity, the cost per patient increased, and the patients' experienced quality of life decreased with increasing EDSS levels in line with what has been found for other countries. Cost-of-MS studies have been carried out for a number of countries. Together they contribute to our understanding of the economic consequences of multiple sclerosis and, if their results are related to illness severity, also provide valuable information for further economic analyses of treatment and medication. Our study adds to this. PMID:21080024

  4. VHF radar measurements over Andoya (Northern Norway)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Czechowsky, P.; Reid, I. M.; Ruester, R.; Schmidt, G.

    1989-01-01

    The Mobile SOUSY Radar was operated during the MAP/WINE, the MAC/SINE, and MAC/Epsilon campaigns at Andoya in Northern Norway. A comparison between summer and winter results is presented, in particular the generation and development of the scattering regions, the different power spectral densities and the aspect sensitivities which were derived from six different beam directions.

  5. 77 FR 58592 - Modified Norway Post Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    ...The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to include a modified Norway Post Agreement within an existing competitive product. The modification includes an 18-month extension of the original agreement's term. This notice addresses procedural aspects of the...

  6. Accreditation of occupational health services in Norway

    PubMed Central

    Bjørnstad, O.

    2015-01-01

    Background In 2010, an accreditation system for occupational health services (OHS) in Norway was implemented. Aims To examine OHS experiences of the accreditation system in Norway 4 years after its implementation. Methods A web-based questionnaire was sent to all accredited OHS asking about their experiences with the accreditation system. Responses were compared with a similar survey conducted in 2011. Results The response rate was 76% (173/228). OHS reported that the most common changes they had had to make to achieve accreditation were: improvement of their quality assurance system (53%), a plan for competence development (44%) and increased staffing in occupational hygiene (36%) and occupational medicine (28%). The OHS attributed improved quality in their own OHS (56%) and in OHS in Norway (47%), to the accreditation process. Conclusions The accreditation system was well accepted by OHS, who reported that it had improved the quality of their OHS and of OHS in Norway. The results are similar to the findings of a 2011 survey. PMID:26276757

  7. Stable ozone layer in Norway and USSR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henriksen, K.; Svenoe, T.; Terez, E. I.; Terez, G. A.; Roldugin, V.; Larsen, S. H. H.

    1994-01-01

    Long-term column ozone density measurements have been carried out in Norway and USSR. Data from Tromso and two meridional chains in USSR are analyzed, and most of the stations show that no significant decreasing trend in ozone has occurred during the last two decades.

  8. Knee arthroplasty in Denmark, Norway and Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Bizjajeva, Svetlana; Fenstad, Anne Marie; Furnes, Ove; Lidgren, Lars; Mehnert, Frank; Odgaard, Anders; Pedersen, Alma Becic; Havelin, Leif Ivar

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose The number of national arthroplasty registries is increasing. However, the methods of registration, classification, and analysis often differ. Methods We combined data from 3 Nordic knee arthroplasty registers, comparing demographics, methods, and overall results. Primary arthroplasties during the period 1997–2007 were included. Each register produced a dataset of predefined variables, after which the data were combined and descriptive and survival statistics produced. Results The incidence of knee arthroplasty increased in all 3 countries, but most in Denmark. Norway had the lowest number of procedures per hospital—less than half that of Sweden and Denmark. The preference for implant brands varied and only 3 total brands and 1 unicompartmental brand were common in all 3 countries. Use of patellar button for total knee arthroplasty was popular in Denmark (76%) but not in Norway (11%) or Sweden (14%). Uncemented or hybrid fixation of components was also more frequent in Denmark (22%) than in Norway (14%) and Sweden (2%). After total knee arthroplasty for osteoarthritis, the cumulative revision rate (CRR) was lowest in Sweden, with Denmark and Norway having a relative risk (RR) of 1.4 (95% CI: 1.3–1.6) and 1.6 (CI: 1.4–1.7) times higher. The result was similar when only including brands used in more than 200 cases in all 3 countries (AGC, Duracon, and NexGen). After unicompartmental arthroplasty for osteoarthritis, the CRR for all models was also lowest in Sweden, with Denmark and Norway having RRs of 1.7 (CI: 1.4–2.0) and 1.5 (CI: 1.3–1.8), respectively. When only the Oxford implant was analyzed, however, the CRRs were similar and the RRs were 1.2 (CI: 0.9–1.7) and 1.3 (CI: 1.0–1.7). Interpretation We found considerable differences between the 3 countries, with Sweden having a lower revision rate than Denmark and Norway. Further classification and standardization work is needed to permit more elaborate studies. PMID:20180723

  9. Deeply weathered basement rocks in Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bönner, Marco; Knies, Jochen; Fredin, Ola; Olesen, Odleiv; Viola, Giulio

    2014-05-01

    Recent studies show that, in addition to tectonic processes, surface processes have also had a profound impact on the topography of Norway. This is especially obvious for the northernmost part of the Nordland county and for western Norway, where the current immature Alpine-type topography cannot be easily explained by tectonic processes only. Erosion of the sedimentary succession also does not seem sufficient to explain the observed relief. Common remnants of deeply weathered basement rocks, however, indicate a history of deep alteration and later erosion of the bedrock, which needs to be considered as another important factor in the development of the topographic relief. Most of the sites with deeply weathered basement exhibit a clay-poor grussy type of weathering, which is generally considered to be of relatively young age (Plio-/Pleistocene) and thought to represent an intermediate stage of weathering. Unfortunately, small amounts or complete absence of clay minerals in these weathering products precluded the accurate dating of this weathered material. Scandinavia was exposed to a large range of glaciations and the once extensive sedimentary successions have been almost entirely eroded, which impedes a minimum age estimate of the weathering profile. Although several sites preserving remnants of deep weathering can still be observed onshore Norway, they are all covered by Quaternary overburden and the age of the regolith remains thus unconstrained and a matter of debate. The only exception is a small Mesozoic basin on Andøya, northern Norway, where weathered and clay-poor saprolite was found underlying Jurassic and Cretaceous sedimentary rocks. Over the last few years the Geological Survey of Norway (NGU) has mapped and investigated deep weathering onshore Norway to better understand weathering processes and to constrain the age of the weathering remnants. The combined interpretation of geophysical, mineralogical and geochemical data, together with recent

  10. Active Venting System Offshore Northern Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chand, Shyam; Rise, Leif; Bellec, Valérie; Dolan, Margaret; Bøe, Reidulv; Thorsnes, Terje; Buhl-Mortensen, Pål; Buhl-Mortensen, Lene

    2008-07-01

    A combined sediment-sampling, high-resolution seismic, multiple echo sounder, and video survey was conducted offshore Vesterålen, northern Norway, in October 2007 as part of the ongoing Marine Area Database for Norwegian Coast and Oceanic Regions (MAREANO) program. MAREANO is a multidisciplinary seabed mapping program conducting physical, biological, and environmental mapping in the Lofoten/southern Barents Sea area. Data and analysis arising from this program will provide the basis for ecosystem-based management of Norway's coastal and offshore regions. The survey used multicorer, box corer, and grab samplers; a TOPAS parametric subbottom profiler; 18-, 38-, 70-, 120-, 200-, and 400-kilohertz echo sounders; and a CAMPOD camera system with two video cameras and lights mounted on an aluminum frame.

  11. Nacap installs Norway's first land lines

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-08-01

    Norway's first gas pipeline on land - forming a part of the Statpipe gas gathering, transportation, and treatment system - is currently being installed by Nacap BV under extremely unusual conditions, both in terms of terrain to be crossed and safety standards to be adhered to. Nacap is constructing the 12 mile long twin pipeline of 30 in. and 28 in. diameters, two-thirds of which run under three deep fjords. Special construction techniques used for installing the pipeline are described.

  12. National Report Norway: Arctic Access to Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brekke, P.

    2015-09-01

    Norway has long traditions as a space nation, much due to our northern latitude. Our space science activities are concentrated into relatively few areas. This concentration is necessary due to limited resources, both in funding and personnel. The main scientific activities are within Solar-terrestrial physics and cosmology. The first field has been a priority since before the space age and is still the major priority. The usage of the ground infrastructure in Northern Norway and on Svalbard is essential in studying the middle and upper atmosphere and the interaction with the Sun. This includes the utilization of sounding rockets, both small and large, and ground based installations like radars, lidars and other optical instrumentation. The planned use of Svalbard as a launch site for large stratospheric balloons may allow the cosmology community access to our northern infrastructure. The solar physics community is also heavily involved in the HINODE and IRIS missions and Norway is supporting downlink of data via the Svalbard Station for these missions. The sounding rocket program is in close collaboration with many countries like Germany, USA, France, Canada and Japan. Two scientific sounding rocket programs are currently being pursued: The ICI series (from Svalbard) and MaxiDusty (from Andoya). A series of scientific publications have recently appeared from the ECOMA campaign a few years ago. A significant improvement of today's polar and ionospheric research infrastructure in Northern Norway and Svalbard has recently been put on the ESFRI roadmap for European research infrastructure through the 5105 and EISCAT 3D initiatives. The Norwegian government has recently decided to upgrade the VLBI facilities at Svalbard.

  13. Ambient Seismic Noise Tomography of Southern Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhler, Andreas; Weidle, Christian; Maupin, Valerie

    2010-05-01

    The noise cross-correlation technique is especially useful in regions like southern Norway since local seismicity is rare and teleseismic records are not able to resolve the upper crust. Within the TopoScandiaDeep project, which aims to investigate the relation between surface topography and lithosphere-asthenosphere structure, we process seismic broadband data from the temporary MAGNUS network in Southern Norway. The receivers were recording 20 months of continuous data between September 2006 and June 2008. Additionally, permanent stations of the National Norwegian Seismic Network, NORSAR and GSN stations in the region are used. After usual preprocessing steps (filtering, prewhitening, temporal normalization), we compute 820 cross-correlation functions from 41 receivers for three month time windows. Evaluation of the azimuthal and temporal variation of signal to noise ratios and f-k analysis of NORSAR array data shows that the dominant propagation direction of seismic noise is south-west to north, corresponding well to the Norwegian coast line. During summer months, the signal to noise ratios decrease and the azimuthal distribution becomes smoother. Time-frequency analysis is applied to measure Rayleigh and Love wave group velocity dispersion curves between each station pair for each three-month correlation stack. The mean and variance of all dispersion curves is computed for each path. After rejection of low-quality data using a signal to noise ratio, minimum wavelength and velocity variance criterion, we obtain a large number of reliable velocity estimates (about 600) for periods between 2 and 15 seconds, which we invert for group velocity maps at respective periods. At all inverted periods, we find positive and negative velocity anomalies for Rayleigh and Love waves that correlate very well with local surface geology. While higher velocities (+5%) can be associated with the Caledonian nappes in the central part of southern Norway, the Oslo Graben is reflected

  14. Moho depth and age in southern Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stratford, W.; Thybo, H.

    2010-05-01

    Moho ages beneath the Fennoscandian shield are highly variable due to the method of crustal accretion and to the long history of extensional and compressional tectonics. In southern Norway, the Moho and crust are inferred to be the youngest of the shield, however, it is likely that a large discrepancy between crustal age and Moho age exists beneath the high southern scandes where the Caledonian orogeny was in effect. Moho structure in southern Norway was targeted recently with a seismic refraction study (Magnus-Rex - Mantle investigations of Norwegian uplift Structure, refraction experiment). Three ~400 km long active source seismic profiles across the high southern Scandes Mountains, the youngest section of the Fennoscandian shield were recorded. Moho depths beneath the high mountains are 36-40 km, thinning towards the Atlantic Margin and the Oslo graben. A new Moho depth map is constructed for southern Norway by compiling new depth measurements with previous refraction Moho measurements. Gaining better constraint on Moho depths in this area is timely, as debate over the source of support for the mountains has provided the impetus for a new focus project, TopoScandesdeep, to find the depth and mechanisms of compensation. P and S-wave arrivals were recorded in the Magnus-Rex project, from which Poisson ratios for the crust in southern Norway are calculated. Unusually strong S-wave arrivals allow rare insight into crustal Poisson's ratio structure that is not normally available from active source data and are usually determined by earthquake tomography studies where only bulk crustal values are available. An average Poisson's ratio of 0.25 is calculated for the crust in southern Norway, suggesting it is predominantly of felsic-intermediate composition and lacks any significant mafic lower crust. This differs significantly from the adjacent crust in the Svecofennian domain of the Fennoscandian shield where Moho depths reach ~50 km and an up to 20 km thick mafic lower

  15. AGING-RELATED CARBARYL EFFECTS IN BROWN NORWAY RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The rapid increase in older adults in the population highlights the importance ofunderstanding the role of aging in susceptibility to environmental contaminants. Aspart of a larger research program on life-stage susceptibility, this experiment determined the effect of the carbama...

  16. SERUM BIOMARKERS OF AGING IN THE BROWN NORWAY RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Serum biomarkers to identify susceptibility to disease in aged humans are well researched. On the other hand, our understanding of biomarkers in animal models of aging is limited. Hence, we applied a commercially available panel of 58 serum analytes to screen for possible biomark...

  17. AN OBSERVATIONAL ASSESSMENT OF AGING IN BROWN NORWAY RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The growth of the aging population highlights the need for laboratory animal models that can be used to (1) efficiently monitor the health ofaging research colonies, and (2) aid in unraveling the mechanisms ofsusceptibility to toxic chemicals and disease. An observational assessm...

  18. Orchiectomized Fischer 344 male rat models body composition in hypogonadal state.

    PubMed

    Borst, Stephen E; Conover, Christine F

    2006-06-20

    The hypogonadal state in men is accompanied by substantial decreases in muscle and bone mass and by an increase in adiposity. Most of the strains of orchiectomized (ORX) rat that have been used to model this state display substantial losses in bone, but only subtle changes in adiposity and muscle mass. In order to identify a rat model displaying a robust catabolic response to ORX, we studied three strains: Fischer 344 (F344), Brown Norway and Wistar. ORX caused a significant and sustained decrease in weight gained by F344, but only a trend toward reduced weight gain in Brown Norway rats and a modest reduction weight gain in Wistar rats that was significant only after 56days. ORX suppressed food intake in F344 rats, and to a lesser degree in Brown Norway and Wistar rats. ORX reduced muscle mass significantly in F344 rats, but not in Brown Norway or Wistar rats. ORX increased adiposity moderately in F344 rats and substantially in Wistar rats. ORX caused a marked reduction in prostate mass and increase in bone resorption in all three strains. Thus, F344 was the only strain in which ORX produced substantial decreases in food intake, body weight and muscle mass with increased adiposity and increased bone resorption. We conclude that the F344 rat displays a broad range of catabolic effects following ORX and is the best rat model for studying the androgenic pathway and strategies for reversing catabolic changes induced by hypogonadism. PMID:16507309

  19. Unusual dental forensic cases in Norway.

    PubMed

    Solheim, T

    1980-09-01

    Two forensic dental cases from Norway are presented. The first case, in which a body was found on the seabed, illustrates that identification may give rise to suspicion of murder. In this case, the suspicion proved to be justified. The Scandinavian identification forms are presented. The second case is unusual in that tooth marks in bottle caps linked a burglar to the scene of the crime. Tooth marks for comparison were found in a police car where the suspect had opened a soft-drink bottle with his teeth. Comparison microscopy was used. PMID:7234809

  20. Norway threatens shutdown of giant Ekofisk field

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-19

    This paper reports that The Norwegian Petroleum Directorate has warned Phillips Petroleum Co. Norway AS it will shut down giant Ekofisk oil field over safety concerns before winter 1995-96. Later that day Phillips, operator of the Ekofisk complex in the Norwegian North Sea, the the threat was intended to speed changes in the field's processing and transportation systems. NPD cited studies carried out by Phillips that revealed aging equipment and inadequate maintenance. Seabed subsidence, which led to several of the field's platforms being jacked up 3 m in 1987, made things worse.

  1. Norway's ICT Accessibility Legislation, Methods and Indicators.

    PubMed

    Rygg, Malin; Rømen, Dagfinn; Sterri, Brynhild Runa

    2016-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the Norwegian legislation on Universal Design of information and communication technology (ICT) and how the Norwegian Authority for Universal Design of ICT works to enforce and achieve the goals behind the legislation. The Authority uses indicators to check websites for compliance with the regulations. This paper describes the rationale and intended use for the indicators and how they are used for both supervision and benchmarks as well as a way of gathering data to give an overview of the current state of Universal Design of websites in Norway. PMID:27534342

  2. Daylight and absenteeism--evidence from Norway.

    PubMed

    Markussen, Simen; Røed, Knut

    2015-01-01

    Based on administrative register data from Norway, we examine the impact of hours of daylight on sick-leave absences among workers. Our preferred estimates imply that an additional hour of daylight increases the daily entry rate to absenteeism by 0.5 percent and the corresponding recovery rate by 0.8 percent, ceteris paribus. The overall relationship between absenteeism and daylight hours is negative. Absenteeism is also sensitive to weather conditions. Heavy snowfall raises the incidence of absence during the winter, while warm weather reduces the probability of returning to work during the summer. PMID:24529766

  3. 76 FR 166 - Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-03

    ... imports of fresh and chilled Atlantic salmon from Norway (56 FR 14920, 14921). Following five-year reviews... imports of fresh and chilled Atlantic salmon from Norway (71 FR 7512). The Commission is now conducting...), as most recently amended at 74 FR 2847 (January 16, 2009). \\1\\ \\1\\ No response to this request...

  4. A Report on the HEAD-Ache in Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tjeldvoll, Arild; Welle-Strand, Anne

    2009-01-01

    The article examines different understandings of school leadership in Norway by reporting the findings of a HEAD Project (2004-8). The article discusses how school leadership training in Norway has responded to the government's educational policy aims and strategies in the context of globalization. using the concept of "education value chain," the…

  5. Total OH reactivity emissions from Norway spruce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nölscher, Anke; Bourtsoukidis, Efstratios; Bonn, Boris; Kesselmeier, Jürgen; Lelieveld, Jos; Williams, Jonathan

    2013-04-01

    Forest emissions represent a strong potential sink for the main tropospheric oxidant, the hydroxyl radical (OH). In forested environments, the comparison of the directly determined overall sink of OH radicals, the total OH reactivity, and the individually measured OH sink compounds often exposes a significant gap. This "missing" OH reactivity can be high and influenced by both direct biogenic emissions and secondary photo-oxidation products. To investigate the source of the missing OH sinks in forests, total OH reactivity emission rates were determined for the first time from a Norway spruce (Picea abies) throughout spring, summer and autumn 2011. The total OH reactivity was measured inside a branch enclosure using the Comparative Reactivity Method (CRM) with a Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS) as the detector. In parallel, separate volatile organic compounds (VOC) emission rates were monitored by a second PTR-MS, including the signal of isoprene, acetaldehyde, total monoterpenes and total sesquiterpenes. The comparison of known and PTR-MS detected OH sink compounds and the directly measured total OH reactivity emitted from Norway spruce revealed unmeasured and possibly unknown primary biogenic emissions. These were found to be highest in late summer during daytime coincident with highest temperatures and ozone levels.

  6. Adult Education and Indigenous Peoples in Norway. International Survey on Adult Education for Indigenous Peoples. Country Study: Norway.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Svein

    Adult education for indigenous peoples in Norway was examined. First, information on government institutions, indigenous organizations, international agencies, and nongovernmental organizations engaged in adult education for Norway's indigenous peoples was compiled. Next, questionnaires and survey techniques were used to research the policy and…

  7. [Spotted fever imported into Norway in 1997].

    PubMed

    Jensenius, M; Gerlyng, P; Hasle, G; Hopen, G; Vene, S; Bruu, A L

    1998-06-30

    Tick-borne rickettsioses are important zoonoses in many tropical and subtropical areas. There has recently been an increase in the number of reported cases among tourists returning to Scandinavia. In this article we present all five serologically confirmed cases of tick-borne rickettsioses imported into Norway in 1997. The patients were Norwegian tourists who had visited South Africa (three cases), Zimbabwe, and Italy. Four cases had typical eschar and three had maculopapular exanthema. The patients were treated with either doxycycline or ciprofloxacin. No complications were reported. The diagnosis of tick-borne rickettsiosis was confirmed by the detection of specific IgM antibodies to Rickettsia conorii using micro-immunofluorescence in serum samples. PMID:9673510

  8. FT Raman spectroscopy of Norway spruce needles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matejka, P.; Pleserova, L.; Budinova, G.; Havirova, K.; Nahlik, J.; Skacel, F.; Volka, Karel

    2001-02-01

    12 Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] needles represent a very useful bioindicator of the air pollution. They serve not only as natural samplers of the pollutants but micromorphology of the epistomatal area can be directly correlated with an environmental stress. The needles of trees growing in polluted areas exhibit different types of injury to the epicuticular wax layer. It is evident that these changes of the morphology of the wax layers are connected also with the changes of their chemical composition and so a potential of the FT Raman spectroscopy was tested to serve as a screening method of these changes. In this work variability of the spectra with the age and with the position in the tree, in the locality, and also in the different localities of the Czech Republic was studied and evaluated in comparison with results of electron scanning microscopy.

  9. Drugged drivers in Norway with benzodiazepine detections.

    PubMed

    Skurtveit, Svetlana; Abotnes, Bjørg; Christophersen, Asbjørg S

    2002-01-24

    Norwegian drugged drivers with benzodiazepine (BZD) detections have been studied with regard to drug use pattern and rearrest rate. During 1995, 3343 drivers were apprehended by the police in Norway due to the suspicion of influence by drugs. Blood samples from all drivers were sent to the National Institute of Forensic Toxicology (NIFT). The samples were analysed using a standard program covering the most commonly abused drugs on the marked in Norway. BZDs, representing some of the most frequently detected drugs, were found in approximately 30% (n = 1051) of the cases, represented by 14% (n = 150) female and 86% (n = 901) male drivers. In 8% of the cases, one BZD only was detected, half of these cases with one BZD could reflect therapeutic use. One or more BZDs were combined with illegal drug(s) (73%), other prescribed drugs (10%), and/or alcohol (24%). 62% of the drivers with BZD detections, had earlier been arrested for the same offence, or six cases per rearrested driver. The frequency of earlier arrests were lower for female (34%) than for male (67%) drivers. Alcohol was most frequently found for those arrested for the first time before 1992, while BZD or illegal drugs were most frequently found for those with their first arrest during 1992-1995. Our study shows that apprehended drivers using BZD are mainly represented by drug abusers due to frequent multi-drug use, blood concentrations representing doses above therapeutic levels and high rearrest rate for the same offence. A treatment program or other reactions, are thus necessary in addition to fines, prison penalty and suspension of driving licence. PMID:11852205

  10. Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera) species new to the fauna of Norway

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The present paper contains new distributional records for 61 species of ichneumon wasps (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) previously unknown for Norway, six of them are reported from Scandinavia for the first time. PMID:24855440

  11. World's first concrete TLP takes shape off Norway

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-15

    The world's first concrete tension leg platform (TLP) is being assembled offshore Norway for development of Heidrun field by Conoco Norway Inc. to meet a target for first oil production on Aug. 1, 1995. Development of Heidrun fields is in many ways a frontier project. It lies in 350 m of water in the Norwegian Sea off central Norway and is the most northerly development in Norwegian waters. It sees introduction of the concrete floater and the use of titanium drilling risers. It is the first development offshore Norway to utilize off loading of produced oil directly into shuttle tankers without storage. Installation methods for Heidrun's topsides and foundations were designed to avoid the requirement for heavy lift vessels. And concrete was used for the first time to make module support beams in the TLP hull. The paper describes the exploration history of the field, TLP details, marine operations at Heidrun, and contracts.

  12. Denmark-Norway, 1761-1769: Two Missed Opportunities?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aspaas, Per Pippin

    2013-05-01

    Despite a promising start in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, Denmark-Norway was not a Great Power of Astronomy any longer when the eighteenth-century transits of Venus occurred. Official activity relating to the transit of 1761 was very limited; in this respect, Denmark-Norway was completely overshadowed by Sweden and Russia. In 1769 steps were taken to invite an astronomer of international reputation, the Jesuit Father Maximilianus Hell. He arrived in 1768 and left the country two years later, having published an elaborate report in the name of the King Christian VII. Although Hell's observations from Vardoehus were successful, Denmark-Norway failed to re-establish itself as a country capable of delivering noteworthy contributions to the European community of astronomers. Sweden and Russia displayed a higher level of activity, both quantitatively and qualitatively, making the impression of Denmark-Norway's lagging behind even stronger.

  13. Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera) species new to the fauna of Norway.

    PubMed

    Humala, Andrei E; Reshchikov, Alexey

    2014-01-01

    The present paper contains new distributional records for 61 species of ichneumon wasps (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) previously unknown for Norway, six of them are reported from Scandinavia for the first time. PMID:24855440

  14. Water footprint of hydro power in Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engeland, Kolbjørn; Tallaksen, Lena; Haakon Bakken, Tor; Killingtveit, Ånund

    2015-04-01

    The IPCC Special Report on Renewable Energy (IPCC, 2012) assesses the potential for renewable energy sources to replace fossil-based fuels and benchmarks the technologies with respect to a set of criteria, including their water footprint measured as m3/MWh. While most of the renewable technologies show a typical range of 1-5 m3/MWh, the very sparse data on hydropower range from a minimum of 0.04 to a maximum of 209 m3/MWh. More recent studies on water footprint from hydropower indicate that the water consumption rates could go even far beyond the numbers published by IPCC (2012). The methodological approach behind these numbers are, however, criticized as it appears over-simplistic and several issues need to be defined and clarified in order to present the 'true picture' of the water footprint of hydropower. Despite this, the rather high numbers for hydropower may imply a reputational risk for the sector and also be a direct investment risk in new projects if hydropower is considered a "large-scale water consumer". Estimation of water footprint has two important components (i) definition of water footprint (including system boundaries), and (ii) estimation of evaporation, which is assumed to constitute the main water loss from hydropower. Here we will mainly address the second topic and have chosen to use a water footprint definition based on net evapotranspiration from reservoirs. Thus, we need estimates of evapotranspiration from the land surface prior to inundation and the evaporation from the reservoir after it has been filled up. The primary objective of the study is to estimate water footprint of hydropower in Norway and in particular to answer the following questions: (i) How does different environmental variables influence water footprint estimation in Norway?, and in particular (ii) What is the total/specific water footprint from Norwegian hydropower production? To answer these questions we tested how environmental variables like climate and vegetation

  15. Fog chemistry at three sites in Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Youliang; Zhang, Jinwei; Marcotte, Aurelie R.; Karl, Matthias; Dye, Christian; Herckes, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Fog composition was investigated at three sites in Norway, one in suburban Oslo and two coastal sites in the area of the Mongstad refinery. Overall fog frequency during the study periods was low. Fog pH was around 5 with slightly lower values at Hakadal, the suburban site, compared to the coastal sites, which were slightly above 5. Major ions at the coastal sites were sodium and chloride consistent with the marine environment. The ion chemistry at the suburban site was dominated by ammonium, sulfate and nitrate, consistent with fogs in anthropogenically impacted environments. Overall concentrations of major ions were very low, orders of magnitude lower than those in polluted urban fogs. Organic matter concentrations were also low (< 3 mgC/L) consistent with limited anthropogenic impact and little biogenic activity in the winter months. Selected amine concentrations were determined and ranged from nanomolar concentrations for ethylamines to several hundred nanomolar concentrations for dimethylamine, the most abundant amine investigated. While N-nitrosodimehylamine was detected in fog, the concentrations were very low in the fogs.

  16. An aircraft noise study in Norway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gjestland, Truls T.; Liasjo, Kare H.; Bohn, Hans Einar

    1990-01-01

    An extensive study of aircraft noise is currently being conducted in Oslo, Norway. The traffic at Oslo Airport Fornebu that includes both national and international flights, totals approximately 350 movements per day: 250 of these are regular scheduled flights with intermediate and large size aircraft, the bulk being DC9 and Boeing 737. The total traffic during the summer of 1989 was expected to resemble the maximum level to which the regular traffic will increase before the new airport can be put into operation. The situation therefore represented a possibility to study the noise impact on the communities around Fornebu. A comprehensive social survey was designed, including questions on both aircraft and road traffic noise. A random sample of 1650 respondents in 15 study areas were contacted for an interview. These areas represent different noise levels and different locations relative to the flight paths. The interviews were conducted in a 2 week period just prior to the transfer of charter traffic from Gardemoen to Fornebu. In the same period the aircraft noise was monitored in all 15 areas. In addition the airport is equipped with a permanent flight track and noise monitoring system. The noise situation both in the study period and on an average basis can therefore be accurately described. In August a group of 1800 new respondents were subjected to identical interviews in the same 15 areas, and the noise measurement program was repeated. Results of the study are discussed.

  17. PHENOTYPIC COMPARISON OF ALLERGIC AIRWAY RESPONSES TO HOUSE DUST MITE IN THREE RAT STRAINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract
    Brown Norway (BN) rats develop a robust response to antigens in the lung characterized by a large increase in allergen-specific immune function and pulmonary eosinophilia. The objective of this study was to investigate alternative models by determining if other rat s...

  18. Differences in Age-Related Alterations in Muscle Contraction Properties in Rat Tongue and Hindlimb

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Nadine P.; Ota, Fumikazu; Nagai, Hiromi; Russell, John A.; Leverson, Glen

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Because of differences in muscle architecture and biomechanics, the purpose of this study was to determine whether muscle contractile properties of rat hindlimb and tongue were differentially affected by aging. Method: Deep peroneal and hypoglossal nerves were stimulated in 6 young and 7 old Fischer 344-Brown Norway rats to allow…

  19. Temporal and Spatial Variations in the Twinning Rate in Norway.

    PubMed

    Fellman, Johan

    2016-08-01

    Strong geographical variations have been noted in the twinning rate (TWR). In general, the rate is high among people of African origin, intermediate among Europeans, and low among most Asiatic populations. In Europe, there tends to be a south-north cline, with a progressive increase in the TWR from south to north and a minimum around the Basque provinces. The highest TWRs in Europe have been found among the Nordic populations. Furthermore, within larger populations, small isolated subpopulations have been identified to have extreme, mainly high, TWRs. In the study of the temporal variation of the TWR in Norway, we consider the period from 1900 to 2014. The regional variation of the TWR in Norway is analyzed for the different counties for two periods, 1916-1926 and 1960-1988. Heterogeneity between the regional TWRs in Norway during 1916-1926 was found, but the goodness of fit for the alternative spatial models was only slight. The optimal regression model for the TWR in Norway has the longitude and its square as regressors. According to this model, the spatial variation is distributed in a west-east direction. For 1960-1988, no significant regional variation was observed. One may expect that the environmental and genetic differences between the counties in Norway have disappeared and that the regional TWRs have converged towards a common low level. PMID:27339822

  20. Glacier area and length changes in Norway from repeat inventories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winsvold, S. H.; Andreassen, L. M.; Kienholz, C.

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we assess glacier area and length changes in mainland Norway from repeat Landsat TM/ETM+-derived inventories and digitized topographic maps. The multi-temporal glacier inventory consists of glacier outlines from three time ranges: 1947 to 1985 (GIn50), 1988 to 1997 (GI1990), and 1999 to 2006 (GI2000). For the northernmost regions, we include an additional inventory (GI1900) based on historic maps surveyed between 1895 and 1907. Area and length changes are assessed per glacier unit, 36 subregions, and for three main parts of Norway: southern, central, and northern. The results show a decrease in the glacierized area from 2994 km2 in GIn50 to 2668 km2 in GI2000 (total 2722 glacier units), corresponding to an area reduction of -326 km2, or -11% of the initial GIn50 area. The average length change for the full epoch (within GIn50 and GI2000) is -240 m. Overall, the comparison reveals both area and length reductions as general patterns, even though some glaciers have advanced. The three northernmost subregions show the highest retreat rates, whereas the central part of Norway shows the lowest change rates. Glacier area and length changes indicate that glaciers in maritime areas in southern Norway have retreated more than glaciers in the interior, and glaciers in the north have retreated more than southern glaciers. These observed spatial trends in glacier change are related to a combination of several factors such as glacier geometry, elevation, and continentality, especially in southern Norway.

  1. Carbon sequestration by young Norway spruce monoculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokorny, R.; Rajsnerova, P.; Kubásek, J.

    2012-04-01

    Many studies have been focused on allometry, wood-mass inventory, carbon (C) sequestration, and biomass expansion factors as the first step for the evaluation of C sinks of different plant ecosystems. To identify and quantify these terrestrial C sinks, and evaluate CO2 human-induced emissions on the other hand, information for C balance accounting (for impletion of commitment to Kyoto protocol) are currently highly needed. Temperate forest ecosystems have recently been identified as important C sink. Carbon sink might be associated with environmental changes (elevated [CO2], air temperature, N deposition etc.) and large areas of managed fast-growing young forests. Norway spruce (Pice abies L. Karst) is the dominant tree species (35%) in Central European forests. It covers 55 % of the total forested area in the Czech Republic, mostly at high altitudes. In this contribution we present C sequestration by young (30-35 year-old) Norway spruce monocultures in highland (650-700 m a.s.l., AT- mean annual temperature: 6.9 ° C; P- annual amount of precipitation: 700 mm; GL- growing season duration: 150 days) and mountain (850-900 m a.s.l.; AT of 5.5 ° C; P of 1300 mm; and GL of 120 days) areas and an effect of a different type of thinning. However, the similar stem diameter at the breast height and biomass proportions among above-ground tree organs were obtained in the both localities; the trees highly differ in their height, above-ground organ's biomass values and total above ground biomass, particularly in stem. On the total mean tree biomass needle, branch and stem biomass participated by 22 %, 24 % and 54 % in highland, and by 19 %, 23 % and 58 % in mountain area, respectively. Silvicultural management affects mainly structure, density, and tree species composition of the stand. Therefore, dendrometric parameters of a tree resulted from genotype, growth conditions and from management history as well. Low type of thinning (LT; common in highland) stimulates rather tree

  2. Ti-rich komatiites from northern Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Sarah-Jane; Often, Morten

    1990-06-01

    Komatiites of the Karasjok Greenstone Belt, northern Norway, show two unusual features: they have certain compositional differences compared with other komatiites, and they are largely volcaniclastic in origin. Their geological setting suggests that the komatiites were crupted into shallow water, thus permitting phreatomagmatic eruption, in a small ocean basin that opened in the Baltic Shield. The major oxides (except for TiO2), the trace elements Y, Sc, V, heavy rare earth elements (HREE), Cr, Co, Ni and the platinum group elements (PGE) cover similar ranges to those observed in other komatiites, but TiO2, Sm, Zr and Hf (Ti-associated elements, TAE) are enriched compared with abundances commonly reported for komatiites. Thus, the Karasjok komatiites have interelement ratios 2 to 3 times greater than chondritic between the TAE and the HREE, PGE, Sc, V, Y, Al (HRE-associated elements, HAE). The light rare earth elements (LREE), Ta and Th are enriched in some samples relative to Ti, Sm, Zr, and Hf, but are depleted in others. One group of rocks that is similar to the Karasjok komatiites both in terms of geological setting and geochemistry is the Baffin Bay picrites. The reason for the high concentrations of TAE in the Karasjok komatiites could be that they formed at lower degrees of partial melting than most komatiites. The greater-than-chondritic TAE/HAE ratios indicate that garnet was a residual phase during their formation, requiring that the melt formed at a pressure greater than 40 kb. A model involving decompression melting of a mantle plume rising in a rifting environment, can explain the main features of the Karasjok komatiites.

  3. Permafrost Observatory Project: A Contribution to the Thermal State of Permafrost in Norway and Svalbard, TSP NORWAY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christiansen, H.; Berthling, I.; Blikra, L.; Dehls, J.; Etzelmuller, B.; Farbrot, H.; Humlum, O.; Isaksen, K.; Juliussen, H.; Lauknes, T.; Midttomme, K.; Rønning, J.

    2007-12-01

    The Norwegian funded IPY project 'Permafrost Observatory Project: A Contribution to the Thermal State of Permafrost in Norway and Svalbard', (TSP NORWAY) is part of the TSP cluster. The main goal of TSP NORWAY is to measure and model the permafrost distribution in Norway and Svalbard, focussing on its thermal state, thickness and associated periglacial processes, including increased knowledge of the mountain permafrost distribution related to geohazard studies on rockslides. TSP NORWAY will contribute to IPY by providing a spatially distributed set of observations on the present status of permafrost temperatures and active layer thicknesses, and periglacial processes in Svalbard and Norway. Special focus is given to empirical and numerical modelling of permafrost distribution and thermal ground heat fluxes to address future climate variability on permafrost distribution and associated geomorphic activity. Permafrost distribution in the North Atlantic area is strongly climatically controlled, mainly by the North Atlantic Drift, providing much less permafrost than in any other high latitude terrestrial region on the Northern Hemisphere. Hopefully a first Nordic permafrost map will be based on Nordic permafrost collaboration during IPY. The TSP NORWAY project has established two permafrost observatories with intensive permafrost and periglacial monitoring sites in maritime and continental areas. One in Troms, northern Norway, which will be part of the north Scandinavian Permafrost Observatory extending into northernmost Sweden and Finland, and the Svalbard Nordenskiöld Land Permafrost Observatory also with both maritime and continental sites. The first Norwegian permafrost database, NORPERM, with all permafrost data from Norway and Svalbard, collected before and during IPY, has been established at the Norwegian Geological Survey. NORPERM shall contribute data as requested in the IPY data protocol and the TSP cluster to the international Global Terrestrial Network on

  4. NORPERM, the Norwegian Permafrost Database - a TSP NORWAY IPY legacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juliussen, H.; Christiansen, H. H.; Strand, G. S.; Iversen, S.; Midttømme, K.; Rønning, J. S.

    2010-10-01

    NORPERM, the Norwegian Permafrost Database, was developed at the Geological Survey of Norway during the International Polar Year (IPY) 2007-2009 as the main data legacy of the IPY research project Permafrost Observatory Project: A Contribution to the Thermal State of Permafrost in Norway and Svalbard (TSP NORWAY). Its structural and technical design is described in this paper along with the ground temperature data infrastructure in Norway and Svalbard, focussing on the TSP NORWAY permafrost observatory installations in the North Scandinavian Permafrost Observatory and Nordenskiöld Land Permafrost Observatory, being the primary data providers of NORPERM. Further developments of the database, possibly towards a regional database for the Nordic area, are also discussed. The purpose of NORPERM is to store ground temperature data safely and in a standard format for use in future research. The IPY data policy of open, free, full and timely release of IPY data is followed, and the borehole metadata description follows the Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost (GTN-P) standard. NORPERM is purely a temperature database, and the data is stored in a relation database management system and made publically available online through a map-based graphical user interface. The datasets include temperature time series from various depths in boreholes and from the air, snow cover, ground-surface or upper ground layer recorded by miniature temperature data-loggers, and temperature profiles with depth in boreholes obtained by occasional manual logging. All the temperature data from the TSP NORWAY research project is included in the database, totalling 32 temperature time series from boreholes, 98 time series of micrometeorological temperature conditions, and 6 temperature depth profiles obtained by manual logging in boreholes. The database content will gradually increase as data from previous and future projects are added. Links to near real-time permafrost temperatures, obtained

  5. Surveying perceptions of landslide risk management in Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Jessica Ka Yi; Eidsvig, Unni

    2016-04-01

    Enhanced precipitation due to climate change leads to increase in both frequency and intensity of landslides in Norway. A proactive approach to risk management is therefore required to significantly reduce the losses associated with landslides. Opinions and perceptions from practitioners on the performance of landslide risk management can provide insights on areas for improvement in the landslide risk management strategies in Norway. The Risk Management Index (RMI), proposed by Cardona et al. (2004), is a well-established method to measure perceptions of disaster management of selected actors holistically. The RMI is measured based on opinion questionnaires to technical staff, decision-makers, and stakeholders involved in all stages of risk reduction strategies. It is a composite index that considers a wide variety of strategies to manage risks, including structural and non-structural measures, acceptance strategies, disaster management, and risk transfer. The RMI method was modified to be implemented in landslide hazards and to fit with Norwegian conditions. An opinion survey was conducted in autumn 2015 to measure perceptions of landslide risk management in Norway. Perceptions were surveyed for two time periods: 2015 and 2050, and are based on national, county, and municipality levels. Based on the survey results, performance of landslide risk management at any administrative levels in Norway is perceived to improve from `significant' in 2015 to `significant' to `outstanding' in 2050. Knowledge and technology, climate, risk perceptions, and anthropogenic activities are mostly considered by respondents for their 2050 perceptions. Several aspects of landslide risk management in Norway can be improved. For example, landslide hazard evaluation and mapping should be prioritised in Norway. Upgrading, retrofitting, and reconstruction of assets may also be included in the landslide risk reduction strategies. In addition, there should be more focus on inter

  6. Polar Bears, Hot Coffee, Wireless Schools, and Much More: Teaching American Studies in Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Lee Ann

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author shares her experience and her observations as a Roving Scholar of American Studies in Norway through the Norway Fulbright Foundation grant. The author visited upper secondary schools all over Norway, teaching lessons to both students and teachers on topics related to U.S. history, government, culture, and geography. She…

  7. Monitoring of Agricultural Landscape in Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallin, H. G.; Engan, G.

    2012-07-01

    An overall societal aim is to ensure a sustainable use and management of agricultural landscapes. This requires continuous delivery of reliable and up-to-date information to decision-makers. To be able to deliver this information, a monitoring program for agricultural landscapes was initiated in Norway 13 years ago. The program documents and reports on land use / land cover changes from data captured through interpretation of true colour aerial photos using stereo instruments. The monitoring programme is based on a sample of 1000 squares of 1 × 1 km and the entire sample of squares is photographed over a five-year period. Each square is then mapped repeatedly every fifth year to record changes. Aerial photo interpretation is based on a custom classification system which is built up hierarchically, with three levels. The first level comprises seven land type classes: Agricultural land, Bare ground, Semi-natural open vegetation, Unforested wetland vegetation, Forest, Urban areas and Water. These land classes are further divided into 24 land types at level two, and approximately 100 land types at level 3. In addition to land type units we map both line elements like stone fences and point elements like buildings and solitary threes. By use of indicators that describe status and change focusing on themes of particular policy interest, we can report on whether policy aims are being fulfilled or not. Four indicator themes have been in focus hitherto: landscape spatial structure, biological diversity, cultural heritage and accessibility. Our data is stored in databases and most of the data quality check/structure process and analyses are now being made in open source software like PostGIS and PostSQL. To assess the accuracy of the photo-interpretation, ground truthing is carried out on 10 % of the squares. The results of this operation document the benefits of having access to photos of the same area from two different years. The program is designed first and foremost to

  8. Day Care in Scandinavia: Denmark, Sweden and Norway.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esbensen, Steen B.

    Day care programs in the Scandinavian countries have been viewed as exemplary models to transfer to Canada and the United States. This publication, which provides an overview of day care in Denmark, Sweden and Norway, discusses conditions, facts, and programs contributing to the widespread acclaim. It is pointed out that day care in Denmark is an…

  9. Cry Wolf!: Narratives of Wolf Recovery in France and Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skogen, Ketil; Mauz, Isabelle; Krange, Olve

    2008-01-01

    Due to strict protection through the last decades, wolves have returned to many areas from which they have been absent for a long time. This is a conservation success story, but the wolves also cause conflicts wherever they arrive. We have studied the situation in southeastern Norway and in the French Alps, where the conflict patterns are similar.…

  10. 77 FR 10772 - Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ..., 2011 (76 FR 166) and determined on April 8, 2011 that it would conduct full reviews (76 FR 22422, April..., 2011 (76 FR 38698). The hearing was held in Washington, DC, on November 30, 2011, and all persons who... COMMISSION Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway Determination On the basis of the record...

  11. Perspectives on Quality Assurance in Higher Education in Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lycke, Kirsten Hofgaard

    2004-01-01

    Quality assurance is well known internationally but the notion is relatively new in Norway. To understand some of the issues and dilemmas that emerge in the Norwegian reception of quality assurance in higher education, this article traces how quality assurance is gaining its form and how international trends are understood, transposed and adopted…

  12. Educational Technology, Epistemology and Discourses in Curricula in Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krumsvik, Rune

    2008-01-01

    Why is Norway, the first nation in the world defining digital literacy, as the fifth basic competence in the national curriculum? How has epistemological and ontological issues influenced educational technology and how has this influenced discourse of educational technology in curricula which have led to today's "technology friendly curriculum"?…

  13. OECD Thematic Review on Adult Learning: Norway. Background Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tangen, Fride

    Adult learning in Norway was examined in a thematic review that focused on the following areas: the contexts of adult learning; the participants in, providers of, and returns from adult learning; issues and problems facing adult learning; and good practices. The following are among the main findings of the review: (1) adult learning has a long…

  14. Digitally Literate Teachers in Leading Edge Schools in Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almas, Aslaug Grov; Krumsvik, Rune

    2007-01-01

    This paper highlights digitally literate, in-service teachers in leading edge schools in Norway and focuses on how they, in their professional development, adapt digital literacy. Today we find a consensus among policy-makers, researchers, teacher-educators and teachers that digital literacy must be given high priority and needs to be explored…

  15. Ambient noise levels and detection threshold in Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demuth, Andrea; Ottemöller, Lars; Keers, Henk

    2016-07-01

    Ambient seismic noise is caused by a number of sources in specific frequency bands. The quantification of ambient noise makes it possible to evaluate station and network performance. We evaluate noise levels in Norway from the 2013 data set of the Norwegian National Seismic Network as well as two temporary deployments. Apart from the station performance, we studied the geographical and temporal variations, and developed a local noise model for Norway. The microseism peaks related to the ocean are significant in Norway. We, therefore, investigated the relationship between oceanic weather conditions and noise levels. We find a correlation of low-frequency noise (0.125-0.25 Hz) with wave heights up to 900 km offshore. High (2-10 Hz) and intermediate (0.5-5 Hz) frequency noise correlates only up to 450 km offshore with wave heights. From a geographic perspective, stations in southern Norway show lower noise levels for low frequencies due to a larger distance to the dominant noise sources in the North Atlantic. Finally, we studied the influence of high-frequency noise levels on earthquake detectability and found that a noise level increase of 10 dB decreases the detectability by 0.5 magnitude units. This method provides a practical way to consider noise variations in detection maps.

