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Sample records for bronchoalveolar lavaage fluid

  1. Inorganic particles in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids from nonoccupationally exposed subjects.

    PubMed

    Falchi, M; Biondo, L; Conti, C; Cipri, A; de Marinis, F; Gigli, B; Paoletti, L

    1996-01-01

    This study comprised 30 patients who had not been exposed occupationally to dusts, but for whom a diagnosis of suspected pulmonary carcinoma had been made. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluids from these patients were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy and by energy-dispersive x-ray microanalysis in an effort to study the mineral particulate present in the alveolar region. Particles of silica, silicates, oxides, sulphates, and metal alloys were detected in various percentages in each subject. The smoking habits of two groups of patients that were defined by their bronchoalveolar lavage particulate concentrations (i.e., lower or higher than the median of the distribution) differed significantly. PMID:8638968

  2. Cotinine levels in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.

    PubMed

    Diken, Ozlem Erçen; Unculu, Serap; Karnak, Demet; Cağlayan, Osman; Göçmen, Julide Sedef; Kayacan, Oya

    2010-09-01

    Cotinine is a major metabolite of nicotine. This study was planned to investigate the relationship between bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid cotinine levels and serum cotinine levels in smokers and nonsmokers with various pulmonary diseases and to investigate whether these levels are affected by passive smoking. Serum and BAL fluid cotinine levels were measured in 27 patients. BAL cotinine levels were measured using a sensitive ELISA kit produced to measure cotinine in saliva. Plates were read by microuant (BioTek, USA) micro plate reader. All patient serum cotinine levels were detectable except for one nonsmoker patient. However, BAL fluid cotinine levels were measurable in only 6 patients (two of them were nonsmokers). A significant positive correlation was seen between serum and BAL fluid cotinine levels (r = 0.726; p = 0.000). Serum cotinine levels were significantly higher in present smokers than non-smokers (21.0 +/- 16.01; 5.35 +/- 7.65; p = 0.004). However, there were no significant differences in BAL fluid cotinine levels between smokers and nonsmokers. Passive smoking can increase nicotine metabolites in serum and other body fluids, including BAL fluid. Since BAL fluid and serum cotinine levels were well correlated, there is no need to use invasive procedures, such as bronchoscopy and expensive, time consuming BAL fluid analyses. Serum cotinine levels can give a rough idea of smoking status. BAL fluid cotinine meaurements should be done for only scientific reasons. PMID:21073047

  3. Severe acute measles pneumonitis: virus isolation in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.

    PubMed

    Suter, Cosima; Buergi, Urs; Eigenmann, Katja; Franzen, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    In the past few years, several endemic outbreaks of measles have been recognised, not only in children but also in adults, with severe and, occasionally, even fatal complications, possibly due to delayed diagnosis of the disease in adult medicine and decreasing vaccination rates. Furthermore, the treatment consists of supportive measures only. We present a case of severe measles pneumonitis in a 42-year-old man, a travel returnee, proven by direct virus isolation with PCR from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. CT findings and pulmonary function testing revealed features of obstructive bronchiolitis; the patient was successfully treated with corticosteroids. He fully recovered, and lung function measurement returned to normal values. We conclude that acute measles can present as obstructive bronchiolitis and may be successfully treated with corticosteroids. PMID:26508116

  4. PROTEOMIC ANALYSIS OF HUMAN BRONCHOALVEOLAR LAVAGE FLUID AFTER SUBSGEMENTAL EXPOSURE

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Matthew W.; Will Thompson, J.; Que, Loretta G.; Yang, Ivana V.; Schwartz, David A.; Arthur Moseley, M.; Marshall, Harvey E.

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of airway fluid, as sampled by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), provides a minimally invasive route to interrogate lung biology in health and disease. Here, we used immunodepletion, coupled with gel- and label-free LC-MS/MS, for quantitation of the BAL fluid (BALF) proteome in samples recovered from human subjects following bronchoscopic instillation of saline, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or house dust mite antigen into three distinct lung subsegments. Among more than 200 unique proteins quantified across nine samples, neutrophil granule-derived and acute phase proteins were most highly enriched in the LPS-exposed lobes. Of these, peptidoglycan response protein 1 was validated and confirmed as a novel marker of neutrophilic inflammation. Compared to a prior transcriptomic analysis of airway cells in this same cohort, the BALF proteome revealed a novel set of response factors. Independent of exposure, the enrichment of tracheal-expressed proteins in right lower lung lobes suggests a potential for constitutive intralobar variability in the BALF proteome; sampling of multiple lung subsegments also appears to aid in the identification of protein signatures that differentiate individuals at baseline. Collectively, this proof-of-concept study validates a robust workflow for BALF proteomics and demonstrates the complementary nature of proteomic and genomic techniques for investigating airway (patho)physiology. PMID:23550723

  5. Exploration of the normal human bronchoalveolar lavage fluid proteome

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jinzhi; Ryu, Soyoung; Gharib, Sina A.; Goodlett, David R.; Schnapp, Lynn M.

    2015-01-01

    We obtained insight into normal lung function by proteome analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from six normal human subjects using a “Lyse-N-Go’ shotgun proteomic protocol. Intra-sample variation was calculated using three different label-free methods, (i) protein sequence coverage; (ii) peptide spectral counts and (iii) peptide single-ion current areas (PICA), which generates protein expression data by summation of the area under the curve for a given peptide single-ion current trace and then adding values for all peptides from that same parent protein. PICA gave the least intra-subject variability and was used to calculate differences in protein expression between the six subjects. We observed an average threefold inter-sample variability, which affects analysis of changes in protein expression that occur in different diseases. We detected 167 unique proteins with >100 proteins detected in each of the six individual BAL samples, 42 of which were common to all six subjects. Gene ontology analysis demonstrated enrichment of several biological processes in the lung, reflecting its expected role in gas exchange and host defense as an immune organ. The same biological processes were enriched compared to either plasma or total genome proteome, suggesting an active enrichment of plasma proteins in the lung rather than passive capillary leak. PMID:21136857

  6. Exosomes from bronchoalveolar fluid of tolerized mice prevent allergic reaction.

    PubMed

    Prado, Noela; Marazuela, Eva G; Segura, Elodie; Fernández-García, Héctor; Villalba, Mayte; Théry, Clotilde; Rodríguez, Rosalía; Batanero, Eva

    2008-07-15

    Exosomes are nanovesicles originating from multivesicular bodies that are secreted by a variety of cell types. The dual capability of exosomes to promote immunity or to induce tolerance has prompted their clinical use as vehicles for vaccination against different human diseases. In the present study, the effect of allergen-specific exosomes from tolerized mice on the development of allergen-induced allergic response was determined using a mouse model. Mice were tolerized by respiratory exposure to the olive pollen allergen Ole e 1. Exosome-like vesicles were isolated from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of the animals by the well-established filtration and ultracentrifugation procedure, characterized by electron microscopy, Western blot, and FACS analyses, and assessed in a prophylactic protocol. To this end, BALB/c mice were intranasally treated with tolerogenic exosomes or naive exosomes as control, 1 wk before sensitization/challenge to Ole e 1. Blood, lungs, and spleen were collected and analyzed for immune responses. Intranasal administration of tolerogenic exosomes inhibited the development of IgE response, Th2 cytokine production, and airway inflammation--cardinal features of allergy--and maintained specific long-term protection in vivo. This protective effect was associated with a concomitant increase in the expression of the regulatory cytokine TGF-beta. These observations demonstrate that exosomes can induce tolerance and protection against allergic sensitization in mice. Thus, exosome-based vaccines could represent an alternative to conventional therapy for allergic diseases in humans. PMID:18606707

  7. Gallium-67 activity in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in sarcoidosis

    SciTech Connect

    Trauth, H.A.; Heimes, K.; Schubotz, R.; von Wichert, P.

    1986-01-01

    Roentgenograms and gallium-67 scans and gallium-67 counts of BAL fluid samples, together with differential cell counts, have proved to be useful in assessing activity and lung involvement in sarcoidosis. In active pulmonary sarcoidosis gallium-67 scans are usually positive. Quantitation of gallium-67 uptake in lung scans, however, may be difficult. Because gallium-67 uptake and cell counts in BAL fluid may be correlated, we set out to investigate gallium-67 activity in BAL fluid recovered from patient of different groups. Sixteen patients with recently diagnosed and untreated sarcoidosis, nine patients with healthy lungs, and five patients with CFA were studied. Gallium-67 uptake of the lung, gallium-67 activity in the lavage fluid, SACE and LACE levels, and alpha 1-AT activity were measured. Significantly more gallium-67 activity was found in BAL fluid from sarcoidosis patients than in that from CFA patients (alpha = .001) or patients with healthy lungs (alpha = .001). Gallium-67 activity in BAL fluid could be well correlated with the number of lymphocytes in BAL fluid, but poorly with the number of macrophages. Subjects with increased levels of SACE or serum alpha 1-AT showed higher lavage gallium-67 activity than did normals, but no correlation could be established. High gallium-67 activity in lavage fluid may be correlated with acute sarcoidosis or physiological deterioration; low activity denotes change for the better. The results show that gallium-67 counts in BAL fluid reflects the intensity of gallium-67 uptake and thus of activity of pulmonary sarcoidosis.

  8. Cysteine and glutathione concentrations in plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid after treatment with N-acetylcysteine.

    PubMed Central

    Bridgeman, M. M.; Marsden, M.; MacNee, W.; Flenley, D. C.; Ryle, A. P.

    1991-01-01

    N-acetylcysteine (600 mg/day) was given to patients by mouth for five days before bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage to determine whether N-acetylcysteine could increase the concentrations of the antioxidant reduced glutathione in plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed 1-3 hours (group 2, n = 9) and 16-20 hours (group 3, n = 10) after the last dose of N-acetylcysteine and the values were compared with those in a control group receiving no N-acetylcysteine (group 1, n = 8). N-acetylcysteine was not detected in plasma or lavage fluid. Plasma concentrations of cysteine, the main metabolite of N-acetylcysteine and a precursor of reduced glutathione, were greater in the groups receiving treatment (groups 2 and 3) than in group 1. Cysteine concentrations in lavage fluid were similar in the three groups. Concentrations of reduced glutathione were greater in both plasma and lavage fluid in group 2 than in group 1. These data suggest that N-acetylcysteine given by mouth is rapidly deacetylated to cysteine, with resulting increases in the concentrations of cysteine in plasma and of reduced glutathione in plasma and the airways, which thus temporarily increase the antioxidant capacity of the lung. Images PMID:1871695

  9. Shotgun MS proteomic analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Elizabeth V; Gharib, Sina A; Schnapp, Lynn M; Goodlett, David R

    2014-10-01

    We provide a review of proteomic techniques used to characterize the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) proteome of normal healthy subjects. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is the most common technique for sampling the components of the alveolar space. The proteomic techniques used to study normal BALF include protein separation by 2DE, whereby proteins were identified by comparison to a reference gel as well as high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC)-MS/MS, also known as shotgun proteomics. We summarize recent progress using shotgun MS technologies to define the normal BALF proteome. Surprisingly, we find that despite advances in shotgun proteomic technologies over the course of the last 10 years, which have resulted in greater numbers of proteins being identified, the functional landscape of normal BALF proteome was similarly described by all methods examined. PMID:24616423

  10. Shotgun MS proteomic analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in normal subjects

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Elizabeth V.; Gharib, Sina A.; Schnapp, Lynn M.; Goodlett, David R.

    2014-01-01

    We provide a review of proteomic techniques used to characterize the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) proteome of normal healthy subjects. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is the most common technique for sampling the components of the alveolar space. The proteomic techniques used to study normal BALF include protein separation by 2D gel electrophoresis whereby proteins were identified by comparison to a reference gel as well as high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC)-tandem mass spectrometry technique, also known as shotgun proteomics. We summarize recent progress using shotgun MS technologies to define the normal BALF proteome. Surprisingly, we find that despite advances in shotgun proteomic technologies over the course of the last ten years, which have resulted in greater numbers of proteins being identified, the functional landscape of normal BALF proteome was similarly described by all methods examined. PMID:24616423

  11. Comparison of 14 Molecular Assays for Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid

    PubMed Central

    van der Werf, Tjip S.; de Boer, Maria; de Beer, Jessica L.; Rahim, Zeaur; Rossen, John W. A.; van Soolingen, Dick; Kerstjens, Huib A. M.; van der Zanden, Adri G. M.

    2013-01-01

    We compared 14 molecular assays for their ability to detect the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples. Three approaches were followed. First, by using DNA from Mycobacterium bovis BCG, we determined the detection limits of the assays using routine molecular methods. Second, in order to determine the analytical sensitivities of the assays, we added one of four M. tuberculosis isolates with various numbers of the insertion sequence IS6110 to N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NALC)-NaOH-treated bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples in dilutions of 1:10 to 1:10,000,000. Third, intertest variabilities were measured and defined by the standard deviations for the quantitation cycle (Cq) values of three positive test results per dilution per assay. The 14 assays tested had similar analytical sensitivities, except for GeneXpert, which had an analytical sensitivity that was 10- to 100-fold lower than that of the other assays. The MP MTB/NTM test and the in-house TaqMan-10 revealed the best performances for the detection limit and had the highest analytical sensitivities. Most of the tests performed well regarding detection limit and analytical sensitivity for the detection of the M. tuberculosis complex in serial dilutions, and the differences were small. The MP MTB/NTM and the in-house TaqMan-10 assays revealed the best, and GeneXpert the worst, overall performances. PMID:23966510

  12. Long term smoking with age builds up excessive oxidative stress in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid

    PubMed Central

    Nagai, K; Betsuyaku, T; Kondo, T; Nasuhara, Y; Nishimura, M

    2006-01-01

    Background Epithelial lining fluid plays a critical role in protecting the lung from oxidative stress, in which the oxidised status may change by ageing, smoking history, and pulmonary emphysema. Methods Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed on 109 young and older subjects with various smoking histories. The protein carbonyls, total and oxidised glutathione were examined in BAL fluid. Results By Western blot analysis, the major carbonylated protein in the BAL fluid was sized at 68 kDa, corresponding to albumin. The amount of carbonylated albumin per mg total albumin in BAL fluid was four times higher in older current smokers and three times higher in older former smokers than in age matched non‐smokers (p<0.0001, p = 0.0003, respectively), but not in young smokers. Total glutathione in BAL fluid was significantly increased both in young (p = 0.006) and older current smokers (p = 0.0003) compared with age matched non‐smokers. In contrast, the ratio of oxidised to total glutathione was significantly raised (72%) only in older current smokers compared with the other groups. There was no significant difference in these parameters between older smokers with and without mild emphysema. Conclusions Oxidised glutathione associated with excessive protein carbonylation accumulates in the lung of older smokers with long term smoking histories even in the absence of lung diseases, but they are not significantly enhanced in smokers with mild emphysema. PMID:16537669

  13. Cytological analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid acquired by bronchoscopy in healthy ferrets: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Bercier, Marjorie; Langlois, Isabelle; Dunn, Marilyn; Hélie, Pierre; Burns, Patrick; Gara-Boivin, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the normal cytological evaluation of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid in healthy adult ferrets (N = 12). These ferrets underwent bronchoscopy and BAL using sterile saline [1.5 mL/kg body weight (BW)]. Percentage of fluid recovered, total leukocyte count, differential leukocyte count, and cell count of the epithelial lining fluid (ELF) were determined. The mean percentage of lavage volume recovered from the right lung and left lung were 67.8 ± 14.9% and 69.7 ± 20.0%, respectively. Gender (P = 0.12) and weight (P = 0.17) did not significantly affect the mean percentage of recovered volume. The mean percentage of recovered volume (P = 0.47) and the mean leukocyte count (P = 0.17) from the right and left lung were not significantly different. Macrophages were the main leukocyte component of the lavages, followed by neutrophils, lymphocytes, and eosinophils. The mean proportion of ELF in BAL fluid was 9.3 ± 3.7% v/v. Bronchoscopy is clinically useful for collecting good quality BAL samples for cytological analysis in ferrets. The leucocyte differential was established, which may help veterinarians to make better clinical decisions when treating respiratory disease. Further studies are required with a larger group in order to establish the healthy reference intervals for BAL values in ferrets. PMID:26733735

  14. Lung toxicity assessment using bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and pleural lavage fluid cytology by intratracheal treatment in rats.

    PubMed

    Takehara, Hiroshi; Makita, Maki; Tanaka, Ryota; Tsuchiya, Mai; Naya, Masato; Hayashi, Makoto

    2014-02-01

    Usefulness of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and pleural cavity lavage fluid (PLF) as an experimental material was evaluated for the assessment of pulmonary toxicity of chemicals in rats. From the viewpoint of safety, isoflurane can be used for euthanasia/anesthesia because there was no difference in biological properties of BALF between diethyl ether and isoflurane. Here, we also recognized phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and distilled water equally as a solvent/vehicle for negative control. PLF is also provided as a useful target material as well as BALF for assessing chemical lung toxicity. To evaluate the method, we used zinc chloride as a model chemical and obtained the expected and satisfied results. We may conclude that the intratracheal treatment and combination usage of BALF and PLF as a target material is a good method for assessment of chemical pulmonary (lung and plural cavity) toxicity in rats. PMID:24418718

  15. CONCENTRATION-TIME MODELS FOR THE EFFECTS OF OZONE ON BRONCHOALVEOLAR LAVAGE FLUID PROTEIN FROM RATS AND GUINEA PIGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Questions of the adequacy of existing ozone (O3) standards prompted an examination of relationships between concentration (C) and exposure time (T) and the impact of changes in the C x T product on toxic responses. sing protein concentration of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALP)...

  16. Soluble intracellular adhesion molecule 1 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of allergic subjects following segmental antigen challenge.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, N; Liu, M C; Proud, D; Yu, X Y; Hasegawa, S; Spannhake, E W

    1994-09-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the relationship of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1) levels in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid during allergic airway inflammation to those in the vascular compartment and to cellular components in the BAL fluids. A group of 11 allergic subjects underwent initial bronchoscopy during which a control BAL was performed and normal saline (NS) and specific antigen (Ag) were administered to two sublobar segments. A second bronchoscopy was performed 17 to 21 h later, and the NS and Ag segments were lavaged. Blood was drawn before each bronchoscopic procedure. The mean concentration of sICAM-1 in BAL fluid from NS-challenged segments was 59.2 +/- 7.6 ng/ml and was not different from that in unchallenged segments (51.5 +/- 5.6 ng/ml). In BAL fluid from Ag-challenged segments, mean concentrations of sICAM-1 increased significantly to 97.5 +/- 12.5 ng/ml. Segmental antigen challenge was associated with a small but statistically significant increase in sICAM-1 concentrations in serum. The concentrations of sICAM-1 in BAL fluid after antigen challenge exceeded levels that could be accounted for by passive transudation from the circulation, based upon the magnitude of increases in BAL albumin concentrations. The levels of sICAM-1 in BAL from Ag-challenged segments were correlated significantly with the total white cell, lymphocyte, neutrophil, and eosinophil counts in BAL fluids. These results are supportive of the notion that the local release of sICAM-1 may play a role in allergen-induced inflammatory processes in the airways. PMID:7916246

  17. Carcinoembryonic antigen in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, H; Nukiwa, T; Matsuoka, R; Danbara, T; Natori, H; Arai, T; Kira, S

    1985-08-01

    An increased incidence of lung cancer and epithelial metaplasia or hyperplasia which is felt to be as a precursor of cancer, has been reported in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). In this study, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid was measured in 53 control patients, 31 patients with sarcoidosis, 10 patients with hypersensitivity pneumonitis, 16 patients with primary lung cancer and 26 patients with histologically confirmed IPF. High ratio of CEA to albumin (Alb), exceeding mean + 2SD of nonsmoking control patients, were found in 8 (25%) out of 32 smoking control patients, 4 (44%) out of 9 nonsmoking patients with IPF, 8 (62%) out of 13 smoking patients with IPF, 3 (75%) out of 4 smoking patients with IPF and lung cancer and 13 (81%) out of 16 patients with primary lung cancer, although BAL was performed at the noncancerous parts of the lung in the cases of lung cancer. Furthermore, it was confirmed that CEA increased in BAL fluid in these subjects were different from nonspecific cross-reacting antigen (NCA) which was detectable in the normal lung. Thus we consider that the increase of CEA/Alb ratio in BAL fluid is a possible marker of these early histological disorders in the lung, and also suggests a greater risk of malignant change in the clinical course of IPF. PMID:4068359

  18. Protein composition of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and airway surface liquid from newborn pigs

    PubMed Central

    Bartlett, Jennifer A.; Albertolle, Matthew E.; Wohlford-Lenane, Christine; Pezzulo, Alejandro A.; Zabner, Joseph; Niles, Richard K.; Fisher, Susan J.; McCray, Paul B.

    2013-01-01

    The airway mucosa and the alveolar surface form dynamic interfaces between the lung and the external environment. The epithelial cells lining these barriers elaborate a thin liquid layer containing secreted peptides and proteins that contribute to host defense and other functions. The goal of this study was to develop and apply methods to define the proteome of porcine lung lining liquid, in part, by leveraging the wealth of information in the Sus scrofa database of Ensembl gene, transcript, and protein model predictions. We developed an optimized workflow for detection of secreted proteins in porcine bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and in methacholine-induced tracheal secretions [airway surface liquid (ASL)]. We detected 674 and 3,858 unique porcine-specific proteins in BAL and ASL, respectively. This proteome was composed of proteins representing a diverse range of molecular classes and biological processes, including host defense, molecular transport, cell communication, cytoskeletal, and metabolic functions. Specifically, we detected a significant number of secreted proteins with known or predicted roles in innate and adaptive immunity, microbial killing, or other aspects of host defense. In greatly expanding the known proteome of the lung lining fluid in the pig, this study provides a valuable resource for future studies using this important animal model of pulmonary physiology and disease. PMID:23709621

  19. Glutathione and GSH-dependent enzymes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cells in response to ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Boehme, D.S.; Hotchkiss, J.A.; Henderson, R.F. )

    1992-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if in vivo ozone exposure results in elevations in the levels of glutathione and glutathione-dependent enzymes in cells derived from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Our hypothesis was that, as part of a defense mechanism against oxygen toxicity, such cells would have increased levels of glutathione (GSH) in response to an oxidant stress. Female F344/N rats were exposed to 0.8 ppm ozone, 6 hr/day, for 1, 3, or 7 days, after which cells were collected by lung lavage. The GSH and GSH-peroxidase activity per milligram of protein in the cellular fraction, both necessary for reducing cellular peroxides, were elevated after 3 days of ozone exposure. After 7 days of exposure, cellular GSH had returned to control values, but the activity of glutathione reductase, the enzyme that reduces oxidized glutathione to GSH, was increased. Extracellular GSH concentration and glutathione reductase activity in BALF were also increased after 7 days of exposure. The total glutathione equivalents (GSH and GSSG, both cellular and extracellular) in BALF increased throughout the 7-day exposure, with GSH increasing first in the cells, and then in the extracellular fluid. This study demonstrated that the glutathione anti-oxidant system of BALF cells is stimulated by exposure to ozone. This response may serve to protect cells from the toxic effects of oxidant stress.

  20. Rapid detection of Candida species in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with pulmonary symptoms.

    PubMed

    Zarrinfar, Hossein; Kaboli, Saeed; Dolatabadi, Somayeh; Mohammadi, Rasoul

    2016-01-01

    Candida species, especially C. albicans, are commensals on human mucosal surfaces, but are increasingly becoming one of the important invasive pathogens as seen by a rise in its prevalence in immunocompromised patients and in antibiotic consumption. Thus, an accurate identification of Candida species in patients with pulmonary symptoms can provide important information for effective treatment. A total of 75 clinical isolates of Candida species were obtained from the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients with pulmonary symptoms. Candida cultures were identified based on nuclear ribosomal Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS1-ITS2 rDNA) sequence analysis by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphisms (PCR-RFLP). Molecular identification indicated that the isolates belonged predominantly to C. albicans (52%), followed by C. tropicalis (24%), C. glabrata (14.7%), C. krusei (5.3%), C. parapsilosis (1.3%), C. kefyr (1.3%) and C. guilliermondii (1.3%). Given the increasing complexity of disease profiles and their management regimens in diverse patients, rapid and accurate identification of Candida species can lead to timely and appropriate antifungal therapy. PMID:26887241

  1. Proteomic analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid proteins from mice infected with Francisella tularensis ssp novicida

    SciTech Connect

    Varnum, Susan M.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Pounds, Joel G.; Moore, Ronald J.; Smith, Richard D.; Frevert, Charles; Skerret, Shawn J.; Wunschel, David S.

    2012-07-06

    Francisella tularensis causes the zoonosis tularemia in humans and is one of the most virulent bacterial pathogens. We utilized a global proteomic approach to characterize protein changes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from mice exposed to one of three organisms, F. tularensis ssp. novicida, an avirulent mutant of F. tularensis ssp. novicida (F.t. novicida-ΔmglA); and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The composition of BALF proteins was altered following infection, including proteins involved in neutrophil activation, oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. Components of the innate immune response were induced including the acute phase response and the complement system, however the timing of their induction varied. Francisella tularensis ssp. novicida infected mice do not appear to have an effective innate immune response in the first hours of infection, however within 24 hours they show an upregulation of innate immune response proteins. This delayed response is in contrast to P. aeruginosa infected animals which show an early innate immune response. Likewise, F.t. novicida-ΔmglA infection initiates an early innate immune response, however this response is dimished by 24 hours. Finally, this study identifies several candidate biomarkers, including Chitinase 3-like-1 (CHI3L1 or YKL-40) and peroxiredoxin 1, that are associated with F. tularensis ssp. novicida but not P. aeruginosa infection.

  2. Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid Cellular and Haematological Changes in Different Types of Caprine Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Jarikre, A T; Emikpe, O B; Ohore, G O; Akinremi, A T; Akpavie, O S

    2016-01-01

    Goats in the tropics are often reared under the traditional extensive and semi-intensive management systems. These and other factors influence the pattern of pneumonia complex in goats. We investigated the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALf) cellular changes and haematological response in different types of caprine pneumonia in Nigeria. Haematological indices and BALf cells were analysed from 300 goats randomly selected from 700 goats comprising different breed, age and body scores. The pneumonia status was well characterised using standard pathological tools. Data is summarized as Mean ± SEM and compared using non-parametric statistics at 5% significance. There was leukocytosis in the pneumonic animals. The overall lavage recovery rate was 55.5%. The differences in Haemoglobin concentration, and Lymphocyte-Neutrophil ratio were significant (p<0.05). BALf changes in the neutrophil, macrophage and eosinophil counts were significantly different (p<0.05). The diagnostic features including increased percentage neutrophils, Macrophage-Neutrophil ratio and eosinophils observed in BAL were reliable and also correlated positively to the pathological findings. BAL should be considered a component of the diagnostic approach to caprine pneumonia complex, as it may accurately aid diagnosis and identification of the causal organisms. PMID:27574761

  3. A specific elevation of RANTES in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids of patients with chronic eosinophilic pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Kurashima, K; Mukaida, N; Fujimura, M; Yasui, M; Shinagawa, T; Matsuda, T; Ohmoto, Y; Matsushima, K

    1997-01-01

    Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (CEP) is a rare, idiopathic lung disorder characterized pathologically by massive eosinophil infiltration into lung. In the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of patients with CEP, eosinophil numbers were markedly increased but returned to normal-levels upon the resolution of clinical symptoms, which suggests the crucial role of eosinophils in the pathogenesis of CEP. To clarify the mechanism of eosinophil accumulation in CEP, we determined the BALF levels of RANTES and macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha, two chemokines that predominantly exhibit in vitro eosinophil chemotactic activities. RANTES (106.7 +/- 27.2 pg/mg albumin; n = 16) concentrations in BALF from patients with CEP were significantly elevated in comparison with those of normal control subjects (1.4 pg/mg albumin; n = 13), whereas BALF macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha levels were not. In addition, eosinophils, lymphocytes, and macrophages in BALF were positively stained with a specific anti-RANTES antibody, which suggests that RANTES was produced locally in the lungs of CEP patients. Moreover, BALF-RANTES levels correlated significantly with the proportion of eosinophils in BALF. Furthermore, nearly half of the eosinophil chemotactic activities in BALF were abrogated by the anti-RANTES antibody in vitro. Collectively, these data suggest that locally produced RANTES is involved in eosinophil accumulation in the pulmonary alveolus and interstitium of patients with CEP. PMID:9010450

  4. Proteomic landscape of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in human immunodeficiency virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Elizabeth V.; Crothers, Kristina; Chow, Yu-Hua; Park, David R.; Goodlett, David R.; Schnapp, Lynn M.

    2013-01-01

    The lung is an important reservoir of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Individuals infected with HIV are more prone to pulmonary infections and chronic lung disorders. We hypothesized that comprehensively profiling the proteomic landscape of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in patients with HIV would provide insights into how this virus alters the lung milieu and contributes to pathogenesis of HIV-related lung diseases. BALF was obtained from five HIV-negative (HIV−) and six asymptomatic HIV-positive (HIV+) subjects not on antiretroviral therapy. Each sample underwent shotgun proteomic analysis based on HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry. Differentially expressed proteins between the groups were identified using statistical methods based on spectral counting. Mechanisms of disease were explored using functional annotation to identify overlapping and distinct pathways enriched between the BALF proteome of HIV+ and HIV− subjects. We identified a total of 318 unique proteins in BALF of HIV− and HIV+ subjects. Of these, 87 were differentially up- or downregulated between the two groups. Many of these differentially expressed proteins are known to interact with key HIV proteins. Functional analysis of differentially regulated proteins implicated downregulation of immune responses in lungs of HIV+ patients. Combining shotgun proteomic analysis with computational methods demonstrated that the BALF proteome is significantly altered during HIV infection. We found that immunity-related pathways are underrepresented in HIV+ patients. These findings implicate mechanisms whereby HIV invokes local immunosuppression in the lung and increases the susceptibility of HIV+ patients to develop a wide range of infectious and noninfectious pulmonary diseases. PMID:24213920

  5. Rapid detection of Candida species in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with pulmonary symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Zarrinfar, Hossein; Kaboli, Saeed; Dolatabadi, Somayeh; Mohammadi, Rasoul

    2016-01-01

    Candida species, especially C. albicans, are commensals on human mucosal surfaces, but are increasingly becoming one of the important invasive pathogens as seen by a rise in its prevalence in immunocompromised patients and in antibiotic consumption. Thus, an accurate identification of Candida species in patients with pulmonary symptoms can provide important information for effective treatment. A total of 75 clinical isolates of Candida species were obtained from the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients with pulmonary symptoms. Candida cultures were identified based on nuclear ribosomal Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS1-ITS2 rDNA) sequence analysis by polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphisms (PCR-RFLP). Molecular identification indicated that the isolates belonged predominantly to C. albicans (52%), followed by C. tropicalis (24%), C. glabrata (14.7%), C. krusei (5.3%), C. parapsilosis (1.3%), C. kefyr (1.3%) and C. guilliermondii (1.3%). Given the increasing complexity of disease profiles and their management regimens in diverse patients, rapid and accurate identification of Candida species can lead to timely and appropriate antifungal therapy. PMID:26887241

  6. Proteomic analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid proteins from mice infected with Francisella tularensis ssp novicida

    PubMed Central

    Varnum, Susan M.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Pounds, Joel G.; Moore, Ronald J.; Smith, Richard D.; Frevert, Charles W.; Skerrett, Shawn J.; Wunschel, David

    2012-01-01

    Francisella tularensis causes the zoonosis tularemia in humans and is one of the most virulent bacterial pathogens. We utilized a global proteomic approach to characterize protein changes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from mice exposed to one of three organisms, F. tularensis ssp. novicida, an avirulent mutant of F. tularensis ssp. novicida (F.t. novicida-ΔmglA); and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The composition of BALF proteins was altered following infection, including proteins involved in neutrophil activation, oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. Components of the innate immune response were induced including the acute phase response and the complement system, however the timing of their induction varied. Francisella tularensis ssp. novicida infected mice do not appear to have an effective innate immune response in the first hours of infection, however within 24 hours they show an upregulation of innate immune response proteins. This delayed response is in contrast to P. aeruginosa infected animals which show an early innate immune response. Likewise, F.t. novicida-ΔmglA infection initiates an early innate immune response, however this response is dimished by 24 hours. Finally, this study identifies several candidate biomarkers, including Chitinase 3-like-1 (CHI3L1 or YKL-40) and peroxiredoxin 1, that are associated with F. tularensis ssp. novicida but not P. aeruginosa infection. PMID:22663564

  7. Analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (Balf) from patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, R.F.; Baughman, R.P.; Waide, J.J.

    1995-12-01

    The pathogenesis of ARDS is largely unknown, but many factors are known to predispose one to ARDS: sepsis, aspiration of gastric contents, pneumonia, fracture, multiple transfusions, cardiopulmonary bypass, burn, dissemination intravascular coagulation, pulmonary contusion, near drowning, and pancreatitis. ARDS is characterized by severe hypoxemia, diffuse pulmonary infiltrates, and decreased pulmonary compliance. Current treatment methods still result in 50% mortality. Studies are underway at the University of Cincinnati to determine if treatment with a synthetic pulmonary surfactant, Exosurf{sup {reg_sign}} (contains dipalmitoyl phosphatidyl choline, Burroughs-Wellcome), improves the prognosis of these patients. BALF from these patients, before and after treatment, was analyzed to determine if the treatment resulted in an increase in disaturated phospholipids (surfactant phospholipids) in the epithelial lining fluid and if the treatments reduced the concentration of markers of inflammation and toxicity in the BALF. This study indicates that the method of administering Exosurf{sup {reg_sign}} did not lead to an increase in surfactant lipid or protein in the bronchoalveolar region of the respiratory tract.

  8. Adjuvant effects of ambient particulate matter monitored by proteomics of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.

    PubMed

    Kang, Xuedong; Li, Ning; Wang, Meiying; Boontheung, Pinmanee; Sioutas, Constantinos; Harkema, Jack R; Bramble, Lori A; Nel, Andre E; Loo, Joseph A

    2010-02-01

    Ambient particulate matter (PM) from air pollution is associated with exacerbation of asthma. The immunological basis for the adjuvant effects of PM is still not well understood. The generation of ROS and the resulting oxidative stress has been identified as one of the major mechanisms. Using a new intranasal sensitization model in which ambient PM is used as an adjuvant to enhance allergic inflammation (Li et al., Environ. Health Perspect. 2009, 117, 1116-1123), a proteomics approach was applied to study the adjuvant effects of ambient PM. The enhanced in vivo adjuvant effect of ultrafine particles correlates with a higher in vitro oxidant potential and a higher content of redox-cycling organic chemicals. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid proteins from normal and sensitized mice were resolved by 2-DE, and identified by MS. Polymeric immunoglobulin receptor, complement C3, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, chitinase 3-like protein 3, chitinase 3-like protein 4, and acidic mammalian chitinase demonstrated significantly enhanced up-regulation by UFP with a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content and a higher oxidant potential. These proteins may be the important specific elements targeted by PM in air pollution through the ability to generate ROS in the immune system, and may be involved in allergen sensitization and asthma pathogenesis. PMID:20029843

  9. Non-fibrous inorganic particles in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of pottery workers.

    PubMed Central

    Falchi, M; Paoletti, L; Mariotta, S; Giosue, S; Guidi, L; Biondo, L; Scavalli, P; Bisetti, A

    1996-01-01

    AIM: To study the actual exposure of pottery workers to silica particles, as their risk of silicosis is potentially high because of the presence of inhalable crystalline silica particles in the workplace. METHODS: Nine pottery workers underwent bronchoalveolar lavage. The recovered fluid was analysed for cytological and mineralogical content by analytical transmission electron microscopy. The data were compared with those obtained from a control group composed of seven patients with sarcoidosis and six patients with haemoptysis. RESULTS: Cytological results showed a similar profile in exposed workers and controls, whereas in patients with sarcoidosis a lymphocytic alveolitis was found. Microanalysis of the particulate identified the presence of silicates, CRSs, and metals. Pottery workers had higher numbers of total particles and CRSs, and had a higher silicate/metal ratio. In five workers, the presence of zirconium silicate was also detected. Patients with sarcoidosis had the lowest number of particles, and an inverted silicate/metal ratio. CONCLUSION: Microanalysis by transmission electron microscope can provide useful information to assess occupational exposure to dusts. PMID:9038801

  10. Changes in surfactant in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid after hemithorax irradiation in patients with mesothelioma

    SciTech Connect

    Hallman, M.; Maasilta, P.; Kivisaari, L.; Mattson, K. )

    1990-04-01

    Experimental studies have shown that the surfactant system of the lung is affected shortly after irradiation. It is unclear, however, whether surfactant plays a role in the pathogenesis of radiation pneumonitis. In the present study surfactant components (saturated phosphatidylcholine, surfactant protein A, phosphatidylglycerol, and phosphatidylinositol) and other phospholipids of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) were studied in four patients with pleural mesothelioma before and during hemithorax irradiation (70 Gy) as well as zero, 1, 2, 3, and 4 months following irradiation. The concentrations of these same components and of soluble proteins were also estimated in the epithelial lining fluid (ELF) using urea as a marker of dilution. After radiotherapy, the concentrations of the surfactant components in ELF decreased to 12 to 55% of the control values before radiation, whereas the concentration of sphingomyelin in ELF increased ninefold. There were small changes in the other phospholipids. The concentration of soluble protein in ELF increased sevenfold. The minimum surface activity of crude BAL increased from 12 +/- 4 to 32 +/- 6 mN/m, and that of the sediment fraction of BAL increased from 7 +/- 4 to 22 +/- 6 mN/m, p less than 0.001. The protein-rich supernatant fraction of BAL from irradiated lung had a inhibitory effect on normal surfactant. There were significant correlations between the increasing severity of the radiologic changes on the one hand and, on the other, the saturated phosphatidylcholine/sphingomyelin ratio (p less than 0.001), the concentrations of soluble protein (p less than 0.001), and the concentrations of the surfactant components (p less than 0.02-0.001) in ELF.

  11. Desflurane differentially affects the release of proinflammatory cytokines in plasma and bronchoalveolar fluid of endotoxemic rats.

    PubMed

    Boost, Kim A; Hofstetter, Christian; Flondor, Michael; Betz, Christian; Homann, Markus; Pfeilschifter, Josef; Muehl, Heiko; Zwissler, Bernhard

    2006-06-01

    Previous studies have indicated that volatile anaesthetics can attenuate the inflammatory response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and other proinflammatory stimuli in vitro and in vivo. Thus far, no studies are available on the influences of desflurane on the cytokine-release. We therefore aimed to investigate the effects of desflurane on the systemic and pulmonary release of proinflammatory cytokines in endotoxemic rats. Eighteen anaesthetized and ventilated Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to the following groups: LPS-only: Six animals received LPS (5 mg/kg, i.v.) with no further intervention. LPS-Desflurane: Six animals received continuous inhalation of 1MAC Desflurane before and during endotoxemia with LPS (5 mg/kg, i.v.). Sham: Six animals served as control without inhalation of desflurane and endotoxemia. After 4 h, levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in plasma and bronchoalveolar fluid were analyzed. Nitrite production as a readout for nitric oxide (NO) release from alveolar macrophages was measured by Griess assay. IkappaB-alpha degradation and iNOS-protein in macrophage homogenates were determined by Western Blotting. Inhalation of desflurane during endotoxemia showed a significant decrease in release of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha (-61%, P< or =0.05) and IL-1beta (-47%, P< or =0.05) in plasma as compared to LPS-only group, whereas the release of IL-6 was not significantly affected by desflurane. Within the lung, the NO-release was notably increased in supernatants of cultured alveolar macrophages from desflurane-group compared to both LPS-only and Sham group. IkappaB-alpha degradation in alveolar macrophages was impaired in the Desflurane-group as compared to the LPS-only group. Our data implicate that inhalation of 1MAC Desflurane during experimental endotoxemia differentially affects the inflammatory response in rats. PMID:16685427

  12. Eicosanoids in Exhaled Breath Condensate and Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid of Patients with Primary Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ciebiada, Maciej; Górski, Paweł; Antczak, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Although eicosanoids are involved in lung carcinogenesis they were poorly investigated in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALf) in patients with primary lung cancer. In this study 17 patients with diagnosed non-small cell lung cancer, 10 healthy smokers and 12 healthy nonsmokers were included. The levels of cys-LTs, 8-isoprostane, LTB4 and PGE2 were measured before any treatment in the EBC of all patients and in BALf of patients with lung cancer by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. 8-isoprostane, LTB4, cys-LTs and PGE2 were detectable in the EBC and BALf. There were no significant differences between healthy smokers and nonsmokers in concentrations of all measured mediators. Compared with both healthy controls, patients with diagnosed lung cancer displayed higher concentrations of cys-LTs (p < 0.05) and LTB4 (p < 0.05) in EBC. In patients with lung cancer, the mean concentrations of all measured mediators were significantly higher in BALf compared with EBC and there was a significant, positive correlation between concentration of cys-LTs, LTB4 and 8-isoprostane in BALf and their concentrations in the EBC (r = 0.64, p < 0.05, r = 0.59, p < 0.05, r = 0.53, p < 0.05 respectively). Since cys-LT, LTB4 and 8-isoprostane concentrations in EBC from patients with lung cancer reflect their concentrations in BALf, they may serve as a possible non-invasive method to monitor the disease and to assess the effectiveness of therapy. PMID:22674413

  13. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cellular profile in workers exposed to chrysotile asbestos.

    PubMed

    Kokkinis, Fevos P; Bouros, Demosthenes; Hadjistavrou, Konstantinos; Ulmeanu, Ruxandra; Serbescu, Anneta; Alexopoulos, Evangelos C

    2011-10-01

    The cellular profile of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in asbestos-exposed population remains controversial. We, therefore, aimed to investigate BALF in apparently healthy individuals that were exposed in asbestos-related work for a long period of time. Participants were selected among employees of a car brakes and clutches factory that used chrysotile asbestos. Selection criteria were an employment history of ≥ 15 years and the absence of severe respiratory disease. The total number and type of BALF cells, the existence of dust cells, iron-laden macrophages and asbestos bodies were assessed. Thirty-nine workers (25 men), with a mean age of 46.2 ± 4.2 years and a mean employment time of 23.5 ± 4 years, participated. Asbestos bodies were observed in 14 out of 39 (36%) specimens, dust cells in 37 and iron-laden macrophages in all. Those with asbestos bodies had at least 3 times higher probability to have lymphocytosis (lymphocytes > 11%: 64% vs 28%, p = 0.027) and had an increased percentage of iron-laden macrophages compared to those without asbestos bodies (median values: 42% vs 13%, p = 0.08). Smokers (36%) had less lymphocytes compared to non and ex-smokers (median values: 6% vs. 13%, p = 0.002), and iron-laden macrophages count had a positive relation (r = 0.31, p = 0.05) to lymphocyte count. Asbestos-exposed asymptomatic individuals with the presence of asbestos bodies in the BALF are more likely to have lymphocytic alveolitis while concurrent dust exposure and smoking habits hold a significant role. PMID:21421677

  14. Modulation of Gene Expression in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae Exposed to Bronchoalveolar Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Lone, Abdul G.; Deslandes, Vincent; Nash, John H. E.; Jacques, Mario; MacInnes, Janet I.

    2009-01-01

    Background Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, the causative agent of porcine contagious pleuropneumonia, is an important pathogen of swine throughout the world. It must rapidly overcome the innate pulmonary immune defenses of the pig to cause disease. To better understand this process, the objective of this study was to identify genes that are differentially expressed in a medium that mimics the lung environment early in the infection process. Methods and Principal Findings Since bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) contains innate immune and other components found in the lungs, we examined gene expression of a virulent serovar 1 strain of A. pleuropneumoniae after a 30 min exposure to BALF, using DNA microarrays and real-time PCR. The functional classes of genes found to be up-regulated most often in BALF were those encoding proteins involved in energy metabolism, especially anaerobic metabolism, and in cell envelope, DNA, and protein biosynthesis. Transcription of a number of known virulence genes including apxIVA and the gene for SapF, a protein which is involved in resistance to antimicrobial peptides, was also up-regulated in BALF. Seventy-nine percent of the genes that were up-regulated in BALF encoded a known protein product, and of these, 44% had been reported to be either expressed in vivo and/or involved in virulence. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that in early stages of infection, A. pleuropneumoniae may modulate expression of genes involved in anaerobic energy generation and in the synthesis of proteins involved in cell wall biogenesis, as well as established virulence factors. Given that many of these genes are thought to be expressed in vivo or involved in virulence, incubation in BALF appears, at least partially, to simulate in vivo conditions and may provide a useful medium for the discovery of novel vaccine or therapeutic targets. PMID:19578537

  15. [Determination of the neutrophil chemotactic factor in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in patients with diffuse panbronchiolitis].

    PubMed

    Oda, H; Kadota, J; Sakito, O; Mukae, H; Morikawa, N; Shukuwa, C; Senju, R; Sawa, H; Kusano, S; Morikawa, T

    1992-04-01

    It is well known that erythromycin (EM) therapy is effective on chronic lower respiratory tract disease, including diffuse panbronchiolitis (DPB). In this study we investigated the relationship between clinical findings and neutrophil chemotactic activity (NCA) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in patients with DPB receiving orally EM therapy. The NCA in post-EM therapy BALF was significantly reduced (p less than 0.001) compared with that in BALF before EM therapy (30.17 +/- 7.84% vs 53.05 +/- 10.65%). On the respiratory function before and after EM therapy, DPB patients (20 cases) showed significant improvement of %VC, FEV1.0, RV/TLC (p less than 0.001, each) and V25 (p less than 0.05). And on the post-EM therapy blood gas, PaO2 and AaDO2 level were confirmed to be significantly improved (p less than 0.001). In addition, we examined the correlation between the improvement ratio of clinical finding and the reduction of NCA in BALF after EM therapy in 10 patients with DPB. We found the significant correlation between the improvement ratio of PaO2 and the reduction NCA in BALF of those patients (p less than 0.05). There were no significant relationships between the improvement ratio in other parameters as stated above and the reduction of NCA in BALF. These findings indicate that EM restrains the NCA in BALF of patients with DPB and impairs the accumulation of neutrophils in respiratory tract, ultimately contributes to the improvement of clinical symptoms such as sputum and clinical findings such as PaO2 in patients with DPB. PMID:1624836

  16. COMPARISON OF ANTIOXIDANT SUBSTANCES IN BRONCHOALVEOLAR LAVAGE CELLS AND FLUID FROM HUMANS, GUINEA PIGS, AND RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Antioxidants located in the lining layer of the bronchoalveolar region of the respiratory tract may be important in determining sensitivity of lung tissues to inhaled pollutants. he present study addressed the question of whether there are species differences in the levels of som...

  17. Quantification of voriconazole in human bronchoalveolar lavage fluid using high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Heng, S C; Nation, R L; Levvey, B; Snell, G I; Slavin, M A; Kong, D C M

    2013-01-15

    The quantification of voriconazole concentration in lung epithelial lining fluid to facilitate the management of pulmonary fungal colonisation or aspergillosis is of increasing interest. An accurate and reproducible high-performance liquid chromatography method to quantify voriconazole in human bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid was developed and validated. BAL samples were concentrated by freeze-drying and reconstituted with water prior to deproteinisation. Separation was achieved with a C18 column employing fluorescence detection (excitation: 260nm, emission: 370nm). The calibration curves were linear from 2.5 to 500ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precisions were within 7%. Accuracies ranged from 102% to 107%. The clinical applicability was established by successful measurement of voriconazole concentrations in lung transplant recipients. The assay provides an alternative approach for those with negligible access to liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry instrumentation. PMID:23314356

  18. Asbestos bodies in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids of brake lining and asbestos cement workers.

    PubMed Central

    Dumortier, P; De Vuyst, P; Strauss, P; Yernault, J C

    1990-01-01

    Asbestos body (AB) concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage samples of 15 brake lining (BL) workers exposed only to chrysotile have been determined and compared with those from 44 asbestos cement (AC) workers extensively exposed to amphiboles. The mean AB concentrations (263 +/- 802 and 842 +/- 2086 AB/ml respectively) for those groups did not differ significantly but were much higher than those found in control groups. Analytical electron microscopy of asbestos body cores showed that in the BL group 95.6% were chrysotile fibres whereas in the AC group amphiboles accounted for 93.1%. The size characteristics of the central fibres differed for chrysotile and amphibole AB, the former being shorter and thinner. Examination of repeated bronchoalveolar lavage samples showed that the mechanisms of clearance of chrysotile fibres do not affect AB concentration for at least 10 months after cessation of exposure. It thus appears that routine counting of ABs in BAL allows the assessment of current or recent occupational exposures to asbestos. Exposures to chrysotile lead to AB concentrations comparable with those encountered in exposures to amphiboles. Images PMID:2155652

  19. [The presence of mycobacteria in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from an immunocompetent patient does not necessarily imply tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Vandenbos, Frédéric; Marcq, Laurent; Novellas, Sébastien; Chyderiotis, Georges; Haudebourg, Juliette; Benchetrit, Maxime; Burel-Vandenbos, Fanny

    2009-12-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the most frequently identified mycobacterium in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of immunocompetent patients. Lung infections due to non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are rare in such patients and then often occur in the context of pre-existing chronic lung disease. We report the case of an immunocompetent 85-year-old woman without pre-existing lung disease in whom M. abscessus was recovered from BALF. Cytological examination of the BALF revealed an increased number of neutrophils and some acid-fast bacilli, all located within neutrophil cytoplasm. This case report contributes a cytological description of BALF in the context of M. abscessus infection, which is poorly detailed in the literature. PMID:20005441

  20. De Novo Assembly of the Pneumocystis jirovecii Genome from a Single Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid Specimen from a Patient

    PubMed Central

    Cissé, Ousmane H.; Pagni, Marco; Hauser, Philippe M.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pneumocystis jirovecii is a fungus that causes severe pneumonia in immunocompromised patients. However, its study is hindered by the lack of an in vitro culture method. We report here the genome of P. jirovecii that was obtained from a single bronchoalveolar lavage fluid specimen from a patient. The major challenge was the in silico sorting of the reads from a mixture representing the different organisms of the lung microbiome. This genome lacks virulence factors and most amino acid biosynthesis enzymes and presents reduced GC content and size. Together with epidemiological observations, these features suggest that P. jirovecii is an obligate parasite specialized in the colonization of human lungs, which causes disease only in immune-deficient individuals. This genome sequence will boost research on this deadly pathogen. PMID:23269827

  1. Description of an Automated Method for Urea Nitrogen Determination in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid (BALF) of Neonates and Infants.

    PubMed

    Pocino, Krizia; Minucci, Angelo; Manieri, Rocco; Conti, Giorgio; De Luca, Daniele; Capoluongo, Ettore Domenico

    2015-12-01

    Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) partially recovers both the instilled saline and the alveolar fluid, so-called epithelial lining fluid (ELF), but a correction for the dilution due to the BAL technique itself is needed to know the amount of recovered ELF. In this regard, urea nitrogen may be useful and has been proposed to calculate ELF. The aim of the present study was to develop and validate a new method to measure urea nitrogen in BAL fluid (BALF). We used 19 BALF samples obtained from neonates and infants with different respiratory conditions. The urea nitrogen assay was carried out on Cobas c311 analyzer (Roche Diagnostics). A validation study shows that the method is perfectly linear (R(2) = 0.999), sensitive (limit of detection = 0.055 mg/dL; limit of quantification = 0.16 mg/dL), repeatable (low = 0.15 ± 0.02, 13.3%; high = 1.80 ± 0.02, 1.1%), reproducible (low = 0.14 ± 0.02, 14.2 %; high = 1.76 ± 0.04, 2.2 %) with accuracy ranging between 93-96%. Our results support the robustness of validated procedure since the described method appears simple, precise, rapid, and suitable for routine analysis. Thus, it may be used to correct concentration of various noncellular BAL components and calculate their ELF amounts in neonates and infants. PMID:25586999

  2. Response of rodents to inhaled diluted diesel exhaust: biochemical and cytological changes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and in lung tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, R.F.; Pickrell, J.A.; Jones, R.K.; Sun, J.D.; Benson, J.M.; Mauderly, J.L.; McClellan, R.O.

    1988-10-01

    The effect of long-term (24 months) inhalation of diesel exhaust on the bronchoalveolar region of the respiratory tract of rodents was assessed by serial (every 6 months) analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and of lung tissue from F344/Crl rats and CD-1 mice (both sexes) exposed to diesel exhaust diluted to contain 0, 0.35, 3.5, or 7.0 mg soot/m3. The purpose of the study was twofold. One was to assess the potential health effects of inhaling diluted exhaust from light-duty diesel engines. The second was to determine the usefulness of BALF analysis in detecting the early stages in the development of nononcogenic lung disease and differentiating them from the normal repair processes. No biochemical or cytological changes in BALF or in lung tissue were noted in either species exposed to the lowest, and most environmentally relevant, concentration of diesel exhaust. In the two higher levels of exposure, a chronic inflammatory response was measured in both species by dose-dependent increases in inflammatory cells, cytoplasmic and lysosomal enzymes, and protein in BALF. Histologically, after 1 year of exposure, the rats had developed focal areas of fibrosis associated with the deposits of soot, while the mice, despite a higher lung burden of soot than the rats, had only a fine fibrillar thickening of an occasional alveolar septa in the high-level exposure group. Higher increases in BALF beta-glucuronidase activity and in hydroxyproline content accompanied the greater degree of fibrosis in the rat. BALF levels of glutathione (GSH) and glutathione reductase activity increased in a dose-dependent fashion and were higher in mice than in rats. Lung tissue GSH was depleted in a dose-dependent fashion in rats but was slightly increased in mice.

  3. Molecular and Culture-Based Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid Testing for the Diagnosis of Cytomegalovirus Pneumonitis.

    PubMed

    Tan, Susanna K; Burgener, Elizabeth B; Waggoner, Jesse J; Gajurel, Kiran; Gonzalez, Sarah; Chen, Sharon F; Pinsky, Benjamin A

    2016-01-01

    Background.  Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients, with CMV pneumonitis among the most severe manifestations of infection. Although bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples are frequently tested for CMV, the clinical utility of such testing remains uncertain. Methods.  Retrospective analysis of adult patients undergoing BAL testing via CMV polymerase chain reaction (PCR), shell vial culture, and conventional viral culture between August 2008 and May 2011 was performed. Cytomegalovirus diagnostic methods were compared with a comprehensive definition of CMV pneumonitis that takes into account signs and symptoms, underlying host immunodeficiency, radiographic findings, and laboratory results. Results.  Seven hundred five patients underwent 1077 bronchoscopy episodes with 1090 BAL specimens sent for CMV testing. Cytomegalovirus-positive patients were more likely to be hematopoietic cell transplant recipients (26% vs 8%, P < .0001) and less likely to have an underlying condition not typically associated with lung disease (3% vs 20%, P < .0001). Histopathology was performed in only 17.3% of CMV-positive bronchoscopy episodes. When CMV diagnostic methods were evaluated against the comprehensive definition, the sensitivity and specificity of PCR, shell vial culture, and conventional culture were 91.3% and 94.6%, 54.4% and 97.4%, and 28.3% and 96.5%, respectively. Compared with culture, PCR provided significantly higher sensitivity and negative predictive value (P ≤ .001), without significantly lower positive predictive value. Cytomegalovirus quantitation did not improve test performance, resulting in a receiver operating characteristic curve with an area under the curve of 0.53. Conclusions.  Cytomegalovirus PCR combined with a comprehensive clinical definition provides a pragmatic approach for the diagnosis of CMV pneumonitis. PMID:26885542

  4. The Significance of Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid Cytology in Diagnosing Lung Infiltrates in Children

    PubMed Central

    Selimovic, Amina; Mujicic, Ermina; Milisic, Selma; Pejicic, Tanja; Rancic, Milan; Mesihovic-Dinarevic, Senka; Lukic-Bilela, Lada; Moro, Mahir

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this research is to show why is it important in diagnosing children with lung infiltrates. Methods: Our study included 50 children with lung infiltrates during period 2005-2012, and was conducted on Pediatric Clinic of the University Clinical Center Sarajevo. We sent all cytological BAL analyses to the University Clinical Center Sarajevo. Cytology was performed by direct microscopy. BAL cytology was performed by the principle of sending samples for centrifuging, 12000 revolutions during a 10 min Shandon-cyto spin. Then the centrifuged sample is dried in the air during 1-2 hours, and is then dyed under the May-Grünwald-Giemsa staining, and analyzed under the Olympus BX41 microscope. Results: Nosocomial pneumonia has occurred in 32% children, acquired pneumonia in 38%, and 30% children had a lung infiltrates. 6 (12%) of children were younger then 1 year old, 23 (46%) children were between 1 to 5 years, 14 (28%) of children were between 5 to 10 ages, and 7 (14%) of children were between 10-15 ages. The most of the changes in observed children took place on the right lung, 34%, while 26% occurred on the left side, 22% were normal and 18% changes have affected both lungs, right and left. Percentage of cells in cytological smear in children with BAL were: cylindrical cells 28%, lung macrophage 26%, lymphocytes 17%, detritus 17% and phlegm 12%. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) in children with BAL was up to 10-52%, to 50-30%, while ESR after first hour was above 50-18 %. Conclusion: Clinical parameters and local inflammation of the affected lobe are associated with positive bronchoalveolar cytology lavage findings. PMID:26980927

  5. Molecular and Culture-Based Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid Testing for the Diagnosis of Cytomegalovirus Pneumonitis

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Susanna K.; Burgener, Elizabeth B.; Waggoner, Jesse J.; Gajurel, Kiran; Gonzalez, Sarah; Chen, Sharon F.; Pinsky, Benjamin A.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients, with CMV pneumonitis among the most severe manifestations of infection. Although bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples are frequently tested for CMV, the clinical utility of such testing remains uncertain. Methods. Retrospective analysis of adult patients undergoing BAL testing via CMV polymerase chain reaction (PCR), shell vial culture, and conventional viral culture between August 2008 and May 2011 was performed. Cytomegalovirus diagnostic methods were compared with a comprehensive definition of CMV pneumonitis that takes into account signs and symptoms, underlying host immunodeficiency, radiographic findings, and laboratory results. Results. Seven hundred five patients underwent 1077 bronchoscopy episodes with 1090 BAL specimens sent for CMV testing. Cytomegalovirus-positive patients were more likely to be hematopoietic cell transplant recipients (26% vs 8%, P < .0001) and less likely to have an underlying condition not typically associated with lung disease (3% vs 20%, P < .0001). Histopathology was performed in only 17.3% of CMV-positive bronchoscopy episodes. When CMV diagnostic methods were evaluated against the comprehensive definition, the sensitivity and specificity of PCR, shell vial culture, and conventional culture were 91.3% and 94.6%, 54.4% and 97.4%, and 28.3% and 96.5%, respectively. Compared with culture, PCR provided significantly higher sensitivity and negative predictive value (P ≤ .001), without significantly lower positive predictive value. Cytomegalovirus quantitation did not improve test performance, resulting in a receiver operating characteristic curve with an area under the curve of 0.53. Conclusions. Cytomegalovirus PCR combined with a comprehensive clinical definition provides a pragmatic approach for the diagnosis of CMV pneumonitis. PMID:26885542

  6. Neutrophil and macrophage apoptosis in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from healthy horses and horses with recurrent airway obstruction (RAO)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dysregulation of apoptosis has been implicated in a range of diseases including tumors, neurodegenerative and autoimmine diseases, as well as allergic asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in humans. Although it has a different pathophysiology, delayed apoptosis of various inflammatory cells may play a pivotal role in the development of recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) in horses. Reduction of inflammatory cell apoptosis or a dysregulation of this process could lead to chronic inflammation and tissue injury. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the rate of apoptosis and necrosis of neutrophils and macrophages in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid obtained from seven horses suffering from RAO (study group) and seven control horses. Results We demonstrated that neutrophil/macrophage apoptosis is altered in RAO-affected horses compared with the control group in the BAL fluid. We found a significant difference between the median percentage of early and late apoptosis of neutrophils between the study and control group of horses. Moreover, we found a positive correlation between the rate of apoptosis and the median percentage of macrophages in RAO-affected horses. Conclusion The findings suggest that apoptosis dysregulation may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of RAO. However, further studies are needed to clarify the role of altered apoptosis in the course of equine recurrent airway obstruction. PMID:24460911

  7. Protein corona formation in bronchoalveolar fluid enhances diesel exhaust nanoparticle uptake and pro-inflammatory responses in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Catherine A; Mortimer, Gysell M; Deng, Zhou J; Carter, Edwin S; Connell, Shea P; Miller, Mark R; Duffin, Rodger; Newby, David E; Hadoke, Patrick W F; Minchin, Rodney F

    2016-09-01

    In biological fluids nanoparticles bind a range of molecules, particularly proteins, on their surface. The resulting protein corona influences biological activity and fate of nanoparticle in vivo. Corona composition is often determined by the biological milieu encountered at the entry portal into the body, and, can therefore, depend on the route of exposure to the nanoparticle. For environmental nanoparticles where exposure is by inhalation, this will be lung lining fluid. This study examined plasma and bronchoalveolar fluid (BALF) protein binding to engineered and environmental nanoparticles. We hypothesized that protein corona on nanoparticles would influence nanoparticle uptake and subsequent pro-inflammatory biological response in macrophages. All nanoparticles bound plasma and BALF proteins, but the profile of bound proteins varied between nanoparticles. Focusing on diesel exhaust nanoparticles (DENP), we identified proteins bound from plasma to include fibrinogen, and those bound from BALF to include albumin and surfactant proteins A and D. The presence on DENP of a plasma-derived corona or one of purified fibrinogen failed to evoke an inflammatory response in macrophages. However, coronae formed in BALF increased DENP uptake into macrophages two fold, and increased nanoparticulate carbon black (NanoCB) uptake fivefold. Furthermore, a BALF-derived corona increased IL-8 release from macrophages in response to DENP from 1720 ± 850 pg/mL to 5560 ± 1380 pg/mL (p = 0.014). These results demonstrate that the unique protein corona formed on nanoparticles plays an important role in determining biological reactivity and fate of nanoparticle in vivo. Importantly, these findings have implications for the mechanism of detrimental properties of environmental nanoparticles since the principle route of exposure to such particles is via the lung. PMID:27027807

  8. Analysis of culture-dependent versus culture-independent techniques for identification of bacteria in clinically obtained bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Robert P; Erb-Downward, John R; Prescott, Hallie C; Martinez, Fernando J; Curtis, Jeffrey L; Lama, Vibha N; Huffnagle, Gary B

    2014-10-01

    The diagnosis and management of pneumonia are limited by the use of culture-based techniques of microbial identification, which may fail to identify unculturable, fastidious, and metabolically active viable but unculturable bacteria. Novel high-throughput culture-independent techniques hold promise but have not been systematically compared to conventional culture. We analyzed 46 clinically obtained bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid specimens from symptomatic and asymptomatic lung transplant recipients both by culture (using a clinical microbiology laboratory protocol) and by bacterial 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Bacteria were identified in 44 of 46 (95.7%) BAL fluid specimens by culture-independent sequencing, significantly more than the number of specimens in which bacteria were detected (37 of 46, 80.4%, P ≤ 0.05) or "pathogen" species reported (18 of 46, 39.1%, P ≤ 0.0001) via culture. Identification of bacteria by culture was positively associated with culture-independent indices of infection (total bacterial DNA burden and low bacterial community diversity) (P ≤ 0.01). In BAL fluid specimens with no culture growth, the amount of bacterial DNA was greater than that in reagent and rinse controls, and communities were markedly dominated by select Gammaproteobacteria, notably Escherichia species and Pseudomonas fluorescens. Culture growth above the threshold of 10(4) CFU/ml was correlated with increased bacterial DNA burden (P < 0.01), decreased community diversity (P < 0.05), and increased relative abundance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P < 0.001). We present two case studies in which culture-independent techniques identified a respiratory pathogen missed by culture and clarified whether a cultured "oral flora" species represented a state of acute infection. In summary, we found that bacterial culture of BAL fluid is largely effective in discriminating acute infection from its absence and identified some specific limitations of BAL fluid culture in the

  9. Analysis of Culture-Dependent versus Culture-Independent Techniques for Identification of Bacteria in Clinically Obtained Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Dickson, Robert P.; Erb-Downward, John R.; Prescott, Hallie C.; Martinez, Fernando J.; Curtis, Jeffrey L.; Lama, Vibha N.