  16. New Public Management in Educational Reform in Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solhaug, Trond

    2011-01-01

    The article focuses on the similarities and differences in using new public management (NPM) administrative arrangements in educational policy as they have been presented in the educational reform process carried out this millennium by two governments in Norway: the Centre-Conservative government and the current Red-Green coalition government.…

  17. Ambient noise levels and detection threshold in Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demuth, Andrea; Ottemöller, Lars; Keers, Henk

    2016-03-01

    Ambient seismic noise is caused by a number of sources in specific frequency bands. The quantification of ambient noise makes it possible to evaluate station and network performance. We evaluate noise levels in Norway from the 2013 data set of the Norwegian National Seismic Network as well as two temporary deployments. Apart from the station performance, we studied the geographical and temporal variations, and developed a local noise model for Norway. The microseism peaks related to the ocean are significant in Norway. We, therefore, investigated the relationship between oceanic weather conditions and noise levels. We find a correlation of low-frequency noise (0.125-0.25 Hz) with wave heights up to 900 km offshore. High (2-10 Hz) and intermediate (0.5-5 Hz) frequency noise correlates only up to 450 km offshore with wave heights. From a geographic perspective, stations in southern Norway show lower noise levels for low frequencies due to a larger distance to the dominant noise sources in the North Atlantic. Finally, we studied the influence of high-frequency noise levels on earthquake detectability and found that a noise level increase of 10 dB decreases the detectability by 0.5 magnitude units. This method provides a practical way to consider noise variations in detection maps.

  18. Norway's Day-Care Initiative: A Municipal Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemeth, Beate; Lokken, Gisle

    2012-01-01

    Norway is gearing up to provide places in day care centres for all children aged between one and six and the need for more facilities has therefore increased substantially in recent years. In Tromso, the municipality has become closely involved in child-care pedagogics and architecture; a design competition it launched has brought rewarding…

  19. Smoking Habits among Teachers in Primary Schools in Norway 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seip, Anne Karen

    1982-01-01

    A representative sample (N=1988) of members of the two main teachers' organizations in Norway were mailed questionnaires in the spring of 1977 regarding their past and present smoking habits, and 92 percent responded. The percentage of daily smokers among the teachers was approximately half of that found in the general population. (BRR)

  20. The Public-Private Partnership in ECEC Provision in Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haug, Peder

    2014-01-01

    This article seeks to answer three central questions pertaining to public-private partnership in early childhood education and care (ECEC provision) in Norway: How has public-private partnership developed during the last four decades? How is public-private partnership understood in Norwegian ECEC policy? What seem to be the future challenges in…

  1. The Economic Burden of Student Loan Repayment in Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opheim, Vibeke

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of student loan repayment on household economy in Norway. Using data from two nationwide interview-based surveys on the financial position of Norwegian households, we analyse the financial position of households currently repaying student loans compared with households without such loans along several demographical…

  2. [HIV infection, gonorrhea and syphilis from Thailand to Norway].

    PubMed

    Aavitsland, P; Nilsen, O

    1999-10-30

    Thailand, a popular tourist destination for Norwegians, is experiencing an increasing epidemic of HIV infection. We used the Norwegian surveillance system for communicable diseases to assess the connections between the Norwegian and Thai epidemics. Before 1999, 1,869 cases of HIV-infection had been reported in Norway. From 1993 to 1998, 1,334 cases of gonorrhoea and 62 cases of syphilis were reported. We studied cases with a Thai patient or source partner and cases acquired in Thailand. 56 (3%) of HIV-infection cases, 64 (5%) of gonorrhoea cases and two (3%) of syphilis cases were connected to Thailand. All the Norwegians who acquired HIV in Thailand were males, with a median age of 39. Eight of them were diagnosed in 1998 as compared to 16 during the previous ten-year period. 21 Thai women and seven males were diagnosed with HIV infection in Norway, eight in 1998 and 20 in the previous ten-year period. The Norwegian HIV epidemic is influenced by the Thai epidemic. Norwegian men are infected in Thailand during holidays. Thai women come with their Norwegian partner to Norway and later discover their HIV status. We recommend raising the awareness of the Thai epidemic among Norwegian tourists. Immigrants to Norway from highly endemic countries should be offered HIV counselling and testing. PMID:10592752

  3. Increased incidence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection in Norway 2011.

    PubMed

    Blystad, H; Ånestad, G; Vestrheim, D F; Madsen, S; Rønning, K

    2012-01-01

    Epidemics of Mycoplasma pneumoniae have recently been reported from England and Wales and from Denmark. A similar increase in M. pneumoniae infections was noted in Norway late autumn 2011.The epidemic has resulted in shortage of erythromycin and the use of alternative antibiotics has been recommended. PMID:22321136

  4. The Bookshelf: Digitisation and Access to Copyright Items in Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skarstein, Vigdis Moe

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the challenges faced in digitising copyright-protected books and other materials within the National Library of Norway. Design/methodology/approach: Following a description of Bokhylla, or The Bookshelf, the paper outlines the strategies adopted within the National Library of Norway…

  5. Sex Differences in Adolescent Suicides in Norway, 1990-1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groholt, Berit; Ekeberg, Oivind; Wichstrom, Lars; Haldorsen, Tor

    1999-01-01

    Suicides of persons under the age of 20 between 1990 and 1992 in Norway were examined for gender differences. Females more often attempted suicide, wrote farewell notes, and used less violent methods. The adjusted risk for suicide related to affective disorders and disruptive disorders differed little, as did the effect of frequent use of alcohol…

  6. Proceedings of the Full Board Meeting (Ustaoset, Norway, June 1972).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Council of Scientific Unions, Paris (France). Abstracting Board.

    The proceedings of the 1972 full board meeting of the International Council of Scientific Unions Abstracting Board (ICSU AB) held in Ustaoset, Norway are contained in this volume. The first part of the Proceedings is a detailed description of the activities of the Board. Activities of ICSU AB Member Unions and Member Countries in all aspects of…

  7. Students and the Governance of Higher Education in Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michelsen, Svein; Stensaker, Bjorn

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the question of student participation in higher education governance at the national and the institutional levels in Norway. Two ideal-type perspectives on governance are developed in order to illuminate the Norwegian case: a democratic perspective and a market perspective. The article provides a brief overview of the…

  8. Functional characterization and biomarker identification in the Brown Norway model of allergic airway inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Underwood, Stephen L; Haddad, El-Bdaoui; Birrell, Mark A; McCluskie, Kerryn; Pecoraro, Michaela; Dabrowski, Dominika; Webber, Stephen E; Foster, Martyn L; Belvisi, Maria G

    2002-01-01

    The antigen-induced inflammatory response in the Brown Norway rat is a model commonly used to assess the impact of novel compounds on airway eosinophilia. A detailed functional, cellular and molecular characterization of this model has not yet been performed within a single study. This information together with the temporal changes in this phenomenon should be known before this model can be used, with confidence, to elucidate the mechanisms of action of novel anti-inflammatory drugs. Antigen challenge caused an accumulation of eosinophils in lung tissue 24 h after challenge. Accumulation of CD2+ T cells was not apparent until after 72 h. Interestingly, mRNA for the Th2 type cytokines interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5 and IL-13 and eotaxin were elevated in lung tissue after challenge and the expression of IL-13 and eotaxin protein increased at around 8–12 h. The temporal changes in both the biomarker production and the functional responses are important factors to consider in protocol design prior to initiating a compound screening program. A neutralising antibody (R73) against αβ-TCR caused a significant reduction in T cell numbers accompanied by a significant suppression of eosinophil accumulation. Airway hyperreactivity (AHR) was not apparent in this specific Brown Norway model in sensitized animals after a single or multiple challenges although eosinophil influx was seen in the same animals. In conclusion, this is a convenient pre-clinical model (incorporating the measurement of biomarkers and functional responses) for screening novel small molecule inhibitors and/or biotherapeutics targeted against T cell/eosinophil infiltration/activation. PMID:12208784

  9. Glacier area and length changes in Norway from repeat inventories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winsvold, S. H.; Andreassen, L. M.; Kienholz, C.

    2014-06-01

    In this study, we assess glacier area and length changes in mainland Norway from repeat Landsat TM/ETM+ derived inventories and digitized topographic maps. The multi-temporal glacier inventory consists of glacier outlines from within three time ranges: 1947 to 1985 (GIn50), 1988 to 1997 (GI1990), and 1999 to 2006 (GI2000). For the northernmost regions, we include an additional inventory (GI1900), based on historic maps surveyed between 1895 to 1907. Area and length changes are assessed per glacier unit, for 36 subregions, and for three main parts of Norway: southern, central and northern Norway. The results show a decrease of the glacierized area from 2994 km2 in GIn50, to 2668 km2 in GI2000 (totally 2722 glacier units), corresponding to an area reduction of -326 km2, or -11% of the initial GIn50 area. This is equivalent to an average change rate of -11 km2 a-1 over the past 30 years. The average length change for the full epoch (within GIn50 and GI2000) is -240 m, corresponding to an average length change rate of -8 m a-1. Overall, the comparison reveals both area and length reduction as a general pattern, even though some glaciers have advanced. The three northernmost glacier regions show the strongest retreat rates, whereas the central part of Norway shows the lowest change rates. Glacier area and length changes indicate that glaciers in maritime areas in southern Norway have retreated more than glaciers in the interior, and glaciers in the north have retreated more than southern glaciers. These observed spatial trends in glacier change are related to a combination of several geographical factors like glacier geometry and elevation, and other climatic aspects, such as continentality and the North Atlantic Oscillation.

  10. Domestication and diversification: a comparative analysis of the play fighting of the Brown Norway, Sprague-Dawley, and Wistar laboratory strains of (Rattus norvegicus).

    PubMed

    Himmler, Stephanie M; Modlinska, Klaudia; Stryjek, Rafal; Himmler, Brett T; Pisula, Wojciech; Pellis, Sergio M

    2014-08-01

    Laboratory strains of rats are a commonly used subject to study play behavior. Recent research has shown that play in one laboratory strain of rat (e.g., Long-Evans hooded) differs in a number of ways from its wild counterparts. These findings suggest that domestication affects some aspects of play behavior. However, there are multiple strains of laboratory rats, which have been domesticated through different lineages all derived from wild rats and it cannot be assumed that all domestic strains are identical in their play. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the play behavior of three other strains of laboratory rats (e.g., Wistar, Sprague-Dawley, and Brown Norway). All strains were similar to each other as they all engaged in high frequencies of play, tolerated similar interanimal distances before initiating playful defense and displayed similar acrobatic capacities, suggesting domestication produces some common changes in play and other factors that influence play. However, strains differed significantly from one another in the use of tactics that promote bodily contact during play. Indeed, in this regard, some strains were more similar to wild rats than others, suggesting that some domestication-induced changes are either unique or more prominent in some laboratory strains than others. Such a mosaic pattern of transformation not only offers the possibility of using strain differences to characterize the genetic factors contributing to different facets of play, but also cautions researchers from making rat-general conclusions from studies on any one strain. PMID:24749500

  11. Survey of nematodes associated with terrestrial slugs in Norway.

    PubMed

    Ross, J L; Ivanova, E S; Hatteland, B A; Brurberg, M B; Haukeland, S

    2016-09-01

    A survey of nematodes associated with terrestrial slugs was conducted for the first time in Norway. A total of 611 terrestrial slugs were collected from 32 sample sites. Slugs were identified by means of morphological examination, dissection of genitalia and molecular analysis using mitochondrial DNA. Twelve slug species were identified, representing four different slug families. Internal nematodes were identified by means of morphological analysis and the sequencing of the 18S rRNA gene. Of the sample sites studied, 62.5% were found to be positive for nematode parasites, with 18.7% of all slugs discovered being infected. Five nematode species were identified in this study: Alloionema appendiculatum, Agfa flexilis, Angiostoma limacis, Angiostoma sp. and Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita. Of these species, only one nematode was previously undescribed (Angiostoma sp.). This is the first record of the presence of A. appendiculatum, A. flexilis and A. limacis in Norway. PMID:26411747

  12. The Alta schist, North Norway: unique rock with unique history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heldal, Tom; Aasly, Kari; Meyer, Gurli

    2015-04-01

    Near the small town of Alta, northernmost Norway, are more than thousand small and large schist quarries, some of them dating back to the 1850's. It was the need for roofing material on a local church and a hospital that triggered the production. Since then, the Alta schist has been widely applied in Norway and abroad, known for its quality for roofing material and hard floor covering. The quality lies in the processes behind the formation of the schist. Emplacement of thrust nappes during the Caledonian mountain chain formation in the Silurian caused deformation and metamorphism of the rocks. The Alta schist is situated in one such nappe sheet, where arkosic sandstone where flattened and transformed into mylonite. This made fine mica layers along which the rock can be split, rythmically spaced and separated by quartz-dominated bands. The production of the Alta schist is still characterized by old craft traditions, reflecting a rich history and culture around the schist production.

  13. [Osteoporosis and fractures in Norway. Occurrence and risk factors].

    PubMed

    Falch, J A; Meyer, H E

    1998-02-10

    Bone mass in the Norwegian population appears to be the lowest in Europe. Depending on which skeletal part is measured, from 14 to 36% of Norwegian women over the age of 50 suffer from osteoporosis according to the WHO definition. In a European multicentre study of the prevalence of vertebral deformities (the EVOS study), prevalence was the third highest among men and women from Oslo. Incidence rates of forearm and hip fractures are higher in Norway than in other countries. There are, however, differences in hip fracture incidence within Norway itself, with the highest rates occurring in urban areas. Body height is greater and body mass index lower than in other European countries. Vitamin D receptor allele polymorphism was found to have no influence on bone mass in two studies. PMID:9520585

  14. Validation of Global Gravitational Field Models in Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettersen, B. R.; Sprlak, M.; Gerlach, C.

    2015-03-01

    We compare global gravitational field models obtained from GOCE to terrestrial datasets over Norway. Models based on the time-wise and the direct approaches are validated against height anomalies, free-air gravity anomalies, and deflections of the vertical. The spectral enhancement method is employed to overcome the spectral inconsistency between the gravitational models and the terrestrial datasets. All models are very similar up to degree/order 160. Higher degrees/orders improved systematically as more observations from GOCE were made available throughout five releases of data. Release 5 models compare well with EGM2008 up to degree/order 220. Validation by height anomalies suggests possible GOCE improvements to the gravity field over Norway between degree/order 100-200.

  15. A retrospective view on research in neuroscience in Norway.

    PubMed

    Gjerstad, L; Gilhus, N E; Storstein, A

    2008-01-01

    This brief historical review on neuroscience in Norway shows a comparatively high research activity with many important results. The Norwegian zoologist Fridtjof Nansen, who later became a famous Arctic explorer, was the first to formulate the neuron doctrine. 'The Oslo School of Neuroanatomy' contributed enormously to the understanding of the detailed anatomy and chemistry of the central nervous system. Norwegian neurophysiologists made important findings from studies of hippocampus including the inhibitory basket cell, the LTP phenomenon and the 'hippocampal-slice-technique'. In clinical neuroscience the description of Refsum's disease and studies of myasthenia gravis and multiple sclerosis have been of particular importance. Two of 13 centres of excellence in Norway selected in 2003 were from neuroscience, and The Norwegian Research Council has its own programme for neuroscience. The Norwegian Neurological Association arranges annual meetings to promote interest in neurological research. PMID:18439214

  16. Impacts of extreme weather events on transport infrastructure in Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frauenfelder, Regula; Solheim, Anders; Isaksen, Ketil; Romstad, Bård; Dyrrdal, Anita V.; Ekseth, Kristine H. H.; Gangstø Skaland, Reidun; Harbitz, Alf; Harbitz, Carl B.; Haugen, Jan E.; Hygen, Hans O.; Haakenstad, Hilde; Jaedicke, Christian; Jónsson, Árni; Klæboe, Ronny; Ludvigsen, Johanna; Meyer, Nele K.; Rauken, Trude; Sverdrup-Thygeson, Kjetil

    2016-04-01

    With the latest results on expected future increase in air temperature and precipitation changes reported by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the climate robustness of important infrastructure is of raising concern in Norway, as well as in the rest of Europe. Economic consequences of natural disasters have increased considerably since 1950. In addition to the effect of demographic changes such as population growth, urbanization and more and more concentration of valuable assets, this increase is also related to an augmenting frequency of extreme events, such as storms, flooding, drought, and landslides. This change is also observable in Norway, where the increased frequency of strong precipitation has led to frequent flooding and landslide events during the last 20 years. A number of studies show that climate change causes an increase in both frequency and intensity of several types of extreme weather, especially when it comes to precipitation. Such extreme weather events greatly affect the transport infrastructure, with numerous and long closures of roads and railroads, in addition to damage and repair costs. Frequent closures of railroad and roads lead to delay or failure in delivery of goods, which again may lead to a loss of customers and/or - eventually - markets. Much of the Norwegian transport infrastructure is more than 50 years old and therefore not adequately dimensioned, even for present climatic conditions. In order to assess these problems and challenges posed to the Norwegian transport infrastructure from present-day and future extreme weather events, the project "Impacts of extreme weather events on infrastructure in Norway (InfraRisk)" was performed under the research Council of Norway program 'NORKLIMA', between 2009 and 2013. The main results of the project are: - Moderate to strong precipitation events have become more frequent and more intense in Norway over the last 50 years, and this trend continues throughout the 21st

  17. Adoption of routine telemedicine in Norway: the current picture

    PubMed Central

    Zanaboni, Paolo; Knarvik, Undine; Wootton, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Background Telemedicine appears to be ready for wider adoption. Although existing research evidence is useful, the adoption of routine telemedicine in healthcare systems has been slow. Objective We conducted a study to explore the current use of routine telemedicine in Norway, at national, regional, and local levels, to provide objective and up-to-date information and to estimate the potential for wider adoption of telemedicine. Design A top-down approach was used to collect official data on the national use of telemedicine from the Norwegian Patient Register. A bottom-up approach was used to collect complementary information on the routine use of telemedicine through a survey conducted at the five largest publicly funded hospitals. Results Results show that routine telemedicine has been adopted in all health regions in Norway and in 68% of hospitals. Despite being widely adopted, the current level of use of telemedicine is low compared to the number of face-to-face visits. Examples of routine telemedicine can be found in several clinical specialties. Most services connect different hospitals in secondary care, and they are mostly delivered as teleconsultations via videoconference. Conclusions Routine telemedicine in Norway has been widely adopted, probably for geographical reasons, as in other settings. However, the level of use of telemedicine in Norway is rather low, and it has significant potential for further development as an alternative to face-to-face outpatient visits. This study is a first attempt to map routine telemedicine at regional, institutional, and clinical levels, and it provides useful information to understand the adoption of telemedicine in routine healthcare and to measure change in future updates. PMID:24433942

  18. Tapping lakes in Norway: clean but risky energy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-12-01

    Four hydroelectric projects are currently underway and two more are expected to begin within the next couple of years in Norway, using lake taps. The Ulla-Forre project is presently under construction which uses lake taps to link 30 lakes and many rivers through a network of tunnels and dams. Environmentalists are concerned that dams and other above-ground components of these projects will interfere with the migration routes of reindeer and spawning salmon.

  19. First drilling in Norwegian sea off Norway yields encouraging results

    SciTech Connect

    Bergsager, E.

    1981-06-08

    Three exploratory wells drilled in the Norwegian Sea penetrated Jurassic sandstones with excellent reservoir qualities, rich source rock, and some evidence of hydrocarbons. Constituting the first wells drilled north of the 62nd parallel off Norway, they produced encouraging evidence of prospective structures. The Norwegian continental shelf north of the North Sea contains areas of thick sedimentary basins having an areal extent 8-9 times that of the Norwegian North Sea.

  20. ["Look to Norway"--but for how long?].

    PubMed

    Haug, Jon Birger; Raastad, Ragnhild; Berild, Dag

    2010-08-12

    Internationally, Norway receives positive attention mainly in the context of Winter Olympics or peace initiatives. However, an Associated Press article recently suggested that the Norwegian health care system had "found the Solution to Killer Superbug". Furthermore, Norway was proclaimed "The Most Infection Free Country in the World". What my be the reality behind such headlines, and how shall we as a nation maintain a favourable situation? Physicians in Scandinavian countries and the Netherlands have a long tradition for modest prescription of antibiotics, and are trained to use agents with a narrow antimicrobial spectre whenever possible. This is probably the main reason why these countries have had less antibiotic resistance than others. The number of antibiotics marketed in a country correlates positively with total drug consumption. Until 1992, Norwegian authorities could reject marketing of new compounds if national experts found no medical need for them. The foresight of senior colleagues has led to the number of marketed antibiotics in Norway, even today, being 10-fold lower than in some other European countries. The national surveillance programme, NORM, reports antimicrobial resistance in human pathogens on an annual basis. For example, national levels of MRSA and ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae are still very low whereas ampicillin and ciprofloxacin resistance in E coli and high- level gentamicin resistance in enterococci cause some concern. Norway has well-established epidemiological surveillance systems in the fields of microbiology and infectious diseases. Nevertheless, more knowledge is needed on how antibiotics are used in hospitals. Two national strategic plans (since 2003) have emphasized the explicit importance of antibiotic surveillance to counteract future antibiotic resistance problems. To fulfil national ambitions, there is an urgent need for economic grants to this field; the human resources are there and as eager to start as Olympic

  1. Growth strategy of Norway spruce under air elevated [CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokorny, R.; Urban, O.; Holisova, P.; Sprtova, M.; Sigut, L.; Slipkova, R.

    2012-04-01

    Plants will respond to globally increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) by acclimation or adaptation at physiological and morphological levels. Considering the temporal onset, physiological responses may be categorized as short-term and morphological ones as long-term responses. The degree of plant growth responses, including cell division and cell expansion, is highly variable. It depends mainly on the specie's genetic predisposition, environment, mineral nutrition status, duration of CO2 enrichment, and/or synergetic effects of other stresses. Elevated [CO2] causes changes in tissue anatomy, quantity, size, shape and spatial orientation and can result in altered sink strength. Since, there are many experimental facilities for the investigation of elevated [CO2] effects on trees: i) closed systems or open top chambers (OTCs), ii) semi-open systems (for example glass domes with adjustable lamella windows - DAWs), and iii) free-air [CO2] enrichments (FACE); the results are still unsatisfactory due to: i) relatively short-term duration of experiments, ii) cultivation of young plants with different growth strategy comparing to old ones, iii) plant cultivation under artificial soil and weather conditions, and iv) in non-representative stand structure. In this contribution we are discussing the physiological and morphological responses of Norway spruce trees cultivated in DAWs during eight consecutive growing seasons in the context with other results from Norway spruce cultivation under air-elevated [CO2] conditions. On the level of physiological responses, we discuss the changes in the rate of CO2 assimilation, assimilation capacity, photorespiration, dark respiration, stomatal conductance, water potential and transpiration, and the sensitivity of these physiological processes to temperature. On the level of morphological responses, we discuss the changes in bud and growth phenology, needle and shoot morphology, architecture of crown and root system, wood

  2. Age-related changes in body composition in laboratory rats: Strain and gender comparisons

    EPA Science Inventory

    Long Evans (LE), Sprague Dawley (SD), Fischer 344 (F344), and Brown Norway (BN) rats are all commonly used as laboratory research subjects. These strains have been studied under many conditions, but few studies have measured changes in body composition as the animals age. Underst...

  3. First oil pipeline to Norway crosses Norwegian trench

    SciTech Connect

    Johsrud, P.

    1988-05-02

    Norsk Hydro AS laid the first oil pipeline from North Sea fields to Norway last summer as part of the Oseberg transportation system. The line was hydrostatically tested last fall in preparation for start-up next year. After several appraisal wells and extensive evaluation work, the operator for the field, Norsk Hydro, presented a development plan which was approved by the Norwegian parliament in the spring of 1984. This article describes the development phases, the transportation system, and how the trench crossing was done.

  4. Strain differences in rats with respect to speed of conflict resolution.

    PubMed

    Koene, P; Vossen, J M

    1991-01-01

    Speed of conflict resolution was studied in a conditioned punishment paradigm in a Skinner box and a straight runway. In both experimental situations speed of conflict resolution was defined as the latency to gain food during an approach-avoidance conflict. In the Skinner box Tryon Maze Bright rats were faster in speed of conflict resolution than Tryon Maze Dull rats, and Roman Low Avoidance rats were faster than Roman High Avoidance rats. In the runway situation, Wistar Kyoto rats were faster in solving the conflict than randomly bred Wistar Wu rats and Brown Norway rats were faster than Wistar Wu rats. Differences between the strains in speed of conflict resolution could not be consistently explained from strain differences in approach or avoidance behavior, measured separately. It is, therefore, suggested that speed of conflict resolution is a unique parameter. PMID:2018461

  5. 77 FR 12800 - Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway: Revocation of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ... of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 76 FR 89 (January 3, 2011); Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From... Duty Order, 76 FR 70409 (November 14, 2011), and Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway: Final... Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Orders: Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon from Norway, 71 FR...

  6. The New National Curriculum in Norway: A Change in the Role of the Principals?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Germeten, Sidsel

    2011-01-01

    This article presents perspectives on how principals in schools in northern Norway value the school reform "The Knowledge Promotion" and the new National Curriculum (LK06). It is based on a survey of all primary schools in the region of Finnmark and interviews with five of these principals one year later. The region of Finnmark in Norway is in the…

  7. State-Based Curriculum-Making: Approaches to Local Curriculum Work in Norway and Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mølstad, Christina Elde

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates how state authorities in Norway and Finland design national curriculum to provide different policy conditions for local curriculum work in municipalities and schools. The topic is explored by comparing how national authorities in Norway and Finland create a scope for local curriculum. The data consist of interviews with…

  8. Transnational spaces of care: migrant nurses in Norway.

    PubMed

    Isaksen, Lise Widding

    2012-01-01

    This article argues that international nurse recruitment from Latvia to Norway is not a win–win situation. The gains and losses of nurse migration are unevenly distributed between sender and receiver countries. On the basis of empirical research and interviews with Latvian nurses and families they left behind, this article argues that nurse migration transforms families and communities and that national health services now become global workplaces. Some decades ago feminist research pointed to the fact that the welfare state was based on a male breadwinner family and women’s unpaid production of care work at home. Today this production of unpaid care is “outsourced” from richer to poorer countries and is related to an emergence of transnational spaces of care. International nurse recruitment and global nurse care chains in Norway increasingly provide the labor that prevents the new adult worker model and gender equality politics from being disrupted in times where families are overloaded with elder care loads. PMID:22611573

  9. Fallout 137Cs in reindeer herders in Arctic Norway.

    PubMed

    Skuterud, Lavrans; Thørring, Håvard

    2015-03-01

    Reindeer herders in the Arctic were among the most heavily exposed populations to the global fallout from nuclear weapons testing in the 1950s and 1960s, due to high transfer of radionuclides in the lichens-reindeer-human food chain. Annual studies of (137)Cs in reindeer herders in Kautokeino, Norway, were initiated in 1965 to monitor radiation doses and follow environmental (137)Cs behavior. The (137)Cs concentrations declined from the peak in 1965 with effective half-times of 6-8 years, only interrupted by a temporary doubling in levels from 1986 to 1987 due to the Chernobyl fallout. During the period of 1950-2010 an average herder received an integrated effective dose from incorporated (137)Cs of about 18 mSv. This dose represents an insignificant increase in the risk for developing cancer. Health studies even show a significantly lower cancer incidence among Sámis and reindeer herders in northern Norway compared to other populations in the same area. PMID:25671344

  10. A controlled vocabulary for nursing and allied health in Norway.

    PubMed

    Flor, P; Jakobsson, A; Mogset, I; Taylor, S; Aasen, S E

    2001-03-01

    Nursing and allied health libraries at educational institutions in Norway have generally indexed their book collections with uncontrolled terms. With the reorganization of higher education in 1994, the majority of these libraries joined BIBSYS, which is a joint library system for higher education and research in Norway. This has led to chaos when searching the joint catalogue for literature on nursing and related fields. A term such as 'behaviour problems' may have up to five synonyms. In an attempt to improve the quality of searching the health literature, BIBSYS appointed a working group in the Spring of 1999 to find a suitable controlled vocabulary for this subject area, and to see how this vocabulary could be integrated into BIBSYS. The group presented its recommendations in October 1999. The report has been well received by the BIBSYS Board and by user groups. There are no Norwegian vocabularies that are suitable for use in nursing and allied health, therefore it will be necessary to translate and combine existing thesauri. The group has looked at the Nordic Multilingual Thesaurus on Health Promotion, the Swedish Spriline Thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) and CINAHL Subject Heading List. Other relevant thesauri are AMED/CATS Thesaurus, Bioethics Thesaurus (Bioethicsline) and the RCN thesaurus. The group recommends the development of a Norwegian thesaurus based on a translation of parts of MeSH and CINAHL Subject Heading List. PMID:11260288

  11. Mitochondrial DNA variation in the Viking age population of Norway

    PubMed Central

    Krzewińska, Maja; Bjørnstad, Gro; Skoglund, Pontus; Olason, Pall Isolfur; Bill, Jan; Götherström, Anders; Hagelberg, Erika

    2015-01-01

    The medieval Norsemen or Vikings had an important biological and cultural impact on many parts of Europe through raids, colonization and trade, from about AD 793 to 1066. To help understand the genetic affinities of the ancient Norsemen, and their genetic contribution to the gene pool of other Europeans, we analysed DNA markers in Late Iron Age skeletal remains from Norway. DNA was extracted from 80 individuals, and mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms were detected by next-generation sequencing. The sequences of 45 ancient Norwegians were verified as genuine through the identification of damage patterns characteristic of ancient DNA. The ancient Norwegians were genetically similar to previously analysed ancient Icelanders, and to present-day Shetland and Orkney Islanders, Norwegians, Swedes, Scots, English, German and French. The Viking Age population had higher frequencies of K*, U*, V* and I* haplogroups than their modern counterparts, but a lower proportion of T* and H* haplogroups. Three individuals carried haplotypes that are rare in Norway today (U5b1b1, Hg A* and an uncommon variant of H*). Our combined analyses indicate that Norse women were important agents in the overseas expansion and settlement of the Vikings, and that women from the Orkneys and Western Isles contributed to the colonization of Iceland. PMID:25487335

  12. Transport of ticks by migratory passerine birds to Norway.

    PubMed

    Hasle, Gunnar; Bjune, Gunnar; Edvardsen, Erik; Jakobsen, Christer; Linnehol, Bjørn; Røer, Jan Erik; Mehl, Reidar; Røed, Knut H; Pedersen, Jon; Leinaas, Hans Petter

    2009-12-01

    Ticks can be transported over large distances and across geographical barriers by avian hosts. During the spring migrations of 2003 to 2005, 9,768 passerine birds from 4 bird observatories along the southern coastline of Norway were examined for ticks. Altogether, 713 birds carried a total of 517 larvae and 1,440 nymphs. The highest prevalence of tick infestation was observed in thrushes and dunnock (Prunella modularis). The degree of tick infestation varied during each season, between localities, and from year to year. Blackbirds (Turdus merula) caught in localities with many ticks had greater infestation than those from localities with few or no ticks, suggesting local tick recruitment. A similar study performed during 1965–1970 involving 2 of the bird observatories in the present study found ticks on 4.2% of birds, while we found infestation of 6.9% at the same localities (P < 0.001). With the exception of 10 nymphs and 1 larva, the predominant tick was Ixodes ricinus. Seven nymphs of Hyalomma rufipes and 1 larva of Dermacentor sp. were also found. No species of Dermacentor had previously been found in Norway. PMID:19658452

  13. Social characteristics of urban café guests in Norway.

    PubMed

    Traeen, B; Rossow, I

    1994-08-01

    Which factors may influence the number of hours spent per week in cafés, and the amount of alcohol consumed in licensed premises, by urban café guests in Norway? In 1991 a comprehensive questionnaire survey was undertaken among 1053 visitors to 41 licensed cafés in Oslo, Norway. The five most important predictors of time spent in cafés were: household situation (beta = 0.20), occupation (beta = 0.18), personal economic resources and sex (both beta = 0.15) and age (beta = 0.11). These factors were also significant predictors of the number of days during the past 4 weeks the respondents had drunk four glasses or more of alcohol in cafés. Men, people living with others, people with poor economic resources and people not engaged in paid employment or education were the ones who reported spending the most hours per week and the most episodes of "heavy" drinking in cafés during a 4-week period. Visiting and drinking in cafés may be a way of structuring everyday life. PMID:7950857

  14. Emerging antibiotic resistance in Salmonella typhimurium in Norway.

    PubMed

    Leegaard, T M; Caugnat, D A; Frøholm, L O; Høiby, E A; Lassen, J

    2000-12-01

    The antimicrobial resistance of 809 Salmonella Typhimurium isolates collected from humans in Norway between 1975 and 1998 was studied. The material was subdivided into domestic and foreign isolates according to whether the patient had recently travelled abroad or not. In imported isolates the largest increase in resistance was in 1996 when 35% of the isolates were multi-resistant. The first multi-resistant isolate acquired in Norway appeared in 1994, but already in 1998 23% of the isolates domestically acquired were multi-resistant, and a majority were S. Typhimurium DT104. We found no ciprofloxacin resistance in domestically acquired isolates. Amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis was performed on selected multi-resistant isolates. The method discriminated well between different multi-resistant isolates, but not between DT104 isolates. Resistant and multi-resistant S. Typhimurium were until 1998 essentially recovered from patients who had travelled abroad, but multi-resistant isolates, mainly DT104, are now also being transmitted within the country. PMID:11218197

  15. Estimating costs of sea lice control strategy in Norway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yajie; Bjelland, Hans Vanhauwaer

    2014-12-01

    This paper explores the costs of sea lice control strategies associated with salmon aquaculture at a farm level in Norway. Diseases can cause reduction in growth, low feed efficiency and market prices, increasing mortality rates, and expenditures on prevention and treatment measures. Aquaculture farms suffer the most direct and immediate economic losses from diseases. The goal of a control strategy is to minimize the total disease costs, including biological losses, and treatment costs while to maximize overall profit. Prevention and control strategies are required to eliminate or minimize the disease, while cost-effective disease control strategies at the fish farm level are designed to reduce the losses, and to enhance productivity and profitability. Thus, the goal can be achieved by integrating models of fish growth, sea lice dynamics and economic factors. A production function is first constructed to incorporate the effects of sea lice on production at a farm level, followed by a detailed cost analysis of several prevention and treatment strategies associated with sea lice in Norway. The results reveal that treatments are costly and treatment costs are very sensitive to treatment types used and timing of the treatment conducted. Applying treatment at an early growth stage is more economical than at a later stage. PMID:25443395

  16. Mitochondrial DNA variation in the Viking age population of Norway.

    PubMed

    Krzewińska, Maja; Bjørnstad, Gro; Skoglund, Pontus; Olason, Pall Isolfur; Bill, Jan; Götherström, Anders; Hagelberg, Erika

    2015-01-19

    The medieval Norsemen or Vikings had an important biological and cultural impact on many parts of Europe through raids, colonization and trade, from about AD 793 to 1066. To help understand the genetic affinities of the ancient Norsemen, and their genetic contribution to the gene pool of other Europeans, we analysed DNA markers in Late Iron Age skeletal remains from Norway. DNA was extracted from 80 individuals, and mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms were detected by next-generation sequencing. The sequences of 45 ancient Norwegians were verified as genuine through the identification of damage patterns characteristic of ancient DNA. The ancient Norwegians were genetically similar to previously analysed ancient Icelanders, and to present-day Shetland and Orkney Islanders, Norwegians, Swedes, Scots, English, German and French. The Viking Age population had higher frequencies of K*, U*, V* and I* haplogroups than their modern counterparts, but a lower proportion of T* and H* haplogroups. Three individuals carried haplotypes that are rare in Norway today (U5b1b1, Hg A* and an uncommon variant of H*). Our combined analyses indicate that Norse women were important agents in the overseas expansion and settlement of the Vikings, and that women from the Orkneys and Western Isles contributed to the colonization of Iceland. PMID:25487335

  17. Interaction between temperature, precipitation and snow cover trends in Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzi, Jonathan; Brox Nilsen, Irene; Stagge, James Howard; Gisnås, Kjersti; Merete Tallaksen, Lena

    2016-04-01

    Northern latitudes are experiencing faster warming than other regions, partly due to the snow--albedo feedback. A reduction in snow cover, which has a strong positive feedback on the energy balance, leads to a lowering of the albedo and thus, an amplification of the warming signal. Norway, in particular, can be considered a "cold climate laboratory" with large gradients in geography and climate that allows studying the effect of changing temperature and precipitation on snow in highly varying regions. Previous research showed that during last decades there has been an increase in air temperature for the entire country and a concurrent reduction in the land surface area covered by snow. However, these studies also demonstrate the sensitivity of the trend analysis to the period of record, to the start and end of the period, and to the presence of extreme years. In this study, we analyse several variables and their spatial and temporal variability across Norway, including mean, minimum and maximum daily temperature, daily precipitation, snow covered area and total snow water equivalent. Climate data is retrieved from seNorge (http://www.senorge.no), an operationally gridded dataset for Norway with a resolution of 1 km2. Analysis primarily focused on three overlapping 30-year periods (i.e., 1961-1990, 1971-2000, 1981-2010), but also tested trend sensitivity by varying period lengths. For each climate variable the Theil-Sen trend was calculated for each 30-year period along with the difference between 30-year mean values. In addition, indices specific to each variable were calculated (e.g. the number of days with a shift from negative to positive temperature values). The analysis was performed for the whole of Norway as well as for separate climatological regions previously defined based on temperature, precipitation and elevation. Results confirm a significant increase in mean daily temperatures and accelerating warming trends, especially during winter and spring

  18. Connections between winter snowpack and subsequent spring floods in Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlichting, Lena; Engeland, Kolbjørn; Holmqvist, Erik; Bache Stranden, Heidi

    2016-04-01

    In Norway many inland and mountainous catchments have a hydrological regime where snow accumulates during winter. The runoff is delayed until the snow melts during spring. These processes are important for flood forecasting and water resource management, such as operation of hydropower reservoirs. It is commonly assumed that spring flood volume and peak linked to antecedent conditions such as winter snowpack, i.e. a large winter snowpack results in a high spring flood. The aims of this study are (i) to identify for which catchments a high correlation between snow water equivalent (SWE) at the end of the snow accumulation season and the subsequent spring flood, and (ii) establish regression models for these catchments to be used for seasonal flood forecasting. Daily runoff data from 43 distributed catchments all over Norway, each with at least 50 years of observations and a flood regime which is significantly influenced by snowmelt, were used. For each of these catchments we extracted SWE, precipitation and temperature on daily resolution from the on gridded data of Senorge.no. A peak-over-threshold approach was used to select independent flood events above the 90-th percentile. Maximum discharge, duration and volume were calculated for each event. The contribution of rain and snowmelt to each flood was additionally determined, based on snowmelt, precipitation and temperature data. The spring flood was defined as the first flood event that occurs after the date of maximum SWE, and the snowmelt contribution of at least 70%. The contribution of rain to a spring flood is independent of maximum SWE, resulting in a weaker correlation between maximum SWE and spring flood size. We therefore scaled the flood with the percentage of snow contribution to the flood event in order to adjust for the contribution from rain. The correlations between SWE and the spring flood were higher for scaled spring floods than for the unscaled ones. The results show for half of the stations a

  19. Integrated database for rapid mass movements in Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaedicke, C.; Lied, K.; Kronholm, K.

    2009-03-01

    Rapid gravitational slope mass movements include all kinds of short term relocation of geological material, snow or ice. Traditionally, information about such events is collected separately in different databases covering selected geographical regions and types of movement. In Norway the terrain is susceptible to all types of rapid gravitational slope mass movements ranging from single rocks hitting roads and houses to large snow avalanches and rock slides where entire mountainsides collapse into fjords creating flood waves and endangering large areas. In addition, quick clay slides occur in desalinated marine sediments in South Eastern and Mid Norway. For the authorities and inhabitants of endangered areas, the type of threat is of minor importance and mitigation measures have to consider several types of rapid mass movements simultaneously. An integrated national database for all types of rapid mass movements built around individual events has been established. Only three data entries are mandatory: time, location and type of movement. The remaining optional parameters enable recording of detailed information about the terrain, materials involved and damages caused. Pictures, movies and other documentation can be uploaded into the database. A web-based graphical user interface has been developed allowing new events to be entered, as well as editing and querying for all events. An integration of the database into a GIS system is currently under development. Datasets from various national sources like the road authorities and the Geological Survey of Norway were imported into the database. Today, the database contains 33 000 rapid mass movement events from the last five hundred years covering the entire country. A first analysis of the data shows that the most frequent type of recorded rapid mass movement is rock slides and snow avalanches followed by debris slides in third place. Most events are recorded in the steep fjord terrain of the Norwegian west coast, but

  20. The 1888 shoreline landslide and tsunami in Trondheimsfjorden, central Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    L'Heureux, J.-S.; Glimsdal, S.; Longva, O.; Hansen, L.; Harbitz, C. B.

    2011-03-01

    The 1888 landslide and tsunami along the shore of the bay of Trondheim, central Norway, killed one person and caused major damage to port facilities. Recent bathymetric surveys, high-resolution seismic profiles and CPTU piezocone tests provide detail information about the morphology of the seafloor and landslide mechanisms, which can be used in tsunami simulations. Based on our integrated data set we suggest the 1888 sequence of events started with an initial underwater landslide near-shore, by detachment along a weak clayey sediment layer. Geomorphology indicates the landslide transformed rapidly into a debris flow, which subsequently triggered slope failures on the flanks of a deep underwater channel. One of the slope failures is associated with the triggering of the 1888 tsunami wave, with documented run-up heights of several meters. The interpreted sequence of events is supported by eyewitness testimony and further validated by slope stability analysis, slide dynamics modelling and 2D tsunami simulations.

  1. Routine health check-ups of unemployed in Norway.

    PubMed

    Ytterdahl, T

    1999-01-01

    In 1994 all the 273 long-term unemployed in the municipality Lillesand, Norway were invited to participate in a proactive health care program. 229 were included in the program, consisting of a medical examination by a general practitioner, councelling, personal support and referrals. The job-loss aroused lots of negative emotions, mostly defensive feelings and resignations, which are likely to reduce self-esteem and coping ability. The prevalence of somatoform symptoms and anxiety was twice as high as in the normal population, and for depression the prevalence was three times higher. 24% of the unemployed were referred to further examination. Invitation to a health examination may be the ticket of entry for revealing some of the concealed morbidity among long-term unemployed. Health check-ups of unemployed will probably be very cost-effective PMID:10197474

  2. Generic substitution: micro evidence from register data in Norway.

    PubMed

    Dalen, Dag Morten; Furu, Kari; Locatelli, Marilena; Strøm, Steinar

    2011-02-01

    The importance of prices, doctor and patient characteristics, and market institutions for the likelihood of choosing generic drugs instead of the more expensive original brand-name version are examined. Using an extensive dataset extracted from The Norwegian Prescription Database containing all prescriptions dispensed to individuals in February 2004 and 2006 on 23 different drugs (chemical substances) in Norway, we find strong evidence for the importance of both doctor and patient characteristics for the choice probabilities. The price difference between brand and generic versions and insurance coverage both affect generic substitution. Moreover, controlling for the retail chain affiliation of the dispensing pharmacy, we find that pharmacies play an important role in promoting generic substitution. In markets with more recent entry of generic drugs, brand-name loyalty proves to be much stronger, giving less explanatory power to our demand model. PMID:20213182

  3. Infertility in public health: the case of Norway

    PubMed Central

    Sundby, J.

    2010-01-01

    Infertility is a health issue that demonstrates how unequal access to health care is at a global level. In the poorer segments of the world, and in poor parts of wealthy societies, access is often minimal or non-existent. Public and lay attitudes to modern infertility treatment have been heavily debated alongside development of methods. I have looked at the changes in the public discourse in modern media, legislation, politics, and among professionals. The paper seeks to present and discuss some of these changes as they have evolved in one of the countries that have had one of the more strict laws regulating access to treatment, namely Norway. It is a country that nevertheless offers treatment in the public health system. The paper also tries to connect this discussion to the difficulties faced in every attempt to expand infertility services to the developing world. PMID:25013709

  4. ["Now I am humble. Indeed." From Germany to Norway in 1934].