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis and management of pneumonia are limited by the use of culture-based techniques of microbial identification, which may fail to identify unculturable, fastidious, and metabolically active viable but unculturable bacteria. Novel high-throughput culture-independent techniques hold promise but have not been systematically compared to conventional culture. We analyzed 46 clinically obtained bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid specimens from symptomatic and asymptomatic lung transplant recipients both by culture (using a clinical microbiology laboratory protocol) and by bacterial 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Bacteria were identified in 44 of 46 (95.7%) BAL fluid specimens by culture-independent sequencing, significantly more than the number of specimens in which bacteria were detected (37 of 46, 80.4%, P ≤ 0.05) or “pathogen” species reported (18 of 46, 39.1%, P ≤ 0.0001) via culture. Identification of bacteria by culture was positively associated with culture-independent indices of infection (total bacterial DNA burden and low bacterial community diversity) (P ≤ 0.01). In BAL fluid specimens with no culture growth, the amount of bacterial DNA was greater than that in reagent and rinse controls, and communities were markedly dominated by select Gammaproteobacteria, notably Escherichia species and Pseudomonas fluorescens. Culture growth above the threshold of 104 CFU/ml was correlated with increased bacterial DNA burden (P < 0.01), decreased community diversity (P < 0.05), and increased relative abundance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P < 0.001). We present two case studies in which culture-independent techniques identified a respiratory pathogen missed by culture and clarified whether a cultured “oral flora” species represented a state of acute infection. In summary, we found that bacterial culture of BAL fluid is largely effective in discriminating acute infection from its absence and identified some specific limitations of BAL fluid culture in

  10. Genome-wide analysis of aberrantly expressed microRNAs in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with silicosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Wang, Faxuan; Zhou, Dingzi; Ren, Xiaohui; Zhou, Dinglun; Gao, Xiaosi; Lan, Yajia; Zhang, Qin; Xie, Xiaoqi

    2016-08-01

    Background To identify differentially expressed miRNAs profiles in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from patients with silicosis and consider the potential contribution of miRNAs to silicosis.Methods miRNAs expression profiling were performed in the cell fraction of BALF samples obtained from 9 subjects (3 silicosis observation subjects, 3 stage I and stage II silicosis patients, respectively). The differential expression of two selected miRNAs hsa-miR-181c-5p and hsa-miR-29a-3p were confirmed by RT-qPCR. Furthermore, miRNAs Gene Ontology Enrichment categories and target mRNAs were determined based on miRWalk.Results We found 110 dysregulated miRNAs in silicosis samples, most of which showed a down-regulation trend. Microarray results were confirmed by RT-qPCR. With the observation group samples set as standards, stage I samples showed 123 differentially expressed miRNAs, and stage II 46. 23 miRNAs were dysregulated in both stages. Finally, functional enrichment analysis indicated that these miRNAs played an important role in various biological processes, including ECM-receptor interaction and endocytosis.Conclusions This is the first time to acquire the BALF-derived microRNAs expression profiling targeting to human silicosis. These results contribute to unravelling miRNAs involved in the pathogenesis of silicosis, and provide new tools of potential use of as biomarkers for diagnosis and/or therapeutic purposes. PMID:26903263

  11. Correlation between Either Cupriavidus or Porphyromonas and Primary Pulmonary Tuberculosis Found by Analysing the Microbiota in Patients’ Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yuhua; Lin, Feishen; Cui, Zelin; Zhang, Xiangrong; Hu, Chunmei; Shen, Tian; Chen, Chunyan; Zhang, Xia; Guo, Xiaokui

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) has gained attention in recent decades because of its rising incidence trend; simultaneously, increasing numbers of studies have identified the relationship between microbiota and chronic infectious diseases. In our work, we enrolled 32 patients with primary TB characterised by unilateral TB lesion formation diagnosed by chest radiographic exam. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was taken from both lungs. Twenty-four healthy people were chosen as controls. Pyrosequencing was performed on the V3 hypervariable region of 16S rDNA in all bacterial samples and used as a culture-independent method to describe the phylogenetic composition of the microbiota. Through pyrosequencing, 271,764 amplicons were detected in samples and analysed using tools in the Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) and bioinformatics. These analyses revealed significant differences in the microbiota in the lower respiratory tract (LRT) of TB patients compared with healthy controls; in contrast, the microbiota of intra/extra-TB lesions were similar. These results showed that the dominant bacterial genus in the LRT of TB patients was Cupriavidus and not Streptococcus, which resulted in a significant change in the microbiota in TB patients. The abundance of Mycobacteria and Porphyromonas significantly increased inside TB lesions when compared with non-lesion-containing contralateral lungs. From these data, it can be concluded that Cupriavidus plays an important role in TB’s secondary infection and that in addition to Mycobacteria, Porphyromonas may also be a co-factor in lesion formation. The mechanisms underlying this connection warrant further research. PMID:26000957

  12. Levels of Soluble Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid in Patients with Various Inflammatory Lung Diseases.

    PubMed

    Kamo, Tetsuro; Tasaka, Sadatomo; Tokuda, Yuriko; Suzuki, Shoji; Asakura, Takanori; Yagi, Kazuma; Namkoong, Ho; Ishii, Makoto; Hasegawa, Naoki; Betsuyaku, Tomoko

    2015-01-01

    Receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is a multiligand receptor of S100/calgranulins, high-mobility group box 1, and others, and it is associated with the pathogenesis of various inflammatory and circulatory diseases. The soluble form of RAGE (sRAGE) is a decoy receptor and competitively inhibits membrane-bound RAGE activation. In this study, we measured sRAGE levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of 78 patients, including 41 with interstitial pneumonia, 11 with sarcoidosis, 9 with respiratory infection, 7 with ARDS, 5 with lung cancer, and 5 with vasculitis. Among them, sRAGE was detectable in BALF of 73 patients (94%). In patients with ARDS and vasculitis, the sRAGE levels were significantly higher than in the control subjects and those with interstitial pneumonia. The sRAGE levels were positively correlated with total cell counts in BALF and serum levels of surfactant protein-D, lactate dehydrogenase, and C-reactive protein. There was an inverse correlation between PaO2/FIO2 ratio and sRAGE levels. These results indicate that sRAGE in BALF might be considered as a biomarker of lung inflammatory disorders, especially ARDS and vasculitis. PMID:27147899

  13. Levels of Soluble Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid in Patients with Various Inflammatory Lung Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kamo, Tetsuro; Tasaka, Sadatomo; Tokuda, Yuriko; Suzuki, Shoji; Asakura, Takanori; Yagi, Kazuma; Namkoong, Ho; Ishii, Makoto; Hasegawa, Naoki; Betsuyaku, Tomoko

    2015-01-01

    Receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is a multiligand receptor of S100/calgranulins, high-mobility group box 1, and others, and it is associated with the pathogenesis of various inflammatory and circulatory diseases. The soluble form of RAGE (sRAGE) is a decoy receptor and competitively inhibits membrane-bound RAGE activation. In this study, we measured sRAGE levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of 78 patients, including 41 with interstitial pneumonia, 11 with sarcoidosis, 9 with respiratory infection, 7 with ARDS, 5 with lung cancer, and 5 with vasculitis. Among them, sRAGE was detectable in BALF of 73 patients (94%). In patients with ARDS and vasculitis, the sRAGE levels were significantly higher than in the control subjects and those with interstitial pneumonia. The sRAGE levels were positively correlated with total cell counts in BALF and serum levels of surfactant protein-D, lactate dehydrogenase, and C-reactive protein. There was an inverse correlation between PaO2/FIO2 ratio and sRAGE levels. These results indicate that sRAGE in BALF might be considered as a biomarker of lung inflammatory disorders, especially ARDS and vasculitis. PMID:27147899

  14. Genome-wide analysis of aberrantly expressed microRNAs in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with silicosis

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, Yang; WANG, Faxuan; ZHOU, Dingzi; REN, Xiaohui; ZHOU, Dinglun; GAO, Xiaosi; LAN, Yajia; ZHANG, Qin; XIE, Xiaoqi

    2016-01-01

    Background To identify differentially expressed miRNAs profiles in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from patients with silicosis and consider the potential contribution of miRNAs to silicosis. Methods miRNAs expression profiling were performed in the cell fraction of BALF samples obtained from 9 subjects (3 silicosis observation subjects, 3 stage I and stage II silicosis patients, respectively). The differential expression of two selected miRNAs hsa-miR-181c-5p and hsa-miR-29a-3p were confirmed by RT-qPCR. Furthermore, miRNAs Gene Ontology Enrichment categories and target mRNAs were determined based on miRWalk. Results We found 110 dysregulated miRNAs in silicosis samples, most of which showed a down-regulation trend. Microarray results were confirmed by RT-qPCR. With the observation group samples set as standards, stage I samples showed 123 differentially expressed miRNAs, and stage II 46. 23 miRNAs were dysregulated in both stages. Finally, functional enrichment analysis indicated that these miRNAs played an important role in various biological processes, including ECM-receptor interaction and endocytosis. Conclusions This is the first time to acquire the BALF-derived microRNAs expression profiling targeting to human silicosis. These results contribute to unravelling miRNAs involved in the pathogenesis of silicosis, and provide new tools of potential use of as biomarkers for diagnosis and/or therapeutic purposes. PMID:26903263

  15. The effect of lead acetate on oxidative stress and antioxidant status in rat bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue.

    PubMed

    Samarghandian, Saeed; Borji, Abasalt; Afshari, Reza; Delkhosh, Mohammad Bagher; gholami, Ali

    2013-07-01

    Despite the wide spread of lead environmental pollution, the effect of this heavy metal on respiratory disease was not shown yet. In respect to increased oxidative stress is an important mechanism in the pathogenesis of respiratory disease, the present study was designed to examine the association between lead toxicity and lung disease via measuring oxidative stress biomarkers in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung tissue of rat. For this aim, 32 rats were divided into the following groups of eight animals each: control, three lead tested (received lead acetate in the drinking water for a period of 14 d at concentrations of 250, 500 and 1000 ppm) groups. At the end of the 2 week period, malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO) and reduced glutathione (GSH) contents were measured to assess free radical activity in the BALF and lung tissue. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) was also determined. A significant dose-dependent increase in the BALF supernatant and lung homogenate levels of MDA and NO with decrease GSH level and SOD activity were observed in the lead-treated groups compared with the control group (p < 0.05). Thus, lead acetate may be contributed to respiratory disorders via increased oxidative stress. PMID:23419166

  16. Concentration-time models for the effects of ozone on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid protein from rats and guinea pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Highfill, J.W.; Hatch, G.E.; Slade, R.; Devlin, R.B.; Costa, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    Questions about the adequacy of the existing ozone (O3) standard prompted an examination of relationships between concentration (C) and exposure time (T) and the impact of changes in the C x T product on toxic responses. Using protein concentration of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALP) as an index of O3-induced lung damage, models were developed from a matrix of C (0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.8 ppm) and T (2, 4, and 8 h) values in rat and guinea pig. Equal C x T products with different levels of C and T were incorporated into the protocol. Polynomial and exponential least-squares models were developed and the lognormal linear model (Larsen et al., 1991) was evaluated for the rat and guinea pig data. For equal C x T products the results showed similar BALP responses at low C x T products. Calculations from the data and the models showed that (1) the models were consistent with reported experiments from the author's laboratory (Hatch et al., 1986), (2) exercising humans were more responsive to O3 exposure (without adjustments for ventilation rates) than were either rats or guinea pigs as measured by changes in BALP (Koren et al., 1989), and (3) the exponential model provided more generality than Haber's law by providing estimates of BALP levels for various C x T. (Copyright (c) 1992 by Hemisphere Publishing Corporation.)

  17. Elevated IL-8 and MCP-1 in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and pulmonary sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Car, B D; Meloni, F; Luisetti, M; Semenzato, G; Gialdroni-Grassi, G; Walz, A

    1994-03-01

    The potential for interleukin-8 (IL-8) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) to induce neutrophil and mononuclear phagocyte accumulation in the lungs of patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) was investigated. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids from 12 patients with IPF and 15 with sarcoidosis were concentrated by reversed-phase chromatography, and their IL-8 and MCP-1 concentrations assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), chemotaxis, and enzyme-releasing assays with monocytes and neutrophils. ELISA revealed significantly elevated concentrations of MCP-1 (20.1 ng/mg albumin) in the BAL fluids of patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis and those with IPF (41.8 ng/mg) in comparison to 11 normal individuals (4.24 ng/mg) and 15 patients with chronic bronchitis (CB) (5.16 ng/mg). Similarly, the chemotactic activity for monocytes (MCP-1 equivalent) was strongly increased in patients with sarcoidosis (86.03 ng/mg) as well as in those with IPF (54.47 ng/mg). The chemoattractant activity of normal individuals and CB patients was 7- or 3-fold lower, respectively. Patients with IPF and sarcoidosis also had elevated IL-8 levels (15.5 and 26.0 ng/mg, respectively; normals: 2.14 ng/mg; and CB patients: 4.23 ng/mg) and greater neutrophil chemotaxis (60.25 and 49.68 ng/mg, respectively; normals: 0.35 ng/mg; and CB patients: 11.06 ng/mg). These data suggest that increased levels of both MCP-1 and IL-8 may be characteristic for sarcoidosis or IPF. It appears likely that both of these chemoattractants contribute to the influx of monocytes and neutrophils into the pulmonary alveolus and interstitium in these diseases. PMID:8118632

  18. [Changes in lymphocyte subsets in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in patients with systemic sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Kopiński, P; Nalepa, P; Wojas-Pelc, A; Janowska, E; Gil, K

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate if alterations of lymphocyte subsets obtained by broncholaveolar lavage (BAL) were related to clinical data observed in nonsmoking patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). Clinical examination included chest X-rays, spirometry and arterial blood gasometry. Patients were divided into group A (pulmonary changes present, n = 15) and B (without any changes, n = 7). Healthy subjects constituted the control group (n = 10). BAL lymphocytes were phenotyped using monoclonal antibodies coupling CD4, CD8 (both in coexpression with CD25), CD19 and HLA-DR human antigens and flow cytometer FACStar (Becton-Dickinson). Parallel staining was performed in peripheral blood. BAL lymphocyte typing was completed by BAL routine cytology. In SSc patients we found increased BAL total cell number, percentage of neutrophils, eosinophils and macrophage giant cells, as well as high percent of CD25+ and HLA-DR+ lymphocytes. In the group A neutrophilic alveolitis was observed in nearly half of cases: total lymphocyte number (per 1 ml of BAL fluid) and significantly reduced CD4/CD8 ratio were found. In the group B, as compared with controls, we found significantly elevated lymphocyte total cell number per 1 ml of BAL fluid (including particular subsets: CD3+, CD4+, CD8+). Also significantly high CD4+25+ lymphocyte percent was observed. Summing up, cytological and/or immunological alterations were observed in all examined SSc patients. The intensity of these alterations seems to be related to the clinical data. A decreased value of CD4/CD8 ratio may play a role in the local appearance of pulmonary changes in the course of systemic sclerosis. PMID:10765646

  19. Increase in interleukin-8 and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from premature infants who develop chronic lung disease.

    PubMed Central

    Kotecha, S.; Chan, B.; Azam, N.; Silverman, M.; Shaw, R. J.

    1995-01-01

    Interleukin-8 (IL-8), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM), elastase and neutrophils were assessed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from nine infants who developed chronic lung disease (CLD) after respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), seven who had recovered from RDS, and in four control infants. IL-8, sICAM, elastase and neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were increased in the CLD group, the differences being most pronounced at 10 days of age. When babies with and without CLD were compared at 10 days of age, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from the babies with CLD had significantly increased IL-8 (114.0 vs 12.7 ng/ml), sICAM (19.0 vs 1.1 micrograms/ml), elastase (6.9 vs 0.9 micrograms/ml) and neutrophils (1.9 vs 0.4 x 10(9)/l). In serum the increased concentration of IL-8 observed at birth in the CLD (247 pg/ml) and RDS (192 pg/ml) groups decreased over three weeks to the concentrations observed in the controls (< 70 pg/ml). Persistent inflammation could be a major contributory factor in the development of CLD. PMID:7712280

  20. Cholesteryl Esters Are Elevated in the Lipid Fraction of Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid Collected from Pediatric Cystic Fibrosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Daniel C.; Yoon, Alexander J.; Faull, Kym F.; Desharnais, Robert; Zemanick, Edith T.; Porter, Edith

    2015-01-01

    Background Host-derived lipids including cholesteryl esters (CEs) such as cholesteryl linoleate have emerged as important antibacterial effectors of innate immunity in the airways and cholesteryl linoleate has been found elevated in the context of inflammation. Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients suffer from chronic infection and severe inflammation in the airways. Here, we identified and quantified CEs in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from CF patients and non-CF disease controls, and tested whether CE concentrations are linked to the disease. Materials and Methods CEs in BALF from 6 pediatric subjects with CF and 7 pediatric subjects with non-CF chronic lung disease were quantified by mass spectral analysis using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry and multiple reaction monitoring. BALFs were also examined for total lipid, total protein, albumin, and, as a marker for inflammation, human neutrophil peptide (HNP) 1–3 concentrations. Statistical analysis was conducted after log 10 transformation of the data. Results Total lipid/protein ratio was reduced in CF BALF (p = 0.018) but the concentrations of CEs, including cholesteryl linoleate, were elevated in the total lipid fraction in CF BALF compared to non-CF disease controls (p < 0.050). In addition, the concentrations of CEs and HNP1-3 correlated with one another (p < 0.050). Conclusions The data suggests that the lipid composition of BALF is altered in CF with less total lipid relative to protein but with increased CE concentrations in the lipid fraction, likely contributed by inflammation. Future longitudinal studies may reveal the suitability of CEs as a novel biomarker for CF disease activity which may provide new information on the lipid mediated pathophysiology of the disease. PMID:25919295

  1. sTREM-1 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis, effect of smoking and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Suchankova, M; Bucova, M; E, Tibenska; Demian, J; Majer, I; Novosadova, H; Tedlova, E; Durmanova, V; Paulovicova, E

    2013-01-01

    Soluble TREM-1 (sTREM-1; Triggering receptor expressed on myelocytes) is a new inflammatory marker indicating the intensity of myeloid cells activation and the presence of infection caused by extracellular bacteria and mould.The aim of our work was to detect and compare the levels of sTREM-1 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis (PS) and other ILD of non-infectious origin. The sTREM-1 levels were assessed by ELISA in 46 patients suffering from ILD, out of them 22 with PS. The levels of BALF sTREM-1 in PS patients were higher than in control group of ILD patients of non-infectious origin, however, the difference was not statistically significant. Since all PS patients except one were non-smokers we compared non-smokers PS with non-smokers ILD patients and found four times higher levels of BALF sTREM-1 in PS patients (P = 0.001). We also recorded the effect of smoking, ILD smokers had higher sTREM-1 levels than non-smokers (P = 0.0019). Higher concentrations of sTREM-1 were detected in BALF of patients with lymphadenopathy and with elevated inflammatory markers in BALF. Our results show that BALF sTREM-1 could be a good inflammatory marker and could help in diagnosis and PS monitoring. Detection of sTREM-1 in BALF indirectly points to myeloid cells activation in the lungs and helps to complete the information about the number of myeloid cells commonly determined in BALF with additional information concerning the intensity of their activation. This is the first study that analyses BALF sTREM-1 levels in patients with PS (Tab. 8, Ref. 28). Text in PDF www.elis.sk. PMID:24329508

  2. malT knockout mutation invokes a stringent type gene-expression profile in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in bronchoalveolar fluid

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae causes contagious pleuropneumonia, an economically important disease of commercially reared pigs throughout the world. To cause this disease, A. pleuropneumoniae must rapidly overcome porcine pulmonary innate immune defenses. Since bronchoalveolar fluid (BALF) contains many of the innate immune and other components found in the lungs, we examined the gene expression of a virulent serovar 1 strain of A. pleuropneumoniae after exposure to concentrated BALF for 30 min. Results In reverse transcription PCR differential display (RT-PCR DD) experiments, A. pleuropneumoniae CM5 exposed to BALF up-regulated, among other genes, a gene predicted to encode LamB, an outer-membrane transport protein of the maltose regulon. To determine the role of the lamB and other genes of the maltose regulon in the pathogenesis of A. pleuropneumoniae, knockout mutations were created in the lamB and malT genes, the latter being the positive transcriptional regulator of the maltose regulon. Relative to the lamB mutant and the wild type, the malT mutant had a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in growth rate and an increased sensitivity to fresh porcine serum and high concentrations (more than 0.5 M) of sodium chloride. In DNA microarray experiments, the BALF-exposed malT mutant exhibited a gene-expression profile resembling that of a stringent type gene-expression profile seen in bacteria facing amino acid or carbon starvation. Genes encoding proteins for protein synthesis, energy metabolism, and DNA replication were down-regulated, while genes involved in stringent response (e.g., relA), amino acid and nucleotide biosynthesis, biofilm formation, DNA transformation, and stress response were up-regulated. Conclusion These results suggest that MalT may be involved in protection against some stressors and in the transport of one or more essential nutrients in BALF. Moreover, if MalT is directly or indirectly linked to the stringent response, an important

  3. Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid and Serum Canine Surfactant Protein A Concentrations in Dogs with Chronic Cough by Bronchial and Interstitial Lung Diseases

    PubMed Central

    YAMAYA, Yoshiki; SUZUKI, Kazuyuki; WATARI, Toshihiro; ASANO, Ryuji

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT We measured bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and serum canine surfactant protein (cSP)-A concentrations in dogs with chronic cough. There were no significant differences between bronchial and interstitial lung diseases in BALF cSP-A concentrations. However, serum cSP-A concentrations in dogs with the interstitial lung disease as diffuse panbronchiolitis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis were significantly higher than those in dogs with the bronchial disease as chronic bronchitis. These results suggest that serum cSP-A concentrations may be a useful and noninvasive biomarker to understand the existence of interstitial lung damage in dogs with chronic cough. PMID:24366151

  4. Asbestos bodies in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. A study of 20 asbestos-exposed individuals and comparison to patients with other chronic interstitial lung diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Roggli, V.L.; Piantadosi, C.A.; Bell, D.Y.

    1986-09-01

    We studied the asbestos body (AB) content of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from 20 patients with a history of occupational asbestos exposure, 31 patients with sarcoidosis and 5 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. The cellular lavage pellet was digested in sodium hypochlorite and filtered onto Nuclepore filters for AB quantification by light microscopy. ABs were found in 15 of 20 asbestos-exposed individuals, 9 of 31 sarcoidosis cases and 2 of 5 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. There was a statistically significant difference in the number of ABs per million cells recovered or per milliliter of recovered lavage fluid in the asbestos-exposed group as compared to the other categories of chronic interstitial lung disease. The highest levels occurred in patients with asbestosis. Large numbers of asbestos bodies in the lavage fluid (greater than 1 AB/10(6) cells) were indicative of considerable occupational asbestos exposure, whereas occasional bodies were a nonspecific finding.

  5. Parainfluenza virus-3-induced cytopathic effects on lung tissue and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in a bone marrow transplant recipient: a case report.

    PubMed

    Pokharel, Saraswati; Merickel, C Ryan; Alatassi, Houda

    2014-06-01

    Parainfluenza virus type 3(PIV-3) commonly causes respiratory tract infections in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) patients. The majority of PIV-3 infections develop in patients who have undergone stem cell transplantation from unrelated donors. From these patients, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and/or lung biopsies are often collected and sent for evaluation of infectious processes. However, cytologic findings associated with a PIV-3 infection in BAL fluid have not been reported in the literature. We describe BAL cytology and lung biopsy findings in a patient who received an HSCT from a related donor and subsequently developed a PIV-3 infection. This patient was noted to have scattered reticular-nodular opacities in both lungs on computed tomogram scan and underwent transbronchial biopsy and BAL of the left lower lobe. Examination of the BAL fluid revealed scattered multinucleated giant cells intermixed with inflammatory cells. The lung biopsy showed organizing pneumonia associated with several multinucleated respiratory epithelial cells containing rare intracytoplasmic inclusions. Gram, periodic acid Schiff, Gomori methenamine silver, and acid fast stains on the biopsy specimen failed to reveal microorganisms. A sample of the BAL fluid sent for respiratory viral culture grew PIV-3. These findings suggest that the presence of giant cells in transplant patients with organizing pneumonia should raise suspicion of a PIV-3 infection. PMID:23554422

  6. Effect of ambroxol on the concentration of cefotaxime in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of rats with pulmonary fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, FENG; ZHANG, YUAN-XIA; ZHANG, CAI-QING

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of ambroxol on the concentration of cefotaxime in the bronchioalveolar lavage fluid of rats with bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. A total of 54 Wistar male rats were randomly divided into three groups, namely the normal control group, model group and ambroxol group. On experimental day 0, the rats were intratracheally instilled with bleomycin (5 mg/kg body weight) or sterile saline. The rats in the ambroxol group were then treated with ambroxol (35 mg/kg/day) intraperitoneally. On days 7, 14, 28 after instillation, six rats from each group were sacrificed, bronchial alveolar fluids were recovered and the lungs were collected for histopathological examination following the injection of cefotaxime (600 mg/kg) intravenously. The concentration of cefotaxime in the bronchial alveolar fluids was assayed by a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method. On day 7, the concentration of cefotaxime in the bronchial alveolar fluid of the ambroxol group was lower than that of the model group. On day 14, the concentration of cefotaxime in the bronchial alveolar fluids of the ambroxol group was higher than that of the model group, and the difference between these groups was significant statistically (P<0.001). On day 28, the concentration of cefotaxime in the bronchial alveolar fluids of the ambroxol group decreased sharply, and was lower than that of the model group (P=0.126). These results indicate that ambroxol increased the concentration of cefotaxime in the bronchial alveolar fluids at the primary fibrosis stage. PMID:25574230

  7. Performance of Galactomannan, Beta-d-Glucan, Aspergillus Lateral-Flow Device, Conventional Culture, and PCR Tests with Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid for Diagnosis of Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis

    PubMed Central

    Prattes, J.; Spiess, B.; Wagner, J.; Prueller, F.; Raggam, R. B.; Posch, V.; Duettmann, W.; Hoenigl, K.; Wölfler, A.; Koidl, C.; Buzina, W.; Reinwald, M.; Thornton, C. R.; Krause, R.

    2014-01-01

    Galactomannan detection in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid samples (GM test) is currently considered the gold standard test for diagnosing invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA). The limitations, however, are the various turnaround times and availability of testing. We compared the performance of GM testing with that of conventional culture, an Aspergillus lateral-flow-device (LFD) test, a beta-d-glucan (BDG) test, and an Aspergillus PCR assay by using BAL fluid samples from immunocompromised patients. A total of 78 BAL fluid samples from 78 patients at risk for IPA (74 samples from Graz and 4 from Mannheim) collected between December 2012 and May 2013 at two university hospitals in Austria and Germany were included. Three patients had proven IPA, 14 probable IPA, and 17 possible IPA, and 44 patients had no IPA. The diagnostic accuracies of the different methods for probable/proven IPA were evaluated. The diagnostic odds ratios were the highest for the GM, PCR, and LFD tests. The sensitivities for the four methods (except culture) were between 70 and 88%. The combination of the GM (cutoff optical density index [ODI], >1.0) and LFD tests increased the sensitivity to 94%, while the combination of the GM test (>1.0) and PCR resulted in 100% sensitivity (specificity for probable/proven IPA, 95 to 98%). The performance of conventional culture was limited by low sensitivity, while that of the BDG test was limited by low specificity. We evaluated established and novel diagnostic methods for IPA and found that the Aspergillus PCR, LFD, and GM tests were the most useful methods for diagnosing the disease by using BAL fluid samples. In particular, the combination of the GM test and PCR or, if PCR is not available, the LFD test, allows for sensitive and specific diagnosis of IPA. PMID:24671798

  8. Relationship between polymorphonuclear leukocyte count in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and bacterial content in Gram's stain and bacterial content in final microbiological report.

    PubMed

    Cavrić, Gordana; Mihalić, Slavica Naumovski; Tesanović, Sanda Janković; Dvorsćak, Matea Bogdanović; Erceg, Gorjana; Krkusek, Marijana Rehorić; Bartolek, Dubravka; Jurić, Klara; Nassabain, Khaled; Budimir, Ivan

    2010-03-01

    Eighty samples of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were obtained from the total of 48 patients (22 females and 26 males) and analyzed. Eighteen of those patients were organ transplant recipients. The relationship between polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) count in direct sample and semi quantitative Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial content were analyzed in BALF samples. PMN count in direct sample and Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial content of the final microbiological report was compared as well. On the total number of samples PMN count in direct samples of BALF was statistically significant regarding the presence of Gram-positive bacteria in the same sample; it was nearly significant regarding the presence of Gram-negative bacteria; and it was statistically significant for the total bacterial content. If BALF samples are divided into those obtained from organ-transplant and those obtained from non-organ-transplant patients, positive, statistically significant relationship is found in the organ-transplant group, more specifically for the relationship between PMNs and total bacterial content. When PMN count in direct microbiological sample was compared with the results of the final microbiological report, statistically significant relationship was found neither with respect to all BALF samples, nor after dividing them into "organ-transplant" and "non-organ-transplant" group. We did not find differences caused by gender. PMID:20437633

  9. Conserved CDR 3 region of T cell receptor BV gene in lymphocytes from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Shimizudani, N; Murata, H; Keino, H; Kojo, S; Nakamura, H; Morishima, Y; Sakamoto, T; Ohtsuka, M; Sekisawa, K; Sumida, M; Sumida, T; Matsuoka, T

    2002-07-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is an inflammatory lung disease characterized by the accumulation of inflammatory cells and deposition of collagen, resulting in lung remodelling. High numbers of T cells are present in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of IPF patients, although the characteristics of these cells are yet to be determined. To elucidate the pathogenic mechanisms of IPF, we analysed the T cell receptor (TCR) of BALF lymphocytes in three patients with IPF and three healthy subjects as control. TCR repertoire of BALF lymphocytes and T cell clonality were examined by family PCR and Southern blot analysis, and single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP), respectively. We observed that the TCR repertoire in the lung was heterogeneous, both in the control subjects and three patients with IPF. SSCP analysis demonstrated an increase in the number of accumulated T cell clones in BALF of two of the three patients, but not in the healthy subject. Furthermore, junctional sequence analysis showed the presence of conserved amino acid motifs (ETGRSG, LAxG, QGQ, GxQP, GRxG, VAR, PGT, GTI, GGT, TGR, LxLxQ, SGQ) in the TCR-CDR 3 region of BAL lymphocytes in patients with IPF, whereas only two amino acid motifs (VTTG, GGE) were found in the control. Our findings suggest that T cells in BALF of patients with IPF expand oligoclonally in the lung, suggesting antigen stimulation of these cells. PMID:12100034

  10. The effects of Eucheuma cottonii on alveolar macrophages and malondialdehyde levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in chronically particulate matter 10 coal dust-exposed rats

    PubMed Central

    Saputri, Romadhiyana Kisno; Setiawan, Bambang; Nugrahenny, Dian; Kania, Nia; Wahyuni, Endang Sri; Widodo, M Aris

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): To investigate the effect of Eucheuma cottonii on alveolar macrophages (AM) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF) in particulate matter 10 (PM10) coal dust-exposed rats. Materials and Methods: Ten groups, including a non exposed group and groups exposed to coal dust at doses of 6.25 (CD6.25), 12.5 (CD12.5), or 25 mg/m3 (CD25) an hour daily for 6 months with or without supplementation of ethanolic extract of E. cottonii at doses of 150 (EC150) or 300 mg/kg BW (EC300). The number of macrophages was determined using a light microscope. MDA levels were measured by TBARS assay. Results: EC150 insignificantly (P > 0.05) reduces the AM in CD groups compared to non treatment groups. EC150 and EC300 significantly (P < 0.05) decreased MDA levels in CD12.5 and CD25 groups relative to non treatment groups. Conclusion: E. cottonii attenuated oxidative stress in chronic exposure of PM10 coal dust. PMID:25429347

  11. Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid Characteristics of Patients With Sarcoidosis and Nonsarcoidosis Interstitial Lung Diseases: Ten-Year Experience of a Single Center in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Tanriverdi, Hakan; Erboy, Fatma; Altinsoy, Bulent; Uygur, Firat; Arasli, Mehmet; Ozel Tekin, Ishak; Tor, Muge Meltem; Atalay, Figen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is a noninvasive and useful technique for evaluating interstitial lung diseases (ILDs). Flow cytometric analysis of BAL fluid reveals specific diagnostic information in some unusual ILDs, and helps to narrow down the possible causes of interstitial diseases in most patients with more common disorders. A high BAL CD4/CD8 ratio is highly specific for sarcoidosis but can also be seen in other ILDs. Objectives: In this retrospective, descriptive, cross-sectional study, we compared BAL fluid characteristics and clinical variables in patients with sarcoidosis and non-sarcoidosis ILDs in a large cohort. Patients and Methods: The study was conducted in a tertiary university hospital in Zonguldak, the biggest city of the western Black Sea region of Turkey. Between 2004 and 2014, all patients who underwent both fiberoptic bronchoscopy and BAL with a suspicion of ILD were included in the study, retrospectively. Patients were divided into two main groups: sarcoidosis and non-sarcoidosis ILDs. Non-sarcoidosis ILDs were further divided into subgroups: pneumoconiosis, tuberculosis (TB), collagen vascular diseases, idiopathic interstitial pneumonias, malignancies, and unclassified ILDs. The clinical data of patients, including age, gender, smoking status, pulmonary function tests, and BAL flow cytometric analysis results, were compared among groups. Results: In total, 261 patients (119 sarcoidosis and 142 non-sarcoidosis ILDs) were enrolled. The median (interquartile range) BAL CD4/CD8 ratio and lymphocyte fraction were significantly higher in sarcoidosis than in non-sarcoidosis ILDs: 3.88 (3.76) versus 0.88 (1.01), respectively, and 20.6 (28.3) versus 6.0 (13.7), respectively. T cell receptor γ delta, CD16+56+, CD103+, CD8+103+, and CD3+16+56+ cells were significantly lower in sarcoidosis than in non-sarcoidosis ILDs. The median BAL CD4/CD8 ratios were significantly higher in patients with TB (1.87, P = 0.01) and malignancies (1.69, P = 0

  12. Evaluation of PCR in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid for Diagnosis of Pneumocystis jirovecii Pneumonia: A Bivariate Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Li-Chao; Lu, Hai-Wen; Cheng, Ke-Bin; Li, Hui-Ping; Xu, Jin-Fu

    2013-01-01

    Background As a promising tool, PCR in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) has not been accepted as a diagnostic criterion for PJP. Objective We undertook a systematic review of published studies to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of PCR assays in BALF for PJP. Methods Eligible studies from PubMed, Embase and Web of Science reporting PCR assays in BALF for diagnosing PJP were identified. A bivariate meta-analysis of the method’s sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative likelihood ratios with a 95% confidence interval (CI) were analyzed. The post-test probability was performed to evaluate clinical usefulness. A summary receiver operating characteristics (SROC) curve was used to evaluate overall performance. Subgroup analyses were carried out to analysis the potential heterogeneity. Results Sixteen studies published between 1994 and 2012 were included. The summary sensitivity and specificity values (95% CI) of PCR in BALF for diagnosis of PJP were 98.3% (91.3%–99.7%) and 91.0% (82.7%–95.5%), respectively. The positive and negative likelihood ratios were 10.894 (5.569–21.309) and 0.018 (0.003–0.099), respectively. In a setting of 20% prevalence of PJP, the probability of PJP would be over 3-fold if the BALF-PCR test was positive, and the probability of PJP would be less than 0.5% if it was negative. The area under the SROC curve was 0.98 (0.97–0.99). Conclusions The method of PCR in BALF shows high sensitivity and good specificity for the diagnosis of PJP. However, clinical practice for the diagnosis of PJP should consider the consistent respiratory symptoms, radiographic changes and laboratory findings of the suspected patients. PMID:24023814

  13. Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid Utilized Ex Vivo to Validate In Vivo Findings: Inhibition of Gap Junction Activity in Lung Tumor Promotion is Toll-Like Receptor 4-Dependent.

    PubMed

    Hill, Thomas; Osgood, Ross S; Velmurugan, Kalpana; Alexander, Carla-Maria; Upham, Brad L; Bauer, Alison K

    2013-12-27

    TLR4 protects against lung tumor promotion and pulmonary inflammation in mice. Connexin 43 (Cx43), a gap junction gene, was increased in Tlr4 wildtype compared to Tlr4-mutant mice in response to promotion, which suggests gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) may be compromised. We hypothesized that the early tumor microenvironment, represented by Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid (BALF) from Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT; promoter)-treated mice, would produce TLR4-dependent changes in pulmonary epithelium, including dysregulation of GJIC in the Tlr4-mutant (BALB (Lps-d) ) compared to the Tlr4-sufficient (BALB; wildtype) mice. BHT (4 weekly doses) was injected ip followed by BALF collection at 24 h. BALF total protein and total macrophages were significantly elevated in BHT-treated BALB (Lps-d) over BALB mice, similar to previous findings. BALF was then utilized in an ex vivo manner to treat C10 cells, a murine alveolar type II cell line, followed by the scrape-load dye transfer assay (GJIC), Cx43 immunostaining, and quantitative RT-PCR (Mcp-1, monocyte chemotactic protein 1). GJIC was markedly reduced in C10 cells treated with BHT-treated BALB (Lps-d) BALF for 4 and 24 h compared to BALB and control BALF from the respective mice (p < 0.05). Mcp-1, a chemokine, was also significantly increased in the BHT-treated BALB (Lps-d) BALF compared to the BALB mice, and Cx43 protein expression in the cell membrane altered. These novel findings suggest signaling from the BALF milieu is involved in GJIC dysregulation associated with promotion and links gap junctions to pulmonary TLR4 protection in a novel ex vivo model that could assist in future potential tumor promoter screening. PMID:25035812

  14. [A case of legionellesis pneumonia verified by isolation of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid treated with levofloxacine and tigecycline].

    PubMed

    Galstian, G M; Drokov, M Iu; Katrysh, S A; Kliasova, G A; Giliazitdinova, E A; Karpova, T I; Marakusha, B I; Tartakovskiĭ, I S

    2011-01-01

    A male patient received non-chemotherapeutic drugs which induced deep neutropenia complicated with sepsis, bilateral pneumonia, acute respiratory insufficiency. Artificial pulmonary ventilation was applied. The examination of bronchoalveolar lavage showed the presence of the culture L. pneumophila (serogroup 1) in a concentration 2 x 10(3) CFU/ml. Antibacterial therapy with levofloxacin in a dose 1000 mg/day was conducted. In a week not only L.pneumophila but also Acinetobacter baumanii was isolated from bronchoalveolar lavage. Tigecyclin was added to levofloxacin treatment. Two air cavities were found in the left lung. The treatment reduced the size of these cavities, infiltrative changes in the lungs and respiratory insufficiency regressed. The patient was discharged from hospital This case is the first case in Russia of L.pneumophila isolation from bronchoalveolar lavage. The case is also characterized by use of tigecycline for treatment of combined legionella and akinetobacterial infection and cavities in the lungs in legionella pneumonia. PMID:21894754

  15. Relationship between the thickness of bronchial wall layers, emphysema score, and markers of remodeling in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Górka, Karolina; Soja, Jerzy; Jakieła, Bogdan; Plutecka, Hanna; Gross-Sondej, Iwona; Ćmiel, Adam; Mikrut, Sławomir; Łoboda, Piotr; Andrychiewicz, Anna; Jurek, Paulina; Sładek, Krzysztof

    2016-06-30

    INTRODUCTION    Airway remodeling plays an important role in the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Imaging methods, such as computed tomography (CT) and endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS), may be useful in the assessment of structural alterations in the lungs. OBJECTIVES    The aim of this study was to evaluate a relationship between the severity of emphysema assessed by chest CT, the thickness of bronchial wall layers measured by EBUS, and the markers of remodeling in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in patients with COPD. PATIENTS AND METHODS    The study included 33 patients with COPD who underwent pulmonary function tests, emphysema score assessment by chest CT, as well as bronchofiberoscopy with EBUS in order to measure the total bronchial wall thickness and, separately, layers L1, L2, and L3-5. Selected remodeling (matrix metalloproteinase 9 [MMP-9], tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1, transforming growth factor β1 [TGF-β1]) and inflammatory markers (neutrophil elastase, eosinophil cationic protein) were measured in BALF samples using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS    MMP-9 levels in BALF were significantly higher in patients with very severe bronchial obstruction than in those with moderate and mild bronchial obstruction (P = 0.02), and showed a negative correlation with forced expiratory volume in 1 second (r = -0.538, P = 0.002). The thickness of L1 and L2, which histologically correspond to the mucosa, submucosa, and smooth muscle, demonstrated a positive correlation with TGF-β1 levels in BALF (r = 0.366, P = 0.046 and r = 0.425, P = 0.02) and the thickness of L1 showed a negative association with neutrophil elastase levels (r = -0.508, P = 0.004). There was no significant correlation between the analyzed markers in BALF and the emphysema score. CONCLUSIONS    Significant correlations of TGF-β1 and elastase with the thickness of bronchial wall layers, and of MMP-9 with the severity of

  16. Bronchoalveolar Lavage and Lung Tissue Digestion

    PubMed Central

    Han, Hongwei; Ziegler, Steven F.

    2016-01-01

    Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is a simple but valuable and typically performed technique commonly used for studying the pathogenesis of lung diseases such as asthma and COPD. Cell counts can be combined with new methods for examining inflammatory responses, such as ELISA, Flow cytometric analysis, immunohistochemistry, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and HPLC to assess cellular expression for inflammatory cytokines and growth factor. Here we describe a basic procedure to collect BAL fluid and digest lung tissue for assessing a number of pulmonary components.

  17. Comparison of Real-Time PCR, Conventional PCR, and Galactomannan Antigen Detection by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Using Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid Samples from Hematology Patients for Diagnosis of Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis

    PubMed Central

    Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Posteraro, Brunella; Pagano, Livio; Pagliari, Gabriella; Fianchi, Luana; Mele, Luca; La Sorda, Marilena; Franco, Angelica; Fadda, Giovanni

    2003-01-01

    An iCycler iQ real-time PCR assay targeting 18S rRNA Aspergillus-specific sequences was developed for the diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA). Positive findings were obtained for 18 of 20 (90%) bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid specimens from patients with probable or confirmed IPA and were obtained for none of the 24 BAL samples from patients with no clinical evidence of aspergillosis. These results were concordant with those of a nested PCR assay, which detected 90% of the patients with IPA, while galactomannan ELISA revealed positivity for 100% of these patients, suggesting that combined use of methods might improve the diagnosis of IPA. PMID:12904419

  18. Levels of cytokines in broncho-alveolar lavage fluid, but not in plasma, are associated with levels of markers of lipid peroxidation in breath of ventilated ICU patients.

    PubMed

    Boshuizen, Margit; Leopold, Jan Hendrik; Zakharkina, Tetyana; Knobel, Hugo H; Weda, Hans; Nijsen, Tamara M E; Vink, Teunis J; Sterk, Peter J; Schultz, Marcus J; Bos, Lieuwe D J

    2015-09-01

    Alkanes and alkenes in the breath are produced through fatty acid peroxidation, which is initialized by reactive oxygen species. Inflammation is an important cause and effect of reactive oxygen species. We aimed to evaluate the association between fatty acid peroxidation products and inflammation of the alveolar and systemic compartment in ventilated intensive care unit (ICU) patients.Volatile organic compounds were measured by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry in the breath of newly ventilated ICU patients within 24 h after ICU admission. Cytokines were measured in non-directed bronchial lavage fluid (NBL) and plasma by cytometric bead array. Correlation coefficients were calculated and presented in heatmaps.93 patients were included. Peroxidation products in exhaled breath were not associated with markers of inflammation in plasma, but were correlated with those in NBL. IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β and TNF-α concentration in NBL showed inverse correlation coefficients with the peroxidation products of fatty acids. Furthermore, NBL IL-10, IL-13, GM-CSF and IFNγ demonstrated positive associations with breath alkanes and alkenes. Correlation coefficients for NBL cytokines were high regarding peroxidation products of n-6, n-7 and particularly in n-9 fatty acids.Levels of lipid peroxidation products in the breath of ventilated ICU patients are associated with levels of inflammatory markers in NBL, but not in plasma. Alkanes and alkenes in breath seems to be associated with an anti-inflammatory, rather than a pro-inflammatory state in the alveoli. PMID:26333527

  19. Gallium-67 scintigraphy, bronchoalveolar lavage, and pathologic changes in patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis

    SciTech Connect

    Abe, S.; Munakata, M.; Nishimura, M.; Tsuneta, Y.; Terai, T.; Nakano, I.; Ohsaki, Y.; Kawakami, Y.

    1984-05-01

    The intensity of gallium-67 scintiscans, lymphocyte counts in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and pathologic changes were studied in 26 patients with untreated pulmonary sarcoidosis. Noncaseating granulomas were recognized with significantly greater frequency in stage 2 (80 percent; 8/10 cases) than in stage 1 (43 percent; 6/14 cases). Alveolitis showed little relation to the roentgenographic stage. There was a strong correlation between the intensity of gallium uptake in pulmonary parenchyma and the detection rate of granuloma; however, the detection rate of alveolitis was not statistically different from the intensity of gallium uptake. A highly significant correlation was revealed between the lymphocyte counts in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and the intensity of alveolitis. These observations suggest that the gallium uptake reflects mainly the presence of granuloma, and the lymphocyte count in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid reflects the intensity of alveolitis in patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis.

  20. Sampling the Airway: Improving the Predictive and Toxicological Value of Bronchoalveolar Lavage

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is a relatively simple technique to obtain biological material in the form of BAL fluid (BALF) from airways of humans and laboratory animals. Numerous predictive biomarkers of pulmonary injury and diseases can be detected in BALF which aid in diagnosi...

  1. OPTIMIZATION OF REPEATED BRONCHOALVEOLAR LAVAGE IN RABBITS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is a relatively non-invasive technique used to obtain diagnostic samples from the lower airways of companion animals with respira¬tory disease. BAL is also commonly used in laboratory animals to assess pulmo¬nary changes after expos...

  2. Peptides in Bronchoalveolar Lavage in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wendt, Chris H.; Nelsestuen, Gary; Harvey, Stephen; Gulcev, Makedonka; Stone, Matthew; Reilly, Cavan

    2016-01-01

    Background Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a heterogeneous disease with a significant public health burden. Currently there is no biomarker that identifies those at risk of developing COPD, progression of disease or disease phenotypes. We performed metabolomic profiling of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from COPD patients to determine if metabolites correlated with clinical measurements such as lung function, functional status and degree of emphysema. Methods Metabolomic components of BALF from 59 subjects with COPD and 20 healthy controls were separated by reversed-phase UPLC and analyzed by ESI-ToF mass spectrometry. We used univariate analysis and multiple regression models to investigate associations between metabolomic features and various clinical variables, such as lung function, functional status as measured by the St. George Respiratory Quotient Score and emphysema as measured by the CT density mask score. Results We identified over 3900 features by mass spectrometry, many consistent with peptides. Subjects with severe COPD had increased concentration of peptides compared to controls (p < 9.526e-05). The peptide concentration correlated with spirometry, specifically pulmonary function tests associated with airflow obstruction. There was no correlation with CT density, i.e. emphysema, or functional status. Conclusions Metabolomic profiling of BALF in COPD patients demonstrated a significant increase in peptides compared to healthy controls that associated strongly to lung function, but not emphysema or functional status. PMID:27227774

  3. Bronchoalveolar lavage and gallium-67 lung scanning in the evaluation of asbestos-exposed individuals

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Tawil, W.G.

    1986-01-01

    In this study, an attempt is made to evaluate certain parameters that might indicate the beginning of a certain fibrogenic activity in the lung parenchyma, even before such changes become visible on the chest x-ray. The hypothesis is that studies such as certain bronchoalveolar immunological characteristics and Gallium-67 lung scans may be more sensitive indicators of parenchymal lung damage in response to asbestos inhalation than conventional radiographic criteria. If so, then in those cases where the criteria for the diagnosis of asbestosis lack the presence of parenchymal changes, it would be unwise to deny the diagnosis unless further investigation, such as the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid analysis and the Gallium-67 lung scan techniques, are made available. The most significant laboratory parameter for bronchoalveolar lavage, in this study, is that of Neutrophils (PMNs). All three asbestos-exposed groups showed no differences when compared with each other, while such differences were statistically significant when such groups were separately compared with the normal comparison group. A similar finding existed also when the Helper: suppressor T-Cell ratios were compared, and found to be higher in all the asbestos-exposed groups.

  4. Bronchoalveolar mast cells in sarcoidosis: increased numbers and accentuation of mediator release.

    PubMed Central

    Flint, K C; Leung, K B; Hudspith, B N; Brostoff, J; Pearce, F L; Geraint-James, D; Johnson, N M

    1986-01-01

    Bronchoalveolar lavage was carried out in 36 subjects with sarcoidosis and 20 control subjects undergoing bronchoscopy for routine diagnostic purposes. The proportion of mast cells in the lavage fluid of subjects with sarcoidosis (mean (SE) 0.84% 0.09%; p less than 0.01) when compared with that of controls (mean 0.32% (0.05%); p less than 0.01). This increase was greatest in subjects with positive gallium scans but was not correlated with the percentage recovery of lymphocytes or radiographic stage. Anti-IgE induced histamine release from the bronchoalveolar cells of 15 subjects with sarcoidosis was significantly increased at all effective doses of anti-IgE. This accentuation of histamine release was significantly greater in patients with positive gallium scans and correlated directly with the percentage recovery of lymphocytes (r = 0.7, p less than 0.005). The dose-response curve of anti-IgE induced histamine release from bronchoalveolar cells of subjects with more than 20% of lymphocytes in the lavage cell population was significantly greater than the dose-response curves of subjects with fewer than 20% of lymphocytes and of controls. PMID:2422776

  5. Bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage findings in cross-country skiers with and without "ski asthma".

    PubMed

    Sue-Chu, M; Larsson, L; Moen, T; Rennard, S I; Bjermer, L

    1999-03-01

    Bronchial hyperresponsiveness to methacholine with asthma-like symptoms ("ski asthma") is frequent in elite cross-country skiers. To further the understanding of "ski asthma", 10 nonasthmatic, nonatopic controls and 30 adolescent elite skiers were investigated by bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Nine skiers were atopic without allergy symptoms. Compared with controls, the macroscopic inflammatory index in the proximal airways in skiers was three-fold greater (median (interquartile range) 3.0 (2.0-5.0) versus 1.0 (0.8-2.3), p=0.008). In the BAL fluid, skiers had significantly greater total cell (p<0.05) and percentage lymphocyte (p<0.01) and mast cell counts (p<0.05). Neutrophil and eosinophil counts were not significantly different and eosinophil cationic protein was not detected. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha and myeloperoxidase were detected in 12 (40%) and six (20%) skiers, respectively. In skiers with ski asthma, the inflammatory index was greater than in nonasthmatic skiers. Lymphocyte subtypes and activation markers, and concentration of albumin, fibronectin and hyaluronan were not different from those in controls. Cross-country skiers have a minor to moderate degree of macroscopic inflammation in the proximal airways at bronchoscopy and a bronchoalveolar lavage fluid profile which differs in several respects from healthy controls. Skiers with ski asthma tend to show even higher degrees of bronchial inflammation. PMID:10232438

  6. Asbestos bodies in bronchoalveolar lavage in relation to asbestos bodies and asbestos fibres in lung parenchyma.

    PubMed

    Karjalainen, A; Piipari, R; Mäntylä, T; Mönkkönen, M; Nurminen, M; Tukiainen, P; Vanhala, E; Anttila, S

    1996-05-01

    In Finland, unlike other countries, anthophyllite asbestos has been widely used due to its domestic production in 1918-1975. In this particular context, the aim of the present study was to analyse the relationship between asbestos bodies (ABs) in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and the concentration of ABs and the different amphibole asbestos fibres in lung tissue. Sixty five BAL lung tissue sample pairs from patients with pulmonary disease were analysed. The concentration of ABs in BAL fluid and lung tissue was determined with optical microscopy, and the concentration, type and dimensions of asbestos fibres in lung tissue with scanning electron microscopy. There was a significant correlation between the concentrations of ABs in BAL fluid and in lung tissue (r = 0.72; p < 0.001), between the concentrations of ABs and amphibole asbestos fibres in lung tissue (r = 0.73; p < 0.001), and between the concentration of ABs in BAL fluid and the concentration of amphibole asbestos fibres in lung tissue (r = 0.64; p < 0.001). In patients who had been exposed mainly to commercial anthophyllite, significantly higher concentrations of ABs were observed per total pulmonary amphibole fibre burden, as compared to patients whose main exposure was to crocidolite/amosite. The anthophyllite fibres in lung tissue were longer than the crocidolite/amosite fibres. The relationship between asbestos body counts in lung tissue and in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was similar to previous international observations. When using the asbestos body count to predict the underlying total pulmonary amphibole asbestos burden in Finnish patients, however, it should be borne in mind that the relationship between the two parameters seems to be different with anthophyllite as compared to crocidolite/amosite fibres. PMID:8793463

  7. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis with myeloproliferative syndrome with myelodysplasia: bronchoalveolar lavage reduces white blood cell count.

    PubMed

    Pollack, Seth M; Gutierrez, Guillermo; Ascensao, Joao

    2006-08-01

    Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare disorder characterized by surfactant component accumulation in the alveolar space. Primary PAP is likely an autoimmune disorder caused by antibodies to granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF). When an underlying disease causes PAP, this is called secondary PAP. Hematologic malignancies are an important cause of secondary PAP. As the pathogenesis of primary PAP has become more fully understood, improvements in diagnostic and therapeutic approaches have followed. However, when PAP is secondary to an underlying hematologic malignancy, much remains unclear. Here we describe for the first time a patient with hybrid myelodysplastic syndrome/myeloproliferative syndrome and PAP who had a marked decrease in her white blood cell count following a transbronchial biopsy accompanied by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Similar significant decreases in WBC count accompanied clinical improvement following two unilateral BALs. Given that patients with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis frequently have elevated GM-CSF in bronchoalveolar fluid, this observation provides a unique vantage point to understand the pathophysiology of secondary PAP. PMID:16906593

  8. Elafin/elastase-specific inhibitor in bronchoalveolar lavage of normal subjects and farmer's lung.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, G M; Sallenave, J M; Israél-Assayag, E; Cormier, Y; Gauldie, J

    1996-10-01

    Secretory leukocyte proteinase inhibitor (SLPI) and alpha1-proteinase inhibitor (alpha1(PI)) cannot fully explain the total neutrophil elastase (NE) inhibitory capacity detected in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, suggesting the existence of other NE inhibitor(s). In the present study, we measured the concentrations of elafin, a newly described, low-molecular-weight serine proteinase inhibitor, SLPI, and alpha1(PI) in BAL fluids from eight healthy subjects, 13 asymptomatic farmers, seven farmers with active farmer's lung (FL), and seven farmers with previous (Ex) FL. In addition to SLPI and alpha1(PI), elafin was present in BAL fluids from control subjects and asymptomatic farmers, 13 (7-31) and 12 (7-67) mmol/mol of albumin (median and range) respectively. Elafin concentration increased significantly to 105 (38-207) mmol/mol of albumin in farmers with active FL and was also elevated in farmers with Ex FL. Elafin levels were highly correlated with lung inflammatory cell numbers, especially lymphocytes, and the decrease in single-breath diffusion capacity (DLCO). Elafin and SLPI were linked to yet uncharacterized proteins in BAL fluids. In conclusion, elafin is a constituent of BAL fluid from normal subjects and is found in enhanced concentrations in FL and in farmers with lymphocytic alveolitis. This suggests that elafin may play a role in lung homeostasis and inflammation. PMID:8887613

  9. [Normal values of cell distribution and function in the human alveolus. Bronchoalveolar lavage as a diagnostic tool in intensive care medicine].

    PubMed

    Obertacke, U; Joka, T; Pison, U; Riewendt, H D; Stimming, W

    1987-10-01

    The cell distribution and cell function in the normal human alveolar were determined in 23 healthy subjects by obtaining the pulmonary lavage fluid from bronchoalveolar lavage. A uniform alveolar cell spectrum was found. (Alveolar macrophages 95-98%, polymorphonuclear neutrophils 2-3%, lymphocytes 0-2%.) The cell systems reacted reproducibly to a defined phagocytosis stimulation in luminol-enhanced chemoluminescence. The phospholipid lung profile, which is important for the function of the surfactant, was determined by means of high-pressure liquid chromatography. The typical inflammation mediators were not present in the humoral spectrum of the supernatant part of the lavage fluid. Albumin, transferrin, and alpha-1-antitrypsin were regularly seen in healthy adults in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. The results supply the basis for the interpretation of the findings in polytraumatised patients in adult respiratory distress syndrome. PMID:2446522

  10. Bronchoalveolar lavage: role in the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of interstitial lung disease

    SciTech Connect

    Daniele, R.P.; Elias, J.A.; Epstein, P.E.; Rossman, M.D.

    1985-01-01

    Bronchoalveolar lavage has emerged as a useful technique for the study of pulmonary interstitial disorders. Several types of information are provided by the evaluation of lavage fluid. First, the identification of cellular constituents helps to separate inflammatory processes in which lymphocytes predominate (for example, sarcoidosis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and berylliosis) from those in which neutrophils or macrophages predominate (for example, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and histiocytosis X). Second, the cells removed during lavage can be studied for their immune properties and function; tested with specific antigens, in diseases such as berylliosis and hypersensitivity pneumonitis; and examined for the presence of unique surface antigens with monoclonal antibodies (for example, histiocytosis X). Third, in conjunction with scanning electron microscopy and electron probe analysis, lavage makes possible the identification of inorganic particles in alveolar macrophages of patients with pneumoconiotic lung disease. Finally, although lavage is still an investigative procedure for most pulmonary disorders, it has an established role in the diagnosis of opportunistic infections in the immunocompromised patient.

  11. Platelet-activating factor in bronchoalveolar lavage from patients with sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Scappaticci, E; Libertucci, D; Bottomicca, F; Da Col, R; Silvestro, L; Tetta, C; Camussi, G

    1992-08-01

    Platelet-activating factor (PAF), a lipid mediator of inflammation and anaphylaxis, may play a role in several physiopathologic alterations of the lung. A lipid compound with physicochemical and biologic characteristics similar to synthetic PAF was extracted and purified from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid of 15 of 34 patients with sarcoidosis. PAF was quantitated by a bioassay on washed rabbit platelets. The specificity of platelet aggregation was assessed by using two different PAF receptor antagonists. The incidence of detectable amounts of PAF in BAL fluid of sarcoid patients was statistically significant (chi 2 = 4.064, p = 0.044) when compared with the 14 normal control subjects. The results demonstrated an increased production of PAF in the lower respiratory tract of patients with sarcoidosis. The presence of PAF in BAL fluid, however, did not correlate with radiologic stage, intensity of alveolitis, gallium scanning positivity, angiotensin-converting enzyme serum level, or lung function tests. Therefore, a direct relationship between presence of PAF in BAL fluid and activity of lung disease in patients with sarcoidosis was not directly established. PMID:1336939

  12. Elevated bronchoalveolar concentrations of MCP-1 in patients with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis.