    PubMed

    Hem, E; Børdahl, P E

    2000-12-10

    A huge refugee problem arose when the Nazis came to power in Germany in 1933. The most acute stages were just after 1933 and from the summer of 1938. This refugee drama involved all the western countries, including Norway. This paper describes the fate of the German gynaecologist Hans Saenger (1884-1943), professor in Munich, who in 1933 was dispelled by the Nazis because of his Jewish descent. He fled to Norway in 1934 and settled in Fredrikstad. However, the attitude in Norway to refugees in general and Jews in particular was hostile, mainly because of fear of unemployment. Prejudice and xenophobia were of importance, also in the medical profession. PMID:11215938

  5. Crustal structure beneath southern Norway imaged by magnetotellurics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherevatova, M.; Smirnov, M.; Korja, T.; Kaikkonen, P.; Pedersen, L. B.; Hübert, J.; Kamm, J.; Kalscheuer, T.

    2014-07-01

    We use data from two magnetotelluric profiles, ToSca10 and ToSca'09, over the Scandinavian Mountains to study the crustal structure in southern Norway. The profiles cross the major tectonic structures of the Caledonian orogen as well as the western margin of the Precambrian Baltica. Dimensionality and strike analyses indicate generally 3-D behavior of the data. However, the majority of the used data distinguishes a preferable strike direction, which is supported by the geology of the region. Hence, we employ 2-D inversion and choose to invert the determinant of the impedance tensor to mitigate 3-D effects in the data on our 2-D models. Magnetotelluric data from both profiles are inverted using a damped least squares solution based on a singular value decomposition. We improved the solution by defining the inverse model covariance matrix through gradient or Laplacian smoothing operators. The two-dimensional inversion models of the ToSca'09 and ToSca'10 field data from southern Norway derived from the damped least squares scheme with the Laplacian inverse model covariance matrix are presented. Resistive rocks, extending to the surface, image the autochthonous Southwest Scandinavian Domain and the allochthonous Western Gneiss Region. Near-surface conductors, which are located between the resistive Caledonian nappes and Precambrian basement, delineate highly conductive shallow-sea sediments, so called alum shales. They exhibit a decollement along which the Caledonian nappes were overthrust. A deeper, upper to mid-crustal conducting layer in the Southwest Scandinavian Domain may depict the remnants of closed ocean basins formed during the accretions and collisions of various Sveconorwegian terranes. In ToSca'10, the Caledonian nappes, the conducting alum shales and the deeper conductor are terminated in the west by the Faltungsgraben shear complex which represents a crustal scale boundary between the Western Gneiss Region in the west and the Southwest Scandinavian

  6. Holocene cirque glacier activity in Rondane, southern Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvisvik, Bjørn Christian; Paasche, Øyvind; Dahl, Svein Olaf

    2015-10-01

    Skriufonnen is a small cirque glacier (0.03 km2) in the continental mountains of Rondane in southern Norway. At present, it is the only glacier in Rondane, and very little is known about Holocene glacier fluctuations in this region. Direct observations of the glacier began in 2002, since which time Skriufonnen has been in a state of strong decline. In order to provide a temporal context, past glacier fluctuations were reconstructed based on a series of short HTH gravity cores (n = 8) and long piston cores (n = 6) retrieved from three downstream lakes of Skriufonnen. The cores were analysed for selected magnetic properties (χbulk, ARM, SIRM, 77 K/293 K), organic content (LOI), and geochemical trace elements. Soil catchment samples (n = 6) were collected along a transect running from the three lakes up to the present glacier terminus. Bulk susceptibility (χbulk) measurements show that the finest fractions systematically return the highest values and that ferromagnetic minerals are depleted with distance to the glacier front. This means that periods dominated by paramagnetic minerals indicate very little or no glacier activity, whereas intervals with more ferromagnetic minerals suggest increased glacier activity. The quantitative core analyses indicate that Skriufonnen existed prior to 10,200 b2k (years before A.D. 2000) and disappeared ~ 10,000 b2k. No glacier activity is recorded from c. 10,000 b2k until the glacier reoccurred at the onset of the local Neoglacial period, c. 4000 b2k. The glacier attained its maximum extent between 3200 and 2400 b2k and during the end of the 'Little Ice Age' (LIA) c. A.D. 1800. Neoglacial fluctuations of Skriufonnen are in line with shifts in local summer temperatures and show a delayed Neoglacial inception compared to western Norway.

  7. Incidence of knee cartilage surgery in Norway, 2008–2011

    PubMed Central

    Engen, Cathrine Nørstad; Årøen, Asbjørn; Engebretsen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Objective A systematic and long-term data collection on the treatment of focal cartilage defects (FCDs) of the knee is needed. This can be achieved through the foundation of a National Knee Cartilage Defect Registry. The aim of this study was to establish the nationwide burden of knee cartilage surgery, defined as knee surgery in patients with an FCD. We also aimed to identify any geographical differences in incidence rates, patient demographics or trends within this type of surgery. Setting A population-based study with retrospective identification of patients undergoing knee cartilage surgery in Norway through a mandatory public health database from 2008 to 2011. Participants We identified all patients undergoing cartilage surgery, or other knee surgery in patients with an FCD. All eligible surgeries were assessed for inclusion on the basis of certain types of ICD-10 and NOMESKO Classification of Surgical Procedures codes. Primary and secondary outcome measures The variables were diagnostic and surgical codes, geographic location of the performing hospital, age and sex of the patients. Yearly incidence and incidence rates were calculated. Age-adjusted incidences for risk ratios and ORs between geographical areas were also calculated. Results A total of 10 830 cases of knee cartilage surgery were identified, with slight but significant decreases from 2008 to 2011 (p<0.0003). The national incidence rate was 56/100 000 inhabitants and varied between regions, counties and hospitals. More than 50% of the procedures were palliative and nearly 400 yearly procedures were reparative or restorative. Conclusions Knee cartilage surgery is common in Norway, counting 2500 annual cases with an age-adjusted incidence rate of 68.8/100 000 inhabitants. There are significant geographical variations in incidence and trends of surgery and in trends between public and private hospitals. We suggest that a national surveillance system would be beneficial for the future evaluation

  8. [Waterborne outbreaks in Norway 2003 - 2012].

    PubMed

    Guzman-Herrador, Bernardo; Blasio, Birgitte Freiesleben de; Lund, Vidar; MacDonald, Emily; Vold, Line; Wahl, Erik; Nygård, Karin

    2016-04-01

    BACKGROUND We describe the status of waterborne outbreaks notified in Norway and discuss this in the context of outbreaks recorded in previous years, to gain a better understanding of their development in Norway in recent years.MATERIAL AND METHOD We have collected information on all outbreaks notified to the Norwegian Institute of Public Health via the surveillance system for communicable diseases in the ten-year period from 2003 - 2012 for which drinking water was given as the suspected cause.RESULTS Altogether 28 waterborne outbreaks with a total of 8 060 persons reported as ill were notified in the period. The majority of outbreaks resulted in fewer than 100 cases of illness. There were two outbreaks with more than 1 000 cases of illness: an oubreak of campylobacteriosis in Røros and an oubreak of giardiasis in Bergen. In more than half of the outbreaks, water was supplied from public water distribution systems (16/28 outbreaks, 57 %). In addition, a large proportion was linked to individual households with their own water supply (12/28 outbreaks, 43 %).INTERPRETATION Most of the outbreaks in the ten-year period were linked to public water distribution systems, while almost half were linked to non-disinfected water supplies to individual households. Although most of the outbreaks were small, two extensive outbreaks were also registered in the period, resulting in more than one thousand cases of illness. This underscores the need for good contingency planning and surveillance, so that suspicion of waterborne outbreaks is rapidly notified to the responsible authorities, and the importance of good protection of water sources, as well as proper maintenance of water treatment plants and distribution systems. PMID:27094662

  9. Evidence of ice movement over southwest Norway indicating an ice dome over the coastal district of west Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anundsen, Karl

    Records of several directions of ice movements occur in southwestern Norway. The oldest movement (Phase A) was towards NW and may be of Early Weichselian age or older. The Phase B ice moved towards S-SE, Phase C again towards NW, Phase D towards SW, Phase E was a local movement towards S, and Phase F is the Younger Dryas glacial movement. The Phase B ice flow markers most likely reflect a regional glacial phase. The emphasis is placed on a discussion of the age and palaeoglaciological implications of Phase B. One possible correlation is that Phase B corresponds to the 'Jæren Stadial' till, underlying the 40,000-30,000 BP 'Sandnes Interstadial Clay', at Jæren. Phase B ice flow markers further match the fabric of a till of supposed Early to Middle Weichselian age, southwesternmost coast of Norway. This till is deposited from NNW. Phase B suggests an ice sheet either based on the continental shelf in the North Sea, or it suggests an ice dome over the coastal district of west Norway. In the former case, evidence of a North Sea based ice should be expected around and in the North Sea. In the latter case, which is considered being the most likely one, it may explain the problematic occurrence of the 'Sandnes Interstadial Clay' up to very high altitudes at Jæren. The only possible land-evidence of a North Sea centered ice-mass older than Late Weichselian maximum is found at Caithness, Scotland, which suggests a pre-40,000 ice sheet in the North Sea Basin (Sutherland, 1984; Sejrup et al., 1987). However, the lithology of the North Sea sediments does not seem to show any till-like deposit between Late Weichselian maximum and 130-200 ka (Sejrup et al., 1987). The consolidating-value of pre-Late Weichselian North Sea sediments does not exceed 4000 kN/m 2, while a P' C-value of about 15,000 kN/m 2 should be expected if the ice thickness was about 1500 m. However, sediments will not be compressed unless: (1) they are unfrozen, and (2) the pore water can escape. Coastal ice

  10. Effects of chronic overload on muscle hypertrophy and mTOR signaling in adult and aged rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined the effect of 28 days of overload on mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling in young adult (Y; 6 mo old) and aged (O; 30 mo old) Fischer 344 x Brown Norway rats subjected to bilateral synergist ablation (SA) of two-thirds of the gas...

  11. Hydrothermal Origin for Carbonate Globules in ALH84001 by Analogy with Similar Carbonates from Spitsbergen (Norway)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treiman, A. H.; Amundsen, H. E. F.; Blake, D. F.; Bunch, T.

    2002-01-01

    Basalts and xenoliths from Spitsbergen (Norway) contain carbonate globules nearly identical to those in ALH84001. The Spitsbergen globules formed from hydrothermal waters by analogy, so did those in ALH84001. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  12. Environmental Impact Assessment in Norway--Understanding Implementation as a Function of Professional Culture?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emmelin, Lars

    2001-01-01

    Describes the environmental impact assessment (EIA) in Norway using a survey of the paradigm of environmental management carried out in the central and regional Norwegian environmental administrations. (Contains 22 references.) (Author/YDS)

  13. Consequence assessment of large rock slope failures in Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppikofer, Thierry; Hermanns, Reginald L.; Horton, Pascal; Sandøy, Gro; Roberts, Nicholas J.; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Böhme, Martina; Yugsi Molina, Freddy X.

    2014-05-01

    Steep glacially carved valleys and fjords in Norway are prone to many landslide types, including large rockslides, rockfalls, and debris flows. Large rockslides and their secondary effects (rockslide-triggered displacement waves, inundation behind landslide dams and outburst floods from failure of landslide dams) pose a significant hazard to the population living in the valleys and along the fjords shoreline. The Geological Survey of Norway performs systematic mapping of unstable rock slopes in Norway and has detected more than 230 unstable slopes with significant postglacial deformation. This large number necessitates prioritisation of follow-up activities, such as more detailed investigations, periodic displacement measurements, continuous monitoring and early-warning systems. Prioritisation is achieved through a hazard and risk classification system, which has been developed by a panel of international and Norwegian experts (www.ngu.no/en-gb/hm/Publications/Reports/2012/2012-029). The risk classification system combines a qualitative hazard assessment with a consequences assessment focusing on potential life losses. The hazard assessment is based on a series of nine geomorphological, engineering geological and structural criteria, as well as displacement rates, past events and other signs of activity. We present a method for consequence assessment comprising four main steps: 1. computation of the volume of the unstable rock slope; 2. run-out assessment based on the volume-dependent angle of reach (Fahrböschung) or detailed numerical run-out modelling; 3. assessment of possible displacement wave propagation and run-up based on empirical relations or modelling in 2D or 3D; and 4. estimation of the number of persons exposed to rock avalanches or displacement waves. Volume computation of an unstable rock slope is based on the sloping local base level technique, which uses a digital elevation model to create a second-order curved surface between the mapped extent of

  14. Norway at ICPD+10: international assistance for reproductive health does not reflect domestic policies.

    PubMed

    Austveg, Berit; Sundby, Johanne

    2005-05-01

    Norway has a long history of good reproductive health care, with some of the world's best reproductive health indicators. Early reduction of maternal mortality, good services for abortion, contraception and sexually transmitted diseases, a low rate of adolescent pregnancies and a low number people with HIV are examples, achieved through an integrated, publicly provided and funded health care package. Official Norwegian development assistance started in 1952. Emphasis on family planning assistance dates back to 1966, making Norway one of the most consistent donors to family planning and reproductive health programmes. Norway also had a high profile at the International Conference on Population and Development and strongly supported the Programme of Action. Since then, while multilateral support in these areas has stayed high, bilateral support has been downscaled. Overall, international assistance does not reflect the domestic approach to reproductive health services. Norway has given little development support to improvement of maternity services, avoided the issues of abortion and post-coital contraception, and passed up opportunities to support adolescent services. Prevention and treatment of infertility has hardly been an issue. Revitalisation of the reproductive rights discourse in Norway could provide a basis for the protection of reproductive health care domestically, and for policy discussions and decisions in relation to Norway's development assistance. PMID:16035594

  15. Norway's historical and projected water balance in TWh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haddeland, Ingjerd; Holmqvist, Erik

    2015-04-01

    Hydroelectric power production is closely linked to the water cycle, and variations in power production numbers reflect variations in weather. The expected climate changes will influence electricity supply through changes in annual and seasonal inflow of water to hydropower reservoirs. In Norway, more than 95 percent of the electricity production is from hydroelectric plants, and industry linked to hydropower has been an important part of the society for more than a century. Reliable information on historical and future available water resources is hence of crucial importance both for short and long-term planning and adaptation purposes in the hydropower sector. Traditionally, the Multi-area Power-market Simulator (EMPS) is used for modelling hydropower production in Norway. However, due to the models' high level of details and computational demand, this model is only used for historical analyses and a limited number of climate projections. A method has been developed that transfers water fluxes (mm day-1) and states (mm) into energy units (GWh mm-1), based on hydrological modelling of a limited number of catchments representing reservoir inflow to more than 700 hydropower plants in Norway. The advantages of using the conversion factor method, compared to EMPS, are its simplicity and low computational requirements. The main disadvantages are that it does not take into account flood losses and the time lag between inflow and power production. The method is used operationally for weekly and seasonal energy forecasts, and has proven successful at the range of results obtained for reproducing historical hydropower production numbers. In hydropower energy units, mean annual precipitation for the period 1981-2010 is estimated at 154 TWh year-1. On average, 24 TWh year-1 is lost through evapotranspiration, meaning runoff equals 130 TWh year-1. There are large interannual variations, and runoff available for power production ranges from 91 to 165 TWh year-1. The snow pack

  16. Seasonal variation of BVOC emissions from Norway spruce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Min; Schurgers, Guy; Ekberg, Anna; Arneth, Almut; Holst, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) are known as a source of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) due to their high reactivity in the atmosphere [1, 2]. Dominant boreal forest species (pine, spruce and birch) have been considered to be high monoterpene (MT) emitters [3, 4], and BVOC emissions and compound composition vary considerably under different temperature and light conditions through growing season [5, 6]. We characterize the canopy BVOC emissions variation from a Norway spruce dominated boreal forest in Central Sweden (Norunda, 60°05'N, 17°29'E). Air samples were taken during growing season (June to September 2013) from transparent dynamic branch chambers set up on Norway spruce at 20m agl. using a scaffolding tower. Air samples were collected every hour from the chamber with Tenax-TA adsorbent tubes and a pocket pump, and analyzed later by gas chromatography and a mass selective detector (GC-MS) to quantify trapped terpenoid compounds. Total terpenoids emission rates in August were found to be highest even though the highest average air temperature was observed in July. Isoprene could not be detected in any sample in June and in most samples from September, but during peak season. Emissions of Isoprene, MT and sesquiterpenes (SQT) showed a clear diurnal pattern in July and August with highest emissions at noon time, however, the composition of terpenoids was slightly changing among different months. The most complex chemical composition with 13 different MT species occurred in late July, while 9 SQT species occurred in the middle of August. However, the fraction of dominant MT species (Limonene, α-Pinene, β-Pinene and Camphene) of the total terpenoids emission was almost constant throughout the whole season from June to September except for β-Pinene which showed a higher fraction in August. References [1]M.Ehn et al., 2014, Nature, 506(7489), 476-479. [2]M.Kulmala et al., 2004, Atmos. Environ., 4, 557-562. [3]J.Rinne et al., 2005, Boreal Environ

  17. Debris flow early warning systems in Norway: organization and tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleivane, I.; Colleuille, H.; Haugen, L. E.; Alve Glad, P.; Devoli, G.

    2012-04-01

    In Norway, shallow slides and debris flows occur as a combination of high-intensity precipitation, snowmelt, high groundwater level and saturated soil. Many events have occurred in the last decades and are often associated with (or related to) floods events, especially in the Southern of Norway, causing significant damages to roads, railway lines, buildings, and other infrastructures (i.e November 2000; August 2003; September 2005; November 2005; Mai 2008; June and Desember 2011). Since 1989 the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE) has had an operational 24 hour flood forecasting system for the entire country. From 2009 NVE is also responsible to assist regions and municipalities in the prevention of disasters posed by landslides and snow avalanches. Besides assisting the municipalities through implementation of digital landslides inventories, susceptibility and hazard mapping, areal planning, preparation of guidelines, realization of mitigation measures and helping during emergencies, NVE is developing a regional scale debris flow warning system that use hydrological models that are already available in the flood warning systems. It is well known that the application of rainfall thresholds is not sufficient to evaluate the hazard for debris flows and shallow slides, and soil moisture conditions play a crucial role in the triggering conditions. The information on simulated soil and groundwater conditions and water supply (rain and snowmelt) based on weather forecast, have proved to be useful variables that indicate the potential occurrence of debris flows and shallow slides. Forecasts of runoff and freezing-thawing are also valuable information. The early warning system is using real-time measurements (Discharge; Groundwater level; Soil water content and soil temperature; Snow water equivalent; Meteorological data) and model simulations (a spatially distributed version of the HBV-model and an adapted version of 1-D soil water and energy balance

  18. The strain of an accompanying conspecific affects the efficacy of social buffering in male rats.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kayo; Ishii, Akiko; Kiyokawa, Yasushi; Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji

    2016-06-01

    Social buffering is a phenomenon in which stress in an animal is ameliorated when the subject is accompanied by a conspecific animal(s) during exposure to distressing stimuli. We previously reported that in male Wistar rats, the presence of another Wistar rat mitigates conditioned fear responses to an auditory conditioned stimulus (CS). Subsequent analyses revealed several characteristics of this social buffering of conditioned fear responses. However, information regarding the specificity of accompanying conspecifics is still limited. In the present study, we assessed whether rats of other strains could induce social buffering in Wistar rats. When a fear-conditioned Wistar subject was re-exposed to the CS alone, we observed increased freezing and decreased investigation and walking, as well as elevated corticosterone levels. The presence of a Wistar, Sprague-Dawley, or Long-Evans rat blocked these responses, suggesting that social buffering was induced by these strains of rats. In contrast, a Fischer 344 rat did not induce social buffering in the Wistar subject. We further found that an inbred Lewis rat induced social buffering whereas a Brown Norway rat, a strain that has been established independently from Wistar rats, did not. These results suggest that the difference in origin, rather than the inbred or outbred status of the associate rat, seemed to account for the lack of social buffering induced by the F344 rats. Based on these findings, we conclude that strains of an accompanying conspecific can affect the efficacy of social buffering in rats. PMID:27191856

  19. Serum biomarkers in young adult and aged Brown Norway (BN) rats following episodic (weekly) ozone exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ozone (03) is an air pollutant that is associated with cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Older adults are considered to be particularly susceptible to oxidant air pollutants such as 03. Serum biomarkers are being sought that would lead to better predictions of susceptibili...

  20. CARBARYL EFFECTS ON OXIDATIVE STRESS IN BRAIN REGIONS OF ADOLESCENT AND SENESCENT BROWN NORWAY RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oxidative stress (OS) plays an important role in susceptibility and disease in old age. Understanding age-related susceptibility is crucial in assessing the human health risks of chemicals. Growing evidence implicates as in carbamate toxicity in addition to cholinesterase-inhibit...

  1. EFFECTS OF TOLUENE ON BRAIN OXIDATIVE STRESS PARAMETERS IN AGING BROWN NORWAY RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aging-related susceptibility to environmental chemicals is poorly understood. Oxidative stress (OS) appears to play an important role in susceptibility and disease in old age. The objectives of this study, therefore, were to test whether OS is a potential toxicity pathway for tol...

  2. Mitochondrial bioenergetics in young, adult, middle-age and senescent brown Norway rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mitochondria are central regulators of energy homeostasis and may play a pivotal role in mechanisms of cellular senescence and age-related neurodegenerative and metabolic disorders. However, mitochondrial bioenergetic parameters have not been systematically evaluated under identi...

  3. Carbaryl neurotoxicity across the life-span of the Brown-Norway rat

    EPA Science Inventory

    Demographics show that the proportion of older adults is increasing every year. While there has been considerable attention paid to potential sensitivity of the young to environmental chemicals, there is much less known about the relative vulnerability of the aged. Differences in...

  4. Age-and Brain Region-Specific Differences in Mitochondrial Bioenergetics in Brown Norway Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mitochondria are central regulators of energy homeostasis and play a pivotal role in mechanisms of cellular senescence. The objective of the present study was to evaluate mitochondrial bio­-energetic parameters in five brain regions [brainstem (BS), frontal cortex (FC), cereb...

  5. Age-related behavioral effects of methomyI in Brown Norway rats.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methomyl is a cholinesterase-inhibiting carbamate pesticide that is used in the field on cotton and a variety of fruits and vegetables. Concerns have been raised generally about age-related differences in susceptibility to cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides, especially for chil...

  6. NEUROTOXICITY OF CARBARYL IN THE AGING BROWN NORWAY RAT: EFFECTS ON CORE TEMPERATURE AND MOTOR ACTIVITY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA is pursuing a variety of research efforts to assess the susceptibility of the aged to neurotoxicants. The BN strain is a popular animal model for aging studies but there is a need for improved methods of monitoring their physiological responses to neurotoxicants over t...

  7. Field trials of second-generation anticoagulants against difenacoum-resistant Norway rat populations.

    PubMed Central

    Greaves, J. H.; Shepherd, D. S.; Quy, R.

    1982-01-01

    Trials of rodenticidal baits containing 50 p.p.m. difenacoum, 50 p.p.m. bromadiolone or 20 p.p.m. brodifacoum were carried out on farmsteads against populations of Rattus norvegicus containing difenacoum-resistant individuals. Six difenacoum treatments failed in 14--42 days of baiting. Two treatments with bromadiolone succeeded in 23 and 33 days, but four further treatments lasting 35--56 days failed to eradicate the populations. Brodifacoum gave virtually complete control of six populations in 21--73 days and of the ten residual populations left behind by the other two compounds, after baiting for a further 11--85 days. The performance of both bromadiolone and brodifacoum was well below that reported by previous investigators, indicating the possibility of low-grade resistance to these compounds in the difenacoum-resistant strain. PMID:7130704

  8. Field trials of second-generation anticoagulants against difenacoum-resistant Norway rat populations.

    PubMed

    Greaves, J H; Shepherd, D S; Quy, R

    1982-10-01

    Trials of rodenticidal baits containing 50 p.p.m. difenacoum, 50 p.p.m. bromadiolone or 20 p.p.m. brodifacoum were carried out on farmsteads against populations of Rattus norvegicus containing difenacoum-resistant individuals. Six difenacoum treatments failed in 14--42 days of baiting. Two treatments with bromadiolone succeeded in 23 and 33 days, but four further treatments lasting 35--56 days failed to eradicate the populations. Brodifacoum gave virtually complete control of six populations in 21--73 days and of the ten residual populations left behind by the other two compounds, after baiting for a further 11--85 days. The performance of both bromadiolone and brodifacoum was well below that reported by previous investigators, indicating the possibility of low-grade resistance to these compounds in the difenacoum-resistant strain. PMID:7130704

  9. AGE-RELATED TOXICITY PATHWAY ANALYSIS IN BROWN NORWAY RAT BRAIN FOLLOWING ACUTE TOLUENE EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The influence of aging on susceptibility to environmental exposures is poorly understood. To investigate-the contribution of different life stages on response to toxicants, we examined the effects of an acute exposure to the volatile organic compound, toluene (0.0 or 1.0 g/kg), i...

  10. ANALYSIS OF TOLUENE AT DIFFERENT LIFE STAGES IN BROWN NORWAY RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Differential susceptibility to environmental exposures in subsets of the population is a major regulatory concern of the Environmental Protection Agency. Of special interest is the elderly, the fastest growing segment of the population who may be considered a special at risk gro...

  11. AGE-RELATED EFFECTS OF TOLUENE ON THE MOTOR ACTIVITY OF BROWN NORWAY RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Senescence raises many uncertainties regarding susceptibility to environmental exposures. Compromises in reserve and repair mechanisms, and alterations in metabolic capacity, may make the aging population more susceptible to environmental contaminants. Additionally, increased var...

  12. EFFECT OF AGING ON THE CARDIOVASCULAR AND THERMOREGULATORY RESPONSE TO TOLUENE IN THE BROWN NORWAY RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since the proportion of aged in the U.S. will expand markedly for the next several decades, the U.S.EPA is assessing if the aged are more susceptible to environmental toxicants. The neurotoxicity of toluene (TOL) has been well characterized in young adults but has not been studie...

  13. TOXICOGENOMIC ANALYSIS OF TOLUENE EXPOSURE AT 3 AGES IN BROWN NORWAY RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    A major concern in assessing toxicity to environmental exposures is differential

    susceptibility in subsets of the population. Aging adults, who comprise the fastest

    growing segment of the population, may possess a greater sensitivity due to changes in

    metabol...

  14. Occlusal Caries Management: Preferences among Dentists in Norway.

    PubMed

    Kopperud, Simen E; Tveit, Anne B; Opdam, Niek J M; Espelid, Ivar

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to measure variations in the threshold for operative treatment of occlusal caries in permanent teeth and the use of dental materials, compared with results from a similar study conducted in Norway in 1995. In 2009, a precoded questionnaire was sent electronically to 3,654 dentists with E-mail addresses in the member register of the Norwegian Dental Association. The questions were related to caries, treatment strategies and choice of dental materials. Replies were obtained from 61.3% respondents after two reminders. Restorative treatment of occlusal lesions confined to enamel was proposed by 12% of the dentists, compared with 18% in 1995 (p < 0.01). Older dentists more often than younger dentists would operatively treat enamel lesions (p < 0.01). Most dentists preferred to drill only the carious part of the fissure rather than the whole fissure both in 2009 (78.8%) and 1995 (68.3%; p < 0.01). In 2009, 91.9% preferred composite as the restorative material of choice, compared to only 39.1% in 1995. Logistic regression analyses identified higher age of the dentist as the only variable significantly associated with higher risk of restoring occlusal enamel lesions operatively. The authors conclude that especially young dentists appear to be more reluctant to remove tooth substance in 2009 compared with 1995. Composite is the dominating material of choice in 2009 and seems to have substituted the use of most other filling materials in occlusal restorations in permanent teeth. PMID:26839953

  15. Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in moose (Alces alces) in Norway.

    PubMed

    Pūraitė, Irma; Rosef, Olav; Paulauskas, Algimantas; Radzijevskaja, Jana

    2015-01-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a tick-borne bacterium that infects a wide range of animal species. The aim of our study was to investigate the prevalence of A. phagocytophilum in Norwegian moose Alces alces and to characterize the bacteria by sequencing of partial msp4 and 16S rRNA genes. Hunters collected spleen samples from 99 moose of different ages during 2013 and 2014 in two areas: Aust-Agder County (n = 70) where Ixodes ricinus ticks are abundant and Oppland County (n = 29) where ticks were either absent, or abundance very low. A. phagocytophilum was detected only in moose from the I. ricinus - abundant area. The overall prevalence of infection according to 16S rRNA and msp4 gene-based PCR was 41.4% and 31.4% respectively. Sequence analysis of the partial 16S rRNA and msp4 gene revealed two and eight different sequence types respectively. Four of eight msp4 sequence types determined in this study were unique, while others were identical to sequences derived from other ruminants and ticks. The present study indicates that moose could be a potential wildlife reservoir of A. phagocytophilum in Norway. PMID:26428857

  16. Reproduction of the shorthorn sculpin Myoxocephalus scorpius in northern Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luksenburg, J. A.; Pedersen, T.; Falk-Petersen, I. B.

    2004-03-01

    The reproduction and life history events of the shorthorn sculpin Myoxocephalus scorpius were studied in an unexploited high latitude population in Tromsø, northern Norway. Shorthorn sculpins were sampled from November 1998 to March 1999 to determine sex ratio, spawning period, oogenesis, fecundity, embryogenesis and hatching. Spawning occurred between January and March. The catches of males were maximal in January and February, while catches of predominantly immature females increased towards the end of the spawning period. This may be related to different migration patterns in males and females. It is possible that after spawning, females migrate to other areas, whereas males stay behind and guard the eggs. The spawned eggs were smaller than reported from other study areas. Larvae hatched after 7 weeks at an average egg incubation temperature of 3.3 °C. Fecundity in females ranged from 1200 to 29 000 eggs, with a length exponent of 3.0. The relatively large size (7.6-8.8 mm in length), advanced performance and developmental status at hatch of shorthorn sculpin larvae suggest that the reproductive strategy of the shorthorn sculpin is an intermediate between strategies that have many small larvae and those that have fewer, larger and more developed larvae.

  17. Fatal diving accidents in western Norway 1983-2007.

    PubMed

    Ramnefjell, M P; Morild, I; Mørk, S J; Lilleng, P K

    2012-11-30

    Despite efforts to reduce their number, fatal diving accidents still occur. The circumstances and post-mortem findings in 40 fatal diving accidents in western Norway from 1983 through 2007 were investigated. Diving experience, medical history and toxicology reports were retrieved. The material consisted of recreational divers, professional saturation divers and professional divers without experience with saturation. In 33 cases the diving equipment was examined as part of the forensic investigation. In 27 cases defects in the diving equipment were found. For six divers such defects were responsible for the fatal accidents. Eighteen divers died on the surface or less than 10 m below surface. Five divers reached below 100 msw, and two of them died at this depth. The fatalities were not season-dependent. However, wave-height and strength of currents were influential factors in some cases. Twelve divers were diving alone. Twenty divers had one buddy, 9 of these divers were alone at the time of death. The cause of death was drowning in 31 out of 40 divers; one of them had a high blood-ethanol concentration, in two other divers ethanol was found in the urine, indicating previous ethanol consumption. Nine divers died from sudden decompression, pulmonary barotraumas, underwater trauma and natural causes. The study shows that most of the fatal diving accidents could be avoided if adequate diving safety procedures had been followed. PMID:22981212

  18. Crustal structure off Norway, 62° to 70° north

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planke, Sverre; Skogseid, Jakob; Eldholm, Olav

    1991-04-01

    Extensive geophysical surveys have been undertaken on the volcanic passive continental margin offshore Norway between 62° and 70°N during the last 25 years. Three main margin segments have been identified, the Lofoten-Vesteralen Margin, the Vøring Margin and the Møre Margin. The main features of the margins are prominent marginal highs, including seaward dipping reflector sequences and an up to 22 km thick volcanic and transitional crust, prominent escarpments (the Vøring Plateau Escarpment and the Faeroe-Shetland Escarpment), and up to 12 km deep post-Jurassic sedimentary basins east of the escarpments. Velocity-depth solutions from about 250 sonobuoys, expanding spread profiles and refraction profiles have been compiled and contoured. Isovelocity horizon contour maps and velocity transects outline a crust which broadly thickens from an oceanic crust with a normal oceanic-type velocity structure to a ca. 35 km thick continental crust with a continental velocity structure, beneath the Norwegian coast. Anomalous features include local crustal thickening below the Møre and Vering marginal highs, and high-velocity bodies in the lower crust in the extension of the Precambrian Lofoten-Vesterålen archipelago. The free-air SEASAT-derived gravity anomalies show a good correlation with the high-velocity bodies, and show prominent NE-trending highs from the Rockall Plateau/Porcupine Plateau region, over the Møre, Vøring and Lofoten-Vesterålen margins, to the southwestern Barents Sea.

  19. Food advertising towards children and young people in Norway.

    PubMed

    Bugge, Annechen Bahr

    2016-03-01

    Despite the fact that no studies have been carried out to map the amount of unhealthy food advertising aimed at Norwegian children and adolescents, it is still widely held belief that this type of advertising is disproportionately common. As a consequence, one of the issues high on the agenda in Norway in the 2000s was the possibility of imposing restrictions on advertising for unhealthy foods to children. The purpose of this study is to contribute with a research-based foundation for implementing this health initiative by mapping food marketing in media channels widely used by children and adolescents. In sum, the study shows that the food industry spends a lot of resources to influence young consumers' eating and drinking habits. Compared with studies from USA, UK and Australia, however, there are, strong indications that there is significantly less unhealthy food advertising in Scandinavian countries. Similar to a previous Swedish study, this study shows that Norwegian children and young people were exposed to little advertising for unhealthy food products through media channels such as TV, the Internet, magazines, comics and cinemas. The study also supports critical remarks from some researchers that the extensive use of the international discourse as a political argument and recommendation for Norwegian conditions is not accurate. For the future it may be beneficial to look more closely at the relationship between advertising and health policy, and how this relationship can be further developed to improve children and young people's diet. PMID:26689892

  20. Validation of GOCE with Terrestrial Gravity Data in Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerlach, Ch.; Pettersen, B. R.

    2010-12-01

    ESA's gravity fi eld mission GOCE is expected to provide homogenous, high-quality information on the global gravity fi eld with a spatial resolution of about 100 km. The necessary external validation of the satellite observations and final data products is possible in densely and accurately surveyed areas. In this study we evaluate the suitability of the terrestrial data available in Norway for validation of GOCE. It can be shown, that the distribution of terrestrial gravity data points is dense enough to allow the computation of a mean fi eld with resolution corresponding to that of GOCE and with about one order of magnitude higher accuracy. From that point of view, the data is well suited for validation purposes. Still, care has to be taken of possible systematic distortions between partial data sets of different origin and date. Therefore, only comparison of GOCE products with selected high-quality terrestrial data sets allows for GOCE validation, while in return, validated GOCE products can be expected to help quantifying and correcting systematic errors in the remaining terrestrial data sets.

  1. A proposed new framework for valorization of geoheritage in Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahl, Rolv; Bergengren, Anna; Heldal, Tom

    2015-04-01

    The geological history of Norway is a complex one, . The exploitation of geological resources of different kinds has always provided the backbone of the Norwegian community. Nevertheless, the perception of geology and the geological processes that created the landscape is little appreciated, compared to bio-diversity and cultural heritage. Some geological localities play an important role in our perception and scientific understanding of the landscape. Other localities are, or could be, important tourist destinations. Other localities can in turn be important for geoscience education on all levels, whereas other plays a major role in the understanding of geodiversity and geoheritage and should be protected as natural monuments. A database based on old registrations has been compiled and a web mapping server is recently launched based on old and new registrations. However, no systematical classification and identification of important sites has been done for the last thirty years. We are now calling for a crowdsourcing process in the geological community in order to validate and valorize the registrations, as well as defining new points and areas of interest. Furthermore, we are developing a valorization system for these localities. The framework for this system is based on studies from inventories in other countries, as well as suggestions from ProGeo. The aim is to raise awareness of important sites, and how they are treated and utilized for scientific, or educational purposes, as tourist destinations or heritage sites. Our presentation will focus on the development of the framework and its implications.

  2. Nursing during World War II: Finnmark County, Northern Norway

    PubMed Central

    Immonen, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    Introduction This study is part the project “Nursing in Borderland – Finnmark 1939–1950” within nursing history that sheds light on nursing and health care during World War II in Finnmark County, Northern Norway. The study focuses on challenges in nursing care that arose during the war because of war activities in the Barents area. This article focuses on challenges caused by shortage of supplies. The aim of the project is to widen the understanding of development within health care and living conditions in the area. Study design This is a historical study using narratives, government documents and literature. Methods Interviews with nurses and persons active in health care during World War II constitute the main data of the research. Thematic issues that arise from interviews are analysed. Primary and secondary written sources are used in analysing the topics. Because of war activities, deportation and burning of the county, archives were partly destroyed. Central archives can contribute with annual reports, whereas local archives are fragmentary. There are a number of reports written soon after the War, as well as a number of biographical books of newer date. Results Challenges caused by war, which appear in the interviews, are: 1) shortage of supplies, 2) increased workload, 3) multicultural society, 4) ethical dilemmas, 5) deportation of the population. In this paper, focus is on challenges caused by shortage of supplies. Conclusions Both institutions, personnel and patients were marked by the war. This has to be taken in consideration in health care today. PMID:23630668

  3. 250 Fireballs Observed in Norway 100 Years Ago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skorve, J.

    2014-07-01

    In 1941 the Norwegian Academy of Sciences, presented a study in the Mathematcal-Natural Sciences section, by the Norwegian astronomer Sigurd Einbu. In this report, the information of each fireball is presented in a table containing eight parameters, including their radiants. The report also contains several illustrations. For about 60 of the most interesting fireballs, Einbu included additional information, as describing them in more details. Like, those fireballs producing infrasonic sounds, and/or having superbolide brightness. Also, the strong smell of sulfur, have been reported by a number of persons in a meteorite drop zone. Also, a unique incident of four bright fireballs that were observed within a period of 12 hours, all with the same radiant. During this period, we also experienced the brightest fireball that ever has been observed in Norway, the Trysil superbolide, of 1927. This paper discusses Einbu's report. With respect to when it was published, is surprisingly well suited to also to be read and studied by interested researchers.

  4. Organophosphorous flame retardants in biota from Svalbard, Norway.

    PubMed

    Hallanger, Ingeborg G; Sagerup, Kjetil; Evenset, Anita; Kovacs, Kit M; Leonards, Pim; Fuglei, Eva; Routti, Heli; Aars, Jon; Strøm, Hallvard; Lydersen, Christian; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing

    2015-12-15

    Eight arctic species, including fish, birds and mammals, from diverse habitats (marine and terrestrial) within the Svalbard Archipelago, Norway, were screened for 14 organophosphorus flame retardant (PFR) compounds. Ten PFRs were detected: tris(2-chloroethyl)phosphate (TCEP), tris(2-chloroisopropyl)phosphate (TCIPP), tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate (TDCIPP), triphenyl phosphate (TPHP); 2-ethylhexyl diphenyl phosphate (EHDPP); tris(2-butoxyethyl)phosphate (TBOEP); tritolyl phosphate (TCrP); triisobutyl phosphate (TIBP); tris(2-ethylhexyl)phosphate (TEHP); and butyl diphenyl phosphate (DPhBP). The greatest number of different PFR compounds, and the highest detection frequency were measured in capelin (Mallotus villotus), and the lowest in Brünnich's guillemot (Uria lomvia). The highest concentrations of ΣPFR, as well as the highest concentration of a single PFR compound, TBOEP, were measured in arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus). The presence of PFR compounds in arctic biota indicates that these compounds can undergo long-range transport and are, to some degree, persistent and bioaccumulated. The potential for biomagnification from fish to higher trophic levels seems to be limited. PMID:26453403

  5. Late Holocene sea-level change in Arctic Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, Robert L.; Gehrels, W. Roland; Charman, Dan J.; Saher, Margot H.; Marshall, William A.

    2015-01-01

    Relative sea-level data from the pre-industrial era are required for validating geophysical models of glacio-isostatic adjustment as well as for testing models used to make sea-level predictions based on future climate change scenarios. We present the first late Holocene (past ˜3300 years) relative sea-level reconstruction for northwestern Norway based on investigations in South Hinnøya in the Vesterålen - Lofoton archipelago. Sea-level changes are reconstructed from analyses of salt-marsh and estuarine sediments and the micro-organisms (foraminifera and testate amoebae) preserved within. The 'indicative meaning' of the microfauna is established from their modern distributions. Records are dated by radiocarbon, 201Pb, 137Cs and chemostratigraphical analyses. Our results show a continuous relative sea-level decline of 0.7-0.9 mm yr-1 for South Hinnøya during the late Holocene. The reconstruction extends the relative sea-level trend recorded by local tide gauge data which is only available for the past ˜25 years. Our reconstruction demonstrates that existing models of shoreline elevations and GIA overpredict sea-level positions during the late Holocene. We suggest that models might be adjusted in order to reconcile modelled and reconstructed sea-level changes and ultimately improve understanding of GIA in Fennoscandia.

  6. MabCent: Arctic marine bioprospecting in Norway.

    PubMed

    Svenson, Johan

    2013-01-01

    The deep waters surrounding the coastline of the northern parts of Norway represent an exciting biotope for marine exploration. Dark and cold Arctic water generates a hostile environment where the ability to adapt is crucial to survival. These waters are nonetheless bountiful and a diverse plethora of marine organisms thrive in these extreme conditions, many with the help of specialised chemical compounds. In comparison to warmer, perhaps more inviting shallower tropical waters, the Arctic region has not been as thoroughly investigated. MabCent is a Norwegian initiative based in Tromsø that aims to change this. Since 2007, scientists within MabCent have focussed their efforts on the study of marine organisms inhabiting the Arctic waters with the long term goal of novel drug discovery and development. The activities of MabCent are diverse and range from sampling the Arctic ice shelf to the chemical synthesis of promising secondary metabolites discovered during the screening process. The current review will present the MabCent pipeline from isolation to identification of new bioactive marine compounds via an extensive screening process. An overview of the main activities will be given with particular focus on isolation strategies, bioactivity screening and structure determination. Pitfalls, hard earned lessons and the results so far are also discussed. PMID:24078803

  7. Maternal Health Coping Strategies of Migrant Women in Norway

    PubMed Central

    Viken, Berit; Lyberg, Anne

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the maternal health coping strategies of migrant women in Norway. The ethnic and cultural background of the Norwegian population have become increasingly diverse. A challenge in practice is to adjust maternal health services to migrant women's specific needs. Previous studies have revealed that migrant women have difficulty achieving safe pregnancies and childbirths. Data were obtained by means of 17 semistructured interviews with women from South America, Europe, the Middle East, Asia, and Africa. Qualitative content analysis was employed. One overall theme is as follows: keeping original traditions while at the same time being willing to integrate into Norwegian society, and four themes emerged as follows: balancing their sense of belongingness; seeking information and support from healthcare professionals; being open to new opportunities and focusing on feeling safe in the new country. The results were interpreted in the light of Bronfenbrenner's ecological model. To provide quality care, healthcare professionals should focus on the development of migrant women's capabilities. Adaptation of maternal health services for culturally diverse migrant women also requires a culturally sensitive approach on the part of healthcare professionals. PMID:25866676

  8. Norway maple displays greater seasonal growth and phenotypic plasticity to light than native sugar maple.

    PubMed

    Paquette, Alain; Fontaine, Bastien; Berninger, Frank; Dubois, Karine; Lechowicz, Martin J; Messier, Christian; Posada, Juan M; Valladares, Fernando; Brisson, Jacques

    2012-11-01

    Norway maple (Acer platanoides L), which is among the most invasive tree species in forests of eastern North America, is associated with reduced regeneration of the related native species, sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh) and other native flora. To identify traits conferring an advantage to Norway maple, we grew both species through an entire growing season under simulated light regimes mimicking a closed forest understorey vs. a canopy disturbance (gap). Dynamic shade-houses providing a succession of high-intensity direct-light events between longer periods of low, diffuse light were used to simulate the light regimes. We assessed seedling height growth three times in the season, as well as stem diameter, maximum photosynthetic capacity, biomass allocation above- and below-ground, seasonal phenology and phenotypic plasticity. Given the north European provenance of Norway maple, we also investigated the possibility that its growth in North America might be increased by delayed fall senescence. We found that Norway maple had significantly greater photosynthetic capacity in both light regimes and grew larger in stem diameter than sugar maple. The differences in below- and above-ground biomass, stem diameter, height and maximum photosynthesis were especially important in the simulated gap where Norway maple continued extension growth during the late fall. In the gap regime sugar maple had a significantly higher root : shoot ratio that could confer an advantage in the deepest shade of closed understorey and under water stress or browsing pressure. Norway maple is especially invasive following canopy disturbance where the opposite (low root : shoot ratio) could confer a competitive advantage. Considering the effects of global change in extending the potential growing season, we anticipate that the invasiveness of Norway maple will increase in the future. PMID:23076822

  9. Differential effects of chronic overload-induced muscle hypertrophy on mTOR and MAPK signaling pathways in adult and aged rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways in adult (Y; 6 mo old; n = 16) and aged (O; 30 mo old; n = 16) male rats (Fischer 344 x Brown Norway) subjected to chronic overload-induced muscle hypertrophy of the plan...

  10. Evaluation of a neighborhood rat-management program--New York City, December 2007-August 2009.

    PubMed

    2012-09-21

    The Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) is a pervasive urban rodent that can carry a variety of pathogens transmissible to humans, bring stress to residents of infested neighborhoods, damage property, and cause financial loss. Several areas of New York City have experienced persistent rat infestation despite a longstanding rat control program that employed property-level inspection and control measures triggered by individual citizen complaints, a common approach in urban areas. Recognizing the need to address conditions conducive to rat infestation at the community level, in 2007 the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene launched a proactive "rat indexing" (active surveillance) program, using rapid inspections of properties in several Bronx neighborhoods with persistent rat infestation. The program included repeated, neighborhood-wide inspections; education and enforcement actions to promote rat control measures by property owners; and community outreach. Signs of rat infestation were noted and recorded electronically by inspectors, and records were analyzed to evaluate program effectiveness. After three rounds of indexing over a 21-month period, the percentage of properties with active rat signs (ARS) had declined 54%, and the percentage with severe rat infestation had declined 58%. The indexing approach to rat control subsequently was expanded to other parts of the city. Indexing can be an effective control strategy in urban neighborhoods with persistent rat infestation. PMID:22992570

  11. Economic consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Norway in 1986 and 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Tveten, U.

    1988-01-01

    In the accident consequence assessment (ACA) area there is extensive cooperation between the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden), performed within the Nordic Safety Program, and partially funded by the Nordic Council of Ministers, via the Nordic Liaison Committee for Atomic Energy. One of the 17 projects in the ACA-related program area is concerned with the economic consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Finland, Norway, and Sweden. This paper is limited to describing conditions in Norway. There are areas in Norway where the Chernobyl fallout is >100 kBq/m{sup 2}, and the total amount of radiocesium deposited over Norway is estimated by the National Institute for Radiation Hygiene to be 6% of the radiocesium released from the reactor. The areas where ground concentrations are highest are mostly in sparsely populated mountain areas. These areas are, however, important in connection with several nutritional pathways, notably, sheep, goats, reindeer, and freshwater fish. The purpose of this paper is to summarize information on mitigating actions and economic consequences of the deposited radioactive materials to Norwegian agriculture in the 1986-87 and 1987-88 slaughtering periods.

  12. Back-analysis of the 1756 Tjellefonna rockslide (western Norway)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandøy, Gro; Oppikofer, Thierry; Nilsen, Bjørn

    2014-05-01

    The 22nd of February 1756 the largest historically recorded rockslide in Norway took place at Tjelle in Lang Fjord (western Norway). Three displacement waves of up to 50 meters were created by the impact of the failed rock mass constituting the Tjellefonna rockslide. A total of 32 people were killed and several houses and boats around the fjord were destroyed. This study presents a back-analysis of the Tjellefonna rockslide by (1) reconstructing the topography before the rockslide, (2) assessing the volumes of the initial rockslide mass, the onshore deposits and offshore deposits, (3) assessing the major discontinuities involved in the rockslide, and (4) by 2D numerical slope stability modelling for a detailed study of the parameters and trigger factors that affected the slope stability. The topography before the rockslide is reconstructed using (1) the Sloping Local Base Level technique and (2) a manual ART reconstruction in the PolyWorks software. Both topographic reconstructions yield an initial rockslide volume between 9.2 and 10.4 million m3, which is lower than previous estimates (12-15 million m3). The onshore deposits are estimated to 7.6 million m3 and only 3.9 million m3 deposited in the fjord. Finally, the volume impacting the fjord (3.9 million m3) is important for the generation of rockslide-triggered displacement waves, which highlights the necessity of precise volume estimations prior to back-analyses of landslide-triggered displacement waves. The granitic to granodioritic gneissic rock mass at Tjellefonna have high to very high mechanical strength. However, field mapping reveals that the intact rock strength is compromised by a combination of a variably developed foliation, extensive faulting and four persistent joint sets. The foliation is often folded into open folds with sub-horizontal axial planes. The foliation, faults and two joint sets are sub-parallel to Langfjorden and to regional structural lineaments. The back walls of the Tjellefonna

  13. Ethical questions in landslide management and risk reduction in Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taurisano, A.; Lyche, E.; Thakur, V.; Wiig, T.; Øvrelid, K.; Devoli, G.

    2012-04-01

    The loss of lives caused by landslides in Norway is smaller than in other countries due to the low population density in exposed areas. However, annual economic losses from damage to properties and infrastructures are vast. Yet nationally coordinated efforts to manage and reduce landslide and snow avalanche risk are a recent challenge, having started only in the last decade. Since 2009, this has been a task of the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE) under the Ministry of Petroleum and Energy. Ongoing work includes collection of landslide data, production of susceptibility and hazard maps, planning of mitigation measures along with monitoring and early warning systems, assistance to areal planning, providing expertise in emergencies and disseminating information to the public. These activities are realized in collaboration with the Norwegian Geological Survey (NGU), the Meteorological Institute, the Road and Railway authorities, universities and private consultant companies. As the total need for risk mitigating initiatives is by far larger than the annual budget, priority assessment is crucial. This brings about a number of ethical questions. 1. Susceptibility maps have been produced for the whole country and provide a first indication of areas with potential landslide or snow avalanche hazard, i.e. areas where special attention and expert assessments are needed before development. Areas where no potential hazard is shown can in practice be developed without further studies, which call for relatively conservative susceptibility maps. However, conservative maps are problematic as they too often increase both cost and duration of building projects beyond the reasonable. 2. Areas where hazard maps or risk mitigation initiatives will be funded are chosen by means of cost-benefits analyses which are often uncertain. How to estimate the benefits if the real probability for damage can only be judged on a very subjective level but not really calculated

  14. Season and preterm birth in Norway: A cautionary tale

    PubMed Central

    Weinberg, Clarice R; Shi, Min; DeRoo, Lisa A; Basso, Olga; Skjærven, Rolv

    2015-01-01

    Background: Preterm birth is a common, costly and dangerous pregnancy complication. Seasonality of risk would suggest modifiable causes. Methods: We examine seasonal effects on preterm birth, using data from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway (2 321 652 births), and show that results based on births are misleading and a fetuses-at-risk approach is essential. In our harmonic-regression Cox proportional hazards model we consider fetal risk of birth between 22 and 37 completed weeks of gestation. We examine effects of both day of year of conception (for early effects) and day of ongoing gestation (for seasonal effects on labour onset) as modifiers of gestational-age-based risk. Results: Naïve analysis of preterm rates across days of birth shows compelling evidence for seasonality (P < 10−152). However, the reconstructed numbers of conceptions also vary with season (P < 10−307), confounding results by inducing seasonal variation in the age distribution of the fetal population at risk. When we instead properly treat fetuses as the individuals at risk, restrict analysis to pregnancies with relatively accurate ultrasound-based assessment of gestational age (available since 1998) and adjust for socio-demographic factors and maternal smoking, we find modest effects of both time of year of conception and time of year at risk, with peaks for early preterm near early January and early July. Conclusions: Analyses of seasonal effects on preterm birth are demonstrably vulnerable to confounding by seasonality of conception, measurement error in conception dating, and socio-demographic factors. The seasonal variation based on fetuses reveals two peaks for early preterm, coinciding with New Year’s Day and the early July beginning of Norway’s summer break, and may simply reflect a holiday-related pattern of unintended conception. PMID:26045507

  15. Comparative oxygen barometry in granulites, Bamble sector, SE Norway

    SciTech Connect

    Harlov, D.E. )

    1992-07-01

    Oxygen fugacities have been estimated for the high-grade portion of the Bamble granulite facies terrane, SE Norway, using both titaniferous magnetite-ilmenite and orthopyroxene-titaniferous magnetite-quartz oxygen barometers. The two oxygen barometers show good agreement, for samples indicating high titaniferous magnetite-ilmenite temperatures whereas agreement is poor for low-temperature samples. Oxygen fugacities estimated from titaniferous magnetite-ilmenite are considerably lower than those estimated from orthopyroxene-titaniferous magnetite-quartz. This discrepancy increases with a decrease in temperature, which appears to reflect preferential resetting of the hematite content in the ilmenite grains, without much alteration of the more numerous titaniferous magnetite or orthopyroxene grains. The mean temperature for non-reset samples, 795 {plus minus} 60C (1{sigma}), agrees well with temperatures obtained from garnet-orthopyroxene K{sub D} exchange thermometry in the same region, 785 {plus minus} 60C (1{sigma}). The non-reset oxygen fugacities also agree well with an independent study of the Bamble granulites by Cameron. The QUIlP equilibrium (Quartz-Ulvospinel-Ilmenite-Pyroxene) is used to project self-consistent equilibrium temperatures and oxygen fugacities for samples reset due to hematite loss from the ilmenite grains. These projected temperatures and oxygen fugacities agree reasonably well with non-reset samples. The mean projected temperature is 830 {plus minus} 40C (1{sigma}). This agreement strongly supports the conclusion that low titaniferous magnetite-ilmenite temperatures (down to 485C) and accompanying low-oxygen fugacities are the result of hematite loss from the ilmenite grains at some time after granulite-facies metamorphism.

  16. Consequence assessment of large rock slope failures in Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppikofer, Thierry; Hermanns, Reginald L.; Horton, Pascal; Sandøy, Gro; Roberts, Nicholas J.; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Böhme, Martina; Yugsi Molina, Freddy X.

    2014-05-01

    Steep glacially carved valleys and fjords in Norway are prone to many landslide types, including large rockslides, rockfalls, and debris flows. Large rockslides and their secondary effects (rockslide-triggered displacement waves, inundation behind landslide dams and outburst floods from failure of landslide dams) pose a significant hazard to the population living in the valleys and along the fjords shoreline. The Geological Survey of Norway performs systematic mapping of unstable rock slopes in Norway and has detected more than 230 unstable slopes with significant postglacial deformation. This large number necessitates prioritisation of follow-up activities, such as more detailed investigations, periodic displacement measurements, continuous monitoring and early-warning systems. Prioritisation is achieved through a hazard and risk classification system, which has been developed by a panel of international and Norwegian experts (www.ngu.no/en-gb/hm/Publications/Reports/2012/2012-029). The risk classification system combines a qualitative hazard assessment with a consequences assessment focusing on potential life losses. The hazard assessment is based on a series of nine geomorphological, engineering geological and structural criteria, as well as displacement rates, past events and other signs of activity. We present a method for consequence assessment comprising four main steps: 1. computation of the volume of the unstable rock slope; 2. run-out assessment based on the volume-dependent angle of reach (Fahrböschung) or detailed numerical run-out modelling; 3. assessment of possible displacement wave propagation and run-up based on empirical relations or modelling in 2D or 3D; and 4. estimation of the number of persons exposed to rock avalanches or displacement waves. Volume computation of an unstable rock slope is based on the sloping local base level technique, which uses a digital elevation model to create a second-order curved surface between the mapped extent of

  17. Hydrological Dynamics In High Mountain Catchment Areas of Central Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löffler, Jörg; Rößler, Ole

    Large-scaled landscape structure is regarded as a mosaic of ecotopes where process dynamics of water and energy fluxes are analysed due to its effects on ecosystem functioning. The investigations have been carried out in the continental most Vågå/Oppland high mountains in central Norway since 1994 (LÖFFLER &WUNDRAM 1999, 2000, 2001). Additionally, comparable investigations started in 2000 dealing with the oceanic high mountain landscapes on same latitudes (LÖFFLER et al. 2001). The theoretical and methodological framework of the project is given by the Landscape-Ecological Complex Analysis (MOSIMANN 1984, 1985) and its variations due to technical and principle methodical challenges in this high mountain landscape (KÖHLER et al. 1994, LÖFFLER 1998). The aim of the project is to characterize high mountain ecosystem structure, functioning and dynamics within small catchment areas, that are chosen in two different altitudinal belts each in the eastern continental and the western oceanic region of central Norway. In the frame of this research project hydrological and meteorological measurements on ground water, percolation and soil moisture dynamics as well as on evaporation, air humidity and air-, surface- and soil-temperatures have been conducted. On the basis of large-scaled landscape-ecological mappings (LÖFFLER 1997) one basic meteorological station and several major data logger run stations have been installed in representative sites of each two catchment areas in the low and mid alpine belts of the investigation regions ( JUNGet al. 1997, LÖFFLER &WUNDRAM 1997). Moreover, spatial differentiations of groundwater level, soil moisture and temperature profiles have been investigated by means of hand held measurements at different times of the day, during different climatic situations and different seasons. Daily and annual air-, surface- and soil-temperature dynamics are demonstrated by means of thermoisopleth-diagrams for different types of ecotopes of the

  18. Norway: A Study of the Educational System of Norway and a Guide to the Academic Placement of Students in Educational Institutions in the United States. Country Report. PIER World Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feagles, Shelley M.; Dickey, Karlene N.

    The guide describes the educational system of Norway, primarily to assist in placement of Norwegian students in U.S. schools and for transfer of credits. An introductory chapter gives background about Norway and its people, educational governance, and language of instruction. The second chapter outlines the system of preschool, primary, and lower…

  19. Stand age and fine root biomass, distribution and morphology in a Norway spruce chronosequence in southeast Norway.

    PubMed

    Børja, Isabella; De Wit, Heleen A; Steffenrem, Arne; Majdi, Hooshang

    2008-05-01

    We assessed the influence of stand age on fine root biomass and morphology of trees and understory vegetation in 10-, 30-, 60- and 120-year-old Norway spruce stands growing in sandy soil in southeast Norway. Fine root (< 1, 1-2 and 2-5 mm in diameter) biomass of trees and understory vegetation (< 2 mm in diameter) was sampled by soil coring to a depth of 60 cm. Fine root morphological characteristics, such as specific root length (SRL), root length density (RLD), root surface area (RSA), root tip number and branching frequency (per unit root length or mass), were determined based on digitized root data. Fine root biomass and morphological characteristics related to biomass (RLD and RSA) followed the same tendency with chronosequence and were significantly higher in the 30-year-old stand and lower in the 10-year-old stand than in the other stands. Among stands, mean fine root (< 2 mm) biomass ranged from 49 to 398 g m(-2), SLR from 13.4 to 19.8 m g(-1), RLD from 980 to 11,650 m m(-3) and RSA from 2.4 to 35.4 m(2) m(-3). Most fine root biomass of trees was concentrated in the upper 20 cm of the mineral soil and in the humus layer (0-5 cm) in all stands. Understory fine roots accounted for 67 and 25% of total fine root biomass in the 10- and 120-year-old stands, respectively. Stand age had no affect on root tip number or branching frequency, but both parameters changed with soil depth, with increasing number of root tips and decreasing branching frequency with increasing soil depth for root fractions < 2 mm in diameter. Specific (mass based) root tip number and branching density were highest for the finest roots (< 1 mm) in the humus layer. Season (spring or fall) had no effect on tree fine root biomass, but there was a small and significant increase in understory fine root biomass in fall relative to spring. All morphological characteristics showed strong seasonal variation, especially the finest root fraction, with consistently and significantly higher values in

  20. Incidence pattern of thyroid cancer in Norway: influence of birth cohort and time period.

    PubMed

    Akslen, L A; Haldorsen, T; Thoresen, S O; Glattre, E

    1993-01-21

    The incidence of thyroid cancer in Norway increased about 2-fold for both sexes during the period 1955 to 1989 (4691 cases). In the last 5-year period, however, a decline was observed, especially among females. The ratio between age-adjusted incidence rates in Northern Norway compared with Southern Norway was 1.6 for females and 1.5 for males, and the incidence pattern during the period was similar in the 2 regions. The analysis of age-cohort-period models showed a strong cohort effect in both sexes. The reason for this is not clear, although radiation treatment during childhood and dietary habits may possibly be involved. A weaker but statistically significant and transient period effect was also present, giving relatively higher incidence rates, especially in the 1970s. Although this result may be consistent with an influence of radioactive fallout in the northern area, more detailed studies are needed. PMID:8425755

  1. The Quest for Astronomical Verification of the First Geodetic Reference Frame in Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettersen, Bjørn R.

    2010-05-01

    The first geodetic reference frame in Norway was established between 1779 and 1806. Geographical circles were used to triangulate the periphery of Southern Norway, thus establishing a continuous geodetic arc along the Norwegian-Swedish border from Halden to Trondheim and then along the west and south coast of Norway to close the arc. The closure allows longitude differences between sites to be calculated by two different trajectories. At selected sites, astronomical observations were carried out to determine latitudes and longitudes for the purpose of verifying the derived geodetic coordinates. This activity was continued for a full century after the geodetic observations had been completed. We track these efforts and compare the results to investigate the improvements over time.

  2. Outbreak of Salmonella Livingstone infection in Norway and Sweden due to contaminated processed fish products.

    PubMed Central

    Guerin, P. J.; De Jong, B.; Heir, E.; Hasseltvedt, V.; Kapperud, G.; Styrmo, K.; Gondrosen, B.; Lassen, J.; Andersson, Y.; Aavitsland, P.

    2004-01-01

    In Europe, the number of reported sporadic human cases of Salmonella Livingstone infection is low, and outbreaks are rare. We report the largest S. Livingstone outbreak described in the literature having an identified source of infection. In February 2001, an increased incidence of infection caused by S. Livingstone was observed in Norway and Sweden. By July 2001, 44 cases were notified in Norway and 16 in Sweden. The median age was 63 years, and 40 were women. There were three deaths, and 22 patients were hospitalized. Based on standardized questionnaires and retrospective studies of S. Livingstone strains in Norway and Sweden, food items with egg powder were suspected, and S. Livingstone was subsequently recovered from a processed fish product at the retail level. Analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis documented that isolates from the fish product belonged to the same clone as the outbreak strain. PMID:15473152

  3. Treatment Effectiveness of Parent Management Training in Norway: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Children with Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogden, Terje; Hagen, Kristine Amlund

    2008-01-01

    This study was a randomized control trial (RCT) of Parent Management Training--The Oregon Model (PMTO) in Norway. A sample representing all health regions of Norway and consisting of 112 children with conduct problems and their families participated in the study. Families were randomly assigned to either PMTO or a regular services comparison…

  4. Two Paths to Inequality in Educational Outcomes: Family Background and Educational Selection in the United States and Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reisel, Liza

    2011-01-01

    The United States and Norway represent two distinctively different attempts to equalize educational opportunity. Whereas the United States has focused on expansion and the proliferation of lower-tier open-access institutions, Norway has emphasized institutional streamlining and the equalization of living conditions. At the same time, the two…

  5. Beneath the Surface of Accountability: Answerability, Responsibility and Capacity-Building in Recent Education Reforms in Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatch, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Recent educational reforms in Norway include national tests and monitoring mechanisms to see if key outcomes are being achieved. At the same time, Norway has not established the follow-up mechanisms like high-stakes incentives and rewards that are characteristic of accountability policies in some other countries. As a consequence, one could argue…

  6. Conditions for the Implementation of Anti-Bullying Programmes in Norway and Ireland: A Comparison of Contexts and Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Midthassel, U. V.; Minton, S. J.; O'Moore, A. M.

    2009-01-01

    Drawing on experiences from anti-bullying programmes in Norway and Ireland, our primary objective in this paper is to present and discuss similarities and differences in national contexts, delivery strategies and strategies at school level for implementation of the ABC (Ireland) and Zero (Norway) anti-bullying programmes. Both programmes are…

  7. "[We're on the Right Track, Baby], We Were Born This Way!" Exploring Sports Participation in Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Ken; Thurston, Miranda; Vaage, Odd; Roberts, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Based on quantitative data from the Norwegian Statistisk Sentralbyrå (Statistics Norway) study of "Mosjon, Friluftsliv og Kulturaktiviteter," this paper explores trends in Norwegians' participation in sports, with a focus on young people. Norway boasts particularly high levels of sports participation as well as sports club…

  8. An anomalous upper mantle unit beneath southern Norway revealed by P-wave travel time residuals.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondo, A.; Balling, N.; Jacobsen, B. H.; England, R. W.; Kind, R.; Bödvarsson, R.; Weidle, C.; Gregersen, S.; Voss, P.

    2009-04-01

    We investigate whether high topography in southern Norway is associated with an anomalous upper mantle and we identify the western boundary of thick shield lithosphere. Several studies describe crustal structure in southern Scandinavia, whereas high-resolution information on upper mantle structures is sparse. We present relative P-wave travel time residuals (P-residuals) and preliminary tomography from southern Norway, southern Sweden and northern Denmark. We analyze distant earthquakes registered by seismological stations in projects CENMOVE, CALAS, MAGNUS and SCANLIPS together with selected TOR stations, and permanent stations in southern Sweden, southern Norway and Denmark. Station means of P-residuals corrected for topography and contributions from the crust varies by up to about 1 s across the study area. We associate early arrivals to the east of the Sorgenfrei-Tornquist Zone (STZ) and east of the Oslo Graben with thick shield lithosphere. Late arrivals observed in the Norwegian-Danish Basin southwest of the STZ are consistent with thinned lithosphere related to the basin formation. In southern Norway west of the Oslo Graben area, late arrivals indicate reduced P-wave velocity in the upper mantle and perhaps some regional isostatic buoyancy from the upper mantle. However, arrivals are early in the northern part of southern Norway, still in areas of high topography. Thus, a clear spatial correlation with areas of high topography is not observed. We identify the western boundary of thick shield lithosphere by interpretation of station means of P-residuals, together with the azimuthal dependence of single P-residuals in southern Scandinavia. We find this boundary to follow the STZ from the southeast into the northern part of Jutland. From there it proceed northwards. In southern Norway the western boundary of thick shield lithosphere is found around the Oslo Graben, proceeding to the northwest approaching the Norwegian coast.

  9. Time trends in the incidence and prevalence of multiple sclerosis in Norway during eight decades

    PubMed Central

    Grytten, N; Torkildsen, Ø; Myhr, K-M

    2015-01-01

    Norway has been subjected to numerous epidemiological investigations on the prevalence and incidence of multiple sclerosis (MS), dating back to 1935. The objective of this study was to review the studies on the prevalence and incidence of MS in Norway, provide an update on the prevalence of MS in Norway, and describe the time trends in the prevalence and incidence of MS in relation to risk factors, case ascertainment, and data. We performed a systematic search on PubMed and MEDLINE up to November 2014 using the search string ‘multiple sclerosis prevalence in Norway’ or ‘multiple sclerosis incidence in Norway’. In addition, we scrutinized the reference lists of the publications identified for relevant citations. We retrieved data on the distribution of MS in Norway on December 31, 2013 from the Norwegian Multiple Sclerosis Registry and Biobank and the Norwegian Patient Registry. We identified 29 articles. From 1961 to 2014, the reported prevalence of MS increased from 20 to 203 per 100,000 inhabitants, and the incidence increased from 1.9 to 8.0 per 100,000. The nationwide crude prevalence in Norway, based on the Norwegian Patient Registry, was 208 per 100,000 on December 31, 2013. The reported prevalence of MS in Norway has increased 10-fold, with several possible causes. During eight decades, neurological health services have generally become more accessible to the population, and transforming diagnostic criteria has made the diagnosis of MS more precise and valid. There have also been changes in lifestyle behavior and known risk factors, such as vitamin D and smoking, that might have contributed to the increased incidence of MS. A possible role of increased survival in MS needs to be examined further. This article is commented on by Berg-Hansen et al, published in 132: 364–367 (DOI: 10.1111/ane.12489). PMID:26046556

  10. Mapping geomorphology, groundwater bodies and springs in Simadal, Norway.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austbø, I. L.; Øvrevik Skoglund, R.; Soldal, O. L.

    2015-12-01

    Simadal in Hardanger (Norway) is a narrow valley, famous for the waterfalls Rembedalsfossen and Skjykjedalsfossen which are regulated by Sima hydropower plant. Since the basin has been regulated between 1973-1979 the catchment area was reduced from 146km² to 35 km². There are currently plans for further expansion by also incorporating Skykjedalsvatnet, the last major remaining lake in the basin of Simaelva. In Simadal there are known to be large amounts of ground water, a greater understanding of how the groundwater interacts the river water is desirable in terms of water flow, residence time and water chemistry. Throughout the autumn of 2013 and winter of 2014 loggers were placed at various measuring points to log temperature and water levels. This included six loggers that measure temperature and pressure, as well as three loggers that measure only temperature. The goal with these loggers was to locate springs and monitor water level changes over a one-year period. In order to further investigate the water quality of the different measurement points, monthly water samples as well as pH-, and conductivity measurements were conducted. The water samples were analyzed for major ions as well as metal ions. The latter was based on earlier reported high copper levels. Flow measurements have been made in the upper and lower parts of Simadal during dry periods. The work has also included the accomplishment of Quaternary mapping; analysis of aerial photography; and using GPR. Our main concern has been to map the water resources in Simadal by registering groundwater and springs in sediments and rock faces. Furthermore, it has been desirable to draw lines to a larger regional knowledge based water management. It seems to be important to maintain a certain minimum of water of good quality, both for the ecology of the river in general, but perhaps especially considering the sustainable sea trout populations found in Simaelva today. Previous chemical, hydrogeological and fish

  11. Unknown radio emission at about 3 MHz recorded in Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farges, T.; Blanc, E.; Strand, E.

    2012-04-01

    A wideband electric field antenna has been installed in Norway (at Hessdalen, 62°41' North and 11°12' East). A signal of 50 ms is automatically recorded every 5 s in order to monitor the spectral variations from 1 kHz to 5 MHz. Signals have been acquired during more than one year from September 2010 to December 2011. The measured electromagnetic spectrum is very similar to other spectra commonly measured in other places in the World. It shows emissions in numerous bands at fixed frequencies corresponding to radio transmissions in VLF, LF, MF and HF bands. However, one emission is quite different and arouses our curiosity. We find a quasi-continuous radio emission at a frequency varying from 2.7 to more than 3.4 MHz with a mean value of 3.0 MHz. The bandwidth is quite large (about 40 kHz) while it is about 9 kHz for all the other radio emissions at frequencies higher than 100 kHz. During the night, the frequency is relatively stable at about 3.1 MHz while during day-time a frequency shift of 200-300 kHz is often observed. These variations can be quick (few tens of minutes) or slow (several hours). Moreover, the emission disappears during day-time, the disappearance duration depending on the daylight duration. From November to the end of March, there is almost no disappearance while in April disappearances are more frequent and longer. From May to July, the emission disappears systematically during day-time from 6:00 UT to 20:00 UT. At the sunrise time the emission frequency suddenly decreases and systematically disappears when it reaches a threshold value (from 2.7 to 2.85 MHz). The emission (frequency and duration) is not influenced by the magnetic storms. We will show in the paper statistical results and some hypothesis on the mechanism which can produce this radio emission.

  12. Natural Serpentinite Carbonation at Linnajavri, N-Norway (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beinlich, A.; Tominaga, M.; Pluemper, O.; Hoevelmann, J.; Tivey, M.; Andrade Lima, E.; Weiss, B. P.; Austrheim, H.; Jamtveit, B.

    2013-12-01

    Investigation of natural mafic and ultramafic rock carbonation driven by the infiltration of CO2-bearing fluids into a solid rock unit provides insight into feedback mechanisms that may become important for in situ sequestration schemes of anthropogenic CO2. We present observations from massively carbonated serpentinites at Linnajavri, N-Norway, where completely serpentinized fragments of the dismembered ophiolite are hydrothermally altered on a km-scale to ophicarbonate (serpentine + Mg-carbonate), soapstone (talc + Mg-carbonate) and listvenite (quartz + Mg-carbonate). Field observations indicate that tectonic preprocessing of the serpentinite facilitated fluid infiltration. Listvenite is indicative of the most intense carbonation and is present along the tectonic contact of the ophiolite with the underlying carbonate-mica schist. Soapstone/steatite is indicative of less intense carbonation, forms m-wide reaction halos around fractures within the serpentinite and is also present as massive body between the listvenite and unaltered serpentinite. Sharp reaction interfaces between the soapstone and serpentinite can be traced for several hundred meters and are defined by the breakdown of antigorite to form magnesite and talc. The soapstone-listvenite transition zones are not entirely exposed in the field and are less than 5 m wide. 18O thermometry using the isotopic composition of quartz/talc and coexisting magnesite derived from veins and bulk rock samples indicate an isothermal formation of listvenite and soapstone at ~275°C. The corresponding isotopic signature of the fluid (δ13CVPDB = 2.2(5) ‰) derived from the δ13C composition of magnesite suggests an interaction with crustal rocks and devolatilization of associated overthrusted sediments as a possible source for the CO2. He- and Hg-porosimetry data, mass-balance calculations, and the preservation of serpentinite structures imply an isovolumetric alteration, which indicates that the carbonation declined due

  13. Crustal structure of the Nordland region, northern Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maystrenko, Yuriy P.; Olesen, Odleiv; Gernigon, Laurent; Gradmann, Sofie

    2016-04-01

    To understand the major structural features of the sedimentary cover and crystalline crust within the Nordland County area of Norway, a data-based 3D structural model has been constructed in the framework of the Neonor2 project, "Neotectonics in Nordland - implications for petroleum exploration". The 3D structural model covers the Lofoten Ridge, the Ribban and Vestfjorden basins and adjacent areas of the Norwegian mainland. The model also covers the northern part of the adjacent Vøring Basin. At the regional scale, the 3D model includes the rifted margin which is located at the transition from the exposed crystalline rocks of the Fennoscandian Shield in the east to the Cenozoic oceanic domain of the Norwegian-Greenland Sea in the west. During the construction of the 3D structural model, all recently published and/or released data have been compiled in order to set the initial model. This initial 3D model has been validated by a 3D density modelling in order to obtain a gravity-consistent 3D structural model of the entire study area. The 3D density modelling has been carried out by using the IGMAS plus software (the Interactive Gravity and Magnetic Application System). During the 3D density modelling, densities have been assigned as constant values for the crystalline rocks. In contrast, densities of sedimentary rocks have been set to be depth-dependent in order to reflect the compaction of sedimentary rocks with depth. According to the results of the 3D density modeling, the crystalline crust of the investigated region consists of several layers with different densities. The deepest crustal layer is the high-density lower crust which corresponds to the high-velocity lower crustal layer. The regional-scale gravity response associated with the positions of the Moho and lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary is one of the key factors for performing a proper 3D density model of the study area. At the regional scale, the Moho and lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary are

  14. "No God and no Norway": collective resource loss among members of Tamil NGO's in Norway during and after the last phase of the civil war in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Studies on the mental health of refugees have tended to focus upon the impact of traumatic experiences in the country of origin, and acculturation processes in exile. The effects of crises in the country of origin on refugees living in exile have been little studied. This article examines how the final stages of the civil war in Sri Lanka in 2009 influenced members of pro-LTTE Tamil NGO's in Norway. Method Ethnographic fieldwork methods were employed within Tamil NGO's in the two largest cities in Norway between November 2008 and June 2011. Results The findings suggest that collective resources became severely drained as a result of the crisis, severely disrupting the fabric of social life. Public support from the majority community remained scarce throughout the crisis. Conclusions The study suggests that there is a need for public support to exile groups indirectly affected by man-made crises in their country of origin. PMID:21849029

  15. Educational Financing and Policy Goals for Primary Schools. Country Reports. Volume III: Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Italy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Centre for Educational Research and Innovation.

    This volume, number three in a series of three, investigates the relationship between modes of finance for primary schools and educational policy objectives in the countries of the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, and Italy. The first purpose of the book was to tell the history of educational finance arrangements in order to frame the context within…

  16. Determinants of Learning Outcome for Students at High School in Norway: A Constructivist Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okland, Gunnar Magne

    2012-01-01

    A vital part of student learning is the construction of mental structures encompassing categories believed to affect learning outcome. In this study we investigate this research question through the lenses of a constructivist approach. As the first study on our research question at high school in Norway, our empirical findings make up the main…

  17. Atmospheric deposition of organic micropollutants in Norway studied by means of moss and lichen analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Carlberg, G.E.; Ofstad, E.B.; Drangsholt, H.; Steinnes, E.

    1983-01-01

    Moss and lichen samples from eleven remote sites from all parts of Norway were analyzed for persistent chlorinated hydrocarbons. The highest and lowest concentration levels were found in the most southwesterly and northerly locations, respectively. Moss and lichen samples from one site were also analyzed for other organic micropollutants. They were found to contain alkanes, mostly of biogenic origin, PAH and phthalates.

  18. Sea Kayaking Incidents in Norway 2000-2014: An Issue of Bad Weather or Poor Judgement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aadland, Eivind; Noer, Gunnar; Vikene, Odd Lennart

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to analyse recreational sea kayaking and touring incidents in Norway with a specific focus on wind conditions and to elaborate on practical implications for the prevention of future incidents. We included 49 incidents reported by the media between 2000 and 2014. Incidents occurred in various wind conditions, but most…

  19. Muslim Girls' Experiences in Physical Education in Norway: What Role Does Religiosity Play?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walseth, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Recent years have seen an increase in scholarly attention to minority pupils and their experience of physical education (PE). UK research identifies specific challenges related to Muslim pupils' participation in PE. In Norway, little research has been undertaken on Muslim pupils' experiences in PE, something this paper hopes to redress…

  20. A cross-sectional study of Tritrichomonas foetus infection among healthy cats at shows in Norway

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In recent years, the protozoan Tritrichomonas foetus has been recognised as an important cause of chronic large-bowel diarrhoea in purebred cats in many countries, including Norway. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the proportion of animals with T. foetus infection among clinically healthy cats in Norway and to assess different risk factors for T. foetus infection, such as age, sex, former history of gastrointestinal symptoms and concurrent infections with Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium sp. Methods The sample population consisted of 52 cats participating in three cat shows in Norway in 2009. Samples were examined for motile T. foetus by microscopy, after culturing and for T. foetus-DNA by species-specific nested PCR, as well as for Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts by immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT). Results By PCR, T. foetus-DNA was demonstrated in the faeces of 11 (21%) of the 52 cats tested. DNA-sequencing of five positive samples yielded 100% identity with previous isolates of T. foetus from cats. Only one sample was positive for T. foetus by microscopy. By IFAT, four samples were positive for Giardia cysts and one for Cryptosporidium oocysts, none of which was co-infected with T. foetus. No significant associations were found between the presence of T. foetus and the various risk factors examined. Conclusions T. foetus was found to be a common parasite in clinically healthy cats in Norway. PMID:21689400

  1. Educational Equity in Spain and Norway: A Comparative Analysis of Two OECD Country Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haugen, Cecilie Ronning

    2011-01-01

    This article undertakes a comparative study of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development's (OECD) thematic reviews on "equity in education" for Spain and Norway. The author investigates whether there may be a similar orientation to equity expressed in the two reviews and discusses how social stratification may occur within the…

  2. Abandonment of mandatory jail for impaired drivers in Norway and Sweden.

    PubMed

    Ross, H L; Klette, H

    1995-04-01

    In 1988 and 1990, respectively, Norway and Sweden adopted legal reforms including abandonment of mandatory jail sentences for persons driving with BACs above specific limits. Interrupted time-series analysis finds that in both countries traffic deaths diminished simultaneously with the reforms, consistent with the understanding that Scandinavian success in reducing impaired driving does not depend upon mandatory jail. PMID:7786382

  3. [The Pedagogical Situation in the North with Special Reference to Alaska and the Lapps in Norway.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coombs, L. Madison; Boon, Inez

    There are 2 papers combined under this title, the first being specific to the Alaskan and the second to the Lapps of Northern Norway. Language difficulties were cited as being prevalent in both situations. English was reported to be the second language for the Alaskan, while Norwegian (which is completely different from the Lappish language) was…

  4. Professional Development for Professional Learners: Teachers' Experiences in Norway, Germany and England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czerniawski, Gerry

    2013-01-01

    Proposals made by the European Commission in 2007 led to the Education Council adopting, for the first time, a European agenda for improving the quality of teaching and teacher education. This article reports on a small-scale longitudinal interview-based study with teachers in England, Norway and Germany demonstrating that while opportunities for…

  5. Changing the System of Student Support in Norway: Intended and Unintended Effects on Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opheim, V.

    2011-01-01

    In 2002 the student finance system in Norway went through a major restructuring. The changes included an increase in student support and an introduction of progression-dependent grants. Using two student welfare surveys conducted in 1998 and 2005, the paper analyses the effect of the changes on the students. The analysis compares the risk of study…

  6. Obesity and Minority--Changing Meanings of Big Bodies among Young Pakistani Obesity Patients in Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wathne, Kjetil; Mburu, Christina Brux; Middelthon, Anne-Lise

    2015-01-01

    Globally, paediatric obesity causes widespread concern, and the role of ethnicity is an important focus. Investigating how culture can mediate health-related behaviour through ideas about bodies, food and physical activity, while addressing a notion that the Pakistani community in Norway is particularly conservative and slow to change, this…

  7. The Within-Job Motherhood Wage Penalty in Norway, 1979-1996

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Trond; Penner, Andrew M.; Hogsnes, Geir

    2010-01-01

    The motherhood wage penalty is a substantial obstacle to progress in gender equality at work. Using matched employer-employee data from Norway (1979-1996, N = 236,857 individuals, N = 1,027,462 individual-years), a country with public policies that promote combining family and career, we investigate (a) whether the penalty arises from differential…

  8. Phylogeographical pattern of Francisella tularensis in a nationwide outbreak of tularaemia in Norway, 2011.

    PubMed

    Afset, J E; Larssen, K W; Bergh, K; Larkeryd, A; Sjodin, A; Johansson, A; Forsman, M

    2015-01-01

    In 2011, a nationwide outbreak of tularaemia occurred in Norway with 180 recorded cases. It was associated with the largest peak in lemming density seen in 40 years. Francisella tularensis was isolated from 18 patients. To study the geographical distribution of F.tularensis genotypes in Norway and correlate genotype with epidemiology and clinical presentation,we performed whole genome sequencing of patient isolates. All 18 genomes from the outbreak carried genetic signatures of F. tularensis subsp. holarctica and were assigned to genetic clades using canonical single nucleotide polymorphisms. Ten isolates were assigned to major genetic clade B.6 (subclade B.7),seven to clade B.12, and one to clade B.4. The B.6 subclade B.7 was most common in southern and central Norway, while clade B.12 was evenly distributed between the southern, central and northern parts of the country. There was no association between genotype and clinical presentation of tularaemia, time of year or specimen type. We found extensive sequence similarity with F. tularensis subsp. holarctica genomes from high-endemic tularaemia areas in Sweden.Finding nearly identical genomes across large geographical distances in Norway and Sweden imply a life cycle of the bacterium without replication between the outbreaks and raise new questions about long-range migration mechanisms. PMID:25990357

  9. Introducing Quantum Mechanics in the Upper Secondary School: A Study in Norway.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Rolf V.

    2002-01-01

    Reports on a study examining how upper secondary students (18-19-years-old) in Norway come to terms with wave-particle duality as presented as part of a short introduction to quantum physics. Concludes that school physics should give a more explicit focus to the challenge that quantum physics presents to the classical worldview. (Contains 30…

  10. Multifunctional Agriculture in Policy and Practice? A Comparative Analysis of Norway and Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjorkhaug, Hilde; Richards, Carol Ann

    2008-01-01

    Ideals of productivist agriculture in the Western world have faded as the unintended consequences of intensive agriculture and pastoralism have contributed to rural decline and environmental problems. In Norway and Australia, there has been an increasing acceptance of the equal importance of social and environmental sustainability as well as…

  11. A geographical cluster of malignant catarrhal fever in Moose (Alces alces)in Norway

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three cases of lethal sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever (SA-MCF) in free-ranging moose (Alces alces) were diagnosed in Lesja, Norway, December 2008 – February 2010. The diagnosis was based on PCR identification of ovine herpesvirus 2 DNA (n=3) and typical histopathological lesions (n=1). To...

  12. Schools Which Are Named, Shamed and Blamed by the Media: School Accountability in Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elstad, Eyvind

    2009-01-01

    Since Norway introduced tests and other types of measurements the press, with a negative bias, has placed the spotlight on those schools which performed badly in attainment measurements. The press reconstructs from public sources "league tables" of aggregated student achievements but at present the official position opposes the public ranking of…

  13. The Core of Special Teacher Education: A Comparison of Finland and Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hausstatter, Rune Sarromaa; Takala, Marjatta

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the situation of special teacher education in Finland and Norway has been analysed from three perspectives: how the curricula of special teacher education differ between and within the countries; whether inclusion is included in special teacher education; and how the special teacher education curricula reflect the national…

  14. Reform Pedagogy as a National Innovation System: Early Twentieth-Century Educational Entrepreneurs in Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarning, Harald

    2009-01-01

    In Norway "Pedagogikk" was institutionalised as an academic field of knowledge in the first part of the twentieth century. As a professional field of knowledge, however, pedagogy developed gradually from the 1840s, mainly through rurally based teacher seminars. In this article, relations between the progressive movement and the…

  15. Reviews of National Policies for Education: Improving Lower Secondary Schools in Norway, 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2011

    2011-01-01

    The report aims to help education authorities in Norway and other OECD (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries to understand the importance of lower secondary education and to find approaches to strengthen this key education level. It provides an overview of the structure of lower secondary education and the main…

  16. Play in the Kindergarten: The Case of Norway, Sweden, New Zealand and Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Synodi, Evanthia

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the kindergarten curricula of Norway, Sweden, Japan and New Zealand in terms of whether they recommend or suggest teachers unify play and pedagogy by employing a pedagogy of play. These countries were selected because, while they have to provide for children's right to play, they cover different geographical and cultural parts…

  17. Balancing Tensions in Educational Policy Reforms: Large-Scale Implementation of Assessment for Learning in Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopfenbeck, Therese N.; Flórez Petour, María Teresa; Tolo, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates how different stakeholders in Norway experienced a government-initiated, large-scale policy implementation programme on "Assessment for Learning" ("AfL"). Data were collected through 58 interviews with stakeholders in charge of the policy; Ministers of Education and members of the Directorate of…

  18. Socializing Relations in the Everyday Lives of Children: Comparing Domestic Texts from Norway and China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waerdahl, Randi; Haldar, Marit

    2013-01-01

    The text material analysed in this article consists of 20 teddy-diaries that circulated between the families of 6-year-old children in Beijing, China and in Oslo, Norway. The circulation process makes teddy-diaries highly normatively saturated domestic stories from families with 6-year-old children. A quantitative analysis of these texts inspired…

  19. Motivation to Provide Help to Older Parents in Norway, Spain, and Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Ruth; Gur-Yaish, Nurit; Lowenstein, Ariela

    2010-01-01

    We explore from a cross-national perspective three motivations in adult children to provide help to older parents: affectual solidarity, parental need for care, and filial norms. The sample is 1,055 adult children from Norway, Spain, and Israel, countries selected because they represent different family cultures and welfare regimes. Affectual…

  20. Marginalisation Processes in Inclusive Education in Norway: A Longitudinal Study of Classroom Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wendelborg, Christian; Tossebro, Jan

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the classroom participation of primary school children with disabilities who attend regular schools in Norway; to explore how relations between children with disabilities and their environment change, and further to chart how schools act in response to such change. The analyses are based on a life course study…

  1. Relating Cenozoic North Sea sediments to topography in southern Norway: The interplay between tectonics and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anell, Ingrid; Thybo, Hans; Stratford, Wanda

    2010-11-01

    About 482 000 km 3 of sediment (ca 24 m/Ma) accumulated in the North Sea during the Cenozoic. Early Cenozoic sedimentation was likely due to uplift of the circum North Atlantic landmasses related to continental break-up. Kilometre-scale transient uplift, and in some areas permanent uplift, generated sources for progradational influx of clastic sediments from Scotland, the Shetland platform and, to a lesser degree, southwestern Norway. The Eocene sedimentation pattern was similar to the Palaeocene, with lower rates of accumulation associated with flooding and tectonic quiescence. Sediment influx from the Shetland platform continued throughout the Cenozoic while supply from southern Norway increased markedly around the Eocene-Oligocene, coeval with the greenhouse-icehouse transition. Mass balance calculations of sediment and eroded rock volumes suggest that while some topography along the western margin of Norway may be pre-Cenozoic, significant uplift of the main Paleic surface in southern Norway occurred around the early Oligocene. Sedimentation rates were almost ten-fold higher than the Cenozoic average in the Plio-Pleistocene, slightly higher than the global average. Mass balance calculations indicate that Plio-Pleistocene erosion over-deepened a pre-existing topography.