    PubMed

    Iyonaga, K; Suga, M; Yamamoto, T; Ichiyasu, H; Miyakawa, H; Ando, M

    1999-08-01

    Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare disease of unknown aetiology characterized by accumulations of lipoproteinaceous material within the alveoli. The alveolar macrophages become increasingly foamy, and are thought to have a role in the pathogenesis of PAP. However, the mechanisms of macrophage recruitment are unclear. In the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of four patients with PAP and 20 normal control subjects, the following were examined: the monocyte chemotactic activity due to the chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 with the use of a chemotactic chamber assay, the levels of MCP-1 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the MCP-1 expression on lavage cells by immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridization. The monocyte chemotactic activity in the BALF of the PAP patients was markedly elevated, and the activity was completely absorbed by treatment with anti-MCP-1. The MCP-1 levels in the BALF were surprisingly high in the PAP group (25,100+/-472 pg x mL(-1)), whereas low levels of MCP-1 were detected in the normal control subjects (mean: never smokers 4.8; smokers 10.4 pg x mL(-1)). MCP-1 protein and messenger ribonucleic acid were expressed by macrophages from the PAP patients, and the expression was reduced according to foaming of the cells; there were monocyte-like macrophages with strong expression, small foamy cells with moderate expression, large foamy cells with a faint expression of MCP-1, and ghost cells with no expression. However, the increase of macrophage number in the PAP BALF was relatively small. These data suggest that monocyte chemoattractant protein(-1) expression by alveolar macrophages represents an amplification mechanism for the recruitment of additional macrophages to the alveoli in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. It is possible that an ingestion of an excess of alveolar materials in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis may impair the macrophage function and the survival, resulting in the lack of a prominent

  13. Bronchoalveolar lavage and technetium-99m glucoheptonate imaging in chronic eosinophilic pneumonia

    SciTech Connect

    Lieske, T.R.; Sunderrajan, E.V.; Passamonte, P.M.

    1984-02-01

    A patient with chronic eosinophilic pneumonia was evaluated using bronchoalveolar lavage, technetium-99m glucoheptonate, and transbronchial lung biopsy. Bronchoalveolar lavage revealed 43 percent eosinophils and correlated well with results of transbronchial lung biopsy. Technetium-99m glucoheptonate lung imaging demonstrated intense parenchymal uptake. After eight weeks of corticosteroid therapy, the bronchoalveolar lavage eosinophil population and the technetium-99m glucoheptonate uptake had returned to normal. We suggest that bronchoalveolar lavage, with transbronchial lung biopsy, is a less invasive way than open lung biopsy to diagnose chronic eosinophilic pneumonia. The mechanism of uptake of technetium-99m glucoheptonate in this disorder remains to be defined.

  14. Unilateral radiation pneumonitis in sheep: Physiological changes and bronchoalveolar lavage

    SciTech Connect

    Tillman, B.F.; Loyd, J.E.; Malcolm, A.W.; Holm, B.A.; Brigham, K.L. )

    1989-03-01

    Radiation pneumonitis is a life-threatening result of therapeutic thoracic irradiation, yet its mechanisms are poorly understood. We studied the effects of unilateral lung irradiation (3,000 rad) in sheep from the immediate response to the later development of radiation pneumonitis. We defined radiation pneumonitis by its diagnostic clinical feature, radiographic infiltration of the irradiated zone with a straight margin corresponding to the radiation port. The immediate response in the few hours after irradiation was characterized by cough, labored respiration, hypoxemia (arterial PO{sub 2} decreased 19 Torr), mild pulmonary hypertension (pulmonary arterial pressure increased 20%), and lymphopenia. Hemodynamics and gas exchange returned to normal by day 2 but became abnormal again before or during radiation pneumonitis at 32 +/- 2 days. Respiratory distress, hypoxemia, and pulmonary hypertension recurred during radiation pneumonitis. Bronchoalveolar lavage during radiation pneumonitis contained increased neutrophils (19 +/- 4%, control = 7%), increased protein (0.27 +/- 0.1 g/dl, control = 0.12 +/- 0.03), and severely impaired ability to lower surface tension. Alveolar macrophages from both lungs during unilateral radiation pneumonitis exhibited impaired generation of superoxide after phorbol myristate (only a 30% increase). Normal control alveolar macrophages increased superoxide production after stimulation greater than 400%. We conclude that unilateral lung irradiation in sheep causes a mild immediate response followed by radiation pneumonitis at 1 mo. Unilateral radiation pneumonitis in this model is associated with ipsilateral neutrophilic alveolitis, increased bronchoalveolar lavage protein, and impaired surfactant function, as well as bilateral functional abnormalities of alveolar macrophages.

  15. Varespladib inhibits secretory phospholipase A2 in bronchoalveolar lavage of different types of neonatal lung injury.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Daniele; Minucci, Angelo; Trias, Joaquim; Tripodi, Domenico; Conti, Giorgio; Zuppi, Cecilia; Capoluongo, Ettore

    2012-05-01

    Secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2), which links surfactant catabolism and lung inflammation, is associated with lung stiffness, surfactant dysfunction, and degree of respiratory support in acute respiratory distress syndrome and in some forms of neonatal lung injury. Varespladib potently inhibits sPLA2 in animal models. The authors investigate varespladib ex vivo efficacy in different forms of neonatal lung injury. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was obtained from 40 neonates affected by hyaline membrane disease, infections, or meconium aspiration and divided in 4 aliquots added with increasing varespladib or saline. sPLA2 activity, proteins, and albumin were measured. Dilution was corrected with the urea ratio. Varespladib was also tested in vitro against pancreatic sPLA2 mixed with different albumin concentration. Varespladib was able to inhibit sPLA2 in the types of neonatal lung injury investigated. sPLA2 activity was reduced in hyaline membrane disease (P < .0001), infections (P = .003), and meconium aspiration (P = .04) using 40 µM varespladib; 10 µM was able to lower enzyme activity (P = .001), with an IC(50) of 87 µM. An inverse relationship existed between protein level and activity reduction (r = 0.5; P = .029). The activity reduction/protein ratio tended to be higher in hyaline membrane disease. Varespladib efficacy was higher in vitro than in lavage fluids obtained from neonates (P < .001). PMID:21602519

  16. False-positive serum and bronchoalveolar lavage Aspergillus galactomannan assays caused by different antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Boonsarngsuk, Viboon; Niyompattama, Anuchit; Teosirimongkol, Chalermporn; Sriwanichrak, Kanchana

    2010-07-01

    Our objective was to identify false-positive serum and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid galactomannan (GM) tests caused by various antibiotics commonly used in general practice. Serum and BAL samples from patients who did not have the diagnostic criteria of invasive aspergillosis and received different antibiotics were prospectively analyzed for GM. Serum and BAL samples were also collected from patients who did not receive antibiotics. At the cut-off index of >or=0.5, false-positive serum results were found in patients who received amoxicillin-clavulanate, piperacillin-tazobactam, cefepime, and cefoperazone-sulbactam (26.7%, 58.3%, 14.3%, and 66.7%, respectively). Fungal colonization in BAL samples had a higher BAL GM than those without fungal colonization. In 71 patients who had a negative BAL culture for fungi, at the cut-off value of >or=1.0, false-positive BAL fluid results were found in patients who received amoxicillin-clavulanate (27.3%), piperacillin-tazobactam (50%), cefepime (16.7%), carbapenem (45.5%), and ceftriaxone (45.5%). False-positive serum and BAL GM assays were also detected in patients who did not receive any antibiotics. In summary, this study demonstrates the false-positive GM levels in serum and BAL caused by beta-lactam antibiotics that are commonly used in general practice. Physicians should be aware of this possible interference. PMID:20192889

  17. Evaluation of optimized bronchoalveolar lavage sampling designs for characterization of pulmonary drug distribution.

    PubMed

    Clewe, Oskar; Karlsson, Mats O; Simonsson, Ulrika S H

    2015-12-01

    Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is a pulmonary sampling technique for characterization of drug concentrations in epithelial lining fluid and alveolar cells. Two hypothetical drugs with different pulmonary distribution rates (fast and slow) were considered. An optimized BAL sampling design was generated assuming no previous information regarding the pulmonary distribution (rate and extent) and with a maximum of two samples per subject. Simulations were performed to evaluate the impact of the number of samples per subject (1 or 2) and the sample size on the relative bias and relative root mean square error of the parameter estimates (rate and extent of pulmonary distribution). The optimized BAL sampling design depends on a characterized plasma concentration time profile, a population plasma pharmacokinetic model, the limit of quantification (LOQ) of the BAL method and involves only two BAL sample time points, one early and one late. The early sample should be taken as early as possible, where concentrations in the BAL fluid ≥ LOQ. The second sample should be taken at a time point in the declining part of the plasma curve, where the plasma concentration is equivalent to the plasma concentration in the early sample. Using a previously described general pulmonary distribution model linked to a plasma population pharmacokinetic model, simulated data using the final BAL sampling design enabled characterization of both the rate and extent of pulmonary distribution. The optimized BAL sampling design enables characterization of both the rate and extent of the pulmonary distribution for both fast and slowly equilibrating drugs. PMID:26316105

  18. Accuracy of the Bronchoalveolar Lavage Enzyme-Linked Immunospot Assay for the Diagnosis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Caishuang; Wu, Yanqiu; Wan, Chun; Shen, Konglong; Hu, Yuzhu; Yang, Ting; Shen, Yongchun; Wen, Fuqiang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Assessing of local immune response may improve the accuracy of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) diagnosis. Many studies have investigated diagnosing PTB based on enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, but the results have been inconclusive. We meta-analyzed the available evidences on overall diagnostic performance of ELISPOT assay of BAL fluid for diagnosing PTB. A systematic literature search was performed using PubMed, Embase, Wangfang, Weipu, and CNKI. Data were pooled on sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (PLR), negative likelihood ratio (NLR), and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR). Overall test performance was summarized using summary receiver operating characteristic curves and the area under the curve (AUC). Deeks test was used to test for potential publication bias. Seven publications with 814 subjects met our inclusion criteria and were included in this meta-analysis. The following pooled estimates for diagnostic parameters were obtained: sensitivity, 0.90 (95% CI: 0.85–0.94); specificity, 0.80 (95% CI: 0.77–0.84); PLR, 5.08 (95% CI: 2.70–9.57); NLR, 0.13 (95% CI: 0.06–0.28); DOR, 49.12 (95% CI: 12.97–186.00); and AUC, 0.96. No publication bias was identified. The available evidence suggests that ELISPOT assay of BAL fluid is a useful rapid diagnostic test for PTB. The results of this assay should be interpreted in parallel with clinical findings and the results of conventional tests. PMID:27015211

  19. The lung at high altitude: bronchoalveolar lavage in acute mountain sickness and pulmonary edema.

    PubMed

    Schoene, R B; Swenson, E R; Pizzo, C J; Hackett, P H; Roach, R C; Mills, W J; Henderson, W R; Martin, T R

    1988-06-01

    High-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE), a severe form of altitude illness that can occur in young healthy individuals, is a noncardiogenic form of edema that is associated with high concentrations of proteins and cells in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid (Schoene et al., J. Am. Med. Assoc. 256: 63-69, 1986). We hypothesized that acute mountain sickness (AMS) in which gas exchange is impaired to a milder degree is a precursor to HAPE. We therefore performed BAL with 0.89% NaCl by fiberoptic bronchoscopy in eight subjects at 4,400 m (barometric pressure = 440 Torr) on Mt. McKinley to evaluate the cellular and biochemical responses of the lung at high altitude. The subjects included one healthy control (arterial O2 saturation = 83%), three climbers with HAPE (mean arterial O2 saturation = 55.0 +/- 5.0%), and four with AMS (arterial O2 saturation = 70.0 +/- 2.4%). Cell counts and differentials were done immediately on the BAL fluid, and the remainder was frozen for protein and biochemical analysis to be performed later. The results of this and of the earlier study mentioned above showed that the total leukocyte count (X10(5)/ml) in BAL fluid was 3.5 +/- 2.0 for HAPE, 0.9 +/- 4.0 for AMS, and 0.7 +/- 0.6 for controls, with predominantly alveolar macrophages in HAPE. The total protein concentration (mg/dl) was 616.0 +/- 3.3 for HAPE, 10.4 +/- 8.3 for AMS, and 12.0 +/- 3.4 for controls, with both large- (immunoglobulin M) and small- (albumin) molecular-weight proteins present in HAPE.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3403445

  20. Extracellular cadmium in the bronchoalveolar space of long-term tobacco smokers with and without COPD and its association with inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Sundblad, Britt-Marie; Ji, Jie; Levänen, Bettina; Midander, Klara; Julander, Anneli; Larsson, Kjell; Palmberg, Lena; Lindén, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco contains cadmium, and this metal has been attributed a causative role in pulmonary emphysema among smokers, although extracellular cadmium has not to date been quantified in the bronchoalveolar space of tobacco smokers with or without COPD. We determined whether cadmium is enhanced in the bronchoalveolar space of long-term tobacco smokers with or without COPD in vivo, its association with inflammation, and its effect on chemokine release in macrophage-like cells in vitro. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), sputum, and blood samples were collected from current, long-term smokers with and without COPD and from healthy nonsmokers. Cadmium concentrations were determined in cell-free BAL fluid using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Blood monocyte-derived macrophages were exposed to cadmium chloride in vitro. Depending upon the type of sample, molecular markers of inflammation were quantified either as protein (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) or as mRNA (real-time polymerase chain reaction). Cadmium concentrations were markedly increased in cell-free BAL fluid of smokers compared to that of nonsmokers (n=19–29; P<0.001), irrespective of COPD. In these smokers, the measured cadmium displayed positive correlations with macrophage TNF-α mRNA in BAL, neutrophil and CD8+ cell concentrations in blood, and finally with IL-6, IL-8, and MMP-9 protein in sputum (n=10–20; P<0.05). The cadmium chloride exposure caused a concentration-dependent increase in extracellular IL-8 protein in monocyte-derived macrophages in vitro. In conclusion, extracellular cadmium is enhanced in the bronchoalveolar space of long-term smokers and displays pro-inflammatory features. Its pathogenic role in tobacco-induced disease deserves further evaluation. PMID:27274222

  1. Identification of oxidized phospholipids in bronchoalveolar lavage exposed to low ozone levels using multivariate analysis

    PubMed Central

    Almstrand, Ann-Charlotte; Voelker, Dennis; Murphy, Robert C

    2015-01-01

    Chemical reactions with unsaturated phospholipids in the respiratory tract lining fluid have been identified as one of the first important steps in the mechanisms mediating environmental ozone toxicity. As a consequence of these reactions, complex mixtures of oxidized lipids are generated in the presence of mixtures of non-oxidized naturally occurring phospholipid molecular species, which challenge methods of analysis. Untargeted mass spectrometry and statistical methods were employed to approach these complex spectra. Human bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was exposed to low levels of ozone and samples, with and without derivatization of aldehydes, were analyzed by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Data processing was carried out using principal component analysis (PCA). Resulting PCA score plots indicated an ozone dose-dependent increase, with apparent separation between BAL samples exposed to 60 ppb ozone and non-exposed BAL samples, and a clear separation between ozonized samples before and after derivatization. Corresponding loadings plots revealed that more than 30 phosphatidylcholine (PC) species decreased due to ozonation. A total of 13 PC and 6 phosphatidylglycerol oxidation products were identified with the majority being structurally characterized as chain-shortened aldehyde products. This method exemplifies an approach for comprehensive detection of low abundance, yet important, components in complex lipid samples. PMID:25575758

  2. Exhaled 8-isoprostane in sarcoidosis: relation to superoxide anion production by bronchoalveolar lavage cells

    PubMed Central

    Kurmanowska, Zofia; Antczak, Adam; Marczak, Jerzy; Ciebiada, Maciej; Górski, Paweł

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study was designed to examine the mutual relationship between 8-isoprostane in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) and superoxide anion generation by bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cells in patients with sarcoidosis. Design About 29 patients with sarcoidosis, 34 healthy never smokers (control group for EBC) and 15 healthy never smokers (control group for BAL) were examined. EBC was collected directly before bronchoscopy. 8-Isoprostane was measured by ELISA, and superoxide anion by colorimetry. Results Exhaled breath condensate 8-isoprostane is increased in sarcoidosis (median, 25–75 percentile): 2.50; 2.50–3.90 versus 6.20; 2.50–16.95 pg/ml, p ≤ 0.05). Spontaneous superoxide anion release from BALF cells was significantly elevated only in patients with a high percentage of lymphocytes in BALF (6.42 ± 1.24 vs. 23.52 ± 4.30 nmol/106 cells, p ≤ 0.01). There were no correlations between 8-isoprostane and spontaneous or stimulated superoxide anion release. Conclusions We confirmed higher concentrations of EBC 8-isoprostane in sarcoidosis and higher spontaneous release of superoxide anion from BALF cells in patients with sarcoidosis. The increase of EBC 8-isoprostane is not directly related to superoxide anion released from BALF cells. PMID:20521080

  3. Cyanide in bronchoalveolar lavage is not diagnostic for Pseudomonas aeruginosa in children with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Stutz, M D; Gangell, C L; Berry, L J; Garratt, L W; Sheil, B; Sly, P D

    2011-03-01

    Early detection of the cyanobacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the lungs of young children with cystic fibrosis (CF) is considered the key to delaying chronic pulmonary disease. We investigated whether cyanide in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid could be used as an early diagnostic biomarker of infection. Cyanide was measured in 226 BAL samples (36 P. aeruginosa infected) obtained from 96 infants and young children with CF participating in an early surveillance programme involving annual BAL. Cyanide was detected in 97.2% of P. aeruginosa infected and 60.5% of uninfected samples. Cyanide concentrations were significantly higher in BALs infected with P. aeruginosa (median (25th-75th percentile) 27.3 (22.1-33.3) μM) than those which were not (17.2 (7.85-23.0) μM, p<0.001). The best sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were obtained with a cut-off concentration of 20.6 μM, and were 83%, 66%, 32% and 96%, respectively. Neutrophil number in BAL was a significant predictor of cyanide concentration (p<0.001). Cyanide concentration can distinguish between P. aeruginosa infected and uninfected BALs as a group, but not individually; therefore, cyanide is a poor diagnostic biomarker of P. aeruginosa infection. Cyanide levels in BAL are related to the level of neutrophilic inflammation. PMID:20562125

  4. Characterization of the mouse bronchoalveolar lavage proteome by micro-capillary LC–FTICR mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Pounds, Joel G.; Flora, Jason W.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Lee, Kyeonghee M.; Rana, Gaurav S.J.B.; Sengupta, Tapas; Smith, Richard D.; McKinney, Willie J.

    2008-03-15

    Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) contains proteins derived from various pulmonary cell types, secretions and blood. As the characterization of the BALF proteome will be instrumental in establishing potential biomarkers of pathophysiology in the lungs, the objective of this study was to contribute to the comprehensive collection of Mus musculus BALF proteins using high resolution and highly sensitive micro-capillary liquid chromatography (microLC) combined with state-of-the-art high resolution mass spectrometry (MS). BALF was collected from ICR and C57BL/6 male mice exposed to nose-only inhalation to either air or cigarette smoke. The tandem mass spectra were analyzed by SEQUEST for peptide identifications with the subsequent application of accurate mass and time tags resulting in the identification of 1797 peptides with high confidence by high resolution MS. These peptides covered 959 individual proteins constituting the largest collection of BALF proteins to date. High throughput monitoring profiles of this extensive collection of BALF proteins will facilitate the discovery and validation of biomarkers that would elucidate pathogenic or adaptive responses of the lungs upon toxic insults.

  5. Schistosoma mansoni larvicidal activity of murine bronchoalveolar lavage cells.

    PubMed

    Lewis, F A; White-Ziegler, C A; Ball, J E; Niemann, G M

    1990-12-01

    We have investigated the ability of cells obtained from both normal and immune mice by bronchoalveolar lavage (BACs) to kill Schistosoma mansoni larvae in vitro. In cultures with mechanically derived schistosomules, high levels of larvicidal activity were displayed by BACs from both normal and irradiated cercaria-immunized C57BL/6 mice. Based on effector-to-target-cell ratios, BAC-mediated killing was two- to threefold more efficient than killing mediated by macrophage-rich cell populations obtained from the peritoneal cavity. BACs from normal A/J mice were essentially as larvicidal as normal C57BL/6 cells. However, BACs from a strain of mouse (P/J) with a known macrophage defect possessed negligible larvicidal activity. Macrophages made up 85 to 95% of BACs from all three strains tested. In contrast to cells of the IC-21 macrophage cell line, B6 BACs did not show enhanced killing activity when preincubated with lymphokine-containing supernatants. Lung schistosomules harvested 10 days after cercarial penetration were refractory to BAC-mediated killing. PMID:2254018

  6. Schistosoma mansoni larvicidal activity of murine bronchoalveolar lavage cells.

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, F A; White-Ziegler, C A; Ball, J E; Niemann, G M

    1990-01-01

    We have investigated the ability of cells obtained from both normal and immune mice by bronchoalveolar lavage (BACs) to kill Schistosoma mansoni larvae in vitro. In cultures with mechanically derived schistosomules, high levels of larvicidal activity were displayed by BACs from both normal and irradiated cercaria-immunized C57BL/6 mice. Based on effector-to-target-cell ratios, BAC-mediated killing was two- to threefold more efficient than killing mediated by macrophage-rich cell populations obtained from the peritoneal cavity. BACs from normal A/J mice were essentially as larvicidal as normal C57BL/6 cells. However, BACs from a strain of mouse (P/J) with a known macrophage defect possessed negligible larvicidal activity. Macrophages made up 85 to 95% of BACs from all three strains tested. In contrast to cells of the IC-21 macrophage cell line, B6 BACs did not show enhanced killing activity when preincubated with lymphokine-containing supernatants. Lung schistosomules harvested 10 days after cercarial penetration were refractory to BAC-mediated killing. PMID:2254018

  7. Accurate quantification of cells recovered by bronchoalveolar lavage.

    PubMed

    Saltini, C; Hance, A J; Ferrans, V J; Basset, F; Bitterman, P B; Crystal, R G

    1984-10-01

    Quantification of the differential cell count and total number of cells recovered from the lower respiratory tract by bronchoalveolar lavage is a valuable technique for evaluating the alveolitis of patients with inflammatory disorders of the lower respiratory tract. The most commonly used technique for the evaluation of cells recovered by lavage has been to concentrate cells by centrifugation and then to determine total cell number using a hemocytometer and differential cell count from a Wright-Glemsa-stained cytocentrifuge preparation. However, we have noted that the percentage of small cells present in the original cell suspension recovered by lavage is greater than the percentage of lymphocytes identified on cytocentrifuge preparations. Therefore, we developed procedures for determining differential cell counts on lavage cells collected on Millipore filters and stained with hematoxylin-eosin (filter preparations) and compared the results of differential cell counts performed on filter preparations with those obtained using cytocentrifuge preparations. When cells recovered by lavage were collected on filter preparations, accurate differential cell counts were obtained, as confirmed by performing differential cell counts on cell mixtures of known composition, and by comparing differential cell counts obtained using filter preparations stained with hematoxylin-eosin with those obtained using filter preparations stained with a peroxidase cytochemical stain. The morphology of cells displayed on filter preparations was excellent, and interobserver variability in quantitating cell types recovered by lavage was less than 3%.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6385789

  8. Reactivity of bronchoalveolar space cells in lung asbestosis.

    PubMed

    Czarnobilska, E; Kopiński, P; Pituch-Noworolska, A; Chłap, Z

    1992-01-01

    Preliminary studies to evaluate lymphocyte subsets bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and blood were carried out in a group of patients with lung asbestosis. The assessments were made by an indirect immunofluorescent method using monoclonal antibodies as a marker. The results were recorded on a flow cytofluorometer FASC-can. As compared with a control group, the patients with lung asbestosis showed a slight decrease in the total level of T lymphocytes (CD3) in BAL, however with a clearly disturbed proportion between T-helper (CD4) and T-suppressor (CD8) lymphocytes, which led to a decreased CD4/CD8 ratio. The blood level of T lymphocytes and their subsets in these patients approximated that in the controls. Heavy smoking was also found to enhance disorders in their number and proportion. The assessment of B lymphocytes (by using polyclonal antihuman immunoglobulins (sIg/FITC) showed a significantly high level of these lymphocytes in BAL with simultaneously low levels in blood in the same patients with lung asbestosis. We did not find a clear synergic effect of cigarette smoking on the levels of B lymphocytes in the studied group. PMID:1296169

  9. Electron microscopic microanalysis of bronchoalveolar lavage: a way to identify exposure to silica and silicate dust.

    PubMed Central

    Monsó, E; Carreres, A; Tura, J M; Ruiz, J; Fiz, J; Xaus, C; Llatjós, M; Morera, J

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The diagnostic implications of finding non-fibrous inorganic particles in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid has not been fully assessed. The aim of this study has been to measure the silica and non-fibrous silicates in BAL fluid from populations with different exposures to inorganic dust, and to find whether such measurement is useful for diagnostic purposes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: BAL samples from 19 subjects with only environmental exposure to inorganic dust (group A, mean (SD) age 50.7 (15.2)), 23 subjects with normal chest x ray films exposed to silica or silicates at work (group B, mean (SD) age 52.0 (12.4)), and 15 subjects with a previous diagnosis of silicosis (group C, mean (SD) age 68.0 (6.5)) were studied. Absolute and relative cell counts were found, and the samples were prepared for microanalysis by electron microscopy (EM). Firstly, semiquantitative x ray microanalysis was performed to find the level of silicon (Si) (peak/background Si) and this was followed by microanalysis of individual particles by EM. Variables related to the level of Si detected were assessed with multivariate analysis. RESULTS: Detected levels were higher in group B (2.09, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.56 to 2.82) and C (1.50, 95% CI 1.07 to 2.12) than in group A (0.87, 95% CI 0.66 to 1.16) (P < 0.05, Dunett t test). A first multivariate analysis showed that exposure to silica or silicates was the only determinant of the level of Si expressed as log peak/background Si, when adjusted for age, sex, smoking habit, and cell count. A second multivariate analysis with microanalysis of individual particles as an independent variable showed the silica count to be the main predictor of detected concentration of Si. Silica and non-aluminium silicates together explain 55.5% (R2) of the variation in detected levels of Si. CONCLUSIONS: Detected levels of Si in BAL fluid depend on silica count and are higher in subjects with exposure to inorganic dust at work, but will not

  10. Impaired antipneumococcal activity of bronchoalveolar lining material of neonatal rats.

    PubMed Central

    Coonrod, J D; Jarrells, M C

    1989-01-01

    Pulmonary clearance of inhaled pneumococci is markedly impaired in neonatal rats compared with that in adult rats. To determine whether this impairment is due to a deficiency of extracellular bactericidal factors, the antipneumococcal activity of free fatty acids (FFA) in lung surfactant and the levels of lysozyme and transferrin in lavage fluids were quantified. Surfactant from adult rats averaged 68 U of antipneumococcal activity per g (dry weight) of lung, compared with less than 0.25 U for rats less than 1 week old (P less than 0.001). The kinds of FFA in surfactant of neonatal and adult rats were essentially identical, and the antipneumococcal activity of highly purified FFA from surfactant of neonatal and adult rats was also the same. However, the quantity of FFA in surfactant varied significantly with age, and rats less than 3 weeks old had much lower levels of surfactant FFA than did adults (P less than 0.001). In addition, lavage fluids from neonatal rats inhibited the antipneumococcal activity of surfactant FFA more than lavage fluids from adults did (P less than 0.02). This inhibitory activity did not appear to be due to protein binding. Lavage fluids from neonates showed an age-related deficiency of lysozyme (P less than 0.001), but lysozyme appeared to play no role in pneumococcal killing by the surfactant fraction of lavage fluids in vitro. Transferrin levels in lavage fluids were similar for neonates and adults. It was concluded that lung surfactant from neonatal rats was deficient in antipneumococcal activity, due mostly to low levels of FFA and to a lesser degree to increased levels of inhibitor(s) in lavage fluids. PMID:2912894

  11. Metabolomics of bronchoalveolar lavage differentiate healthy HIV-1-infected subjects from controls.

    PubMed

    Cribbs, Sushma K; Park, Youngja; Guidot, David M; Martin, Greg S; Brown, Lou Ann; Lennox, Jeffrey; Jones, Dean P

    2014-06-01

    Despite antiretroviral therapy, pneumonias from pathogens such as pneumococcus continue to cause significant morbidity and mortality in HIV-1-infected individuals. Respiratory infections occur despite high CD4 counts and low viral loads; therefore, better understanding of lung immunity and infection predictors is necessary. We tested whether metabolomics, an integrated biosystems approach to molecular fingerprinting, could differentiate such individual characteristics. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALf ) was collected from otherwise healthy HIV-1-infected individuals and healthy controls. A liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry method was used to detect metabolites in BALf. Statistical and bioinformatic analyses used false discovery rate (FDR) and orthogonally corrected partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) to identify groupwise discriminatory factors as the top 5% of metabolites contributing to 95% separation of HIV-1 and control. We enrolled 24 subjects with HIV-1 (median CD4=432) and 24 controls. A total of 115 accurate mass m/z features from C18 and AE analysis were significantly different between HIV-1 subjects and controls (FDR=0.05). Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed clusters of metabolites, which discriminated the samples according to HIV-1 status (FDR=0.05). Several of these did not match any metabolites in metabolomics databases; mass-to-charge 325.065 ([M+H](+)) was significantly higher (FDR=0.05) in the BAL of HIV-1-infected subjects and matched pyochelin, a siderophore-produced Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Metabolic profiles in BALf differentiated healthy HIV-1-infected subjects and controls. The lack of association with known human metabolites and inclusion of a match to a bacterial metabolite suggest that the differences could reflect the host's lung microbiome and/or be related to subclinical infection in HIV-1-infected patients. PMID:24417396

  12. Comparative proteomic analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage of familial and sporadic cases of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Carleo, A; Bargagli, E; Landi, C; Bennett, D; Bianchi, L; Gagliardi, A; Carnemolla, C; Perari, M G; Cillis, G; Armini, A; Bini, L; Rottoli, P

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic lung disease characterized by progressive deterioration of the alveolar integrity. Among IPF identified phenotypes, that of familial (f-)IPF is usually associated with several gene mutations which are seldom observed in sporadic (s-)IPF. This study aimed at investigating the molecular patterns and variability in f-IPF and s-IPF patients through a differential proteomic analysis. Protein patterns of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples from 10 familial and 17 sporadic IPF patients were compared using 2D electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to proteomic data and an enrichment analysis was also performed to characterize specific pathogenic mechanisms and to identify potential biomarkers. BALF samples from f-IPF showed 87 protein spots differentially expressed than those from s-IPF samples; once identified, these spots revealed 22 unique proteins. The functional analysis showed that the endothelial reticulum stress probably plays a central pathogenetic role in f-IPF with an up-regulation of proteins involved in wounding and immune responses, coagulation system, and ion homeostasis. Up-regulated proteins in the s-IPF group were those involved in the oxidative stress response. PCA analysis of differentially expressed proteins clearly distinguished f-IPF from s-IPF patients, and in agreement with radiological and histological patterns, pointed out a higher heterogeneity in f-IPF than s-IPF samples. The 'Slit/Robo signaling', 'clathrin-coated vesicle' and 'cytoskeleton remodelling', were extrapolated by 'pathways analysis' and the results of 'diseases (by biomarkers)' highlighted a 'connective tissue and autoimmune disease', two aspects of increasing interest in IPF. PMID:27082636

  13. FilmArray Respiratory Panel Assay: Comparison of Nasopharyngeal Swabs and Bronchoalveolar Lavage Samples

    PubMed Central

    Azadeh, Natalya; Sakata, Kenneth K.; Brighton, Anjuli M.; Vikram, Holenarasipur R.

    2015-01-01

    The FilmArray respiratory panel (FARP) reliably and rapidly identifies 17 viruses and 3 bacterial pathogens. A nasopharyngeal swab FARP (NP FARP) is performed for many patients with respiratory symptoms. For patients who are acutely ill or immunocompromised or fail to improve, a bronchoalveolar lavage sample FARP (BAL FARP) is performed in addition to the NP FARP. To date, no studies have compared the yield of a BAL FARP with that of an NP FARP. We retrospectively studied all patients who had a BAL FARP within 7 days after an NP FARP between June 2013 and May 2014. Demographic information, comorbidities, FARP results, and all microbiologic data from BAL fluid were collected. Eighty-six patients had a BAL FARP performed within 7 days (mean, 1.6; median, 1) after an NP FARP. Of these, 66 (77%) had concordant BAL and NP FARP results: 15 (23%) had the same pathogen identified from the NP and BAL FARPs, and 51 (77%) had concordant negative FARP results. In 18 of the 86 patients (21%), a pathogen was detected from the NP FARP; of these, 15 (83%) had a concordant match on a subsequent BAL FARP, and the remaining 3 had negative BAL FARPs. In 17 of the 86 patients (20%), pathogens were identified from the BAL FARPs that were not detected by the NP FARPs; of these, 16 (94%) had initial negative NP FARPs. The data suggest that once a pathogen is identified by an NP FARP, a subsequent BAL FARP is unlikely to add new microbiologic information. However, a BAL FARP may provide new, useful microbiologic information when performed within 7 days after a negative NP FARP. PMID:26378282

  14. Bronchoalveolar lavage and pulmonary histopathology in harp seals (Phoca groenlandica) experimentally infected with Otostrongylus circumlitus.

    PubMed

    Piché, Caroline; Measures, Lena; Bédard, Christian; Lair, Stéphane

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize pathologic changes associated with experimental infection of harp seals (Phoca groenlandica) with the lungworm Otostrongylus circumlitus (Metastrongyloidea: Crenosomatidae). The leukocyte differential cell count in samples obtained by unguided bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and the intensity of the histologic lesions in the lungs were assessed in seven harp seals experimentally exposed to 300 infective, third-stage O. circumlitus larvae. Seven unexposed harp seals were used as controls. First-stage larvae were observed in the feces of three of the seven exposed seals at 38, 42, and 45 days postexposure (dpe). Adult nematodes were found in the right primary bronchi of two of these three seals at necropsy 53 dpe. Fifty-six BALs were performed on the 14 seals. No statistical difference was observed between the exposed and control seals and among the four sampling times in percentage of neutrophils and macrophages in the BAL fluid. A significant difference was observed between the exposed and control seal groups in the percentage of eosinophils (P<0.0001), the count of eosinophils having increased by a factor of 70.4 in exposed seals. Significant statistical differences were observed between exposed and control seals in intensity of interstitial inflammation (P=0.001), bronchitis (P=0.02), bronchiolitis (P=0.04), alveolitis (P=0.03), and interstitial granulomatous inflammation (P=0.04). Our findings showed that harp seals are susceptible to infection with O. circumlitus. However, parasitic infections were transient and of low intensity, at least under our experimental conditions. PMID:20688634

  15. Bronchoalveolar lavage is an ideal tool in evaluation of local immune response of pigs vaccinated with Pasteurella multocida bacterin vaccine

    PubMed Central

    George, Shiney; Barman, Nagendra Nath; Nath, Anjan Jyoti; Sarma, Bhupen

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to study the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) technique in evaluating the local immune response of pig immunized with Pasteurella multocida bacterin vaccine. Materials and Methods: Weaned piglets were immunized with formalin-inactivated P52 strain of P. multocida bacterin and evaluated for pulmonary immune response in BAL fluid. BAL was performed before vaccination and at different post vaccination days. The BAL fluid was assayed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to study the development of P. multocida specific antibody isotypes and also evaluated for different cell populations using standard protocol. Results: The average recovery percentage of BAL fluid varies from 58.33 to 61.33 in vaccinated and control group of piglets. The BAL fluid of vaccinated pigs showed increase in antibody titer up to 60th days post vaccination (8.98±0.33), IgG being the predominant isotype reached maximum titer of 6.12±0.20 on 45th days post vaccination, followed by IgM and a meager concentration of IgA could be detected. An increased concentration of the lymphocyte population and induction of plasma cells was detected in the BAL fluid of vaccinated pigs. Conclusion: Though intranasal vaccination with P. multocida plain bacterin vaccine could not provoke a strong immune response, but is promising as lymphocyte population was increased and plasma cells were detected. BAL can be performed repeatedly up to 3/4 months of age in pigs to study pulmonary immune response without affecting their health. PMID:27047111

  16. Bronchoalveolar casting using formalin-fixed canine lungs and a low viscosity silicone rubber.

    PubMed

    Nettum, J A

    1993-06-01

    A method for creating tough, flexible, bronchoalveolar casts from formalin-fixed canine lung is described. A lung was washed using simple methods and fixed in 10% neutral-buffered formalin. While still wet with formalin, an intact lobe was injected with silicone sealant, Silastic 734 RTV (Room Temperature Vulcanizing), using a caulk gun. Following digestion with protease and corrosion with potassium hydroxide, a bronchoalveolar cast was recovered giving detail as shown using scanning electron microscopy or conveniently seen by stereo light microscopy. This method should be useful for micro-anatomy studies of normal and diseased lungs. PMID:8393308

  17. Species comparisons of bronchoalveolar lavages from guinea pigs and rats exposed in vivo to diesel exhaust for one year

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, S.; Weller, M.A.; Barnhart, M.I.

    1982-01-01

    Male Hartly guinea pigs and Fischer rats 344 were exposed to diesel exhaust (DE) concentrations at 0, 250, and 1500 micrograms/m3 in short terms, as well as long term experiments up to one year. The effects of inhaled DE on these rodents were evaluated using bronchoalveolar lavage technique. Both the morphological and functional studies of free lung cells and the biochemical and immunologic studies of the supernatant lavage fluid provided the basis for a quantitative species comparison of the pulmonary responses of exposed guinea pigs and rats versus age matched controls. Following inhalation of 250 micrograms DE/m3, there were little or no significant changes in either species. In contrast, at higher DE concentration, leukocytic infiltration and elevation of specific proteins in lavage fluids were observed in both species. The findings occurred and persisted in both species. Some of the responses were species specific (e.g., the specific type of exudative leukocytes, appearance of reactive monocytes, and different amounts of free DE particles and debris in the lavage fluid). Other responses were similar in both species. Among them, the emergence and increase of lymphocytes was evidence of immunologic responses. Biochemical data from the supernatant fluid correlates with the changes in cellular population in the lavage. The responses appear to be dose and duration dependent. These data indicate that species differences occur. However, it is clear that the alveolar macrophage and granulocytic leukocytes continue to exert effective defense at the DE dose-durations studied. In general, rats appeared more resistant to DE exposure than guinea pigs.

  18. Smoking status and anti-inflammatory macrophages in bronchoalveolar lavage and induced sputum in COPD

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Macrophages have been implicated in the pathogenesis of COPD. M1 and M2 macrophages constitute subpopulations displaying pro- and anti-inflammatory properties. We hypothesized that smoking cessation affects macrophage heterogeneity in the lung of patients with COPD. Our aim was to study macrophage heterogeneity using the M2-marker CD163 and selected pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and induced sputum from current smokers and ex-smokers with COPD. Methods 114 COPD patients (72 current smokers; 42 ex-smokers, median smoking cessation 3.5 years) were studied cross-sectionally and underwent sputum induction (M/F 99/15, age 62 ± 8 [mean ± SD] years, 42 (31-55) [median (range)] packyears, post-bronchodilator FEV1 63 ± 9% predicted, no steroids past 6 months). BAL was collected from 71 patients. CD163+ macrophages were quantified in BAL and sputum cytospins. Pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators were measured in BAL and sputum supernatants. Results Ex-smokers with COPD had a higher percentage, but lower number of CD163+ macrophages in BAL than current smokers (83.5% and 68.0%, p = 0.04; 5.6 and 20.1 ×104/ml, p = 0.001 respectively). The percentage CD163+ M2 macrophages was higher in BAL compared to sputum (74.0% and 30.3%, p < 0.001). BAL M-CSF levels were higher in smokers than ex-smokers (571 pg/ml and 150 pg/ml, p = 0.001) and correlated with the number of CD163+ BAL macrophages (Rs = 0.38, p = 0.003). No significant differences were found between smokers and ex-smokers in the levels of pro-inflammatory (IL-6 and IL-8), and anti-inflammatory (elafin, and Secretory Leukocyte Protease Inhibitor [SLPI]) mediators in BAL and sputum. Conclusions Our data suggest that smoking cessation partially changes the macrophage polarization in vivo in the periphery of the lung towards an anti-inflammatory phenotype, which is not accompanied by a decrease in inflammatory parameters. PMID:21426578

  19. Comparison of gallium-67 scanning, bronchoalveolar lavage, and serum angiotensin-converting enzyme levels in pulmonary sarcoidosis. Predicting response to therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Baughman, R.P.; Fernandez, M.; Bosken, C.H.; Mantil, J.; Hurtubise, P.

    1984-05-01

    Patients with active pulmonary sarcoidosis underwent bronchoalveolar lavage, gallium scan, and serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) level determination prior to treatment with corticosteroids. Pulmonary function was tested before and after therapy. Increase in vital capacity after treatment ranged from 40 to 1,030 ml; 12 of the 16 patients studied had an increase of more than 200 ml. There was a close correlation between the percentage uptake of gallium scan and the increase of the vital capacity after therapy (r . 0.95, p less than 0.01). There was no relationship between the percentage of lymphocytes obtained on lavage and the changes in vital capacity with therapy (r . 0.05). There was a positive correlation between the changes in vital capacity and the ratio of T4(+):T8(+)lymphocytes (r . 0.62, p less than 0.05) and number of T4 (+) lymphocytes (r . 0.92, p less than 0.01) in the bronchoalveolar fluid. There was a low correlation between the pretreatment ACE level and the change in vital capacity (r . 0.368, p greater than 0.05).

  20. Rapid detection of fungal pathogens in bronchoalveolar lavage samples using panfungal PCR combined with high resolution melting analysis.

    PubMed

    Bezdicek, Matej; Lengerova, Martina; Ricna, Dita; Weinbergerova, Barbora; Kocmanova, Iva; Volfova, Pavlina; Drgona, Lubos; Poczova, Miroslava; Mayer, Jiri; Racil, Zdenek

    2016-10-01

    Despite advances in the treatment of invasive fungal diseases (IFD), mortality rates remain high. Moreover, due to the expanding spectrum of causative agents, fast and accurate pathogen identification is necessary. We designed a panfungal polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which targets the highly variable ITS2 region of rDNA genes and uses high resolution melting analysis (HRM) for subsequent species identification. The sensitivity and specificity of this method was tested on a broad spectrum of the most clinically important fungal pathogens including Aspergillus spp., Candida spp. and mucormycetes. Despite the fact that fluid from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is one of the most frequently tested materials there is a lack of literature sources aimed at panfungal PCR as an IFD diagnostic tool from BAL samples. The applicability of this method in routine practice was evaluated on 104 BAL samples from immunocompromised patients. Due to high ITS region variability, we obtained divergent melting peaks for different fungal species. Thirteen out of 18 patients with proven or probable IFD were positive. Therefore, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of our method were 67%, 100%, 100%, and 94%, respectively. In our assay, fungal pathogens identification is based on HRM, therefore omitting the expensive and time consuming sequencing step. With the high specificity, positive and negative predictive values, short time needed to obtain a result, and low price, the presented assay is intended to be used as a quick screening method for patients at risk of IFD. PMID:27161789

  1. Long-Term Stability at −20°C of Aspergillus Galactomannan in Serum and Bronchoalveolar Lavage Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, M. Hong; Alexander, Barbara D.; Denning, David; Caliendo, Angela M.; Lyon, G. Marshall; Baden, Lindsey R.; Marty, Francisco M.; Clancy, Cornelius; Kirsch, Emily; Noth, Pamela; Witt, John; Sugrue, Michele; Wingard, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Research to develop and validate novel methods for diagnosis of aspergillosis based on detection of galactomannan requires the use of clinical specimens that have been stored frozen. Data indicating that galactomannan remains stable when frozen are scant. The objective of this study was to determine the stability of galactomannan in clinical specimens stored at −20°C that were positive in the Platelia Aspergillus enzyme immunoassay when initially tested. Prospective real-time testing of serum and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid pools from positive and negative patient specimens showed no decline in galactomannan index (GMI) over 11 months at −20°C and no development of positive reactions in the negative-control pool. Retrospective testing of positive specimens that had been stored at −20°C for 5 years showed that 28 of 30 serum (n = 15) or BAL (n = 15) specimens remained positive. These findings support the use of frozen serum or BAL specimens stored for at least 5 years in evaluation of diagnostic tests based on detection of galactomannan. PMID:24719449

  2. THE UTILITY OF BRONCHOALVEOLAR LAVAGE BETA-D-GLUCAN TESTING FOR THE DIAGNOSIS OF INVASIVE FUNGAL INFECTIONS

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Stacey R.; Vallabhajosyula, Saraschandra; Velez, Miguel G.; Fedorko, Daniel P.; VanRaden, Mark J.; Gea-Banacloche, Juan C.; Lionakis, Michail S.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Objectives To investigate the utility of beta-D-glucan (BDG) testing in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid for the diagnosis of invasive fungal infection (IFI), as compared to BAL galactomannan (GM). Methods We retrospectively reviewed medical records of 132 consecutive patients at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in whom BAL BDG testing was performed for diagnosis of pneumonia. Using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Mycoses Study Group guidelines, we determined which patients had proven or probable IFI, and assessed the diagnostic performance of BAL BDG testing, relative to BAL GM. We also determined the reproducibility of the BDG assay in BAL via repeat testing of patient samples. Results Ten patients had Pneumocystis pneumonia, and 34 patients had proven/probable IFI, including 14 with invasive aspergillosis (IA). BAL BDG was 100% sensitive for Pneumocystis. Although BAL BDG had similar sensitivity to BAL GM for the diagnosis of IA and IFI, it exhibited inferior specificity. Repeat testing demonstrated poor reproducibility of the BDG assay in BAL but not in serum. Conclusions BDG testing exhibits poor specificity and reproducibility in BAL. Identification of the BAL-specific factors that may interfere with the performance of the assay could improve the clinical usefulness of BAL BDG testing. PMID:24797077

  3. [Broncho-alveolar lavage. From technical aspects to standards of interpretation].

    PubMed

    Wallaert, B; De Vuyst, P; Israel-Biet, D

    1992-01-01

    Broncho-alveolar lavage is a simple investigation to carry out and enables the gathering of biological information such as inflammatory and immuno-competent cells, tumour cells, microorganisms as well as mineral particles which are found in the biological milieux present in the distal air spaces. The performance of LBA assumes a mastering of the correct technical aspects of this method of investigation, particularly in the phase of injecting and recovering of physiological saline and an understanding of the indications and contraindications of the technique. The interpretation of the information gathered by cytological, microbiological, mineralogical and biochemical study of the bronchoalveolar lavage liquid should comply with a strict set of rules and justifies a close working contact between the clinician and the biological scientist. PMID:1542750

  4. Detection of (1, 3)-β-D-glucan in bronchoalveolar lavage and serum samples collected from immunocompromised hosts.

    PubMed

    Theel, Elitza S; Jespersen, Deborah J; Iqbal, Seher; Bestrom, Jean E; Rollins, Leonard O; Misner, Lori J; Markley, Barbara J; Mandrekar, Jayawant; Baddour, Larry M; Limper, Andrew H; Wengenack, Nancy L; Binnicker, Matthew J

    2013-02-01

    The incidence of invasive fungal infections (IFI) has increased in recent years, especially among immunocompromised hosts (ICH). In 2003, the Fungitell(®) assay received FDA clearance for the presumptive diagnosis of IFI using serum and detects (1-3)-β-D-glucan, which is a major cell wall component of certain fungi (e.g., Candida, Aspergillus, and Pneumocystis). The goal of the current study was to assess the performance of the assay on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and serum to identify IFI in ICH. Patients were classified as having proven, probable, possible, or no IFI according to the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Mycoses Study Group (EORTC/MSG) guidelines. Among 109 patients for whom the results of Fungitell were compared to the EORTC/MSG criteria, Fungitell showed a low positive predictive value for the identification of IFI from both BAL (20.0%) and serum (26.7%). However, the negative predictive value of Fungitell was significantly higher for both sample types (BAL, 83.0%; serum, 84.8%). Interestingly, the results of Fungitell were positive in BAL and serum in 7/8 (87.5%) patients diagnosed with Pneumocystis pneumonia (PcP) by real-time, non-nested PCR. These data indicate that the Fungitell assay has a low positive predictive value for the diagnosis of IFI in ICH, regardless of the specimen type that is tested. However, testing of serum samples by Fungitell may permit a rapid and noninvasive initial screening approach in patients with presumed PcP. PMID:22945270

  5. Fluid imbalance

    MedlinePlus

    ... up in the body. This is called fluid overload (volume overload). This can lead to edema (excess fluid in ... Water imbalance; Fluid imbalance - dehydration; Fluid buildup; Fluid overload; Volume overload; Loss of fluids; Edema - fluid imbalance; ...

  6. Bronchoalveolar lavage, serum angiotensin-converting enzyme, and /sup 67/Ga scanning in extrathoracic sarcoidosis

    SciTech Connect

    Wallaert, B.; Ramon, P.; Fournier, E.; Tonnel, A.B.; Voisin, C.

    1982-11-01

    Results of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), 67Ga scanning, and serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (SACE) assay are compared in the assessment of pulmonary involvement in ten cases of extrathoracic sarcoidosis. Standard clinical, radiologic, and pulmonary function tests detected no pulmonary changes in these patients, but BAL demonstrated an increased alveolar lymphocytosis in eight of ten cases. SACE levels were increased in two cases, and the thoracic gallium uptake was normal in all cases. BAL appears to be the best technique for diagnosing latent pulmonary involvement in extrathoracic sarcoidosis.

  7. Bronchoalveolar lavage of cranial and caudal lung regions in selected normal calves: cellular, microbiological, immunoglobulin, serological and histological variables.

    PubMed Central

    Pringle, J K; Viel, L; Shewen, P E; Willoughby, R A; Martin, S W; Valli, V E

    1988-01-01

    Of a group of 30 clinically normal male Holstein calves two to eight weeks of age, six two week old and six four week old calves met various radiographical and clinicopathological criteria for normality. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed by fiberoptic bronchoscopy on cranial and caudal lung regions in all 30 calves and samples analyzed for free cells, microorganisms, and immunoglobulins. Lateral chest radiographs and lung biopsies were also conducted on each calf. Calves were euthanized and necropsied ten days after bronchoalveolar lavage was conducted. Reported in this paper are results from the 12 normal calves. Microorganisms were present in small numbers in the lower respiratory tract of some normal calves. There were no differences in the above parameters between cranial and caudal lobes. There were statistically significant changes in bronchoalveolar lavage cell proportions with age although there were no detectable differences in clinical signs. Four week old calves had a lower percentage of macrophages and a higher percentage of epithelial cells than two week old animals (p less than 0.05). There was also a trend toward an increased percentage of neutrophils in older calves but this was not significant (p greater than 0.05). Total bronchoalveolar lavage protein also appeared to increase with age (p less than 0.05). In both groups a higher proportion of IgG2 in bronchoalveolar lavage compared to serum was found, suggesting the presence of a local selective transfer mechanism into respiratory secretions. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:3370559

  8. Inflammatory and immune processes in the human lung in health and disease: evaluation by bronchoalveolar lavage.

    PubMed Central

    Hunninghake, G. W.; Gadek, J. E.; Kawanami, O.; Ferrans, V. J.; Crystal, R. G.

    1979-01-01

    Bronchoalveolar lavage is an invaluable means of accurately evaluating the inflammatory and immune processes of the human lung. Although lavage recovers only those cells and proteins present on the epithelial surface of the lower respiratory tract, comparison with open lung biopsies shows that these constituents are representative of the inflammatory and immune systems of the alveolar structures. With the use of these techniques, sufficient materials are obtained from normal individuals to allow characterization of not only the types of cells and proteins present but their functions as well. Such observations have been useful in defining the inflammatory and immune capabilities of the normal lung and provide a basis for the study of lung disease. Lavage methods have been used to characterize inflammatory and immune processes of the lower respiratory tract in destructive, infectious, neoplastic, and interstitial disorders. From the data already acquired, it is apparent that bronchoalveolar lavage will yield major insights into the pathogenesis, staging, and therapy decisions involved in these disorders. (Am J Pathol 97:149--206, 1979). Images Figure 9 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 10 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 3 PMID:495693

  9. Safety and efficacy of bronchoalveolar lavage using a laryngeal mask airway in cases of acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure with diffuse lung infiltrates.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Takafumi; Sato, Yoko; Fukuda, Satoshi; Katayama, Shinshu; Miyazaki, Yuya; Ozaki, Makoto; Kotani, Toru

    2015-01-01

    Objective Fibre-optic bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (FOB-BAL) is an important tool for diagnosing and selecting treatment for acutely hypoxaemic patients with diffuse lung infiltrates. However, FOB-BAL carries a risk of significant hypoxaemia and subsequent tracheal intubation during and after the procedure. The application of FOB-BAL using a laryngeal mask airway (LMA) in combination with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) may minimize the incidence of hypoxaemia; however, the safety and efficacy of this procedure have not been investigated. Methods A retrospective chart review was performed from April to September 2013. Data regarding the recovered volume of BAL fluid, incidence of tracheal intubation within eight hours after the completion of FOB-BAL, respiratory and haemodynamic parameters and treatment modifications were collected for the evaluation. Results Ten trials of FOB-BAL using an LMA and CPAP were performed in nine patients with severe acute hypoxaemia associated with diffuse lung infiltrates. The BAL fluid recovery rate was 56%, and the procedure was completed without subsequent complications. In addition, the percutaneous arterial oxygen saturation decreased to 95.7%±3.8%, although it was never lower than 90.0% during the procedure, and no patients required intubation. Furthermore, the arterial blood pressure significantly but transiently decreased due to sedation, and the procedure yielded diagnostic information in all nine patients. Conclusion FOB-BAL using LMA and CPAP appears to be safe and effective in patients who develop severe acute hypoxaemia. PMID:25832933

  10. [A case of summer-type hypersensitivity pneumonitis with bronchoalveolar lavage performed 4 years before onset].

    PubMed

    Saijo, A; Sugiyama, Y; Sugama, Y; Kitamura, S

    1990-08-01

    A 51-year-old man with chief complaints of cough, fever, and dyspnea was admitted to our hospital. Based on a home provocation test, transbronchial lung biopsy specimens, and a serum antibody, we diagnosed summer-type hypersensitivity pneumonitis. In 1983 when the patient was 46 years old, thymectomy was performed for thymoma. Prior to surgery, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed. Total cell count and neutrophils had already increased in BALF. Furthermore, the increase in BALF cell neutrophil count was also seen at the time of admission and after the home provocation test. Because an increase of neutrophils in BALF cells was seen not only at onset but before onset, further studies are required to clarify the role of neutrophils and the factors that increase them in hypersensitivity pneumonitis. PMID:2243464

  11. PREDICTING INTERMEDIATE PHENOTYPES IN ASTHMA USING BRONCHOALVEOLAR LAVAGE-DERIVED CYTOKINES

    PubMed Central

    Brasier, Allan R.; Victor, Sundar; Ju, Hyunsu; Busse, William W.; Curran-Everett, Douglas; Bleecker, Eugene; Castro, Mario; Chung, Kian Fan; Gaston, Benjamin; Israel, Elliot; Wenzel, Sally E.; Erzurum, Serpil C.; Jarjour, Nizar N.; Calhoun, William J.

    2011-01-01

    An important problem in realizing personalized medicine is the development of methods for identifying disease subtypes using quantitative proteomics. Recently we found that bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cytokine patterns contain information about dynamic lung responsiveness. In this study, we examined physiological data from 1048 subjects enrolled in the US Severe Asthma Research Program (SARP) to identify four largely separable, quantitative intermediate phenotypes. Upper extremes in the study population were identified for eosinophil- or neutrophil- predominant inflammation, bronchodilation in response to albuterol treatment, or methacholine sensitivity. We evaluated four different statistical (“machine”) learning methods to predict each intermediate phenotypes using BAL cytokine measurements on a 76 subject subset. Comparison of these models using area under the ROC curve and overall classification accuracy indicated that logistic regression and multivariate adaptive regression splines produced the most accurate methods to predict intermediate asthma phenotypes. These robust classification methods will aid future translational studies in asthma targeted at specific intermediate phenotypes. PMID:20718815

  12. A protracted course of Pneumocystis pneumonia in the setting of an immunosuppressed child with GMS-negative bronchoalveolar lavage

    PubMed Central

    Eddens, Taylor; Song, Eunkyung; Ardura, Monica I.; Kolls, Jay K.

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of Pneumocystis pneumonia in a 5-year-old male with Trisomy 21 and acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The lack of response to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole raised concerns for antimicrobial resistance. Further, diagnosis of Pneumocystis in this patient was complicated by a GMS-negative bronchoalveolar lavage despite molecular evidence of Pneumocystis infection. PMID:27182485

  13. Analysis of activated immune cell populations in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of pigs immunized and/or infected with SIV

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Swine influenza, caused by influenza A virus (SIV), is described as an acute respiratory disease with a high morbidity in pigs. Killed vaccines that contain both H1N1 and H3N2 subtypes are available commercially; however, due to recently emerging novel subtypes and genetic/antigenic variants, effec...

  14. Analysis of Lung Microbiota in Bronchoalveolar Lavage, Protected Brush and Sputum Samples from Subjects with Mild-To-Moderate Cystic Fibrosis Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, Deborah A.; Willger, Sven D.; Dolben, Emily L.; Hampton, Thomas H.; Stanton, Bruce A.; Morrison, Hilary G.; Sogin, Mitchell L.; Czum, Julianna; Ashare, Alix

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF) often acquire chronic lung infections that lead to irreversible damage. We sought to examine regional variation in the microbial communities in the lungs of individuals with mild-to-moderate CF lung disease, to examine the relationship between the local microbiota and local damage, and to determine the relationships between microbiota in samples taken directly from the lung and the microbiota in spontaneously expectorated sputum. In this initial study, nine stable, adult CF patients with an FEV1>50% underwent regional sampling of different lobes of the right lung by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and protected brush (PB) sampling of mucus plugs. Sputum samples were obtained from six of the nine subjects immediately prior to the procedure. Microbial community analysis was performed on DNA extracted from these samples and the extent of damage in each lobe was quantified from a recent CT scan. The extent of damage observed in regions of the right lung did not correlate with specific microbial genera, levels of community diversity or composition, or bacterial genome copies per ml of BAL fluid. In all subjects, BAL fluid from different regions of the lung contained similar microbial communities. In eight out of nine subjects, PB samples from different regions of the lung were also similar in microbial community composition, and were similar to microbial communities in BAL fluid from the same lobe. Microbial communities in PB samples were more diverse than those in BAL samples, suggesting enrichment of some taxa in mucus plugs. To our knowledge, this study is the first to examine the microbiota in different regions of the CF lung in clinically stable individuals with mild-to-moderate CF-related lung disease. PMID:26943329

  15. Detection of a Molecular Biomarker for Zygomycetes by Quantitative PCR Assays of Plasma, Bronchoalveolar Lavage, and Lung Tissue in a Rabbit Model of Experimental Pulmonary Zygomycosis▿

    PubMed Central

    Kasai, Miki; Harrington, Susan M.; Francesconi, Andrea; Petraitis, Vidmantas; Petraitiene, Ruta; Beveridge, Mara G.; Knudsen, Tena; Milanovich, Jeffery; Cotton, Margaret P.; Hughes, Johanna; Schaufele, Robert L.; Sein, Tin; Bacher, John; Murray, Patrick R.; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P.; Walsh, Thomas J.

    2008-01-01

    We developed two real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays, targeting the 28S rRNA gene, for the diagnosis of zygomycosis caused by the most common, clinically significant Zygomycetes. The amplicons of the first qPCR assay (qPCR-1) from Rhizopus, Mucor, and Rhizomucor species were distinguished through melt curve analysis. The second qPCR assay (qPCR-2) detected Cunninghamella species using a different primer/probe set. For both assays, the analytic sensitivity for the detection of hyphal elements from germinating sporangiospores in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and lung tissue homogenates from rabbits was 1 to 10 sporangiospores/ml. Four unique and clinically applicable models of invasive pulmonary zygomycosis served as surrogates of human infections, facilitating the validation of these assays for potential diagnostic utility. For qPCR-1, 5 of 98 infarcted lung specimens were positive by qPCR and negative by quantitative culture (qCx). None were qCx positive only. Among 23 BAL fluid samples, all were positive by qPCR, while 22 were positive by qCx. qPCR-1 detected Rhizopus and Mucor DNA in 20 (39%) of 51 serial plasma samples as early as day 1 postinoculation. Similar properties were observed for qPCR-2, which showed greater sensitivity than qCx for BAL fluid (100% versus 67%; P = 0.04; n = 15). The assay detected Cunninghamella DNA in 18 (58%) of 31 serial plasma samples as early as day 1 postinoculation. These qPCR assays are sensitive and specific for the detection of Rhizopus, Mucor, Rhizomucor, and Cunninghamella species and can be used for the study and detection of infections caused by these life-threatening pathogens. PMID:18845827

  16. Bronchoalveolar lavage cellular analyses in conjunction with high-resolution computed tomography imaging as a diagnostic intervention for patients with suspected interstitial lung disease

    PubMed Central

    Chockalingam, Ammaiyappan; Duraiswamy, Ranganathan; Jagadeesan, Madhavan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) has gained acceptance for diagnosis of Interstitial lung disease (ILD). The advent of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) has reduced the clinical utility of BAL. This work has utilized the recommendations of the American Thoracic Society (ATS) to optimize BAL and the findings have been associated with clinical examination and HRCT to precisely narrow down the cause of ILD. Materials and Methods: BAL was performed on ILD suspects at the target site chosen based on HRCT. The procedure, transport, processing, and analysis of BAL fluid were performed as per the ATS guidelines. The clinical data, HRCT findings and BAL report were used to narrow down the diagnosis of ILD. The statistical analysis was performed to assess the significance. Results: The BAL procedure was optimized as per the recommendations of the ATS. In a cohort of 50 patients, Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, (8) hypersensitivity pneumonitis, (17) connective tissue disorder, (9) sarcoidosis, (3) pneumoconiosis, (5) acute respiratory distress syndrome, (2) eosinophilic lung disease (2) and lymphangitic carcinomatosa, (2) aspiration bronchiolitis (1) and pulmonary histiocytosis (1) were diagnosed. Statistically significant variation in differential counts was found in different ILDs. The different ILDs were classified based on the criteria described by the ATS. Clinical Significance: BAL along with clinical and HRCT findings improved the diagnostic accuracy by incorporating, the acute or chronic nature of the disease and the cause for acute exacerbation, which helped in the better management of ILDs. PMID:27185993

  17. Normal human alveolar macrophages obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage have a limited capacity to release interleukin-1.