  2. Attitudes towards English in Norway: A Corpus-Based Study of Attitudinal Expressions in Newspaper Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graedler, Anne-Line

    2014-01-01

    This article explores some dimensions of how the role of the English language in Norway has been discursively constructed in newspapers during recent years, based on the analysis of data from the five-year period 2008-2012. The analysis is conducted using a specialised corpus containing 3,743 newspaper articles which were subjected to corpus-based…

  3. Depressive Symptoms among Native and Immigrant Adolescents in Norway: The Role of Gender and Urbanization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fandrem, Hildegunn; Sam, David L.; Roland, Erling

    2009-01-01

    The study investigates depressive symptoms among 3,431 adolescents aged 13-15 years. The sample comprises both native Norwegian and immigrant adolescents living in Norway. The main finding of the study is that the level of depressive symptoms is significantly higher among the immigrant adolescents than their Norwegian counterparts. When analysed…

  4. Yersinia enterocolitica outbreak associated with ready-to-eat salad mix, Norway, 2011.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Emily; Heier, Berit Tafjord; Nygård, Karin; Stalheim, Torunn; Cudjoe, Kofitsyo S; Skjerdal, Taran; Wester, Astrid Louise; Lindstedt, Bjørn-Arne; Stavnes, Trine-Lise; Vold, Line

    2012-09-01

    In 2011, an outbreak of illness caused by Yersinia enterocolitica O:9 in Norway was linked to ready-to-eat salad mix, an unusual vehicle for this pathogen. The outbreak illustrates the need to characterize isolates of this organism, and reinforces the need for international traceback mechanisms for fresh produce. PMID:22932318

  5. Great Expectations: Perspectives on Cochlear Implantation of Deaf Children in Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonsen, Eva; Kristoffersen, Ann-Elise; Hyde, Mervyn B.; Hjulstad, Oddvar

    2009-01-01

    The authors describe the use of cochlear implants with deaf children in Norway and examine how this intervention has raised new expectations and some tensions concerning the future of education for deaf students. They report on two studies of communication within school learning environments of young children with implants in Norwegian preschools…

  6. Bridging the Gap between Science and Practice: The Effective Nationwide Transport of MST Programs in Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogden, Terje; Christensen, Bernadette; Sheidow, Ashli J.; Holth, Per

    2008-01-01

    The successful nationwide transport and evaluation of Multisystemic Therapy (MST) programs in Norway is described. This description is provided within the context of the nation's movement towards the adoption of evidence-based practices (EBPs) during the past decade, the conduct of a multisite randomized clinical trial to examine the effectiveness…

  7. Explaining Changing Suicide Rates in Norway 1948-2004: The Role of Social Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barstad, Anders

    2008-01-01

    Using Norway 1948-2004 as a case, I test whether changes in variables related to social integration can explain changes in suicide rates. The method is the Box-Jenkins approach to time-series analysis. Different aspects of family integration contribute significantly to the explanation of Norwegian suicide rates in this period. The estimated effect…

  8. Governmental Steering, Reform and the Institutionalization of Student Interest in Higher Education in Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stensaker, Bjørn; Michelsen, Svein

    2012-01-01

    The article addresses the relationship between changes in the higher education landscape concerning its structure and governance, and the organization of student interest representation at the institutional and national level. Based on a historical analysis of the development of higher education in Norway, the article identifies close links…

  9. Social Interaction in Upper Secondary Physics Classrooms in Finland and Norway: A Survey of Students' Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavonen, Jari; Angell, Carl; Bymen, Reijo; Henriksen, Ellen K.; Koponen, Ismo T.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the typical teaching methods used in upper secondary physics in Finland and Norway and how students would like to study physics. Moreover, the further aim of seeing how certain background variables may explain students' desire to study their chosen specialist subject, physics or social science…

  10. Some Aspects of Early School Leaving in Sweden, Denmark, Norway and Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cederberg, Margareta; Hartsmar, Nanny

    2013-01-01

    This article describes early school leaving in Sweden, Denmark, Norway and Finland, using examples to show a complex representation of early school leaving and its consequences for young people's subsequent access to the labour market. We show how measures taken by governments and school authorities in the respective countries have resulted…

  11. A Comparison of the National Preschool Curricula in Norway and Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvestad, Marit; Samuelsson, Ingrid Pramling

    1999-01-01

    Norway and Sweden have similar histories within the field of early childhood education and similar traditions of state financial support for children. Recently, both countries adopted national preschool plans for children ages 1 to 5 years old. When comparing the two plans, the first noticeable difference is that the Norwegian approach gives…

  12. Elite Female Business Students in China and Norway: Job-Related Values and Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordhaug, Odd; Gooderham, Paul; Zhang, Xian; Liu, Yali; Birkelund, Gunn Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on the work-related values, preferences, and future expectations among female students at two elite business schools in China and Norway. The paper argues that while gender theory predicts no significant differences between these two groups, both cultural and economic development theory imply fundamental differences. The…

  13. Liquid Ice Surfers--The Construction of Surfer Identities in Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langseth, Tommy

    2012-01-01

    Surfing is getting increasingly popular in Norway as well as other countries that have a coastline with rideable waves. As surfing gains in popularity, however, the boundaries of the surfing subculture become increasingly guarded. Through ethnography and qualitative interviews, this study examines identity construction on an individual and group…

  14. Policy Making Processes with Respect to Teacher Education in Finland and Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afdal, Hilde Wagsas

    2013-01-01

    This article examines policy making processes in the area of teacher education (TE) in Finland and Norway. Particular attention is given to the roles different actors play in these processes and the potential effects of their involvement on the TE programs in the two countries. Contemporary policy processes are analyzed through a set of interviews…

  15. Issues and Problems in the Organization of Children's Sport: A Case Study of Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skirstad, Berit; Waddington, Ivan; Safvenbom, Reidar

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this article is on the organization of children's sport in Norway. More specifically, the paper sets out to examine (i) the changing pattern of relationships, and in particular the changing balance of conflict and cooperation, between the several organizations with responsibility for children's sport, and (ii) how sport for children…

  16. The User Perspective in Performance Auditing--A Case Study of Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arthur, Arnfrid; Rydland, Lars Tore; Amundsen, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    The user perspective is an important contextual factor for Supreme Audit Institutions (SAIs). This article provides examples from performance audits in Norway and explores why the user perspective has become important in performance audit practices. It shows that user satisfaction can be employed as a key performance indicator of effectiveness of…

  17. Student Performance in Teacher Education in Norway: The Impact of Student, Institutional and Structural Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wikan, Gerd; Bugge, Liv Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Many education systems face a challenge in recruiting graduates as teachers. This is also the situation in Norway and the newest estimates tell us that we will lack 9000 teachers in 2020. The situation is made even worse by the high number of dropouts and low performance rates in teacher education. There are many factors which have an impact on…

  18. From Policy to Practice in Higher Education: The Experiences of Disabled Students in Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, Synnove

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge about disabled students in higher education is fragmented. It is therefore difficult to assess whether policy goals actually promote better conditions for disabled students. The aim of this article is to take a closer look at the experiences of disabled students in Norway and, in light of policy goals, to identify obstacles in the higher…

  19. Music Teacher Educators' Visions of Music Teacher Preparation in Finland, Norway and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorgersen, Cecilia Ferm; Johansen, Geir; Juntunen, Marja-Leena

    2016-01-01

    In this study we investigated the visions of 12 music teacher educators who teach pedagogical courses called instrumental pedagogy and classroom music pedagogy in three music academies in Finland, Norway and Sweden. The data were collected through individual, semi-structured qualitative interviews. Drawing on Hammerness' concept of "teachers'…

  20. Family Income Dynamics, Early Childhood Education and Care, and Early Child Behavior Problems in Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zachrisson, Henrik D.; Dearing, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The sociopolitical context of Norway includes low poverty rates and universal access to subsidized and regulated Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC). In this context, the association between family income dynamics and changes in early child behavior problems was investigated, as well as whether high-quality ECEC buffers children from the…

  1. First report of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' associated with psyllid-affected carrots in Norway

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carrot (Daucus carota) plants with symptoms resembling those associated with the carrot psyllid Trioza apicalis and the bacterium “Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum” were observed in 70-80% of commercial fields and experimental plots in southeastern Norway from late July to mid-September 2011; al...

  2. Home Country National Intelligence and Self-Employment Rates among Immigrants in Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinogradov, Evgueni; Kolvereid, Lars

    2010-01-01

    The level of self-employment varies significantly among immigrants from different countries of origin. The objective of this research is to examine the relationship between home-country national intelligence and self-employment rates among first generation immigrants in Norway. Empirical secondary data on self-employment among immigrants from 117…

  3. Improvements of soil quality for increased food production in Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Øygarden, Lillian; Klakegg, Ove; Børresen, Trond; Krogstad, Tore; Kjersti Uhlen, Anne

    2016-04-01

    Since the 1990ties, agricultural land in use in Norway has diminished and yields per hectare for cereals and forages have stagnated. An expert panel appointed to advice on how to increase Norwegian grain production emphasizes low profitability and poor soil quality as limiting factors. A White Paper from the Norwegian Government, Report No.9 (2011-2012), stated that the main goal for the agricultural sector is to increase food production proportional to the expected increase in population (20 % by 2030) in order to maintain self-sufficiency at the present level. This is the background for the interdisciplinary project AGROPRO "Agronomy for increased food production - Challenges and solutions" (2013 - 2017)" financed by the Norwegian research council. A mail goal is seeking possibilities for improvements in agronomic practices for increased and sustainable food production and to identify drivers and challenges for their implementation. Are the key to higher yields hidden in the soil? The paper present an overview of the research activities in the project and some results of the improvements of soil quality to minimize yield gap in cereal and forage production. Detailed new soil maps provide soil information on field scale of soil quality and the suitability for growing different crops like cereal production or vegetables. The detailed soil information is also beeing used for development and adaptation of the planning tool «Terranimo» to reduce risk of soil compaction.The farmer get available soil information for each field, provide information about the maschinery in use- tractors and equipment, tyres, pressure. The decision tool evaluate when the soil is suitable for tillage, calculate the risk of compaction for dry, moist and wet soil. New research data for compaction on Norwegian clay and silt soil are included. Climate change with wetter conditions gives challenges for growing cereals. The project is testing genetic variation in cereals for tolerance to water

  4. Geophysical investigations of the Stuoragurra postglacial fault, Finnmark, northern Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olesen, Odleiv; Henkel, Herbert; Lile, Ole Bernt; Mauring, Eirik; Rønning, Jan Steinar

    1992-08-01

    Processed images of aeromagnetic, gravimetric and topographical data and geological maps combined with VLF ground measurements have been interpreted in mapping the main fault structures along the Mierujav'ri-Sværholt Fault Zone (MSFZ) in Finnmark, northern Norway. The 230 km long MSFZ is situated in the extensive Proterozoic terrain of Finnmark. Proterozoic albite diabases, which cause characteristic magnetic anomalies in the Masi area, have intruded along the MSFZ. A system of duplexes can be delineated along the MSFZ from the geophysical images. These interpretations have been followed up in the till-covered area with electromagnetic measurements and confirm the existence of the faults interpreted from the geophysical images. The postglacial Stuoragurra Fault (SF) lies within the MSFZ. It is a southeasterly dipping reverse fault and can be traced fairly continuously for 80 km in the Masi-Iešjav'ri area. Detailed geophysical investigations and drilling have been carried out in the Fidnajåkka area 10 km to the south of Masi. A ca. 1 m thick layer of fault gouge detected in the drillholes is thought to represent the actual fault surface. Resistivity measurements reveal low-resistivity zones in the hanging-wall block as well as in the foot-wall block of the SF. These low-resistivity zones lie within a several hundred metre wide belt and are interpreted to be due to fracturing of the quartzites along the regional MSFZ. Within the Fidnajåkka area, however, the resistivity of the hanging-wall block of the SF is typically lower than in the foot-wall, indicating more intense fracturing in the hanging-wall. Vertical electrical soundings show a low-resistivity layer at depth in the eastern hanging-wall block, which corroborates other evidence that the fault dips to the southeast. The refraction seismic data reveal low seismic velocities along the SF which are interpreted to be caused by faulted and fractured bedrock. Detailed topographical data proved very useful for

  5. Geometric back-analysis of ancient rockslides in Tafjord (Norway)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppikofer, T.; Jaboyedoff, M.; Derron, M.-H.; Blikra, L. H.

    2009-04-01

    In the past, numerous large rockslides occurred in the Norwegian fjords and that caused catastrophic tsunamis in the narrow fjords. 12 post-glacial rockslide deposits are found in the Tafjord fjord in Western Norway. Amongst them are the deposits of the 1934 Langhammaren rockslide, which created a tsunami wave with a run-up of up to 63 m and killed 40 people in nearby villages. Since 2005 potential rock slope instabilities in the Tafjord area are investigated within the Åknes/Tafjord project. The scope of this study is the detection of past rockslides and to back-analyse these events using a high-resolution digital elevation model (HRDEM) derived from aerial laser scanning, orthophotos, and field mapping. Hillshade maps coupled with field data enabled the characterization of 17 past rockslide scars (including the 1934 event) that were mainly constituted of orthogneisses and augengneisses. The spatial orientations of major discontinuity sets and the relevant rockslide structures, i.e. the basal sliding surface, the lateral auxiliary sliding surface, the lateral release surface(s), and the back-scar(s), were calculated using Coltop3D software and the HRDEM. This analysis showed the pre-dominant role of the main foliation that dips towards the South with a dip angle of 37° to 63°. The foliation generally formed the basal sliding surface, while the other discontinuity sets controlled the orientation of other main rockslide structures. In order to compute the volume of ancient rockslides, the pre-rockslide topography was reconstructed by fitting planes on the surroundings of the scars using PolyWorks® software. The orientation of these planes was constrained by the orientation of major discontinuity sets. The rockslide volumes were computed by subtracting the present HRDEM from the pre-rockslide DEM. The volumes range from 29000 m³ up to 63.5 million m³ for Langhammaren area. The Langhammaren area led to several rockslides, including the 1934 event with a computed

  6. Myogenic regulatory factors during regeneration of skeletal muscle in young, adult, and old rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, D. R.; Criswell, D. S.; Carson, J. A.; Booth, F. W.

    1997-01-01

    Myogenic factor mRNA expression was examined during muscle regeneration after bupivacaine injection in Fischer 344/Brown Norway F1 rats aged 3, 18, and 31 mo of age (young, adult, and old, respectively). Mass of the tibialis anterior muscle in the young rats had recovered to control values by 21 days postbupivacaine injection but in adult and old rats remained 40% less than that of contralateral controls at 21 and 28 days of recovery. During muscle regeneration, myogenin mRNA was significantly increased in muscles of young, adult, and old rats 5 days after bupivacaine injection. Subsequently, myogenin mRNA levels in young rat muscle decreased to postinjection control values by day 21 but did not return to control values in 28-day regenerating muscles of adult and old rats. The expression of MyoD mRNA was also increased in muscles at day 5 of regeneration in young, adult, and old rats, decreased to control levels by day 14 in young and adult rats, and remained elevated in the old rats for 28 days. In summary, either a diminished ability to downregulate myogenin and MyoD mRNAs in regenerating muscle occurs in old rat muscles, or the continuing myogenic effort includes elevated expression of these mRNAs.

  7. Sensitivity of rock slope stability in relation to thermal regime - examples from Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myhra, K. S.; Etzelmuller, B.; Blikra, L. H.

    2014-12-01

    The steep topography in western and northern parts of Norway includes large unstable rock faces terminating into narrow fjords and lakes. The large number of such unstable faces lists rock slope failures as one of the bigger hazard threats in Norway. Successive studies have revealed presence of permafrost in Norway and a number of the unstable rock slope faces are located in mountain permafrost regions. It is known that thawing permafrost influences the rock-mechanical interplay in the bedrock and can hence play a role in the early stage of destabilization in rock walls. At present, both borehole measurements and several modelling studies for Norwegian mountains clearly indicate increasing ground temperatures during the last decades. As a first step in this study, a numerical study of the sensitivity of permafrost to climatic changes was performed for a number of sites along a latitudinal transect in Norway. Together with the thermal condition, lithology, structure and inclination are important conditions for the force regime in rock walls. In this study, the nature of temperature dependence on rock wall stability has been investigated through numerical modelling and the sensitivity of different factors related to these conditions has been evaluated in terms of stability, including the thermal regime. The focus has been on the initial conditions that are important for typical Norwegian rock wall sites and in particular for the sites where the simulations of the permafrost sensitivity have been performed. The analysis was applied for the Nordnes mountain in northern Norway, which is continuously surveyed due to the possible danger if large rock falls may hit the fjord water body generating tsunamis.

  8. Evaluation of satellite soil moisture products over Norway using ground-based observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griesfeller, A.; Lahoz, W. A.; Jeu, R. A. M. de; Dorigo, W.; Haugen, L. E.; Svendby, T. M.; Wagner, W.

    2016-03-01

    In this study we evaluate satellite soil moisture products from the advanced SCATterometer (ASCAT) and the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) over Norway using ground-based observations from the Norwegian water resources and energy directorate. The ASCAT data are produced using the change detection approach of Wagner et al. (1999), and the AMSR-E data are produced using the VUA-NASA algorithm (Owe et al., 2001, 2008). Although satellite and ground-based soil moisture data for Norway have been available for several years, hitherto, such an evaluation has not been performed. This is partly because satellite measurements of soil moisture over Norway are complicated owing to the presence of snow, ice, water bodies, orography, rocks, and a very high coastline-to-area ratio. This work extends the European areas over which satellite soil moisture is validated to the Nordic regions. Owing to the challenging conditions for soil moisture measurements over Norway, the work described in this paper provides a stringent test of the capabilities of satellite sensors to measure soil moisture remotely. We show that the satellite and in situ data agree well, with averaged correlation (R) values of 0.72 and 0.68 for ASCAT descending and ascending data vs in situ data, and 0.64 and 0.52 for AMSR-E descending and ascending data vs in situ data for the summer/autumn season (1 June-15 October), over a period of 3 years (2009-2011). This level of agreement indicates that, generally, the ASCAT and AMSR-E soil moisture products over Norway have high quality, and would be useful for various applications, including land surface monitoring, weather forecasting, hydrological modelling, and climate studies. The increasing emphasis on coupled approaches to study the earth system, including the interactions between the land surface and the atmosphere, will benefit from the availability of validated and improved soil moisture satellite datasets, including those

  9. Utilization of bark pockets as time capsules of atmospheric-lead pollution in Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Åberg, Gøran; Abrahamsen, Gunnar; Steinnes, Eiliv; Hjelmseth, Harry

    The outer bark being enveloped by and grown into the tree trunk (bark pocket), acts as a passive biomonitor which readily accumulates pollution on its surface. Analysed with stable lead isotopes, these environmental historical archives are very strong candidates for unwinding pollution history. The Røros sulphide ore district, central Norway, has a well-documented mining activity which started in 1647 and the quarrying and smelting in Røros was easily monitored from the middle of the 18th century until the smelting stopped in 1977. Thereafter other sources, like the increase in use of leaded gasoline and further on its outphasing, can be followed. In southern Norway analyses of bark pockets show a good correlation with Pb isotope data from peat cores and tree rings. This region has not been dominated by a single source for many centuries. From the 17th century until about 1925 coal firing and ore smelting in England and on the continent were the dominating sources of pollution in southwestern Norway. From about 1925 and until about 1950 other sources like waste burning contributed, and from about 1950 onwards the pollution has been a mixture of mainly leaded gasoline, coal and coke firing, and incineration of waste. The main objective of this study is to demonstrate the historical changes of environmental pollution in Norway during the last several hundred years up to the present time using tree bark pockets as pollution time capsules. Analyses of stable lead isotopes makes it possible to trace and identify lead from different sources of pollution and atmospherically transported lead deposited in central and southern Norway. Of special interest is the relationship between the industrialization of Europe and the global environmental pollution. Understanding this evolution is of considerable value for evaluating the present day situation.

  10. Noninvasive measurement of midexpiratory flow indicates bronchoconstriction in allergic rats.

    PubMed

    Glaab, Thomas; Hoymann, Heinz G; Hohlfeld, Jens M; Korolewitz, Regina; Hecht, Matthias; Alarie, Yves; Tschernig, Thomas; Braun, Armin; Krug, Norbert; Fabel, Helmut

    2002-10-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the value and applicability of tidal breathing pattern analysis to assess bronchoconstriction in conscious rats. Using noninvasive, head-out body plethysmography and the decrease in tidal midexpiratory flow (EF(50)), we measured airway responsiveness (AR) to inhaled acetylcholine and allergen in conscious Brown-Norway rats, followed by invasive determination of pulmonary conductance (GL) and EF(50) in anesthetized rats. Dose-response studies to acetylcholine showed that noninvasively recorded EF(50) closely reflected the dose-dependent decreases observed with the invasive monitoring of simultaneously measured GL and EF(50). After sensitization and intratracheal boost to ovalbumin or saline, rats were assessed for early and late AR to aerosolized ovalbumin. Ovalbumin aerosol challenge resulted in early and late AR in allergen-sensitized rats, whereas controls were unresponsive. The allergen-specific AR, as measured noninvasively by EF(50), was similar in degree compared with invasively recorded EF(50) and GL and was associated with enhanced IgE and airway inflammation. We conclude that EF(50) is a noninvasive and physiologically valid index of bronchoconstriction in a rat model of asthma. PMID:12235016

  11. Landslide response signatures from storm Desmond (UK)/Synne (Norway), December 2015.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dijkstra, Tom; Freeborough, Katy; Reeves, Helen; Nykjaer, Boje Soren; Sund, Monica; Devoli, Graziella; Banks, Vanessa

    2016-04-01

    Great Britain (GB) and coastal Norway share a common humid maritime climate and annually receive precipitation in the form of cyclonic low-pressure systems or as extra-tropical storms that travel across the Atlantic. Extreme meteorological events capable of triggering floods and landslides are becoming more frequent, with both GB and Norway being affected by a sequence of record-breaking precipitation events in the past decade. On the 5th and 6th of December 2015, storms Desmond/Synne struck northern GB and southwestern Norway with record-breaking rainfall; >340 mm in 24-hour in Cumbria (or 200% of long term average) and daily accumulations in Norway in excess of 140 mm and 236 mm/48hr. Landscape responses to hydro-meteorological stress are non-uniform and the result of a complex interaction of processes. Therefore, event-specific analysis provides an important tool to further our understanding, particularly to enhance the quality of daily landslide hazard assessments (DLHA) issued by the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE) and the British Geological Survey (BGS). The application of precipitation thresholds provides a useful first approximation for landslide triggering. However, antecedent conditioning of slopes and the spatial variability of precipitation signatures are important factors in determining the location of landslides. Given the magnitude of storms Desmond/Synne a much larger population of landslides was expected to occur. Within one month of the events occurring some 25 events are recorded in GB and circa 30 events in Norway. In GB most of these events are relatively small scale, dominated by translational slides and flows and about 80% of cases reported to occur along transport infrastructure. In Norway, roughly equal numbers of debris flows, shallow slides, rock falls, slush flows and snow avalanches are recorded in close proximity to infrastructure. As the media largely focused on simultaneous severe consequences of extensive

  12. Crustal composition in southern Norway from active and passive source seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stratford, W. R.; Frassetto, A. M.; Thybo, H.

    2010-12-01

    Crustal composition and structure beneath the Fennoscandian shield are highly variable due to the method of crustal accretion and the long history of extensional and compressional tectonics. In southern Norway, the Moho and crust are inferred to be the youngest of the shield, however, it is likely that a large discrepancy between crustal age and Moho age exists beneath the high southern Scandes where the Caledonian orogeny was in effect and beneath the Oslo Graben where 60 million years of rifting and magmatism has altered the crust. Crustal structure in southern Norway was targeted with a multi-disciplinary seismic study (Magnus-Rex - Mantle investigations of Norwegian uplift Structure). Three ~400 km long active source seismic profiles across the southern Norway and a region wide array of broadband seismometers were deployed. P and S-wave arrivals were recorded in the Magnus-Rex project, from which Poisson ratios for the crust in southern Norway are calculated from both active source profiling and receiver functions. Unusually strong S-wave arrivals allow rare insight into crustal Poisson’s ratio structure, within crustal layers, that is not normally available from active source data and are usually determined by earthquake tomography studies where only bulk crustal values are available. An average Poisson’s ratio of 0.25 is calculated for the crust in southern Norway, suggesting it is predominantly of felsic-intermediate composition and lacks any significant mafic lower crust. This differs significantly from the adjacent crust in the Svecofennian domain of the Fennoscandian shield where Moho depths reach ~50 km and an up to 20 km thick mafic lower crust is present. The vast difference in Moho depths in the Fennoscandian shield are, therefore, mostly due to the variation in thickness of the high Vp lower crust. Estimates of crustal composition and the effect of Magma intrusion within the Oslo Graben, and possible delamination of the lowermost crust beneath

  13. Characterization of the dominant bacterial communities during storage of Norway lobster and Norway lobster tails (Nephrops norvegicus) based on 16S rDNA analysis by PCR-DGGE.

    PubMed

    Bekaert, Karen; Devriese, Lisa; Maes, Sara; Robbens, Johan

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the microbial quality of whole Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) and Norway lobster tails to optimize handling conditions. This was done by assessing the total viable count (TVC) and characterizing the dominant microbiota. The cultivable microorganisms were quantified via classical microbiological plating methods. To characterize as many bacterial species present as possible, we performed advanced molecular identification techniques (PCR-DGGE). The initial TVC of fresh Norway lobster meat was high (3.0 log cfu/g) as compared to fish. No significant difference between whole Norway lobster and Norway lobster tails could be found during the storage period. From day 6 of storage, a significant difference between Plate Count Agar (PCA) and Marine Agar (MA) was observed. The microbiota of Norway lobster was dominated by members of the Gram-negative genera such as Psychrobacter spp., Pseudoalteromonas spp., Pseudomonas spp., Luteimonas spp., and Aliivibrio spp. From these bacteria, mainly Psychrobacter spp. and Pseudomonas spp. remained present until the end of the storage period. These are known spoilage organisms in fishery products. Other known spoilage organisms of crustaceans such as Photobacterium spp. could not be identified. PMID:25475276

  14. Effects of aging on mineralocorticoid-induced salt appetite in rats.

    PubMed

    Thunhorst, Robert L; Beltz, Terry G; Johnson, Alan Kim

    2013-12-15

    This work examined the effects of age on salt appetite measured in the form of daily saline (i.e., 0.3 M NaCl) drinking in response to administration of deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA; 5 mg/kg body wt) using young (4 mo), "middle-aged" adult (12 mo), and old (30 mo) male Brown Norway rats. Water and sodium intakes, excretions, and balances were determined daily. The salt appetite response was age dependent with "middle-aged" rats ingesting the most saline solution followed in order by young and then old rats. While old rats drank the least saline solution, the amounts of saline ingested still were copious and comprise an unambiguous demonstration of salt appetite in old rats. Middle-aged rats had the highest saline preference ratios of the groups under baseline conditions and throughout testing consistent with an increased avidity for sodium taste. There were age differences in renal handling of water and sodium that were consistent with a renal contribution to the greater saline intakes by middle-aged rats. There was evidence of impaired renal function in old rats, but this did not account for the reduced saline intakes of the oldest rats. PMID:24133100

  15. Effects of aging on mineralocorticoid-induced salt appetite in rats

    PubMed Central

    Beltz, Terry G.; Johnson, Alan Kim

    2013-01-01

    This work examined the effects of age on salt appetite measured in the form of daily saline (i.e., 0.3 M NaCl) drinking in response to administration of deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA; 5 mg/kg body wt) using young (4 mo), “middle-aged” adult (12 mo), and old (30 mo) male Brown Norway rats. Water and sodium intakes, excretions, and balances were determined daily. The salt appetite response was age dependent with “middle-aged” rats ingesting the most saline solution followed in order by young and then old rats. While old rats drank the least saline solution, the amounts of saline ingested still were copious and comprise an unambiguous demonstration of salt appetite in old rats. Middle-aged rats had the highest saline preference ratios of the groups under baseline conditions and throughout testing consistent with an increased avidity for sodium taste. There were age differences in renal handling of water and sodium that were consistent with a renal contribution to the greater saline intakes by middle-aged rats. There was evidence of impaired renal function in old rats, but this did not account for the reduced saline intakes of the oldest rats. PMID:24133100

  16. Conjugate volcanic rifted margins, seafloor spreading, and microcontinent: Insights from new high-resolution aeromagnetic surveys in the Norway Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gernigon, Laurent; Blischke, Anett; Nasuti, Aziz; Sand, Morten

    2015-05-01

    We have acquired and processed new aeromagnetic data that cover the entire oceanic Norway Basin located between the Møre volcanic rifted margin and the Jan Mayen microcontinent (JMMC). The new compilation allows us to revisit the structure of the conjugate volcanic (rifted) margins and the spreading evolution of the Norway Basin from the Early Eocene breakup time to the Late Oligocene when the Aegir Ridge became extinct. The volcanic margins (in a strict sense) that formed before the opening of the Norway Basin have been disconnected with the previous Jurassic-Mid-Cretaceous episode of crustal thinning. We also show evidence of relationships between the margin architecture, the breakup magmatism distribution along the continent-oceanic transition, and the subsequent oceanic segmentation. The Norway Basin shows a complex system of asymmetric oceanic segments locally affected by episodic ridge jumps. The new aeromagnetic compilation also confirms that a fan-shaped spreading evolution of the Norway Basin was clearly active before the cessation of seafloor spreading and extinction of the Aegir Ridge. An important Mid-Eocene kinematic event at around magnetic chron C21r can be recognized in the Norway Basin. This event coincides with the onset of diking and increasing rifting activity (and possible oceanic accretion?) between the proto-JMMC and the East Greenland margin. It led to a second phase of breakup and microcontinent formation in the Norwegian-Greenland Sea ~26 Myrs later in the Oligocene.

  17. Enhanced ethylene emissions from red and Norway spruce exposed to acidic mists

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yimin; Wellburn, A.R. )

    1989-09-01

    Acidic cloudwater is believed to cause needle injury and to decrease winter hardiness in conifers. During simulations of these adverse conditions, rates of ethylene emissions from and levels of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) in both red and Norway spruce needles increased as a result of treatment with acidic mists but amounts of 1-malonyl(amino)cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid remained unchanged. However, release of significant quantities of ethylene by another mechanism independent of ACC was also detected from brown needles. Application of exogenous plant growth regulators such as auxin, kinetic, abscisic acid and gibberellic acid (each 0.1 millimolar) had no obvious effects on the rates of basal or stress ethylene production from Norway spruce needles. The kinetics of ethylene formation by acidic mist-stressed needles suggest that there is no active inhibitive mechanism in spruce to prevent stress ethylene being released once ACC has been formed.

  18. National independence, women’s political participation, and life expectancy in Norway

    PubMed Central

    Nobles, Jenna; Brown, Ryan; Catalano, Ralph

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the role of national independence and women’s political participation on population health using historical lifespan data from Norway. We use time-series methods to analyze data measuring the actual length of time lived by Norwegian birth cohorts spanning a 61 year period surrounding the political emancipation of Norway from Sweden in 1905 and the establishment of a Norwegian monarchy in 1906. The use of a discrete, historical event improves our ability to interpret the population health effects of national independence and women’s political participation as causal. We find a large and significant positive effect on the lifespan of Norwegian females born in the 1906 cohort. Interestingly, the effect does not extend to all living females during the Norwegian drive toward sovereignty. We conclude that the beneficial effects were likely conferred through intrauterine biological transfers and/or neonatal investments specific to the first year of life. PMID:20172639

  19. Influence of soil acidification in southern Norway on the 137Cs exposure of moose?

    PubMed

    Steinnes, Eiliv; Gaare, Eldar; Engen, Steinar

    2009-06-01

    The mean (137)Cs activity concentration in 278 liver samples of moose (Alces alces) from 16 municipalities located in different parts of Norway varied within the range 43-752 Bq kg(-1) among the municipalities. In general the geographical variation corresponded to the fallout pattern produced by the Chernobyl accident. In three communities in the southernmost part of the country however the transfer factor, defined as the activity in moose liver divided by the corresponding level in surface soil, was 6.5 times higher on average than elsewhere in Norway. Possible reasons for this highly significant difference are discussed, and it is hypothesized that the apparently much higher plant uptake in the south may be related to extensive soil acidification in this area from transboundary pollution. PMID:19303135

  20. Implementing a patient blood management program in Norway: Where to start?

    PubMed

    Espinosa, A; Arsenovic, M; Hervig, T; Sundic, T; Aandahl, A; Kronborg, J; Seghatchian, J

    2016-06-01

    Norway has recently established a working group to implement a national patient blood management (PBM) program. Although benchmarking regarding blood usage is challenging in Norway due to legal barriers, a survey was sent to different hospitals to identify possible areas to be prioritized in the first phase of the PBM program. Among them, optimizing the patient's hemoglobin level before elective surgery and implementing electronic check-lists for the indication of transfusion when ordering blood products are two measures that may have a considerable impact on blood usage. The results of the survey also showed that patients may receive a red blood cell transfusion at hemoglobin levels that are higher than those internationally recommended. Since there are no national guidelines for the use of blood products, agreement regarding hemoglobin thresholds is essential to reduce variation in transfusion practice. To achieve these goals, the transfusion specialist plays a key role in promoting the principles behind the PBM concept at the local hospital. PMID:27216542

  1. Mapping Norway - A Method to Register and Survey the Status of Accessibility.

    PubMed

    Bögelsack, Kathrin; Michaelis, Sven

    2016-01-01

    The Norwegian mapping authority has developed an APP and a standard method for mapping accessibility for people with limited or no walking abilities, the blind and the partially sighted in urban and recreational areas. We choose an object-orientated approach where points, lines and polygons represents objects in the environment. All data are stored in a geospatial database, so they can be presented as web map and analysed using GIS software. To this day, more than 160 municipalities are mapped using that method. The aim of this project is to establish a national standard for mapping and to provide a geodatabase that shows the status of accessibility throughout Norway. The data provide a useful tool for national statistics, local planning authorities and private users. First results show that accessibility is low and Norway still faces many challenges to meet the government's goals for Universal Design. PMID:27534365

  2. The 2015 hospital treatment choice reform in Norway: Continuity or change?

    PubMed

    Ringard, Ånen; Saunes, Ingrid Sperre; Sagan, Anna

    2016-04-01

    In several European countries, including Norway, polices to increase patient choice of hospital provider have remained high on the political agenda. The main reason behind the interest in hospital choice reforms in Norway has been the belief that increasing choice can remedy the persistent problem of long waiting times for elective hospital care. Prior to the 2013 General Election, the Conservative Party campaigned in favour of a new choice reform: "the treatment choice reform". This article describes the background and process leading up to introduction of the reform in the autumn of 2015. It also provides a description of the content and discusses possible implications of the reform for patients, providers and government bodies. In sum, the reform contains elements of both continuity and change. The main novelty of the reform lies in the increased role of private for-profit healthcare providers. PMID:27005300

  3. A new primary care rostering and capitation system in Norway: Lessons for Canada?

    PubMed Central

    Ostbye, T; Hunskaar, S

    1997-01-01

    Providing every patient with a personal primary care physician or, from the physician's perspective, establishing a stable roster or list of patients is currently being actively debated in Canada. Norway's system of primary care medicine, similar to Canada's, faces many of the same problems. In 1992 a trial rostering system with blended funding (capitation, fee-for-service and user fees) was established in 4 Norwegian municipalities. After 3 years of close monitoring, the results of system evaluations have attracted strong interest. This article reports on the benefits and problems encountered with the new rostering system in Norway. If Canada is moving in the same direction, some of the lessons learned may be helpful. PMID:9220943

  4. Thallium kinetics in rat cardiac transplant rejection

    SciTech Connect

    Barak, J.H.; LaRaia, P.J.; Boucher, C.A.; Fallon, J.T.; Buckley, M.J.

    1988-04-01

    Cardiac transplant rejection is a very complex process involving both cellular and vascular injury. Recently, thallium imaging has been used to assess acute transplant rejection. It has been suggested that changes in thallium kinetics might be a sensitive indicator of transplant rejection. Accordingly, thallium kinetics were assessed in vivo in acute untreated rat heterotopic (cervical) transplant rejection. Male Lewis rats weighing 225-250 g received heterotopic heart transplants from syngeneic Lewis rats (group A; n = 13), or allogeneic Brown Norway rats (group B; n = 11). Rats were imaged serially on the 2nd and the 7th postoperative days. Serial cardiac thallium content was determined utilizing data collected every 150 sec for 2 hr. The data were fit to a monoexponential curve and the decay rate constant (/sec) derived. By day 7 all group B hearts had histological evidence of severe acute rejection, and demonstrated decreased global contraction. Group A hearts showed normal histology and contractility. However, thallium uptakes and washout of the two groups were the same. Peak thallium uptake of group B was +/- 3758 1166 counts compared with 3553 +/- 950 counts in the control group A (P = 0.6395); The 2-hr percentage of washout was 12.1 +/- 1.04 compared with 12.1 +/- 9.3 (P = 1.0000); and the decay constant was -0.00002065 +/- 0.00001799 compared with -0.00002202 +/- 0.00001508 (P = 0.8409). These data indicate that in vivo global thallium kinetics are preserved during mild-to-severe acute transplant rejection. These findings suggest that the complex cellular and extracellular processes of acute rejection limit the usefulness of thallium kinetics in the detection of acute transplant rejection.

  5. Do Time in Child Care and Peer Group Exposure Predict Poor Socioemotional Adjustment in Norway?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solheim, Elisabet; Wichstrøm, Lars; Belsky, Jay; Berg-Nielsen, Turid Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Extensive exposure to nonparental child care during the first 4.5 years of life has been demonstrated in some American studies to negatively affect children's socioemotional functioning. Data from 935 preschool children who averaged 54.9 (SD = 3.0) months of age, from Trondheim, Norway were used to examine whether such negative effects, would…

  6. Impact on agriculture in Norway from the Chernobyl accident, 1986-1995

    SciTech Connect

    Tveten, U.; Bergen, T.D.S.; Brynildsen, L.I.; Amundsen, I.

    1996-12-31

    Even now, 10 yr after the Chernobyl accident, the consequences are felt in some Western European countries, particularly in Norway, where considerable yearly economic consequences to Norwegian agriculture are incurred. This paper summarizes these economic consequences year by year over the 10-yr period and describes the various countermeasures adopted to reduce the consequences. The consequences are mainly connected to the production of mutton and reindeer meat.

  7. Changes In The Heating Degree-days In Norway Due Toglobal Warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skaugen, T. E.; Tveito, O. E.; Hanssen-Bauer, I.

    A continuous spatial representation of temperature improves the possibility topro- duce maps of temperature-dependent variables. A temperature scenario for the period 2021-2050 is obtained for Norway from the Max-Planck-Institute? AOGCM, GSDIO ECHAM4/OPEC 3. This is done by an ?empirical downscaling method? which in- volves the use of empirical links between large-scale fields and local variables to de- duce estimates of the local variables. The analysis is obtained at forty-six sites in Norway. Spatial representation of the anomalies of temperature in the scenario period compared to the normal period (1961-1990) is obtained with the use of spatial interpo- lation in a GIS. The temperature scenario indicates that we will have a warmer climate in Norway in the future, especially during the winter season. The heating degree-days (HDD) is defined as the accumulated Celsius degrees be- tween the daily mean temperature and a threshold temperature. For Scandinavian countries, this threshold temperature is 17 Celsius degrees. The HDD is found to be a good estimate of accumulated cold. It is therefore a useful index for heating energy consumption within the heating season, and thus to power production planning. As a consequence of the increasing temperatures, the length of the heating season and the HDD within this season will decrease in Norway in the future. The calculations of the heating season and the HDD is estimated at grid level with the use of a GIS. The spatial representation of the heating season and the HDD can then easily be plotted. Local information of the variables being analysed can be withdrawn from the spatial grid in a GIS. The variable is prepared for further spatial analysis. It may also be used as an input to decision making systems.

  8. Use of OHRA Toolkit in the QRA work in Norway and UK

    SciTech Connect

    Skramstad, E.; Hundseid, H.

    1995-12-31

    The Offshore Hazard and Risk Analysis (OHRA) Toolkit is a comprehensive computer program which has been developed for quantitative risk analyses of offshore installations. Use of OHRAT in the QRA (Quantitative Risk Analysis) work in Norway and UK are increasing rapidly. Being a flexible tool there is no fixed approach for how to do a QRA with OHRAT. The purpose of this paper is to present typical approaches and experience from use for operators in the Norwegian part of the North Sea.

  9. Late Triassic uplift of southern Norway revealed by detrital zircons in the Norwegian-Danish Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivarius, Mette; Nielsen, Lars H.; Weibel, Rikke; Kristensen, Lars; Thomsen, Tonny B.

    2016-04-01

    Zircon U/Pb geochronometry is used to identify the sediment source areas of the Upper Triassic to Lower Jurassic shallow marine to paralic Gassum Formation in the Norwegian-Danish Basin. The analyses of zircon grains from geographically and stratigraphically widely distributed cores take advantage of the detailed sequence stratigraphic framework existing for the succession. The zircon ages indicate that the sediment in the lower part of the Gassum Formation in the northern and central parts of the basin was supplied solely from the Telemarkia Terrane in the southern part of southern Norway. However, age signatures from other basement terranes were added during periods of transgression presumably as a result of longshore reworking. The sediment in the eastern part of the basin has a different provenance signature that reflects supply from various sources of which some or all seemingly include older sediments. The basinwide fluvial incision that occurred during a relative sea-level fall in the Rhaetian is interpreted to be related to uplift of southern Norway since a pronounced content of zircon grains with U/Pb ages of 1.65 Ga were introduced in the Norwegian-Danish Basin at the time. This age is dominant in the upper part of the Gassum Formation and is present in all studied younger sediments in the Norwegian-Danish Basin, whereas it is missing in older sediments in the basin. Rocks with corresponding ages are presently exposed in the Jotun Nappe Complex and the Western Gneiss Complex in the central and northern parts of southern Norway. Thus, major faulting activity must have occurred in southern Norway during the Late Triassic that made such rocks available for erosion with permanent southeastwards drainage.

  10. Outbreak of wound botulism in people who inject drugs, Norway, October to November 2013.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, E; Arnesen, T M; Brantsaeter, A B; Gerlyng, P; Grepp, M; Hansen, B Å; Jonsrud, K; Lundgren, B; Mellegård, H; Møller-Stray, J; Rønning, K; Vestrheim, D F; Vold, L

    2013-01-01

    In October and November 2013, four cases of wound botulism were confirmed in people who inject drugs (PWID) in Norway. Two additional cases are suspected. Because of the international distribution pathways for heroin – the likely source of the outbreak – healthcare workers and public health authorities in other countries should remain vigilant for wound botulism in PWID. This outbreak serves as a reminder that countries should ensure access to botulinum antitoxin in case of outbreak situations. PMID:24229788

  11. A glimpse into 30 years of struggle against prostitution by the women's liberation movement in Norway.

    PubMed

    Strøm, Agnete

    2009-11-01

    The Women's Front of Norway has worked against prostitution for 30 years. In 2008 a law criminalizing the purchase of a sexual act was passed in Norway. This article describes the struggle and the main actors in lobbying for the law. In the 1980s, we raised awareness of prostitution and trafficking in women in a study of the pornography industry, and targeted sex tourist agencies organizing trips to the Philippines and Thailand. In the 1990s, our members in trade unions got their unions to take a stand against prostitution and against legalizing prostitution as "work". In 2006, the Norwegian Confederation of Trade Unions Congress supported a law criminalizing the buyer of a sexual act; this had a strong impact on the centre-left coalition Government. We invited leaders of the Coalition Against Trafficking in Women to Norway to meet parliamentarians and trade unionists, and kept up the pressure. From the start, the focus was on ensuring that the situation for women in prostitution was ameliorated. Our demands have been for better social services and job training. Street prostitution, especially in Oslo, has been curbed, and a growth in the indoor market has not been reported. Our next task is participating in the awareness campaign "Buying Sex is not a Sport" in connection with the Soccer World Cup, South Africa, 2010. PMID:19962635

  12. Development programs call for two concrete platforms in oil, gas fields off Norway

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-23

    This paper reports on development plans for two fields off Norway that have given a boost to use of concrete for the construction of floating production facilities. Conoco Norway Inc. let a $350 million contract for construction of the world's first concrete hull, tension leg platform (TLP) to Norwegian Contractors, Stavanger. As part of a $3.5 billion project, it will be installed in the Conoco group's Heidrun oil and gas field in the Haltenbanken area of the Norwegian Sea off mid-Norway. In addition, a group led by Norsk Hydro Produksjon AS, Oslo, chose a concrete floating production platform as the basis for a $2.42 billion development of the oil province in Troll gas field in the North SEa. Also in the Norwegian North Sea, companies involved in the Sleipner gas development project agreed to seek approval for the $1.77 billion, first phase development phase of West Sleipner reserves beginning in 1996. This will use conventional production technology, although the possibility of a concrete treatment platform has not been ruled out.