    PubMed Central

    Wewers, M D; Rennard, S I; Hance, A J; Bitterman, P B; Crystal, R G

    1984-01-01

    Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is a mediator released by stimulated mononuclear phagocytes that is thought to play an important role in modulating T and B lymphocyte activation as well as in contributing to the febrile response and other inflammatory processes. Circulating mononuclear phagocytes, blood monocytes, readily release IL-1 when stimulated. However, the ability of lung mononuclear phagocytes, alveolar macrophages, to dispose of the large daily burden of inhaled antigens without stimulating an inflammatory response suggests that the release of IL-1 by alveolar macrophages may differ significantly from that of blood monocytes. To evaluate this hypothesis, normal autologous alveolar macrophages, obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage, were compared with blood monocytes for their ability to release IL-1 in response to a standard stimulus, lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Alveolar macrophages were found to be at least 1,000 times less sensitive to LPS than blood monocytes. Furthermore, alveolar macrophages released significantly less IL-1 than blood monocytes (26 +/- 11 vs. 128 +/- 21 U/10(6) cells X 24 h, respectively, after stimulation with 10 micrograms/ml of LPS, P less than 0.001). This difference was not due to the release of substances by macrophages, which inhibited lymphocyte proliferation in response to IL-1, or to degradation of IL-1 by macrophages. Culturing macrophages in the presence of indomethacin and dialysis of macrophage supernatants did not affect the difference, and culturing macrophages with monocytes did not decrease detectable IL-1 activity from the monocytes. The IL-1 produced by the two cell types was indistinguishable by anion-exchange chromatography, gel filtration, and isoelectric focusing. In addition, consistent with the findings for alveolar macrophages, macrophages generated by the in vitro maturation of blood monocytes were also deficient in their ability to release IL-1. These findings suggest that if the population of alveolar macrophages

  18. Clinical Utility of Bronchoalveolar Lavage Pepsin in Diagnosis of Gastroesophageal Reflux among Wheezy Infants.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, Ahmed Fathi; El-Desoky, Tarek; Fathi, Khalid; Elkashef, Wagdy Fawzi; Zaki, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Background. There is no gold standard test for diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) associated infantile wheezing. Objectives. To evaluate the value of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) pepsin assay in diagnosis of GERD in wheezy infants. Methods. Fifty-two wheezy infants were evaluated for GERD using esophageal combined impedance-pH (MII-pH) monitoring, esophagogastroduodenoscopy with esophageal biopsies, and BAL pepsin. Tracheobronchial aspirates from 10 healthy infants planned for surgery without history of respiratory problems were examined for pepsin. Results. Wheezy infants with silent reflux and wheezy infants with typical GERD symptoms but normal MII-pH had significantly higher BAL pepsin compared to healthy control (45.3 ± 8.6 and 42.8 ± 8 versus 29 ± 2.6, P < 0.0001 and P = 0.011, resp.). BAL pepsin had sensitivity (61.7%, 72 %, and 70%) and specificity (55.5%, 52.9%, and 53%) to diagnose GERD associated infantile wheeze compared to abnormal MII-pH, reflux esophagitis, and lipid laden macrophage index, respectively. Conclusion. A stepwise approach for assessment of GERD in wheezy infants is advised. In those with silent reflux, a trial of antireflux therapy is warranted with no need for further pepsin assay. But when combined MII-pH is negative despite the presence of typical GERD symptoms, pepsin assay will be needed to rule out GERD related aspiration. PMID:27516725

  19. Bronchoalveolar lavage study in victims of toxic gas leak at Bhopal.

    PubMed

    Vijayan, V K; Pandey, V P; Sankaran, K; Mehrotra, Y; Darbari, B S; Misra, N P

    1989-12-01

    Bronchoalveolar lavage using flexible fibreoptic bronchoscope was carried out in 50 patients 1-2 1/2 yr after exposure to the 'toxic gas' at Bhopal. Thirty six patients in the analysis were categorised into 3 groups (viz., mild, moderate and severe), depending upon the severity of exposure. There was an increase in cellularity in the lower respiratory tract (alveolitis) of the severely exposed patients (in both smokers and non-smokers), compared to normals (P less than 0.05). The increase in cellularity in severely exposed non-smokers was due to abnormal accumulation of macrophages (P less than 0.01), and in severely exposed smokers, to macrophages (P less than 0.01) and neutrophils (P less than 0.05). Mild and moderately exposed patients did not show significant change in cellularity in lower respiratory tract, compared to normal individuals (P greater than 0.2). There was a trend towards increasing cellularity, as the severity increased (P less than 0.0001) and higher numbers of total cells were seen in severely exposed smokers, suggesting that smoking is a risk factor. It appears, therefore, that subjects severely exposed to the toxic gas at Bhopal may have a subclinical alveolitis characterised by accumulation and possibly activation of macrophages in the lower respiratory tract. Smokers, who were exposed to the gas had in addition, accumulation of neutrophils. PMID:2628309

  20. A natural herbal remedy modulates angiogenic activity of bronchoalveolar lavage cells from sarcoidosis patients

    PubMed Central

    Radomska-Leśniewska, Dorota M.; Skopińska-Różewska, Ewa; Demkow, Urszula; Jóźwiak, Jarosław; Sobiecka, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic inflammatory disease with abnormally high angiogenic activity of inflammatory cells. Reumaherb preparation consisting of three herbs: Echinacea purpurea, Harpagophytum procumbens, and Filipendula ulmaria, and it exerts anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and analgesic activity and stimulates regenerative and immunological processes. The aim of this paper was to estimate the effect of Reumaherb on immunological angiogenesis induced by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells collected from six patients with sarcoidosis and grafted into Balb/c mice skin. After grafting, the animals were fed for three days with 0.6 or 1.2 mg of Reumaherb (calculated from recommended human daily dose) daily, suspended in 40 µl of water, or 40 µl of water alone (control group). A significant reduction of newly formed blood vessels was obtained in four cases for 1.2 mg and in three cases for 0.6 mg daily dose of this remedy. Thus, we hypothesise that Reumaherb promotes anti-angiogenic activity and may potentially be used in diseases associated with excessive blood vessel formation. PMID:27095919

  1. Biomarkers of inflammation in ozone-exposed humans: Comparison of the nasal and bronchoalveolar lavage

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, D.E.; Koren, H.S.

    1989-06-01

    An influx of neutrophils (PMNs), a primary feature of acute inflammation, has been associated with the development of lower lung disorders, such as emphysema and idiopathic fibrosis, as well as airway hyperreactivity and increased mucus secretion. It was previously established that an acute inflammatory response in the upper respiratory tract of humans could be studied by analysis of nasal lavages (NL), which is inexpensive, non-invasive, and atraumatic. However, the relationship of the cellular changes in the upper respiratory tract to changes in the lower airways has not been thoroughly investigated in humans. Here the cellular changes detected in the NL with those detected in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) taken from the same individual have been compared. Ten subjects were exposed to either filtered air or 0.4 ppm ozone (O3), with exercise, for 2 hrs. The NL was done prior to, immediately following an 18 hr post exposure, while the BAL was done only at 18 hr post exposure. A significant increase in PMNs was detected in the NL immediately post exposure to 03, (7.7-fold increase; p=.003), and remained elevated in the 18 hr post-03 NL (6.1-fold increase; p<.001).

  2. [Microbiological results of bronchoalveolar lavage that was performed for opportunistic pulmonary infections].

    PubMed

    Gülcü, Aylin; Sevinç, Can; Esen, Nuran; Kilinç, Oğuz; Uçan, Eyüp Sabri; Itil, Oya; Cimrin, Arif Hikmet; Kömüs, Nuray; Sener, Gülper; Akkoçlu, Atila; Gülay, Zeynep; Yücesoy, Mine

    2006-01-01

    Between 2001-2002; in 62 cases, 33 (53%) male, 29 (47%) female, mean age 51.4 +/- 18.1 years) bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed for diagnosis of opportunistic pulmonary infection and specimens were evaluated for results of microbiological examinations. There was hematological malignancy in 18 (29%) and solid organ malignancy in 13 (21%) cases. Thirty-one (50%) cases were immunocompromised for reasons other than malignancy. By endoscopic evaluation endobronchial lesion was seen in 2 (3%) cases, indirect tumor signs were seen in 2 (3%) cases and signs of infection were seen in 11 (18%) cases. Forty-even (76%) cases were endoscopically normal. Acid-fast bacilli (AFB) direct examination was positive in 3 (5%) cases. In 4 (6%) cases mycobacterial culture was positive, Mycobacterium tuberculosis-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was also positive in these four cases. Examination of gram-stained smears for bacteria was associated with infection in 14 (23%) cases. Bacteriologic cultures were positive for single potential pathogen in 10 (16%) cases, and for mixed pathogens in 7 (11%) cases for a total number of 17 (27%). Fungal cultures were positive in 3 (5%) cases all of which had hematological malignancy. As a result in 24 (39%) cases microbiological agent of infection is determined: in four mycobacteria, in 17 bacteria other than mycobacteria and in three fungi. PMID:17001542

  3. Bronchoalveolar lavage cell analysis and lung function impairment in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).

    PubMed Central

    Groen, H; Aslander, M; Bootsma, H; van der Mark, T W; Kallenberg, C G; Postma, D S

    1993-01-01

    We examined the relationship between peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) lymphocyte phenotypes and lung function in 19 patients with SLE, and evaluated their association with disease activity. Lung function assessment showed a mildly restrictive pattern with frequent impairment of transfer factor for carbon monoxide (T1,co) and diffusing capacity of the alveolocapillary membrane (Dm), of late-expiratory airflow rates and with a high prevalence of increased airway resistance. T1,co, Kco and Dm correlated inversely with the numbers of CD8+ cells and CD56+/CD16+/CD3- (NK) cells in BAL. Oxygen radical production, both by stimulated and unstimulated BAL cells and blood polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN) was significantly increased in SLE. In comparison with healthy controls, patients with SLE had a lower percentage of CD19+ B cells in the BAL versus an increased percentage of these cells in peripheral blood. HLA-DR expression on CD4+ and CD8+ lung lymphocytes was markedly increased in SLE. Current SLE disease activity was not associated with changes in BAL or peripheral blood lymphocyte phenotypes. Our data suggest that an ongoing cell-mediated immune response is present in the lungs in SLE, particularly involving activated CD8+ T cells and CD56+/CD16+/CD3- NK cells. It is associated with up-regulated local production of oxygen radicals and with impaired pulmonary diffusing capacity. This inflammatory process seems to be independent of general SLE disease activity. PMID:8403494

  4. Clinical Utility of Bronchoalveolar Lavage Pepsin in Diagnosis of Gastroesophageal Reflux among Wheezy Infants

    PubMed Central

    Abdallah, Ahmed Fathi; El-Desoky, Tarek; Fathi, Khalid; Elkashef, Wagdy Fawzi

    2016-01-01

    Background. There is no gold standard test for diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) associated infantile wheezing. Objectives. To evaluate the value of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) pepsin assay in diagnosis of GERD in wheezy infants. Methods. Fifty-two wheezy infants were evaluated for GERD using esophageal combined impedance-pH (MII-pH) monitoring, esophagogastroduodenoscopy with esophageal biopsies, and BAL pepsin. Tracheobronchial aspirates from 10 healthy infants planned for surgery without history of respiratory problems were examined for pepsin. Results. Wheezy infants with silent reflux and wheezy infants with typical GERD symptoms but normal MII-pH had significantly higher BAL pepsin compared to healthy control (45.3 ± 8.6 and 42.8 ± 8 versus 29 ± 2.6, P < 0.0001 and P = 0.011, resp.). BAL pepsin had sensitivity (61.7%, 72 %, and 70%) and specificity (55.5%, 52.9%, and 53%) to diagnose GERD associated infantile wheeze compared to abnormal MII-pH, reflux esophagitis, and lipid laden macrophage index, respectively. Conclusion. A stepwise approach for assessment of GERD in wheezy infants is advised. In those with silent reflux, a trial of antireflux therapy is warranted with no need for further pepsin assay. But when combined MII-pH is negative despite the presence of typical GERD symptoms, pepsin assay will be needed to rule out GERD related aspiration. PMID:27516725

  5. Flow Cytometry Increases the Sensitivity of Detection of Leukemia and Lymphoma Cells in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Song, Joo Y.; Filie, Armando C.; Venzon, David; tevenson, Maryalice Stetler-S; Yuan, Constance M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent studies have definitively determined that Flow Cytometry (FC) is significantly more sensitive than cytomorphology (CM) in detection of hematolymphoid neoplasms (HLN). However, its utility in paucicellular bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens has not been established. Methods FC was performed on BAL specimens submitted from 44 patients with a prior diagnosis of HLN. Panels chosen were based upon cellularity of specimen and patient history. FC results were compared with concurrent CM evaluations. Results All 44 BALs were deemed satisfactory for FC and yielded informative results that assisted in diagnosis. Diagnoses included 22/44 B-cell neoplasms, 16/44 T-cell neoplasms, 4/44 myeloid neoplasms, and 2/44 plasma cell neoplasms. Overall concordance was demonstrated between FC and CM in 77% (34/44) of cases. In 9/44 cases (20%), one technique (FC or CM) clearly detected malignant cells when the other did not. FC was more sensitive than CM in detecting a HLN in 8/9 discordant cases. In only one case (1/44, 2%) were malignant HLN cells suspected by CM, but not identified by FC (1/44, 2%). Conclusion We demonstrate, in the largest series published to date, that FC can be performed on BAL specimens. FC is indicated in evaluation of BAL for HLN and improves sensitivity of detection of HLN over CM alone. An integrated FC and CM approach is superior to either technique alone in diagnostic evaluation of BAL. PMID:22837143

  6. Detection of Aspergillus species DNA in bronchoalveolar lavage samples by competitive PCR.

    PubMed Central

    Bretagne, S; Costa, J M; Marmorat-Khuong, A; Poron, F; Cordonnier, C; Vidaud, M; Fleury-Feith, J

    1995-01-01

    A competitive PCR assay involving the use of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples for the diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) was developed. For this purpose, a 1-kb mitochondrial DNA fragment of Aspergillus fumigatus was sequenced. The primers used allowed amplification of A. fumigatus, A. flavus, A. terreus, and A. niger DNAs but not DNAs of other fungi and yeasts. BAL samples from 55 consecutively enrolled patients were tested. Three samples were excluded because of failure of correct amplification of the internal competitive control. Of 28 immunocompromised patients, 6 were PCR positive; 3 died of IPA and their BAL cultures yielded A. fumigatus; and 3 were culture negative and did not develop IPA. Of 15 human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients and 9 immunocompetent patients, 5 and 4, respectively, were both PCR positive and culture negative, and none developed aspergillosis. Thus, PCR confirmed IPA in three patients but gave positive results for 25% (12 of 49) of the patients who did not develop aspergillosis. The predictive value of PCR-positive results seems low for patients at risk for aspergillosis. Moreover, the risk of contamination of reaction buffers or biological samples with Aspergillus conidia seems high and has to be weighed in regard to the potential diagnostic benefit of PCR testing as a routine procedure. PMID:7615723

  7. Effect of ozone exposure and infection on bronchoalveolar lavage: Sex differences in response patterns.

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Xiaozhuang; Umstead, Todd M.; Haque, Rizwanul; Wang, Guirong; Floros, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Female mice exhibit a better survival rate than males after infection, but if infection follows an ozone-induced oxidative stress, male survival exceeds that of females. Our goal was to study bronchoalveolar lavage factors that contribute to these sex differences in outcome. We studied parameters at 4, 24, and 48 hours after ozone exposure and infection, including markers of inflammation, oxidative stress, and tissue damage, and surfactant phospholipids and surfactant protein A (SP-A). A multianalyte immunoassay at the 4 hr time point measured 59 different cytokines, chemokines, and other proteins. We found that: 1) Although some parameters studied revealed sex differences, no sex differences were observed in LDH, total protein, MIP-2, and SP-A. Males showed more intragroup significant differences in SP-A between filtered air- and ozone-exposed mice compared to females. 2) Oxidized dimeric SP-A was higher in FA-exposed female mice. 3) Surfactant phospholipids were typically higher in males. 4) The multianalyte data revealed differences in the exuberance of responses under different conditions - males in response to infection and females in response to oxidative stress. These more exuberant, and presumably less well-controlled responses associate with the poorer survival. We postulate that the collective effects of these sex differences in response patterns of lung immune cells may contribute to the clinical outcomes previously observed. PMID:24769259

  8. Immune complexes, gallium lung scans, and bronchoalveolar lavage in idiopathic interstitial pneumonitis-fibrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Gelb, A.F.; Dreisen, R.B.; Epstein, J.D.; Silverthorne, J.D.; Bickel, Y.; Fields, M.; Border, W.A.; Taylor, C.R.

    1983-08-01

    We obtained results of lung immune complexes (LIC), circulating immune complexes (CIC), 48-hour gallium lung scans (scans), bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), and pulmonary function tests in 20 patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonitis-fibrosis. Sixteen patients had predominantly interstitial (13 cases UIP) and/or intraalveolar (3 cases DIP) cellular disease (group 1). Prior to corticosteroid therapy in group 1, scans were positive in 75 percent, CIC were elevated in 86 percent, LIC were present in 64 percent, and BAL was abnormal in 90 percent. Duration of follow-up after treatment was 3.5 +/- 1.0 year. In group 1 after treatment with corticosteroids in 13 patients and corticosteroids and penicillamine (three patients) and plasmapheresis (one patient), only four patients remain stable or improved. After corticosteroid therapy, elevated CIC returned to normal values despite progressive patient deterioration. In three patients, lung immune complexes were still detected after circulating immune complexes had returned to normal after corticosteroid therapy. In group 2 were four patients with fibrotic disease; scans and CIC were uniformly negative, LIC were weakly present in only one patient, and BAL was abnormal in all. Despite corticosteroid therapy, all have died or deteriorated. These results suggest that positive gallium lung scans, BAL, circulating immune complexes, and to a lesser extent, lung immune complexes are associated with the cellular phase of interstitial pneumonia, but do not reliably identify a corticosteroid-responsive group.

  9. Effect of ozone exposure and infection on bronchoalveolar lavage: sex differences in response patterns.

    PubMed

    Mikerov, Anatoly N; Phelps, David S; Gan, Xiaozhuang; Umstead, Todd M; Haque, Rizwanul; Wang, Guirong; Floros, Joanna

    2014-10-15

    Female mice exhibit a better survival rate than males after infection, but if infection follows an ozone-induced oxidative stress, male survival exceeds that of females. Our goal was to study bronchoalveolar lavage factors that contribute to these sex differences in outcome. We studied parameters at 4, 24, and 48 h after ozone exposure and infection, including markers of inflammation, oxidative stress, and tissue damage, and surfactant phospholipids and surfactant protein A (SP-A). A multianalyte immunoassay at the 4h time point measured 59 different cytokines, chemokines, and other proteins. We found that: (1) Although some parameters studied revealed sex differences, no sex differences were observed in LDH, total protein, MIP-2, and SP-A. Males showed more intragroup significant differences in SP-A between filtered air- and ozone-exposed mice compared to females. (2) Oxidized dimeric SP-A was higher in FA-exposed female mice. (3) Surfactant phospholipids were typically higher in males. (4) The multianalyte data revealed differences in the exuberance of responses under different conditions - males in response to infection and females in response to oxidative stress. These more exuberant, and presumably less well-controlled responses associate with the poorer survival. We postulate that the collective effects of these sex differences in response patterns of lung immune cells may contribute to the clinical outcomes previously observed. PMID:24769259

  10. Sputum is a surrogate for bronchoalveolar lavage for monitoring Mycobacterium tuberculosis transcriptional profiles in TB patients.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Benjamin J; Loxton, Andre G; Dolganov, Gregory M; Van, Tran T; Davis, J Lucian; de Jong, Bouke C; Voskuil, Martin I; Leach, Sonia M; Schoolnik, Gary K; Walzl, Gerhard; Strong, Michael; Walter, Nicholas D

    2016-09-01

    Pathogen-targeted transcriptional profiling in human sputum may elucidate the physiologic state of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) during infection and treatment. However, whether M. tuberculosis transcription in sputum recapitulates transcription in the lung is uncertain. We therefore compared M. tuberculosis transcription in human sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples from 11 HIV-negative South African patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. We additionally compared these clinical samples with in vitro log phase aerobic growth and hypoxic non-replicating persistence (NRP-2). Of 2179 M. tuberculosis transcripts assayed in sputum and BAL via multiplex RT-PCR, 194 (8.9%) had a p-value <0.05, but none were significant after correction for multiple testing. Categorical enrichment analysis indicated that expression of the hypoxia-responsive DosR regulon was higher in BAL than in sputum. M. tuberculosis transcription in BAL and sputum was distinct from both aerobic growth and NRP-2, with a range of 396-1020 transcripts significantly differentially expressed after multiple testing correction. Collectively, our results indicate that M. tuberculosis transcription in sputum approximates M. tuberculosis transcription in the lung. Minor differences between M. tuberculosis transcription in BAL and sputum suggested lower oxygen concentrations or higher nitric oxide concentrations in BAL. M. tuberculosis-targeted transcriptional profiling of sputa may be a powerful tool for understanding M. tuberculosis pathogenesis and monitoring treatment responses in vivo. PMID:27553415

  11. Bronchoalveolar lavage cell--lymphocyte interactions in normal nonsmokers and smokers. Analysis with a novel system.

    PubMed

    deShazo, R D; Banks, D E; Diem, J E; Nordberg, J A; Baser, Y; Bevier, D; Salvaggio, J E

    1983-05-01

    We investigated the ability of smoker and nonsmoker pulmonary alveolar macrophages (AM) to facilitate lymphocyte proliferative responses in a novel system allowing separation of lymphocyte and AM effects. Bronchoalveolar lavage cells (BLC) were obtained from 7 nonsmokers and 5 older smokers and cultured with purified peripheral blood lymphocytes (PL) and the mitogen phytohemagglutinin. Increasing amounts of BLC were added such that BLC/PL ratios were 1:100, 1:10, 1:2, 1:1 of either autologous or homologous PL. Lymphocyte proliferation was dose-related, increasing with 1:100 and 1:10 BLC/PL ratios, and decreasing to or below initial responses with 1:2 or 1:1 ratios. Depletion of T-lymphocytes from BLC demonstrated that these effects were mediated by AM. Phytohemagglutinin (PHA) dose-response curves of nonsmokers obtained using autologous or homologous PL were not different. When BLC from smokers were cultured with autologous PL, lymphocyte proliferative responses were less than those of similar cultures from nonsmokers. However, when similar smoker BLC were cultured with homologous PL from nonsmokers, proliferative responses were not different from those of nonsmokers. Peak proliferative responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells were not different from maximal proliferative responses of PL-BLC cultures at any PHA dose. These data show that human AM provide dose-related help and suppression of mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation similar to that reported with peripheral blood macrophages. Smoker AM facilitated mitogen-driven proliferation of homologous PL in a normal fashion, demonstrating the utility of this culture system in distinguishing lymphocyte effects present in autologous cultures. PMID:6601923

  12. Identifying a biomarker network for corticosteroid resistance in asthma from bronchoalveolar lavage samples.

    PubMed

    Vargas, José Eduardo; Porto, Bárbara Nery; Puga, Renato; Stein, Renato Tetelbom; Pitrez, Paulo Márcio

    2016-07-01

    Corticosteroid resistance (CR) is a major barrier to the effective treatment of severe asthma. Hence, a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in this condition is a priority. Network analysis is an emerging strategy to explore this complex heterogeneous disorder at system level to identify a small own network for CR in asthma. Gene expression profile of GSE7368 from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) of CR in subjects with asthma was downloaded from the gene expression omnibus (GEO) database and compared to BAL of corticosteroid-sensitive (CS) patients. DEGs were identified by the Limma package in R language. In addition, DEGs were mapped to STRING to acquire protein-protein interaction (PPI) pairs. Topological properties of PPI network were calculated by Centiscape, ClusterOne and BINGO. Subsequently, text-mining tools were applied to design one own cell signalling for CR in asthma. Thirty-five PPI networks were obtained; including a major network consisted of 370 nodes, connected by 777 edges. After topological analysis, a minor PPI network composed by 48 nodes was indentified, which is composed by most relevant nodes of major PPI network. In this subnetwork, several receptors (EGFR, EGR1, ESR2, PGR), transcription factors (MYC, JAK), cytokines (IL8, IL6, IL1B), one chemokine (CXCL1), one kinase (SRC) and one cyclooxygenase (PTGS2) were described to be associated with inflammatory environment and steroid resistance in asthma. We suggest a biomarker network composed by 48 nodes that could be potentially explored with diagnostic or therapeutic use. PMID:27188427

  13. Inhaled concentrated ambient particles are associated with hematologic and bronchoalveolar lavage changes in canines.

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, R W; Coull, B; Reinisch, U; Catalano, P; Killingsworth, C R; Koutrakis, P; Kavouras, I; Murthy, G G; Lawrence, J; Lovett, E; Wolfson, J M; Verrier, R L; Godleski, J J

    2000-01-01

    Pulmonary inflammatory and hematologic responses of canines were studied after exposure to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) using the Harvard ambient particle concentrator (HAPC). For pulmonary inflammatory studies, normal dogs were exposed in pairs to either CAPs or filtered air (paired studies) for 6 hr/day on 3 consecutive days. For hematologic studies, dogs were exposed for 6 hr/day for 3 consecutive days with one receiving CAPs while the other was simultaneously exposed to filtered air; crossover of exposure took place the following week (crossover studies). Physicochemical characterization of CAPs exposure samples included measurements of particle mass, size distribution, and composition. No statistical differences in biologic responses were found when all CAPs and all sham exposures were compared. However, the variability in biologic response was considerably higher with CAPs exposure. Subsequent exploratory graphical analyses and mixed linear regression analyses suggested associations between CAPs constituents and biologic responses. Factor analysis was applied to the compositional data from paired and crossover experiments to determine elements consistently associated with each other in CAPs samples. In paired experiments, four factors were identified; in crossover studies, a total of six factors were observed. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and hematologic data were regressed on the factor scores. Increased BAL neutrophil percentage, total peripheral white blood cell (WBC) counts, circulating neutrophils, and circulating lymphocytes were associated with increases in the aluminum/silicon factor. Increased circulating neutrophils and increased BAL macrophages were associated with the vanadium/nickel factor. Increased BAL neutrophils were associated with the bromine/lead factor when only the compositional data from the third day of CAPs exposure were used. Significant decreases in red blood cell counts and hemoglobin levels were correlated with the sulfur

  14. Radiotherapy Improves Survival in Unresected Stage I-III Bronchoalveolar Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Urban, Damien; Mishra, Mark; Onn, Amir; Dicker, Adam P.; Symon, Zvi; Pfeffer, M. Raphael; Lawrence, Yaacov Richard

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: To test the hypothesis that radiotherapy (RT) improves the outcome of patients with unresected, nonmetastatic bronchoalveolar carcinoma (BAC) by performing a population-based analysis within the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registry. Methods and Materials: Inclusion criteria were as follows: patients diagnosed with BAC, Stage I-III, between 2001 and 2007. Exclusion criteria included unknown stage, unknown primary treatment modality, Stage IV disease, and those diagnosed at autopsy. Demographic data, treatment details, and overall survival were retrieved from the SEER database. Survival was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test. Results: A total of 6933 patients with Stage I-III BAC were included in the analysis. The median age at diagnosis was 70 years (range, 10-101 years). The majority of patients were diagnosed with Stage I (74.4%); 968 patients (14%) did not undergo surgical resection. Unresected patients were more likely to be older (p < 0.0001), male (p = 0.001), black (p < 0.0001), and Stage III (p < 0.0001). Within the cohort of unresected patients, 300 (31%) were treated with RT. The estimated 2-year overall survival for patients with unresected, nonmetastatic BAC was 58%, 44%, and 27% in Stage I, II, and III, respectively. Factors associated with improved survival included female sex, earlier stage at diagnosis, and use of RT. Median survival in those not receiving RT vs. receiving RT was as follows: Stage I, 28 months vs. 33 months (n = 364, p = 0.06); Stage II, 18 months vs. not reached (n = 31, nonsignificant); Stage III, 10 months vs. 17 months (n = 517, p < 0.003). Conclusions: The use of RT is associated with improved prognosis in unresected Stage I-III BAC. Less than a third of patients who could have potentially benefited from RT received it, suggesting that the medical specialists involved in the care of these patients underappreciate the importance of RT.

  15. Effect of low doses of lipopolysaccharide prior to ozone exposure on bronchoalveolar lavage

    PubMed Central

    Haque, Rizwanul; Umstead, Todd M.; Ahn, Kwangmi; Phelps, David S.; Floros, Joanna

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Background Several aspects of the inflammatory response to a single insult, i.e., exposure to 2 ppm of ozone (O3) for 3 h or 6 h, are less pronounced in surfactant protein A deficient (SP-A −/−) mice (KO) than in wild type mice (WT). It was hypothesized that a mild insult, specifically low doses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), would adversely affect host defense and differentially potentiate O3-induced injury in WT and KO mice. METHODS WT and KO mice were treated with different doses of LPS or LPS (2 ng) + O3 (2 ppm) or filtered air (FA) for 3 h, then sacrificed 4 h following exposure (O3, FA) or 20 h after LPS treatment alone. Several endpoints of inflammation were measured in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). RESULTS 1) At 20 h after LPS treatment alone, both WT and KO mice exhibited signs of inflammation, but with differences in the macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2) response pattern, total cells (at 0.5 ng LPS) and basal levels of oxidized protein and phospholipids; 2) After LPS + O3, KO compared to WT showed decrease in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and MIP-2 and increase in phospholipids, and after LPS + FA an increase in total cells; 3) WT after LPS + FA showed an increase in SP-A with no further increase after LPS + O3, and an increase in oxidized SP-A dimer following O3 or LPS + O3. CONCLUSIONS LPS treatment has negative effects on inflammation endpoints in mouse BAL long after exposure and renders KO mice less capable of responding to a second insult. LPS and O3 affect SP-A, quantitatively and qualitatively, respectively. PMID:21278811

  16. Usefulness of FTA® cards as a Pneumocystis-DNA extraction method in bronchoalveolar lavage samples.

    PubMed

    Rodiño, Jenniffer M; Aguilar, Yudy A; Rueda, Zulma Vanessa; Vélez, Lázaro A

    2016-05-01

    Background FTA® cards (Fast Technology for Analysis of Nucleic Acids) are an alternative DNA extraction method in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples for Pneumocystis jirovecii molecular analyses. The goal was to evaluate the usefulness of FTA® cards to detect P. jirovecii-DNA by PCR in BAL samples compared to silica adsorption chromatography (SAC). Methods This study used 134 BAL samples from immunocompromised patients previously studied to establish microbiological aetiology of pneumonia, among them 15 cases of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) documented by staining and 119 with other alternative diagnoses. The FTA® system and SAC were used for DNA extraction and then amplified by nested PCR to detect P. jirovecii. Performance and concordance of the two DNA extraction methods compared to P. jirovecii microscopy were calculated. The influence of the macroscopic characteristics, transportation of samples and the duration of the FTA® card storage (1, 7, 10 or 12 months) were also evaluated. Results Among 134 BAL samples, 56% were positive for P. jirovecii-DNA by SAC and 27% by FTA®. All 15 diagnosed by microscopy were detected by FTA® and SAC. Specificity of the FTA® system and SAC were 82.4% and 49.6%, respectively. Compared to SAC, positivity by FTA® decreased with the presence of blood in BAL (62% vs 13.5%). The agreement between samples at 7, 10 and 12 months was 92.5% for FTA®. Positive cases by FTA® remained the same after shipment by mail. Conclusions Results suggest that FTA® is a practical, safe and economical method to preserve P. jirovecii-DNA in BAL samples for molecular studies. PMID:26950684

  17. Bronchoalveolar lavage analysis, gallium-67 lung scanning and soluble interleukin-2 receptor levels in asbestos exposure.

    PubMed

    Delclos, G L; Flitcraft, D G; Brousseau, K P; Windsor, N T; Nelson, D L; Wilson, R K; Lawrence, E C

    1989-04-01

    This study examined different markers of lung immunologic and inflammatory responses to previous asbestos exposure. We performed bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and gallium-67 (67Ga) lung scans and measured serum and BAL soluble interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) and angiotensin-converting enzyme (SACE) levels in 32 subjects with a history of significant asbestos exposure, 14 without (EXP) and 18 with (ASB) radiographic evidence of asbestosis. BAL analysis revealed increases in neutrophils in both ASB and EXP when compared to controls (P less than 0.01), which persisted after adjustment for smoking category. Although significant abnormalities of macrophage and total lymphocyte profiles were not found in the study population, lymphocyte subpopulation analysis revealed elevation of BAL T4/T8 ratios in the entire study group (ASB + EXP) when compared to controls (P less than 0.05), independent of smoking category. 67Ga lung scan activity was increased in 56% of ASB and in 36% of EXP: no correlations between positive scans and different radiological and functional parameters could be found. There was no significant elevation of mean SACE, serum, or BAL IL-2R levels in any of the study categories. These data suggest that asbestos exposure may be associated with parenchymal inflammation, even in the absence of clinical criteria for asbestosis. Abnormalities of gallium uptake and of BAL analysis reflect the clinically inapparent inflammation. The increased BAL T4/T8 ratios observed suggest that abnormal local pulmonary immunoregulation may play a role in the pathogenesis of asbestos-related lung diseases. PMID:2538325

  18. Amniotic fluid

    MedlinePlus

    Amniotic fluid is a clear, slightly yellowish liquid that surrounds the unborn baby (fetus) during pregnancy. It is ... in the womb, the baby floats in the amniotic fluid. The amount of amniotic fluid is greatest at ...

  19. MAP KINASE SIGNALING IN PULMONARY FIBROBLASTS EXPOSED TO PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) AND BRONCHOAL VEOLAR LAVAGE FLUID (BALF) FROM HEALTHY AND HYPERTENSIVE RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    MAP KINASE SIGNALING IN PULMONARY FIBROBLASTS EXPOSED TO PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) AND BRONCHOALVEOLAR LAVAGE FLUID (BALF) FROM HEALTHY AND HYPERTENSIVE RATS. 1P Zhang, UP Kodavanti. NHEERL, US EPA, Research Triangle Park, 1School of Vet Med, NCSU, Raleigh, NC
    Exposure to PM ma...

  20. Gallium-67 scanning to stage the alveolitis of sarcoidosis: correlation with clinical studies, pulmonary function studies, and bronchoalveolar lavage

    SciTech Connect

    Line, B.R.; Hunninghake, G.W.; Keogh, B.A.; Jones, A.E.; Johnston, G.S.; Crystal, R.G.

    1981-04-01

    Current concepts of the pathogenesis of sarcoidosis suggest that the alveolitis of this disorder is related to increased numbers of mononuclear phagocytes and activated T-lymphocytes within the lung. To determine if 67Ga scanning, a procedure commonly used in the evaluation of inflammation, would be useful in staging the alveolitis of sarcoidosis, we studied 41 patients with this disorder and correlated estimates of pulmonary 67Ga accumulation with clinical, roentgenographic, physiologic, and bronchoalveolar lavage studies in these patients. Although 65% of patients with sarcoidosis showed increased amounts of 67Ga accumulation in the lung compared with control subjects, only weak correlations (r less than +/- 0.42, all comparisons) were found between the degree of gallium uptake and the clinical, roentgenographic, or physiologic data. In contrast, there was a strong correlation of 67Ga uptake and the number of lymphocytes and T-lymphocytes recovered from the lungs of these patients by bronchoalveolar lavage (p less than 0.0001, r greater than or equal to 0.67, both comparisons). This data suggested that gallium uptake reflects the intensity of the T-lymphocytes mediated component of the alveolitis in sarcoidosis. Because 67Ga scans are noninvasive, simple to perform, and widely available, they should prove useful to stage the activity of sarcoidosis and to make decisions regarding therapy directed against the alveolitis of the disease.

  1. Gallium-67 scanning to stage the alveolitis of sarcoidosis: correlation with clinical studies, pulmonary function studies, and bronchoalveolar lavage

    SciTech Connect

    Line, B.R.; Hunninghake, G.W.; Keogh, B.A.; Jones, A.E.; Johnston, G.S.; Crystal, R.G.

    1981-04-01

    Current concepts of the pathogenesis of sarcoidosis suggest that the alveolitis of this disorder is related to increased numbers of mononuclear phagocytes and activated T-lymphocytes within the lung. To determine if 67Ga scanning, a procedure commonly used in the evaluation of inflammation, would be useful in staging the alveolitis of sarcoidosis, researchers studied 41 patients with this disorder and correlated estimates of pulmonary /sup 67/Ga accumulation with clinical, roentgenographic, physiologic, and bronchoalveolar lavage studies in these patients. Although 65% of patients with sarcoidosis showed increased amounts of /sup 67/Ga accumulation in the lung compared with control subjects, only weak correlations (r less than +/- 0.42, all comparisons) were found between the degree of gallium uptake and the clinical, roentgenographic, or physiologic data. In contrast, there was a strong correlation of /sup 67/Ga uptake and the number of lymphocytes and T-lymphocytes recovered from the lungs of these patients by bronchoalveolar lavage (p less than 0.0001, r greater than or equal to 0.67, both comparisons). This data suggested that gallium uptake reflects the intensity of the T-lymphocytes mediated component of the alveolitis in sarcoidosis. Because /sup 67/Ga scans are noninvasive, simple to perform, and widely available, they should prove useful to stage the activity of sarcoidosis and to make decisions regarding therapy directed against the alveolitis of the disease.

  2. Gallium-67 in the evaluation of sarcoidosis: correlations with serum angiotensin-converting enzyme and bronchoalveolar lavage.

    PubMed Central

    Beaumont, D; Herry, J Y; Sapene, M; Bourguet, P; Larzul, J J; de Labarthe, B

    1982-01-01

    Gallium-67 (67Ga) scanning was assessed for its usefulness in the evaluation and follow-up of 54 patients with sarcoidosis, both treated and untreated. Scans were repeated in 23 subjects. Serum levels of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) were determined concurrently in all 54 patients and bronchoalveolar lavage was performed in 29 patients. Gallium-67 scan was effective in the detection and assessment of lesions not revealed by traditional methods of investigation, particularly those affecting the mediastinum, spleen, and salivary glands. The scan also enabled fibrotic lesions, which do not show uptake, to be distinguished from granulomatous lesions, which do--an advantage of prognostic interest particularly in patients with pulmonary lesions. Another merit of 67Ga scanning was that it offered a means of following disease progression in each site. In patients showing spontaneous clearing of disease or receiving treatment the scintigraphic method was more sensitive than serum ACE determination. Scan findings showed a rough correlation with serum ACE but not with bronchoalveolar lavage findings. This suggests that the three markers probably reflect different stages of the granulomatous process. On the strength of this study the indications for gallium scanning in sarcoid patients can be defined more clearly than has previously been possible. Images PMID:6280330

  3. Amniotic fluid

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002220.htm Amniotic fluid To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Amniotic fluid is a clear, slightly yellowish liquid that surrounds ...

  4. Fluid Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drazin, Philip

    1987-01-01

    Outlines the contents of Volume II of "Principia" by Sir Isaac Newton. Reviews the contributions of subsequent scientists to the physics of fluid dynamics. Discusses the treatment of fluid mechanics in physics curricula. Highlights a few of the problems of modern research in fluid dynamics. Shows that problems still remain. (CW)

  5. Diagnostic Value of Bronchoalveolar Lavage in Leukemic and Bone Marrow Transplant Patients: The Impact of Antimicrobial Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Yacoub, Abraham Tareq; Thomas, Dani; Yuan, Carol; Collazo, Carolina; Greene, John; Walsh, Frank; Solomon, David; Schwartz, Skai; Andrews, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    There is significant morbidity and mortality from pneumonia in leukemic and bone marrow transplant patients. We sought to explore the diagnostic yield of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in these patients with new pulmonary infiltrates. A retrospective chart review of approximately 200 Non- human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) leukemic and Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) patients who underwent bronchoscopy at a single academic cancer center was performed. Antimicrobial use for less than 24 hours at the time of BAL was associated with a higher yield in this population (56.8% versus 32.8%, p<0.001). This supports performing bronchoscopy with BAL within 24 hours of antimicrobial therapy in leukemic and HSCT patients. PMID:25574361

  6. Decreased percentage of CD4+Foxp3+TGF-β+ and increased percentage of CD4+IL-17+ cells in bronchoalveolar lavage of asthmatics

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways with the proven role of Th2 cells in its pathogenesis. The role and characteristic of different subsets of CD4+ cells is much less known. Aim The aim of the study was to analyze the incidence of different subsets of CD4+ T cells, in particular different subsets of CD4+ cells with the co-expression of different cytokines. Methods Twenty five stable asthmatic and twelve age-matched control subjects were recruited to the study. Bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) were performed in all study subjects. CD4+ T cells were isolated from BAL fluid by positive magnetic selection. After stimulation simultaneous expression of TGF-β, FoxP3, CD25, IFN-γ, IL-4, TNF-α (set 1); IL-10, FoxP3, CD25, IFN-γ, IL-4, MIP-1β (set 2); IL-17A, IL-8, IFN-γ, IL-4, MIP-1β (set 3) were measured by flow cytometry. Results The percentage of CD4+ cells co-expressing Foxp3 and TGF-β (CD4+Foxp3+TGF-β+ cells) was significantly lower (P = 0.03), whereas the percentage of CD4+IL-17+ cells (P = 0.008), CD4+IL-17+ IFN-γ+ cells (P = 0.047) and CD4+IL-4+ cells (P = 0.01) were significantly increased in asthmatics compared with that seen in healthy subjects. A significantly higher percentage of CD4+Foxp3+ cells from asthma patients expressed IFN-γ (P = 0.01), IL-4 (P = 0.004) and CD25 (P = 0.04), whereas the percentage of CD4+IL-10+ cells expressing Foxp3 was significantly decreased in asthmatics (P = 0.03). FEV1% predicted correlated negatively with the percentage of CD4+IL-17+ cells (r = -0.33; P = 0.046) and positively with CD4+Foxp3+TGF-β+ cells (r = 0.43; P = 0.01). Conclusions Our results suggest that in the airways of chronic asthma patients there is an imbalance between increased numbers of CD4+IL-17+ cells and Th2 cells and decreased number of CD4+Foxp3+TGF-β+. PMID:25132806

  7. Immunostimulation of bronchoalveolar lavage cells from recurrent airway obstruction-affected horses by different CpG-classes bound to gelatin nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Klier, John; May, Anna; Fuchs, Sebastian; Schillinger, Ulrike; Plank, Christian; Winter, Gerhard; Gehlen, Heidrun; Coester, Conrad

    2011-11-15

    Recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) in horses has become a common problem in stabled horses in industrialized countries and deserves new therapeutic strategies. CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODNs) were developed as effective immunostimulating agents to induce a Th2/Th1 shift. These agents showed a beneficial therapeutic effect in allergic diseases with predominant Th2 immunoresponse. CpG-ODN delivery by gelatin nanoparticles (GNPs) resulted in enhanced cellular uptake in murine and human in vitro studies and was a starting point for the present trial. The aim of this study was to identify an optimal stimulating CpG motif in horses with regard to species specificity on equine bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells, in terms of a possible specific immunomodulation effect (Th2/Th1 shift) by used CpG-ODN. Accordingly, GNPs were evaluated as a delivery system to improve CpG-ODN immunostimulation in equine BAL cells. BAL fluid (BALF) was obtained from seven horses with moderate RAO and from four healthy horses and was subsequently incubated with five different CpG-ODN sequences (from A-, B- and C-class) and one ODN without any CpG motif. Release of three key cytokines (IL-4, IL-10 and IFN-γ) was quantified by ELISA to detect an allergy mediated Th2 immunoresponse (IL-4) as well as a proinflammatory Th1 response (IFN-γ). Due to its specific anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effects, IL-10 was considered as a beneficial agent in pathophysiology of RAO. Results showed a significant upregulation of IL-10 and IFN-γ on the one hand and a downregulation of IL-4 on the other hand in RAO affected horses. Cell cultures from healthy horses had a significantly stronger response in cytokine release to all the applied stimuli in contrast to RAO derived cells. Comparing all five CpG sequences, A-class 2216 significantly showed the highest immunomodulatory effects on equine BALF cells and, hence, was chosen for follow-up preliminary clinical studies. PMID:21831455

  8. Spacer fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, W.N.; Bradshaw, R.D.; Wilton, B.S.; Carpenter, R.B.

    1992-05-19

    This patent describes a method for cementing a wellbore penetrating an earth formation into which a conduit extends, the wellbore having a space occupied by a drilling fluid. It comprises displacing the drilling fluid from the space with a spacer fluid comprising: sulfonated styrene-maleic anhydride copolymer, bentonite, welan gum, surfactant and a weighting agent; and displacing the spacer composition and filling the wellbore space with a settable cement composition.

  9. Nitric oxide production by rat bronchoalveolar macrophages or polymorphonuclear leukocytes following intratracheal instillation of lipopolysaccharide or silica.

    PubMed

    Huffman, L J; Prugh, D J; Millecchia, L; Schuller, K C; Cantrell, S; Porter, D W

    2003-02-01

    Exposure of the lung to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or silica results in an activation of alveolar macrophages (AMs), recruitment of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) into bronchoalveolar spaces, and the production of free radicals. Nitric oxide (NO) is one of the free radicals generated by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cell populations following either LPS or silica exposure. The purpose of the present study was to assess the relative contributions of AMs and PMNs to the amounts of NO produced by BAL cells following intratracheal (IT) instillation of either LPS or silica. Male Sprague Dawley rats (265-340 g body wt.) were given LPS (10 mg/100 g body wt.) or silica (5 mg/100 g body wt.). BAL cells were harvested 18-24 h post-IT and enriched for AMs or PMNs using density gradient centrifugation. Media levels of nitrate and nitrite (NOx; the stable decomposition products of NO) were then measured 18 h after ex vivo culture of these cells. Following IT exposure to either LPS or silica, BAL cell populations were approximately 20% AMs and approximately 80% PMNs. After density gradient centrifugation of BAL cells from LPS- or silica-treated rats, cell fractions were obtained which were relatively enriched for AMs (approximately 60%) or PMNs (approximately 90%). The amounts of NOx produced by the AM-enriched fractions from LPS- or silica-treated rats were approximately 2-4-fold greater than that produced by the PMN-enriched fractions. Estimations of the relative contribution of AMs or PMNs to the NOx produced indicated that: (i) following LPS treatment, 75%-89% of the NOx was derived from AMs and 11%-25% from PMNs; and (ii) following silica treatment, 76%-100% of the NOx was derived from AMs and 0-24% from PMNs. Immunohistochemistry for inducible NO synthase on lung tissue sections supported these findings. We conclude that AMs are the major source of the NO produced by BAL cells during acute pulmonary inflammatory responses to LPS or silica. PMID:12682422

  10. Fluid inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, X.; Firouzjahi, H.; Namjoo, M.H.; Sasaki, M. E-mail: firouz@ipm.ir E-mail: misao@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2013-09-01

    In this work we present an inflationary mechanism based on fluid dynamics. Starting with the action for a single barotropic perfect fluid, we outline the procedure to calculate the power spectrum and the bispectrum of the curvature perturbation. It is shown that a perfect barotropic fluid naturally gives rise to a non-attractor inflationary universe in which the curvature perturbation is not frozen on super-horizon scales. We show that a scale-invariant power spectrum can be obtained with the local non-Gaussianity parameter f{sub NL} = 5/2.

  11. Fluid Shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenger, M.; Hargens, A.; Dulchavsky, S.; Ebert, D.; Lee, S.; Lauriie, S.; Garcia, K.; Sargsyan, A.; Martin, D.; Ribeiro, L.; Lui, J.; Macias, B.; Arbeille, P.; Danielson, R.; Chang, D.; Johnston, S.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Smith, S.

    2016-01-01

    NASA is focusing on long-duration missions on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions beyond low-Earth orbit. Visual acuity changes observed after short-duration missions were largely transient, but more than 50% of ISS astronauts experienced more profound, chronic changes with objective structural and functional findings such as papilledema and choroidal folds. Globe flattening, optic nerve sheath dilation, and optic nerve tortuosity also are apparent. This pattern is referred to as the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. VIIP signs and symptoms, as well as postflight lumbar puncture data, suggest that elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) may be associated with the spaceflight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. The purpose of this study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight, and to correlate these findings with vision changes and other elements of the VIIP syndrome. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during spaceflight, as well as the VIIP-related effects of those shifts, is predicted by the crewmember's preflight conditions and responses to acute hemodynamic manipulations (such as head-down tilt). Lastly, we will evaluate the patterns of fluid distribution in ISS astronauts during acute reversal of fluid shifts through application of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) interventions to characterize and explain general and individual responses. METHODS: We will examine a variety of physiologic variables in 10 long-duration ISS crewmembers using the test conditions and timeline presented in the Figure below. Measures include: (1) fluid compartmentalization (total body water by D2O, extracellular fluid by NaBr, intracellular fluid by calculation, plasma volume by CO rebreathe, interstitial fluid by calculation); (2) forehead/eyelids, tibia, calcaneus tissue thickness (by

  12. Identification of Oxidative Stress Related Proteins as Biomarkers for Lung Cancer and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Bronchoalveolar Lavage

    PubMed Central

    Pastor, Maria Dolores; Nogal, Ana; Molina-Pinelo, Sonia; Meléndez, Ricardo; Romero-Romero, Beatriz; Mediano, Maria Dolores; López-Campos, Jose L.; García-Carbonero, Rocío; Sanchez-Gastaldo, Amparo; Carnero, Amancio; Paz-Ares, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer (LC) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) commonly coexist in smokers, and the presence of COPD increases the risk of developing LC. Cigarette smoke causes oxidative stress and an inflammatory response in lung cells, which in turn may be involved in COPD and lung cancer development. The aim of this study was to identify differential proteomic profiles related to oxidative stress response that were potentially involved in these two pathological entities. Protein content was assessed in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) of 60 patients classified in four groups: COPD, COPD and LC, LC, and control (neither COPD nor LC). Proteins were separated into spots by two dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) and examined by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF). A total of 16 oxidative stress regulatory proteins were differentially expressed in BAL samples from LC and/or COPD patients as compared with the control group. A distinct proteomic reactive oxygen species (ROS) protein signature emerged that characterized lung cancer and COPD. In conclusion, our findings highlight the role of the oxidative stress response proteins in the pathogenic pathways of both diseases, and provide new candidate biomarkers and predictive tools for LC and COPD diagnosis. PMID:23389041

  13. Effect of an inhaled glucocorticoid on reactive oxygen species production by bronchoalveolar lavage cells from smoking COPD patients.

    PubMed Central

    Verhoeven, G T; Wijkhuijs, A J; Hooijkaas, H; Hoogsteden, H C; Sluiter, W

    2000-01-01

    Oxidative stress in the lung is important in the pathogenesis of COPD. Published data indicate that glucocorticoids inhibit blood cells in their capacity to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS). We investigated the effect of Fluticasone propionate (FP) on the ROS production capabilities of pulmonary cells. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed in smoking COPD patients, before and after a six month, placebo-controlled treatment with FP. BAL cells were stimulated with phorbol myristrate acetate (PMA) alone, and together with superoxide dismutase (SOD). From kinetic plots of ferricytochrome-c conversion we calculated the maximal rate of superoxide production: V(max). We also examined BAL cell subsets and performed correlation analyses on ROS production and relevant clinical determinants. Paired results were obtained from 6 FP- and 9 placebo-treated patients. No significant change of V(max) was found in both patient groups. Also BAL cellularity was unchanged. Correlation analyses showed a significant (inverse) association of V(max) with the number of cigarettes smoked per day. We concluded that a potent inhaled glucocorticoid had no effect on the ROS production capability of BAL cells from smoking COPD patients. Apparently, heavy smoking impaired the ability of alveolar macrophages to produce ROS, which was not further decreased by FP. PMID:10958384

  14. Activity testing of alveolar macrophages and changes in surfactant phospholipids after irradiation in bronchoalveolar lavage: Experimental and clinical data

    SciTech Connect

    Steinberg, F.; Rehn, B.; Kraus, R.; Quabeck, K.; Bruch, J.; Beelen, D.W.; Schaefer, U.W.; Streffer, C. )

    1992-07-01

    This study presents results of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) after irradiation to the lungs in mice as well as clinical data. The number of BAL cells, mainly macrophages, lymphocytes, and granulocytes, changed in a time-dependent manner. The phagocytic activity of the macrophages measured as the phagocytosis of microbeads and measured as the esterase activity also showed a strong time-dependent increase during the acute phase up to 21 days after irradiation. The contents of surfactant phospholipids (SF) and sphingomyelin (SPH; as a parameter for cell death) were quantified by HPLC. Both were significantly changed between day 2 and 21 after irradiation. Three BALs of a patient with idiopathic interstitial pneumonitis, who had received an allogenic bone marrow graft after total body irradiation with 10 Gy, showed similar effects in the cellular and surfactant parameters. These data indicate that there are positive interactions between the number of different BAL cells, macrophage activity, and SF and SPH content in the preclinical model of the mouse as well as in the clinical situation after lung irradiation. 30 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Rothia mucilaginosa Pneumonia Diagnosed by Quantitative Cultures and Intracellular Organisms of Bronchoalveolar Lavage in a Lymphoma Patient

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Eun-Jung; Sung, Heungsup; Park, Sook-Ja; Lee, Sang-Oh

    2013-01-01

    Rothia mucilaginosa is a gram-positive coccus of the family Micrococcaceae. R. mucilaginosa is considered a part of the normal flora of the human oropharynx and upper respiratory tract and lower respiratory tract infections attributable to R. mucilaginosa are not frequent. We present a case of pneumonia, in which the R. mucilaginosa infection was diagnosed by quantitative cultures of a bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimen. A 46-yr-old woman with B lymphoblastic lymphoma was admitted to the hospital for scheduled chemotherapy. Her chest computed tomography (CT) scan revealed bilateral multifocal nodular and patchy consolidation in both lungs. Investigation of the BAL specimen revealed that 7% of leukocytes had intracellular gram-positive cocci. The quantitative cultures of the BAL specimen grew mucoid, non-hemolytic, and grayish convex colonies on blood agar at a count of approximately 200,000 colony-forming units/mL. The colonies were identified as R. mucilaginosa. The patient was empirically treated with levofloxacin for 7 days, after which findings on the chest radiograph and CT scan improved. She was discharged with improvement on hospital day 46. To our knowledge, this is the first report of R. mucilaginosa pneumonia diagnosed in Korea. Quantitative culture of BAL specimen and examination of intracellular organisms are crucial for assessing the clinical significance of R. mucilaginosa recovered from the lower respiratory tract. PMID:23483615

  16. Specific Detection of Aspergillus Species in Blood and Bronchoalveolar Lavage Samples of Immunocompromised Patients by Two-Step PCR

    PubMed Central

    Skladny, Heyko; Buchheidt, Dieter; Baust, Corinna; Krieg-Schneider, Frank; Seifarth, Wolfgang; Leib-Mösch, Christine; Hehlmann, Rüdiger

    1999-01-01

    The increasing incidence of aspergillosis, a life-threatening infection in immunocompromised patients, emphasizes the need to improve the currently limited diagnostic tools. We developed a two-step PCR assay that specifically amplifies a region of the 18S rRNA gene that is highly conserved in Aspergillus species. A number of primers with the least homology to equivalent human or Candida gene sequences were screened for the pairs that gave the highest sensitivity and specificity. No cross-reaction with the wide range of fungal and bacterial pathogens so far tested was observed. This assay allows direct and rapid detection of down to 10 fg of Aspergillus DNA corresponding to 1 to 5 CFU per ml of blood. A total of 315 blood and bronchoalveolar lavage samples from 140 subjects, including 93 patients at risk for invasive fungal disease, were screened. The result was a 100% correlation between positive histology, culture, or high-resolution computed tomography findings and PCR results. The test specificity was 89%. Our data point to the considerable potential clinical value of this simple, specific, rapid, and inexpensive PCR assay for improving the means of early diagnosis of systemic aspergillosis in high-risk patients. PMID:10565898

  17. Heme oxygenase inhibition enhances neutrophil migration into the bronchoalveolar spaces and improves the outcome of murine pneumonia-induced sepsis.

    PubMed

    Czaikoski, Paula Giselle; Nascimento, Daniele Carvalho; Sônego, Fabiane; de Freitas, Andressa; Turato, Walter Miguel; de Carvalho, Michel A; Santos, Raquel Souza; de Oliveira, Gisele Pena; dos Santos Samary, Cynthia; Tefe-Silva, Cristiane; Alves-Filho, José C; Ferreira, Sérgio Henrique; Rossi, Marcos Antonio; Rocco, Patricia Rieken Macedo; Spiller, Fernando; Cunha, Fernando Queiroz

    2013-04-01

    A reduction of the neutrophil migration into the site of infection during cecal ligation and puncture-induced sepsis increases host mortality. Inhibition of heme oxygenase (HO) prevents this neutrophil paralysis and improves host survival in the cecal ligation and puncture model. Taking into account that almost 50% of all sepsis cases are a consequence of pneumonia, we designed the present study to determine the role of HO in an experimental model of pneumonia-induced sepsis. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the inhibition of HO improves the outcome and pathophysiologic changes of sepsis induced by an intratracheal instillation of Klebsiella pneumoniae. The pretreatment of mice subjected to pneumonia-induced sepsis with ZnDPBG (zinc deuteroporphyrin 2,4-bis glycol), a nonspecific HO inhibitor, increased the number of neutrophils in the bronchoalveolar spaces, reduced the bacterial load at the site of infection, and prevented the upregulation of CD11b and the downregulation of CXCR2 on blood neutrophils. Moreover, the pretreatment with ZnDPBG decreased alveolar collapse, attenuating the deleterious changes in pulmonary mechanics and gas exchanges and, as a consequence, improved the survival rate of mice from 0% to ∼20%. These results show that heme oxygenase is involved in the pathophysiology of pneumonia-induced sepsis and suggest that HO inhibitors could be helpful for the management of this disease. PMID:23481491

  18. Lupus erythematosus cell phenomenon in pediatric bronchoalveolar lavages: possible manifestation of early radioadaptive response in radiation induced alveolitis.

    PubMed

    Zunic, S

    2013-01-01

    A ten-year (December 1992 - December 2002) evaluation of 225 pediatric bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) differential cell counts showed appearance of the cells corresponding to the cytological entity - lupus erythematosus cell (LEC) in 47 specimens of which not a single case was associated with the coexistent autoimmune disease. There was a significant increase in the percentage of LEC in BAL samples of the examinees during the first 6 months after the bombing of targets in Serbia (July-December 1999) in comparison to the period 1992 to March 24, 1999, and after the bombing of targets in Serbia (2000-2002). Maintaining the character of occurrence of LEC in BAL as nonspecific (Zunic et al. 1996), the devastating power of alpha particles (originated from uranium decay) gives an opportunity to discuss this phenomenon more comprehensibly and perceive a new vista related to the pathogenesis of LEC phenomenon in BAL. Since the period after 1991 corresponds to the time after the first Gulf War, and later the bombing of targets in Bosnia, the possibility of occurrence of LEC in BAL as a manifestation of radiation alveolitis due to contamination by air transferred depleted uranium (DU) particles could not be excluded. PMID:23830389

  19. Fluid Shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenger, Michael B.; Hargens, Alan R.; Dulchavsky, Scott A.; Ebert, Douglas J.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Laurie, Steven S.; Garcia, Kathleen M.; Sargsyan, Ashot E.; Martin, David S.; Liu, John; Macias, Brandon R.; Arbeille, Philippe; Danielson, Richard; Chang, Douglas; Gunga, Hanns-Christian; Johnston, Smith L.; Westby, Christian M.; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert J.; Smith, Scott M.

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesize that microgravity-induced cephalad fluid shifts elevate intracranial pressure (ICP) and contribute to VIIP. We will test this hypothesis and a possible countermeasure in ISS astronauts.

  20. Wellbore fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, B.L.

    1984-06-19

    The water loss properties of well completion and well workover fluids are improved by the addition of an effective amount of at least one adjuvant selected from (1) sodium carbonate with either sodium bicarbonate or an organic polycarboxylic acid or polycarboxylic acid anhydride or (2) sodium bicarbonate alone. In another embodiment, the adjuvants are added to stabilize water loss control agents in wellbore fluids, especially at elevated temperatures.