  13. Lung cancer survival in Norway, 1997-2011: from nihilism to optimism.

    PubMed

    Nilssen, Yngvar; Strand, Trond Eirik; Fjellbirkeland, Lars; Bartnes, Kristian; Møller, Bjørn

    2016-01-01

    We examine changes in survival and patient-, tumour- and treatment-related factors among resected and nonresected lung cancer patients, and identify subgroups with the largest and smallest survival improvements.National population-based data from the Cancer Registry of Norway, Statistics Norway and the Norwegian Patient Register were linked for lung cancer patients diagnosed during 1997-2011. The 1- and 5-year relative survival were estimated, and Cox proportional hazard regression, adjusted for selected patient characteristics, was used to assess prognostic factors for survival in lung cancer patients overall and stratified by resection status.We identified 34 157 patients with lung cancer. The proportion of histological diagnoses accompanied by molecular genetics testing increased from 0% to 26%, while those accompanied by immunohistochemistry increased from 8% to 26%. The 1-year relative survival among nonresected and resected patients increased from 21.7% to 34.2% and 75.4% to 91.5%, respectively. The improved survival remained significant after adjustment for age, sex, stage and histology. The largest improvements in survival occurred among resected and adenocarcinoma patients, while patients ≥80 years experienced the smallest increase.Lung cancer survival has increased considerably in Norway. The explanation is probably multifactorial, including improved attitude towards diagnostic work-up and treatment, and more accurate diagnostic testing that allows for improved selection for resection and improved treatment options. PMID:26541525

  14. The impact of dementia on the use of general practitioners among the elderly in Norway

    PubMed Central

    Ydstebø, A.E.; Bergh, S.; Selbæk, G.; Benth, J. Šaltytė; Lurås, H.; Vossius, C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To assess the use of general practitioners (GPs), in elderly home-dwelling persons in Norway and explore the impact of cognitive decline, age, and living situation. Design. Prospective longitudinal study. Setting. Data were collected from municipalities in four counties in Norway in the period from January 2009 to August 2012. Subjects. Home-dwelling persons 70 years of age or older, receiving in-home care. Main outcome measures. Use of GPs over a period of 18 months related to cognitive state, functional status, neuropsychiatric symptoms, and demographics. Results. A total of 599 persons were included. The mean annual number of consultations per participant was 5.6 (SD = 5.4). People with moderate to severe dementia had fewer consultations per year compared with those with mild or no dementia (3.7 versus 5.8 per year, p = 0.004). In the multivariate model higher age predicted fewer consultations while affective neuropsychiatric symptoms were associated with an increase in frequency of consultations. The most frequent reason to consult a GP was cardiovascular diseases (36.8% of all consultations), followed by musculoskeletal complaints (12.1%) and psychiatric diagnoses (8.7%). Conclusion. Our study shows that the home-dwelling elderly with moderate to severe dementia in Norway consult their GP less often than persons with mild or no dementia. This could indicate a need for better interaction between the municipal care and social services and the general practitioners. PMID:26294095

  15. The first privately produced map in Norway with a geodetic reference frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettersen, B. R.

    2009-04-01

    A map of the district surrounding lake Mjøsa in Norway was published in 1796 by the Topographical Society of Norway. Their members contributed private funds for this unique map and for the publication of the Topographical Journal, containing multidisciplinary descriptions, including environmental, of many regions of the country. The map was produced by Niels S. Darre, an army surveyor and cartographer, as a private undertaking in his own home district. The geodetic reference point of the map is the church at Vang, the position of which had been determined by repeated astronomical observations by its vicar, Abraham Pihl. He had been trained as an astronomical observer by professor Thomas Bugge at the Round Tower Observatory in Copenhagen. A supporting latitude determination near Lillehammer is also noted on the map, obtained by Maximillian Hell in 1769 on his return from Vardø in North-Norway to Vienna after a successful observation of the transit of Venus. The observed magnetic deviation from astronomically determined north is given. The map also identifies a marker of the great flood of the river Glomma in 1789, causing environmental and social devastation.

  16. Socioeconomic characteristics and health outcomes in Sami speaking municipalities and a control group in northern Norway

    PubMed Central

    Norum, Jan; Nieder, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The Sami people constitute an ethnic minority in northern Norway. The objectives of this study were to compare municipalities with a majority of Sami in the population and a control group with regard to socioeconomic factors and health outcome. Methods Original data from Statistics Norway and Directorate of health on socioeconomic factors (education, unemployment, disability, poverty) and health outcomes [total mortality, cancer specific mortality, cardiovascular disease (CVD) specific mortality] were imported from the “Health Atlas” at the Northern Norway Regional Health Authority (NNRHA) trust. The 8 municipalities in the administration area of the Sami language law (Sami-majority group – 18,868 inhabitants) was compared with a control group consisting of 11 municipalities where the Sami constitute a small minority in the population (18,931 inhabitants). Most data were from 2005 and 2008. Results There was no significant difference in socioeconomic factors. Overall, cancer- and CVD-specific mortality rates were similar in both groups. The life expectancy was significantly longer among women in the Sami-majority area (81.3 vs. 79.5 years, p=0.035) and males (74.5 vs. 72.0 years, p=0.037). Conclusion Socioeconomic factors and cause-specific mortality rate were similar in the Sami-majority group and the control group. Residents of both sexes in Sami-majority areas enjoyed longer life expectancy. PMID:22901291

  17. The incidence and aetiology of acute kidney injury in children in Norway between 1999 and 2008

    PubMed Central

    Jenssen, Gaute Reier; Hovland, Eirik; Bangstad, Hans-Jacob; Nygård, Karin; Vold, Line; Bjerre, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Aim Primary acute kidney injury (AKI) is a direct cause of hospitalisation in children, but can also result from other conditions. There is limited information on the epidemiology of this condition. Our aim was to describe the national incidence rate and aetiology of acute kidney injury in children under the age of 16 in Norway from 1999 to 2008. Methods We carried out a retrospective study of medical records provided by all 18 of the paediatric hospital departments that specialise in treating paediatric patients with AKI. Results We identified 315 cases of AKI (53% male), with an estimated average annual incidence rate of 3.3 cases per 100 000 children and a median annual occurrence of 33 cases. Most cases (43%) were in children under five. We identified 53 aetiologies and classified these into 30 aetiological groups: 24% of the cases were prerenal (n = 75), 74% were intrinsic/renal (n = 234) and 2% were postrenal (n = 5). Nephritic syndromes was the major cause (44%) of AKI, followed by haemolytic-uraemic syndrome (HUS) (15%). Conclusion Nephritic syndromes and HUS are the most common aetiologies of AKI in Norway. Although our results could indicate a low incidence of paediatric AKI in Norway, the lack of other national studies makes comparisons difficult. PMID:25039408

  18. The postglacial Stuoragurra Fault, North Norway - A textural and mineralogical study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roaldset, E.

    2012-04-01

    The postglacial Stuoragurra Fault, North Norway - A textural and mineralogical study Elen Roaldset(1), Mari Åm (2), and Oddleiv Olesen(3) 1) Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, P.O.Box 1172 Blindern, 0318 Oslo, Norway 2) Statoil R &D, P. O. Box 2470, 7005 Trondheim, Norway 3) Norwegian Geological Survey, P.O.Box 6315 Sluppen, 7491 Trondheim, Norway The Stuoragurra Fault is part of the Lapland province of postglacial faults and was identified in 1983 during a colloborative project between the Geological Surveys of Finland Norway and Sweden. The Stuoragurra Fault is an 80 km long fault zone which contains three main segments of eastward dipping faults (30-55 deg.) with up to 10 m of reverse displacement and a 7 m high escarpment. It cross-cuts glaciofluvial deposits and consequently being younger than 10.000 years. The postglacial fault segments follow to a large extent older fault zones represented by lithified breccias and diabases of Proterozoic age. In this paper we will present textural and mineralogical study of a 135 m continous core drilled across the fault zone. The investigation methods include quality assessments by rock quality designation methods (RQD and Q- methods), textural and petrological descriptions visually and by thin section microscopy, and mineralogical analysis by X-ray diffraction. Special attention is drawn to neoformed and/or degraded minerals like clay minerals and iron oxides/hydroxides. The quality assessments of the cored material reflect the degree of rock deformation and fragmentation and show the quality of the bedrock generally to be of very poor (about 60%) to poor quality" (25%) The main minerals in the fresh rock are quarts, feldspar, mica and iron oxides (magnetite and ilmenite). Throughout the cored borehole products of weathering have formed on fissures, fractures and in strongly deformed, gravelly, zones. The neoformed minerals include kaolinite, smectite, and vermiculite, as well as goethite. The mineralogical

  19. Fatty Acid-Derived Pro-Toxicants of the Rat Selective Toxicant Norbormide.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hans; Conole, Daniel; Atkinson, Darcy J; Laita, Olivia; Jay-Smith, Morgan; Pagano, Mario Angelo; Ribaudo, Giovanni; Cavalli, Maurizio; Bova, Sergio; Hopkins, Brian; Brimble, Margaret A; Rennison, David

    2016-06-01

    Norbormide [5-(α-hydroxy-α-2-pyridylbenzyl)-7-(α-2-pyridylbenzylidene)-5-norbornene-2,3-dicarboximide] (NRB), an existing but infrequently used rodenticide, is known to be uniquely toxic to rats but relatively harmless to other rodents and mammals. However, as an acute vasoactive, NRB has a rapid onset of action which makes it relatively unpalatable to rats, often leading to sublethal uptake and accompanying bait shyness. A series of NRB-derived pro-toxicants (3a - i, 4a - i, and 5a - i) were prepared in an effort to 'mask' this acute response and improve both palatability and efficacy. Their synthesis, in vitro biological evaluation (vasocontractile response in rat vasculature, stability in selected rat media) and palatability/efficacy in Sprague-Dawley, wild Norway, and wild ship rats is described. Most notably, pro-toxicant 3d was revealed to be free of all pre-cleavage vasoconstrictory activity in rat caudal artery and was subsequently demonstrated to release NRB in the presence of rat blood, liver, and pancreatic enzymes. Moreover, it consistently displayed a high level of acceptance by rats in a two-choice bait-palatability and efficacy trial, with accompanying high mortality. On this evidence, fatty acid ester prodrugs would appear to offer a promising platform for the further development of NRB-derived toxicants with enhanced palatability and efficacy profiles. PMID:27144301

  20. Investigation of infectivity of neonates and adults from different rat strains to Toxoplasma gondii Prugniaud shows both variation which correlates with iNOS and Arginase-1 activity and increased susceptibility of neonates to infection.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jiang-Mei; Yi, Si-Qi; Wu, Ming-Shui; Geng, Guo-Qing; Shen, Ji-Long; Lu, Fang-Li; Hide, Geoff; Lai, De-Hua; Lun, Zhao-Rong

    2015-02-01

    Mouse models differ considerably from humans with regard to clinical symptoms of toxoplasmosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii and, by comparison, the rat model is more representative of this disease in humans. In the present study, we found that different strains of adult and newborn rats (Lewis, Wistar, Sprague Dawley, Brown Norway and Fischer 344) exhibited remarkable variation in the number of brain cysts following inoculation with the T.gondii Prugniaud strain. In adult rats, large numbers of cysts (1231 ± 165.6) were observed in Fischer 344, but none in the other four. This situation was different in newborn rats aged from 5 to 20 days old. All Fischer 344 and Brown Norway newborns were cyst-positive while cyst-positive infection in Sprague Dawley neonates ranged from 54.5% to 60% depending on their age at infection. In Wistar and Lewis rat neonates, however, cyst-positivity rates of 0-42.9% and 0-25% were found respectively. To investigate whether rat strain differences in infectivity could be related to inherent strain and genetic differences in the host immune response, we correlated our data with previously reported strain differences in iNOS/Arginase ratio in adult rats and found them to be linked. These results show that interactions between host genetic background and age of rat influence T.gondii infection. PMID:25541383

  1. Rat eradication and the resistance and resilience of passerine bird assemblages in the Falkland Islands.

    PubMed

    Tabak, Michael A; Poncet, Sally; Passfield, Ken; Goheen, Jacob R; Martinez del Rio, Carlos

    2015-05-01

    Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) were introduced to the Falkland Islands and are detrimental to native passerines. Rat eradication programmes are being used to help protect the avifauna. This study assesses the effectiveness of eradication programmes while using this conservation practice as a natural experiment to explore the ecological resistance, resilience and homeostasis of bird communities. We conducted bird surveys on 230 islands: 85 in the presence of rats, 108 that were historically free of rats and 37 from which rats had been eradicated. Bird detection data were used to build occupancy models for each species and estimate species-area relationships. Count data were used to estimate relative abundance and community structure. Islands with invasive rats had reduced species richness of passerines and a different community structure than islands on which rats were historically absent. Although the species richness of native passerines was remarkably similar on eradicated and historically rat-free islands, community structure on eradicated islands was more similar to that of rat-infested islands than to historically rat-free islands. The results suggest that in the Falkland Islands, species richness of passerines is not resistant to invasive rats, but seems to be resilient following their removal. In contrast, community structure seems to be neither resistant nor resilient. From a conservation perspective, rat eradication programmes in the Falkland Islands appear to be effective at restoring native species richness, but they are not necessarily beneficial for species of conservation concern. For species that do not recolonize, translocations following eradications may be necessary. PMID:25355608

  2. Organic matter characteristics in boreal forest soils under stands of silver birch, Norway spruce, and Norway spruce with a mixture of silver birch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolander, A.; Kitunen, V.

    2012-04-01

    The aim was to study how tree species and a tree species mixture affect microbial C and N transformations and two major plant secondary compound groups, terpenes and phenolic compounds in soil. The study site was a tree-species experiment in middle-eastern part of Finland containing plots of 43-year-old silver birch, Norway spruce and Norway spruce with a mixture of silver birch (22 and 37 % birch of the total stem number). Soil was podzol and humus type mor. Samples were taken from the organic layer. C and N in the microbial biomass, rates of C mineralization (CO2 evolution), net N mineralization and nitrification, and concentrations of total water-soluble phenolic compounds, condensed tannins and different kind of terpenes were measured. Amounts of C and N in the microbial biomass and the rates of C mineralization and net N mineralization were all lower under spruce than birch, and particularly net N mineralization was stimulated by birch mixture. Concentrations of total water-soluble phenolic compounds were on a similar level, irrespective of tree species. However, there were less low-molecular-weight phenolics and more high-molecular-weight phenolics under spruce than birch. Concentrations of condensed tannins and both sesqui- and diterpenes were all higher under spruce than birch but the concentrations of triterpenes were similar in all soils. The difference between tree species was greatest with monoterpenes which were measured from both organic layer and soil atmosphere: high concentrations under spruce and negligible under birch. Birch mixture tended to decrease the concentrations of condensed tannins and mono-, sesqui- and diterpenes.

  3. Serum IgE concentration and other immune manifestations of treatment with gold salts are linked to the MHC and IL4 regions in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Kermarrec, N.; Blanpied, C.; Druet, P.

    1996-01-01

    A subset of patients with rheumatoid arthritis occasionally develops skin reactions and glomerulonephritis and exhibits an increase in serum IgE concentration when treated with gold salts. Brown-Norway (BN) rats injected with aurothiopropanolsulfonate (ATPS) also manifest an autoimmune glomerulonephritis and increased serum IgE concentration, whereas Lewis (LEW) rats are resistant to complications. Here, we show linkage between responses to ATPS in a (BN x LEW) F2 cohort and the major histocompatibility complex (RT1) on rat chromosome 20 and between markers in the region of IL4 and other candidate genes on rat chromosome 10. Recently, human serum IgE concentration has been reported to be linked to the IL-4 region. Taken together, these findings raise the possibility that homologous genes could be implicated in ATPS manifestations in the rat and in the regulation of IgE levels in the human. 10 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  4. Holocene glacier variability and Neoglacial hydroclimate at Ålfotbreen, western Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gjerde, Marthe; Bakke, Jostein; Vasskog, Kristian; Nesje, Atle; Hormes, Anne

    2016-02-01

    Glaciers and small ice caps respond rapidly to climate perturbations (mainly winter precipitation, and summer temperature), and the mass-balance of glaciers located in western Norway is governed mainly by winter precipitation (Pw). Records of past Pw can offer important insight into long-term changes in atmospheric circulation, but few proxies are able to accurately capture winter climate variations in Scandinavia. Reconstructions of equilibrium-line-altitude (ELA) variations from glaciers that are sensitive to changes in Pw therefore provide a unique opportunity to quantify past winter climate in this region. Here we present a new, Holocene glacier activity reconstruction for the maritime ice cap Ålfotbreen in western Norway, based on investigations of distal glacier-fed lake sediments and modern mass balance measurements (1963-2010). Several lake sediment cores have been subject to a suite of laboratory analyses, including measurements of physical parameters such as dry bulk density (DBD) and loss-on-ignition (LOI), geochemistry (XRF), surface magnetic susceptibility (MS), and grain size distribution, to identify glacial sedimentation in the lake. Both radiocarbon (AMS 14C) and 210Pb dating were applied to establish age-depth relationships in the sediment cores. A novel approach was used to calibrate the sedimentary record against a simple ELA model, which allowed reconstruction of continuous ELA changes for Ålfotbreen during the Neoglacial (when Ålfotbreen was present, i.e. the last ∼1400 years). Furthermore, the resulting ELA variations were combined with an independent summer temperature record to calculate Neoglacial Pw using the 'Liestøl equation'. The resulting Pw record is of higher resolution than previous reconstructions from glaciers in Norway and shows the potential of glacier records to provide high-resolution data reflecting past variations in hydroclimate. Complete deglaciation of the Ålfotbreen occurred ∼9700 cal yr BP, and the ice cap was

  5. Platelet deposition in rat heart allografts and the effect of a thromboxane receptor antagonist

    SciTech Connect

    Foegh, M.L.; Khirabadi, B.S.; Ramwell, P.W.

    1986-07-01

    The effect of a thromboxane antagonist, L640,035 on platelet deposition in heart allografts was studied. Twenty Lewis rats received heterotopic allografts from Lewis x Brown-Norway F1 hybrid. All recipients received azathioprine (5 mg/kg/day). The rats were divided into three groups. Groups II and III were also treated daily with either the vehicle for L640,035 or L640,035 respectively. Syngeneic indium-111-labeled platelet deposition was determined in the allograft and the native heart at 6, 9, and 13 days after transplantation; group III was studied on the sixth and ninth day only. A rapidly increasing platelet deposition was seen in allografts from rats given azathioprine; whereas the thromboxane antagonist prevented the increase in platelet deposition on the ninth day.

  6. Modeling the Impact of Arctic Shipping Pollution on Air Quality off the Coast of Northern Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, J. L.; Law, K.; Marelle, L.; Raut, J.; Jalkanen, J.; Johansson, L.; Roiger, A.; Schlager, H.; Kim, J.; Reiter, A.; Weinzierl, B.; Rose, M.; Fast, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    As the Arctic is undergoing rapid and potentially irreversible changes, such as the shrinking and thinning of sea-ice cover, the levels of atmospheric pollution are expected to rise dramatically due to the emergence of local pollution sources including shipping. Shipping routes through the Arctic (such as Russia's Northern Sea Route) are already used as an alternative to the traditional global transit shipping routes. In summer 2012, the ACCESS (Arctic Climate Change, Economy, and Society) aircraft campaign focused on studying pollution sources off the coast of northern Norway to quantify emissions from shipping and other anthropogenic pollution sources. To complement these measurements, a regional chemical transport model is used to study the impact of shipping pollution on gas and aerosol concentrations in the region. WRF-Chem (The Weather Research and Forecasting Model with Chemistry, which simulates gas and aerosols simultaneously with meteorology) is run with real time shipping emissions from STEAM (Ship Traffic Emission Assessment Model) for July 2012. The STEAM model calculates gas and aerosol emissions of marine traffic based on the ship type and location provided by the Automatic Identification System (AIS). Use of real time position, speed, and ship specific information allows for development of emissions with very high spatial (1x1 km) and temporal (30 min) resolution, which are used in the regional model runs. STEAM emissions have been specifically generated for shipping off the coast of Norway during the entire ACCESS campaign period. Simulated ship plumes from high-resolution model runs are compared to aircraft measurements. The regional impact of current summertime shipping is also examined. At present, relatively light ship traffic off the coast of northern Norway results in only a small impact of shipping pollution on regional atmospheric chemistry. The impact of increased future shipping on regional atmospheric chemistry is also assessed.

  7. Stress Analysis in Boreholes Drag Bh and Leknes Bh, Nordland, North Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ask, Maria V. S.; Ask, Daniel; Elvebakk, Harald; Olesen, Odleiv

    2015-07-01

    Nordland in northern Norway is characterized by enhanced seismicity and uplift that makes it the most tectonically active area in Norway. This study is part of a project entitled Neotectonics in Norway—Implications for Petroleum Exploration, which aims at enhancing the understanding of regional-scale stress and strain dynamics in Nordland, and to impact risk and hazard assessment and petroleum exploration. This paper attempts to constrain the orientation of in situ horizontal stress using high-resolution acoustic televiewer logging data. The Geological Survey of Norway has drilled two 0.8 km deep near-vertical boreholes on opposite sides of the Vestfjord in Nordland, the open bight of sea that separates the Lofoten archipelago from the Norwegian mainland. Both boreholes are drilled just North of 68°N, with borehole Leknes Bh located near the geographic center of the Lofoten archipelago, and borehole Drag Bh located on approximate equal distance from the shore, on the Norwegian mainland. The results of this study are in most practical aspects inconclusive, mainly due to poor data quality. The data analysis has revealed erroneously high-borehole diameter, and several artifacts such as eccentric logging tool, rugose borehole wall, spiral hole, tool sticking and missing data. Four intervals with passive in situ stress indicators (borehole breakout and drilling-induced fractures) were found in travel time and amplitude images of the Drag Bh, suggesting approximately N-S orientation of maximum horizontal stress. However, these intervals are not found in cross-plots. Either result yields the lowest World Stress Map ranking quality (E).

  8. Changes in smoking among restaurant and bar employees following Norway's comprehensive smoking ban.

    PubMed

    Braverman, Marc T; Aarø, Leif Edvard; Hetland, Jørn

    2008-03-01

    Norway implemented a nationwide ban on indoor smoking in June 2004. This study documents the smoking patterns of Norway's restaurant and bar workers before and after the ban, to determine changes in smoking prevalence and explore which individual and environmental characteristics were related to cessation. A national sample of food service workers was surveyed by telephone or Internet immediately before the ban and at 4 and 11 months post-implementation. Results showed that between baseline measurement and 4 months post-implementation, there were significant declines in prevalence of daily smoking (-3.6% points, p < 0.005), daily smoking at work (-6.2% points, p < 0.001), number of cigarettes smoked by continuing smokers (-1.55, p < 0.001) and number of cigarettes smoked at work by continuing smokers (-1.63, p < 0.001). No significant changes occurred in any of these variables between 4 and 11 months post-implementation. Logistic regression analysis revealed that only smokers' intentions at baseline to quit within 30 days predicted cessation at both follow-up time points. In addition, cessation at 4 months was predicted by lower daily cigarette consumption at baseline, whereas cessation at 11 months was predicted by baseline attitude toward ETS and exposure to ETS as measured at follow-up. In sum, Norway's smoking ban was accompanied by a reduction in smoking in the period immediately following the ban, and the reduction was maintained almost a year later. The finding that smoking cessation was consistently associated with smokers' intentions to quit within 30 days suggests that motivational and support programs could play a significant role in boosting cessation rates. It is recommended that targeted interventions be used to supplement the benefits of a comprehensive ban to achieve tobacco control objectives. PMID:18089625

  9. Positive and negative reasons for sickness presenteeism in Norway and Sweden: a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Johansen, Vegard; Aronsson, Gunnar; Marklund, Staffan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This article investigates various reasons for sickness presenteeism (SP), that is, going to work despite illness. The research questions asked is: What are the main reported reasons for SP in Norway and Sweden? Design Cross-sectional survey in Norway and Sweden. Use of binomial logistic regression analysis. Participants A random sample of people aged between 20 and 60 years was obtained from complete and updated databases of the Norwegian and Swedish populations. A postal questionnaire was sent to the selected individuals, with response rate 33% (n=2843). 2533 workers responded to questions about SP during the last 12 months. Primary and secondary outcome measures The article informs about the distribution of reasons for SP in Norway and Sweden, selected by the respondents from a closed list. The article also examines which factors influence the most often reported reasons for SP. Results 56% of the Norwegian and Swedish respondents experienced SP in the previous year. The most frequently reported reasons for SP include not burden colleagues (43%), enjoy work (37%) and feeling indispensable (35%). A lower proportion of Norwegians state that they cannot afford taking sick leave adjusted OR (aOR 0.16 (95% CI 0.10 to 0.22)), while a higher proportion of Norwegians refer to that they enjoy their work (aOR=1.64 (95% CI 1.28 to 2.09)). Women and young workers more often report that they do not want to burden their colleagues. Managers (aOR=2.19 (95% CI 1.67 to 2.86)), highly educated persons and the self-employed more often report that they are indispensable. Conclusions Positive and negative reasons for SP are reported, and there are significant differences between respondents from the two countries. The response rate is low and results must be interpreted with caution. Study design Cross-sectional study. PMID:24523425

  10. Ka-Band Site Characterization of the NASA Near Earth Network in Svalbard, Norway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acosta, R.; Morse, J.; Nessel, J.; Zemba, M.; Tuttle, K.; Caroglanian, A.; Younes, B.; Pedersen, Sten-Chirstian

    2011-01-01

    Critical to NASA s rapid migration toward Ka-Band is the comprehensive characterization of the communication channels at NASA's ground sites to determine the effects of the atmosphere on signal propagation and the network's ability to support various classes of users in different orbits. Accordingly, NASA has initiated a number of studies involving the ground sites of its Near Earth and Deep Space Networks. Recently, NASA concluded a memorandum of agreement (MOA) with the Norwegian Space Centre of the Kingdom of Norway and began a joint site characterization study to determine the atmospheric effects on Ka-Band links at the Svalbard Satellite Station in Norway, which remains a critical component of NASA s Near Earth Communication Network (NEN). System planning and design for Ka-band links at the Svalbard site cannot be optimally achieved unless measured attenuation statistics (e.g. cumulative distribution functions (CDF)) are obtained. In general, the CDF will determine the necessary system margin and overall system availability due to the atmospheric effects. To statistically characterize the attenuation statistics at the Svalbard site, NASA has constructed a ground-based monitoring station consisting of a multi-channel total power radiometer (25.5 - 26.5 GHz) and a weather monitoring station to continuously measure (at 1 second intervals) attenuation and excess noise (brightness temperature). These instruments have been tested in a laboratory environment as well as in an analogous outdoor climate (i.e. winter in Northeast Ohio), and the station was deployed in Svalbard, Norway in May 2011. The measurement campaign is planned to last a minimum of 3 years but not exceeding a maximum of 5 years.

  11. Primary Health Care: Comparing Public Health Nursing Models in Ireland and Norway

    PubMed Central

    Leahy-Warren, Patricia; Day, Mary Rose

    2013-01-01

    Health of populations is determined by a multitude of contextual factors. Primary Health Care Reform endeavors to meet the broad health needs of populations and remains on international health agendas. Public health nurses are key professionals in the delivery of primary health care, and it is important for them to learn from global experiences. International collaboration is often facilitated by academic exchanges. As a result of one such exchange, an international PHN collaboration took place. The aim of this paper is to analyse the similarities and differences in public health nursing in Ireland and Norway within the context of primary care. PMID:23606956

  12. Immigrants’ use of emergency primary health care in Norway: a registry-based observational study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Emigrants are often a selected sample and in good health, but migration can have deleterious effects on health. Many immigrant groups report poor health and increased use of health services, and it is often claimed that they tend to use emergency primary health care (EPHC) services for non-urgent purposes. The aim of the present study was to analyse immigrants’ use of EPHC, and to analyse variations according to country of origin, reason for immigration, and length of stay in Norway. Methods We conducted a registry based study of all immigrants to Norway, and a subsample of immigrants from Poland, Germany, Iraq and Somalia, and compared them with native Norwegians. The material comprised all electronic compensation claims for EPHC in Norway during 2008. We calculated total contact rates, contact rates for selected diagnostic groups and for services given during consultations. Adjustments for a series of socio-demographic and socio-economic variables were done by multiple logistic regression analyses. Results Immigrants as a whole had a lower contact rate than native Norwegians (23.7% versus 27.4%). Total contact rates for Polish and German immigrants (mostly work immigrants) were 11.9% and 7.0%, but for Somalis and Iraqis (mostly asylum seekers) 31.8% and 33.6%. Half of all contacts for Somalis and Iraqis were for non-specific pain, and they had relatively more of their contacts during night than other groups. Immigrants’ rates of psychiatric diagnoses were low, but increased with length of stay in Norway. Work immigrants suffered less from respiratory and gastrointestinal infections, but had more injuries and higher need for sickness certification. All immigrant groups, except Germans, were more often given a sickness certificate than native Norwegians. Use of interpreter was reduced with increasing length of stay. All immigrant groups had an increased need for long consultations, while laboratory tests were most often used for Somalis and Iraqis

  13. Crustal structure, and topographic relief in the high southern Scandes, Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stratford, W.; Thybo, H.; Frassetto, A.

    2010-05-01

    Resolving the uplift history of southern Norway is hindered by the lack of constraint available from the geologic record. Sediments that often contain information of burial and uplift history have long since been stripped from the onshore regions in southern Norway, and geophysical, dating methods and geomorphological studies are the remaining means of unraveling uplift history. New constraints on topographic evolution and uplift in southern Norway have been added by a recent crustal scale refraction project. Magnus-Rex (Mantle investigation of Norwegian uplift Structure, refraction experiment) recorded three ~400 km long active source seismic profiles across the high southern Scandes Mountains. The goal of the project is to determine crustal thickness and establish whether these mountains are supported at depth by a crustal root or by other processes. The southern Scandes Mountains were formed during the Caledonian Orogeny around 440 Ma. These mountains, which reach elevations of up to ~2.5 km, are comprised of one or more palaeic (denudation) surfaces of rolling relief that are incised by fluvial and glacial erosion. Extreme vertical glacial incision of up to 1000 m cuts into the surfaces in the western fjords, while the valleys of eastern Norway are more fluvial in character. Climatic controls on topography here are the Neogene - Recent effects of rebound due to removal of the Fennoscandian ice sheet and isostatic rebound due to incisional erosion. However, unknown tectonic uplift mechanisms may also be in effect, and separating the tectonic and climate-based vertical motions is often difficult. Sediment and rock has been removed by the formation of the palaeic surfaces and uplift measurements cannot be directly related to present elevations. Estimates so far have indicated that rebound due to incisional erosion has a small effect of ~500 m on surface elevation. Results from Magnus-Rex indicate the crust beneath the high mountains is up to 40 km thick. This

  14. Proposal for a Joint NASA/KSAT Ka-band RF Propagation Terminal at Svalbard, Norway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volosin, Jeffrey; Acosta, Roberto; Nessel, James; McCarthy, Kevin; Caroglanian, Armen

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation discusses the placement of a Ka-band RF Propagation Terminal at Svalbard, Norway. The Near Earth Network (NEN) station would be managed by Kongsberg Satellite Services (KSAT) and would benefit NASA and KSAT. There are details of the proposed NASA/KSAT campaign, and the responsibilities each would agree to. There are several reasons for the placement, a primary reason is comparison with the Alaska site, Based on climatological similarities/differences with Alaska, Svalbard site expected to have good radiometer/beacon agreement approximately 99% of time.

  15. Organizational impact of governmental audit of blood transfusion services in Norway: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Åsprang, Aud Frøysa; Frich, Jan C; Braut, Geir Sverre

    2015-10-01

    Little is known about the organizational impact of supervisory activities in blood banks. We did a study with the aim to explore health professional's experiences with the external audit of blood transfusion services in Norway. The audit and supervision brought attention to deficiencies in systems and practices, and had been a catalyst for quality improvement. We identify facilitators and barriers to change. While audits can bring attention to known deficiencies, and trigger improvement processes which previously have not been prioritized, involvement of senior management is important to secure change across departments. PMID:25935295

  16. BVOC emission in Norway spruce: the effect of stand structure, high temperature and ozone levels.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallozzi, Emanuele; Guidolotti, Gabriele; Večeřová, Kristýna; Esposito, Raffaela; Lusini, Ilaria; Juráň, Stanislav; Urban, Otmar; Calfapietra, Carlo

    2015-04-01

    Norway spruce (Picea abies L.) is a widely distributed conifer species in the boreal zone and mountain areas of central Europe and is a moderate emitter of volatile organic compounds (BVOC). Although the vaporization and diffusion processes from resin ducts were generally considered to be the main processes for monoterpene emissions in conifers, recently it has been showed that a significant portion (up to one third) of monoterpene emissions of Norway spruce can originate from novel biosynthesis, thus depending on photosynthetic processes. For this reason, both biosynthesis and emission are strongly influenced by the environment and the stand structure. They increase with both increasing light and temperature during the warmer periods, although those are the periods with the higher ozone concentration that usually act as an inhibitor of both assimilation and isoprenoids synthesis and emission. On the other hand, stand structure can play an important role, because the photosynthetic capacity is influenced by temperature and light conditions through the canopy. In order to assess the effects of stand structure, temperature and ozone on isoprenoids emission of Norway spruce we carried out field and laboratory experiments. In the experimental field campaigns we measured: assimilation and BVOC emission from needles of sun and shade layers within the canopy of the spruce forest present at the Bily Kriz experimental research site (Moravian-Silesian Beskydy Mountains, 49° 33' N, 18° 32' E, NE of Czech Republic, 908 m a.s.l.). Moreover in the same layers we measured continuously concentration of BVOCs in the air using a PTR-TOF-MS. In laboratory we analyzed the effects of short-term exposure to high temperature and high ozone concentrations on branches of spruce trees collected at the Bily Kriz experimental research site. Preliminary results show that in Norway spruce both stand structure and environmental conditions influenced the gas exchange and BVOC emission rates

  17. Norway and Cuba Continue Collaborating to Build Capacity to Improve Weather Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antuña, Juan Carlos; Kalnay, Eugenia; Mesquita, Michel D. S.

    2014-06-01

    The Future of Climate Extremes in the Caribbean Extreme Cuban Climate (XCUBE) project, which is funded by the Norwegian Directorate for Civil Protection as part of an assignment for the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs to support scientific cooperation between Norway and Cuba, carried out a training workshop on seasonal forecasting, reanalysis data, and weather research and forecasting (WRF). The workshop was a follow-up to the XCUBE workshop conducted in Havana in 2013 and provided Cuban scientists with access to expertise on seasonal forecasting, the WRF model developed by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) and the community, data assimilation, and reanalysis.

  18. Mass movements in fjords caused by seismic activity? A case study from Balsfjord, northern Norway.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forwick, M.; Vorren, T. O.

    2003-04-01

    Fjords can provide excellent opportunities for investigating sedimentary processes related to slope failures. Balsfjord is a 46 km long and maximum 5 km wide fjord in northern Norway, about 10 km south of Tromsø. An end moraine divides the fjord into an Inner and Outer Basin. High-resolution seismic data (3.5 kHz penetration echo sounder), as well as two piston cores, one from each basin, were analysed. The objective of this study was to find submarine deposits that could be used to study the regionality and chronology of postglacial mass-movement activity in northern Norway. Various types of gravity flows were identified, i.e. slumps, debris flows and turbidites. Maximum thickness of one debris flow is c. 15 m. Two marked turbidites have a lateral extent of about 10 km. The origins of some slumps and debris flows include slope failure of the end moraine crossing the fjord, as well as in front of a river mouth. The origin of the turbidites will be studied using grain-size distribution. Three mass-movement events in both basins are correlated using radiocarbon dates. Since these events can be identified in both basins, they are suggested to indicate regional avalanche activity. The three events were bracketed between 9400 radiocarbon years BP and 9100 radiocarbon years BP. This time span fits into the period of most rapid postglacial isostatic uplift in areas adjacent to Balsfjord (Corner and Haugane, 1993). A close correlation between a steep uplift gradient and earthquake frequency/magnitude is suggested by several authors (e.g. Bøe et al., 2001). Thus, seismic activity can be regarded as a potential trigger mechanism for mass-movement activity in Balsfjord. References: Bøe, R., Hovland, M., Instanes, A., Rise, L. and Vasshus, S., 2000. Submarine slide scars and mass movements in Karmsundet and Skudenesfjorden, southwestern Norway: morphology and evolution. Marine Geology, 167(1-2): 147-165. Corner, G.D. and Haugane, E., 1993. Marine-lacustrine stratigraphy of

  19. Timing and Institutions: Determinants of the Ownership Structure in the Oil and Gas Industry in Canada and Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didier, Thomas

    In response to 1973 oil shock, both the Canadian and Norwegian states expanded public corporate ownership in the oil and gas industry. This thesis questions why the public share of total corporate ownership in the oil industry was greater in Norway than in Canada, and why Petro-Canada was privatized completely while Statoil was not. Two hypotheses are tested from a historical institutionalist perspective. First, the timing of oil development determined whether the private sector would establish itself as the dominant player in the oil and gas industry (in Canada) or not (in Norway) before the 1973 oil shock triggered government interest in public corporate ownership. Second, overlapping jurisdiction over oil resources (in Canada) undermined the effectiveness of mechanisms of reproduction of public corporate ownership. In Norway, the later discovery of oil thus gave the state a stronger bargaining position relative to the oil industry, and in a unitary state the uncontroversial redistributional activities of Statoil attracted more vested interests.

  20. Effect of cooking on total mercury content in Norway lobster and European hake and public health impact.

    PubMed

    Perugini, Monia; Zezza, Daniela; Tulini, Serena Maria Rita; Abete, Maria Cesarina; Monaco, Gabriella; Conte, Annamaria; Olivieri, Vincenzo; Amorena, Michele

    2016-08-15

    The risk of Hg poisoning by eating seafood is considered real from the several international agencies that recommended, by fish consumption advisories, to pregnant women and young children to avoid or severely limit the consumption of the fish and shellfish with a high-range mercury levels. The analyses of two common species, European hake and Norway lobster, collected from an area of Central Adriatic Sea, reported high mercury levels in crustaceans. For Norway lobster total mercury exceeded, in six out of ten analysed pools, the recommended 0.5mg/kg wet weight European limit. Moreover the increased amount of Hg concentrations in Norway lobster cooked samples suggests the necessity to review current procedures of Hg control in food, considering also consumption habits of consumers. The Hg values found in all European hake samples are below the legal limits and, in this species, the boiling did not modify the concentrations in fish tissues. PMID:27209123

  1. Between health care and social security – psychiatric patients and the disability pension system in Norway and Russia

    PubMed Central

    Rezvyy, Grigory; Schönfelder, Walter; Øiesvold, Terje; Olstad, Reidun; Midré, Georges

    2007-01-01

    Background The official statistics of persons with mental disorders who are granted disability pension (DP) in Russia and Norway indicate large differences between the countries. Methods This qualitative explorative hypothesis-generating study is based on text analysis of the laws, regulations and guidelines, and qualitative interviews of informants representing all the organisational elements of the DP systems in both countries. Results The DP application process is initiated much later in Norway than in Russia, where a 3 year occupational rehabilitation and adequate treatment is mandatory before DP is granted. In Russia, two instances are responsible for preparing of the medical certification for DP, a patients medical doctor (PD) and a clinical expert commission (CEC) while there is one in Norway (PD). In Russia, the Bureau of Medical-Social Expertise is responsible for evaluation and granting of DP. In Norway, the local social insurance offices (SIO) are responsible for the DP application. Decisions are taken collectively in Russia, while the Norwegian PD and SIO officer often take decisions alone. In Russia, the medical criterion is the decisive one, while rehabilitation and treatment criteria are given priority in Norway. The size of the DP in Norway is enough to cover of subsistences expenditure, while the Russian DP is less than the level required for minimum subsistence. Conclusion There were noteworthy differences in the time frame, organisation model and process leading to a DP in the two countries. These differences may explain why so few patients with less severe mental disorders receive a DP in Russia. This fact, in combination with the size of the DP, may hamper reforms of the mental health care system in Russia. PMID:17705818

  2. An Observational Assessment Method for Aging Laboratory Rats

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Pamela M; Jarema, Kimberly A; Kurtz, David M; MacPhail, Robert C

    2010-01-01

    The rapid growth of the aging human population highlights the need for laboratory animal models to study the basic biologic processes of aging and susceptibility to disease, drugs, and environmental pollutants. Methods are needed to evaluate the health of aging animals over time, particularly methods for efficiently monitoring large research colonies. Here we describe an observational assessment method that scores appearance, posture, mobility, and muscle tone on a 5-point scale that can be completed in about 1 min. A score of 1 indicates no deterioration, whereas a score of 5 indicates severe deterioration. Tests were applied to male Brown Norway rats between 12 and 36 mo of age (n = 32). The rats were participating concurrently in experiments on the behavioral effects of intermittent exposure (approximately every 4 mo) to short-acting environmental chemicals. Results demonstrated that aging-related signs of deterioration did not appear before 18 mo of age. Assessment scores and variability then increased with age. Body weights increased until approximately 24 mo, then remained stable, but decreased after 31 mo for the few remaining rats. The incidence of death increased slightly from 20 to 28 mo of age and then rose sharply; median survival age was approximately 30 mo, with a maximum of 36 mo. The results indicate that our observational assessment method supports efficient monitoring of the health of aging rats and may be useful in studies on susceptibility to diseases, drugs, and toxicants during old age. PMID:21205442

  3. Behavioural response of sexually naïve and experienced male rats to the smell of 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one and female rat faeces.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Birte L; Jerôme, Nathalie; Saint-Albin, Audrey; Rampin, Olivier; Maurin, Yves

    2013-08-15

    Sexually experienced male rats display penile erections when exposed to faeces from mammalian females in oestrus (Rampin et al., Behav Brain Res, 172:169, 2006), suggesting that specific odours indicate female receptiveness across species. However, it is unknown to what extent the sexual response observed results from an odorous conditioning acquired during sexual experience. We tested the behavioural response of male Brown Norway rats both when sexually naïve and experienced to four odours, including oestrous rat faeces and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one (methylheptenone; a molecule found in higher concentrations during oestrus in female rats, foxes and horses). Odour had a significant effect on the sexual response of the naïve rats, with oestrus faeces provoking significantly more erections than herb odour, and with methylheptenone and di-oestrus faeces being intermediate. This indicates that sexually naïve male rats have an unconditioned ability to detect oestrous mediated via odour. After gaining sexual experience, the response to methylheptenone, di- and oestrus faeces was significantly higher than that observed with herb odour. These results strongly suggest that methylheptenone is part of the odorous bouquet of oestrus and contributes to the olfactory determination of female receptiveness. PMID:23911690

  4. Data from deployment of temporary seismic stations in northern Norway and Finland

    SciTech Connect

    Maercklin, N; Mykkeltveit, S; Schweitzer, J; Harris, D B; Rock, D W

    2005-02-11

    This short contribution is a description of data now available in NORSAR's data archives from a temporary deployment during 2002-2004 of six seismic stations in northern Norway and Finland. Explosions in underground as well as open-pit mines in the Khibiny massif of the Kola Peninsula of northwestern Russia are conducted on a frequent and relatively regular basis. It was decided to supplement the network of permanent stations in northern Fennoscandia and northwest Russia with temporarily deployed stations, in order to record these explosions, as well as other mining explosions and natural events occurring in this general area. As shown in Fig. 6.4.1, the six temporary stations were deployed along two profile lines, extending westwards from the Khibini massif. The rationale for this deployment was to collect data to examine distance as well as azimuthal dependence of seismic discriminants. As can be seen from Fig. 6.4.1 the southernmost of the two profile lines runs through the permanent seismic array ARCES in northern Norway.

  5. A predicted and controlled jøkulhlaup (GLOF) from Harbardsbreen, Norway.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Miriam; Engeset, Rune; Elvehøy, Hallgeir

    2016-04-01

    A jøkulhlaup (GLOF) from Harbardsbreen, Norway in 2015 was predicted and the runoff of over five million cubic metres of water was released in a controlled manner through a hydropower reservoir. The glacier-dammed lake was investigated in early August and showed evidence (change in water-level, radial crevasses) of movement of water from the lake to subglacial storage. The water level in the glacier-dammed lake was over overburden pressure but the event didn't occur until two weeks later. There have been previous events from this glacier, with annual events between 1996 and 2001 due to glacier thinning. The glacier continued to thin substantially (20m) over the next decade but the next event didn't occur until 2010 when over five million cubic metres of water was released as well as additional runoff due to heavy precipitation and melting. At this time the reservoir couldn't accommodate the extra water and there was flow over the dam. Several glaciers in Norway have had one or several jøkulhlaups in the last fifteen years due to glacier thinning, and at several others, glacier-dammed lakes have appeared for the first time. Hydropower reservoirs are situated downstream from some of these glaciers, so such an event can have a beneficial effect. However, negative glacier mass balance and subsequent glacier thinning is increasing the magnitude and frequency of events.

  6. A new proposal for priority setting in Norway: Open and fair.

    PubMed

    Ottersen, Trygve; Førde, Reidun; Kakad, Meetali; Kjellevold, Alice; Melberg, Hans Olav; Moen, Atle; Ringard, Ånen; Norheim, Ole Frithjof

    2016-03-01

    Health systems worldwide struggle to meet increasing demands for health care, and Norway is no exception. This paper discusses the new, comprehensive framework for priority setting recently laid out by the third Norwegian Committee on Priority Setting in the Health Sector. The framework posits that priority setting should pursue the goal of "the greatest number of healthy life years for all, fairly distributed" and centres on three criteria: 1) The health-benefit criterion: The priority of an intervention increases with the expected health benefit (and other relevant welfare benefits) from the intervention; 2) The resource criterion: The priority of an intervention increases, the less resources it requires; and 3) The health-loss criterion: The priority of an intervention increases with the expected lifetime health loss of the beneficiary in the absence of such an intervention. Cost-effectiveness plays a central role in this framework, but only alongside the health-loss criterion which incorporates a special concern for the worse off and promotes fairness. In line with this, cost-effectiveness thresholds are differentiated according to health loss. Concrete implementation tools and open processes with user participation complement the three criteria. Informed by the proposal, the Ministry of Health and Care Services is preparing a report to the Parliament, with the aim of reaching political consensus on a new priority-setting framework for Norway. PMID:26851991

  7. Do water-limiting conditions predispose Norway spruce to bark beetle attack?

    PubMed

    Netherer, Sigrid; Matthews, Bradley; Katzensteiner, Klaus; Blackwell, Emma; Henschke, Patrick; Hietz, Peter; Pennerstorfer, Josef; Rosner, Sabine; Kikuta, Silvia; Schume, Helmut; Schopf, Axel

    2015-02-01

    Drought is considered to enhance susceptibility of Norway spruce (Picea abies) to infestations by the Eurasian spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus, Coleoptera: Curculionidae), although empirical evidence is scarce. We studied the impact of experimentally induced drought on tree water status and constitutive resin flow, and how physiological stress affects host acceptance and resistance. We established rain-out shelters to induce both severe (two full-cover plots) and moderate (two semi-cover plots) drought stress. In total, 18 sample trees, which were divided equally between the above treatment plots and two control plots, were investigated. Infestation was controlled experimentally using a novel 'attack box' method. Treatments influenced the ratios of successful and defended attacks, but predisposition of trees to infestation appeared to be mainly driven by variations in stress status of the individual trees over time. With increasingly negative twig water potentials and decreasing resin exudation, the defence capability of the spruce trees decreased. We provide empirical evidence that water-limiting conditions impair Norway spruce resistance to bark beetle attack. Yet, at the same time our data point to reduced host acceptance by I. typographus with more extreme drought stress, indicated by strongly negative pre-dawn twig water potentials. PMID:25417785

  8. Illegal wildlife imports more than just animals--Baylisascaris procyonis in raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Norway.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Rebecca K; Øines, Øivind; Hamnes, Inger S; Schulze, Johan E

    2013-10-01

    In autumn 2011, 11 illegally imported animals were seized from a farm in southern Norway. These included four raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides), four raccoons (Procyon lotor), and three South American coatis (Nasua nasua), all considered alien species in Norway. An additional two raccoons had escaped from the farm prior to seizure. The seized animals were euthanized and postmortem examination revealed that the four raccoons had moderate to high numbers of the zoonotic nematode Baylisascaris procyonis in their intestines, ranging from 11 to 115 nematodes per small intestine, with a mean of 53. The identity of the nematodes was confirmed using molecular analysis of ITS-1, ITS-2, cytochrome C oxidase 1, and 18S. Echinococcus multilocularis was not detected in any of the 11 animals. Toxocara and Toxascaris sp. eggs were detected in the feces of two raccoons, and two coatis had coccidia oocysts (80 and 360 oocysts per gram). Domestic dogs and other wildlife on the farm had potential access to the animal pens. Given that the eggs can remain infective for years in the environment, local veterinary and health authorities will need to remain vigilant for symptoms relating to infection with B. procyonis. PMID:24502726

  9. Distribution of Lepidopteran Larvae on Norway Spruce: Effects of Slope and Crown Aspect.

    PubMed

    Kulfan, Ján; Dvořáčková, Katarína; Zach, Peter; Parák, Michal; Svitok, Marek

    2016-04-01

    Lepidoptera associated with Norway spruce, Picea abies (L.) Karsten, play important roles in ecosystem processes, acting as plant pests, prey for predators, and hosts for parasites and parasitoids. Their distribution patterns in spruce crowns and forests are only poorly understood. We examined how slope and crown aspect affect the occurrence and abundance of moth larvae on solitary spruce trees in a montane region in Central Europe. Moth larvae were collected from southern and northern crowns of trees growing on south- and north-facing slopes (four treatments) using emergence boxes at the end of winter and by the beating method during the growing season. Species responses to slope and crown aspect were not uniform. Treatment effects on moth larvae were stronger in the winter than during the growing season. In winter, the abundance of bud-boring larvae was significantly higher in northern than in southern crowns regardless of the slope aspect, while both slope and aspect had marginally significant effects on abundance of miners. During the growing season, the occurrence of free-living larvae was similar among treatments. Emergence boxes and beating spruce branches are complementary techniques providing valuable insights into the assemblage structure of moth larvae on Norway spruce. Due to the uneven distribution of larvae detected in this study, we recommend adoption of a protocol that explicitly includes sampling of trees from contrasting slopes and branches from contrasting crown aspect in all seasons. PMID:26795212

  10. Nephropathia epidemica in Norway: antigen and antibodies in rodent reservoirs and antibodies in selected human populations.

    PubMed Central

    Traavik, T.; Sommer, A. I.; Mehl, R.; Berdal, B. P.; Stavem, K.; Hunderi, O. H.; Dalrymple, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    Nephropathia epidemica (NE) antigen was detected by IFAT (indirect fluorescent antibody technique) in the lungs of 14 of 97 bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) collected in three endemic areas. The distribution of antigen positive voles within an endemic location was scattered. Antibodies to Korean hemorrhagic fever (KHF) virus antigens were detected by IFAT in 12 of 14 NE antigen positive bank voles and in 15 of 83 that were antigen negative. NE antigen positive voles exhibited higher antibody titres. Antibodies to KHF were demonstrated in sera from C. rutilus and C. rufocanus collected more than 200 km north of the distribution area for C. glareolus. It appears likely that these vole species can serve as virus vectors for NE cases occurring north of the bank vole area. NE antibodies cross-reacting with KHF virus seem to diminish with time after infection in some NE patients, while for others such cross-reacting antibodies were detected up to 12 years after the disease. Antibodies to KHF were detected in eight of 106 healthy forestry workers with no clinical history of NE. No serological cross-reactions were detected between NE/KHF antigens and representative Bunyaviridae present in Norway. NE/KHF-like viruses appear widespread in Norway, both within and outside of the distribution area of the bank vole. PMID:6146649

  11. Do water-limiting conditions predispose Norway spruce to bark beetle attack?

    PubMed Central

    Netherer, Sigrid; Matthews, Bradley; Katzensteiner, Klaus; Blackwell, Emma; Henschke, Patrick; Hietz, Peter; Pennerstorfer, Josef; Rosner, Sabine; Kikuta, Silvia; Schume, Helmut; Schopf, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Drought is considered to enhance susceptibility of Norway spruce (Picea abies) to infestations by the Eurasian spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus, Coleoptera: Curculionidae), although empirical evidence is scarce. We studied the impact of experimentally induced drought on tree water status and constitutive resin flow, and how physiological stress affects host acceptance and resistance. We established rain-out shelters to induce both severe (two full-cover plots) and moderate (two semi-cover plots) drought stress. In total, 18 sample trees, which were divided equally between the above treatment plots and two control plots, were investigated. Infestation was controlled experimentally using a novel ‘attack box’ method. Treatments influenced the ratios of successful and defended attacks, but predisposition of trees to infestation appeared to be mainly driven by variations in stress status of the individual trees over time. With increasingly negative twig water potentials and decreasing resin exudation, the defence capability of the spruce trees decreased. We provide empirical evidence that water-limiting conditions impair Norway spruce resistance to bark beetle attack. Yet, at the same time our data point to reduced host acceptance byI. typographus with more extreme drought stress, indicated by strongly negative pre-dawn twig water potentials. PMID:25417785

  12. The occurrence of second generation anticoagulant rodenticides in non-target raptor species in Norway.

    PubMed

    Langford, Katherine H; Reid, Malcolm; Thomas, Kevin V

    2013-04-15

    Second generation anticoagulant rodenticides (SGARs) are commonly used for rodent pest control in Norway resulting in the potential exposure of non-target raptor species. In this study the occurrence of flocoumafen, difethialone, difenacoum, bromadiolone and brodifacoum was determined in the livers of five species of raptors found dead in Norway between 2009 and 2011. The SGARs brodifacoum, bromadiolone, difenacoum and flocoumafen were detected in golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) and eagle owl (Bubo bubo) livers at a total SGAR concentration of between 11 and 255 ng/g in approximately 70% of the golden eagles and 50% of the eagle owls examined in this study. In the absence of specific golden eagle and eagle owl toxicity thresholds for SGARs, a level of >100 ng/g was used as a potential lethal range, accepting that poisoning may occur below this level. Thirty percent (7/24) of the golden eagle and eagle owl livers contained total SGAR residue levels above this threshold. Further estimation of the potential mortality impact on the sampled raptor populations was not possible. PMID:23500818

  13. Spring-summer temperature reconstruction in western Norway 1734-2003: a data-synthesis approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordli, P. Ø.; Lie, Ø.; Nesje, A.; Dahl, S. O.

    2003-12-01

    A series of spring-summer (April-August) temperatures was reconstructed for the period 1734-1923 for western Norway based on multi-proxy data. For the period 1734-1842 the long-term variations were based on terminal moraines in front of two southern Norwegian glaciers, whereas the annual variations were based on grain-harvest data extracted from farmers' diaries. For the period 1843-1867 the spring-summer temperatures were reconstructed solely from diaries overlapping instrumental observations. All the results were incorporated into one series for the period 1734-2003 to form the Vestlandet composite series.The reconstruction method using terminal-moraine sequences was tested against the modern instrumental Bergen series for the periods of moraine formations in front of the glaciers. The agreement with the instrumental series was good, with the mean difference for all periods being only 0.2 °C. Analyses of decadal variations in western Norway revealed three periods of low spring-summer temperatures: around 1740, in the first decade of the 19th century, and in the 1830s. These periods are well known from historic records as periods of starvation, during which the use of bark bread became common.

  14. Understanding public elderly care policy in Norway: A narrative analysis of governmental White papers.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Frode F

    2015-08-01

    How the general public in Norway conceives being an older adult and the meaning of chronological age has changed over the last few decades. As narratives of aging may be identified in the Norwegian mass media and in the population at large, dominant narratives may also be identified in policy documents, such as government health policy papers. This article explores a narrative analytical framework based on stories, subtexts, and counterstories; it argues that such narratives are characterized as much by what is unsaid as by what is said, and as much by choice of words and word combinations as by explicit messages. Culture strongly influences the conception of a likely future (what will be) and an envisioned future (what ought to be) regarding aging and geriatric care in Norway, as expressed in the public policy papers. The public policy story is discussed as both a story continuously developing, where later health policy papers relate to and comment on earlier documents, and as a story characterized by a measure of cultural incoherence. Some recent government documents dealing with professional geriatric care will serve as material for a narrative analysis. PMID:26162742

  15. Short-term impacts of energy wood harvesting on ectomycorrhizal fungal communities of Norway spruce saplings.

    PubMed

    Huusko, Karoliina; Tarvainen, Oili; Saravesi, Karita; Pennanen, Taina; Fritze, Hannu; Kubin, Eero; Markkola, Annamari

    2015-03-01

    The increased demand for harvesting energy wood raises questions about its effects on the functioning of the forest ecosystems, soil processes and biodiversity. Impacts of tree stump removal on ectomycorrhizal fungal (EMF) communities of Norway spruce saplings were studied with 454-pyrosequencing in a 3-year field experiment replicated in 3 geographical areas. This is possibly the most thorough investigation of EMF communities associated with saplings grown on sites subjected to energy wood harvesting. To separate impacts of tree stump and logging residue removal on EMF and plant variables, we used three harvesting treatments with increasing complexity from patch mounding alone (P) to patch mounding combined with logging residue removal (RP), and patch mounding combined with both logging residue and stump removal (SRP). Saplings grown in uncut forests (F) served as references for harvesting treatments. A majority of sequences (>92%) and operational taxonomic units (OTUs, 55%) were assigned as EMF. EMF OTU richness, fungal community composition or sapling growth did not differ between harvesting treatments (P, RP and SRP), while EMF OTU richness, diversity and evenness were highest and sapling growth lowest in the undisturbed reference forests (F). The short study period may partially explain the similarities in fungal and sapling variables in different harvesting treatments. In conclusion, our results indicate that neither stump removal nor logging residue removal have significant additional negative impacts on EMF communities or growth of Norway spruce saplings in the short-term compared with the impacts of more conventional harvesting methods, including clear cutting and patch mounding. PMID:25171334

  16. Communal proactive coping strategies among Tamil refugees in Norway: A case study in a naturalistic setting

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background An exclusive focus on individual or family coping strategies may be inadequate for people whose major point of concern may be collective healing on a more communal level. Methods To our knowledge, the current study is the first to make use of ethnographic fieldwork methods to investigate this type of coping as a process in a natural setting over time. Participant observation was employed within a Tamil NGO in Norway between August 2006 and December 2008. Results Tamil refugees in Norway co-operated to appraise their shared life situation and accumulate resources communally to improve it in culturally meaningful ways. Long term aspirations were related to both the situation in the homeland and in exile. However, unforeseen social events created considerable challenges and forced them to modify and adapt their coping strategies. Conclusions We describe a form of coping previously not described in the scientific literature: Communal proactive coping strategies, defined as the process by which group members feel collectively responsible for their future well-being and co-operate to promote desired outcomes and prevent undesired changes. The study shows that proactive coping efforts occur in a dynamic social setting which may force people to use their accumulated proactive coping resources in reactive coping efforts. Theoretical and clinical implications are explored. PMID:21521494

  17. Pre- and inter-hospital transport of severely head-injured patients in rural Northern Norway.

    PubMed

    Sollid, Snorre; Munch-Ellingsen, Jens; Gilbert, Mads; Ingebrigtsen, Tor

    2003-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to survey the time consumed during the pre- and inter-hospital transport of severely head injured patients in Northern Norway. All patients (n = 85) operated for an intracranial mass lesions within 48 h after injury during the 10-year period 1986-1995 were included in this retrospective analysis. Ambulance records, transfer notes, and hospital records were reviewed. The transport of patients was classified as either direct from the trauma scene to the University Hospital (direct admission group) or as an inter-hospital transfer (transfer group). Forty-seven (55%) patients were in the direct admission group, and 38 (45%) were transferred through another hospital. The majority of patients (81%) were transported by air ambulance. Median time from injury to arrival in the emergency room was 5 (1-44) h. Time necessary for transport was significantly (p < 0.001) shorter in the direct admission group (median 3 h) compared to the transfer group (median 8 h). The inter-hospital transfer time was < or = 3 h in 17%. Clearly, the advanced air ambulance service in Northern Norway makes rapid inter-hospital transfer possible despite extremely long geographical distances. Our findings indicate that this possibility is not always utilized. PMID:12820685

  18. Chemical characterization of high-molar-mass fractions in a Norway spruce knotwood ethanol extract.

    PubMed

    Smeds, Annika I; Eklund, Patrik C; Willför, Stefan M

    2016-10-01

    The low-molar-mass (LMM) fraction, only, i.e., the GC-eluting compounds, which are mainly lignans, has been characterized in Norway spruce knotwood hydrophilic extracts previously. Of this fraction, many lignans and sesquilignans and all GC peaks supposedly representing dilignans remain unidentified. In this work, dilignans and the GC non-eluting compounds (the high-molar mass fractions, HMM) were characterized in a 7-hydroxymatairesinol-reduced knotwood ethanol extract of Norway spruce by using several fractionation and analytical techniques. A methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) insoluble fraction of the extract contained mainly HMM material, of which the main part was shown to consist of lignan oligomers. The oligolignans (with a molar mass up to approximately 3700 Da) seemed to be linked by 55' bonds, some of them containing one or two guaiacylglycerol ether units linked to the lignan by βO4 or β5 bonds. Several oligolignans were identified or tentatively identified. The MTBE soluble fraction, which accounted for the major part (81%) of the extract, contained mainly LMM material (lignans, sesqui- and dilignans). The part of the HMM material in the MTBE soluble fraction that was easily isolable (2%) seemed to contain polymers of fatty acids and alcohols, resin acids, and sterols. PMID:27256310

  19. Survival of Norway spruce remains higher in mixed stands under a dryer and warmer climate.

    PubMed

    Neuner, Susanne; Albrecht, Axel; Cullmann, Dominik; Engels, Friedrich; Griess, Verena C; Hahn, W Andreas; Hanewinkel, Marc; Härtl, Fabian; Kölling, Christian; Staupendahl, Kai; Knoke, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    Shifts in tree species distributions caused by climatic change are expected to cause severe losses in the economic value of European forestland. However, this projection disregards potential adaptation options such as tree species conversion, shorter production periods, or establishment of mixed species forests. The effect of tree species mixture has, as yet, not been quantitatively investigated for its potential to mitigate future increases in production risks. For the first time, we use survival time analysis to assess the effects of climate, species mixture and soil condition on survival probabilities for Norway spruce and European beech. Accelerated Failure Time (AFT) models based on an extensive dataset of almost 65,000 trees from the European Forest Damage Survey (FDS)--part of the European-wide Level I monitoring network--predicted a 24% decrease in survival probability for Norway spruce in pure stands at age 120 when unfavorable changes in climate conditions were assumed. Increasing species admixture greatly reduced the negative effects of unfavorable climate conditions, resulting in a decline in survival probabilities of only 7%. We conclude that future studies of forest management under climate change as well as forest policy measures need to take this, as yet unconsidered, strongly advantageous effect of tree species mixture into account. PMID:25242342

  20. Antibacterial effects of home-made resin salve from Norway spruce (Picea abies).

    PubMed

    Rautio, M; Sipponen, A; Peltola, R; Lohi, J; Jokinen, J J; Papp, A; Carlson, P; Sipponen, P

    2007-04-01

    Resin salve made from Norway spruce (Picea abies) is traditionally used in folk medicine to heal skin ulcers and infected wounds. Its antimicrobial properties were studied against certain human bacteria important in infected skin wounds. The sensitivity of the resin against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria was studied in vitro by methods that are routinely used in microbiology laboratories. The resin salve exhibited a bacteriostatic effect against all tested Gram-positive bacteria but only against Proteus vulgaris of the Gram-negative bacteria. Interestingly, the resin inhibited the growth of bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE), both on agar plates and in culture media. The study demonstrated antimicrobial activity of the resin salve and provided objective evidence of its antimicrobial properties. It gives some explanations why the traditional use of home-made resin salve from Norway spruce is experienced as being effective in the treatment of infected skin ulcers. PMID:17504300

  1. Short-term impacts of energy wood harvesting on ectomycorrhizal fungal communities of Norway spruce saplings

    PubMed Central

    Huusko, Karoliina; Tarvainen, Oili; Saravesi, Karita; Pennanen, Taina; Fritze, Hannu; Kubin, Eero; Markkola, Annamari

    2015-01-01

    The increased demand for harvesting energy wood raises questions about its effects on the functioning of the forest ecosystems, soil processes and biodiversity. Impacts of tree stump removal on ectomycorrhizal fungal (EMF) communities of Norway spruce saplings were studied with 454-pyrosequencing in a 3-year field experiment replicated in 3 geographical areas. This is possibly the most thorough investigation of EMF communities associated with saplings grown on sites subjected to energy wood harvesting. To separate impacts of tree stump and logging residue removal on EMF and plant variables, we used three harvesting treatments with increasing complexity from patch mounding alone (P) to patch mounding combined with logging residue removal (RP), and patch mounding combined with both logging residue and stump removal (SRP). Saplings grown in uncut forests (F) served as references for harvesting treatments. A majority of sequences (>92%) and operational taxonomic units (OTUs, 55%) were assigned as EMF. EMF OTU richness, fungal community composition or sapling growth did not differ between harvesting treatments (P, RP and SRP), while EMF OTU richness, diversity and evenness were highest and sapling growth lowest in the undisturbed reference forests (F). The short study period may partially explain the similarities in fungal and sapling variables in different harvesting treatments. In conclusion, our results indicate that neither stump removal nor logging residue removal have significant additional negative impacts on EMF communities or growth of Norway spruce saplings in the short-term compared with the impacts of more conventional harvesting methods, including clear cutting and patch mounding. PMID:25171334

  2. Evaluation of a compound distribution based on weather patterns subsampling for extreme rainfall in Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchet, J.; Touati, J.; Lawrence, D.; Garavaglia, F.; Paquet, E.

    2015-06-01

    Simulation methods for design flood analyses require estimates of extreme precipitation for simulating maximum discharges. This article evaluates the MEWP model, a compound model based on weather pattern classification, seasonal splitting and exponential distributions, for its suitability for use in Norway. The MEWP model is the probabilistic rainfall model used in the SCHADEX method for extreme flood estimation. Regional scores of evaluation are used in a split sample framework to compare the MEWP distribution with more general heavy-tailed distributions, in this case the Multi Generalized Pareto Weather Pattern (MGPWP) distribution. The analysis shows the clear benefit obtained from seasonal and weather pattern-based subsampling for extreme value estimation. The MEWP distribution is found to have an overall better performance as compared with the MGPWP, which tends to overfit the data and lacks robustness. Finally, we take advantage of the split sample framework to present evidence for an increase in extreme rainfall in the south-western part of Norway during the period 1979-2009, relative to 1948-1978.

  3. Evaluation of a compound distribution based on weather pattern subsampling for extreme rainfall in Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchet, J.; Touati, J.; Lawrence, D.; Garavaglia, F.; Paquet, E.

    2015-12-01

    Simulation methods for design flood analyses require estimates of extreme precipitation for simulating maximum discharges. This article evaluates the multi-exponential weather pattern (MEWP) model, a compound model based on weather pattern classification, seasonal splitting and exponential distributions, for its suitability for use in Norway. The MEWP model is the probabilistic rainfall model used in the SCHADEX method for extreme flood estimation. Regional scores of evaluation are used in a split sample framework to compare the MEWP distribution with more general heavy-tailed distributions, in this case the Multi Generalized Pareto Weather Pattern (MGPWP) distribution. The analysis shows the clear benefit obtained from seasonal and weather pattern-based subsampling for extreme value estimation. The MEWP distribution is found to have an overall better performance as compared with the MGPWP, which tends to overfit the data and lacks robustness. Finally, we take advantage of the split sample framework to present evidence for an increase in extreme rainfall in the southwestern part of Norway during the period 1979-2009, relative to 1948-1978.

  4. Warming delays autumn declines in photosynthetic capacity in a boreal conifer, Norway spruce (Picea abies).

    PubMed

    Stinziano, Joseph R; Hüner, Norman P A; Way, Danielle A

    2015-12-01

    Climate change, via warmer springs and autumns, may lengthen the carbon uptake period of boreal tree species, increasing the potential for carbon sequestration in boreal forests, which could help slow climate change. However, if other seasonal cues such as photoperiod dictate when photosynthetic capacity declines, warmer autumn temperatures may have little effect on when carbon uptake capacity decreases in these species. We investigated whether autumn warming would delay photosynthetic decline in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) by growing seedlings under declining weekly photoperiods and weekly temperatures either at ambient temperature or a warming treatment 4 °C above ambient. Photosynthetic capacity was relatively constant in both treatments when weekly temperatures were >8 °C, but declined rapidly at lower temperatures, leading to a delay in the autumn decline in photosynthetic capacity in the warming treatment. The decline in photosynthetic capacity was not related to changes in leaf nitrogen or chlorophyll concentrations, but was correlated with a decrease in the apparent fraction of leaf nitrogen invested in Rubisco, implicating a shift in nitrogen allocation away from the Calvin cycle at low autumn growing temperatures. Our data suggest that as the climate warms, the period of net carbon uptake will be extended in the autumn for boreal forests dominated by Norway spruce, which could increase total carbon uptake in these forests. PMID:26543154

  5. Hematodinium sp. infection in Norway lobster Nephrops norvegicus and its effects on meat quality.

    PubMed

    Albalat, Amaya; Gornik, Sebastian G; Beevers, Nicholas; Atkinson, R James A; Miskin, David; Neil, Douglas M

    2012-08-27

    Hematodinium and Hematodinium-like species have emerged in the last 3 decades as important parasitic pathogens of crustaceans worldwide, causing a significant economic loss to fisheries and related markets. In some species (notably the Tanner crab Chionoecetes bairdi), the parasite reportedly causes the cooked meat to taste bitter and aspirin-like. The bitter taste, together with the gross pathology of the infection, renders these crabs unmarketable. Surprisingly, no organoleptic tests have ever been conducted to date, and the cause for the bitter taste is still unknown. Nevertheless, it is generally assumed that the bitter taste occurs widely in cooked meats and products derived from crustaceans infected with Hematodinium. In the present study, we analysed the meat quality and organoleptic attributes after capture and during storage of Norway lobsters Nephrops norvegicus from Scottish waters that were either asymptomatic or symptomatic of patent Hematodinium infection. Results from the sensory evaluation of the cooked product indicate that tail meat from symptomatic N. norvegicus is bland in flavour and aftertaste, and more friable or sloppier in texture than meat from asymptomatic animals. As a consequence, infected meat tends to be less palatable, although surprisingly no bitter taste is reported. From an analytical point of view, tail meat from patently infected animals is at an advanced stage of autolysis, while no difference in microbial load is detected. These results suggest that Norway lobsters heavily infected with Hematodinium are of inferior marketing quality even after the tails have been cooked. PMID:23186698

  6. Slow to Ultraslow Seafloor Spreading in the Norway Basin Under Influence of the Iceland Hotspot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breivik, A. J.; Mjelde, R.; Faleide, J. I.

    2005-12-01

    The Norway Basin was initiated by continental breakup between northern Europe and Greenland/Jan Mayen in the earliest Eocene (~54Ma). Being part of the North Atlantic Igneous Province, continental breakup and early seafloor spreading produced voluminous magmatism. An ocean bottom seismometer (OBS) profile acquired in the year 2000 from the Norwegian Moere margin to the extinct spreading axis of the Aegir Ridge, was used to estimate variations in magma productivity as the oceanic basin evolved. Due to low magnetic data coverage, a satellite derived gravity map proved suitable to reinterpret the East Jan Mayen Fracture Zone (EJMFZ) system, but none of the other proposed fracture zones within the Norway Basin could be identified along its ~500 km length. The revised EJMFZ trace was used to re-evaluate spreading direction in the Norway Basin, which is quite asymmetric as it is condensed mostly on the southwestern side. The magnetic track recorded along the OBS profile was used to identify magnetic seafloor spreading anomalies by forward modeling, and projected onto synthetic flow lines half spreading rates were derived along-profile. Maximum rate was above 3 cm/a between A24A and A24b, falling off to ~0.7 cm/a (ultra-slow) towards the mid-Oligocene (25-28 Ma) termination of seafloor spreading. Breakup magmatism created oceanic crust up to 10-11 km thick, tapering down to thin crust by C23 time (51.4 Ma), the increased melt potential was thus spent ~2.5 Ma after continental breakup. There is a conspicuous correlation between half spreading rate and oceanic crustal thickness. As this is not observed in a normal seafloor spreading environment at most rates observed here, both plate spreading and magma production should be governed by a common cause, presumably hot asthenosphere restricted to the continental rift zone. While Oceanic crust created during ultra-slow spreading is thin (4 km), crust created during slow spreading is also thinner than the world average (5 vs. 7

  7. Rats! Oh No, Not Rats!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, Gary E.

    1987-01-01

    Examples of problems encountered in a new library building--including rats and humidity--and a description of the library's collections provide a framework for this presentation of the California State Library's emergency management planning. Current preservation efforts are documented and the library's disaster and security plans are described.…

  8. Age-related differences in pulmonary effects of acute and subchronic episodic ozone exposures in Brown Norway rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ozone (O3) is known to induce adverse pulmonary and systemic health effects. Importantly, children and older persons are considered at-risk populations for O3-induced dysfunction, yet the mechanisms accounting for the age-related pulmonary responses to O3 are uncertain. In this s...

  9. AGING AND LIFE-STAGE SUSCEPTIBILITY: TOLUENE EFFECTS ON BRAIN OXIDATIVE STRESS PARAMETERS IN BROWN NORWAY RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The influence of aging on susceptibility to environmental contaminants is poorly understood. The objectives of this study were to test whether oxidative stress (OS) is a potential toxicity pathway following toluene exposure and to determine if these effects are age-dependent. We ...

  10. AGING AND ACTIVITY: BASELINE CHARACTERISTICS OF MOTOR ACTIVITY AND THE EFFECT OF TOLUENE IN BROWN NORWAY RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The rapidly aging population raises many uncertainties regarding the susceptibility of older adults to environmental pollutants. Research to reduce these uncertainties must consider age-related changes in baseline function and its variability. For example, activity levels are gen...

  11. Episodic ozone exposure in adult and Senescent Brown Norway rats: Acute and delayed cardiovascular and thermoregulatory responses

    EPA Science Inventory

    Setting exposure standards for environmental pollutants may consider the aged as a susceptible population but the few published studies assessing susceptibility of the aged to air pollutants are inconsistent. Episodic ozone (O(3)) is more reflective of potential exposures occurri...

  12. Toluene Effects on Gene Expression in the Hippocampus of Young-Adult, Middle-Age and Senescent Brown Norway Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Differential susceptibility to environmental exposure(s) across life stages is an area of toxicology about which little is known. We examined the effects of toluene, a known neurotoxicant with reported behavioral, electrophysiological and pathological effects, on transcriptomic...

  13. Assessment of Biochemical and Behavioral Effects of Carbaryl and Methomyl in Brown-Norway Rats from Preweaning to Sensecence

    EPA Science Inventory

    Factors impacting life stage-specific sensitivity to chemicals include toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic changes. To evaluate age-related differences in the biochemical and behavioral impacts of two typical N-methyl carbamate pesticides, we systematically compared their dose-respo...

  14. TOLUENE EFFECTS ON OXIDATIVE STRESS IN BRAIN REGIONS OF YOUNG-ADULT, MIDDLE-AGE AND SENESCENT BROWN NORWAY RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aging-related susceptibility to environmental chemicals is poorly understood. Oxidative stress (OS) appears to play an important role in susceptibility and disease in old age. The objectives of this study, therefore, were to test whether OS is a potential toxicity pathway for tol...

  15. Ozone-induced changes in oxidative stress parameters in brains of adult, middle-age, and senescent Brown Norway rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding life-stage susceptibility is a critical part of community based human health risk assessment following chemical exposure. Recently there is growing concern over a common air pollutant, ozone (03), and adverse health effects including dysfunction of the pulmonary, ca...

  16. Toxicology and senescence: Baseline variability and toluene effects on the motor function of aging brown Norway rats.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The rapidly expanding population of older adults raises concern in EPA over aging-related vulnerability to environmental exposures. Deficits in motor function are frequent with advancing age. An increase in interindividual variability is also commonly accepted. Increased variabil...

  17. Susceptibility of the aging Brown Norway rat to carbaryl, an anti-cholinesterase-based insecticide: Thermoregulatory and cardiovascular responses.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proportion of aged in the United States is projected to expand markedly for the next several decades. Hence, the U.S.EPA is assessing if the aged are more susceptible to environmental toxicants. The thermoregulatory and cardiovascular responses of young adult, mature adult, a...

  18. Toluene effects on the motor activity of adolescent, young-adult, middle-age and senescent male Brown Norway rats.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Life stage is an important risk factor for toxicity. Children and aging adults, for example, are more susceptible to certain chemicals than are young adults. In comparison to children, relatively little is known about susceptibility in older adults. Additionally, few studies have...

  19. The pathogenic role of virus-specific antibody-secreting cells in the central nervous system of rats with different susceptibility to coronavirus-induced demyelinating encephalitis.

    PubMed Central

    Schwender, S; Imrich, H; Dörries, R

    1991-01-01

    The humoral immune response in the central nervous system (CNS) of susceptible Lewis (LE) rats and resistant Brown Norway (BN) rats was analysed after intracerebral infection with the murine coronavirus JHM (MHV4). The subclinical course of the infection in BN rats was characterized by an early rise of neutralizing antibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) 7 days post-infection. At this time in LE rats, neutralizing antibodies were not detectable in the CSF and the animals developed neurological signs of infection. Subsequently, LE rats recovered from disease. This process was accompanied by increasing titres of virus-neutralizing antibodies. Within the CNS parenchyma of both rat strains, equivalent numbers of IgM-secreting cells were detected. However, in BN rats, virus-specific IgG secreting cells appeared earlier and in higher numbers. Moreover, based on the size of zones of antibody secreted by single cells in the Spot-ELISA assay, it appeared that cells from BN rats secreted IgG antibody of higher affinity. These data suggest that early maturation of antiviral antibody responses in the resistant BN rat probably restricts the spread of viral infection to small foci within the CNS, resulting in a subclinical level of primary demyelination. In contrast, the absence of neutralizing antibodies in the susceptible LE rats favours spread of the virus throughout the CNS, resulting finally in severe neurological disease. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:1663078

  20. Dahl SS rats demonstrate enhanced aortic perivascular adipose tissue-mediated buffering of vasoconstriction through activation of NOS in the endothelium.

    PubMed

    Spradley, Frank T; Ho, Dao H; Pollock, Jennifer S

    2016-02-01

    Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) mediates buffering of vasoconstriction through activation of endothelium-derived factors. We hypothesized that the PVAT of Dahl salt-sensitive (Dahl SS) rats has reduced ability to buffer vasoconstriction. Vascular reactivity experiments were performed on aortic rings with PVAT intact (+PVAT) or removed (-PVAT), and endothelium intact (+ENDO) or removed (-ENDO) from Dahl SS rats and control SS.13(BN) rats (Dahl SS rats that have had chromosome 13 completely replaced with that of the Brown Norway rat, rendering this strain insensitive to high-salt or high-fat diet-induced hypertension). Endothelial dysfunction, assessed by ACh-mediated vasorelaxation, was confirmed in aortic rings of Dahl SS rats. The +PVAT+ENDO aortic rings had indistinguishable phenylephrine-induced vasoconstriction between genotypes. In both strains, removal of PVAT significantly enhanced vasoconstriction. Dahl SS rat -PVAT+ENDO aortic rings displayed exaggerated vasoconstriction to phenylephrine vs. SS.13(BN) rats, indicating that PVAT-mediated buffering of vasoconstriction was greater in Dahl SS rats. Removal of both the ENDO and PVAT restored vasoconstriction in both strains. The nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), produced a similar effect as that seen with -ENDO. These data indicate that the function of the PVAT to activate endothelium-derived NOS is enhanced in Dahl SS compared with SS.13(BN) rats and, most likely, occurs through a pathway that is distinct from ACh-mediated activation of NOS. PVAT weight and total PVAT leptin levels were greater in Dahl SS rats. Leptin induced a significantly decreased vasoconstriction in -PVAT+ENDO aortic rings from Dahl SS rats, but not SS.13(BN) rats. In contrast to our initial hypothesis, PVAT in Dahl SS rats buffers vasoconstriction by activating endothelial NOS via mechanisms that may include the involvement of leptin. Thus, the PVAT serves a vasoprotective role in

  1. Do Theory and Pedagogy Have an Impact on Provisions for Outdoor Learning? A Comparison of Approaches in Australia and Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Little, Helen; Wyver, Shirley

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we contrast the early childhood education and care aims and curriculum in Norway and Australia and the theoretical underpinnings of Norwegian and Australian pedagogy in an attempt to partially explain the different approaches to (risky) outdoor play in these two countries. We argue that Norwegian pedagogical approaches may allow…

  2. Equal Opportunities? The Effect of Social Background on Transition from Education to Work among Graduates in Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opheim, Vibeke

    2007-01-01

    This article studies the impact of parental education on the education-to-work transition among graduates in Norway during the time period 1987-2001. Four indicators of labour market success are examined: (1) main activity after graduation, (2) mismatch in the labour market, (3) type of job position, and (4) monetary outcome. The findings indicate…

  3. Bullying and Victimization among Native and Immigrant Adolescents in Norway: The Role of Proactive and Reactive Aggressiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fandrem, Hildegunn; Strohmeier, Dagmar; Roland, Erling

    2009-01-01

    This study compares levels of bullying others, victimization, and aggressiveness in native Norwegian and immigrant adolescents living in Norway and shows how bullying is related to proactive and reactive aggressiveness. The sample consists of 2,938 native Norwegians (1,521 girls, 1,417 boys) and 189 immigrant adolescents (97 girls, 92 boys) in…

  4. Methyl Jasmonate Induces Traumatic Resin Ducts, Terpenoid Resin Biosynthesis, and Terpenoid Accumulation in Developing Xylem of Norway Spruce Stems1

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Diane; Tholl, Dorothea; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2002-01-01

    Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst) produces an oleoresin characterized by a diverse array of terpenoids, monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, and diterpene resin acids that can protect conifers against potential herbivores and pathogens. Oleoresin accumulates constitutively in resin ducts in the cortex and phloem (bark) of Norway spruce stems. De novo formation of traumatic resin ducts (TDs) is observed in the developing secondary xylem (wood) after insect attack, fungal elicitation, and mechanical wounding. Here, we characterize the methyl jasmonate-induced formation of TDs in Norway spruce by microscopy, chemical analyses of resin composition, and assays of terpenoid biosynthetic enzymes. The response involves tissue-specific differentiation of TDs, terpenoid accumulation, and induction of enzyme activities of both prenyltransferases and terpene synthases in the developing xylem, a tissue that constitutively lacks axial resin ducts in spruce. The induction of a complex defense response in Norway spruce by methyl jasmonate application provides new avenues to evaluate the role of resin defenses for protection of conifers against destructive pests such as white pine weevils (Pissodes strobi), bark beetles (Coleoptera, Scolytidae), and insect-associated tree pathogens. PMID:12114556

  5. 76 FR 20312 - Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway: Extension of Time Limits for Preliminary and Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ... of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 76 FR 89 (January 3, 2011). Within the deadline specified in 19 CFR... International Trade Administration Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway: Extension of Time Limits for... of the antidumping (AD) and countervailing duty (CVD) orders on fresh and chilled Atlantic...

  6. 76 FR 38698 - Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway; Scheduling of Full Five-Year Reviews Concerning...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... proceed (76 FR 22422, April 21, 2011). A record of the Commissioners' votes, the Commission's statement on... FR 68036 (November 8, 2002). Even where electronic filing of a document is permitted, certain... COMMISSION Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway; Scheduling of Full Five-Year Reviews Concerning...

  7. Gammaherpesvirus infection in semidomesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus): a cross-sectional serological study in northern Norway

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a disease caused by a group of gammaherpesviruses that primarily affect domestic and wild ruminants. A serological study using cELISA was performed on a total of 3339 apparently healthy semi-domesticated reindeer (R. t. tarandus) from Finnmark County, Norway, sampl...

  8. Equity and Life-Long Learning: An Analysis of White Paper No. 16 (2006/2007) of Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haugen, Cecilie Ronning

    2010-01-01

    Nationally and internationally equity in education has become a key goal. In Norway, a White Paper has been tabled to address how equity can be improved through education. In this paper the pedagogic and knowledge orientation of the initiatives are analyzed and discussed in relation to two models of equity: "equity through equality" and "equity…

  9. Rise, Development and Changing Conceptions of Curriculum Administration and Curriculum Guidelines in Norway: The National-Local Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gundem, Bjorg B.

    The current move toward decentralized curriculum work throughout the western world marks a reversal of a historical trend: the gradual shifting from local to national control. In Norway, this trend is manifested by the emergence of changing conceptions of curriculum work, curriculum administration, and the nature of curriculum guidelines as…

  10. The potential spread of severe footrot in Norway if no elimination programme had been initiated: a simulation model.

    PubMed

    Grøneng, Gry M; Vatn, Synnøve; Kristoffersen, Anja Bråthen; Nafstad, Ola; Hopp, Petter

    2015-01-01

    When severe footrot was detected in Norway in 2008, a surveillance programme was initiated and followed by an elimination programme. By 2013 the disease had spread to two of 19 counties and a total of 119 (1%) sheep flocks had been diagnosed with severe footrot. A simulation model was developed to estimate the potential spread of severe footrot in Norway and to estimate the relative importance of the different spreading routes. The model parameters were based on the rate of spread of the first 38 diagnosed cases and the management and climatic factors particular for Norway. The model showed that by 2013, severe footrot would have spread to six counties and infected 16% of the sheep flocks if no elimination programme had been initiated. If this is compared with the 1% of flocks that were diagnosed in Norway by 2013, there seems to be a large effect of the implemented footrot elimination programme. By 2035, it was estimated that severe footrot would have spread to 16 counties and 64% of the sheep flocks. Such an extensive spread would probably impose a large negative impact on the sheep industry and welfare of the sheep. The most effective way to curb the spread of severe footrot was by decreasing the within county infection rate. This could be achieved by decreasing the contact between flocks or by decreasing the environmental load of D. nodosus, for example by footbathing sheep, culling diseased sheep or eliminating severe footrot in the flock. PMID:25828795

  11. Comparing the OECD's and Norway's Orientation to Equity in Their Teacher Education Policies--Teacher Autonomy under Attack?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haugen, Cecilie Ronning

    2013-01-01

    More and more nations are losing the ability to control their education systems. OECD is an important premise provider for educational policymaking championing a neoliberal agenda. With the aim to investigate the impact the OECD may have on national policymaking, this paper compares their recent teacher education policies with those of Norway. The…

  12. Neo-Liberalism and Universal State Education: The Cases of Denmark, Norway and Sweden 1980-2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiborg, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates neo-liberal policy on education in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. Traditionally, the edifice of the education system in these Scandinavian countries has been built on egalitarian values, but over the last 20 years they have increasingly adopted market-led reforms of education. The extent of neo-liberal policy varies between…

  13. Associations between School-Related Factors and Depressive Symptoms among Children: A Comparative Study, Finland and Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minkkinen, Jaana

    2014-01-01

    This study compares school-related associations in depressive symptoms among children aged between 9-13 years from four schools in Finland and Norway. A total of 523 pupils participated in the cross-sectional survey. The connections between depressive symptoms and school factors were analysed using hierarchical regression analyses. School…

  14. School District Administrators' Perspectives on the Professional Activities and Influence of Special Educators in Norway and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, David Lansing; Lindqvist, Gunilla

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate school district administrators' perspectives concerning the professional activities and influence of special educators in Norway (n?=?266) and Sweden (n?=?290). We examine three themes drawn from a survey of practices and policies in each country: (a) the organisational arrangements in which special…

  15. Sami Culture and Values: A Study of the National Mathematics Exam for the Compulsory School in Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fyhn, Anne Birgitte

    2013-01-01

    Norway ratified the ILO convention 169 concerning indigenous and tribal people in independent countries in 1990. In accordance with the convention the education programs for the Sami shall address their value systems and their cultural aspirations. Our aim is to investigate the implementation of this convention. The focus is on how Sami values are…

  16. The First Sourcebook on Nordic Research in Mathematics Education: Norway, Sweden, Iceland, Denmark and Contributions from Finland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sriraman, Bharath, Ed.; Bergsten, Christer, Ed.; Goodchild, Simon, Ed.; Palsdottir, Gudbjorg, Ed.; Sondergaard, Bettina Dahl, Ed.; Haapasalo, Lenni, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The First Sourcebook on Nordic Research in Mathematics Education: Norway, Sweden, Iceland, Denmark and contributions from Finland provides the first comprehensive and unified treatment of historical and contemporary research trends in mathematics education in the Nordic world. The book is organized in sections co-ordinated by active researchers in…

  17. Suicide Attempts among Indigenous Sami Adolescents and Majority Peers in Arctic Norway: Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silviken, Anne; Kvernmo, Siv

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence of suicide attempts and associated risk factors such as sociodemographic conditions, emotional/behavioural problems and parent-child relationships were examined among 591 indigenous Sami and 2100 majority adolescents in Arctic Norway. There were no significant ethnic differences in prevalence of suicide attempts. In both ethnic…

  18. Education of the Deaf in Australia and Norway: A Comparative Study of the Interpretations and Applications of Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, M.; Ohna, S. E.; Hjulstadt, O.