  1. Fluid Shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenger, M. B.; Hargens, A.; Dulchavsky, S.; Ebert, D.; Lee, S.; Laurie, S.; Garcia, K.; Sargsyan, A.; Martin, D.; Lui, J.; Macias, B.; Arbeille, P.; Danielson, R.; Chang, D.; Gunga, H.; Johnston, S.; Westby, C.; Ribeiro, L.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Smith, S.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Mechanisms responsible for the ocular structural and functional changes that characterize the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (ICP) syndrome (VIIP) are unclear, but hypothesized to be secondary to the cephalad fluid shift experienced in spaceflight. This study will relate the fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight with VIIP symptoms. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during spaceflight, as well as the VIIP-related effects of those shifts, can be predicted preflight with acute hemodynamic manipulations, and also if lower body negative pressure (LBNP) can reverse the VIIP effects. METHODS: Physiologic variables will be examined pre-, in- and post-flight in 10 International Space Station crewmembers including: fluid compartmentalization (D2O and NaBr dilution); interstitial tissue thickness (ultrasound); vascular dimensions and dynamics (ultrasound and MRI (including cerebrospinal fluid pulsatility)); ocular measures (optical coherence tomography, intraocular pressure, ultrasound); and ICP measures (tympanic membrane displacement, otoacoustic emissions). Pre- and post-flight measures will be assessed while upright, supine and during 15 deg head-down tilt (HDT). In-flight measures will occur early and late during 6 or 12 month missions. LBNP will be evaluated as a countermeasure during HDT and during spaceflight. RESULTS: The first two crewmembers are in the preflight testing phase. Preliminary results characterize the acute fluid shifts experienced from upright, to supine and HDT postures (increased stroke volume, jugular dimensions and measures of ICP) which are reversed with 25 millimeters Hg LBNP. DISCUSSION: Initial results indicate that acute cephalad fluid shifts may be related to VIIP symptoms, but also may be reversible by LBNP. The effect of a chronic fluid shift has yet to be evaluated. Learning Objectives: Current spaceflight VIIP research is described

  2. Electrorheological fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Halsey, T.C.; Martin, J.E.

    1993-10-01

    An electrorheological fluid is a substance whose form changes in the presence of electric fields. Depending on the strength of the field to which it is subjected, an electrorheological fluid can run freely like water, ooze like honey or solidify like gelatin. Indeed, the substance can switch from ne state to another within a few milliseconds. Electrorheological fluids are easy to make; they consist of microscopic particles suspended in an insulating liquid. Yet they are not ready for most commercial applications. They tend to suffer from a number of problems, including structural weakness as solids, abrasiveness as liquids and chemical breakdown, especially at high temperatures. Automotive engineers could imagine, for instance, constructing an electrorheological clutch. It was also hoped that electrorheological fluids would lead to valveless hydraulic systems, in which solidifying fluid would shut off flow through a thin section of pipe. Electrorheological fluids also offer the possibility of a shock absorber that provides response times of milliseconds and does not require mechanical adjustments. 3 refs.

  3. Fluid Management System (FMS) fluid systems overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baird, R. S.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on fluid management system (FMS) fluid systems overview are presented. Topics addressed include: fluid management system description including system requirements (integrated nitrogen system, integrated water system, and integrated waste gas system) and physical description; and fluid management system evolution.

  4. Fluid Shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenger, Michael; Hargens, A.; Dulchavsky, S.; Ebert, D.; Lee, S.; Sargsyan, A.; Martin, D.; Lui, J.; Macias, B.; Arbeille, P.; Platts, S.

    2014-01-01

    NASA is focusing on long-duration missions on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions beyond low Earth orbit. Visual acuity changes observed after short-duration missions were largely transient, but more than 30% of ISS astronauts experience more profound, chronic changes with objective structural and functional findings such as papilledema and choroidal folds. Globe flattening, optic nerve sheath dilation, and optic nerve tortuosity also are apparent. This pattern is referred to as the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. VIIP signs and symptoms, as well as postflight lumbar puncture data, suggest that elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) may be associated with the space flight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. The purpose of this study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration space flight, and to correlate these findings with vision changes and other elements of the VIIP syndrome. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during space flight, as well as the VIIP-related effects of those shifts, is predicted by the crewmember's pre-flight condition and responses to acute hemodynamic manipulations (such as head-down tilt). Lastly, we will evaluate the patterns of fluid distribution in ISS astronauts during acute reversal of fluid shifts through application of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) interventions to characterize and explain general and individual responses. We will examine a variety of physiologic variables in 10 long-duration ISS crewmembers using the test conditions and timeline presented in the Figure below. Measures include: (1) fluid compartmentalization (total body water by D2O, extracellular fluid by NaBr, intracellular fluid by calculation, plasma volume by CO rebreathe, interstitial fluid by calculation); (2) forehead/eyelids, tibia, calcaneus tissue thickness (by ultrasound

  5. The impact of surfactant protein-A on ozone-induced changes in the mouse bronchoalveolar lavage proteome

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Ozone is a major component of air pollution. Exposure to this powerful oxidizing agent can cause or exacerbate many lung conditions, especially those involving innate immunity. Surfactant protein-A (SP-A) plays many roles in innate immunity by participating directly in host defense as it exerts opsonin function, or indirectly via its ability to regulate alveolar macrophages and other innate immune cells. The mechanism(s) responsible for ozone-induced pathophysiology, while likely related to oxidative stress, are not well understood. Methods We employed 2-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE), a discovery proteomics approach, coupled with MALDI-ToF/ToF to compare the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) proteomes in wild type (WT) and SP-A knockout (KO) mice and to assess the impact of ozone or filtered air on the expression of BAL proteins. Using the PANTHER database and the published literature most identified proteins were placed into three functional groups. Results We identified 66 proteins and focused our analysis on these proteins. Many of them fell into three categories: defense and immunity; redox regulation; and protein metabolism, modification and chaperones. In response to the oxidative stress of acute ozone exposure (2 ppm; 3 hours) there were many significant changes in levels of expression of proteins in these groups. Most of the proteins in the redox group were decreased, the proteins involved in protein metabolism increased, and roughly equal numbers of increases and decreases were seen in the defense and immunity group. Responses between WT and KO mice were similar in many respects. However, the percent change was consistently greater in the KO mice and there were more changes that achieved statistical significance in the KO mice, with levels of expression in filtered air-exposed KO mice being closer to ozone-exposed WT mice than to filtered air-exposed WT mice. Conclusion We postulate that SP-A plays a role in reactive oxidant

  6. Ozone-induced oxygen radical release from bronchoalveolar lavage cells and airway hyper-responsiveness in dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, W H; Conlon, P D; O'Byrne, P M

    1995-01-01

    1. Ozone inhalation causes airway hyper-responsiveness and airway inflammation in dogs. The purpose of this study was to determine whether these effects are associated with increases in oxygen radical production from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells. 2. Twelve randomly selected dogs were studied twice, 4 weeks apart. On each study day, acetylcholine (ACh) airway responsiveness was measured before and 1 h after ozone (3 p.p.m., 30 min) or dry air inhalation, followed by BAL. The response to ACh was expressed as the concentration causing an increase in lung resistance of 5 cmH2O l-1 s-1 above baseline. Spontaneous and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) (2.4 mumol l-1)-stimulated oxygen radical release from washed BAL cells (4 x 10(6) cells ml-1) was measured by luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence in a luminometer at 37 degrees C. 3. Ozone inhalation caused airway hyper-responsiveness. The concentration of ACh causing an increase in lung resistance of 5 cmH2O l-1 s-1 (the 'provocative' concentration) fell from 4.68 mg ml-1 (% S.E.M., 1.43) before, to 0.48 mg ml-1 (% S.E.M., 1.60) after ozone (P < 0.0001). Spontaneous chemiluminescence area under the curve (AUC) significantly increased after ozone from 4.08 mV (10 min) (% S.E.M., 1.28) after dry air to 8.25 mV (10 min; % S.E.M., 1.29) after ozone (P = 0.007). Ozone inhalation also increased PMA-stimulated chemiluminescence AUC from 18.97 mV (10 min; % S.E.M., 1.18) after dry air to 144.03 mV (10 min; % S.E.M., 1.45) after ozone (P = 0.0001). The increase in PMA-stimulated chemiluminescence was significantly correlated with ozone-induced ACh airway hyper-responsiveness (r = 0.83, P < 0.001). 4. These results indicate that inhaled ozone increases oxygen radical release from BAL cells and suggest that oxygen radicals are important in causing ozone-induced airway hyper-responsiveness. PMID:7562641

  7. Evaluation of bronchoalveolar lavage profiling as a screening method for pulmonary damage induced by nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/), fly ash, and NO/sub 2/-fly ash combinations

    SciTech Connect

    DeNicola, D.B.

    1981-01-01

    Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid profiling (BALP) was used to detect pulmonary injury induced by acute inhalation of NO/sub 2/ gas and fly ash alone and in combination. Also, BALP was utilized in an investigation into potential NO/sub 2/-fly ash synergism. The components measured in the BALP included lactate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, acid phosphatase, ..beta..-glucuronidase, alkaline phosphatase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase activity levels, sialic acid and total protein contents, and total and differential cell counts. BALP analysis was effective in detecting the multifocal necrotizing terminal bronchiolitis produced in three groups of hamsters exposed to increasing concentrations of NO/sub 2/ gas (12, 17 and 22 ppM) for 48 continuous hours. BALP and histopathologic changes correlated well and followed a dose-related pattern. Increased numbers of neutrophils and macrophages were the most sensitive BALP indicators of NO/sub 2/ damage. To evaluate the potential acute toxic effects of fly ash, three groups of hamsters were exposed to increasing concentrations of fly ash alone (0, 69, and 123 mg/m/sup 3/). No significant BALP or histopathologic alterations were observed. To evaluate potential NO/sub 2/-fly ash synergism, three groups of hamsters were exposed to 0, 12, and 17 ppM NO/sub 2/ for 48 continuous hours with the addition of 0, 115, and 105 mg/m/sup 3/ fly ash respectively during the initial 6 hours. No consistent significant BALP difference between hamsters exposed to NO/sub 2/ + fly ash exposed hamsters. To further evaluate synergistic effects between these two inhalants, the acute inhalation (48 continuous hours) LC/sub 50/ of NO/sub 2/ gas alone and in combination with fly ash were determined and estimated to be 36 and 31 ppM respectively, which represented a slight but insignificant decrease in the NO/sub 2/ + fly ash group.

  8. Fluid extraction

    DOEpatents

    Wai, Chien M.; Laintz, Kenneth E.

    1999-01-01

    A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is a fluorinated .beta.-diketone. In especially preferred embodiments the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide, and the chelating agent comprises a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate, or a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkylphosphine oxide. Although a trialkyl phosphate can extract lanthanides and actinides from acidic solutions, a binary mixture comprising a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate or a trialkylphosphine oxide tends to enhance the extraction efficiencies for actinides and lanthanides. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The method is particularly useful for extracting actinides and lanthanides from acidic solutions. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  9. OZONE DOSE AND EFFECT IN HUMANS AND RATS - A COMPARISON USING OXYGEN-18 LABELING AND BRONCHOALVEOLAR LAVAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In an effort to improve risk assessments for ozone (03) we have compared the incorporation of inhaled oxygen-18 labeled 03 (1803) in the lungs of humans and laboratory rats. ells and fluids obtainable through bronchoalveolor lovage (BAL) were examined following exposure to 180, t...

  10. Drilling fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, J.A.; Patel, B.B.

    1987-11-03

    A drilling fluid additive mixture is described consisting essentially of a sulfoalkylated tannin in admixture with a non-sulfoalkylated alkali-solubilized lignite wherein the weight ratio of the sulfoalkylated tannin to the non-sulfoalkylated lignite is in the range from about 2:1 to about 1:1. The sulfoalkylated tannin has been sulfoalkylated with at least one -(C(R-)/sub 2/-SO/sub 3/M side chain, wherein each R is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen and alkyl radicals containing from 1 to about 5 carbon atoms, and M is selected from the group consisting of ammonium and the alkali metals.

  11. Cerebrospinal fluid.

    PubMed

    Jerrard, D A; Hanna, J R; Schindelheim, G L

    2001-08-01

    A quick and accurate diagnosis of maladies affecting the central nervous system (CNS) is imperative. Procurement and analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are paramount in helping the clinician determine a patient's clinical condition. Various staining methods, measurement of white blood cell counts, glucose and protein levels, recognition of xanthochromia, and microbiologic studies are CSF parameters that are collectively important in the ultimate determination by a clinician of the presence or absence of a catastrophic CNS condition. Many of these CNS parameters have significant limitations that should be recognized to minimize under treating patients with catastrophic illness. PMID:11489408

  12. Peritoneal Fluid Analysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Peritoneal Fluid Analysis Share this page: Was this page helpful? Formal name: Peritoneal Fluid Analysis Related tests: Pleural Fluid Analysis , Pericardial Fluid ...

  13. Pleural Fluid Analysis Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Pleural Fluid Analysis Share this page: Was this page helpful? Formal name: Pleural Fluid Analysis Related tests: Pericardial Fluid Analysis , Peritoneal Fluid ...

  14. Clearance of bile and trypsin in rat lungs following aspiration of human gastric fluid

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Jason H.; Chang, Jui-Chih; Foltz, Emily; Bell, Sadé M.; Pi, Cinthia; Azad, Sassan; Everett, Mary Lou; Holzknecht, Zoie E.; Sanders, Nathan L.; Parker, William; Davis, R. Duane; Keshavjee, Shaf; Lin, Shu S.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: In the clinical setting, there is no reliable tool for diagnosing gastric aspiration. A potential way of diagnosing gastric fluid aspiration entails bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) with subsequent examination of the BAL fluid for gastric fluid components that are exogenous to the lungs. The objective of this study was to determine the longevity of the gastric fluid components bile and trypsin in the lung, in order to provide an estimate of the time frame in which assessment of these components in the BAL might effectively be used as a measure of aspiration. Materials and Methods: Human gastric fluid (0.5 mg/kg) was infused in the right lung of intubated male Fischer 344 rats (n = 30). Animals were sacrificed at specified times following the experimentally induced aspiration, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected. Bile concentrations were analyzed by an enzyme-linked chromatogenic method, and the concentration of trypsin was quantified using an ELISA. Data were analyzed using non-linear regression and a one-phase decay equation. Results: In this experimental model, the half-life of bile was 9.3 hours (r 2 = 0.81), and the half-life of trypsin was 9.0 hours (r 2 = 0.68). Conclusions: The half-lives of bile and trypsin in the rodent aspiration model suggest that the ability to detect aspiration may be limited to a few days post-aspiration. If studies using rats are any indication, it may be most effective to collect BAL samples within the first 24 hours of suspected aspiration events in order to detect aspiration. PMID:26873328

  15. A competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for quantification of tetrastatin in body fluids and tumor extracts.

    PubMed

    Dupont-Deshorgue, A; Oudart, J B; Brassart, B; Deslee, G; Perotin, J M; Diebold, M D; Monboisse, J C; Ramont, L; Brassart-Pasco, S

    2015-08-01

    Basement membrane collagens or derived fragments are measured in biological fluids such as blood and urine of patients and appear to be useful for diagnosis, prognostication, or treatment monitoring as proposed for endostatin, a fragment of collagen XVIII, or tumstatin, a fragment of collagen IV. Tetrastatin, the NC1 alpha 4 collagen IV domain, was previously reported to inhibit tumor growth and angiogenesis. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a method to measure tetrastatin concentrations in human fluids. We developed a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). It allowed measuring tetrastatin levels in human serum, bronchial aspiration and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids, and lung tissue extracts. The tetrastatin level was significantly higher in tumor tissues than in healthy lung tissues. Tetrastatin competitive ELISA could be useful to quantify tetrastatin in tissues and biological fluids for the diagnosis or prognostication of diseases in which basement membrane metabolism may be altered, especially tumor progression. PMID:25935259

  16. [Amniotic fluid embolism: report of the successful outcome of a case with inaugural cardiac arrest and early DIVC complicated by hemoperitoneum of iatrogen origin and bleeding of an hepatic adenoma].

    PubMed

    Falzone, E; Ricard, J-D; Pachy, F; Mandelbrot, L; Keïta, H

    2012-10-01

    Amniotic fluid embolism is a relatively rare clinical entity and with difficult medical recognition. However, it is the second leading cause of maternal mortality. We report here the case of a 32-year-old patient who underwent elective caesarean section complicated by an amniotic fluid embolism with cardiac arrest. The presence of a major disseminated intravascular coagulation favored the occurrence of a retroperitoneal hematoma of iatrogenic origin on attempt of femoral venous catheterization and that of hemoperitoneum on bleeding of an hepatic adenoma. The diagnostic of amniotic fluid embolism was confirmed by the presence of amniotic cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage. The patient survived without sequelae. PMID:22925937

  17. Gyroelastic fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Kerbel, G.D.

    1981-01-20

    A study is made of a scale model in three dimensions of a guiding center plasma within the purview of gyroelastic (also known as finite gyroradius-near theta pinch) magnetohydrodynamics. The (nonlinear) system sustains a particular symmetry called isorrhopy which permits the decoupling of fluid modes from drift modes. Isorrhopic equilibria are analyzed within the framework of geometrical optics resulting in (local) dispersion relations and ray constants. A general scheme is developed to evolve an arbitrary linear perturbation of a screwpinch equilibrium as an invertible integral transform (over the complete set of generalized eigenfunctions defined naturally by the equilibrium). Details of the structure of the function space and the associated spectra are elucidated. Features of the (global) dispersion relation owing to the presence of gyroelastic stabilization are revealed. An energy principle is developed to study the stability of the tubular screwpinch.

  18. Fluid channeling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Donald Y. (Inventor); Hitch, Bradley D. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A fluid channeling system includes a fluid ejector, a heat exchanger, and a fluid pump disposed in series flow communication The ejector includes a primary inlet for receiving a primary fluid, and a secondary inlet for receiving a secondary fluid which is mixed with the primary fluid and discharged therefrom as ejector discharge. Heat is removed from the ejector discharge in the heat exchanger, and the heat exchanger discharge is compressed in the fluid pump and channeled to the ejector secondary inlet as the secondary fluid In an exemplary embodiment, the temperature of the primary fluid is greater than the maximum operating temperature of a fluid motor powering the fluid pump using a portion of the ejector discharge, with the secondary fluid being mixed with the primary fluid so that the ejector discharge temperature is equal to about the maximum operating temperature of the fluid motor.

  19. Thermophysical Properties of Fluids and Fluid Mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Sengers, Jan V.; Anisimov, Mikhail A.

    2004-05-03

    The major goal of the project was to study the effect of critical fluctuations on the thermophysical properties and phase behavior of fluids and fluid mixtures. Long-range fluctuations appear because of the presence of critical phase transitions. A global theory of critical fluctuations was developed and applied to represent thermodynamic properties and transport properties of molecular fluids and fluid mixtures. In the second phase of the project, the theory was extended to deal with critical fluctuations in complex fluids such as polymer solutions and electrolyte solutions. The theoretical predictions have been confirmed by computer simulations and by light-scattering experiments. Fluctuations in fluids in nonequilibrium states have also been investigated.

  20. Fluid sampling tool

    DOEpatents

    Garcia, Anthony R.; Johnston, Roger G.; Martinez, Ronald K.

    2000-01-01

    A fluid-sampling tool for obtaining a fluid sample from a container. When used in combination with a rotatable drill, the tool bores a hole into a container wall, withdraws a fluid sample from the container, and seals the borehole. The tool collects fluid sample without exposing the operator or the environment to the fluid or to wall shavings from the container.

  1. Joint fluid Gram stain

    MedlinePlus

    Gram stain of joint fluid ... A sample of joint fluid is needed. The fluid sample is sent to a lab where a small drop is placed in a ... on how to prepare for the removal of joint fluid, see joint fluid aspiration .

  2. [Contribution to the study of the phagocytosing ability of broncho-alveolar macrophages in smokers and non-smokers (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Kleisbauer, J P; Poirier, R; Colonna, J; Laval, P

    1980-01-01

    Broncho-alveolar macrophages were obtained by bronchial washing from 20 pairs of matched smokers and non-smokers. The following parameters were studied: phagocytosing ability of macrophages on silica in cell culture in the presence or absence of cotinin, a biocompound of nicotin; migration inhibitory factor (MIF), and power and level of alpha 1-antitrypsin in sera of patients. The results are reported as a function of absolute number of macrophages obtained, their viability, the amount of cigarettes smoked, and the action of cotinin. MIF was stronger in the smokers. There was no difference between the groups as far as power and level of alpha 1-antitrypsin are concerned. Cotinin provokes important lesions in the macrophages. The phagocytic power was not significantly different in smokers and non smokers, but the results were better in non-smokers. PMID:7003666

  3. [Neutrophilia in the bronchoalveolar lavage of patients with AIDS and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Reflections on its prognostic value in the Spanish setting].

    PubMed

    Sauleda, J; Gea, J; Aran, X; Gimferrer, E; Conangla, M; Broquetas, J M

    1994-04-01

    The prognostic value of neutrophilia (> 5%) in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in our context is studied in 21 patients with AIDS and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Neutrophilia does not seem to be a good prognostic indicator in our context. We have found this condition, with a mean of 6 +/- 4%, in only 33% of our sample. The sensitivity of this parameter with respect to risk of death was very low (25%), while specificity was moderate (65%). In contrast with what has been reported in studies done with Anglo-Saxon populations, neutrophilia in BAL is probably of little prognostic use in our context. This may be due to various factors, among them the type of population (most being intravenous drug users) and the therapeutic protocol (early empirical treatment). PMID:8025785

  4. Pulmonary paracoccidioidomycosis in resistant and susceptible mice: relationship among progression of infection, bronchoalveolar cell activation, cellular immune response, and specific isotype patterns.

    PubMed Central

    Cano, L E; Singer-Vermes, L M; Vaz, C A; Russo, M; Calich, V L

    1995-01-01

    Using the intraperitoneal route of infection, we demonstrated previously that A/Sn mice are resistant and B10.A mice are susceptible to Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection. Since paracoccidioidomycosis is a deep systemic granulomatous disorder that involves primarily the lungs and then disseminates to other organs and systems, we herein investigated the course of the infection and the resulting immune responses developed by A/Sn and B10.A mice after intratracheal infection with P. brasiliensis yeast cells. It was observed that A/Sn mice develop a chronic benign pulmonary-restricted infection, whereas B10.A mice present a chronic progressive disseminated disease. A/Sn animals were able to restrict fungal infection to the lungs despite the increased fungal load at the beginning of the infection. This behavior was associated with low mortality rates, the presence of adequate and persistent delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions, oxidative burst by bronchoalveolar cells, and production of high levels of specific antibodies in which immunoglobulin G2a (IgG2a) and IgG3 isotype titers were significantly higher than those observed in the susceptible mice. In contrast, B10.A animals showed a constant pulmonary fungal load and dissemination to the liver and spleen. This infection pattern resulted in high mortality rates, discrete delayed-type hypersensitivity reactivity, poorly activated or nonactivated bronchoalveolar cells, and production of specific IgG2b isotype titers significantly higher than those observed in the resistant mice at week 4 of infection. Thus, A/Sn and B10.A mice maintain the same resistance patterns as those observed previously with the intraperitoneal route of infection. Furthermore, the obtained results suggest that resistance to paracoccidioidomycosis is associated with T-cell, macrophage, and B-cell activities that are known to be mediated by gamma interferon. PMID:7729885

  5. Effects of smoking and irradiated volume on inflammatory response in the lung of irradiated breast cancer patients evaluated with bronchoalveolar lavage

    SciTech Connect

    Bjermer, L.; Franzen, L.; Littbrand, B.; Nilsson, K.; Angstroem, T.H.; Henriksson, R. )

    1990-04-01

    Quantitative measurements of the effects of irradiation on normal tissues in humans have been hard to obtain because most tissues are inaccessible and/or direct responses are difficult to quantify in a nondestructive manner. Pneumonitis and fibrotic lung disease are adverse effects seen in varying intensity in patients treated with radiotherapy for carcinomas of the thorax, e.g., breast cancer. In the present study the aim was to evaluate the inflammatory reaction in the underlying parenchyma following postoperative irradiation with bronchoalveolar lavage technique. Twenty-one patients with breast cancer stage T1N0M0 received radiotherapy with photons to a target dose of 56 Gy following breast conservative surgery. Nineteen healthy controls were also included. The results showed a clear elevation of neutrophils, mast cells, eosinophils, and lymphocytes in the total irradiated groups, compared to controls. When subclassifying the material according to smoking habit, it was obvious that the smokers displayed a significantly decreased inflammatory reaction, i.e., reduced levels of mast cells and lymphocytes, compared to both nonsmoking controls and patients. Eosinophils were seen in an elevated number in all irradiated patients. Radiological signs of pneumonitis were observed in three patients, all in the nonsmoking group. No correlation was found between the volume of lung irradiated and the inflammatory response. It is concluded that bronchoalveolar lavage is a suitable and sensitive method for investigating radiotherapy-induced reactions in the human lung. Furthermore, ongoing smoking during the treatment depressed the inflammatory response in the lung parenchyma induced by irradiation. The present study as well as earlier observations justify further studies concerning the possibility of interaction of smoking with cancer treatment.

  6. Pulmonary paracoccidioidomycosis in resistant and susceptible mice: relationship among progression of infection, bronchoalveolar cell activation, cellular immune response, and specific isotype patterns.

    PubMed

    Cano, L E; Singer-Vermes, L M; Vaz, C A; Russo, M; Calich, V L

    1995-05-01

    Using the intraperitoneal route of infection, we demonstrated previously that A/Sn mice are resistant and B10.A mice are susceptible to Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection. Since paracoccidioidomycosis is a deep systemic granulomatous disorder that involves primarily the lungs and then disseminates to other organs and systems, we herein investigated the course of the infection and the resulting immune responses developed by A/Sn and B10.A mice after intratracheal infection with P. brasiliensis yeast cells. It was observed that A/Sn mice develop a chronic benign pulmonary-restricted infection, whereas B10.A mice present a chronic progressive disseminated disease. A/Sn animals were able to restrict fungal infection to the lungs despite the increased fungal load at the beginning of the infection. This behavior was associated with low mortality rates, the presence of adequate and persistent delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions, oxidative burst by bronchoalveolar cells, and production of high levels of specific antibodies in which immunoglobulin G2a (IgG2a) and IgG3 isotype titers were significantly higher than those observed in the susceptible mice. In contrast, B10.A animals showed a constant pulmonary fungal load and dissemination to the liver and spleen. This infection pattern resulted in high mortality rates, discrete delayed-type hypersensitivity reactivity, poorly activated or nonactivated bronchoalveolar cells, and production of specific IgG2b isotype titers significantly higher than those observed in the resistant mice at week 4 of infection. Thus, A/Sn and B10.A mice maintain the same resistance patterns as those observed previously with the intraperitoneal route of infection. Furthermore, the obtained results suggest that resistance to paracoccidioidomycosis is associated with T-cell, macrophage, and B-cell activities that are known to be mediated by gamma interferon. PMID:7729885

  7. Ciliary fluid transport enhanced by viscoelastic fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Hanliang; Kanso, Eva

    2015-11-01

    Motile cilia encounter complex, non-Newtonian fluids as they beat to gain self-propulsion of cells, transport fluids, and mix particles. Recently there have been many studies on swimming in complex fluids, both experimentally and theoretically. However the role of the non-Newtonian fluid in the ciliary transport system remains largely unknown. Here we use a one-way-coupled immersed boundary method to evaluate the impacts of viscoelastic fluid (Oldroyd-B fluid) on the fluid transport generated by an array of rabbit tracheal cilia beating in a channel at low Reynolds number. Our results show that the viscoelasticity could enhance the fluid transport generated by the rabbit tracheal cilia beating pattern and the flow is sensitive to the Deborah number in the range we investigate.

  8. Fluid Inclusion Gas Analysis

    DOE Data Explorer

    Dilley, Lorie

    2013-01-01

    Fluid inclusion gas analysis for wells in various geothermal areas. Analyses used in developing fluid inclusion stratigraphy for wells and defining fluids across the geothermal fields. Each sample has mass spectrum counts for 180 chemical species.

  9. Synovial fluid analysis

    MedlinePlus

    Joint fluid analysis; Joint fluid aspiration ... El-Gabalawy HS. Synovial fluid analysis, synovial biopsy, and synovial pathology. In: Firestein GS, Budd RC, Gabriel SE, McInnes IB, O'Dell JR, eds. Kelly's Textbook of ...

  10. Pleural fluid Gram stain

    MedlinePlus

    Gram stain of pleural fluid ... lungs fill a person's chest with air. If fluid builds up in the space outside the lungs ... chest, it can cause many problems. Removing the fluid can relieve a person's breathing problems and help ...

  11. Pericardial fluid culture

    MedlinePlus

    Culture - pericardial fluid ... the heart (the pericardium). A small amount of fluid is removed. You may have an ECG and ... x-ray after the test. Sometimes the pericardial fluid is taken during open heart surgery. The sample ...

  12. Pleural fluid culture

    MedlinePlus

    Culture - pleural fluid ... is used to get a sample of pleural fluid. The sample is sent to a laboratory and ... the chest wall into the pleural space. As fluid drains into a collection bottle, you may cough ...

  13. Fluid sampling device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Studenick, D. K. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An inlet leak is described for sampling gases, more specifically, for selectively sampling multiple fluids. This fluid sampling device includes a support frame. A plurality of fluid inlet devices extend through the support frame and each of the fluid inlet devices include a longitudinal aperture. An opening device that is responsive to a control signal selectively opens the aperture to allow fluid passage. A closing device that is responsive to another control signal selectively closes the aperture for terminating further fluid flow.

  14. Fluid mechanics in fluids at rest.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Howard

    2012-07-01

    Using readily available experimental thermophoretic particle-velocity data it is shown, contrary to current teachings, that for the case of compressible flows independent dye- and particle-tracer velocity measurements of the local fluid velocity at a point in a flowing fluid do not generally result in the same fluid velocity measure. Rather, tracer-velocity equality holds only for incompressible flows. For compressible fluids, each type of tracer is shown to monitor a fundamentally different fluid velocity, with (i) a dye (or any other such molecular-tagging scheme) measuring the fluid's mass velocity v appearing in the continuity equation and (ii) a small, physicochemically and thermally inert, macroscopic (i.e., non-Brownian), solid particle measuring the fluid's volume velocity v(v). The term "compressibility" as used here includes not only pressure effects on density, but also temperature effects thereon. (For example, owing to a liquid's generally nonzero isobaric coefficient of thermal expansion, nonisothermal liquid flows are to be regarded as compressible despite the general perception of liquids as being incompressible.) Recognition of the fact that two independent fluid velocities, mass- and volume-based, are formally required to model continuum fluid behavior impacts on the foundations of contemporary (monovelocity) fluid mechanics. Included therein are the Navier-Stokes-Fourier equations, which are now seen to apply only to incompressible fluids (a fact well-known, empirically, to experimental gas kineticists). The findings of a difference in tracer velocities heralds the introduction into fluid mechanics of a general bipartite theory of fluid mechanics, bivelocity hydrodynamics [Brenner, Int. J. Eng. Sci. 54, 67 (2012)], differing from conventional hydrodynamics in situations entailing compressible flows and reducing to conventional hydrodynamics when the flow is incompressible, while being applicable to both liquids and gases. PMID:23005525

  15. Fluid transport container

    DOEpatents

    DeRoos, Bradley G.; Downing, Jr., John P.; Neal, Michael P.

    1995-01-01

    An improved fluid container for the transport, collection, and dispensing of a sample fluid that maintains the fluid integrity relative to the conditions of the location at which it is taken. More specifically, the invention is a fluid sample transport container that utilizes a fitment for both penetrating and sealing a storage container under controlled conditions. Additionally, the invention allows for the periodic withdrawal of portions of the sample fluid without contamination or intermixing from the environment surrounding the sample container.

  16. Fluid transport container

    DOEpatents

    DeRoos, B.G.; Downing, J.P. Jr.; Neal, M.P.

    1995-11-14

    An improved fluid container for the transport, collection, and dispensing of a sample fluid that maintains the fluid integrity relative to the conditions of the location at which it is taken. More specifically, the invention is a fluid sample transport container that utilizes a fitting for both penetrating and sealing a storage container under controlled conditions. Additionally, the invention allows for the periodic withdrawal of portions of the sample fluid without contamination or intermixing from the environment surrounding the sample container. 13 figs.

  17. Lung disease associated with progressive systemic sclerosis. Assessment of interlobar variation by bronchoalveolar lavage and comparison with noninvasive evaluation of disease activity

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, K.S.; Smith, E.A.; Kinsella, M.; Schabel, S.I.; Silver, R.M. )

    1990-02-01

    Progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS), or scleroderma, is a disease of unknown etiology that involves many organ systems, including the lungs. The interstitial lung disease of systemic sclerosis is becoming an increasing cause of morbidity and mortality. This process has been previously evaluated with single-site bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), gallium scanning, pulmonary function testing, and, occasionally, by open lung biopsy. As BAL has been shown to correlate well with open lung biopsy in systemic sclerosis, we sought to determine if single-site BAL accurately reflects alveolitis in a second site in the lung, and if BAL results correlate with other noninvasive tests of lung inflammation: gallium uptake, chest radiography, or arterial blood gas analysis. We performed 17 studies in 13 patients with scleroderma and found no significant lobar differences in lavage results or gallium scanning. By our criteria for normal versus active alveolitis, only two of 17 patient lavages would have been classified as normal by one side and abnormal by the other side. Although percent gallium uptake was equal bilaterally and supported the concept of alveolitis uniformity, gallium uptake intensity did not correlate with activity as measured by BAL. Furthermore, chest radiograph and arterial blood gas analysis did not correlate with BAL results or gallium scanning. We believe these data support the suitability of single-site lavage in the investigation of systemic-sclerosis-associated alveolitis and diminish the importance of gallium scanning in the investigation of systemic sclerosis pulmonary disease.

  18. Prediction of therapeutic response in steroid-treated pulmonary sarcoidosis. Evaluation of clinical parameters, bronchoalveolar lavage, gallium-67 lung scanning, and serum angiotensin-converting enzyme levels

    SciTech Connect

    Hollinger, W.M.; Staton, G.W. Jr.; Fajman, W.A.; Gilman, M.J.; Pine, J.R.; Check, I.J.

    1985-07-01

    To find a pretreatment predictor of steroid responsiveness in pulmonary sarcoidosis the authors studied 21 patients before and after steroid treatment by clinical evaluation, pulmonary function tests, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), gallium-67 lung scan, and serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (SACE) level. Although clinical score, forced vital capacity (FVC), BAL percent lymphocytes (% lymphs), quantitated gallium-67 lung uptake, and SACE levels all improved with therapy, only the pretreatment BAL % lymphs correlated with the improvement in FVC (r = 0.47, p less than 0.05). Pretreatment BAL % lymphs of greater than or equal to 35% predicted improvement in FVC of 10/11 patients, whereas among 10 patients with BAL % lymphs less than 35%, 5 patients improved and 5 deteriorated. Clinical score, pulmonary function parameters, quantitated gallium-67 lung uptake, and SACE level used alone, in combination with BAL % lymphs or in combination with each other, did not improve this predictive value. The authors conclude that steroid therapy improves a number of clinical and laboratory parameters in sarcoidosis, but only the pretreatment BAL % lymphs are useful in predicting therapeutic responsiveness.

  19. Rapid Detection and Identification of Mucormycetes in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Samples from Immunocompromised Patients with Pulmonary Infiltrates by Use of High-Resolution Melt Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Racil, Zdenek; Hrncirova, Kristyna; Kocmanova, Iva; Volfova, Pavlina; Ricna, Dita; Bejdak, Petr; Moulis, Mojmir; Pavlovsky, Zdenek; Weinbergerova, Barbora; Toskova, Martina; Mayer, Jiri

    2014-01-01

    Rapid differential diagnostics of pulmonary infiltrates suspected of invasive fungal disease in an immunocompromised host and early initiation of effective antifungal therapy are crucial for patient outcomes. There are no serological tests available to detect mucormycetes; therefore, PCR-based methods are highly suitable. We validated our previously published PCR followed by high-resolution melt analysis (PCR/HRMA) to detect Rhizopus spp., Rhizomucor pusillus, Lichtheimia corymbifera, and Mucor spp. in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples from immunocompromised patients who were at risk of invasive fungal disease. All PCR/HRMA-positive samples were retested using novel real-time quantitative PCR (RQ PCR) assays specific to the species identified. In total, between January 2009 and December 2012 we analyzed 99 BAL samples from 86 patients with pulmonary abnormalities using PCR/HRMA. Ninety (91%) BAL samples were negative, and 9 (9%) samples were positive. The sensitivity and specificity of PCR/HRMA were 100% and 93%, respectively. By combining the positive results of PCR/HRMA with positive RQ PCR results, the specificity was raised to 98%. PCR/HRMA, due to its high negative predictive value (99%), represents a fast and reliable tool for routine BAL sample screening for the differential diagnosis of pulmonary infiltrates in immunocompromised patients for the four most clinically important mucormycetes. PMID:24850354

  20. Rapid detection and identification of mucormycetes in bronchoalveolar lavage samples from immunocompromised patients with pulmonary infiltrates by use of high-resolution melt analysis.

    PubMed

    Lengerova, Martina; Racil, Zdenek; Hrncirova, Kristyna; Kocmanova, Iva; Volfova, Pavlina; Ricna, Dita; Bejdak, Petr; Moulis, Mojmir; Pavlovsky, Zdenek; Weinbergerova, Barbora; Toskova, Martina; Mayer, Jiri

    2014-08-01

    Rapid differential diagnostics of pulmonary infiltrates suspected of invasive fungal disease in an immunocompromised host and early initiation of effective antifungal therapy are crucial for patient outcomes. There are no serological tests available to detect mucormycetes; therefore, PCR-based methods are highly suitable. We validated our previously published PCR followed by high-resolution melt analysis (PCR/HRMA) to detect Rhizopus spp., Rhizomucor pusillus, Lichtheimia corymbifera, and Mucor spp. in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples from immunocompromised patients who were at risk of invasive fungal disease. All PCR/HRMA-positive samples were retested using novel real-time quantitative PCR (RQ PCR) assays specific to the species identified. In total, between January 2009 and December 2012 we analyzed 99 BAL samples from 86 patients with pulmonary abnormalities using PCR/HRMA. Ninety (91%) BAL samples were negative, and 9 (9%) samples were positive. The sensitivity and specificity of PCR/HRMA were 100% and 93%, respectively. By combining the positive results of PCR/HRMA with positive RQ PCR results, the specificity was raised to 98%. PCR/HRMA, due to its high negative predictive value (99%), represents a fast and reliable tool for routine BAL sample screening for the differential diagnosis of pulmonary infiltrates in immunocompromised patients for the four most clinically important mucormycetes. PMID:24850354

  1. Detection of Aspergillus fumigatus-specific DNA, (1-3)-beta-D-glucan and galactomannan in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage specimens of experimentally infected rats.

    PubMed

    Khan, Z U; Ahmad, S; Theyyathel, A M

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this study was to detect Aspergillus fumigatus-specific DNA by nested PCR (nPCR) in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens of experimentally infected rats and compare the results with (1-3)-beta-D-glucan (BDG) and galactomannan (GM) detection. Sixty Wistar rats, immunosuppressed with an intraperitoneal injection of cyclophosphamide (70 mg kg(-1)) were infected with 1 x 10(6)A. fumigatus conidia. The rats were killed on days 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 postinfection in groups of six each and their BAL, blood and lungs were cultured. The A. fumigatus-specific DNA, BDG and GM in serum and BAL were detected by nPCR, Fungitell kit and Aspergillus Platelia kit respectively. Base line values were obtained by using sera from six healthy rats. Except the lungs, blood and BAL specimens of all the infected rats were negative for A. fumigatus culture. The BDG, GM and nPCR positivity in serum specimens was 80%, 77% and 63% respectively. The sensitivity of GM and nPCR tests in BAL specimens was 77% and 70% respectively. The data suggest that BDG and GM appear early in the course of infection, and have similar kinetics (r = 0.483, P = 0.007). Hence, their combined detection could be useful in the early diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis. PMID:18254749

  2. Diagnostic value of DNA and (1-->3)- beta-D-glucan detection in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage of mice experimentally infected with Fusarium oxysporum.

    PubMed

    Khan, Z U; Ahmad, S; Theyyathel, A M

    2008-01-01

    A sensitive and highly specific nested PCR (nPCR) protocol was developed for the specific detection of Fusarium oxysporum DNA in clinical specimens. The diagnostic value of F. oxysporum-specific DNA and (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan (BDG) detection was subsequently evaluated in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens of mice infected intravenously with F. oxysporum conidia. Mice were sacrificed in groups of six daily up to day 8 and then on days 11 and 14. The F. oxysporum-specific DNA and BDG in serum and BAL specimens were detected using nPCR and a Fungitell kit, respectively. Cultures of lung homogenate of all of the infected animals yielded F. oxysporum and the fungus was also observed in KOH/Calcofluor mounts of 67 % of the tissues. The BDG (cut-off value 80 pg ml(-1)) and nPCR sensitivity in BAL and serum specimens was 15 and 98 %, and 92 and 75 %, respectively. Combined detection of F. oxysporum DNA and BDG in serum enhanced the sensitivity to 98 %. However, the kinetics of the two markers were slightly different. Whilst BDG positivity in serum remained high throughout the infection period, nPCR positivity declined slowly. The data obtained in this study suggest that combined detection of BDG and DNA in serum offers a sensitive and specific diagnostic approach for invasive Fusarium infection. PMID:18065665

  3. Diagnostic value of DNA, (1-3)-beta-d-glucan, and galactomannan detection in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage of mice experimentally infected with Aspergillus terreus.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Suhail; Khan, Ziauddin U; Theyyathel, Ajmal Muliyam

    2007-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of Aspergillus terreus-specific DNA, (1-3)-beta-d-glucan (BDG), and galactomannan (GM) in immunosuppressed mice infected intravenously with A. terreus conidia and sacrificed in groups of 12 each on days 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9. A. terreus-specific DNA, BDG, and GM in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) were detected by nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR), Fungitell kit (Associates of Cape Cod, E. Falmouth, MA), and Aspergillus Platelia kit (Bio-Rad, Marnes-laCoquette, France), respectively. Cultures of lung homogenate of all the animals yielded A. terreus. The BDG positivity, GM positivity, and nPCR positivity in serum specimens were 43%, 78%, and 73%, respectively. Combined detection enhanced the positivity to 95% for A. terreus DNA and GM, 83% for GM and BDG, and 95% for DNA, GM, and BDG. In BAL, the GM positivity and nPCR positivity were 80% and 81%, respectively, whereas combined detection increased the positivity to 98%. Detection of GM and DNA offers a sensitive and specific diagnostic option for invasive aspergillosis. PMID:17574786

  4. Cell profile of BAL fluid in children and adolescents with and without lung disease.

    PubMed

    Picinin, Isabela Furtado de Mendonça; Camargos, Paulo Augusto Moreira; Marguet, Christophe

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to review the literature on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cell profiles in healthy children and adolescents, as well as on the use of BAL as a diagnostic and follow-up tool for lung disease patients in this age bracket. To that end, we used the Medline database, compiling studies published between 1989 and 2009 employing the following MeSH descriptors (with Boolean operators) as search terms: bronchoalveolar lavage AND cytology OR cell AND child. In healthy children, the cell profile includes alveolar macrophages (> 80%), lymphocytes (approximately 10%), neutrophils (approximately 2%) and eosinophils (< 1%). The profile varies depending on the disease under study. The number of neutrophils is greater in wheezing children, especially in non-atopic children, as well as in those with pulmonary infectious and inflammatory profiles, including cystic fibrosis and interstitial lung disease. Eosinophil counts are elevated in children/adolescents with asthma and can reach high levels in those with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis or eosinophilic syndromes. In a heterogeneous group of diseases, the number of lymphocytes can increase. Evaluation of the BAL fluid cell profile, when used in conjunction with clinical and imaging findings, has proven to be an essential tool in the investigation of various lung diseases. Less invasive than transbronchial and open lung biopsies, BAL has great clinical value. Further studies adopting standard international protocols should be carried out. Such studies should involve various age groups and settings in order to obtain reference values for BAL fluid cell profiles, which are necessary for a more accurate interpretation of findings in children and adolescents with lung diseases. PMID:20625676

  5. Environmentally safe fluid extractor

    DOEpatents

    Sungaila, Zenon F.

    1993-07-06

    An environmentally safe fluid extraction device for use in mobile laboratory and industrial settings comprising a pump, compressor, valving system, waste recovery tank, fluid tank, and a exhaust filtering system.

  6. Environmentally safe fluid extractor

    DOEpatents

    Sungaila, Zenon F.

    1993-01-01

    An environmentally safe fluid extraction device for use in mobile laboratory and industrial settings comprising a pump, compressor, valving system, waste recovery tank, fluid tank, and a exhaust filtering system.

  7. Peritoneal fluid culture

    MedlinePlus

    Culture - peritoneal fluid ... sent to the laboratory for Gram stain and culture. The sample is checked to see if bacteria ... based on more than just the peritoneal fluid culture (which may be negative even if you have ...

  8. Pleural fluid analysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... of fluid that has collected in the pleural space. This is the space between the lining of the outside of the ... the chest. When fluid collects in the pleural space, the condition is called pleural effusion .

  9. Peritoneal fluid analysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... at fluid that has built up in the space in the abdomen around the internal organs. This area is called the peritoneal space. ... sample of fluid is removed from the peritoneal space using a needle and syringe. Your health care ...

  10. Pleural fluid smear

    MedlinePlus

    ... the fluid that has collected in the pleural space. This is the space between the lining of the outside of the ... the chest. When fluid collects in the pleural space, the condition is called pleural effusion .

  11. Amniotic fluid (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Amniotic fluid surrounds the growing fetus in the womb and protects the fetus from injury and temperature changes. ... of fetal movement and permits musculoskeletal development. The amniotic fluid can be withdrawn in a procedure called amniocentsis ...

  12. Electric fluid pump

    DOEpatents

    Van Dam, Jeremy Daniel; Turnquist, Norman Arnold; Raminosoa, Tsarafidy; Shah, Manoj Ramprasad; Shen, Xiaochun

    2015-09-29

    An electric machine is presented. The electric machine includes a hollow rotor; and a stator disposed within the hollow rotor, the stator defining a flow channel. The hollow rotor includes a first end portion defining a fluid inlet, a second end portion defining a fluid outlet; the fluid inlet, the fluid outlet, and the flow channel of the stator being configured to allow passage of a fluid from the fluid inlet to the fluid outlet via the flow channel; and wherein the hollow rotor is characterized by a largest cross-sectional area of hollow rotor, and wherein the flow channel is characterized by a smallest cross-sectional area of the flow channel, wherein the smallest cross-sectional area of the flow channel is at least about 25% of the largest cross-sectional area of the hollow rotor. An electric fluid pump and a power generation system are also presented.

  13. Amniotic fluid (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Amniotic fluid surrounds the growing fetus in the womb and protects the fetus from injury and temperature changes. It ... fetal movement and permits musculoskeletal development. The amniotic fluid can be withdrawn in a procedure called amniocentsis ...

  14. Fluid and Electrolyte Balance

    MedlinePlus

    ... They are in your blood, urine and body fluids. Maintaining the right balance of electrolytes helps your ... them from the foods you eat and the fluids you drink. Levels of electrolytes in your body ...

  15. Fluid sampling tool

    DOEpatents

    Johnston, Roger G.; Garcia, Anthony R. E.; Martinez, Ronald K.

    2001-09-25

    The invention includes a rotatable tool for collecting fluid through the wall of a container. The tool includes a fluid collection section with a cylindrical shank having an end portion for drilling a hole in the container wall when the tool is rotated, and a threaded portion for tapping the hole in the container wall. A passageway in the shank in communication with at least one radial inlet hole in the drilling end and an opening at the end of the shank is adapted to receive fluid from the container. The tool also includes a cylindrical chamber affixed to the end of the shank opposite to the drilling portion thereof for receiving and storing fluid passing through the passageway. The tool also includes a flexible, deformable gasket that provides a fluid-tight chamber to confine kerf generated during the drilling and tapping of the hole. The invention also includes a fluid extractor section for extracting fluid samples from the fluid collecting section.

  16. Fluid force transducer

    DOEpatents

    Jendrzejczyk, Joseph A.

    1982-01-01

    An electrical fluid force transducer for measuring the magnitude and direction of fluid forces caused by lateral fluid flow, includes a movable sleeve which is deflectable in response to the movement of fluid, and a rod fixed to the sleeve to translate forces applied to the sleeve to strain gauges attached to the rod, the strain gauges being connected in a bridge circuit arrangement enabling generation of a signal output indicative of the magnitude and direction of the force applied to the sleeve.

  17. Fluid Movement and Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slepian, Michael L.; Ambady, Nalini

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive scientists describe creativity as fluid thought. Drawing from findings on gesture and embodied cognition, we hypothesized that the physical experience of fluidity, relative to nonfluidity, would lead to more fluid, creative thought. Across 3 experiments, fluid arm movement led to enhanced creativity in 3 domains: creative generation,…

  18. Aqueous drilling fluids containing fluid loss additives

    SciTech Connect

    Bardoliwalla, D.F.; Villa, J.L.

    1987-03-03

    This patent describes an aqueous clay containing drilling fluid having present in an amount sufficient to reduce fluid loss of the drilling fluid, a copolymer of (1) from about 80% to about 98% by weight of acrylic acid and (2) from about 2% to about 20% by weight of itaconic acid. The copolymer has a weight average molecular weight of between about 50,000 to about 1,000,000, being in its free acid or partially or completely neutralized salt form and being at least water dispersible.

  19. Fluid inclusion geothermometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cunningham, C.G., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Fluid inclusions trapped within crystals either during growth or at a later time provide many clues to the histories of rocks and ores. Estimates of fluid-inclusion homogenization temperature and density can be obtained using a petrographic microscope with thin sections, and they can be refined using heating and freezing stages. Fluid inclusion studies, used in conjunction with paragenetic studies, can provide direct data on the time and space variations of parameters such as temperature, pressure, density, and composition of fluids in geologic environments. Changes in these parameters directly affect the fugacity, composition, and pH of fluids, thus directly influencing localization of ore metals. ?? 1977 Ferdinand Enke Verlag Stuttgart.

  20. Fluid cooled electrical assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Rinehart, Lawrence E.; Romero, Guillermo L.

    2007-02-06

    A heat producing, fluid cooled assembly that includes a housing made of liquid-impermeable material, which defines a fluid inlet and a fluid outlet and an opening. Also included is an electrical package having a set of semiconductor electrical devices supported on a substrate and the second major surface is a heat sink adapted to express heat generated from the electrical apparatus and wherein the second major surface defines a rim that is fit to the opening. Further, the housing is constructed so that as fluid travels from the fluid inlet to the fluid outlet it is constrained to flow past the opening thereby placing the fluid in contact with the heat sink.

  1. Spinning fluids reactor

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Jan D; Hupka, Jan; Aranowski, Robert

    2012-11-20

    A spinning fluids reactor, includes a reactor body (24) having a circular cross-section and a fluid contactor screen (26) within the reactor body (24). The fluid contactor screen (26) having a plurality of apertures and a circular cross-section concentric with the reactor body (24) for a length thus forming an inner volume (28) bound by the fluid contactor screen (26) and an outer volume (30) bound by the reactor body (24) and the fluid contactor screen (26). A primary inlet (20) can be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce flow-through first spinning flow of a first fluid within the inner volume (28). A secondary inlet (22) can similarly be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce a second flow of a second fluid within the outer volume (30) which is optionally spinning.

  2. Multidrug resistance protein (MRP) 4 attenuates benzo[a]pyrene-mediated DNA-adduct formation in human bronchoalveolar H358 cells.

    PubMed

    Gelhaus, Stacy L; Gilad, Oren; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Penning, Trevor M; Blair, Ian A

    2012-02-25

    Multi-drug resistance protein (MRP) 4, an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter, has broad substrate specificity. It facilitates the transport of bile salt conjugates, conjugated steroids, nucleoside analogs, eicosanoids, and cardiovascular drugs. Recent studies in liver carcinoma cells and hepatocytes showed that MRP4 expression is regulated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). The AhR has particular importance in the lung and is most commonly associated with the up-regulation of cytochrome P-450 (CYP)-mediated metabolism of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) to reactive intermediates. Treatment of H358, human bronchoalveolar, cells with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) or (-)-benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydro-7,8-diol (B[a]P-7,8-dihydrodiol), the proximate carcinogen of B[a]P, revealed that MRP4 expression was increased compared to control. This suggested that MRP4 expression might contribute to the paradoxical decrease in (+)-7,8-dihydroxy-9,10-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene-2'-deoxyguanosine ((+)-anti-trans-B[a]PDE-dGuo) DNA-adducts observed in TCDD-treated H358 cells. We have now found that decreased MRP4 expression induced by a short hairpin RNA (shRNA), or chemical inhibition with probenecid, increased (+)-anti-trans-B[a]PDE-dGuo formation in cells treated with (-)-B[a]P-7,8-dihydrodiol, but not the ultimate carcinogen (+)-anti-trans-B[a]PDE. Thus, up-regulation of MRP4 increased cellular efflux of (-)-B[a]P-7,8-dihydrodiol, which attenuated DNA-adduct formation. This is the first report identifying a specific MRP efflux transporter that decreases DNA damage arising from an environmental carcinogen. PMID:22155354

  3. Elevated CXCL-8 expression in bronchoalveolar lavage correlates with disease severity in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome resulting from tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) is a rare but known cause of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The role of inflammatory cytokines in the progression of ARDS in TB patients is unknown. Objectives In this study we investigated the possible link between the levels of inflammatory cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in patients with TB or ARDS alone or in patients with TB-induced ARDS (ARDS + TB). Methods 90 patients were studied: 30 with TB alone, 30 with ARDS alone and 30 with ARDS + TB. BAL was collected by fiberoptic bronchoscopy and the concentrations of interleukin(IL)-6, CXCL8, TNF-α and IL-1β and the amounts of total protein were measured by ELISA and bicinchoninic acid assay (BCA) methods respectively. The correlation between disease severity measured by Murray scores, SOFA and APACHE II analysis and BAL mediators and cells was also determined. Results CXCL8 levels in BAL were significantly higher in the ARDS + TB group compared to TB and ARDS alone groups. Disease severity in the ARDS + TB group as determined by Murray score correlated with BAL CXCL8 and neutrophils but not with IL-6, IL-1β and TNF-α concentrations. In addition, CXCL8 levels and neutrophils were increased in non-miliary TB versus miliary TB. This difference in CXCL8 was lost in the presence of ARDS. Conclusions BAL CXCL8 levels were significantly higher in patients with ARDS induced by TB and could suggest an important role of CXCL8 in the pathogenesis of this form of ARDS. This further suggests that CXCL8 inhibitors or blockers may be useful to control the onset and/or development of these combined diseases. PMID:25110464

  4. Unique cytokine and chemokine patterns in bronchoalveolar lavage are associated with specific causative pathogen among HIV infected patients with pneumonia, in Medellin, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Keynan, Yoav; Rueda, Zulma V; Aguilar, Yudy; Trajtman, Adriana; Vélez, Lázaro A

    2015-06-01

    We wanted to investigate the pro-inflammatory cytokine/chemokine profile associated with the etiological agents identified in HIV patients. Immunosuppressed patients admitted to two hospitals in Medellin, Colombia, with clinical and radiographic diagnosis of pneumonia were enrolled in the study. After consent, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was collected for bacterial, mycobacterial and fungal diagnosis. All patients were followed for a year. A stored BAL sample was used for cytokine/chemokine detection and measurement using commercial, magnetic human cytokine bead-based 19-plex assays. Statistical analysis was performed by assigning cytokine/chemokine concentrations levels into <25 percentile (lower), 25-75 percentile (normal) and >75 percentile (higher). Principal component analysis (PCA) and Kruskal-Wallis analysis were conducted to identify the clustering of cytokines with the various infectious etiologies (fungi, Mycobacterium tuberculosis - MTB, and bacteria). Average age of patients was 35, of whom 77% were male, and the median CD4 count of 33cells/μl. Of the 57 HIV infected patients, in-hospital mortality was 12.3% and 33% died within a year of follow up. The PCA revealed increased IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IL-17, Eotaxin, GCSF, MIP-1α, and MIP-1β concentrations to be associated with MTB infection. In patients with proven fungal infection, low concentrations of IL-1RA, IL-8, TNF-α and VEGF were identified. Bacterial infections displayed a distinct cytokine pattern and were not misclassified using the MTB or fungi cytokine patterns (p-value<0.0001). Our results indicate a unique pattern of pro-inflammatory cytokine/chemokine, allowing differentiation between bacterial and non-bacterial pathogens. Moreover, we found distinct, if imperfectly discriminatory, cytokine/chemokine patterns associated with MTB and fungal infections. PMID:25837522

  5. Molecular Analysis of Serum and Bronchoalveolar Lavage in a Mouse Model of Influenza Reveals Markers of Disease Severity That Can Be Clinically Useful in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Yadunanda; Liang, Cui; Limmon, Gino V.; Liang, Li; Engelward, Bevin P.; Ooi, Eng Eong; Chen, Jianzhu; Tannenbaum, Steven R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Management of influenza, a major contributor to the worldwide disease burden, is complicated by lack of reliable methods for early identification of susceptible individuals. Identification of molecular markers that can augment existing diagnostic tools for prediction of severity can be expected to greatly improve disease management capabilities. Methodology/Principal Findings We have analyzed cytokines, proteome flux and protein adducts in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and sera from mice infected with influenza A virus (PR8 strain) using a previously established non-lethal model of influenza infection. Through detailed cytokine and protein adduct measurements of murine BAL, we first established the temporal profile of innate and adaptive responses as well as macrophage and neutrophil activities in response to influenza infection. A similar analysis was also performed with sera from a longitudinal cohort of influenza patients. We then used an iTRAQ-based, comparative serum proteome analysis to catalog the proteome flux in the murine BAL during the stages correlating with “peak viremia,” “inflammatory damage,” as well as the “recovery phase.” In addition to activation of acute phase responses, a distinct class of lung proteins including surfactant proteins was found to be depleted from the BAL coincident with their “appearance” in the serum, presumably due to leakage of the protein following loss of the integrity of the lung/epithelial barrier. Serum levels of at least two of these proteins were elevated in influenza patients during the febrile phase of infection compared to healthy controls or to the same patients at convalescence. Conclusions/Significance The findings from this study provide a molecular description of disease progression in a mouse model of influenza and demonstrate its potential for translation into a novel class of markers for measurement of acute lung injury and improved case management. PMID:24505273

  6. [The Role of Bronchoalveolar Lavage in the Diagnosis of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: An Investigation of the Relevance of the Protein Content].

    PubMed

    Schildge, J; Frank, J; Klar, B

    2016-07-01

    Although bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is often used in the diagnosis of interstitial lung diseases (ILDs), its importance in investigating, in particular, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is controversial. The cell distributions in the BAL are taken into account in the clinical routine, non-cellular characteristics of the BAL play no role.Using mathematical modeling of data, the present work investigated the extent to which BAL features enable drawing conclusions about the underlying ILK or help exclude IPF. Included in the calculation are cellular findings of the BAL, in addition the protein and albumin content of the BAL, the nicotine history (pack years), and spirometry (FEV1, IVC).Using linear discriminant analysis and creating classification trees, the relevance of the characteristics of 806 patients with ILK was examined (183 IPF, 191 cryptogenic organizing pneumonia, 147 lung involvement in autoimmune disease, 97 respiratory bronchiolitis interstitial lung disease, 118 extrinsic allergic alveolitis, 41 lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia (LIP), 23 non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP), 88 controls).There was a close positive relationship between protein levels and lymphocytes in the group as a whole. No such correlations were seen in IPF and NSIP. Albumin was closely correlated with the protein content in all groups.The lymphocytes are best suited to distinguish between different ILDs. Yet, a reliable calculation of the ILD is not possible on the basis of the investigated factors, the classification error ranged from 23.5 % (IPF) to 100 % (LIP, NSIP).Constellations that likely (> 99 %) speak against an IPF are lymphocytosis > 34 % or protein content > 347 mg/l. The same applies to the constellation: lymphocytes > 25 % together with protein > 250 mg/l.In ILD, BAL findings can narrow the diagnosis, but they are seldom diagnostic. BAL can make an important contribution to excluding of IPF. PMID:27218212

  7. Antigenic specificity and subset analysis of T cells isolated from the bronchoalveolar lavage and pleural effusion of patients with lung disease.