    2005-01-01

    Inclusion is a Term and process that is culturally, politically, medically, philosophically, and historically relative in its interpretations in the education of the deaf. The present study is a comparative analysis of two substantially different education systems for deaf students, those of Norway and Australia. The study objective was to…

  19. A Place To Learn or a Place for Pleasure? Pupils' Uses of the School Library in Norway.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rafste, Elisabeth Tallaksen

    This document summarizes a doctoral dissertation that examined activities in school libraries, including educational and leisure activities. The research focused on how pupils in two senior high schools in Norway use the school library in their everyday life at school, who the users are, and what use of the library means to them. The focus was…

  20. The Development of Student Teachers' Views on Pupil Misbehaviour during an Initial Teacher Training Programme in England and Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyriacou, Chris; Avramidis, Elias; Hoie, Harald; Stephens, Paul; Hultgren, Age

    2007-01-01

    A group of postgraduate (secondary school) student teachers attending a teacher training course in York (England) and Stavanger (Norway) completed a questionnaire at the start (N = 174) and at the end (N = 128) of their course which explored their views regarding the factors accounting for pupil misbehavior, the frequency of pupil misbehavior, the…

  1. Relational and Individual Well-Being among Cohabitors and Married Individuals in Midlife: Recent Trends from Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Thomas; Moum, Torbjorn; Shapiro, Adam

    2007-01-01

    This study uses data from the Norwegian NorLAG study (N = 2,455) to examine differences in relationship quality and psychological well-being between middle-aged cohabitors and married persons. The authors question whether previous results linking cohabitation as compared with marriage to lower well-being will replicate in Norway, where…

  2. Perceptions of National Identity: How Adolescents in the United States and Norway View Their Own and Other Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zevin, Jack

    2003-01-01

    During the spring and summer 1999, to increase his understanding of the mental pictures that young adolescents hold of their own nation and other nations, the author interviewed students from four sociologically similar urban-area New York schools and students in a junior high school class in Oslo, Norway. He used a semantic differential survey…

  3. WATER CHEMISTRY METHODS IN ACID DEPOSTION RESEARCH: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ANALYSES FROM CANADA, NORWAY, AND THE UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Identical aliquots (split samples)from lakes in the southeastern United tates were analyzed in laboratories in the U.S. and Norway. econd set of split samples from lakes in the northeastern U.S. was analyzed in laboratories in the U.S. and Canada. Methods used by the laboratories...

  4. Working on the Edge: The Meaning of Work for People Recovering from Severe Mental Distress in Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borg, Marit; Kristiansen, Kristjana

    2008-01-01

    Most citizens with long-term mental distress want a real job, and both Norway and European policies agree that work is a crucial part of social inclusion goals. Yet we know little about the actual impact of work on the recovery process for people with severe and often enduring mental distress. This article reports findings from a qualitative study…

  5. What's the meaning of local? Using molecular markers to define seed transfer zones for ecological restoration in Norway.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Marte Holten; Elameen, Abdelhameed; Hofman, Nadine; Klemsdal, Sonja; Malaval, Sandra; Fjellheim, Siri

    2016-06-01

    According to the Norwegian Diversity Act, practitioners of restoration in Norway are instructed to use seed mixtures of local provenance. However, there are no guidelines for how local seed should be selected. In this study, we use genetic variation in a set of alpine species (Agrostis mertensii, Avenella flexuosa, Carex bigelowii, Festuca ovina, Poa alpina and Scorzoneroides autumnalis) to define seed transfer zones to reduce confusion about the definition of 'local seeds'. The species selected for the study are common in all parts of Norway and suitable for commercial seed production. The sampling covered the entire alpine region (7-20 populations per species, 3-15 individuals per population). We characterised genetic diversity using amplified fragment length polymorphisms. We identified different spatial genetic diversity structures in the species, most likely related to differences in reproductive strategies, phylogeographic factors and geographic distribution. Based on results from all species, we suggest four general seed transfer zones for alpine Norway. This is likely more conservative than needed for all species, given that no species show more than two genetic groups. Even so, the approach is practical as four seed mixtures will serve the need for restoration of vegetation in alpine regions in Norway. PMID:27247618

  6. Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and p-AKT are involved in neuroprotective effects of transcription factor Brn3b in an ocular hypertension rat model of glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Phatak, Nitasha R.; Stankowska, Dorota L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Brn3b is a class IV POU domain transcription factor that plays an important role in the development of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), RGC survival, and particularly axon growth and pathfinding. Our previous study demonstrated that recombinant adenoassociated virus serotype 2 (rAAV-2)–mediated overexpression of Brn3b in RGCs promoted neuroprotection in a rodent model of glaucoma. However, the mechanisms underlying neuroprotection of RGCs in rats overexpressing Brn3b in animal models of glaucoma remain largely unknown. The goal of this study was to understand some of the mechanisms underlying the neuroprotection of RGCs overexpressing Brn3b during intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation in Brown Norway rats. Methods One eye of Brown Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) was injected with an AAV construct encoding either green fluorescent protein (GFP; recombinant adenoassociated virus–green fluorescent protein, rAAV-hSyn-GFP) or Brn3b (rAAV-hSyn-Brn3b). Expression of antiapoptotic proteins, including B cell lymphoma/leukemia-2 (Bcl-2) family proteins (Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL), and p-AKT, was observed following immunostaining of rat retinas that overexpress Brn3b. In a different set of experiments, intraocular pressure was elevated in one eye of Brown Norway rats, which was followed by intravitreal injection with AAV constructs encoding either GFP (rAAV-CMV-GFP) or Brn3b (rAAV-CMV-Brn3b). Retinal sections were stained for prosurvival factors, including Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, and p-AKT. Results AAV-mediated expression of transcription factor Brn3b promoted statistically significant upregulation of the Bcl-2 protein and increased expression of p-AKT in RGCs of Brown Norway rats. In addition, following IOP elevation, AAV-mediated Brn3b expression also statistically significantly increased levels of Bcl-2 in the RGC layer in Brown Norway rats. Conclusions Adenoassociated virus–mediated Brn3b protein overexpression may promote neuroprotection by upregulating key antiapoptotic

  7. Episodes of subsidence and uplift of the conjugate margins of Greenland and Norway after opening of the NE Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Japsen, Peter; Green, Paul F.; Bonow, Johan M.; Chalmers, James A.

    2016-04-01

    We have undertaken a regional study of the thermo-tectonic development of East Greenland (68-75°N; Bonow et al. 2014; Japsen et al. 2014) and of southern Norway (58-64°N) based on integration of apatite fission-track analysis (AFTA), stratigraphic landscape analysis and the geological record onshore and offshore. Volcanic and sedimentary rocks accumulated on the subsiding, East Greenland margin during and following breakup and then began to be exhumed during late Eocene uplift that preceded a major, early Oligocene plate reorganization in the NE Atlantic. The Norwegian margin also experienced Eocene subsidence and burial; there are hemipelagic, deep-marine sediments of Eocene age along the coast of southern Norway. End-Eocene uplift of the NW European margin led to the formation of a major unconformity along the entire margin and to progradation of clastic wedges from Norway towards the south. Our AFTA data from East Greenland and southern Norway reveal a long history of Mesozoic burial and exhumation across the region, with a number of broadly synchronous events being recorded on both margins. AFTA data from East Greenland show clear evidence for uplift at the Eocene-Oligocene transition whereas the data from Norway do not resolve any effects of exhumation related to this event. AFTA data from the East Greenland margin show evidence of two Neogene events of uplift and incision of the in the late Miocene and Pliocene whereas results from southern Norway define Neogene uplift and erosion which began in the early Miocene. A Pliocene uplift phase in southern Norway is evident from the stratigraphic landscape analysis and from the sedimentary sequences offshore. In East Greenland, a late Eocene phase of uplift led to formation of a regional erosion surface near sea level (the Upper Planation Surface, UPS). Uplift of the UPS in the late Miocene led to formation of the Lower Planation Surface (LPS) by incision below the uplifted UPS, and a Pliocene phase led to

  8. Erosion of mountain plateaus along Sognefjord, Norway, constrained by cosmogenic nuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Jane Lund; Egholm, David L.; Knudsen, Mads F.; Linge, Henriette; Jansen, John D.

    2016-04-01

    Norway is famous for its deeply incised, steep-sided fjords, carved out by glacial erosion. The high relief of the fjords stands in contrast to the extensive areas of relatively low relief found between the fjords. The origin and development of these low-relief areas remain debated. The classical interpretation relates them to a Mesozoic peneplanation surface, uplifted to the current high elevation in the early Cenozoic (e.g. Nesje, 1994). The validity of this interpretation has, however, been repeatedly questioned in recent times (e.g. Nielsen et al. 2009, Steer et al. 2012). Recent studies point instead to a significant impact of glacial and periglacial erosion processes on the long-term development of the low-relief surfaces (Egholm et al. 2015). Here, we present a large new dataset of in-situ produced cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al in bedrock and boulders from the high, flat summit surfaces along a transect from the coast to the inner parts of Sognefjorden in Norway. Our results indicate substantial glacial modification of the sampled low-relief surfaces within the last 50 ka. Close to the coast, at an elevation of around 700 meters, the cosmogenic nuclide signal was reset around the Younger Dryas due to extensive glacial erosion. Regarding the higher surfaces further inland, our results indicate a maximum cosmogenic nuclide inheritance of 20-30 ka prior to the last deglaciation. We do not find any signs of exceptional longevity of the low-relief landscape. In contrast, our results indicate that the low-relief areas were continuously eroded by glacial and periglacial processes in the Quaternary. Nesje & Whillans. Erosion of Sognefjord, Norway. Geomorphology 9(1), 33-45, 1994. Nielsen et al. The evolution of western Scandinavian topography: a review of Neogene uplift versus the ICE (isostasy-climate-erosion) hypothesis. Journal of Geodynamics 47(2), 72-95, 2009. Steer et al. Bimodal Plio-Quaternary glacial erosion of fjords and low-relief surfaces in Scandinavia

  9. Sea Level Change for Norway: Past and Present Observations and Projections to 2100

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, Matthew; Øie Nilsen, Jan Even; Ravndal, Oda; Breili, Kristian; Sande, Hilde; Kierulf, Halfdan; Steffen, Holger; Jansen, Eystein; Carson, Mark; Vestol, Olav

    2016-04-01

    Changes to mean sea level and/or sea level extremes (e.g., storm surges) will lead to changes in coastal impacts. These changes represent a changing exposure or risk to our society. Here we try to synthesize our understanding of past and present observed sea level changes for Norway, as well as providing sea level projections up until 2100. Our primary focus is changes to mean sea level but we also give updated return heights for each coastal municipality in Norway. We first analyse observed sea level changes from the Norwegian tide gauge network and from satellite altimetry. After the tide gauge data have been corrected for the effects of glacial isostatic adjustment, we show that 20th century sea level rise in Norwegian waters is broadly similar to the global average rise. Contributions to the observed sea level change and variability are discussed. We find that rate of sea level rise along the Norwegian coast is significantly higher for the period 1993-2014 than for the period 1960-2010. It is unclear, however, to what extent this higher rate represents natural variability rather than a sustained increase owing to global warming. Our regional sea level projections are based on findings from the Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) of the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC), and the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) output. Average projected 21st century relative sea level change in Norway is -0.10-0.35 m (5 to 95% model ranges which is the likely range in AR5; P>66%) for RCP2.6, -0.05-0.45 m for RCP4.5, and 0.10-0.65 m for RCP8.5. The relative sea level projections can differ as much as 0.50 m from place to place. This pattern is governed by the vertical uplift rates. Quantifying the probability of levels above the likely range (i.e., the upper tail of the probability distribution) remains difficult because information is lacking. And of particular concern is that the ice sheet contribution might have a skewed distribution, which would

  10. Landslide-Generated Tsunami Hazards in Fiordland, New Zealand and Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dykstra, J. L.

    2009-05-01

    Sub-aerial or submarine landslides can generate large displacement waves, sometimes with devastating consequences. Catastrophic rockslides fall into the fiords of western Norway about every 100 years: during the last century, 174 people have been killed by landslide-generated tsunami, including the 1934 Tafjord rockslide which generated a 62 m high wave, killing 41 people. Hazard evaluation for the Norwegian fiords is based on high-resolution sonar imagery of landslide deposits, seismic reflection data, and event chronology developed from radiocarbon and surface exposure dating. The ongoing hazard is managed by identifying and monitoring potential failure areas, calculating slide paths and estimating slide properties at the points of impact. High-risk locations are monitored intensively, and include the Aknes slide area on Geirangerjord which could generate a tsunami of up to 30 m in height, and the Akernes landslide above Storfjorden. The current system of hazard evaluation and mitigation in western Norway is effective because large landslides are normally preceded by smaller rockfalls and by accelerating motion of the rock bodies. By contrast, large landslides in the very similar but highly seismic terrain of Fiordland, southwestern New Zealand are most likely earthquake-initiated, and therefore precursory minor rockfalls are unlikely. Coseismic landslides are common in New Zealand; seismic shaking serves as the primary trigger for failures that are preconditioned by progressive degradation of rock mass strength since deglaciation. The seismicity of Fiordland is dominated by the plate-boundary Alpine Fault, which runs immediately offshore of the popular tourist destination of Milford Sound; it has ruptured at least four times in the past 1000 years (the last time around 1717 A.D.) producing earthquakes of about magnitude 8. The probability of an earthquake of similar magnitude occurring along the Alpine Fault within the next 50 years is estimated at 65% plus

  11. Deciphering the brittle evolution of SW Norway through a combined structural, mineralogical and geochronological approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheiber, Thomas; Viola, Giulio; Fredin, Ola; Zwingmann, Horst; Wilkinson, Camilla Maya; Ganerød, Morgan

    2016-04-01

    SW Norway has experienced a complex brittle history after cessation of the Caledonian orogeny, and the recent discoveries of major hydrocarbon reserves in heavily fractured and weathered basement offshore SW Norway has triggered a renewed interest in understanding this complex tectonic evolution. In this contribution we present results from a multidisciplinary study combining lineament analysis, field work, paleo-stress inversion, mineralogical characterization and radiometric dating in the Bømlo area of SW Norway in order to develop a tectonic model for the brittle evolution of this important region. The study area mainly consists of the Rolvsnes granodiorite (U-Pb zircon age of ca. 466 Ma), which is devoid of penetrative ductile deformation features. The first identified brittle faults are muscovite-bearing top-to-the-NNW thrusts and E-W striking dextral strike-slip faults decorated with stretched biotite. These are mechanically compatible and are assigned to the same NNW-SSE transpressional regime. Ar-Ar muscovite and biotite dates of ca. 450 Ma (Late Ordovician) indicate fault activity in the course of a Taconian-equivalent orogenic event. During the subsequent Silurian Laurentia-Baltica collision variably oriented, lower-grade chlorite and epidote-coated faults formed in response to a ENE-WSW compressional stress regime. A large number of mainly N-S striking normal faults consist of variably thick fault gouge cores with illite, quartz, kaolinite, calcite and epidote mineralizations, accommodating mainly E-W extension. K-Ar dating of illites separated from representative fault gouges and zones of altered granodiorite constrain deformation ranging from the Permian to the Late Jurassic, indicating a long history of crustal extension where faults were repeatedly activated. In addition, a set of ca. SW-NE striking faults associated with alteration zones give Cretaceous dates, either representing a young phase of NW-SE extension or reactivation of previously formed

  12. Geoethical considerations in early warning of flooding and landslides: Case study from Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devoli, Graziella; Kleivane Krøgli, Ingeborg; Dahl, Mads Peter; Colleuille, Hervé; Nykjær Boje, Søren; Sund, Monica

    2015-04-01

    The Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE) runs the national early warning systems (EWS) for flooding and shallow landslides in Norway. The two EWSs have been operational since the late 1980s and 2013 respectively, and are based on weather forecasts, various hydro-meteorological prognosis and expert evaluation. Daily warning levels and related information to the public is prepared and presented through custom build internet platforms. In natural hazards sciences, the risk of a specific threat is defined as the product of hazard and consequence. In this context an EWS is intended to work as a mitigation measure in lowering the consequence and thus the risk of the threat. One of several factors determining the quality of such an EWS, is how warnings are communicated to the public. In contrary to what is common practice in some other countries, experts working with EWS in Norway cannot be held personally responsible for consequences of warnings being issued or not. However, the communication of warnings for flooding and landslides at NVE still implies many considerations of geoethical kind. Which are the consequences today for the forecasters when erroneous warning messages are sent because based on a poorly documented analysis? What is for example the most responsible way to describe uncertainties in warnings issued? What is the optimal compromise between avoiding false alarms and not sending out a specific warning? Is it responsible to rely on a "gut feeling"? Some authorities complain in receiving warning messages too often. Is it responsible to begin notifying these, only in cases of "high hazard level" and no longer in cases of "moderate hazard level"? Is it acceptable to issue general warnings for large geographical areas without being able to pinpoint the treat on local scale? What responsibility lies within the EWS in recommending evacuation or other practical measures to local authorities? By presenting how early warnings of flooding and

  13. Developing a postglacial rockfall chronology in the mountainous fjord landscape of western Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laute, Katja; Beylich, Achim A.; Winkler, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    Large areas of glacially sculpted mountain landscapes worldwide exhibit a high spatial density of postglacial rockfalls and rock-slope failures. However, the temporal patterns of rock-slope failure frequencies after Deglaciation are still fairly unknown. The mountainous fjord landscape in western Norway represents a suitable study area as it exhibits a high number of rockfalls and rock-slope failures within a region with a well known Deglaciation history. Two steep, parabolic-shaped and glacier-connected neighbouring drainage basins, Erdalen (79.5 km2) and Bødalen (60.1 km2), located on the western side of the Jostedalsbreen ice cap in western Norway are selected as study areas. The focus of this study is on (i) the temporal reconstruction of rockfalls and rock-slope failures within the two defined and nearly lithologically homogenous study areas and (ii) the identification and explanation of possible triggering and controlling factors of the investigated rock-slope failures. First investigations have started by applying Schmidt-hammer exposure-age dating (SHD) at seven larger rockfall deposits as well as at five moraines of known age within both study areas. During the sampling 50 to 100 impacts using a mechanical Proceq N-type instrument were taken from the surface of 5 to 50 single rockfall boulders located at the outer margin of the rockfall deposits. In order to avoid sampling of more recent rockfalls or redistributed debris material the sampling strategy selected preferred a larger number of individual boulders sampled with few impacts over sampling just a small number of boulders with a high number of multiple impacts. First results show that the mean rebound (R-) values measured at the seven rockfall deposits fall into recognizably different age categories. Based on the SHD measurements obtained from the moraines of known age, the determined rockfall age categories are situated between the Preboral and Little Ice Age period. The chronology and possible

  14. Neotectonic faulting in northern Norway; the Stuoragurra and Nordmannvikdalen postglacial faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehls, John F.; Olesen, Odleiv; Olsen, Lars; Harald Blikra, Lars

    2000-10-01

    A systematic compilation and characterisation of many reports of neotectonic crustal deformation in Norway (both on local and regional scales) has identified two neotectonic faults in northern Norway. The Stuoragurra Fault is a large reverse fault in Finnmark County. The Nordmannvikdalen fault is a much smaller normal fault in Troms County. The Stuoragurra postglacial fault can be followed, in several discontinuous sections, for 80 km, in a NE-SW direction. The fault has up to 10 m of displacement. During 1998, two trenches were made across the fault. The hanging wall was seen to be thrust upwards over the footwall, with 7 m vertical displacement evident from displaced glacial contacts. The fault did not penetrate the overlying glacial materials, but rather folded them, forming a blind thrust. Large liquefaction and other deformation structures were found in the glaciofluvial sediments in both trenches. Veins of angular and subangular pebbles from the local bedrock penetrate more than 10 m laterally from the thrust plane and into the sediments in the footwall. It is thought that these veins were injected during the fault activity. The major deformation of the sediments has a décollement plane that continues laterally in the E/B horizon contact of the modern soil on top of the footwall. This may indicate that an initial pedogenesis had taken place before the fault activity occurred, however no macro plant fossils to support this were found in the possible buried soil. Deformational structures seen in the trench can be explained as a result of one major fault event. The Nordmannvikdalen postglacial fault is a NW-SE trending normal fault, dipping to the NE. The fault offsets till on the NW slope of Nordmannvikdalen. The escarpment varies in height from 0.5 to 1.5 m, with a trench often present between the hanging wall and the footwall. The fault locally splits into two subparallel branches, however this is probably only in the glacial overburden. Ground penetrating

  15. Emotional reactivity and cognitive performance in aversively motivated tasks: a comparison between four rat strains

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Cognitive function might be affected by the subjects' emotional reactivity. We assessed whether behavior in different tests of emotional reactivity is correlated with performance in aversively motivated learning tasks, using four strains of rats generally considered to have a different emotional reactivity. Methods The performance of male Brown Norway, Lewis, Fischer 344, and Wistar Kyoto rats in open field (OF), elevated plus-maze (EPM), and circular light-dark preference box (cLDB) tasks, which are believed to provide measures of emotional reactivity, was evaluated. Spatial working and reference memory were assessed in two aversively motivated learning and memory tasks: the standard and the "repeated acquisition" versions of the Morris water maze escape task, respectively. All rats were also tested in a passive avoidance task. At the end of the study, levels of serotonin (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, and 5-HT turnover in the hippocampus and frontal cortex were determined. Results Strain differences showed a complex pattern across behavioral tests and serotonergic measures. Fischer 344 rats had the poorest performance in both versions of the Morris water escape task, whereas Brown Norway rats performed these tasks very well but the passive avoidance task poorly. Neither correlation analysis nor principal component analysis provided convincing support for the notion that OF, EPM, and cLDB tasks measure the same underlying trait. Conclusions Our findings do not support the hypothesis that the level of emotional reactivity modulates cognitive performance in aversively motivated tasks. Concepts such as "emotional reactivity" and "learning and memory" cannot adequately be tapped with only one behavioral test. Our results emphasize the need for multiple testing. PMID:20003525

  16. Transcriptional Responses Associated with Virulence and Defence in the Interaction between Heterobasidion annosum s.s. and Norway Spruce

    PubMed Central

    Lundén, Karl; Danielsson, Marie; Durling, Mikael Brandström; Ihrmark, Katarina; Gorriz, Miguel Nemesio; Stenlid, Jan; Asiegbu, Frederick O.; Elfstrand, Malin

    2015-01-01

    Heterobasidion annosum sensu lato is a serious pathogen causing root and stem rot to conifers in the northern hemisphere and rendering the timber defective for sawing and pulping. In this study we applied next-generation sequencing to i) identify transcriptional responses unique to Heterobasidion-inoculated Norway spruce and ii) investigate the H. annosum transcripts to identify putative virulence factors. To address these objectives we wounded or inoculated 30-year-old Norway spruce clones with H. annosum and 454-sequenced the transcriptome of the interaction at 0, 5 and 15 days post inoculation. The 491860 high-quality reads were de novo assembled and the relative expression was analysed. Overall, very few H. annosum transcripts were represented in our dataset. Three delta-12 fatty acid desaturase transcripts and one Clavaminate synthase-like transcript, both associated with virulence in other pathosystems, were found among the significantly induced transcripts. The analysis of the Norway spruce transcriptional responses produced a handful of differentially expressed transcripts. Most of these transcripts originated from genes known to respond to H. annosum. However, three genes that had not previously been reported to respond to H. annosum showed specific induction to inoculation: an oxophytodienoic acid–reductase (OPR), a beta–glucosidase and a germin-like protein (GLP2) gene. Even in a small data set like ours, five novel highly expressed Norway spruce transcripts without significant alignment to any previously annotated protein in Genbank but present in the P. abies (v1.0) gene catalogue were identified. Their expression pattern suggests a role in defence. Therefore a more complete survey of the transcriptional responses in the interactions between Norway spruce and its major pathogen H. annosum would probably provide a better understanding of gymnosperm defence than accumulated until now. PMID:26151363

  17. Use of hormonal contraceptives among immigrant and native women in Norway: data from the Norwegian Prescription Database

    PubMed Central

    Omland, G; Ruths, S; Diaz, E

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the use of hormonal contraceptives among immigrant and native women in Norway. Design Nationwide registry-based study based on merged data from the Norwegian Prescription Database, the Norwegian Population Registry, the Regular General Practitioner Database and the Medical Birth Registry. Setting Norway. Sample All women born abroad to two foreign-born parents (immigrants), or born in Norway to two Norwegian-born parents (natives) aged 16–45 years, who lived in Norway in 2008. Methods Data on all collected supplies of hormonal contraceptives in 2008 were merged with demographic, socio-economic and immigration data, information on any delivery and women's general practitioners. Main outcome measures User rates of hormonal contraception and predictors of contraceptive use. Results A total of 893 073 women were included, of whom 130 080 were immigrants. More native women (38%) used hormonal contraceptives compared with all immigrant groups (15–24%). The odds ratios for any use of hormonal contraceptives for immigrants compared with Norwegian-born women were; Nordic countries 0.53, South and Central America 0.53, Western countries 0.39, Asia 0.30, Eastern Europe 0.29, Africa 0.29. Work, education, long stay in Norway and young age of immigration predicted the use of hormonal contraceptives among immigrants. Conclusions The use of hormonal contraceptives varies between natives and immigrant groups. Further work is needed to ascertain whether these differences can be explained by higher desires for fertility, preferential use of non-hormonal contraceptives or other reasons identified through qualitative research. PMID:24931487

  18. Experiences from coordinating research after the 2011 terrorist attacks in Norway

    PubMed Central

    Refsdal, Nils O.

    2014-01-01

    This brief report presents some of the lessons learned from coordinating research in which people directly affected by terrorist attacks in Norway in 2011 are taking part. After the terrorist attacks, it was decided to establish a national coordinating function in order to protect those who were affected when they participate in research. By gathering key stakeholders, it is possible to avoid duplication of research through practical measures such as information sharing, facilitating cooperation, and working toward sharing of data. In addition, a coordinating function provides a platform for working to increase the impact of the research among practitioners and policy makers, and inform the general public. The conclusions are that coordination should be interdisciplinary, that it is important to plan for the sharing and reuse of data, and that both the research community and the research infrastructure should take steps to improve preparedness when disaster inevitably strikes again. PMID:25018857

  19. Hydrothermal Origin for Carbonate Globules in Martian Meteorite ALH84001: A Terrestrial Analogue from Spitsbergen (Norway)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treiman, Allan H.; Amundsen, Hans E. F.; Blake, David F.; Bunch, Ted

    2002-01-01

    Carbonate minerals in the ancient Martian meteorite ALH84001 are the only known solid phases that bear witness to the processing of volatile and biologically critical compounds (CO2, H2O) on early Mars. Similar carbonates have been found in xenoliths and their host basalts from Quaternary volcanic centers in northern Spitsbergen (Norway). These carbonates were deposited by hot (i.e., hydrothermal) waters associated with the volcanic activity. By analogy with the Spitsbergen carbonates, the ALH84001 carbonates were probably also deposited by hot water. Hydrothermal activity was probably common and widespread on Early Mars, which featured abundant basaltic rocks, water as ice or liquid, and heat from volcanos and asteroid impacts. On Earth, descendants of the earliest life forms still prefer hydrothermal environments, which are now shown to have been present on early Mars.

  20. Hydrothermal origin for carbonate globules in Martian meteorite ALH84001: a terrestrial analogue from Spitsbergen (Norway)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treiman, Allan H.; Amundsen, Hans E. F.; Blake, David F.; Bunch, Ted

    2002-12-01

    Carbonate minerals in the ancient Martian meteorite ALH84001 are the only known solid phases that bear witness to the processing of volatile and biologically critical compounds (CO 2, H 2O) on early Mars. Similar carbonates have been found in xenoliths and their host basalts from Quaternary volcanic centers in northern Spitsbergen (Norway). These carbonates were deposited by hot (i.e., hydrothermal) waters associated with the volcanic activity. By analogy with the Spitsbergen carbonates, the ALH84001 carbonates were probably also deposited by hot water. Hydrothermal activity was probably common and widespread on Early Mars, which featured abundant basaltic rocks, water as ice or liquid, and heat from volcanos and asteroid impacts. On Earth, descendants of the earliest life forms still prefer hydrothermal environments, which are now shown to have been present on early Mars.

  1. Science and adventure with British Exploring in Arctic Norway: Atmospheric Chemistry research with Young people

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleming, Zoe

    2013-04-01

    British Exploring (formerly known as British Schools Exploring Society) has been running expeditions for young people since 1932 and presently runs as many as seven expeditions a year on several continents to remote locations. Some highlights from the Arctic Norway expedition of summer 2012 are presented here, in particular following the Atmospheric Chemistry group that carried out a survey of the pollution in the local environment. The group travelled from fjord to mountain top and spent a few days exploring the Øksfjordjøkelen ice cap. The mobile nature of the expedition meant that the science had to become back-pack science, carried from one remote camp-site to another but this still allowed some cutting-edge science to be carried out that was linked with academic research.

  2. Rainwater composition in eight arctic catchments in northern Europe (Finland, Norway and Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimann, Clemens; De Caritat, Patrice; Halleraker, Jo H.; Volden, Tore; Äyräs, Matti; Niskavaara, Heikki; Chekushin, Viktor A.; Pavlov, Vladimir A.

    Monthly rainwater samples were collected during the summer of 1994 in eight arctic catchments in northern Europe (four in Russia, three in Finland, one in Norway), at different distances and wind directions from the emissions of the Russian nickel ore mining, roasting and smelting industry on the Kola Peninsula. Three stations consisting of five samplers each were placed in open areas in all the catchments. Results show that close to the smelters in Monchegorsk, rainwater is strongly enriched in Ni (633 x), Co, Cu, As, Mo, Al (36 x), V, Cd, Sb, Pb (11 x), Zn, Fe, Sr, Na, S/SO 4 (6 x), Cl, Cr, Se (4 x) and Ag when compared to a Finnish background catchment. Three sources of elements can be differentiated: natural dust, sea spray and anthropogenic (smokestack emissions and dust). Correlation diagrams and element ratios can be used to identify the different industrial processes and even ore feed changes at one smelter.

  3. Evaluation of glacier mass balance by observing variations in transient snowline positions. [Jostedalsbreen ice cap, Norway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oestrem, G. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The transient snowline on five outlet glaciers from the Jostedalsbreen ice-cap in Southwestern Norway could be determined from ERTS-1 image 1336-10260, when bands MSS 5, 6, and 7 were combined in an additive color viewer. The snowline was situated at a very low altitude at the time of imagery (24 June 1973) indicating that glacier melt was behind normal schedule, a fact that has a hydrologic bearing: one could expect less melt water in the streams. The idea to use ERTS-1 imagery in snowline determinations proved realistic and relatively easy to apply in practice. The method will be useful to estimate the glaciers' mass balance for large areas, provided some ground truth observations are made. Images from the end of the melt season are of course vital in this work.

  4. Effects of photoperiod and temperature on the timing of bud burst in Norway spruce (Picea abies).

    PubMed

    Partanen, Jouni; Koski, Veikko; Hänninen, Heikki

    1998-12-01

    We examined the effects of several photoperiod and temperature regimes imposed during the winter-spring period on the timing of bud burst in rooted cuttings of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) grown in a greenhouse in Finland. The treatments were initiated in November and December after the cuttings had been exposed to natural chilling and freezing events. Irrespective of the treatments applied, time to bud burst decreased with increased duration of previous exposure to natural chilling and freezing events. Fluctuating day/night temperatures and continuous lengthening of the photoperiod hastened bud burst. Shortening the photoperiod delayed bud burst, suggesting that little or no ontogenetic development toward bud burst takes place during mild periods before the winter solstice. In the case of climatic warming, this phenomenon may prevent the premature onset of growth that has been predicted by computer simulations with models that only consider temperature regulation of bud burst. PMID:12651402

  5. Measurements of atmospheric aerosol vertical distributions above Svalbard, Norway, using unmanned aerial systems (UAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, T. S.; Quinn, P. K.; Johnson, J. E.; Corless, A.; Brechtel, F. J.; Stalin, S. E.; Meinig, C.; Burkhart, J. F.

    2013-08-01

    Atmospheric aerosol vertical distributions were measured above Svalbard, Norway, in April 2011 during the Cooperative Investigation of Climate-Cryosphere Interactions campaign (CICCI). Measurements were made of the particle number concentration and the aerosol light absorption coefficient at three wavelengths. A filter sample was collected on each flight at the altitude of maximum particle number concentration. The filters were analyzed for major anions and cations. The aerosol payload was flown in a NOAA/PMEL MANTA Unmanned Aerial System (UAS). A total of 18 flights were flown during the campaign totaling 38 flight hours. The data show frequent aerosol layers aloft with high particle number concentration (1000 cm-3) and enhanced aerosol light absorption (1 Mm-1). Air mass histories of these aerosol layers were assessed using FLEXPART particle dispersion modeling. The data contribute to an assessment of sources of BC to the Arctic and potential climate impacts.

  6. Measurements of atmospheric aerosol vertical distributions above Svalbard, Norway using unmanned aerial systems (UAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, T. S.; Quinn, P. K.; Johnson, J. E.; Corless, A.; Brechtel, F. J.; Stalin, S. E.; Meinig, C.; Burkhart, J. F.

    2013-03-01

    Atmospheric aerosol vertical distributions were measured above Svalbard, Norway in April 2011 during the Cooperative Investigation of Climate-Cryosphere Interactions campaign (CICCI). Measurements were made of the particle number concentration and the aerosol light absorption coefficient at three wavelengths. A filter sample was collected on each flight at the altitude of maximum particle number concentration. The filters were analyzed for major anions and cations. The aerosol payload was flown in a NOAA/PMEL MANTA Unmanned Aerial System (UAS). A total of 18 flights were flown during the campaign totaling 38 flight hours. The data show frequent aerosol layers aloft with high particle number concentration (1000 cm-3 and enhanced aerosol light absorption (1 Mm-1). Air mass histories of these aerosol layers were assessed using FLEXPART particle dispersion modeling. The data contribute to an assessment of sources of BC to the Arctic and potential climate impacts.

  7. From poor law society to the welfare state: school meals in Norway 1890s–1950s

    PubMed Central

    Andresen, Astri; Elvbakken, Kari Tove

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the main trends in the history of publicly organised school meals in Norway, while casting comparative glances at Britain. First, it argues that the status of school meals today is strongly influenced by three intertwined strains of past tradition: poor relief, universal welfare and the ideal of full‐time and nutritionally competent housewives. Second, tradition is also visible in the extent to which publicly organised meals are seen as solutions to problems – in the past to hunger or malnourishment, today to obesity and malnourishment – and not simply as a meal. Third, the creation of civil and health conscious citizens has, to varying degrees, been a part of the school meals programme, as the school itself has had, and continues to have, such an agenda. PMID:17435200

  8. Occupational injuries to fisheries workers in Norway reported to insurance companies from 1991 to 1996.

    PubMed

    Bull, N; Riise, T; Moen, B E

    2001-08-01

    Fisheries work is one of the occupations at highest risk for occupational accidents in many countries. It is necessary to understand the injuries in order to prevent them. This study of occupational injury claims by fisheries workers in Norway made to insurance companies from 1991 to 1996 analysed the workers' age, time of injury, injury type, part of the body involved, injury event and cost. The highest injury incidence rates were among the younger fisheries workers and during the winter months. Bruises and fractures were the most frequent injury types, and fingers and hands were most often affected, whereas falls and accidents related to machines were the most common causes. Safety measures should be taken on board to prevent falls and machine-related injuries, and young fisheries workers should have better on-the-job training. PMID:11473135

  9. Family Income Dynamics, Early Childhood Education and Care, and Early Child Behavior Problems in Norway

    PubMed Central

    Zachrisson, Henrik Daae; Dearing, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The sociopolitical context of Norway includes low poverty rates and universal access to subsidized and regulated Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC). In this context, the association between family income dynamics and changes in early child behavior problems was investigated, as well as whether high quality ECEC buffers children from the effects of income dynamics. In a population-based sample (N = 75,296), within-family changes in income-to-needs predicted changes in externalizing and internalizing problems (from age 18 to 36 months), particularly for lower-income children. For internalizing problems, ECEC buffered the effect of income-to-needs changes. These findings lend further support to the potential benefits of ECEC for children from lower-income families. PMID:25345342

  10. Mercury and cadmium uptake from seawater and from food by the Norway lobster Nephrops norvegicus

    SciTech Connect

    Canli, M.; Furness, R.W.

    1995-05-01

    Norway lobsters, nephrops norvegicus, were fed on a mercury- and cadmium-rich diet for up to 50 d or were exposed to sublethal concentrations of organic mercury, inorganic mercury, or cadmium in seawater for 30 d. Cadmium taken up from seawater accumulated mainly in the hepatopancreas and gill, while it accumulated mainly in the hepatopancreas after feeding. Both organic and inorganic mercury taken up from seawater accumulated mainly in the gill, while highest concentrations were found in the hepatopancreas after the feeding experiment. Accumulation of organic mercury was higher than that of inorganic mercury. Although all treatments resulted in the accumulation of mercury and cadmium from seawater and food, tissue distribution of metals differed significantly among treatments. Distributions of organic and inorganic mercury also varied among tissues after uptake from seawater, with organic mercury being more evenly distributed among tissues than inorganic mercury, the latter being found predominantly in the gill.

  11. X-RAY DENSITOMETRY OF NORWAY SPRUCE SUBFOSSIL WOOD FROM THE AUSTRIAN ALPS

    PubMed Central

    KŁUSEK, MARZENA; GRABNER, MICHAEL

    2016-01-01

    The processing of subfossil wood poses some difficulties in densitometric research. Problems arise because of the physio-chemical changes of wood occurring in the sedimentation environment. Subfossil wood modification can result from the uptake of mineral and organic substances into the wood tissue. It can also occur as the effect of microbiological degradation of wood. The goal of this study was to identify the appropriate method of subfossil wood preparation for the densitometric research. For this purpose the wood of Norway spruce from Lake Schwarzensee was subjected to extraction in deionized water, acetone and diluted acetic acid. The application of acetic acid did not significantly influence the density of the wood and acetone seemed to be too aggressive. The best result was obtained by rinsing the samples in cold de-ionized water. This extraction procedure allowed removal of unwanted water-soluble, organic and inorganic compounds from wood and simultaneously did not lead to the degradation of subfossil samples. PMID:27158247

  12. Interprofessional training for nursing and medical students in Norway: Exploring different professional perspectives.

    PubMed

    Aase, Ingunn; Hansen, Britt Sætre; Aase, Karina; Reeves, Scott

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an explorative case study focusing on interprofessional training for medical and nursing students in Norway. Based on interviews with, and observations of, multiple stakeholder groups--students, university faculty, and hospital staff--content analysis was applied to investigate their perspectives regarding the design of such educational training. The findings revealed a positive perspective amongst stakeholders while voicing some concerns related to how communication issues, collaboration, workflow, and professional role patterns should be reflected in such training. Based on our data analysis we derive three themes that must be considered for successful interprofessional training of nursing and medical students: clinical professionalism, team performance, and patient-centered perspective. These themes must be balanced contingent on the students' background and the learning objectives of future interprofessional training efforts. PMID:26709888

  13. Forest classes and tree cover gradient: tick habitat in encroached areas of southern Norway.

    PubMed

    Vanwambeke, S O; Van Doninck, J; Artois, J; Davidson, R K; Meyfroidt, P; Jore, S

    2016-03-01

    Forest, in particular deciduous forest, is a key element in determining areas with a high probability of tick presence. The way forest is generally monitored may be ill suited to some landscapes where Ixodes ricinus is found, as forest is usually characterised using crisp land cover classes. However, tree vegetation can be found outside of forests and continuous gradations of tree density can be found in a variety of landscapes. In this paper we investigate the probability of tick presence in southern Norway using landscape description based both on land cover classes and continuous data describing the tree cover fraction. Both perspectives on the landscape are significant in the logistic model, indicating that the usual approach based solely on land cover classes may not be comprehensive enough in capturing tick habitat, and characterising the landscape with variables focused on single specific elements may be insufficient. PMID:26692382

  14. Vertical Distribution and Variability of Ozone During July 1999 Over Andenes, Norway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidlin, F. J.; Northam, E. T.; Ross, E. D.; Zukor, Dorothy J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Ozonesonde measurements of the polar atmosphere obtained at Andenes, Norway during July 1999 showed unusual characteristics when compared with mid- or low-latitude ozone profiles. A minimum of two ozonesondes each day were released, one in late afternoon and one in early evening. A very well-defined ledge in the ozone profile corresponding to the tropopause appears to form as a result of transport. The ozone amount increases four to five times, from about 30 nb at the tropopause to 120 nb at a pressure about 10-20 hPa lower. The typical peak ozone value, although at a higher altitude than the ledge, appears at a much lower pressure (approx. 140 hPa) than found in midor low-latitudes (approx. 18-25 hPa), Total column ozone amounts are consistently higher than 300 DU. Analysis of the variation with regard to wind conditions will be discussed.

  15. Global Positioning System (GPS) advances in autonomous user system (Norway demonstration)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ananda, Mohan P.; Bernstein, Harold; Feess, William A.; Kells, Ronald C.; Wortham, J. H.

    Using a new autonomous user (AU) system algorithm extends the AU system concept by permitting the use of a crystal frequency reference instead of an atomic reference. Results obtained using both crystal and atomic frequency references are presented. To supply interim full-system accuracy in the event of loss of the operational control segment (OCS) of GPS, an AU system needing only user segment modification has been implemented. During the summer of 1988 a demonstration of the system was conducted in Tromso, Norway. It is indicated, that in this 180-day test period, the autonomous user with a crystal reference could achieve a navigation accuracy of the same order of magnitude as when the OCS was operating. Furthermore, other navigation systems may utilize the concepts of this autonomous user system.

  16. Scientific Dishonesty: A Survey of Doctoral Students at the Major Medical Faculties in Sweden and Norway.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Bjørn; Helgesson, Gert; Juth, Niklas; Holm, Søren

    2015-10-01

    As we need knowledge about the prevalence of scientific dishonesty, this study investigates the knowledge of, experiences with, and attitudes toward various forms of scientific dishonesty among PhD students at the main medical faculties in Sweden and Norway. An anonymous questionnaire was distributed to all post-graduate research students attending basic PhD courses at the medical faculties in Stockholm and Oslo during the fall 2014. The responding doctoral students reported to know about various forms of scientific dishonesty from the literature, in their department, and for some also through their own experience. Some forms of scientific misconduct were considered to be acceptable by a significant minority. There was a high level of willingness to report misconduct but little awareness of relevant policies for scientific conduct. PMID:26333685

  17. Monitoring and manipulation of a sublittoral hard bottom biocoenosis in Balsfjord, northern Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandnes, O. K.; Gulliksen, B.

    1980-03-01

    Sublittoral hard bottom biocoenoses in Balsfjord, Norway (69°31' N, 19°1' E), were monitored using underwater stereophotogrammetry. The study includes manipulation of natural densities of organisms and testing the importance of biological interactions and “key species ” for the structure of biocoenoses. Underwater photography has the advantages of being a non-destructive method, but it is selective because small or hidden organisms cannot always be observed. Field experiments with exclusion of organisms from cages seem suitable for testing hypotheses concerning which animals are “key species ” in certain biocoenoses. Sea-urchins (Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, S. pallidus) were suspected to be “key species ” in the present study, and their removal from cages caused an increase in abundance of barnacles (Balanus balanoides), the limpet Acmaea testudinalis and algal cover.

  18. Can repeated fertilizer applications to young Norway spruce enhance avian diversity in intensively managed forests?

    PubMed

    Edenius, Lars; Mikusiński, Grzegorz; Bergh, Johan

    2011-07-01

    Repeated fertilization of forests to increase biomass production is an environmentally controversial proposal, the effects of which we assessed on breeding birds in stands of young Norway spruce (Picea abies), in an intensively managed forest area in southern Sweden. Our results show that fertilized stands had 38% more species and 21% more individuals than unfertilized stands. Compared with stands under traditional management, the further intensification of forestry by repeated applications of fertilizers thus seemed to enhance species richness and abundance of forest birds. We cannot conclude at this stage whether the response in the bird community was caused by changes in food resources or increased structural complexity in the forest canopy due to the skid roads used for the application of the fertilizers. Future studies should focus on structural and compositional effects of fertilization processes during the entire rotation period and at assessing its effects in a landscape PMID:21848140

  19. Smoke from Saskatchewan fires (Canada) and phytoplankton bloom off Northern Norway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Smoke (grayish swath in western half of image) from the wildfires in Saskatchewan, Canada, has crossed the Atlantic Ocean and arrived over the shores of Norway on July 12, 2002. Although fires were also burning in Quibec, Canada, around the same time (which would seem to be the more likely source of the plume because it is closer) visual inspection of additional MODIS imagery over a span of several days shows that the plume most likely originated with the fires in Saskatchewan. The brighter, turquoise swirls in the otherwise dark waters of the Barents Sea indicate the presence of a large phytoplankton bloom. These microscopic marine plants contain chlorophyll and other pigments that are very reflective, and produce colorful patterns in the water. This true-color scene was acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, flying aboard NASA.s Terra satellite.

  20. Analysis of licensed over-the-counter (OTC) antibiotics in the European Union and Norway, 2012.

    PubMed

    Both, Leonard; Botgros, Radu; Cavaleri, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is recognised as a growing problem that seriously threatens public health and requires prompt action. Concerns have therefore been raised about the potential harmful effects of making antibiotics available without prescription. Because of the very serious concerns regarding further spread of resistance, the over-the-counter (OTC) availability of antibiotics was analysed here. Topical and systemic OTC antibiotics and their indications were determined across 26 European Union (EU) countries and Norway by means of a European survey. We identified a total of 48 OTC products containing 20 different single antibiotics and three antibiotic combinations as active substances, used mainly as topical preparations in short treatment courses. Given the relevance of these medicines and the increasing risk of antimicrobial resistance, it is important to limit the availability of OTC antibiotics and to monitor their use. PMID:26530125