    PubMed Central

    Faith, A; Schellenberg, D M; Rees, A D; Mitchell, D M

    1992-01-01

    Cellular infiltrates of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and pleural effusion from patients with tuberculosis (TB) and lung cancer were characterized for the presence of different T cell subsets by phenotypic analysis. The specificity of the T cells for mycobacterial antigens was then compared for the two disease compartments. The composition of T cell subsets within the BAL, in contrast to pleural effusion cells (PEC), revealed evidence of sequestration of CD8+ cells. BAL T cells were found to be a predominantly CD29+ DR+ memory population of activated cells. Although polyclonal populations of BAL T cells proliferated poorly to Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens, mycobacterial antigen-reactive monoclonal T cell populations could be derived from the alveolar compartment. Two clones were shown to recognize the 65-kD heat shock protein of mycobacteria, and one of these clones recognized a conserved sequence of the molecule. Several BAL-derived clones, responding to a mycobacterial soluble extract, did not, however, recognize purified mycobacterial antigens, previously identified as highly stimulatory for PEC-derived T cells. T cell clones, derived from PEC of two TB patients, responded to the 38-kD and 71-kD, as well as the 65-kD mycobacterial antigens. Examination of the activation requirements of BAL-derived T cell clones, specific for mycobacterial antigens, revealed that exogenous IL-2 was necessary for the T cells to sustain proliferation. This was in contrast to the mycobacterial antigen-reactive T cells cloned from PEC. These results suggest that T cell populations with distinct antigen specificities and activation requirements are present in BAL and PEC. PMID:1735192

  8. Proteomic Changes of Alveolar Lining Fluid in Illnesses Associated with Exposure to Inhaled Non-Infectious Microbial Particles

    PubMed Central

    Teirilä, Laura; Karvala, Kirsi; Ahonen, Niina; Riska, Henrik; Pietinalho, Anne; Tuominen, Päivi; Piirilä, Päivi

    2014-01-01

    Background Hyperresponsiveness to inhaled non-infectious microbial particles (NIMPs) has been associated with illnesses in the airways. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is considered to be the prototype for these NIMPs-related diseases; however, there is no consensus on the definitions or diagnostic criteria for HP and the spectrum of related illnesses. Methods and Findings In order to identify the possible diagnostic markers for illnesses associated with NIMPs in alveolar lining fluid, we performed a proteomic analysis using a two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid from patients with exposure to NIMPs in the context of damp building-related illness (DBRI) or conditions on the borderline to acute HP, designated here as agricultural type of microbial exposure (AME). Samples from patients with HP and sarcoidosis (SARC) were included for reference. Results were compared to results of healthy subjects (CTR). Western blot was used for validation of potential marker proteins from BAL fluid and plasma. Protein expression patterns suggest a close similarity between AME and HP, while DBRI was similar to CTR. However, in DBRI the levels of the inflammation associated molecules galectin-3 and alpha-1-antitrypsin were increased. A novel finding emerging from this study was the increases of semenogelin levels in BAL fluid from patients with AME, HP and SARC. Histone 4 levels were increased in AME, HP and SARC. Elevated plasma levels of histone 2B were detected in HP and SARC, suggesting it to be a potential blood indicator for inflammatory diseases of the lungs. Conclusions In this study, the proteomic changes in bronchoalveolar lavage of DBRI patients were distinct from other NIMP exposure associated lung diseases, while changes in AME overlapped those observed for HP patient samples. Some of the proteins identified in this study, semenogelin and histone 4, could function as diagnostic markers for differential diagnosis between

  9. Fiber optic fluid detector

    DOEpatents

    Angel, S. Michael

    1989-01-01

    Particular gases or liquids are detected with a fiber optic element (11, 11a to 11j) having a cladding or coating of a material (23, 23a to 23j) which absorbs the fluid or fluids and which exhibits a change of an optical property, such as index of refraction, light transmissiveness or fluoresence emission, for example, in response to absorption of the fluid. The fluid is sensed by directing light into the fiber optic element and detecting changes in the light, such as exit angle changes for example, that result from the changed optical property of the coating material. The fluid detector (24, 24a to 24j) may be used for such purposes as sensing toxic or explosive gases in the atmosphere, measuring ground water contamination or monitoring fluid flows in industrial processes, among other uses.

  10. Applications of supercritical fluids.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Gerd

    2010-01-01

    This review discusses supercritical fluids in industrial and near-to-industry applications. Supercritical fluids are flexible tools for processing materials. Supercritical fluids have been applied to mass-transfer processes, phase-transition processes, reactive systems, materials-related processes, and nanostructured materials. Some applications are already at industrial capacity, whereas others remain under development. In addition to extraction, application areas include impregnation and cleaning, multistage countercurrent separation, particle formation, coating, and reactive systems such as hydrogenation, biomass gasification, and supercritical water oxidation. Polymers are modified with supercritical fluids, and colloids and emulsions as well as nanostructured materials exhibit interesting phenomena when in contact with supercritical fluids that can be industrially exploited. For these applications to succeed, the properties of supercritical fluids in combination with the materials processed must be clearly determined and fundamental knowledge of the complex behavior must be made readily available. PMID:22432584

  11. Microwave fluid flow meter

    DOEpatents

    Billeter, Thomas R.; Philipp, Lee D.; Schemmel, Richard R.

    1976-01-01

    A microwave fluid flow meter is described utilizing two spaced microwave sensors positioned along a fluid flow path. Each sensor includes a microwave cavity having a frequency of resonance dependent upon the static pressure of the fluid at the sensor locations. The resonant response of each cavity with respect to a variation in pressure of the monitored fluid is represented by a corresponding electrical output which can be calibrated into a direct pressure reading. The pressure drop between sensor locations is then correlated as a measure of fluid velocity. In the preferred embodiment the individual sensor cavities are strategically positioned outside the path of fluid flow and are designed to resonate in two distinct frequency modes yielding a measure of temperature as well as pressure. The temperature response can then be used in correcting for pressure responses of the microwave cavity encountered due to temperature fluctuations.

  12. Fiber optic fluid detector

    DOEpatents

    Angel, S.M.

    1987-02-27

    Particular gases or liquids are detected with a fiber optic element having a cladding or coating of a material which absorbs the fluid or fluids and which exhibits a change of an optical property, such as index of refraction, light transmissiveness or fluoresence emission, for example, in response to absorption of the fluid. The fluid is sensed by directing light into the fiber optic element and detecting changes in the light, such as exit angle changes for example, that result from the changed optical property of the coating material. The fluid detector may be used for such purposes as sensing toxic or explosive gases in the atmosphere, measuring ground water contamination or monitoring fluid flows in industrial processes, among other uses. 10 figs.

  13. Metalworking and machining fluids

    DOEpatents

    Erdemir, Ali; Sykora, Frank; Dorbeck, Mark

    2010-10-12

    Improved boron-based metal working and machining fluids. Boric acid and boron-based additives that, when mixed with certain carrier fluids, such as water, cellulose and/or cellulose derivatives, polyhydric alcohol, polyalkylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol, starch, dextrin, in solid and/or solvated forms result in improved metalworking and machining of metallic work pieces. Fluids manufactured with boric acid or boron-based additives effectively reduce friction, prevent galling and severe wear problems on cutting and forming tools.

  14. Solar heat transport fluid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The progress made on the development and delivery of noncorrosive fluid subsystems is reported. These subsystems are to be compatible with closed-loop solar heating or combined heating and hot water systems. They are also to be compatible with both metallic and non-metallic plumbing systems. At least 100 gallons of each type of fluid recommended by the contractor will be delivered under the contract. The performance testing of a number of fluids is described.

  15. Persistent interface fluid syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Richard S; Fine, I Howard; Packer, Mark

    2008-08-01

    We present an unusual case of persistent interface fluid that would not resolve despite normal intraocular pressure and corneal endothelial replacement with Descemet-stripping endothelial keratoplasty. Dissection, elevation, and repositioning of the laser in situ keratomileusis flap were required to resolve the interface fluid. Circumferential corneal graft-host margin scar formation acting as a mechanical strut may have been the cause of the intractable interface fluid. PMID:18655997

  16. Spiral fluid separator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Glen A. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A fluid separator for separating particulate matter such as contaminates is provided which includes a series of spiral tubes of progressively decreasing cross sectional area connected in series. Each tube has an outlet on the outer curvature of the spiral. As fluid spirals down a tube, centrifugal force acts to force the heavier particulate matter to the outer wall of the tube, where it exits through the outlet. The remaining, and now cleaner, fluid reaches the next tube, which is smaller in cross sectional area, where the process is repeated. The fluid which comes out the final tube is diminished of particulate matter.

  17. Electrodeposition from supercritical fluids.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, P N; Cook, D A; George, M W; Hector, A L; Ke, J; Levason, W; Reid, G; Smith, D C; Zhang, W

    2014-05-28

    Recent studies have shown that it is possible to electrodeposit a range of materials, such as Cu, Ag and Ge, from various supercritical fluids, including hydrofluorocarbons and mixtures of CO2 with suitable co-solvents. In this perspective we discuss the relatively new field of electrodeposition from supercritical fluids. The perspective focuses on some of the underlying physical chemistry and covers both practical and scientific aspects of electrodeposition from supercritical fluids. We also discuss possible applications for supercritical fluid electrodeposition and suggest some key developments that are required to take the field to the next stage. PMID:24469309

  18. Fluid inclusion petrography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van den Kerkhof, Alfons M.; Hein, Ulrich F.

    2001-01-01

    A procedure of fluid inclusion studies is proposed with emphasis on the criteria of selecting fluid inclusions for detailed (microthermometry and spectroscopic) analysis. An overview of descriptive and genetic classifications of fluid inclusions in single crystals and in massive rocks is given with the intention of further differentiating the commonly used terms 'primary' and 'secondary' fluid inclusions. Some principles of fluid inclusion modification are explained. Cathodoluminescence (CL) studies of quartz with the optical high-power CL-microscope and the electron microprobe provided with a CL detector are an important help in 'fluid petrography'. CL textures are subdivided in primary, growth textures and a wide variety of secondary microtextures, which are in part induced by fluid inclusions. The latter is grouped in textures indicative of local lower crystal order (increasing defect structures) and microtextures indicative of local quartz healing (reduction of the defect structures). Microtextures showing the genetic relationship between fluid inclusions and the host mineral provide information about the possible post-entrapment changes of fluid inclusions and therewith testify their geological relevance.

  19. Thermogelling magnetorheological fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahrivar, Keshvad; de Vicente, Juan

    2014-02-01

    A novel approach is proposed for the formulation of kinetically stable magnetorheological (MR) fluids exhibiting an MR effect. Thermoresponsive carrier fluids are used which develop a sol-gel transition on increasing the temperature. Turbidity measurements, multiwave rheology and steady shear flow tests are carried out on model conventional MR fluids prepared by dispersion of carbonyl iron microparticles in triblock copolymer solutions of type PEOx-PPOy-PEOx with x = 100 and y = 65. Experiments demonstrate that the MR fluids remain stable against sedimentation in the gel phase and exhibit a very large (relative) MR effect (up to 1000%) in the sol phase.

  20. Electrorheological fluids and methods

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Peter F.; McIntyre, Ernest C.

    2015-06-02

    Electrorheological fluids and methods include changes in liquid-like materials that can flow like milk and subsequently form solid-like structures under applied electric fields; e.g., about 1 kV/mm. Such fluids can be used in various ways as smart suspensions, including uses in automotive, defense, and civil engineering applications. Electrorheological fluids and methods include one or more polar molecule substituted polyhedral silsesquioxanes (e.g., sulfonated polyhedral silsesquioxanes) and one or more oils (e.g., silicone oil), where the fluid can be subjected to an electric field.

  1. How to Avoid Fluid Overload

    PubMed Central

    Ogbu, Ogbonna C.; Murphy, David J.; Martin, Greg S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of the review This review highlights recent evidence describing the outcomes associated with fluid overload in critically ill patients and provides an overview of fluid management strategies aimed at preventing fluid overload during the resuscitation of patients with shock. Recent findings Fluid overload is a common complication of fluid resuscitation and is associated with increased hospital costs, morbidity and mortality. Summary Fluid management goals differ during the resuscitation, optimization, stabilization and evacuation phases of fluid resuscitation. To prevent fluid overload, strategies that reduce excessive fluid infusions and emphasize the removal of accumulated fluids should be implemented. PMID:26103147

  2. Aqueous drilling fluids containing fluid loss additives

    SciTech Connect

    Bardoliwalla, D.F.; Villa, J.L.

    1986-11-11

    This patent describes a copolymer of (1) from about 80% to about 98% by weight of acrylic acid and (2) from about 2% to about 20% by weight of itaconic acid. The copolymer has a weight average molecular weight of between about 1000,000 to about 1,000,000, is in the form of its free acid or partially or completely sodium, potassium or ammonium neutralized salt and is at least water dispersible. The partially neutralized salt is prepared by reacting carboxylic groups present in the acrylic acid and the itaconic acid with neutralizing agent, the copolymer being useful as a fluid loss control additive for aqueous drilling fluids.

  3. The IRIDICA PCR/Electrospray Ionization–Mass Spectrometry Assay on Bronchoalveolar Lavage for Bacterial Etiology in Mechanically Ventilated Patients with Suspected Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Ehn, Fredrik; Giske, Christian G.; Ullberg, Måns; Hedlund, Jonas; Petersson, Johan; Spindler, Carl; Özenci, Volkan

    2016-01-01

    We studied the diagnostic performance of the IRIDICA PCR/electrospray ionization–mass spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS) assay applied on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples, from 51 mechanically ventilated patients with suspected pneumonia, in a prospective study. In 32 patients with X-ray verified pneumonia, PCR/ESI-MS was positive in 66% and BAL culture was positive in 38% (p = 0.045), and either of the methods was positive in 69%. The following BAL result combinations were noted: PCR/ESI-MS+/culture+, 34%; PCR/ESI-MS+/culture-, 31%; PCR/ESI-MS-/culture+, 3.1%; PCR/ESI-MS-/culture-, 31%; kappa 0.36 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.10–0.63). In pneumonia patients without prior antibiotic treatment, optimal agreement was noted with 88% PCR/ESI-MS+/culture+ and 12% PCR/ESI-MS-/culture- (kappa 1.0). However, in patients with prior antibiotic treatment, the test agreement was poor (kappa 0.16; 95% CI, -0.10–0.44), as 10 patients were PCR/ESI-MS+/culture-. In 8/10 patients the pathogens detected by PCR/ESI-MS could be detected by other conventional tests or PCR tests on BAL. Compared with BAL culture, PCR/ESI-MS showed specificities and negative predictive values of ≥87% for all individual pathogens, an overall sensitivity of 77% and positive predictive value (PPV) of 42%. When other conventional tests and PCR tests were added to the reference standard, the overall PPV increased to 87%. The PCR/ESI-MS semi-quantitative level tended to be higher for PCR/ESI-MS positive cases with pneumonia compared with cases without pneumonia (p = 0.074). In conclusion, PCR/ESI-MS applied on BAL showed a promising performance and has potential to be clinically useful in mechanically ventilated patients with suspected pneumonia. The usefulness of the method for establishment of pneumonia etiology and selection of antibiotic therapy should be further studied. PMID:27463099

  4. Quantitation of Benzo[a]pyrene Metabolic Profiles in Human Bronchoalveolar H358) Cells by Stable Isotope Dilution Liquid Chromatography-Atmospheric Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Ding; Harvey, Ronald G.; Blair, Ian A.; Penning, Trevor M.

    2013-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous environmental pollutants and are carcinogenic in multiple organs and species. Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) is a representative PAH and has been studied extensively for its carcinogenicity and toxicity. B[a]P itself is chemically inert and requires metabolic activation to exhibit its toxicity and carcinogenicity. Three major metabolic pathways have been well documented. The signature metabolites generated from the radical cation (peroxidase or monooxygenase mediated) pathway are B[a]P-1,6-dione and B[a]P-3,6-dione, the signature metabolite generated from the diol-epoxide (P450 mediated) pathway is B[a]P-r-7,t-8,t-9,c-10-tetrahydrotetrol (B[a]P-tetrol-1) and the signature metabolite generated from the o-quinone (aldo-keto reductase mediated) pathway is B[a]P-7,8-dione. The contributions of these different metabolic pathways to cancer initiation and the exploitation of this information for cancer prevention are still under debate. With the availability of a library of [13C4]-labeled B[a]P metabolite internal standards, we developed a sensitive stable isotope dilution atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry method to address this issue by quantitating B[a]P metabolites from each metabolic pathway in human lung cells. This analytical method represents a 500 fold increased sensitivity compared with a method using HPLC-radiometric detection. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) was determined to be 6 fmol on column for 3-hydroxybenzo[a]pyrene (3-OH-B[a]P), the generally accepted biomarker for B[a]P exposure. This high level of sensitivity and robustness of the method was demonstrated in a study of B[a]P metabolic profiles in human bronchoalveolar H358 cells induced or uninduced with the AhR ligand, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (TCDD). All the signature metabolites were detected and successfully quantitated. Our results suggest that all three metabolic pathways contribute equally in the overall

  5. Fluids and Combustion Facility: Fluids Integrated Rack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corban, Robert R.; Winsa, Edward A.

    1998-01-01

    The Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR) is a modular, multi-user facility to accommodate a wide variety of microgravity fluid physics science experiments on-board the US Laboratory Module of the International Space Station (ISS). The FIR is one of three racks comprising the Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF). The FCF is being designed to increase the amount and quality of scientific data and decrease the development cost of an individual experiment relative to the era of Space Shuttle experiments. The unique, long-term, microgravity environment and long operational times on the ISS will offer experimenters the opportunity to modify experiment parameters based on their findings similar to what can be accomplished in ground laboratories. The FIR concept has evolved over time to provide a flexible, 'optics bench' approach to meet the wide variety of anticipated research needs. The FIR's system architecture presented is designed to meet the needs of the fluid physics community while operating within the constraints of the available ISS resources.

  6. Solar heat transport fluid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The progress made in the development and delivery of noncorrosive fluid subsystems is discussed. These subsystems are to be compatible with closed-loop solar heating or combined heating and hot water systems. They are also to be compatible with both metallic and non-metallic plumbing systems. The performance testing of a number of fluids is described.

  7. Fluid-loss control

    SciTech Connect

    Crowe, C.W.; Trittipo, B.L. ); Hutchinson, B.H. )

    1989-08-01

    Acid fluid loss is extremely difficult to control and is generally considered to be the major factor limiting the effectiveness of acid fracturing treatments. Chemical erosion of fracture faces and the development of wormholes are largely responsible for the reduced efficiency of acid fracturing fluids. The creation of acid wormholes increases the effective area from which leakoff occurs, thus reducing the acid hydraulic efficiency. Once wormholes form, most acid fluid loss originates from these wormholes rather than penetrating uniformly into the fracture face. Methods of acid fluid-loss control are discussed and evaluated with an improved fluid-loss test procedure. This procedure uses limestone cores of sufficient length to contain wormhole growth. Studies demonstrate that if wormhole growth can be controlled, acid fluid loss approaches that of nonreactive fluids. An improved acid fracturing fluid having unique rheological characteristics is described. This acid has a low initial viscosity but temporarily becomes extremely viscous during leakoff. This high leakoff viscosity blocks wormhole development and prevents acid entry into natural fractures. After the treatment, spent-acid viscosity declines rapidly to ensure easier cleanup.

  8. Computational fluid dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    An overview of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) activities at the Langley Research Center is given. The role of supercomputers in CFD research, algorithm development, multigrid approaches to computational fluid flows, aerodynamics computer programs, computational grid generation, turbulence research, and studies of rarefied gas flows are among the topics that are briefly surveyed.

  9. FLUID CONTROLLING MEANS

    DOEpatents

    Pouliot, H.N.

    1960-11-01

    A device is described for releasing fluid from a container and delivering it to an outlet conduit. An explosive squib moves a piston so as to cut a wall section from the conduit and to punch a hole in the container, whereby a fluid may pass from the container into the conduit. A deformable sleeve retains the piston in its final position.

  10. Time Independent Fluids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collyer, A. A.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses theories underlying Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids by explaining flow curves exhibited by plastic, shear-thining, and shear-thickening fluids and Bingham plastic materials. Indicates that the exact mechanism governing shear-thickening behaviors is a problem of further study. (CC)

  11. Fluid delivery control system

    SciTech Connect

    Hoff, Brian D.; Johnson, Kris William; Algrain, Marcelo C.; Akasam, Sivaprasad

    2006-06-06

    A method of controlling the delivery of fluid to an engine includes receiving a fuel flow rate signal. An electric pump is arranged to deliver fluid to the engine. The speed of the electric pump is controlled based on the fuel flow rate signal.

  12. Fluid Bubble Eliminator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonda, Steve R. (Inventor); Tsao, Yow-Min (Inventor); Lee, Wenshan (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A gas-liquid separator uses a helical passageway to impart a spiral motion to a fluid passing therethrough. The centrifugal fore generated by the spiraling motion urges the liquid component of the fluid radially outward which forces the gas component radially inward. The gas component is then filtered through a gas-permeable, liquid-impervious membrane and discharged through a central passageway.

  13. Fluid bubble eliminator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonda, Steve R. (Inventor); Tsao, Yow-Min D. (Inventor); Lee, Wenshan (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A gas-liquid separator uses a helical passageway to impart a spiral motion to a fluid passing therethrough. The centrifugal fore generated by the spiraling motion urges the liquid component of the fluid radially outward which forces the gas component radially inward. The gas component is then filtered through a gas-permeable, liquid-impervious membrane and discharged through a central passageway.

  14. Fluid Power Technician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Pam

    2008-01-01

    Fluid power technicians, sometimes called hydraulic and pneumatic technicians, work with equipment that utilizes the pressure of a liquid or gas in a closed container to transmit, multiply, or control power. Working under the supervision of an engineer or engineering staff, they assemble, install, maintain, and test fluid power equipment.…

  15. Microgravity Fluid Management Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The NASA Microgravity Fluid Management Symposium, held at the NASA Lewis Research Center, September 9 to 10, 1986, focused on future research in the microgravity fluid management field. The symposium allowed researchers and managers to review space applications that require fluid management technology, to present the current status of technology development, and to identify the technology developments required for future missions. The 19 papers covered three major categories: (1) fluid storage, acquisition, and transfer; (2) fluid management applications, i.e., space power and thermal management systems, and environmental control and life support systems; (3) project activities and insights including two descriptions of previous flight experiments and a summary of typical activities required during development of a shuttle flight experiment.

  16. FLUID SELECTING APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Stinson, W.J.

    1958-09-16

    A valve designed to selectively sample fluids from a number of sources is described. The valve comprises a rotatable operating lever connected through a bellows seal to a rotatable assembly containing a needle valve, bearings, and a rotational lock. The needle valve is connected through a flexible tube to the sample fluid outlet. By rotating the lever the needle valve is placed over . one of several fluid sources and locked in position so that the fluid is traasferred through the flexible tubing and outlet to a remote sampling system. The fluids from the nonselected sources are exhausted to a waste line. This valve constitutes a simple, dependable means of selecting a sample from one of several scurces.

  17. Constraining the dark fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Kunz, Martin; Liddle, Andrew R.; Parkinson, David; Gao Changjun

    2009-10-15

    Cosmological observations are normally fit under the assumption that the dark sector can be decomposed into dark matter and dark energy components. However, as long as the probes remain purely gravitational, there is no unique decomposition and observations can only constrain a single dark fluid; this is known as the dark degeneracy. We use observations to directly constrain this dark fluid in a model-independent way, demonstrating, in particular, that the data cannot be fit by a dark fluid with a single constant equation of state. Parametrizing the dark fluid equation of state by a variety of polynomials in the scale factor a, we use current kinematical data to constrain the parameters. While the simplest interpretation of the dark fluid remains that it is comprised of separate dark matter and cosmological constant contributions, our results cover other model types including unified dark energy/matter scenarios.

  18. Fluid blade disablement tool

    DOEpatents

    Jakaboski, Juan-Carlos; Hughs, Chance G.; Todd, Steven N.

    2012-01-10

    A fluid blade disablement (FBD) tool that forms both a focused fluid projectile that resembles a blade, which can provide precision penetration of a barrier wall, and a broad fluid projectile that functions substantially like a hammer, which can produce general disruption of structures behind the barrier wall. Embodiments of the FBD tool comprise a container capable of holding fluid, an explosive assembly which is positioned within the container and which comprises an explosive holder and explosive, and a means for detonating. The container has a concavity on the side adjacent to the exposed surface of the explosive. The position of the concavity relative to the explosive and its construction of materials with thicknesses that facilitate inversion and/or rupture of the concavity wall enable the formation of a sharp and coherent blade of fluid advancing ahead of the detonation gases.

  19. FRACTURING FLUID CHARACTERIZATION FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Subhash Shah

    2000-08-01

    Hydraulic fracturing technology has been successfully applied for well stimulation of low and high permeability reservoirs for numerous years. Treatment optimization and improved economics have always been the key to the success and it is more so when the reservoirs under consideration are marginal. Fluids are widely used for the stimulation of wells. The Fracturing Fluid Characterization Facility (FFCF) has been established to provide the accurate prediction of the behavior of complex fracturing fluids under downhole conditions. The primary focus of the facility is to provide valuable insight into the various mechanisms that govern the flow of fracturing fluids and slurries through hydraulically created fractures. During the time between September 30, 1992, and March 31, 2000, the research efforts were devoted to the areas of fluid rheology, proppant transport, proppant flowback, dynamic fluid loss, perforation pressure losses, and frictional pressure losses. In this regard, a unique above-the-ground fracture simulator was designed and constructed at the FFCF, labeled ''The High Pressure Simulator'' (HPS). The FFCF is now available to industry for characterizing and understanding the behavior of complex fluid systems. To better reflect and encompass the broad spectrum of the petroleum industry, the FFCF now operates under a new name of ''The Well Construction Technology Center'' (WCTC). This report documents the summary of the activities performed during 1992-2000 at the FFCF.

  20. Fluid sampling tool

    DOEpatents

    Garcia, A.R.; Johnston, R.G.; Martinez, R.K.

    1999-05-25

    A fluid sampling tool is described for sampling fluid from a container. The tool has a fluid collecting portion which is drilled into the container wall, thereby affixing it to the wall. The tool may have a fluid extracting section which withdraws fluid collected by the fluid collecting section. The fluid collecting section has a fluted shank with an end configured to drill a hole into a container wall. The shank has a threaded portion for tapping the borehole. The shank is threadably engaged to a cylindrical housing having an inner axial passageway sealed at one end by a septum. A flexible member having a cylindrical portion and a bulbous portion is provided. The housing can be slid into an inner axial passageway in the cylindrical portion and sealed to the flexible member. The bulbous portion has an outer lip defining an opening. The housing is clamped into the chuck of a drill, the lip of the bulbous section is pressed against a container wall until the shank touches the wall, and the user operates the drill. Wall shavings (kerf) are confined in a chamber formed in the bulbous section as it folds when the shank advances inside the container. After sufficient advancement of the shank, an o-ring makes a seal with the container wall. 6 figs.

  1. Fluid sampling tool

    DOEpatents

    Garcia, Anthony R.; Johnston, Roger G.; Martinez, Ronald K.

    1999-05-25

    A fluid sampling tool for sampling fluid from a container. The tool has a fluid collecting portion which is drilled into the container wall, thereby affixing it to the wall. The tool may have a fluid extracting section which withdraws fluid collected by the fluid collecting section. The fluid collecting section has a fluted shank with an end configured to drill a hole into a container wall. The shank has a threaded portion for tapping the borehole. The shank is threadably engaged to a cylindrical housing having an inner axial passageway sealed at one end by a septum. A flexible member having a cylindrical portion and a bulbous portion is provided. The housing can be slid into an inner axial passageway in the cylindrical portion and sealed to the flexible member. The bulbous portion has an outer lip defining an opening. The housing is clamped into the chuck of a drill, the lip of the bulbous section is pressed against a container wall until the shank touches the wall, and the user operates the drill. Wall shavings (kerf) are confined in a chamber formed in the bulbous section as it folds when the shank advances inside the container. After sufficient advancement of the shank, an o-ring makes a seal with the container wall.

  2. Fluid-driven metamorphism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamtveit, B.; Ulven, O. I.; Malthe-Sorenssen, A.

    2014-12-01

    Metamorphic processes in the Earth crust are almost invariably associated with fluid migration. Many lines of evidence suggest that fluid migration is intimately coupled both to the metamorphic reactions, and to associated deformation processes. Petrologic arguments suggest that all granulite facies and most amphibolite facies rocks are essentially dry (no free fluid phase) at normal geothermal gradients outside periods of heating-produced fluid generation. In addition, except at high pressure - low temperature condition, fluid-consuming reactions leads to an increase in solid volume and a potential clogging of any initial pore space. Hence, fluid migration in medium and high-grade metamorphic rocks is in general associated with some porosity producing process. Porosity generation may occur by either chemical or mechanical processes. In systems with high fluid fluxes, porosity may be produced by dissolution and transport of mass out of the system. Such fluxes can normally only be sustained over short length scales and limited time scales. In systems where the infiltrating fluid is far from equilibrium with the rock matrix, mechanical porosity generation can arise from local stresses generated by the volume change of volatilization reactions. Furthermore, it has become increasingly clear that crustal rocks may be under significant tectonic stress, even far from plate tectonic boundaries. In situations where the rocks are close to critically stressed, any stress perturbations caused by reaction driven changes in solid volume or fluid pressure gradients may lead to dilatant deformation and porosity production on a scale much larger than the characteristic length scales of the reacting rock units. Field observations, experimental studies and modeling results will be presented that focus on reaction driven porosity generation in systems subject to variable initial differential stresses.

  3. Supercritical fluid extraction

    DOEpatents

    Wai, Chien M.; Laintz, Kenneth

    1994-01-01

    A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is a fluorinated or lipophilic crown ether or fluorinated dithiocarbamate. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  4. Geophysical fluid flow experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broome, B. G.; Fichtl, G.; Fowlis, W.

    1979-01-01

    The essential fluid flow processes associated with the solar and Jovian atmospheres will be examined in a laboratory experiment scheduled for performance on Spacelab Missions One and Three. The experimental instrumentation required to generate and to record convective fluid flow is described. Details of the optical system configuration, the lens design, and the optical coatings are described. Measurement of thermal gradient fields by schlieren techniques and measurement of fluid flow velocity fields by photochromic dye tracers is achieved with a common optical system which utilizes photographic film for data recording. Generation of the photochromic dye tracers is described, and data annotation of experimental parameters on the film record is discussed.

  5. Space Station fluid resupply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winters, AL

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on space station fluid resupply are presented. Space Station Freedom is resupplied with supercritical O2 and N2 for the ECLSS and USL on a 180 day resupply cycle. Resupply fluids are stored in the subcarriers on station between resupply cycles and transferred to the users as required. ECLSS contingency fluids (O2 and N2) are supplied and stored on station in a gaseous state. Efficiency and flexibility are major design considerations. Subcarrier approach allows multiple manifest combinations. Growth is achieved by adding modular subcarriers.

  6. Relativistic fluid dynamics. Proceedings.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anile, A. M.; Choquet-Bruhat, Y.

    Contents: 1. Covariant theory of conductivity in ideal fluid or solid media (B. Carter). 2. Hamiltonian techniques for relativistic fluid dynamics and stability theory (D. D. Holm). 3. Covariant fluid mechanics and thermodynamics: an introduction (W. Israel). 4. Relativistic plasmas (H. Weitzner). 5. An improved relativistic warm plasma model (A. M. Anile, S. Pennisi). 6. Relativistic extended thermodynamics II (I. Müller). 7. Relativistic extended thermodynamics: general assumptions and mathematical procedure (T. Ruggeri). 8. Relativistic hydrodynamics and heavy ion reactions (D. Strottman). 9. Some problems in relativistic hydrodynamics (C. G. van Weert).

  7. Multiphase fluid characterization system

    DOEpatents

    Sinha, Dipen N.

    2014-09-02

    A measurement system and method for permitting multiple independent measurements of several physical parameters of multiphase fluids flowing through pipes are described. Multiple acoustic transducers are placed in acoustic communication with or attached to the outside surface of a section of existing spool (metal pipe), typically less than 3 feet in length, for noninvasive measurements. Sound speed, sound attenuation, fluid density, fluid flow, container wall resonance characteristics, and Doppler measurements for gas volume fraction may be measured simultaneously by the system. Temperature measurements are made using a temperature sensor for oil-cut correction.

  8. Fundamentals of fluid lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrock, Bernard J.

    1991-01-01

    The aim is to coordinate the topics of design, engineering dynamics, and fluid dynamics in order to aid researchers in the area of fluid film lubrication. The lubrication principles that are covered can serve as a basis for the engineering design of machine elements. The fundamentals of fluid film lubrication are presented clearly so that students that use the book will have confidence in their ability to apply these principles to a wide range of lubrication situations. Some guidance on applying these fundamentals to the solution of engineering problems is also provided.

  9. Fundamentals of fluid sealing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuk, J.

    1976-01-01

    The fundamentals of fluid sealing, including seal operating regimes, are discussed and the general fluid-flow equations for fluid sealing are developed. Seal performance parameters such as leakage and power loss are presented. Included in the discussion are the effects of geometry, surface deformations, rotation, and both laminar and turbulent flows. The concept of pressure balancing is presented, as are differences between liquid and gas sealing. Mechanisms of seal surface separation, fundamental friction and wear concepts applicable to seals, seal materials, and pressure-velocity (PV) criteria are discussed.

  10. Synthetic Base Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, M.; Fotheringham, J. D.; Hoyes, T. J.; Mortier, R. M.; Orszulik, S. T.; Randles, S. J.; Stroud, P. M.

    The chemical nature and technology of the main synthetic lubricant base fluids is described, covering polyalphaolefins, alkylated aromatics, gas-to-liquid (GTL) base fluids, polybutenes, aliphatic diesters, polyolesters, polyalkylene glycols or PAGs and phosphate esters.Other synthetic lubricant base oils such as the silicones, borate esters, perfluoroethers and polyphenylene ethers are considered to have restricted applications due to either high cost or performance limitations and are not considered here.Each of the main synthetic base fluids is described for their chemical and physical properties, manufacture and production, their chemistry, key properties, applications and their implications when used in the environment.

  11. Magnetic Fluids--Part 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoon, S. R.; Tanner, B. K.

    1985-01-01

    Basic physical concepts of importance in understanding magnetic fluids (fine ferromagnetic particles suspended in a liquid) are discussed. They include home-made magnetic fluids, stable magnetic fluids, and particle surfactants. (DH)

  12. Validation of the MycAssay Pneumocystis kit for detection of Pneumocystis jirovecii in bronchoalveolar lavage specimens by comparison to a laboratory standard of direct immunofluorescence microscopy, real-time PCR, or conventional PCR.

    PubMed

    McTaggart, Lisa R; Wengenack, Nancy L; Richardson, Susan E

    2012-06-01

    Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in AIDS patients as well as those with non-HIV immunosuppressive diseases. To aid diagnosis, the commercial MycAssay Pneumocystis real-time PCR assay (Myconostica, Ltd., Manchester, United Kingdom) targeting the mitochondrial ribosomal large subunit (mtLSU) has been developed to detect P. jirovecii in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens. Here, we validated this assay against a laboratory standard of direct immunofluorescence microscopy, a cdc2 real-time PCR assay, or conventional PCR and sequencing of mtLSU. While more sensitive than any of these three assays analyzed individually, the MycAssay Pneumocystis assay demonstrated 100% sensitivity, 100% specificity, a 100% negative predictive value, and a 100% positive predictive value for detecting the presence of P. jirovecii in BAL specimens compared to the laboratory standard. Of note, two samples with positive cycle threshold (C(T)) values according to the MycAssay Pneumocystis assay lacked exponential amplification curves and thus were deemed negative. Also negative according to the laboratory standard, these samples highlight the importance of examining the amplification curves, in addition to noting the C(T) values, when interpreting positive results. Comparison of the MycAssay Pneumocystis assay to a laboratory standard establishes this assay to be a highly sensitive and specific method for the detection of P. jirovecii in bronchoalveolar lavage specimens. The approach may also be useful for the clinical laboratory validation of other sensitive real-time PCR assays. PMID:22422855

  13. Computational fluid dynamic control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Tom T.; Deabreu-Garcia, Alex

    1989-01-01

    A general technique is presented for modeling fluid, or gas, dynamic systems specifically for the development of control systems. The numerical methods which are generally used in computational fluid dynamics are borrowed to create either continuous-time or discrete-time models of the particular fluid system. The resulting equations can be either left in a nonlinear form, or easily linearized about an operating point. As there are typically very many states in these systems, the usual linear model reduction methods can be used on them to allow a low-order controller to be designed. A simple example is given which typifies many internal flow control problems. The resulting control is termed computational fluid dynamic control.

  14. Culture - joint fluid

    MedlinePlus

    Joint fluid culture ... fungi, or viruses grow. This is called a culture. If these germs are detected, other tests may ... is no special preparation needed for the lab culture. How to prepare for the removal of joint ...

  15. Our World: Fluid Shift

    NASA Video Gallery

    Learn about the circulatory system and how gravity aids blood flow in our bodies here on Earth. Find out how NASA flight surgeons help the astronauts deal with the fluid shift that happens during s...

  16. Cerebrospinal fluid culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... is a laboratory test to look for bacteria, fungi, and viruses in the normally clear fluid that ... The laboratory personnel watch to see if bacteria, fungi, or viruses grow in the dish. Growth means ...

  17. Pleural fluid analysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... cleans the skin around the insertion site. Numbing medicine (anesthetic) is injected into the skin. A needle is placed through the skin and muscles of the chest wall into the pleural space. As fluid drains into a collection bottle, you ...

  18. Lighter fluid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... the person swallowed the lighter fluid, give them water or milk right away, if a provider tells you to do so. ... Fillmore Suburban Hospital, Buffalo, NY. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, ...

  19. Lighter fluid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... in lighter fluids are called hydrocarbons. They include: Benzene Butane Hexamine Lacolene Naptha Propane ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 158. Mirkin DB. Benzene and related aromatic hydrocarbons. In: Shannon MW, Borron ...

  20. Improved perfluoroalkylether fluid development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. R., Jr.; Paciorek, K.; Nakahara, J.; Smythe, M.; Kratzer, R.

    1986-01-01

    The feasibility of transforming a commercial linear perfluoroalkylether fluid into a material stable in the presence of metals and metal alloys in oxidizing atmospheres at 300 C without the loss of the desirable viscosity temperature characteristics was determined. The approach consisted of thermal oxidative treatment in the presence of catalyst to remove weak links, followed by transformation of the created functional groups into phospha-s-triazine linkages. It it found that the experimental material obtained in 66% yield from the commercial fluid exhibits, over an 8 hr period at 300 C in the presence of Ti(4Al, 4Mn) alloy, thermal oxidative stability better by a factor of 2.6x1000 based on volatiles evolved than the commercial product. The viscosity and molecular weight of the developed fluid are unchanged and are essentially identical with the commercial material. No metal corrosion occurs with the experimental fluid at 300 C.

  1. Joint fluid Gram stain

    MedlinePlus

    Gram stain of joint fluid ... result means no bacteria are present on the Gram stain. Normal value ranges may vary slightly among ... Abnormal results mean bacteria were seen on the Gram stain. This may be a sign of a ...

  2. Basic fluid system trainer

    DOEpatents

    Semans, Joseph P.; Johnson, Peter G.; LeBoeuf, Jr., Robert F.; Kromka, Joseph A.; Goron, Ronald H.; Hay, George D.

    1993-01-01

    A trainer, mounted and housed within a mobile console, is used to teach and reinforce fluid principles to students. The system trainer has two centrifugal pumps, each driven by a corresponding two-speed electric motor. The motors are controlled by motor controllers for operating the pumps to circulate the fluid stored within a supply tank through a closed system. The pumps may be connected in series or in parallel. A number of valves are also included within the system to effect different flow paths for the fluid. In addition, temperature and pressure sensing instruments are installed throughout the closed system for measuring the characteristics of the fluid, as it passes through the different valves and pumps. These measurements are indicated on a front panel mounted to the console, as a teaching aid, to allow the students to observe the characteristics of the system.

  3. Fluid pumping apparatus

    DOEpatents

    West, Phillip B.

    2006-01-17

    A method and apparatus suitable for coupling seismic or other downhole sensors to a borehole wall in high temperature and pressure environments. In one embodiment, one or more metal bellows mounted to a sensor module are inflated to clamp the sensor module within the borehole and couple an associated seismic sensor to a borehole wall. Once the sensing operation is complete, the bellows are deflated and the sensor module is unclamped by deflation of the metal bellows. In a further embodiment, a magnetic drive pump in a pump module is used to supply fluid pressure for inflating the metal bellows using borehole fluid or fluid from a reservoir. The pump includes a magnetic drive motor configured with a rotor assembly to be exposed to borehole fluid pressure including a rotatable armature for driving an impeller and an associated coil under control of electronics isolated from borehole pressure.

  4. Polymer Fluid Dynamics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, R. Byron

    1980-01-01

    Problems in polymer fluid dynamics are described, including development of constitutive equations, rheometry, kinetic theory, flow visualization, heat transfer studies, flows with phase change, two-phase flow, polymer unit operations, and drag reduction. (JN)

  5. Peritoneal fluid analysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... people who have liver disease See whether an injury to the abdomen has caused internal bleeding ... fluid may be a sign of tumor or injury. High white blood cell ... the abdomen. Large differences between the amount of albumin in ...

  6. Fluid management system technology discipline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Symons, E. Patrick

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on fluid management system technology discipline for Space Station Freedom are presented. Topics covered include: subcritical cryogenic storage and transfer; fluid handling; and components and instrumentation.

  7. [Diagnosis: synovial fluid analysis].

    PubMed

    Gallo Vallejo, Francisco Javier; Giner Ruiz, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Synovial fluid analysis in rheumatological diseases allows a more accurate diagnosis in some entities, mainly infectious and microcrystalline arthritis. Examination of synovial fluid in patients with osteoarthritis is useful if a differential diagnosis will be performed with other processes and to distinguish between inflammatory and non-inflammatory forms. Joint aspiration is a diagnostic and sometimes therapeutic procedure that is available to primary care physicians. PMID:24467958

  8. Valve for fluid control

    DOEpatents

    Oborny, Michael C.; Paul, Phillip H.; Hencken, Kenneth R.; Frye-Mason, Gregory C.; Manginell, Ronald P.

    2001-01-01

    A valve for controlling fluid flows. This valve, which includes both an actuation device and a valve body provides: the ability to incorporate both the actuation device and valve into a unitary structure that can be placed onto a microchip, the ability to generate higher actuation pressures and thus control higher fluid pressures than conventional microvalves, and a device that draws only microwatts of power. An electrokinetic pump that converts electric potential to hydraulic force is used to operate, or actuate, the valve.

  9. Fluid infusion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Performance testing carried out in the development of the prototype zero-g fluid infusion system is described and summarized. Engineering tests were performed in the course of development, both on the original breadboard device and on the prototype system. This testing was aimed at establishing baseline system performance parameters and facilitating improvements. Acceptance testing was then performed on the prototype system to verify functional performance. Acceptance testing included a demonstration of the fluid infusion system on a laboratory animal.

  10. Fluid property measurements study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devaney, W. E.

    1976-01-01

    Fluid properties of refrigerant-21 were investigated at temperatures from the freezing point to 423 Kelvin and at pressures to 1.38 x 10 to the 8th power N/sq m (20,000 psia). The fluid properties included were: density, vapor pressure, viscosity, specific heat, thermal conductivity, thermal expansion coefficient, freezing point and bulk modulus. Tables of smooth values are reported.

  11. Thermostating highly confined fluids.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Stefano; Todd, B D; Searles, Debra J

    2010-06-28

    In this work we show how different use of thermostating devices and modeling of walls influence the mechanical and dynamical properties of confined nanofluids. We consider a two dimensional fluid undergoing Couette flow using nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. Because the system is highly inhomogeneous, the density shows strong fluctuations across the channel. We compare the dynamics produced by applying a thermostating device directly to the fluid with that obtained when the wall is thermostated, considering also the effects of using rigid walls. This comparison involves an analysis of the chaoticity of the fluid and evaluation of mechanical properties across the channel. We look at two thermostating devices with either rigid or vibrating atomic walls and compare them with a system only thermostated by conduction through vibrating atomic walls. Sensitive changes are observed in the xy component of the pressure tensor, streaming velocity, and density across the pore and the Lyapunov localization of the fluid. We also find that the fluid slip can be significantly reduced by rigid walls. Our results suggest caution in interpreting the results of systems in which fluid atoms are thermostated and/or wall atoms are constrained to be rigid, such as, for example, water inside carbon nanotubes. PMID:20590213

  12. An improved method for quantification of extra domain A-containing cellular fibronectin (EDAcFN) in different body fluids.

    PubMed

    Ylätupa, S; Mertaniemi, P; Haglund, C; Partanen, P

    1995-01-31

    A quantitative direct enzyme immunoassay for the extra domain A-containing isoform of cellular fibronectin (EDAcFN) was established for screening of large series of blood samples and various body fluids of different pH and viscosity. The method is based on the monoclonal antibody DH1 recognizing the extra domain A in cellular fibronectin (EDAcFN). Studies on the effect of dilution of plasma and serum samples in this direct assay indicated that the measured concentration of cFN in the samples greatly depend on the ratio of sample dilution. The linearity of the assay was improved with sample dilution and the optimal dilution was 1:5. Stored diluted samples retained their cFN content at +4 degrees C, and -20 degrees C and -70 degrees C for months in contrast to samples stored undiluted. With this direct EIA the detection limit was 0.05 micrograms/ml and the linear portion of the standard curve could be extended above 30 micrograms/ml. Thus, the cFN concentration of blood samples could be measured reliably without inhibition also in samples with very high concentration of cFN. This is particularly important when measuring blood samples from cancer patients, since these samples may contain more than 20 micrograms/ml EDAcFN. The assay was standardized for blood samples but, due to the possibility of sample dilution, it also enabled reliable quantification of EDAcFN in various other body fluids. Undiluted some of the samples with non-neutral pH (urine, bile) or with high viscosity (seminal plasma) interfered with the assay. In addition to blood samples, the EDAcFN concentration was determined in samples of urine, bile, amniotic fluid, cervicovaginal secretions, seminal fluid, cerebrospinal fluid, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, pleural fluid and saliva. Thereby, this modified method was shown to be applicable to various body fluids. PMID:7758225

  13. Orbital Fluid Transfer System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, A. S., (Nick); Ryder, Mel; Tyler, Tony R.

    1998-01-01

    An automated fluid and power interface system needs to be developed for future space missions which require on orbit consumable replenishment. Current method of fluid transfer require manned vehicles and extravehicular activity. Currently the US does not have an automated capability for consumable transfer on-orbit. This technology would benefit both Space Station and long duration satellites. In order to provide this technology the Automated Fluid Interface System (AFIS) was developed. The AFIS project was an advanced development program aimed at developing a prototype satellite servicer for future space operations. This mechanism could transfer propellants, cryogens, fluids, gasses, electrical power, and communications from a tanker unit to the orbiting satellite. The development of this unit was a cooperative effort between Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, and Moog, Inc. in East Aurora, New York. An engineering model was built and underwent substantial development testing at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). While the AFIS is not suitable for spaceflight, testing and evaluation of the AFIS provided significant experience which would be beneficial in building a flight unit. The lessons learned from testing the AFIS provided the foundation for the next generation fluid transfer mechanism, the Orbital Fluid Transfer System (OFTS). The OFTS project was a study contract with MSFC and Moog, Inc. The OFTS was designed for the International Space Station (ISS), but its flexible design could used for long duration satellite missions and other applications. The OFTS was designed to be used after docking. The primary function was to transfer bipropellants and high pressure gases. The other items addressed by this task included propellant storage, hardware integration, safety and control system issues. A new concept for high pressure couplings was also developed. The results of the AFIS testing provided an excellent basis for the OFTS design. The OFTS

  14. Intravenous Fluid Generation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McQuillen, John; McKay, Terri; Brown, Daniel; Zoldak, John

    2013-01-01

    The ability to stabilize and treat patients on exploration missions will depend on access to needed consumables. Intravenous (IV) fluids have been identified as required consumables. A review of the Space Medicine Exploration Medical Condition List (SMEMCL) lists over 400 medical conditions that could present and require treatment during ISS missions. The Intravenous Fluid Generation System (IVGEN) technology provides the scalable capability to generate IV fluids from indigenous water supplies. It meets USP (U.S. Pharmacopeia) standards. This capability was performed using potable water from the ISS; water from more extreme environments would need preconditioning. The key advantage is the ability to filter mass and volume, providing the equivalent amount of IV fluid: this is critical for remote operations or resource- poor environments. The IVGEN technology purifies drinking water, mixes it with salt, and transfers it to a suitable bag to deliver a sterile normal saline solution. Operational constraints such as mass limitations and lack of refrigeration may limit the type and volume of such fluids that can be carried onboard the spacecraft. In addition, most medical fluids have a shelf life that is shorter than some mission durations. Consequently, the objective of the IVGEN experiment was to develop, design, and validate the necessary methodology to purify spacecraft potable water into a normal saline solution, thus reducing the amount of IV fluids that are included in the launch manifest. As currently conceived, an IVGEN system for a space exploration mission would consist of an accumulator, a purifier, a mixing assembly, a salt bag, and a sterile bag. The accumulator is used to transfer a measured amount of drinking water from the spacecraft to the purifier. The purifier uses filters to separate any air bubbles that may have gotten trapped during the drinking water transfer from flowing through a high-quality deionizing cartridge that removes the impurities in

  15. Improved perfluoroalkylether fluid development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paciorek, K. L.; Masuda, S. R.; Nakahara, J. H.; Kratzer, R. H.

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this program was to optimize and scale up the linear perfluoroalkylether stabilization process and to provide test data regarding the fluids' thermal oxidative stability in the presence of metal alloys. The stabilization of Fomblin Z-25 was scaled up to 300 g of fluid. The modified fluid was stable at 316 C in oxygen in the presence of M-50 alloy for more than 24 hrs but less than 40 hrs; the amount of volatiles produced after 24 hrs was 5.5 mg/g. In the presence of Ti(4Al,4Mn) alloy, under the above conditions, following an exposure of 24 hrs, the amount of volatiles formed was 6.2 mg/g; 56 hrs exposure yielded 13.9 mg/g. The commercial fluid at 288 C (in oxygen) in the presence of M-50 after 15 hrs of exposure decomposed extensively, 342 mg/g; in the presence of Ti(4Al,4Mn) alloy after only 8 hrs at 288 C, the amount of volatiles was 191 mg/g. Formulation of the commercial fluid with C2PN3 additive was not as effective as the stabilization processing. All the perfluoroalkylether fluids studied were stable in nitrogen at 343 C. The thermal oxidative stability in the absence of metal alloys varied, with Aflunox exhibiting the best behavior. All the fluids were degraded in oxygen at 316 C during 24 hrs exposure to Ti(4Al,4Mn) alloy with the exception of a perfluoroalkylether substituted triazine and the modified Z-25.

  16. Inverse magnetorheological fluids.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Arco, L; López-López, M T; Zubarev, A Y; Gdula, K; Durán, J D G

    2014-09-01

    We report a new kind of field-responsive fluid consisting of suspensions of diamagnetic (DM) and ferromagnetic (FM) microparticles in ferrofluids. We designate them as inverse magnetorheological (IMR) fluids for analogy with inverse ferrofluids (IFFs). Observations on the particle self-assembly in IMR fluids upon magnetic field application showed that DM and FM microparticles were assembled into alternating chains oriented along the field direction. We explain such assembly on the basis of the dipolar interaction energy between particles. We also present results on the rheological properties of IMR fluids and, for comparison, those of IFFs and bidispersed magnetorheological (MR) fluids. Interestingly, we found that upon magnetic field application, the rheological properties of IMR fluids were enhanced with respect to bidispersed MR fluids with the same FM particle concentration, by an amount greater than the sum of the isolated contribution of DM particles. Furthermore, the field-induced yield stress was moderately increased when up to 30% of the total FM particle content was replaced with DM particles. Beyond this point, the dependence of the yield stress on the DM content was non-monotonic, as expected for FM concentrations decreasing to zero. We explain these synergistic results by two separate phenomena: the formation of exclusion areas for FM particles due to the perturbation of the magnetic field by DM particles and the dipole-dipole interaction between DM and FM particles, which enhances the field-induced structures. Based on the second phenomenon, we present a theoretical model for the yield stress that semi-quantitatively predicts the experimental results. PMID:25022363

  17. Fluid Mechanics: The Pamphlet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Variano, Evan

    2012-11-01

    One impediment to student learning in introductory fluid mechanics courses is that the fundamental laws of physics can become lost in the ``noise'' of dozens of semi-empirical equations describing special cases. This can be exacerbated by trends in textbooks and other teaching media. This talk will explore a minimalist approach, whereby the entire content of introductory fluids is distilled to a single 1-page pamphlet, designed to emphasize the governing equations and their near-universal applicability. We are particularly interested in hearing feedback from the audience on ways to further distill the content while keeping it accessible and useful. To further emphasize the difference between the fundamental laws and the many specific cases, we have begun assembling a complementary resource: a field guide to fluid phenomena, which mixes the approach of Van Dyke's book with a standard field guide. This is designed to emphasize that there is a ``zoology'' of fluid phenomena, to which the same small set of fundamental laws has been applied repeatedly. These materials may be useful in helping AP Physics teachers cover fluid mechanics, which is an under-utilized opportunity to introduce young scientists to our field of study.

  18. Amniotic fluid embolism

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Kiranpreet; Bhardwaj, Mamta; Kumar, Prashant; Singhal, Suresh; Singh, Tarandeep; Hooda, Sarla

    2016-01-01

    Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is one of the catastrophic complications of pregnancy in which amniotic fluid, fetal cells, hair, or other debris enters into the maternal pulmonary circulation, causing cardiovascular collapse. Etiology largely remains unknown, but may occur in healthy women during labour, during cesarean section, after abnormal vaginal delivery, or during the second trimester of pregnancy. It may also occur up to 48 hours post-delivery. It can also occur during abortion, after abdominal trauma, and during amnio-infusion. The pathophysiology of AFE is not completely understood. Possible historical cause is that any breach of the barrier between maternal blood and amniotic fluid forces the entry of amniotic fluid into the systemic circulation and results in a physical obstruction of the pulmonary circulation. The presenting signs and symptoms of AFE involve many organ systems. Clinical signs and symptoms are acute dyspnea, cough, hypotension, cyanosis, fetal bradycardia, encephalopathy, acute pulmonary hypertension, coagulopathy etc. Besides basic investigations lung scan, serum tryptase levels, serum levels of C3 and C4 complements, zinc coproporphyrin, serum sialyl Tn etc are helpful in establishing the diagnosis. Treatment is mainly supportive, but exchange transfusion, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and uterine artery embolization have been tried from time to time. The maternal prognosis after amniotic fluid embolism is very poor though infant survival rate is around 70%. PMID:27275041

  19. Amniotic fluid embolism.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Kiranpreet; Bhardwaj, Mamta; Kumar, Prashant; Singhal, Suresh; Singh, Tarandeep; Hooda, Sarla

    2016-01-01

    Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is one of the catastrophic complications of pregnancy in which amniotic fluid, fetal cells, hair, or other debris enters into the maternal pulmonary circulation, causing cardiovascular collapse. Etiology largely remains unknown, but may occur in healthy women during labour, during cesarean section, after abnormal vaginal delivery, or during the second trimester of pregnancy. It may also occur up to 48 hours post-delivery. It can also occur during abortion, after abdominal trauma, and during amnio-infusion. The pathophysiology of AFE is not completely understood. Possible historical cause is that any breach of the barrier between maternal blood and amniotic fluid forces the entry of amniotic fluid into the systemic circulation and results in a physical obstruction of the pulmonary circulation. The presenting signs and symptoms of AFE involve many organ systems. Clinical signs and symptoms are acute dyspnea, cough, hypotension, cyanosis, fetal bradycardia, encephalopathy, acute pulmonary hypertension, coagulopathy etc. Besides basic investigations lung scan, serum tryptase levels, serum levels of C3 and C4 complements, zinc coproporphyrin, serum sialyl Tn etc are helpful in establishing the diagnosis. Treatment is mainly supportive, but exchange transfusion, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and uterine artery embolization have been tried from time to time. The maternal prognosis after amniotic fluid embolism is very poor though infant survival rate is around 70%. PMID:27275041

  20. Fluid driven recipricating apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Whitehead, John C.

    1997-01-01

    An apparatus comprising a pair of fluid driven pump assemblies in a back-to-back configuration to yield a bi-directional pump. Each of the pump assemblies includes a piston or diaphragm which divides a chamber therein to define a power section and a pumping section. An intake-exhaust valve is connected to each of the power sections of the pump chambers, and function to direct fluid, such as compressed air, into the power section and exhaust fluid therefrom. At least one of the pistons or diaphragms is connected by a rod assembly which is constructed to define a signal valve, whereby the intake-exhaust valve of one pump assembly is controlled by the position or location of the piston or diaphragm in the other pump assembly through the operation of the rod assembly signal valve. Each of the pumping sections of the pump assemblies are provided with intake and exhaust valves to enable filling of the pumping section with fluid and discharging fluid therefrom when a desired pressure has been reached.

  1. Fluid driven reciprocating apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Whitehead, J.C.

    1997-04-01

    An apparatus is described comprising a pair of fluid driven pump assemblies in a back-to-back configuration to yield a bi-directional pump. Each of the pump assemblies includes a piston or diaphragm which divides a chamber therein to define a power section and a pumping section. An intake-exhaust valve is connected to each of the power sections of the pump chambers, and function to direct fluid, such as compressed air, into the power section and exhaust fluid therefrom. At least one of the pistons or diaphragms is connected by a rod assembly which is constructed to define a signal valve, whereby the intake-exhaust valve of one pump assembly is controlled by the position or location of the piston or diaphragm in the other pump assembly through the operation of the rod assembly signal valve. Each of the pumping sections of the pump assemblies are provided with intake and exhaust valves to enable filling of the pumping section with fluid and discharging fluid therefrom when a desired pressure has been reached. 13 figs.

  2. Boiler using combustible fluid

    DOEpatents

    Baumgartner, H.; Meier, J.G.

    1974-07-03

    A fluid fuel boiler is described comprising a combustion chamber, a cover on the combustion chamber having an opening for introducing a combustion-supporting gaseous fluid through said openings, means to impart rotation to the gaseous fluid about an axis of the combustion chamber, a burner for introducing a fluid fuel into the chamber mixed with the gaseous fluid for combustion thereof, the cover having a generally frustro-conical configuration diverging from the opening toward the interior of the chamber at an angle of between 15/sup 0/ and 55/sup 0/; means defining said combustion chamber having means defining a plurality of axial hot gas flow paths from a downstream portion of the combustion chamber to flow hot gases into an upstream portion of the combustion chamber, and means for diverting some of the hot gas flow along paths in a direction circumferentially of the combustion chamber, with the latter paths being immersed in the water flow path thereby to improve heat transfer and terminating in a gas outlet, the combustion chamber comprising at least one modular element, joined axially to the frustro-conical cover and coaxial therewith. The modular element comprises an inner ring and means of defining the circumferential, radial, and spiral flow paths of the hot gases.

  3. Fluorescent fluid interface position sensor

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    2004-02-17

    A new fluid interface position sensor has been developed, which is capable of optically determining the location of an interface between an upper fluid and a lower fluid, the upper fluid having a larger refractive index than a lower fluid. The sensor functions by measurement, of fluorescence excited by an optical pump beam which is confined within a fluorescent waveguide where that waveguide is in optical contact with the lower fluid, but escapes from the fluorescent waveguide where that waveguide is in optical contact with the upper fluid.

  4. Stochastic interpenetration of fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Steinkamp, M.J.; Clark, T.T.; Harlow, F.H.

    1995-11-01

    We describe a spectral approach to the investigation of fluid instability, generalized turbulence, and the interpenetration of fluids across an interface. The technique also applies to a single fluid with large variations in density. Departures of fluctuating velocity components from the local mean are far subsonic, but the mean Mach number can be large. Validity of the description is demonstrated by comparisons with experiments on turbulent mixing due to the late stages of Rayleigh-Taylor instability, when the dynamics become approximately self-similar in response to a constant body force. Generic forms for anisotropic spectral structure are described and used as a basis for deriving spectrally integrated moment equations that can be incorporated into computer codes for scientific and engineering analyses.

  5. Fluid lubricated bearing construction

    DOEpatents

    Dunning, John R.; Boorse, Henry A.; Boeker, Gilbert F.

    1976-01-01

    1. A fluid lubricated thrust bearing assembly comprising, in combination, a first bearing member having a plain bearing surface, a second bearing member having a bearing surface confronting the bearing surface of said first bearing member and provided with at least one spiral groove extending inwardly from the periphery of said second bearing member, one of said bearing members having an axial fluid-tight well, a source of fluid lubricant adjacent to the periphery of said second bearing member, and means for relatively rotating said bearing members to cause said lubricant to be drawn through said groove and to flow between said bearing surfaces, whereby a sufficient pressure is built up between said bearing surfaces and in said well to tend to separate said bearing surfaces.

  6. Computational Fluid Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, T. J.

    2002-03-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques are used to study and solve complex fluid flow and heat transfer problems. This comprehensive text ranges from elementary concepts for the beginner to state-of-the-art CFD for the practitioner. It discusses and illustrates the basic principles of finite difference (FD), finite element (FE), and finite volume (FV) methods, with step-by-step hand calculations. Chapters go on to examine structured and unstructured grids, adaptive methods, computing techniques, and parallel processing. Finally, the author describes a variety of practical applications to problems in turbulence, reacting flows and combustion, acoustics, combined mode radiative heat transfer, multiphase flows, electromagnetic fields, and relativistic astrophysical flows. Students and practitioners--particularly in mechanical, aerospace, chemical, and civil engineering--will use this authoritative text to learn about and apply numerical techniques to the solution of fluid dynamics problems.

  7. Universal fluid droplet ejector

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Eric R.; Perl, Martin L.

    1999-08-24

    A droplet generator comprises a fluid reservoir having a side wall made of glass or quartz, and an end cap made from a silicon plate. The end cap contains a micromachined aperture through which the fluid is ejected. The side wall is thermally fused to the end cap, and no adhesive is necessary. This means that the fluid only comes into contact with the side wall and the end cap, both of which are chemically inert. Amplitudes of drive pulses received by reservoir determine the horizontal displacements of droplets relative to the ejection aperture. The drive pulses are varied such that the dropper generates a two-dimensional array of vertically-falling droplets. Vertical and horizontal interdroplet spacings may be varied in real time. Applications include droplet analysis experiments such as Millikan fractional charge searches and aerosol characterization, as well as material deposition applications.

  8. Universal fluid droplet ejector

    DOEpatents

    Lee, E.R.; Perl, M.L.

    1999-08-24

    A droplet generator comprises a fluid reservoir having a side wall made of glass or quartz, and an end cap made from a silicon plate. The end cap contains a micromachined aperture through which the fluid is ejected. The side wall is thermally fused to the end cap, and no adhesive is necessary. This means that the fluid only comes into contact with the side wall and the end cap, both of which are chemically inert. Amplitudes of drive pulses received by reservoir determine the horizontal displacements of droplets relative to the ejection aperture. The drive pulses are varied such that the dropper generates a two-dimensional array of vertically-falling droplets. Vertical and horizontal inter-droplet spacings may be varied in real time. Applications include droplet analysis experiments such as Millikan fractional charge searches and aerosol characterization, as well as material deposition applications. 8 figs.

  9. Hazardous fluid leak detector

    DOEpatents

    Gray, Harold E.; McLaurin, Felder M.; Ortiz, Monico; Huth, William A.

    1996-01-01

    A device or system for monitoring for the presence of leaks from a hazardous fluid is disclosed which uses two electrodes immersed in deionized water. A gas is passed through an enclosed space in which a hazardous fluid is contained. Any fumes, vapors, etc. escaping from the containment of the hazardous fluid in the enclosed space are entrained in the gas passing through the enclosed space and transported to a closed vessel containing deionized water and two electrodes partially immersed in the deionized water. The electrodes are connected in series with a power source and a signal, whereby when a sufficient number of ions enter the water from the gas being bubbled through it (indicative of a leak), the water will begin to conduct, thereby allowing current to flow through the water from one electrode to the other electrode to complete the circuit and activate the signal.

  10. Wireline fluid sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Michaels, J.; Moody, M.; Shwe, T.

    1995-12-31

    Accurate PVT data are crucial to well completion and production, formation evaluation and reservoir characterization. This is especially true for initial reservoir characterization where the PVF sample needs to be obtained prior to production. It is essential that the fluid sample be recovered as closely as possible to in-situ conditions whether by drill stem or wireline formation for. The need to remove drilling mud filtrate prior to collecting a sample has been widely recognized. Wireline testers which can pump fluid from a formation until filtrate is reduced to a minimum overcome this problem. While reducing sample contamination has been addressed, little emphasis has been placed on the need to control inlet pressure during filtrate removal or during sampling. Reducing contamination is important; however, there is equal need to determine the critical sampling pressure. The purpose is to prevent phase separation in the formation by regulating the sampling process based on this information and thereby obtain a more representative reservoir fluid sample. A recently introduced wireline instrument provides the capability of measuring the critical pressure prior to sampling, of controlling the sample pressure and of increasing the pressure in the sample container to compensate for temperature decline during delivery of that sample to a testing laboratory. Example of pressure tests while pumping and during pressure buildup are presented along with indicated sample properties. Introduction Wireline Formation Testers (WFT) provide an cost effective means to determine pressure as a function of depth and to recover samples of fluid from formations at selected depths. No other method can provide this type of information. Pressure data are used to estimate mobility, fluid contact and fluid density.

  11. High temperature drilling fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Stong, R.E.; Walinsky, S.W.

    1986-01-28

    This patent describes an aqueous drilling fluid suitable for high-temperature use. This fluid is composed of a water base. Clay is suspended in the base and from about 0.01-25 pounds per barrel total composition of a hydrolyzed terpolymer of maleic anhydride, styrene and a third monomer selected from acrylamide, methacrylamide, acrylic acid and metacrylic acid. The molar ratio of maleic anhydride to styrene to the third monomer is from about 30:10:60 to 50:40:10, and the alkali metal, ammonium and lower aliphatic amine salts thereof, the weight-average molecular weight of the hydrolyzed terpolymer is from about 500-10,000.

  12. Fluid therapy in calves.

    PubMed

    Smith, Geof W; Berchtold, Joachim

    2014-07-01

    Early and aggressive fluid therapy is critical in correcting the metabolic complications associated with calf diarrhea. Oral electrolyte therapy can be used with success in calves, but careful consideration should be given to the type of oral electrolyte used. Electrolyte solutions with high osmolalities can significantly slow abomasal emptying and can be a risk factor for abomasal bloat in calves. Milk should not be withheld from calves with diarrhea for more than 12 to 24 hours. Hypertonic saline and hypertonic sodium bicarbonate can be used effectively for intravenous fluid therapy on farms when intravenous catheterization is not possible. PMID:24980729

  13. Fluid dynamics test method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gayman, W. H.

    1974-01-01

    Test method and apparatus determine fluid effective mass and damping in frequency range where effective mass may be considered as total mass less sum of slosh masses. Apparatus is designed so test tank and its mounting yoke are supported from structural test wall by series of flexures.

  14. Two-fluid instability

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, H.B.

    1984-01-01

    The ability of interpenetrating flow models to represent multidimensional instabilities is probed by numerical experiments with an L-shaped two-fluid jet. Periodic and nonperiodic oscillations of various types are observed, and a partial phase portrait is constructed. The numerical experiments suggest new approaches to verifying transient interpenetrating flow models. 18 references.

  15. Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC)is a state-of-the-art hydrodynamic model that can be used to simulate aquatic systems in one, two, and three dimensions. It has evolved over the past two decades to become one of the most widely used and technically defensible hydrodyn...

  16. Drilling fluid thinner

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, B.

    1989-06-27

    A drilling fluid additive is described comprising a mixture of: (a) a sulfoalkylated tannin and (b) chromium acetate selected from the group consisting of chromium (III) acetate and chromium (II) acetate, wherein the chromium acetate is present in a weight ratio of the chromium acetate to the sulfoalkylated tannin in the range of from about 1:20 to about 1:1.

  17. Time Dependent Fluids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collyer, A. A.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the flow characteristics of thixotropic and negative thixotropic fluids; various theories underlying the thixotropic behavior; and thixotropic phenomena exhibited in drilling muds, commercial paints, pastes, and greases. Inconsistencies in the terminology used to label time dependent effects are revealed. (CC)

  18. Relativistic viscoelastic fluid mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Fukuma, Masafumi; Sakatani, Yuho

    2011-08-15

    A detailed study is carried out for the relativistic theory of viscoelasticity which was recently constructed on the basis of Onsager's linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics. After rederiving the theory using a local argument with the entropy current, we show that this theory universally reduces to the standard relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics in the long time limit. Since effects of elasticity are taken into account, the dynamics at short time scales is modified from that given by the Navier-Stokes equations, so that acausal problems intrinsic to relativistic Navier-Stokes fluids are significantly remedied. We in particular show that the wave equations for the propagation of disturbance around a hydrostatic equilibrium in Minkowski space-time become symmetric hyperbolic for some range of parameters, so that the model is free of acausality problems. This observation suggests that the relativistic viscoelastic model with such parameters can be regarded as a causal completion of relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics. By adjusting parameters to various values, this theory can treat a wide variety of materials including elastic materials, Maxwell materials, Kelvin-Voigt materials, and (a nonlinearly generalized version of) simplified Israel-Stewart fluids, and thus we expect the theory to be the most universal description of single-component relativistic continuum materials. We also show that the presence of strains and the corresponding change in temperature are naturally unified through the Tolman law in a generally covariant description of continuum mechanics.

  19. A Fluid Block Schedule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ubben, Gerald C.

    1976-01-01

    Achieving flexibility without losing student accountability is a challenge that faces every school. With a fluid block schedule, as described here, accountability is maintained without inhibiting flexibility. An additional advantage is that three levels of schedule decision making take some of the pressure off the principal. (Editor)

  20. Pleural fluid culture

    MedlinePlus

    A procedure called thoracentesis is used to get a sample of pleural fluid. The sample is sent to a laboratory and examined under ... For thoracentesis, you sit on the edge of a chair or bed with your head and arms resting on ...

  1. Orbital Fluid Resupply Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberhardt, Ralph N.

    1989-01-01

    Orbital fluid resupply can significantly increase the cost-effectiveness and operational flexibility of spacecraft, satellites, and orbiting platforms and observatories. Reusable tankers are currently being designed for transporting fluids to space. A number of options exist for transporting the fluids and propellant to the space-based user systems. The fluids can be transported to space either in the Shuttle cargo bay or using expendable launch vehicles (ELVs). Resupply can thus be accomplished either from the Shuttle bay, or the tanker can be removed from the Shuttle bay or launched on an ELV and attached to a carrier such as the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) or Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) for transport to the user to be serviced. A third option involves locating the tanker at the space station or an unmanned platform as a quasi-permanent servicing facility or depot which returns to the ground for recycling once its tanks are depleted. Current modular tanker designs for monopropellants, bipropellants, and water for space station propulsion are discussed. Superfluid helium tankers are addressed, including trade-offs in tanker sizes, shapes to fit the range of ELVs currently available, and boil-off losses associated with longer-term (greater than 6-month) space-basing. It is concluded that the mixed fleet approach to on-orbit consumables resupply offers significant advantages to the overall logistics requirements.

  2. Cryogenic fluid management experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberhardt, R. N.; Bailey, W. J.; Fester, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    The cryogenic fluid management experiment (CFME), designed to characterize subcritical liquid hydrogen storage and expulsion in the low-q space environment, is discussed. The experiment utilizes a fine mesh screen fluid management device to accomplish gas-free liquid expulsion and a thermodynamic vent system to intercept heat leak and control tank pressure. The experiment design evolved from a single flight prototype to provision for a multimission (up to 7) capability. A detailed design of the CFME, a dynamic test article, and dedicated ground support equipment were generated. All materials and parts were identified, and components were selected and specifications prepared. Long lead titanium pressurant spheres and the flight tape recorder and ground reproduce unit were procured. Experiment integration with the shuttle orbiter, Spacelab, and KSC ground operations was coordinated with the appropriate NASA centers, and experiment interfaces were defined. Phase 1 ground and flight safety reviews were conducted. Costs were estimated for fabrication and assembly of the CFME, which will become the storage and supply tank for a cryogenic fluid management facility to investigate fluid management in space.

  3. Low temperature fluid blender

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Repas, G. A.

    1971-01-01

    Blender supplies hydrogen at temperatures from 289 deg K to 367 deg K. Hydrogen temperature is controlled by using blender to combine flow from liquid hydrogen tank /276 deg K/ and gaseous hydrogen cylinder /550 deg K/. Blenders are applicable where flow of controlled low-temperature fluid is desired.

  4. Fluid Transport in Lineaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerrich, R.

    1986-04-01

    Fluid infiltration into fault zones and their deeper level counterparts, brittle-ductile shear zones, is examined in five different tectonic environments. In the 2.7 Ga Abitibi Greenstone Belt major tectonic discontinuities have lateral extents of hundreds of kilometres. These structures, initiated as listric normal faults accommodating rift extension of the greenstone belt, acted as sites for the extrusion of komatiitic magmas, and formed submarine scarps which delimit linear belts of clastic and chemical sediments. During reverse motion on the structures, accommodating shortening of the belt, these transcrustal faults were used as a conduit for the ascent of trondhjemitic magmas from the base of the crust, alkaline magmas from the asthenosphere, and for discharge of hundreds of cubic kilometres of hydrothermal fluids. Such fluids were characterized by δ 18O = 6 ± 2, δ D = -50 ± 20, δ 13C = -4 ± 3, and temperatures of 270-450 degrees C, probably derived from devolatilization of crustal rocks undergoing prograde metamorphism. Hydrothermal fluids were more radiogenic (87Sr/86Sr = 0.7010-0.7040) and possessed higher values of μ than contemporaneous mantle, komatiites or tholeiites, and thus carried a contribution from older sialic basement. Mineralized faults possess enrichments of l.i.l. elements, including K, Rb, Li, Cs, B and CO2, as well as rare elements such as Au, Ag, As, Sb, Se, Te, Bi, W. Fluids were characterized by XCO_{2}≈ 0.1, neutral to slightly acidic pH, low salinity (less than 3% by mass), and K/Na ≈ 0.1, carried minor CH4, CO and N2, and underwent transient effervescence of CO2 during decompression. At Yellowknife, a series of large-scale shear zones developed by brittle-ductile mechanisms, involving volume dilation with the migration of ca. 5% (by mass) volatiles into the shear zone from surrounding metabasalts. This early deformation involved no departures in redox state or whole-rock δ 18O from background states of Fe2+/ɛ Fe = 0.7 and

  5. Magnetic fluids and their applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeynaetjoki, M.

    1991-02-01

    Magnetic fluids consist of carrier fluid, magnetically active particles and surfactant on each particle preventing the agglomeration of the particles. The fluids acting in the presence of the magnetic field like the ferromagnetic materials, but remaining their fluid properties, are prepared in this way. Potential applications of these fluids are magnetic separation, ink jet printing, sealing, damping, lubrication and heat transfer. So far, the industrial applications of the magnetic fluids are in the seals and bearings of the computer hard disk drives, in the heat transfer and damping of loudspeakers and in the damping of step motors. The other applications are in laboratory and research stage.

  6. Ultrasonic fluid densitometry and densitometer

    DOEpatents

    Greenwood, M.S.; Lail, J.C.

    1998-01-13

    The present invention is an ultrasonic fluid densitometer that uses a material wedge having an acoustic impedance that is near the acoustic impedance of the fluid, specifically less than a factor of 11 greater than the acoustic impedance of the fluid. The invention also includes a wedge having at least two transducers for transmitting and receiving ultrasonic signals internally reflected within the material wedge. Density of a fluid is determined by immersing the wedge into the fluid and measuring reflection of ultrasound at the wedge-fluid interface. 6 figs.

  7. Ultrasonic fluid densitometry and densitometer

    DOEpatents

    Greenwood, Margaret S.; Lail, Jason C.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is an ultrasonic fluid densitometer that uses a material wedge having an acoustic impedance that is near the acoustic impedance of the fluid, specifically less than a factor of 11 greater than the acoustic impedance of the fluid. The invention also includes a wedge having at least two transducers for transmitting and receiving ultrasonic signals internally reflected within the material wedge. Density of a fluid is determined by immersing the wedge into the fluid and measuring reflection of ultrasound at the wedge-fluid interface.

  8. Multi-platform metabolomics assays for human lung lavage fluids in an air pollution exposure study.

    PubMed

    Surowiec, Izabella; Karimpour, Masoumeh; Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra; Wu, Junfang; Unosson, Jon; Bosson, Jenny A; Blomberg, Anders; Pourazar, Jamshid; Sandström, Thomas; Behndig, Annelie F; Trygg, Johan; Nording, Malin L

    2016-07-01

    Metabolomics protocols are used to comprehensively characterize the metabolite content of biological samples by exploiting cutting-edge analytical platforms, such as gas chromatography (GC) or liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) assays, as well as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) assays. We have developed novel sample preparation procedures combined with GC-MS, LC-MS, and NMR metabolomics profiling for analyzing bronchial wash (BW) and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid from 15 healthy volunteers following exposure to biodiesel exhaust and filtered air. Our aim was to investigate the responsiveness of metabolite profiles in the human lung to air pollution exposure derived from combustion of biofuels, such as rapeseed methyl ester biodiesel, which are increasingly being promoted as alternatives to conventional fossil fuels. Our multi-platform approach enabled us to detect the greatest number of unique metabolites yet reported in BW and BAL fluid (82 in total). All of the metabolomics assays indicated that the metabolite profiles of the BW and BAL fluids differed appreciably, with 46 metabolites showing significantly different levels in the corresponding lung compartments. Furthermore, the GC-MS assay revealed an effect of biodiesel exhaust exposure on the levels of 1-monostearylglycerol, sucrose, inosine, nonanoic acid, and ethanolamine (in BAL) and pentadecanoic acid (in BW), whereas the LC-MS assay indicated a shift in the levels of niacinamide (in BAL). The NMR assay only identified lactic acid (in BW) as being responsive to biodiesel exhaust exposure. Our findings demonstrate that the proposed multi-platform approach is useful for wide metabolomics screening of BW and BAL fluids and can facilitate elucidation of metabolites responsive to biodiesel exhaust exposure. Graphical Abstract Graphical abstract illustrating the study workflow. NMR Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, LC-TOFMS Liquid chromatography-Time Of Flight Mass Spectrometry, GC Gas

  9. Microgravity Fluids for Biology, Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, DeVon; Kohl, Fred; Massa, Gioia D.; Motil, Brian; Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia; Quincy, Charles; Sato, Kevin; Singh, Bhim; Smith, Jeffrey D.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2013-01-01

    Microgravity Fluids for Biology represents an intersection of biology and fluid physics that present exciting research challenges to the Space Life and Physical Sciences Division. Solving and managing the transport processes and fluid mechanics in physiological and biological systems and processes are essential for future space exploration and colonization of space by humans. Adequate understanding of the underlying fluid physics and transport mechanisms will provide new, necessary insights and technologies for analyzing and designing biological systems critical to NASAs mission. To enable this mission, the fluid physics discipline needs to work to enhance the understanding of the influence of gravity on the scales and types of fluids (i.e., non-Newtonian) important to biology and life sciences. In turn, biomimetic, bio-inspired and synthetic biology applications based on physiology and biology can enrich the fluid mechanics and transport phenomena capabilities of the microgravity fluid physics community.

  10. Proctoclysis: emergency rectal fluid infusion.

    PubMed

    Tremayne, Vincent

    This article describes the use and effectiveness of proctoclysis (rectal fluid infusion) in providing fluid resuscitation in the absence of intravenous access in rural and remote environments. PMID:19856644

  11. Field theory for string fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubring, Daniel; Vanchurin, Vitaly

    2015-08-01

    We develop a field theory description of nondissipative string fluids and construct an explicit mapping between field theory degrees of freedom and hydrodynamic variables. The theory generalizes both a perfect particle fluid and pressureless string fluid to what we call a perfect string fluid. Ideal magnetohydrodynamics is shown to be an example of the perfect string fluid whose equations of motion can be obtained from a particular choice of the Lagrangian. The Lagrangian framework suggests a straightforward extension of the perfect string fluid to more general anisotropic fluids describing higher dimensional branes such as domain walls. Other modifications of the Lagrangian are discussed which may be useful in describing relativistic superfluids and fluids containing additional currents.

  12. Magnetically stimulated fluid flow patterns

    ScienceCinema

    Martin, Jim; Solis, Kyle

    2014-08-06

    Sandia National Laboratories' Jim Martin and Kyle Solis explain research on the effects of magnetic fields on fluid flows and how they stimulate vigorous flows. Fluid flow is a necessary phenomenon in everything from reactors to cooling engines in cars.

  13. Magnetically stimulated fluid flow patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Jim; Solis, Kyle

    2014-03-06

    Sandia National Laboratories' Jim Martin and Kyle Solis explain research on the effects of magnetic fields on fluid flows and how they stimulate vigorous flows. Fluid flow is a necessary phenomenon in everything from reactors to cooling engines in cars.

  14. Body Fluids Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siconolfi, Steven F. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    Method and apparatus are described for determining volumes of body fluids in a subject using bioelectrical response spectroscopy. The human body is represented using an electrical circuit. Intra-cellular water is represented by a resistor in series with a capacitor; extra-cellular water is represented by a resistor in series with two parallel inductors. The parallel inductors represent the resistance due to vascular fluids. An alternating, low amperage, multifrequency signal is applied to determine a subject's impedance and resistance. From these data, statistical regression is used to determine a 1% impedance where the subject's impedance changes by no more than 1% over a 25 kHz interval. Circuit component, of the human body circuit are determined based on the 1% impedance. Equations for calculating total body water, extra-cellular water, total blood volume, and plasma volume are developed based on the circuit components.

  15. Oscillating fluid power generator

    DOEpatents

    Morris, David C

    2014-02-25

    A system and method for harvesting the kinetic energy of a fluid flow for power generation with a vertically oriented, aerodynamic wing structure comprising one or more airfoil elements pivotably attached to a mast. When activated by the moving fluid stream, the wing structure oscillates back and forth, generating lift first in one direction then in the opposite direction. This oscillating movement is converted to unidirectional rotational movement in order to provide motive power to an electricity generator. Unlike other oscillating devices, this device is designed to harvest the maximum aerodynamic lift forces available for a given oscillation cycle. Because the system is not subjected to the same intense forces and stresses as turbine systems, it can be constructed less expensively, reducing the cost of electricity generation. The system can be grouped in more compact clusters, be less evident in the landscape, and present reduced risk to avian species.

  16. Canonical fluid thermodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmid, L. A.

    1972-01-01

    The space-time integral of the thermodynamic pressure plays the role of the thermodynamic potential for compressible, adiabatic flow in the sense that the pressure integral for stable flow is less than for all slightly different flows. This stability criterion can be converted into a variational minimum principle by requiring the molar free-enthalpy and the temperature, which are the arguments of the pressure function, to be generalized velocities, that is, the proper-time derivatives of scalar spare-time functions which are generalized coordinates in the canonical formalism. In a fluid context, proper-time differentiation must be expressed in terms of three independent quantities that specify the fluid velocity. This can be done in several ways, all of which lead to different variants (canonical transformations) of the same constraint-free action integral whose Euler-Lagrange equations are just the well-known equations of motion for adiabatic compressible flow.

  17. Production of MHD fluid

    DOEpatents

    Lacey, James J.; Kurtzrock, Roy C.; Bienstock, Daniel

    1976-08-24

    A hot gaseous fluid of low ash content, suitable for use in open-cycle MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) power generation, is produced by means of a three-stage process comprising (1) partial combustion of a fossil fuel to produce a hot gaseous product comprising CO.sub.2 CO, and H.sub.2 O, (2) reformation of the gaseous product from stage (1) by means of a fluidized char bed, whereby CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 O are converted to CO and H.sub.2, and (3) combustion of CO and H.sub.2 from stage (2) to produce a low ash-content fluid (flue gas) comprising CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 O and having a temperature of about 4000.degree. to 5000.degree.F.

  18. Metallization of fluid hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Nellis, W.J.; Louis, A.A.; Ashcroft, N.W.

    1997-05-14

    The electrical activity of liquid hydrogen has been measured at the high dynamic pressures, and temperatures that can be achieved with a reverberating shock wave. The resulting data are most naturally interpreted in terms of a continuous transition from a semiconducting to a metallic, largely diatomic fluid, the latter at 140 CPa, (ninefold compression) and 3000 K. While the fluid at these conditions resembles common liquid metals by the scale of its resistivity of 500 micro-ohm-cm, it differs by retaining a strong pairing character, and the precise mechanism by which a metallic state might be attained is still a matter of debate. Some evident possibilities include (i) physics of a largely one-body character, such as a band-overlap transition, (ii) physics of a strong-coupling or many-body character,such as a Mott-Hubbard transition, and (iii) process in which structural changes are paramount.

  19. Geophysical fluid dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fowlis, W. W.

    1981-01-01

    Systematic scaling or dimensional analysis reveals that certain scales of geophysical fluid flows (such as stellar, ocean, and planetary atmosphere circulations) can be accurately modeled in the laboratory using a procedure which differs from conventional engineering modeling. Rather than building a model to obtain numbers for a specific design problem, the relative effects of the significant forces are systematically varied in an attempt to deepen understanding of the effects of these forces. Topics covered include: (1) modeling a large-scale planetary atmospheric flow in a rotating cylindrical annulus; (2) achieving a radial dielectric body force; (3) spherical geophysical fluid dynamics experiments for Spacelab flights; (4) measuring flow and temperature; and (5) the possible effect of rotational or precessional disturbances on the flow in the rotating spherical containers.

  20. Drilling fluid filter

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Fox, Joe; Garner, Kory

    2007-01-23

    A drilling fluid filter for placement within a bore wall of a tubular drill string component comprises a perforated receptacle with an open end and a closed end. A hanger for engagement with the bore wall is mounted at the open end of the perforated receptacle. A mandrel is adjacent and attached to the open end of the perforated receptacle. A linkage connects the mandrel to the hanger. The linkage may be selected from the group consisting of struts, articulated struts and cams. The mandrel operates on the hanger through the linkage to engage and disengage the drilling fluid filter from the tubular drill string component. The mandrel may have a stationary portion comprising a first attachment to the open end of the perforated receptacle and a telescoping adjustable portion comprising a second attachment to the linkage. The mandrel may also comprise a top-hole interface for top-hole equipment.

  1. Computational fluid dynamics research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandra, Suresh; Jones, Kenneth; Hassan, Hassan; Mcrae, David Scott

    1992-01-01

    The focus of research in the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) area is two fold: (1) to develop new approaches for turbulence modeling so that high speed compressible flows can be studied for applications to entry and re-entry flows; and (2) to perform research to improve CFD algorithm accuracy and efficiency for high speed flows. Research activities, faculty and student participation, publications, and financial information are outlined.

  2. Perspectives in Fluid Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batchelor, G. K.; Moffatt, H. K.; Worster, M. G.

    2002-12-01

    With applications ranging from modelling the environment to automotive design and physiology to astrophysics, conventional textbooks cannot hope to give students much information on what topics in fluid dynamics are currently being researched, or how to choose between them. This book rectifies matters. It consists of eleven chapters that introduce and review different branches of the subject for graduate-level courses, or for specialists seeking introductions to other areas. Hb ISBN (2001): 0-521-78061-6

  3. MEMS fluid viscosity sensor.

    PubMed

    Ballato, Arthur

    2010-03-01

    Quartz shear resonators are employed widely as sensors to measure Newtonian viscosities of liquids. Perturbation of the electrical equivalent circuit parameters of the plate resonator by the fluid loading permits calculation of the mass density-shear viscosity product. Use of doubly rotated resonators does permit additional information to be obtained, but in no case can the viscosity and mass density values be separated. In these measurements, the resonator surface is exposed to a measurand bath whose extent greatly exceeds the penetration depth of the evanescent shear mode excited by the active element. Here we briefly review past techniques and current art, and sketch a proposal involving the interesting situation in which the separation between the resonator and a confining wall is less than the penetration depth of the fluid occupying the intervening region. To highlight the salient features of this novel case, the discussion is limited to the very idealized circumstance of a strictly 1-D problem, unencumbered by the vicissitudes inevitably encountered in practice. An appendix mentions some of these functional impedimenta and indicates how deviations from ideality might be approached in engineering embodiments. When the fluid confinement is of the order of the penetration depth, the resonator perturbation becomes a sensitive function of the separation, and it is found that viscosity and density may be separately and uniquely determined. Moreover, extreme miniaturization is a natural consequence because the penetration depth generally is on the order of micrometers for frequencies around 1 MHz at temperatures and pressures ordinarily encountered with gases and liquids. Micro-electro-mechanical (MEMS) versions of viscometers and associated types of fluid sensors are thereby enabled. PMID:20211786

  4. Metalworking fluid hand dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Saori; Shiomi, Yuko; Yokota, Kozo

    2002-07-01

    In a household appliance plant, several rinse-free lubricating fluids have been used instead of neat mineral oils since 1994: mixtures of isoparaffinic hydrocarbons with 9 to 14 carbons per molecule. As such they denature keratin, irritate and defat the skin, and remove water from it. Work gloves have been worn over plastic gloves and separate, reusable, cotton inner gloves have been added to absorb sweat since skin problems were first recognized in 1994. All 74 males (mean +/- SD, 38.8 +/- 8.0 years) who work with the fluids were interviewed and given cutaneous examinations when indicated. While 4 cases of severe dermatitis and 31 cases of mild dermatitis were identified, 28 individuals gave a history of similar problems since the use of lubricating fluids. Their symptoms were typical of primary skin irritation. The hands were the commonly affected region (63 of 63 cases: 100%), followed by the thighs (15.9%) and trunk (11.1%). The work-related skin symptoms identified were less common in workers who immediately removed the liquid with soap and water, when it is spilled on the hands, than in those who did not, but the difference was not statistically significant (7/23 (30.4%) vs. 28/51 (54.9%), p=0.051 by chi-square test). Since skin contact with metalworking fluids (MWF) is often unavoidable, good personal hygiene is important in minimizing potential adverse health effects. Health education thus remains the most important preventive measure against irritant contact dermatitis among workers handling MWFs. PMID:12141380

  5. Fluid Film Bearing Code Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The next generation of rocket engine turbopumps is being developed by industry through Government-directed contracts. These turbopumps will use fluid film bearings because they eliminate the life and shaft-speed limitations of rolling-element bearings, increase turbopump design flexibility, and reduce the need for turbopump overhauls and maintenance. The design of the fluid film bearings for these turbopumps, however, requires sophisticated analysis tools to model the complex physical behavior characteristic of fluid film bearings operating at high speeds with low viscosity fluids. State-of-the-art analysis and design tools are being developed at the Texas A&M University under a grant guided by the NASA Lewis Research Center. The latest version of the code, HYDROFLEXT, is a thermohydrodynamic bulk flow analysis with fluid compressibility, full inertia, and fully developed turbulence models. It can predict the static and dynamic force response of rigid and flexible pad hydrodynamic bearings and of rigid and tilting pad hydrostatic bearings. The Texas A&M code is a comprehensive analysis tool, incorporating key fluid phenomenon pertinent to bearings that operate at high speeds with low-viscosity fluids typical of those used in rocket engine turbopumps. Specifically, the energy equation was implemented into the code to enable fluid properties to vary with temperature and pressure. This is particularly important for cryogenic fluids because their properties are sensitive to temperature as well as pressure. As shown in the figure, predicted bearing mass flow rates vary significantly depending on the fluid model used. Because cryogens are semicompressible fluids and the bearing dynamic characteristics are highly sensitive to fluid compressibility, fluid compressibility effects are also modeled. The code contains fluid properties for liquid hydrogen, liquid oxygen, and liquid nitrogen as well as for water and air. Other fluids can be handled by the code provided that the

  6. Recording fluid currents by holography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heflinger, L. O.; Wuerker, R. F.

    1980-01-01

    Convection in fluids can be studied with aid of holographic apparatus that reveals three-dimensional motion of liquid. Apparatus eliminates images of fixed particles such as dust on windows and lenses, which might mask behavior of moving fluid particles. Holographic apparatus was developed for experiments on fluid convection cells under zero gravity. Principle is adaptable to study of fluid processes-for example, electrochemical plating and combustion in automotive engines.

  7. Hydrocarbon fluid, ejector refrigeration system

    SciTech Connect

    Kowalski, G.J.; Foster, A.R.

    1993-08-31

    A refrigeration system is described comprising: a vapor ejector cycle including a working fluid having a property such that entropy of the working fluid when in a saturated vapor state decreases as pressure decreases, the vapor ejector cycle comprising: a condenser located on a common fluid flow path; a diverter located downstream from the condenser for diverting the working fluid into a primary fluid flow path and a secondary fluid flow path parallel to the primary fluid flow path; an evaporator located on the secondary fluid flow path; an expansion device located on the secondary fluid flow path upstream of the evaporator; a boiler located on the primary fluid flow path parallel to the evaporator for boiling the working fluid, the boiler comprising an axially extending core region having a substantially constant cross sectional area and a porous capillary region surrounding the core region, the core region extending a length sufficient to produce a near sonic velocity saturated vapor; and an ejector having an outlet in fluid communication with the inlet of the condenser and an inlet in fluid communication with the outlet of the evaporator and the outlet of the boiler and in which the flows of the working fluid from the evaporator and the boiler are mixed and the pressure of the working fluid is increased to at least the pressure of the condenser, the ejector inlet, located downstream from the axially extending core region, including a primary nozzle located sufficiently close to the outlet of the boiler to minimize a pressure drop between the boiler and the primary nozzle, the primary nozzle of the ejector including a converging section having an included angle and length preselected to receive the working fluid from the boiler as a near sonic velocity saturated vapor.

  8. Corrosion in supercritical fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Propp, W.A.; Carleson, T.E.; Wai, Chen M.; Taylor, P.R.; Daehling, K.W.; Huang, Shaoping; Abdel-Latif, M.

    1996-05-01

    Integrated studies were carried out in the areas of corrosion, thermodynamic modeling, and electrochemistry under pressure and temperature conditions appropriate for potential applications of supercritical fluid (SCF) extractive metallurgy. Carbon dioxide and water were the primary fluids studied. Modifiers were used in some tests; these consisted of 1 wt% water and 10 wt% methanol for carbon dioxide and of sulfuric acid, sodium sulfate, ammonium sulfate, and ammonium nitrate at concentrations ranging from 0.00517 to 0.010 M for the aqueous fluids. The materials studied were Types 304 and 316 (UNS S30400 and S31600) stainless steel, iron, and AISI-SAE 1080 (UNS G10800) carbon steel. The thermodynamic modeling consisted of development of a personal computer-based program for generating Pourbaix diagrams at supercritical conditions in aqueous systems. As part of the model, a general method for extrapolating entropies and related thermodynamic properties from ambient to SCF conditions was developed. The experimental work was used as a tool to evaluate the predictions of the model for these systems. The model predicted a general loss of passivation in iron-based alloys at SCF conditions that was consistent with experimentally measured corrosion rates and open circuit potentials. For carbon-dioxide-based SCFs, measured corrosion rates were low, indicating that carbon steel would be suitable for use with unmodified carbon dioxide, while Type 304 stainless steel would be suitable for use with water or methanol as modifiers.

  9. Astrophysical fluid dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogilvie, Gordon I.

    2016-06-01

    These lecture notes and example problems are based on a course given at the University of Cambridge in Part III of the Mathematical Tripos. Fluid dynamics is involved in a very wide range of astrophysical phenomena, such as the formation and internal dynamics of stars and giant planets, the workings of jets and accretion discs around stars and black holes and the dynamics of the expanding Universe. Effects that can be important in astrophysical fluids include compressibility, self-gravitation and the dynamical influence of the magnetic field that is `frozen in' to a highly conducting plasma. The basic models introduced and applied in this course are Newtonian gas dynamics and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) for an ideal compressible fluid. The mathematical structure of the governing equations and the associated conservation laws are explored in some detail because of their importance for both analytical and numerical methods of solution, as well as for physical interpretation. Linear and nonlinear waves, including shocks and other discontinuities, are discussed. The spherical blast wave resulting from a supernova, and involving a strong shock, is a classic problem that can be solved analytically. Steady solutions with spherical or axial symmetry reveal the physics of winds and jets from stars and discs. The linearized equations determine the oscillation modes of astrophysical bodies, as well as their stability and their response to tidal forcing.

  10. Supercritical fluids cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Butner, S.; Hjeresen, D.; Silva, L.; Spall, D.; Stephenson, R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses a proposed multi-party research and development program which seeks to develop supercritical fluid cleaning technology as an alternative to existing solvent cleaning applications. While SCF extraction technology has been in commercial use for several years, the use of these fluids as cleaning agents poses several new technical challenges. Problems inherent in the commercialization of SCF technology include: the cleaning efficacy and compatibility of supercritical working fluids with the parts to be cleaned must be assessed for a variety of materials and components; process parameters and equipment design Have been optimized for extractive applications and must be reconsidered for application to cleaning; and co-solvents and entrainers must be identified to facilitate the removal of polar inorganic and organic contaminants, which are often not well solvated in supercritical systems. The proposed research and development program would address these issues and lead to the development and commercialization of viable SCF-based technology for precision cleaning applications. This paper provides the technical background, program scope, and delineates the responsibilities of each principal participant in the program.

  11. Amniotic fluid embolism.

    PubMed

    Clark, Steven L

    2014-02-01

    Amniotic fluid embolism remains one of the most devastating conditions in obstetric practice with an incidence of approximately 1 in 40,000 deliveries and a reported mortality rate ranging from 20% to 60%. The pathophysiology appears to involve an abnormal maternal response to fetal tissue exposure associated with breaches of the maternal-fetal physiologic barrier during parturition. This response and its subsequent injury appear to involve activation of proinflammatory mediators similar to that seen with the classic systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Progress in our understanding of this syndrome continues to be hampered by a lack of universally acknowledged diagnostic criteria, the clinical similarities of this condition to other types of acute critical maternal illness, and the presence of a broad spectrum of disease severity. Clinical series based on population or administrative databases that do not include individual chart review by individuals with expertise in critical care obstetrics are likely to both overestimate the incidence and underestimate the mortality of this condition by the inclusion of women who did not have amniotic fluid embolism. Data regarding the presence of risk factors for amniotic fluid embolism are inconsistent and contradictory; at present, no putative risk factor has been identified that would justify modification of standard obstetric practice to reduce the risk of this condition. Maternal treatment is primarily supportive, whereas prompt delivery of the mother who has sustained cardiopulmonary arrest is critical for improved newborn outcome. PMID:24402585

  12. Astrophysical fluid dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogilvie, Gordon I.

    2016-06-01

    > These lecture notes and example problems are based on a course given at the University of Cambridge in Part III of the Mathematical Tripos. Fluid dynamics is involved in a very wide range of astrophysical phenomena, such as the formation and internal dynamics of stars and giant planets, the workings of jets and accretion discs around stars and black holes and the dynamics of the expanding Universe. Effects that can be important in astrophysical fluids include compressibility, self-gravitation and the dynamical influence of the magnetic field that is `frozen in' to a highly conducting plasma. The basic models introduced and applied in this course are Newtonian gas dynamics and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) for an ideal compressible fluid. The mathematical structure of the governing equations and the associated conservation laws are explored in some detail because of their importance for both analytical and numerical methods of solution, as well as for physical interpretation. Linear and nonlinear waves, including shocks and other discontinuities, are discussed. The spherical blast wave resulting from a supernova, and involving a strong shock, is a classic problem that can be solved analytically. Steady solutions with spherical or axial symmetry reveal the physics of winds and jets from stars and discs. The linearized equations determine the oscillation modes of astrophysical bodies, as well as their stability and their response to tidal forcing.

  13. Downhole Fluid Analyzer Development

    SciTech Connect

    Bill Turner

    2006-11-28

    A novel fiber optic downhole fluid analyzer has been developed for operation in production wells. This device will allow real-time determination of the oil, gas and water fractions of fluids from different zones in a multizone or multilateral completion environment. The device uses near infrared spectroscopy and induced fluorescence measurement to unambiguously determine the oil, water and gas concentrations at all but the highest water cuts. The only downhole components of the system are the fiber optic cable and windows. All of the active components--light sources, sensors, detection electronics and software--will be located at the surface, and will be able to operate multiple downhole probes. Laboratory testing has demonstrated that the sensor can accurately determine oil, water and gas fractions with a less than 5 percent standard error. Once installed in an intelligent completion, this sensor will give the operating company timely information about the fluids arising from various zones or multilaterals in a complex completion pattern, allowing informed decisions to be made on controlling production. The research and development tasks are discussed along with a market analysis.

  14. Fluid Dynamics and Viscosity in Strongly Correlated Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    We review the modern view of fluid dynamics as an effective low-energy, long-wavelength theory of many-body systems at finite temperature. We introduce the concept of a nearly perfect fluid, defined by a ratio η/s of shear viscosity to entropy density of order ℏ/kB or less. Nearly perfect fluids exhibit hydrodynamic behavior at all distances down to the microscopic length scale of the fluid. We summarize arguments that suggest that there is fundamental limit to fluidity, and we review the current experimental situation of measurements of η/s in strongly coupled quantum fluids.

  15. Fluid damping and fluid stiffness of tube arrays in crossflow

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, S.S.; Zhu, S.; Jendrzejczyk, J.A.

    1994-06-01

    Motion-dependent fluid forces acting on a tube array were measured as a function of excitation frequency, excitation amplitude, and flow velocity. Fluid-damping and fluid-stiffness coefficients were obtained from measured motion-dependent fluid forces as a function of reduced flow velocity and excitation amplitude. The water channel and test setup provide a sound facility for obtaining key coefficients for fluidelastic instability of tube arrays in crossflow. Once the motion-dependent fluid-force coefficients have been measured, a reliable design guideline, based on the unsteady flow theory, can be developed for fluidelastic instability of tube arrays in crossflow.

  16. The Viscosity of Polymeric Fluids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrin, J. E.; Martin, G. C.

    1983-01-01

    To illustrate the behavior of polymeric fluids and in what respects they differ from Newtonian liquids, an experiment was developed to account for the shear-rate dependence of non-Newtonian fluids. Background information, procedures, and results are provided for the experiment. Useful in transport processes, fluid mechanics, or physical chemistry…

  17. Microwave Propagation in Dielectric Fluids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonc, W. P.

    1980-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate experiment designed to verify quantitatively the effect of a dielectric fluid's dielectric constant on the observed wavelength of microwave radiation propagating through the fluid. The fluid used is castor oil, and results agree with the expected behavior within 5 percent. (Author/CS)

  18. Fluid handling equipment: A compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Devices and techniques used in fluid-handling and vacuum systems are described. Section 1 presents several articles on fluid lines and tubing. Section 2 describes a number of components such as valves, filters, and regulators. The last section contains descriptions of a number of innovative fluid-handling systems.

  19. Fluid mechanics revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenner, Howard

    2006-10-01

    Öttinger's recent nontraditional incorporation of fluctuations into the formulation of the friction matrix appearing in the phenomenological GENERIC theory of nonequilibrium irreversible processes is shown to furnish transport equations for single-component gases and liquids undergoing heat transfer which support the view that revisions to the Navier-Stokes-Fourier (N-S-F) momentum/energy equation set are necessary, as empirically proposed by the author on the basis of an experimentally supported theory of diffuse volume transport. The hypothesis that the conventional N-S-F equations prevail without modification only in the case of “incompressible” fluids, where the density ρ of the fluid is uniform throughout, serves to determine the new phenomenological parameter α‧ appearing in the GENERIC friction matrix. In the case of ideal gases the consequences of this constitutive hypothesis are shown to yield results identical to those derived theoretically by Öttinger on the basis of a “proper” coarse-graining of Boltzmann's kinetic equation. A major consequence of the present work is that the fluid's specific momentum density v is equal to its volume velocity vv, rather than to its mass velocity vm, contrary to current views dating back 250 years to Euler. In the case of rarefied gases the proposed modifications are also observed to agree with those resulting from Klimontovich's molecularly based, albeit ad hoc, self-diffusion addendum to Boltzmann's collision integral. Despite the differences in their respective physical models-molecular vs. phenomenological-the role played by Klimontovich's collisional addition to Boltzmann's equation in modifying the N-S-F equations is noted to constitute a molecular counterpart of Öttinger's phenomenological fluctuation addition to the GENERIC friction matrix. Together, these two theories collectively recognize the need to address multiple- rather than single- encounter collisions between a test molecule and its

  20. Supercritical fluid reverse micelle separation

    DOEpatents

    Fulton, J.L.; Smith, R.D.

    1993-11-30

    A method of separating solute material from a polar fluid in a first polar fluid phase is provided. The method comprises combining a polar fluid, a second fluid that is a gas at standard temperature and pressure and has a critical density, and a surfactant. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid to define the first polar fluid phase. The combined polar and second fluids, surfactant, and solute material dissolved in the polar fluid is maintained under near critical or supercritical temperature and pressure conditions such that the density of the second fluid exceeds the critical density thereof. In this way, a reverse micelle system defining a reverse micelle solvent is formed which comprises a continuous phase in the second fluid and a plurality of reverse micelles dispersed in the continuous phase. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid and is in chemical equilibrium with the reverse micelles. The first polar fluid phase and the continuous phase are immiscible. The reverse micelles each comprise a dynamic aggregate of surfactant molecules surrounding a core of the polar fluid. The reverse micelle solvent has a polar fluid-to-surfactant molar ratio W, which can vary over a range having a maximum ratio W[sub o] that determines the maximum size of the reverse micelles. The maximum ratio W[sub o] of the reverse micelle solvent is then varied, and the solute material from the first polar fluid phase is transported into the reverse micelles in the continuous phase at an extraction efficiency determined by the critical or supercritical conditions. 27 figures.

  1. Supercritical fluid reverse micelle separation

    DOEpatents

    Fulton, John L.; Smith, Richard D.

    1993-01-01

    A method of separating solute material from a polar fluid in a first polar fluid phase is provided. The method comprises combining a polar fluid, a second fluid that is a gas at standard temperature and pressure and has a critical density, and a surfactant. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid to define the first polar fluid phase. The combined polar and second fluids, surfactant, and solute material dissolved in the polar fluid is maintained under near critical or supercritical temperature and pressure conditions such that the density of the second fluid exceeds the critical density thereof. In this way, a reverse micelle system defining a reverse micelle solvent is formed which comprises a continuous phase in the second fluid and a plurality of reverse micelles dispersed in the continuous phase. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid and is in chemical equilibrium with the reverse micelles. The first polar fluid phase and the continuous phase are immiscible. The reverse micelles each comprise a dynamic aggregate of surfactant molecules surrounding a core of the polar fluid. The reverse micelle solvent has a polar fluid-to-surfactant molar ratio W, which can vary over a range having a maximum ratio W.sub.o that determines the maximum size of the reverse micelles. The maximum ratio W.sub.o of the reverse micelle solvent is then varied, and the solute material from the first polar fluid phase is transported into the reverse micelles in the continuous phase at an extraction efficiency determined by the critical or supercritical conditions.

  2. Plane waves in noncommutative fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdalla, M. C. B.; Holender, L.; Santos, M. A.; Vancea, I. V.

    2013-08-01

    We study the dynamics of the noncommutative fluid in the Snyder space perturbatively at the first order in powers of the noncommutative parameter. The linearized noncommutative fluid dynamics is described by a system of coupled linear partial differential equations in which the variables are the fluid density and the fluid potentials. We show that these equations admit a set of solutions that are monochromatic plane waves for the fluid density and two of the potentials and a linear function for the third potential. The energy-momentum tensor of the plane waves is calculated.

  3. Heat transfer fluids containing nanoparticles

    DOEpatents

    Singh, Dileep; Routbort, Jules; Routbort, A.J.; Yu, Wenhua; Timofeeva, Elena; Smith, David S.; France, David M.

    2016-05-17

    A nanofluid of a base heat transfer fluid and a plurality of ceramic nanoparticles suspended throughout the base heat transfer fluid applicable to commercial and industrial heat transfer applications. The nanofluid is stable, non-reactive and exhibits enhanced heat transfer properties relative to the base heat transfer fluid, with only minimal increases in pumping power required relative to the base heat transfer fluid. In a particular embodiment, the plurality of ceramic nanoparticles comprise silicon carbide and the base heat transfer fluid comprises water and water and ethylene glycol mixtures.

  4. Fluid bed material transfer method

    DOEpatents

    Pinske, Jr., Edward E.

    1994-01-01

    A fluidized bed apparatus comprising a pair of separated fluid bed enclosures, each enclosing a fluid bed carried on an air distributor plate supplied with fluidizing air from below the plate. At least one equalizing duct extending through sidewalls of both fluid bed enclosures and flexibly engaged therewith to communicate the fluid beds with each other. The equalizing duct being surrounded by insulation which is in turn encased by an outer duct having expansion means and being fixed between the sidewalls of the fluid bed enclosures.

  5. Ratcheting fluid with geometric anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiria, Benjamin; Zhang, Jun

    2015-02-01

    We investigate a mechanism that effectively transports fluids using vibrational motion imposed onto fluid boundary with anisotropy. In our experiment, two asymmetric, sawtooth-like structures are placed facing each other and form a corrugated fluid channel. This channel is then forced to open and close periodically. Under reciprocal motion, fluid fills in the gap during the expansion phase of the channel and is then forced out during contraction. Since the fluid experiences different impedances when flowing in different directions, the stagnation point that separates flows of two directions changes within each driving period. As a result, fluid is transported unidirectionally. This ratcheting effect of fluid is demonstrated through our measurements and its working principle discussed in some detail.

  6. Magnetic power piston fluid compressor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasser, Max G. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A compressor with no moving parts in the traditional sense having a housing having an inlet end allowing a low pressure fluid to enter and an outlet end allowing a high pressure fluid to exit is described. Within the compressor housing is at least one compression stage to increase the pressure of the fluid within the housing. The compression stage has a quantity of magnetic powder within the housing, is supported by a screen that allows passage of the fluid, and a coil for selectively providing a magnetic field across the magnetic powder such that when the magnetic field is not present the individual particles of the powder are separated allowing the fluid to flow through the powder and when the magnetic field is present the individual particles of the powder pack together causing the powder mass to expand preventing the fluid from flowing through the powder and causing a pressure pulse to compress the fluid.

  7. Fluid dynamics of heart development.

    PubMed

    Santhanakrishnan, Arvind; Miller, Laura A

    2011-09-01

    The morphology, muscle mechanics, fluid dynamics, conduction properties, and molecular biology of the developing embryonic heart have received much attention in recent years due to the importance of both fluid and elastic forces in shaping the heart as well as the striking relationship between the heart's evolution and development. Although few studies have directly addressed the connection between fluid dynamics and heart development, a number of studies suggest that fluids may play a key role in morphogenic signaling. For example, fluid shear stress may trigger biochemical cascades within the endothelial cells of the developing heart that regulate chamber and valve morphogenesis. Myocardial activity generates forces on the intracardiac blood, creating pressure gradients across the cardiac wall. These pressures may also serve as epigenetic signals. In this article, the fluid dynamics of the early stages of heart development is reviewed. The relevant work in cardiac morphology, muscle mechanics, regulatory networks, and electrophysiology is also reviewed in the context of intracardial fluid dynamics. PMID:21327946

  8. FLUID- THERMODYNAMIC AND TRANSPORT PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS (IBM PC VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fessler, T. E.

    1994-01-01

    The accurate computation of the thermodynamic and transport properties of fluids is a necessity for many engineering calculations. The FLUID program was developed to calculate the thermodynamic and transport properties of pure fluids in both the liquid and gas phases. Fluid properties are calculated using a simple gas model, empirical corrections, and an efficient numerical interpolation scheme. FLUID produces results that are in very good agreement with measured values, while being much faster than older more complex programs developed for the same purpose. A Van der Waals equation of state model is used to obtain approximate state values. These values are corrected for real-gas effects by model correction factors obtained from tables based on experimental data. These tables also accurately compensate for the special circumstances which arise whenever phase conditions occur. Viscosity and thermal conductivity values are computed directly from tables. Interpolation within tables is based on Lagrange's three point formula. A set of tables must be generated for each fluid implemented. FLUID currently contains tables for nine fluids including dry air and steam. The user can add tables for any fluid for which adequate thermal property data is available. The FLUID routine is structured so that it may easily be incorporated into engineering programs. The IBM 360 version of FLUID was developed in 1977. It is written in FORTRAN IV and has been implemented on an IBM 360 with a central memory requirement of approximately 222K of 8 bit bytes. The IBM PC version of FLUID is written in Microsoft FORTRAN 77 and has been implemented on an IBM PC with a memory requirement of 128K of 8 bit bytes. The IBM PC version of FLUID was developed in 1986.

  9. FLUID- THERMODYNAMIC AND TRANSPORT PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS (IBM VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fessler, T. E.

    1994-01-01

    The accurate computation of the thermodynamic and transport properties of fluids is a necessity for many engineering calculations. The FLUID program was developed to calculate the thermodynamic and transport properties of pure fluids in both the liquid and gas phases. Fluid properties are calculated using a simple gas model, empirical corrections, and an efficient numerical interpolation scheme. FLUID produces results that are in very good agreement with measured values, while being much faster than older more complex programs developed for the same purpose. A Van der Waals equation of state model is used to obtain approximate state values. These values are corrected for real-gas effects by model correction factors obtained from tables based on experimental data. These tables also accurately compensate for the special circumstances which arise whenever phase conditions occur. Viscosity and thermal conductivity values are computed directly from tables. Interpolation within tables is based on Lagrange's three point formula. A set of tables must be generated for each fluid implemented. FLUID currently contains tables for nine fluids including dry air and steam. The user can add tables for any fluid for which adequate thermal property data is available. The FLUID routine is structured so that it may easily be incorporated into engineering programs. The IBM 360 version of FLUID was developed in 1977. It is written in FORTRAN IV and has been implemented on an IBM 360 with a central memory requirement of approximately 222K of 8 bit bytes. The IBM PC version of FLUID is written in Microsoft FORTRAN 77 and has been implemented on an IBM PC with a memory requirement of 128K of 8 bit bytes. The IBM PC version of FLUID was developed in 1986.

  10. Fluid and Electrolyte Nutrition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.; Smith, Scott M.; Leach, Carolyn S.; Rice, Barbara L.

    1999-01-01

    Studies of fluid and electrolyte homeostasis have been completed since the early human space flight programs, with comprehensive research completed on the Spacelab Life Sciences missions SLS-1 and SLS-2 flights, and more recently on the Mir 18 mission. This work documented the known shifts in fluids, the decrease in total blood volume, and indications of reduced thirst. Data from these flights was used to evaluate the nutritional needs for water, sodium, and potassium. Interpretations of the data are confounded by the inadequate energy intakes routinely observed during space flight. This in turn results in reduced fluid intake, as food provides approximately 70% water intake. Subsequently, body weight, lean body mass, total body water, and total body potassium may decrease. Given these issues, there is evidence to support a minimum required water intake of 2 L per day. Data from previous Shuttle flights indicated that water intake is 2285 +/- 715 ml/day (mean +/- SD, n=26). There are no indications that sodium intake or homeostasis is compromised during space flight. The normal or low aldosterone and urinary sodium levels suggest adequate sodium intake (4047 +/- 902 mg/day, n=26). Because excessive sodium intake is associated with hypercalciuria, the recommended maximum amount of sodium intake during flight is 3500 mg/day (i.e., similar to the Recommended Dietary Allowance, RDA). Potassium metabolism appears to be more complex. Data indicate loss of body potassium related to muscle atrophy and low dietary intake (2407 +/- 548 mg/day, n=26). Although possibly related to measurement error, the elevations in blood potassium suggest alterations in potassium homeostasis. The space RDA for minimum potassium intake is 3500 mg/day. With the documented inadequate intakes, efforts are being made to increase dietary consumption of potassium.

  11. Catenaries in viscous fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanna, James; Chakrabarti, Brato

    2015-11-01

    Slender structures live in fluid flows across many scales, from towed instruments to plant blades to microfluidic valves. The present work details a simple model of a flexible structure in a uniform flow. We present analytical solutions for the translating, axially flowing equilibria of strings subjected to a uniform body force and linear drag forces. This is an extension of the classical catenaries to a five-parameter family of solutions, represented as trajectories in angle-curvature ``phase space.'' Limiting cases include neutrally buoyant towed cables and freely sedimenting flexible filaments. Now at University of California, San Diego.

  12. Fluid Mechanics of Papermaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundell, Fredrik; Söderberg, L. Daniel; Alfredsson, P. Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Papermaking is to a large extent a multiphase flow process in which the structure of the material and many of the relevant properties of the final product are determined by the interaction between water and the wood fibers. The dominant feature of a suspension composed of wood fibers and water is its inherent propensity to form bundles of mechanically entangled fibers, known as fiber flocs. However, the phenomena apparent throughout the papermaking process are not unique but in fact have a generic fluid dynamical nature.

  13. Electrochemistry in supercritical fluids.

    PubMed

    Branch, Jack A; Bartlett, Philip N

    2015-12-28

    A wide range of supercritical fluids (SCFs) have been studied as solvents for electrochemistry with carbon dioxide and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) being the most extensively studied. Recent advances have shown that it is possible to get well-resolved voltammetry in SCFs by suitable choice of the conditions and the electrolyte. In this review, we discuss the voltammetry obtained in these systems, studies of the double-layer capacitance, work on the electrodeposition of metals into high aspect ratio nanopores and the use of metallocenes as redox probes and standards in both supercritical carbon dioxide-acetonitrile and supercritical HFCs. PMID:26574527

  14. Spin waves in fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kistler, E. L.

    1972-01-01

    A working report is presented in order to document early results of research on the stability of laminar boundary layers. The report shows that constitutive equations for a structured continua may be derived by the technique of reinterpreting velocity in the conventional stress to rate-of-strain relationship so as to account for effects of particle rotation. It is demonstrated that accounting for particle structure even at a molecular level makes the fluid viscoelastic with the ability to propagate vector waves. It is shown that particle structure modifies the basic stability equation for the system, which in turn would alter values for critical Reynolds number.

  15. Electrochemistry in supercritical fluids

    PubMed Central

    Branch, Jack A.; Bartlett, Philip N.

    2015-01-01

    A wide range of supercritical fluids (SCFs) have been studied as solvents for electrochemistry with carbon dioxide and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) being the most extensively studied. Recent advances have shown that it is possible to get well-resolved voltammetry in SCFs by suitable choice of the conditions and the electrolyte. In this review, we discuss the voltammetry obtained in these systems, studies of the double-layer capacitance, work on the electrodeposition of metals into high aspect ratio nanopores and the use of metallocenes as redox probes and standards in both supercritical carbon dioxide–acetonitrile and supercritical HFCs. PMID:26574527

  16. Rotational fluid flow experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This project which began in 1986 as part of the Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) Advanced Space Design Program focuses on the design and implementation of an electromechanical system for studying vortex behavior in a microgravity environment. Most of the existing equipment was revised and redesigned by this project team, as necessary. Emphasis was placed on documentation and integration of the electrical and mechanical subsystems. Project results include reconfiguration and thorough testing of all hardware subsystems, implementation of an infrared gas entrainment detector, new signal processing circuitry for the ultrasonic fluid circulation device, improved prototype interface circuits, and software for overall control of experiment operation.

  17. [Amniotic fluid embolism].

    PubMed

    António, Carlos; Marçal, Nelson; Lopes, Carlos; Tortosa, Francisco; Acevedo, Pilar; Monteiro, Jorge; Monteiro, Filipe; Correia, Llurdes; Brum, Ganriela; De Almeida, A Bugalho

    2011-01-01

    Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is a rare pathological syndrome, sometimes fatal that arises as an obstetric complication during vaginal delivery, caesarean, immediate postpartum or during pregnancy. It remains as an important cause of fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality. The authors present a clinical report of a young woman who developed an acute respiratory failure during labour demanding invasive mechanical ventilation and an urgent caesarean. In spite of early medical intensive therapy, hypoxemia was refractory and had a progressive worsening leading to multi-organ failure and ultimately to death. Diagnosis was confirmed through the identification of fetal material in the lumen of maternal pulmonary microcirculation. PMID:22713206

  18. Reliability of fluid systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopáček, Jaroslav; Fojtášek, Kamil; Dvořák, Lukáš

    2016-03-01

    This paper focuses on the importance of detection reliability, especially in complex fluid systems for demanding production technology. The initial criterion for assessing the reliability is the failure of object (element), which is seen as a random variable and their data (values) can be processed using by the mathematical methods of theory probability and statistics. They are defined the basic indicators of reliability and their applications in calculations of serial, parallel and backed-up systems. For illustration, there are calculation examples of indicators of reliability for various elements of the system and for the selected pneumatic circuit.

  19. Heat pipe with dual working fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shlosinger, A. P. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A heat pipe design is offered that utilizes an auxiliary working fluid. The fluid, although being less efficient than the main working fluid, remains liquid at low heat loads when the main working fluid freezes.

  20. Acoustic concentration of particles in fluid flow

    DOEpatents

    Ward, Michael D.; Kaduchak, Gregory

    2010-11-23

    An apparatus for acoustic concentration of particles in a fluid flow includes a substantially acoustically transparent membrane and a vibration generator that define a fluid flow path therebetween. The fluid flow path is in fluid communication with a fluid source and a fluid outlet and the vibration generator is disposed adjacent the fluid flow path and is capable of producing an acoustic field in the fluid flow path. The acoustic field produces at least one pressure minima in the fluid flow path at a predetermined location within the fluid flow path and forces predetermined particles in the fluid flow path to the at least one pressure minima.

  1. Null fluids: A new viewpoint of Galilean fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Nabamita; Dutta, Suvankar; Jain, Akash

    2016-05-01

    In this article, we study a Galilean fluid with a conserved U (1 ) current up to anomalies. We construct a relativistic system, which we call a null fluid and show that it is in one-to-one correspondence with a Galilean fluid living in one lower dimension. The correspondence is based on light cone reduction, which is known to reduce the Poincaré symmetry of a theory to Galilean in one lower dimension. We show that the proposed null fluid and the corresponding Galilean fluid have exactly same symmetries, thermodynamics, constitutive relations, and equilibrium partition to all orders in the derivative expansion. We also devise a mechanism to introduce U (1 ) anomaly in even dimensional Galilean theories using light cone reduction, and study its effect on the constitutive relations of a Galilean fluid.

  2. Fluid injection microvalve

    DOEpatents

    Renzi, Ronald F.

    2005-11-22

    A microvalve for extracting small volume samples into analytical devices, e.g., high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) column, includes: a first body having a first interior surface and two or more outlet ports at the first interior surface that are in fluid communication with two or more first channels; a second body having a second interior surface and two or more inlet ports at the second interior surface that are in fluid communication with two or more second channels wherein the outlet ports of the first body are coaxial with the corresponding inlet ports of the second body such that there are at least two sets of coaxial port outlets and port inlets; a plate member, which has a substantially planar first mating surface and a substantially planar second mating surface, that is slidably positioned between the first interior surface and the second interior surface wherein the plate member has at least one aperture that traverses the height of the plate member, and wherein the aperture can be positioned to be coaxial with any of the at least two sets of coaxial port outlets and port inlets; and means for securing the first surface of the first body against the first mating surface and for securing the second surface of the second body against the second mating surface.

  3. Visualization in quantum fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lathrop, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    The motion of quantized vortices, which are topological phase defects analogous to crystalline dislocations, substantially controls the dynamics of quantum fluids. Quantized vortices have been observed in superfluid 4He and AMO trapped atom systems, and have been inferred in superfluid 3He and neutron stars. Long-range quantum order underlies a number of related physical phenomena, including superfluidity, trapped-atom Bose-Einstein condensates, superconductivity, ferromagnetism, anti-ferromagnetism, lasers, and the Higgs mechanism. While superfluidity in 4He is one of the first discovered of these phenomena, it is one of the least understood, given that the strongly interacting nature of helium makes theory difficult, and that development of local experimental probes is lagging. The advent of flow visualization of particles that trace quantized vortices has led to many advances. That progress was caused by repeated suggestions from Russ Donnelly, Joe Niemela, and Joe Vinen. Those suggestions led the team, including Gregory P. Bewley, K.R. Sreenivasan and myself, to venture into the quantum fluid realm. We acknowledge the support of NSF DMR/CMP 0906109 and 1407472.

  4. Fluid balance and exercise.

    PubMed

    Maughan, R J

    1992-10-01

    The rate of metabolic heat production during prolonged exercise may be increased to 15-20 times that at rest. Evaporation of sweat secreted onto the skin can effectively limit the rise in body temperature which would otherwise occur, but results in the loss of water and electrolytes from the body. Dehydration and an increased thermal load can accelerate the onset of fatigue during exercise. The available evidence supports the idea that ingestion of fluids during prolonged exercise can improve performance. Heart rate and rectal temperature will generally be lower, and plasma volume will be better maintained when fluids are given. There is, however, no general agreement on the optimum formulation nor on the frequency or volume of drinking that is most appropriate. In practice, the ideal solution will depend on a number of factors, including the duration and intensity of the exercise, the environmental conditions and the characteristics of the individual. The variation between individuals is, however, large and the optimum strategy can only be established by subjective experience. PMID:1483752

  5. Fluid lubricated bearing assembly

    DOEpatents

    Boorse, Henry A.; Boeker, Gilbert F.; Menke, John R.

    1976-01-01

    1. A support for a loaded rotatable shaft comprising in combination on a housing having a fluid-tight cavity encasing an end portion of said shaft, a thrust bearing near the open end of said cavity for supporting the axial thrust of said shaft, said thrust bearing comprising a thrust plate mounted in said housing and a thrust collar mounted on said shaft, said thrust plate having a central opening the peripheral portion of which is hermetically sealed to said housing at the open end of said cavity, and means for supplying a fluid lubricant to said thrust bearing, said thrust bearing having a lubricant-conducting path connecting said lubricant supplying means with the space between said thrust plate and collar intermediate the peripheries thereof, the surfaces of said plate and collar being constructed and arranged to inhibit radial flow of lubricant and, on rotation of said thrust collar, to draw lubricant through said path between the bearing surfaces and to increase the pressure therebetween and in said cavity and thereby exert a supporting force on said end portion of said shaft.

  6. [Platelet activating factor in biological fluids of animals with different species-specific resistance at the stage of infective process after inoculation with mycobacterium tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Kaminskaia, G O; Abdullaev, R Iu; Gedymin, L E

    1998-01-01

    Following 24 hours, 1, 2, and 6 weeks of inoculation of guinea-pigs and albino rats by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MT), the levels of platelet activation factor (PAF) were determined in the plasma, leukocytes, alveolar macrophages, nonfractionated cellular sediment and fluid of bronchoalveolar lavage (FBAL) by testing rabbit platelets. The guinea-pigs developed generalized tuberculosis, the rats receiving a small dose of MT developed nonspecific inflammation and those taking a large dose had specific foci. In both experiments, spontaneous regression of inflammatory changes began in rats after 6 weeks. In the guinea-pigs inoculated by MT, there was a steady increase in PAF synthesis in all cell populations, PAF levels dropped in fluids. In the rats receiving a small dose of MT, the cellular levels PAF levels periodically rose in early infection, but decreased below the control values during regression of inflammatory changes. Concurrently, the level of PAF became lower in plasma and FBAL. With high-dose inoculation, it drastically fell in the cells just after MT administration, then moderately increased during the development of specific changes and again dropped at the end of the experiment. In early infection the changes in PAF levels in the body's fluids were mirror as regards to the respective cells, but at regression of specific changes, the content of PAF was lower than the normal values in all the fluids under study. PMID:10067355

  7. Elastic effects in superposed fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Amey

    2014-02-01

    A non-uniform electric field of suitable gradient can make specific weights of two superposed dielectric fluids identical. If the fluids are Newtonian, this choice of electric field makes the interface resilient to small perturbations, even if the fluid on the top is heavier than the one at bottom. On the other hand, if the fluids are viscoelastic, the interface continues to remain unstable. We point out that although the right choice of electric field succeeds in overcoming the effects of gravity, the fluids' elasticity makes the interface unstable. The same effect can be achieved in the case of paramagnetic or ferro-fluids in presence of a non-uniform magnetic field.

  8. Oil well fluid processing system

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, J.R.

    1988-10-25

    This patent describes an oil well fluid processing system, comprising: a skid having a first skid section and a second skid section separable from the first skid section; means for connecting one end of the first skid section to one end of the second skid section; a cylindrical fluid processing apparatus pivotally mounted at a lower end thereof on the first skid section for pivoting movement between a raised position wherein the fluid processing apparatus extends vertically from the first skid section and a lowered position wherein the fluid processing apparatus overlays the second skid section at such times that the two sections of the skid are connected together; and means mounted on the second skid section and connectable to the fluid processing apparatus for moving the fluid processing apparatus between the raised and lowered positions at such times that the two sections of the skid are connected together.

  9. Squirming through shear thinning fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datt, Charu; Zhu, Lailai; Elfring, Gwynn J.; Pak, On Shun

    2015-11-01

    Many microorganisms find themselves surrounded by fluids which are non-Newtonian in nature; human spermatozoa in female reproductive tract and motile bacteria in mucosa of animals are common examples. These biological fluids can display shear-thinning rheology whose effects on the locomotion of microorganisms remain largely unexplored. Here we study the self-propulsion of a squirmer in shear-thinning fluids described by the Carreau-Yasuda model. The squirmer undergoes surface distortions and utilizes apparent slip-velocities around its surface to swim through a fluid medium. In this talk, we will discuss how the nonlinear rheological properties of a shear-thinning fluid affect the propulsion of a swimmer compared with swimming in Newtonian fluids.

  10. Complex Fluids and Hydraulic Fracturing.

    PubMed

    Barbati, Alexander C; Desroches, Jean; Robisson, Agathe; McKinley, Gareth H

    2016-06-01

    Nearly 70 years old, hydraulic fracturing is a core technique for stimulating hydrocarbon production in a majority of oil and gas reservoirs. Complex fluids are implemented in nearly every step of the fracturing process, most significantly to generate and sustain fractures and transport and distribute proppant particles during and following fluid injection. An extremely wide range of complex fluids are used: naturally occurring polysaccharide and synthetic polymer solutions, aqueous physical and chemical gels, organic gels, micellar surfactant solutions, emulsions, and foams. These fluids are loaded over a wide range of concentrations with particles of varying sizes and aspect ratios and are subjected to extreme mechanical and environmental conditions. We describe the settings of hydraulic fracturing (framed by geology), fracturing mechanics and physics, and the critical role that non-Newtonian fluid dynamics and complex fluids play in the hydraulic fracturing process. PMID:27070765

  11. Pump for delivering heated fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabelman, E. E. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A thermomechanical pump particularly suited for use in pumping a warming fluid obtained from an RTG (Radioisotope Thermal Generator) through science and flight instrumentation aboard operative spacecraft is described. The invention is characterized by a pair of operatively related cylinders, each including a reciprocating piston head dividing the cylinder into a pressure chamber confining therein a vaporizable fluid, and a pumping chamber for propelling the warming fluid, and a fluid delivery circuit for alternately delivering the warming fluid from the RTG through the pressure chamber of one cylinder to the pumping chamber of the other cylinder, whereby the vaporizable fluid within the pair of pressure chambers alternately is vaporized and condensed for driving the associated pistons in pumping and intake strokes.

  12. Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Computer simulation of atmospheric flow corresponds well to imges taken during the second Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell (BFFC) mission. The top shows a view from the pole, while the bottom shows a view from the equator. Red corresponds to hot fluid rising while blue shows cold fluid falling. This simulation was developed by Anil Deane of the University of Maryland, College Park and Paul Fischer of Argorne National Laboratory. Credit: NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center

  13. Ultrasonic Fluid Quality Sensor System

    DOEpatents

    Gomm, Tyler J.; Kraft, Nancy C.; Phelps, Larry D.; Taylor, Steven C.

    2003-10-21

    A system for determining the composition of a multiple-component fluid and for determining linear flow comprising at least one sing-around circuit that determines the velocity of a signal in the multiple-component fluid and that is correlatable to a database for the multiple-component fluid. A system for determining flow uses two of the inventive circuits, one of which is set at an angle that is not perpendicular to the direction of flow.

  14. Ultrasonic fluid quality sensor system

    DOEpatents

    Gomm, Tyler J.; Kraft, Nancy C.; Phelps, Larry D.; Taylor, Steven C.

    2002-10-08

    A system for determining the composition of a multiple-component fluid and for determining linear flow comprising at least one sing-around circuit that determines the velocity of a signal in the multiple-component fluid and that is correlatable to a database for the multiple-component fluid. A system for determining flow uses two of the inventive circuits, one of which is set at an angle that is not perpendicular to the direction of flow.

  15. FLUID CONTACTOR APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Spence, R.; Streeton, R.J.W.

    1956-04-17

    The fluid contactor apparatus comprises a cylindrical column mounted co- axially and adapted to rotate within a cylindrical vessel, for the purpose of extracting a solute from am aqueous solution by means of an organic solvent. The column is particularly designed to control the vortex pattern so as to reduce the height of the vortices while, at the same time, the width of the annular radius in the radial direction between the vessel and column is less than half the radius of the column. A plurality of thin annular fins are spaced apart along the rotor approximately twice the radial dimension of the column such that two contrarotating substantially circular vortices are contained within each pair of fins as the column is rotated.

  16. Fluid infusion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, J. C.

    1975-01-01

    Development of a fluid infusion system was undertaken in response to a need for an intravenous infusion device operable under conditions of zero-g. The initial design approach, pursued in the construction of the first breadboard instrument, was to regulate the pressure of the motive gas to produce a similar regulated pressure in the infusion liquid. This scheme was not workable because of the varying bag contact area, and a major design iteration was made. A floating sensor plate in the center of the bag pressure plate was made to operate a pressure regulator built into the bellows assembly, effectively making liquid pressure the directly controlled variable. Other design changes were made as experience was gained with the breadboard. Extensive performance tests were conducted on both the breadboard and the prototype device; accurately regulated flows from 6 m1/min to 100 m1/min were achieved. All system functions were shown to operate satisfactorily.

  17. Fluid quantity gaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mord, Allan J.; Snyder, Howard A.; Kilpatrick, Kathleen A.; Hermanson, Lynn A.; Hopkins, Richard A.; Vangundy, Donald A.

    1988-01-01

    A system for measuring the mass of liquid in a tank on orbit with 1 percent accuracy was developed and demonstrated. An extensive tradeoff identified adiabatic compression as the only gaging technique that is independent of gravity or its orientation, and of the size and distribution of bubbles in the tank. This technique is applicable to all Earth-storable and cryogenic liquids of interest for Space Station use, except superfluid helium, and can be applied to tanks of any size, shape, or internal structure. Accuracy of 0.2 percent was demonstrated in the laboratory, and a detailed analytical model was developed and verified by testing. A flight system architecture is presented that allows meeting the needs of a broad range of space fluid systems without custom development for each user.

  18. Nonlinear Acoustics in Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauterborn, Werner; Kurz, Thomas; Akhatov, Iskander

    At high sound intensities or long propagation distances at in fluids sufficiently low damping acoustic phenomena become nonlinear. This chapter focuses on nonlinear acoustic wave properties in gases and liquids. The origin of nonlinearity, equations of state, simple nonlinear waves, nonlinear acoustic wave equations, shock-wave formation, and interaction of waves are presented and discussed. Tables are given for the nonlinearity parameter B/A for water and a range of organic liquids, liquid metals and gases. Acoustic cavitation with its nonlinear bubble oscillations, pattern formation and sonoluminescence (light from sound) are modern examples of nonlinear acoustics. The language of nonlinear dynamics needed for understanding chaotic dynamics and acoustic chaotic systems is introduced.

  19. Supercritical fluid technology

    SciTech Connect

    Penninger, J.M.L.; McHugh, M.A.; Radosz, M.; Krukonis, V.J.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the state-of-the-art in the science and technology of supercritical fluid (scf) processing. Current research as described in the book, focuses on developments in equations of state for binary and multicomponent mixtures (including polymer solutions), solubility measurements at near-critical conditions, measurements of critical properties of binary mixtures and their correlation with equations of state. Progress in thermodynamics, coupled with advances in the design and construction of high pressure equipment, has opened up a wide avenue of commercial application (e.g. decaffeination of coffee beans, extractions of flavours and spices, purification of pharmaceutical products, separations of polymeric materials, deodorization and deacidification of vegetable oils, fractionation of fatty acids, coal liquefaction, wood delignitication, etc.)

  20. Respiratory fluid mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grotberg, James B.

    2011-02-01

    This article covers several aspects of respiratory fluid mechanics that have been actively investigated by our group over the years. For the most part, the topics involve two-phase flows in the respiratory system with applications to normal and diseased lungs, as well as therapeutic interventions. Specifically, the topics include liquid plug flow in airways and at airway bifurcations as it relates to surfactant, drug, gene, or stem cell delivery into the lung; liquid plug rupture and its damaging effects on underlying airway epithelial cells as well as a source of crackling sounds in the lung; airway closure from "capillary-elastic instabilities," as well as nonlinear stabilization from oscillatory core flow which we call the "oscillating butter knife;" liquid film, and surfactant dynamics in an oscillating alveolus and the steady streaming, and surfactant spreading on thin viscous films including our discovery of the Grotberg-Borgas-Gaver shock.

  1. Amniotic fluid embolism.

    PubMed

    Thongrong, Cattleya; Kasemsiri, Pornthep; Hofmann, James P; Bergese, Sergio D; Papadimos, Thomas J; Gracias, Vicente H; Adolph, Michael D; Stawicki, Stanislaw P A

    2013-01-01

    Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is an unpredictable and as-of-yet unpreventable complication of maternity. With its low incidence it is unlikely that any given practitioner will be confronted with a case of AFE. However, this rare occurrence carries a high probability of serious sequelae including cardiac arrest, ARDS, coagulopathy with massive hemorrhage, encephalopathy, seizures, and both maternal and infant mortality. In this review the current state of medical knowledge about AFE is outlined including its incidence, risk factors, diagnosis, pathophysiology, and clinical manifestations. Special attention is paid to the modern aggressive supportive care that resulted in an overall reduction in the still alarmingly high mortality rate of this devastating entity. The key factors for successful management and resolution of this disease process continue to be sharp vigilance, a high level of clinical suspicion, and rapid all-out resuscitative efforts on the part of all clinicians involved in the medical care of the parturient. PMID:23724386

  2. Fluid Mechanics of Taste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noel, Alexis; Bhatia, Nitesh; Carter, Taren; Hu, David

    2015-11-01

    Saliva plays a key role in digestion, speech and tactile sensation. Lack of saliva, also known as dry mouth syndrome, increases risk of tooth decay and alters sense of taste; nearly 10% of the general population suffer from this syndrome. In this experimental study, we investigate the spreading of water drops on wet and dry tongues of pigs and cows. We find that drops spread faster on a wet tongue than a dry tongue. We rationalize the spreading rate by consideration of the tongue microstructure, such as as papillae, in promoting wicking. By investigating how tongue microstructure affects spreading of fluids, we may begin to how understand taste receptors are activated by eating and drinking.

  3. Amniotic fluid embolism

    PubMed Central

    Thongrong, Cattleya; Kasemsiri, Pornthep; Hofmann, James P.; Bergese, Sergio D.; Papadimos, Thomas J.; Gracias, Vicente H.; Adolph, Michael D.; Stawicki, Stanislaw P. A.

    2013-01-01

    Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is an unpredictable and as-of-yet unpreventable complication of maternity. With its low incidence it is unlikely that any given practitioner will be confronted with a case of AFE. However, this rare occurrence carries a high probability of serious sequelae including cardiac arrest, ARDS, coagulopathy with massive hemorrhage, encephalopathy, seizures, and both maternal and infant mortality. In this review the current state of medical knowledge about AFE is outlined including its incidence, risk factors, diagnosis, pathophysiology, and clinical manifestations. Special attention is paid to the modern aggressive supportive care that resulted in an overall reduction in the still alarmingly high mortality rate of this devastating entity. The key factors for successful management and resolution of this disease process continue to be sharp vigilance, a high level of clinical suspicion, and rapid all-out resuscitative efforts on the part of all clinicians involved in the medical care of the parturient. PMID:23724386

  4. Magnetic levitation fluid dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojarevics, V.; Pericleous, K.

    2001-06-01

    This work is concerned with the accurate computation of flow in a rapidly deforming liquid metal droplet, suspended in an AC magnetic field. Intense flow motion due to the induced electromagnetic force distorts dynamically the droplet envelope, which is initially spherical. The relative positional change between the liquid metal surface and the surrounding coil means that fluid flow and magnetic field computations need to be closely coupled. A spectral technique is used to solve this problem, which is assumed axisymmetric. The computed results are compared against a physical experiment and "ideal sphere" analytic solutions. A comparison between the "magnetic pressure" approximation and the full electromagnetic force solutions, shows fundamental differences; the full electromagnetic force solution is necessary for accurate results in most practical applications of this technique. The physical reason for the fundamental discrepancy is the difference in the electromagnetic force representation: only the gradient part of the full force is accounted for in the "magnetic pressure" approximation. Figs 9, Refs 13.

  5. Fluid Merging Viscosity Measurement (FMVM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Astronaut Mike Fincke places droplets of honey onto the strings for the Fluid Merging Viscosity Measurement (FMVM) investigation onboard the International Space Station (ISS). The FMVM experiment measures the time it takes for two individual highly viscous fluid droplets to coalesce or merge into one droplet. Different fluids and droplet size combinations were tested in the series of experiments. By using the microgravity environment, researchers can measure the viscosity or 'thickness' of fluids without the influence of containers and gravity using this new technique. Understanding viscosity could help scientists understand industrially important materials such as paints, emulsions, polymer melts and even foams used to produce pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic products.

  6. Fluid dynamics in developmental biology: moving fluids that shape ontogeny

    PubMed Central

    Cartwright, Julyan H.E.; Piro, Oreste; Tuval, Idan

    2009-01-01

    Human conception, indeed fertilization in general, takes place in a fluid, but what role does fluid dynamics have during the subsequent development of an organism? It is becoming increasingly clear that the number of genes in the genome of a typical organism is not sufficient to specify the minutiae of all features of its ontogeny. Instead, genetics often acts as a choreographer, guiding development but leaving some aspects to be controlled by physical and chemical means. Fluids are ubiquitous in biological systems, so it is not surprising that fluid dynamics should play an important role in the physical and chemical processes shaping ontogeny. However, only in a few cases have the strands been teased apart to see exactly how fluid forces operate to guide development. Here, we review instances in which the hand of fluid dynamics in developmental biology is acknowledged, both in human development and within a wider biological context, together with some in which fluid dynamics is notable but whose workings have yet to be understood, and we provide a fluid dynamicist’s perspective on possible avenues for future research. PMID:19794816

  7. A FLUID SORBENT RECYCLING DEVICE FOR INDUSTRIAL FLUID USERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A roller compression Extractor® that extracts fluids from reusable sorbent pads was evaluated as a method of waste reduction. The extraction device, evaluated for industrial fluid users in New Jersey, was found to be effective in recycling unpleated sorbent pads, especially ...

  8. Fluid dynamics and vibration of tube banks in fluid flow

    SciTech Connect

    Zukauskas, A.; Ulinskas, R.; Katinas, V.

    1988-01-01

    This work presents results derived in fluid dynamics, hydraulic drag and flow-induced vibrations within transverse and yawed tube banks. The studies encompass banks of smooth, rough and finned tubes at Reynolds numbers from 1 to 2x10/sup 6/. Highlighted in the text are fluid dynamic parameters of tube banks measured at inter-tube spaces and tube surfaces.

  9. Fluid Creep and Over-resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Saffle, Jeffrey R

    2016-10-01

    Fluid creep is the term applied to a burn resuscitation, which requires more fluid than predicted by standard formulas. Fluid creep is common today and is linked to several serious edema-related complications. Increased fluid requirements may accompany the appropriate resuscitation of massive injuries but dangerous fluid creep is also caused by overly permissive fluid infusion and the lack of colloid supplementation. Several strategies for recognizing and treating fluid creep are presented. PMID:27600130

  10. Two-fluid Hydrodynamic Model for Fluid-Flow Simulation in Fluid-Solids Systems

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1994-06-20

    FLUFIX is a two-dimensional , transient, Eulerian, and finite-difference program, based on a two-fluid hydrodynamic model, for fluid flow simulation in fluid-solids systems. The software is written in a modular form using the Implicit Multi-Field (IMF) numerical technique. Quantities computed are the spatial distribution of solids loading, gas and solids velocities, pressure, and temperatures. Predicted are bubble formation, bed frequencies, and solids recirculation. Applications include bubbling and circulating atmospheric and pressurized fluidized bed reactors, combustors,more » gasifiers, and FCC (Fluid Catalytic Cracker) reactors.« less

  11. Receptor for advanced glycation end-products regulates lung fluid balance via protein kinase C-gp91(phox) signaling to epithelial sodium channels.

    PubMed

    Downs, Charles A; Kreiner, Lisa H; Johnson, Nicholle M; Brown, Lou Ann; Helms, My N

    2015-01-01

    The receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE), a multiligand member of the Ig family, may play a crucial role in the regulation of lung fluid balance. We quantified soluble RAGE (sRAGE), a decoy isoform, and advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) from the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of smokers and nonsmokers, and tested the hypothesis that AGEs regulate lung fluid balance through protein kinase C (PKC)-gp91(phox) signaling to the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC). Human bronchoalveolar lavage samples from smokers showed increased AGEs (9.02 ± 3.03 μg versus 2.48 ± 0.53 μg), lower sRAGE (1,205 ± 292 pg/ml versus 1,910 ± 263 pg/ml), and lower volume(s) of epithelial lining fluid (97 ± 14 ml versus 133 ± 17 ml). sRAGE levels did not predict ELF volumes in nonsmokers; however, in smokers, higher volumes of ELF were predicted with higher levels of sRAGE. Single-channel patch clamp analysis of rat alveolar epithelial type 1 cells showed that AGEs increased ENaC activity measured as the product of the number of channels (N) and the open probability (Po) (NPo) from 0.19 ± 0.08 to 0.83 ± 0.22 (P = 0.017) and the subsequent addition of 4-hydroxy-2, 2, 6, 6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl decreased ENaC NPo to 0.15 ± 0.07 (P = 0.01). In type 2 cells, human AGEs increased ENaC NPo from 0.12 ± 0.05 to 0.53 ± 0.16 (P = 0.025) and the addition of 4-hydroxy-2, 2, 6, 6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl decreased ENaC NPo to 0.10 ± 0.03 (P = 0.013). Using molecular and biochemical techniques, we observed that inhibition of RAGE and PKC activity attenuated AGE-induced activation of ENaC. AGEs induced phosphorylation of p47(phox) and increased gp91(phox)-dependent reactive oxygen species production, a response that was abrogated with RAGE or PKC inhibition. Finally, tracheal instillation of AGEs promoted clearance of lung fluid, whereas concomitant inhibition of RAGE, PKC, and gp91(phox) abrogated the response. PMID:24978055

  12. Heart failure - fluids and diuretics

    MedlinePlus

    When you have heart failure, your heart does not pump out enough blood. This causes fluids to build up in your body. If you ... the amount of fluids you drink: When your heart failure is not very bad, you may not have ...

  13. FLUID PURIFIER AND SEALING VALVE

    DOEpatents

    Swanton, W.F.

    1962-04-24

    An improved cold trap designed to condense vapors and collect foreign particles in a flowing fluid is described. In the arrangement, a valve is provided to prevent flow reversal in case of pump failure and to act as a sealing valve. Provision is made for reducing the temperature of the fluid being processed, including a pre-cooling stage. (AEC)

  14. Magnetic Fluids--Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoon, S. B.; Tanner, B. K.

    1985-01-01

    Continues a discussion of magnetic fluids by providing background information on and procedures for conducting several demonstrations. Indicates that, with a little patience and ingenuity, only modest magnetic fields and about 20 ml of low-viscosity, commercial magnetite-water-based magnetic fluid are required. (JN)

  15. Fluid absorption solar energy receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bair, Edward J.

    1993-01-01

    A conventional solar dynamic system transmits solar energy to the flowing fluid of a thermodynamic cycle through structures which contain the gas and thermal energy storage material. Such a heat transfer mechanism dictates that the structure operate at a higher temperature than the fluid. This investigation reports on a fluid absorption receiver where only a part of the solar energy is transmitted to the structure. The other part is absorbed directly by the fluid. By proportioning these two heat transfer paths the energy to the structure can preheat the fluid, while the energy absorbed directly by the fluid raises the fluid to its final working temperature. The surface temperatures need not exceed the output temperature of the fluid. This makes the output temperature of the gas the maximum temperature in the system. The gas can have local maximum temperatures higher than the output working temperature. However local high temperatures are quickly equilibrated, and since the gas does not emit radiation, local high temperatures do not result in a radiative heat loss. Thermal radiation, thermal conductivity, and heat exchange with the gas all help equilibrate the surface temperature.

  16. Applied Fluid Mechanics. Lecture Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregg, Newton D.

    This set of lecture notes is used as a supplemental text for the teaching of fluid dynamics, as one component of a thermodynamics course for engineering technologists. The major text for the course covered basic fluids concepts such as pressure, mass flow, and specific weight. The objective of this document was to present additional fluids…

  17. Fluid Inclusions in Carbonaceous Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saylor, J.; Zolensky, M. E.; Bodnar, R. J.; Le L.; Schwandt, C.

    2001-01-01

    Fluid inclusions are present in carbonaceous chondrites. Of the chondrites studied (CI1, CM1 and 2, CV3) fluid inclusions were found only in CM2s and CI1s, and by extrapolation are most likely to be found there in the future. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  18. Fluid jet electric discharge source

    DOEpatents

    Bender, Howard A.

    2006-04-25

    A fluid jet or filament source and a pair of coaxial high voltage electrodes, in combination, comprise an electrical discharge system to produce radiation and, in particular, EUV radiation. The fluid jet source is composed of at least two serially connected reservoirs, a first reservoir into which a fluid, that can be either a liquid or a gas, can be fed at some pressure higher than atmospheric and a second reservoir maintained at a lower pressure than the first. The fluid is allowed to expand through an aperture into a high vacuum region between a pair of coaxial electrodes. This second expansion produces a narrow well-directed fluid jet whose size is dependent on the size and configuration of the apertures and the pressure used in the reservoir. At some time during the flow of the fluid filament, a high voltage pulse is applied to the electrodes to excite the fluid to form a plasma which provides the desired radiation; the wavelength of the radiation being determined by the composition of the fluid.

  19. Effective perfect fluids in cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Ballesteros, Guillermo; Bellazzini, Brando E-mail: brando.bellazzini@pd.infn.it

    2013-04-01

    We describe the cosmological dynamics of perfect fluids within the framework of effective field theories. The effective action is a derivative expansion whose terms are selected by the symmetry requirements on the relevant long-distance degrees of freedom, which are identified with comoving coordinates. The perfect fluid is defined by requiring invariance of the action under internal volume-preserving diffeomorphisms and general covariance. At lowest order in derivatives, the dynamics is encoded in a single function of the entropy density that characterizes the properties of the fluid, such as the equation of state and the speed of sound. This framework allows a neat simultaneous description of fluid and metric perturbations. Longitudinal fluid perturbations are closely related to the adiabatic modes, while the transverse modes mix with vector metric perturbations as a consequence of vorticity conservation. This formalism features a large flexibility which can be of practical use for higher order perturbation theory and cosmological parameter estimation.

  20. Second Microgravity Fluid Physics Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The conference's purpose was to inform the fluid physics community of research opportunities in reduced-gravity fluid physics, present the status of the existing and planned reduced gravity fluid physics research programs, and inform participants of the upcoming NASA Research Announcement in this area. The plenary sessions provided an overview of the Microgravity Fluid Physics Program information on NASA's ground-based and space-based flight research facilities. An international forum offered participants an opportunity to hear from French, German, and Russian speakers about the microgravity research programs in their respective countries. Two keynote speakers provided broad technical overviews on multiphase flow and complex fluids research. Presenters briefed their peers on the scientific results of their ground-based and flight research. Fifty-eight of the sixty-two technical papers are included here.

  1. Squirming propulsion in viscoelastic fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Corato, Marco; Greco, Francesco; Maffettone, Pier Luca

    2015-11-01

    The locomotion of organisms in Newtonian fluids at low-Reynolds numbers displays very different features from that at large Reynolds numbers; indeed, in this regime the viscous forces are dominant over the inertial ones and propulsion is possible only with non-time-reversible swimming strokes. In many situations of biological interest, however, small organisms are propelling themselves through non-Newtonian fluids such as mucus or biofilms, which display highly viscoelastic properties. Fluid viscoelasticity affects in a complex way both the micro-organisms' swimming velocity and dissipated power, possibly affecting their collective behavior. In our work, we employ the so called ``squirmer'' model to study the motion of spherical ciliated organisms in a viscoelastic fluid. We derive analytical formulas for the squirmer swimming velocity and dissipated power that show a complex interplay between the fluid constitutive behavior and the propulsion mechanism.

  2. Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Majumdar, Alok Kumar (Inventor); Bailey, John W. (Inventor); Schallhorn, Paul Alan (Inventor); Steadman, Todd E. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A general purpose program implemented on a computer analyzes steady state and transient flow in a complex fluid network, modeling phase changes, compressibility, mixture thermodynamics and external body forces such as gravity and centrifugal force. A preprocessor provides for the inter- active development of a fluid network simulation having nodes and branches. Mass, energy, and specie conservation equations are solved at the nodes, and momentum conservation equations are solved in the branches. Contained herein are subroutines for computing "real fluid" thermodynamic and thermophysical properties for 12 fluids, and a number of different source options are provided for model- ing momentum sources or sinks in the branches. The system of equations describing the fluid network is solved by a hybrid numerical method that is a combination of the Newton-Raphson and successive substitution methods. Application and verification of this invention are provided through an example problem, which demonstrates that the predictions of the present invention compare most reasonably with test data.

  3. New Fluid Prevents Railway Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Through a licensing agreement between NASA's Ames Research Center and Midwest Industrial Supply, Inc. (MIS), two MIS products have been enhanced with NASA's anti-icing fluid technology. MIS offers the new fluid in two commercial products, the Zero Gravity(TM) Third Rail Anti-Icer/Deicer and the Ice Free Switch(R). Using NASA's fluid technology, these products form a protective-coating barrier that prevents the buildup of ice and snow. Applying the fluid to the railway components prior to ice or snowstorm works as an anti-icing fluid, remaining in place to melt precipitation as it hits the surface. It also functions as a deicing fluid. If applied to an already frozen switch or rail, it will quickly melt the ice, free the frozen parts, and then remain in place to prevent refreezing. Additional benefits include the ability to cling to vertical rail surfaces and resist the effects of rain and wind. With the Ice Free Switch, it takes only five minutes to treat the switch by spraying, brushing, or pouring on the product. Ice Free Switch requires as little as one gallon per switch whereas other deicing fluids require five to ten gallons of liquid to effectively melt ice. Zero Gravity serves the same anti-icing/deicing purposes but applies fluid to the third rail through a system that is easily installed onto mass transit cars. A tank of fluid and a dispensing system are placed underneath the train car and the fluid is applied as the train runs its route.

  4. Viscous dark fluid universe

    SciTech Connect

    Hipolito-Ricaldi, W. S.; Velten, H. E. S.; Zimdahl, W.

    2010-09-15

    We investigate the cosmological perturbation dynamics for a universe consisting of pressureless baryonic matter and a viscous fluid, the latter representing a unified model of the dark sector. In the homogeneous and isotropic background the total energy density of this mixture behaves as a generalized Chaplygin gas. The perturbations of this energy density are intrinsically nonadiabatic and source relative entropy perturbations. The resulting baryonic matter power spectrum is shown to be compatible with the 2dFGRS and SDSS (DR7) data. A joint statistical analysis, using also Hubble-function and supernovae Ia data, shows that, different from other studies, there exists a maximum in the probability distribution for a negative present value q{sub 0{approx_equal}}-0.53 of the deceleration parameter. Moreover, while previous descriptions on the basis of generalized Chaplygin-gas models were incompatible with the matter power-spectrum data since they required a much too large amount of pressureless matter, the unified model presented here favors a matter content that is of the order of the baryonic matter abundance suggested by big-bang nucleosynthesis.

  5. Fluid flow monitoring device

    DOEpatents

    McKay, M.D.; Sweeney, C.E.; Spangler, B.S. Jr.

    1993-11-30

    A flow meter and temperature measuring device are described comprising a tube with a body centered therein for restricting flow and a sleeve at the upper end of the tube to carry several channels formed longitudinally in the sleeve to the appropriate axial location where they penetrate the tube to allow pressure measurements and temperature measurements with thermocouples. The high pressure measurement is made using a channel penetrating the tube away from the body and the low pressure measurement is made at a location at the widest part of the body. An end plug seals the end of the device and holes at its upper end allow fluid to pass from the interior of the tube into a plenum. The channels are made by cutting grooves in the sleeve, the grooves widened at the surface of the sleeve and then a strip of sleeve material is welded to the grooves closing the channels. Preferably the sleeve is packed with powdered graphite before cutting the grooves and welding the strips. 7 figures.

  6. Fluid flow monitoring device

    DOEpatents

    McKay, Mark D.; Sweeney, Chad E.; Spangler, Jr., B. Samuel

    1993-01-01

    A flow meter and temperature measuring device comprising a tube with a body centered therein for restricting flow and a sleeve at the upper end of the tube to carry several channels formed longitudinally in the sleeve to the appropriate axial location where they penetrate the tube to allow pressure measurements and temperature measurements with thermocouples. The high pressure measurement is made using a channel penetrating the tube away from the body and the low pressure measurement is made at a location at the widest part of the body. An end plug seals the end of the device and holes at its upper end allow fluid to pass from the interior of the tube into a plenum. The channels are made by cutting grooves in the sleeve, the grooves widened at the surface of the sleeve and then a strip of sleeve material is welded to the grooves closing the channels. Preferably the sleeve is packed with powdered graphite before cutting the grooves and welding the strips.

  7. Fluid shifts in weightlessness.

    PubMed

    Thornton, W E; Moore, T P; Pool, S L

    1987-09-01

    Studies of leg volumes in space by multiple girth measurements showed reductions of 1.9 L (12.8% of leg volume) with 1.1 L from the non-dominant leg on Skylab 4. On landing, 65% of postflight leg volume increase was complete at 1.5 h. Measurement of the dominant leg during the equivalent period on Shuttle showed a mean loss of 0.9 L which was 90% complete at 150 min. Postflight increases were 87% complete at 1.5 h postlanding. Mass measurements during and after Skylab 4 showed a loss of 2.5 kg over the first 4 d on-orbit with a gain of 2.7 kg over the first 4 d of recovery. These changes are assumed to be tissue fluids secondary to changes in hydrostatic pressures and are much greater than those seen in bed rest. Rate and magnitude of inflight and postflight changes have significant operational impact. PMID:3675511

  8. Critical fluid light scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gammon, Robert W.

    1988-01-01

    The objective is to measure the decay rates of critical density fluctuations in a simple fluid (xenon) very near its liquid-vapor critical point using laser light scattering and photon correlation spectroscopy. Such experiments were severely limited on Earth by the presence of gravity which causes large density gradients in the sample when the compressibility diverges approaching the critical point. The goal is to measure fluctuation decay rates at least two decades closer to the critical point than is possible on earth, with a resolution of 3 microK. This will require loading the sample to 0.1 percent of the critical density and taking data as close as 100 microK to the critical temperature. The minimum mission time of 100 hours will allow a complete range of temperature points to be covered, limited by the thermal response of the sample. Other technical problems have to be addressed such as multiple scattering and the effect of wetting layers. The experiment entails measurement of the scattering intensity fluctuation decay rate at two angles for each temperature and simultaneously recording the scattering intensities and sample turbidity (from the transmission). The analyzed intensity and turbidity data gives the correlation length at each temperature and locates the critical temperature. The fluctuation decay rate data from these measurements will provide a severe test of the generalized hydrodynamic theories of transport coefficients in the critical regions. When compared to equivalent data from binary liquid critical mixtures they will test the universality of critical dynamics.

  9. Tracing Geothermal Fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Michael C. Adams; Greg Nash

    2004-03-01

    Geothermal water must be injected back into the reservoir after it has been used for power production. Injection is critical in maximizing the power production and lifetime of the reservoir. To use injectate effectively the direction and velocity of the injected water must be known or inferred. This information can be obtained by using chemical tracers to track the subsurface flow paths of the injected fluid. Tracers are chemical compounds that are added to the water as it is injected back into the reservoir. The hot production water is monitored for the presence of this tracer using the most sensitive analytic methods that are economically feasible. The amount and concentration pattern of the tracer revealed by this monitoring can be used to evaluate how effective the injection strategy is. However, the tracers must have properties that suite the environment that they will be used in. This requires careful consideration and testing of the tracer properties. In previous and parallel investigations we have developed tracers that are suitable from tracing liquid water. In this investigation, we developed tracers that can be used for steam and mixed water/steam environments. This work will improve the efficiency of injection management in geothermal fields, lowering the cost of energy production and increasing the power output of these systems.

  10. Fluid sampling system

    DOEpatents

    Houck, Edward D.

    1994-01-01

    An fluid sampling system allows sampling of radioactive liquid without spillage. A feed tank is connected to a liquid transfer jet powered by a pumping chamber pressurized by compressed air. The liquid is pumped upwardly into a sampling jet of a venturi design having a lumen with an inlet, an outlet, a constricted middle portion, and a port located above the constricted middle portion. The liquid is passed under pressure through the constricted portion causing its velocity to increase and its pressure to decreased, thereby preventing liquid from escaping. A septum sealing the port can be pierced by a two pointed hollow needle leading into a sample bottle also sealed by a pierceable septum affixed to one end. The bottle is evacuated by flow through the sample jet, cyclic variation in the sampler jet pressure periodically leaves the evacuated bottle with lower pressure than that of the port, thus causing solution to pass into the bottle. The remaining solution in the system is returned to the feed tank via a holding tank.

  11. Fluid sampling system

    DOEpatents

    Houck, E.D.

    1994-10-11

    An fluid sampling system allows sampling of radioactive liquid without spillage. A feed tank is connected to a liquid transfer jet powered by a pumping chamber pressurized by compressed air. The liquid is pumped upwardly into a sampling jet of a venturi design having a lumen with an inlet, an outlet, a constricted middle portion, and a port located above the constricted middle portion. The liquid is passed under pressure through the constricted portion causing its velocity to increase and its pressure to be decreased, thereby preventing liquid from escaping. A septum sealing the port can be pierced by a two pointed hollow needle leading into a sample bottle also sealed by a pierceable septum affixed to one end. The bottle is evacuated by flow through the sample jet, cyclic variation in the sampler jet pressure periodically leaves the evacuated bottle with lower pressure than that of the port, thus causing solution to pass into the bottle. The remaining solution in the system is returned to the feed tank via a holding tank. 4 figs.

  12. Fluid sampling system

    SciTech Connect

    Houck, E.D.

    1993-12-31

    This invention comprises a fluid sampling system which allows sampling of radioactive liquid without spillage. A feed tank is connected to a liquid transfer jet powered by a pumping chamber pressurized by compressed air. The liquid is pumped up into a sampling jet of venturi design having a lumen with an inlet, an outlet, a constricted middle portion, and a port located above the constricted middle portion. The liquid is passed under pressure through the constricted portion causing its velocity to increase and its pressure to decrease, thereby preventing liquid from escaping. A septum sealing the port can be pierced by a two pointed hollow needle leading into a sample bottle also sealed by a pierceable septum affixed to one end. The bottle is evacuated by flow through the sample jet, cyclic variation in the sampler jet pressure periodicially leaves the evacuated bottle with lower pressure than that of the port, thus causing solution to pass into the bottle. The remaining solution in the system is returned to the feed tank via a holding tank.

  13. Fluid shifts in weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, William E.; Moore, Thomas P.; Pool, Sam L.

    1987-01-01

    Studies of leg volumes in space by multiple girth measurements showed reductions of 1.9 l (12.8 percent of leg volume), with 1.1 l from the nondominant leg, on Skylab 4. On landing, 65 percent of postflight leg volume increase was complete at 1.5 h. Measurement of the dominant leg during the equivalent period on Shuttle showed a mean loss of 0.9 l which was 90-percent complete at 150 min. Postflight increases were 87-percent complete at 1.5 h postlanding. Mass measurements during and after Skylab 4 showed a loss of 2.5 kg over the first 4 d on orbit, with a gain of 2.7 kg over the first 4 d of recovery. These changes are assumed to be tissue fluids secondary to changes in hydrostatic pressures and are much greater than those seen in bed rest. Rate and magnitude of inflight and postflight changes have significant operational impact.

  14. Computational fluid dynamic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, S.-L.; Lottes, S. A.; Zhou, C. Q.

    2000-04-03

    The rapid advancement of computational capability including speed and memory size has prompted the wide use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes to simulate complex flow systems. CFD simulations are used to study the operating problems encountered in system, to evaluate the impacts of operation/design parameters on the performance of a system, and to investigate novel design concepts. CFD codes are generally developed based on the conservation laws of mass, momentum, and energy that govern the characteristics of a flow. The governing equations are simplified and discretized for a selected computational grid system. Numerical methods are selected to simplify and calculate approximate flow properties. For turbulent, reacting, and multiphase flow systems the complex processes relating to these aspects of the flow, i.e., turbulent diffusion, combustion kinetics, interfacial drag and heat and mass transfer, etc., are described in mathematical models, based on a combination of fundamental physics and empirical data, that are incorporated into the code. CFD simulation has been applied to a large variety of practical and industrial scale flow systems.

  15. Computational Fluid Dynamics Library

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2005-03-04

    CFDLib05 is the Los Alamos Computational Fluid Dynamics LIBrary. This is a collection of hydrocodes using a common data structure and a common numerical method, for problems ranging from single-field, incompressible flow, to multi-species, multi-field, compressible flow. The data structure is multi-block, with a so-called structured grid in each block. The numerical method is a Finite-Volume scheme employing a state vector that is fully cell-centered. This means that the integral form of the conservation lawsmore » is solved on the physical domain that is represented by a mesh of control volumes. The typical control volume is an arbitrary quadrilateral in 2D and an arbitrary hexahedron in 3D. The Finite-Volume scheme is for time-unsteady flow and remains well coupled by means of time and space centered fluxes; if a steady state solution is required, the problem is integrated forward in time until the user is satisfied that the state is stationary.« less

  16. Incompressible Viscous Fluid Dynamics

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1992-02-13

    NACHOS2 is a finite element program designed for the analysis of two-dimensional, incompressible viscous fluid flow problems. The basic flows considered may be isothermal, nonisothermal, or may involve other physical processes, such as mass transport. Both steady and transient flows may be analyzed. The class of problems treated are those described by the two-dimensional (plane or axisymmetric) incompressible form of the Navier-Stokes equations. An energy transport equation is included in the formulation for problems inmore » which heat transfer effects are important. Two auxiliary transport equations can be added to describe other physical processes,e.g. mass transfer, chemical reactions. Among the specific types of flow problems treated are: isothermal flow; forced, free, or mixed convection; conjugate heat transfer; flow in saturated porous media with or without heat transfer; and inelastic, non-Newtonian flows with or without heat transfer. Other problem classes are possible depending on the specific definitions applied to the auxiliary transport equations.« less

  17. Zanamivir pharmacokinetics and pulmonary penetration into epithelial lining fluid following intravenous or oral inhaled administration to healthy adult subjects.

    PubMed

    Shelton, Mark J; Lovern, Mark; Ng-Cashin, Judith; Jones, Lori; Gould, Elizabeth; Gauvin, Jennifer; Rodvold, Keith A

    2011-11-01

    Zanamivir serum and pulmonary pharmacokinetics were characterized following intravenous (i.v.) or oral inhaled administration. I.v. zanamivir was given as intermittent doses of 100 mg, 200 mg, and 600 mg every 12 h (q12h) for two doses or as a continuous infusion (6-mg loading dose followed by 3 mg/h for 12 h). Oral inhaled zanamivir (two 5-mg inhalations q12h for two doses) was evaluated as well. Each zanamivir regimen was administered to six healthy subjects with serial pharmacokinetic sampling. In addition, a single bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid sample was collected at various time points and used to calculate epithelial lining fluid (ELF) drug concentrations for each subject. For intermittent i.v. administration of 100 mg, 200 mg, and 600 mg zanamivir, the median zanamivir concentrations in ELF collected 12 h after dosing were 74, 146, and 419 ng/ml, respectively, each higher than the historic mean 50% inhibitory concentrations for the neuraminidases of wild-type strains of influenza A and B viruses. Median ELF/serum zanamivir concentration ratios ranged from 55 to 79% for intermittent i.v. administration (when sampled 12 h after the last dose) and 43 to 45% for continuous infusion (when sampled 6 to 12 h after the start of the infusion). For oral inhaled zanamivir, the median zanamivir concentrations in ELF were 891 ng/ml for the first BAL fluid collection and 326 ng/ml for subsequent BAL fluid collections (when sampled 12 h after the last dose); corresponding serum drug concentrations were undetectable. This study demonstrates zanamivir's penetration into the human pulmonary compartment and supports the doses selected for the continuing development of i.v. zanamivir in clinical studies of influenza. PMID:21896909

  18. Zanamivir Pharmacokinetics and Pulmonary Penetration into Epithelial Lining Fluid following Intravenous or Oral Inhaled Administration to Healthy Adult Subjects▿

    PubMed Central

    Shelton, Mark J.; Lovern, Mark; Ng-Cashin, Judith; Jones, Lori; Gould, Elizabeth; Gauvin, Jennifer; Rodvold, Keith A.

    2011-01-01

    Zanamivir serum and pulmonary pharmacokinetics were characterized following intravenous (i.v.) or oral inhaled administration. I.v. zanamivir was given as intermittent doses of 100 mg, 200 mg, and 600 mg every 12 h (q12h) for two doses or as a continuous infusion (6-mg loading dose followed by 3 mg/h for 12 h). Oral inhaled zanamivir (two 5-mg inhalations q12h for two doses) was evaluated as well. Each zanamivir regimen was administered to six healthy subjects with serial pharmacokinetic sampling. In addition, a single bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid sample was collected at various time points and used to calculate epithelial lining fluid (ELF) drug concentrations for each subject. For intermittent i.v. administration of 100 mg, 200 mg, and 600 mg zanamivir, the median zanamivir concentrations in ELF collected 12 h after dosing were 74, 146, and 419 ng/ml, respectively, each higher than the historic mean 50% inhibitory concentrations for the neuraminidases of wild-type strains of influenza A and B viruses. Median ELF/serum zanamivir concentration ratios ranged from 55 to 79% for intermittent i.v. administration (when sampled 12 h after the last dose) and 43 to 45% for continuous infusion (when sampled 6 to 12 h after the start of the infusion). For oral inhaled zanamivir, the median zanamivir concentrations in ELF were 891 ng/ml for the first BAL fluid collection and 326 ng/ml for subsequent BAL fluid collections (when sampled 12 h after the last dose); corresponding serum drug concentrations were undetectable. This study demonstrates zanamivir's penetration into the human pulmonary compartment and supports the doses selected for the continuing development of i.v. zanamivir in clinical studies of influenza. PMID:21896909

  19. Retrograde fluids in granulites: Stable isotope evidence of fluid migration

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, J. ); Valley, J.W. )

    1991-07-01

    Widespread retrograde alteration assemblages document the migration of mixed H{sub 2}O-CO{sub 2} fluids into granulite facies rocks in the Adirondack Mountains. Fluid migration is manifest by (1) veins and patchy intergrowths of chlorite {plus minus} sericite {plus minus} calcite, (2) small veins of calcite, many only identifiable by cathodoluminescence, and (3) high-density, CO{sub 2}-rich or mixed H{sub 2}O-CO{sub 2} fluid inclusions. The distinct and varied textural occurrences of the alteration minerals indicate that fluid-rock ratios were low and variable on a local scale. Stable isotope ratios of C, O, and S have been determined in retrograde minerals from samples of the Marcy anorthosite massif and adjacent granitic gneisses (charnockites). Retrograde calcite in the anorthosite has a relatively small range in both {delta}{sup 18}O{sub SMOW} and {delta}{sup 13}C{sub PDB} (8.6 to 14.9% and {minus}4.1 to 0.4%, respectively), probably indicating that the hydrothermal fluids that precipitated the calcite had exchanged with a variety of crustal lithologies including marbles and orthogneisses, and that calcite was precipitated over a relatively narrow temperature interval. Values of {delta}{sup 34}S{sub CDT} that range from 2.8 to 8.3% within the anorthosite can also be interpreted to reflect exchange between orthogneisses and metasediments. The recognition of retrograde fluid migration is particularly significant in granulite facies terranes because the controversy surrounding the origin of granulites arises in part from differing interpretations of fluid inclusion data, specifically, the timing of entrapment of high-density, CO{sub 2}-rich inclusions. Results indicate that retrograde fluid migration, which in some samples may leave only cryptic petrographic evidence, is a process capable of producing high-density, CO{sub 2}-rich fluid inclusions.

  20. Heating production fluids in a wellbore

    DOEpatents

    Orrego, Yamila; Jankowski, Todd A.

    2016-07-12

    A method for heating a production fluid in a wellbore. The method can include heating, using a packer fluid, a working fluid flowing through a first medium disposed in a first section of the wellbore, where the first medium transfers heat from the packer fluid to the working fluid. The method can also include circulating the working fluid into a second section of the wellbore through a second medium, where the second medium transfers heat from the working fluid to the production fluid. The method can further include returning the working fluid to the first section of the wellbore through the first medium.

  1. Configurational temperature profile in confined fluids. II. Molecular fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delhommelle, Jerome; Evans, Denis J.

    2001-04-01

    In an earlier paper, we applied configurational expressions of the temperature to the calculation of temperature profiles within a confined atomic fluid. This paper focuses on the application of these expressions to confined molecular fluids using ethane and hexane as examples. We first give configurational expressions for the temperature for these constrained systems. The configurational temperature profiles so obtained are compared to the kinetic temperature calculated using the equipartition principle, in equilibrium systems. These expressions are then used in nonequilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) simulations of fluids undergoing planar Poiseuille flow. We show that these configurational expressions provide a direct and accurate determination of the temperature profile for these systems.

  2. Fluids and Combustion Facility: Fluids Integrated Rack Modal Model Correlation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNelis, Mark E.; Suarez, Vicente J.; Sullivan, Timothy L.; Otten, Kim D.; Akers, James C.

    2005-01-01

    The Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR) is one of two racks in the Fluids and Combustion Facility on the International Space Station. The FIR is dedicated to the scientific investigation of space system fluids management supporting NASA s Exploration of Space Initiative. The FIR hardware was modal tested and FIR finite element model updated to satisfy the International Space Station model correlation criteria. The final cross-orthogonality results between the correlated model and test mode shapes was greater than 90 percent for all primary target modes.

  3. Fluid power engineering with fire resistant hydraulic fluids: Experiences with water-containing hydraulic fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Reichel, J.

    1994-12-01

    Water-based hydraulic fluids belong to the category of fire-resistant hydraulic fluids. For better fire protection, they are used instead of easily inflammable mineral oil based fluids in zones exposed to fire risks. For reasons of human health and operational safety, fire-resistant fluids have been compulsory in the hard coal mining industry of the European Community for more than 28 years. From the early sixties onward, testing specifications and methods were always updated for keeping pace with the actual state of technology, and recently, the seventh revised version was issued in the Luxembourg Reports (1) in 1993. As a consequence of the number of environmental catastrophes and the ban of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) (2) environmental compatibility testing was introduced within the framework of the European harmonization efforts for fire-resistant hydraulic fluids in 1990. However, predominantly national regulations are still in force. 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Atmospheric and Oceanic Fluid Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallis, Geoffrey K.

    2006-11-01

    Fluid dynamics is fundamental to our understanding of the atmosphere and oceans. Although many of the same principles of fluid dynamics apply to both the atmosphere and oceans, textbooks tend to concentrate on the atmosphere, the ocean, or the theory of geophysical fluid dynamics (GFD). This textbook provides a comprehensive unified treatment of atmospheric and oceanic fluid dynamics. The book introduces the fundamentals of geophysical fluid dynamics, including rotation and stratification, vorticity and potential vorticity, and scaling and approximations. It discusses baroclinic and barotropic instabilities, wave-mean flow interactions and turbulence, and the general circulation of the atmosphere and ocean. Student problems and exercises are included at the end of each chapter. Atmospheric and Oceanic Fluid Dynamics: Fundamentals and Large-Scale Circulation will be an invaluable graduate textbook on advanced courses in GFD, meteorology, atmospheric science and oceanography, and an excellent review volume for researchers. Additional resources are available at www.cambridge.org/9780521849692. Includes end of chapter review questions to aid understanding Unified and comprehensive treatment of both atmospheric and oceanic fluid dynamics Covers many modern topics and provides up to date knowledge

  5. Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Outreach Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aurnou, J. M.; Schwarz, J. W.; Noguez, G.

    2012-12-01

    Here we will present high definition films of laboratory experiments demonstrating basic fluid motions similar to those occurring in atmospheres and oceans. In these experiments, we use water to simulate the fluid dynamics of both the liquid (oceans) and gaseous (atmospheric) envelopes. To simulate the spinning of the earth, we carry out the experiments on a rotating table. For each experiment, we begin by looking at our system first without the effects of rotation. Then, we include rotation to see how the behavior of the fluid changes due to the Coriolis accelerations. Our hope is that by viewing these experiments one will develop a sense for how fluids behave both in rotating and non-rotating systems. By noting the differences between the experiments, it should then be possible to establish a basis to think about large-scale fluid motions that exist in Earth's oceans and atmospheres as well as on planets other than Earth.Plan view image of vortices in a rotating tank of fluid. Movies of such flows make accessible the often difficult to comprehend fluid dynamical processes that occur in planetary atmospheres and oceans.

  6. Programming fluid flow with microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amini, Hamed; Masaeli, Mahdokht; di Carlo, Dino

    2011-11-01

    Flow control and fluid interface manipulation in microfluidic platforms are of great importance in a variety of applications. Current approaches to manipulate fluids generally rely on complex designs, difficult-to-fabricate 3D platforms or use of active methods. Here we show that in the presence of simple cylindrical obstacles (i.e. pillars) in a microchannel, at moderate to high flow rates, streamlines tend to turn and stretch in a manner that, unlike intuition for Stokes flow, does not precisely reverse after passing the pillar. The asymmetric flow behavior up- and down-stream of the pillar due to fluid inertia manifests itself as a total deformation of the topology of streamlines that effectively creates a net secondary flow which resembles the recirculating Dean flow in curving channels. Confocal images were taken to investigate the secondary flow for a variety of microstructure settings. We also developed a numerical technique to map the fluid motion in the channel which is utilized to characterize the secondary flow as well as to engineer the fluid patterns within the channel. This passive method creates the possibility of exceptional control of the 3D structure of the fluid within a microfluidic platform which can significantly advance applications requiring fluid interface control (e.g. optofluidics), ultrafast mixing and solution control around cells.

  7. Fluid Flow Phenomena during Welding

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Wei

    2011-01-01

    MOLTEN WELD POOLS are dynamic. Liquid in the weld pool in acted on by several strong forces, which can result in high-velocity fluid motion. Fluid flow velocities exceeding 1 m/s (3.3 ft/s) have been observed in gas tungsten arc (GTA) welds under ordinary welding conditions, and higher velocities have been measured in submerged arc welds. Fluid flow is important because it affects weld shape and is related to the formation of a variety of weld defects. Moving liquid transports heat and often dominates heat transport in the weld pool. Because heat transport by mass flow depends on the direction and speed of fluid motion, weld pool shape can differ dramatically from that predicted by conductive heat flow. Temperature gradients are also altered by fluid flow, which can affect weld microstructure. A number of defects in GTA welds have been attributed to fluid flow or changes in fluid flow, including lack of penetration, top bead roughness, humped beads, finger penetration, and undercutting. Instabilities in the liquid film around the keyhole in electron beam and laser welds are responsible for the uneven penetration (spiking) characteristic of these types of welds.

  8. Amniotic fluid embolism: review.

    PubMed

    Pantaleo, Greco; Luigi, Nappi; Federica, Trezza; Paola, Storelli; Margherita, Neri; Tahir, Mahmood

    2014-01-01

    Amniotic fluid embolism is a rare but dreadful syndrome in Obstetrics, which happens, in most of the cases, in the peripartum period. The actual "embolisation" of the pulmonary vessels does not explain the whole picture of the syndrome. An immune mechanism, similar to an anaphylactic reaction, is more convincingly the background of the event, but the pathogenesis is still ill-defined. Similarly the initial symptoms are difficult to interpret and distinguish from other acute and life-threatening emergencies (i.e. pulmonary embolism, placental abruption, septic shock, stroke, myocardial ischemia, etc.), therefore the diagnosis is one of exclusion, very often on postmortem report. Thus the prevalence of the disease is difficult to establish, most of the reports being postmortem cases or National Registries data. These data, based either on autopsy series or on registries, are non representative of the true prevalence of the event and obviously confusing for the correct understanding of the disease process. Risk factors are all those conditions or manouvres, which contemplate a breech in the maternal-fetal barrier. Again, given the rarity of the syndrome, no single event is clearly identifiable as a case-effect risk factor. Prognosis, which is obviously biased by the reporting system, is particularly grim both in terms of survival and morbidity. The symptoms being often elusive at the beginning, but rapidly and progressively catastrophic, a multidisciplinary team approach is warranted in order to provide the best chance of survival both for mother and baby. Immediate and aggressive resuscitation is, therefore, advised whenever a mother in labour or in the early postpartum period experiences a sudden collapse. PMID:24804726

  9. Lennard-Jones fluid-fluid interfaces under shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galliero, Guillaume

    2010-05-01

    Using nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations on simple Lennard-Jones binary mixtures, we have studied the behavior of planar fluid-fluid interfaces undergoing shear flow. When the miscibility is low enough, a slip together with a partial depletion have been noticed at the interface between the two fluid phases. The slip length can reach a value equal to some molecular diameters and the corresponding interfacial viscosity can be two times smaller than the value in the bulk. It is shown how the omission of this slip may lead to flow-rate misevaluation when dealing with a multiphase flow in a nanoporous medium even for non polymer fluids. In addition, using the simulation results, a simple relation between interfacial tension and interfacial viscosity is proposed for the monoatomic systems studied in this work. Finally, it is shown that the interfacial viscosity cannot be fully accounted for by estimating the local viscosity deduced from the local thermodynamic properties of the interface.

  10. Amniotic fluid index: correlation with amniotic fluid volume.

    PubMed

    Hoskins, I A; McGovern, P G; Ordorica, S A; Frieden, F J; Young, B K

    1992-01-01

    We calculated the amniotic fluid indexes (AFIs) of 310 women on 459 occasions. Normative data were analyzed and compared with data in several high-risk groups. In the normal gestations there was a progressive increase in AFI with advancing gestation until 32 weeks, after which there was a decline. The mean AFIs in abnormal gestations varied with the clinical diagnoses. These values were compared to those obtained by assessing amniotic fluid volume (AFV), that is a pocket more than 2 cm. There were 51 patients with abnormal AFVs. Forty-two had decreased fluid, six also had decreased AFIs; nine had increased AFVs and five (all with diabetes) also had increased AFIs. Thus, AFIs in normal pregnancies showed an orderly pattern of change with gestational age, and there was no accurate correlation between AFI and AFV. Thus, using AFV alone may lead to false interpretations of amniotic fluid status. PMID:1418123

  11. Propping agent for fracturing fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, W.D.

    1983-11-29

    Hydrocarbons are recovered from a subterranean hydrocarbon-bearing formation penetrated by an injection well and a production well by displacing hydrocarbons toward the production well using a drive fluid such as water thickened with polyacrylamide or partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide or the sodium, potassium or ammonium salt thereof and a minor amount of polyacrylamide or partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide or the sodium, potassium or ammonium salt thereof alkoxylated with an alkylene oxide. Optionally, the drive fluid can be saturated with carbon dioxide and/or natural gas at the injection pressure. An aqueous fracturing fluid containing a small amount of alkoxylated polyacrylamide or partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide is also described.

  12. Spinning fluids in general relativity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, J. R.; Smalley, L. L.

    1982-01-01

    General relativity field equations are employed to examine a continuous medium with internal spin. A variational principle formerly applied in the special relativity case is extended to the general relativity case, using a tetrad to express the spin density and the four-velocity of the fluid. An energy-momentum tensor is subsequently defined for a spinning fluid. The equations of motion of the fluid are suggested to be useful in analytical studies of galaxies, for anisotropic Bianchi universes, and for turbulent eddies.

  13. Finite element computational fluid mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, A. J.

    1983-01-01

    Finite element analysis as applied to the broad spectrum of computational fluid mechanics is analyzed. The finite element solution methodology is derived, developed, and applied directly to the differential equation systems governing classes of problems in fluid mechanics. The heat conduction equation is used to reveal the essence and elegance of finite element theory, including higher order accuracy and convergence. The algorithm is extended to the pervasive nonlinearity of the Navier-Stokes equations. A specific fluid mechanics problem class is analyzed with an even mix of theory and applications, including turbulence closure and the solution of turbulent flows.

  14. Automated Fluid Interface System (AFIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Automated remote fluid servicing will be necessary for future space missions, as future satellites will be designed for on-orbit consumable replenishment. In order to develop an on-orbit remote servicing capability, a standard interface between a tanker and the receiving satellite is needed. The objective of the Automated Fluid Interface System (AFIS) program is to design, fabricate, and functionally demonstrate compliance with all design requirements for an automated fluid interface system. A description and documentation of the Fairchild AFIS design is provided.

  15. Detection of Aspergillus flavus and A. fumigatus in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Specimens of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplants and Hematological Malignancies Patients by Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Nested PCR and Mycological Assays

    PubMed Central

    Zarrinfar, Hossein; Mirhendi, Hossein; Fata, Abdolmajid; Khodadadi, Hossein; Kordbacheh, Parivash

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pulmonary aspergillosis (PA) is one of the most serious complications in immunocompromised patients, in particular among hematopoietic stem cell transplants (HSCT) and patients with hematological malignancies. Objectives: The current study aimed to evaluate the incidence of PA and utility of molecular methods in HSCT and patients with hematological malignancies, four methods including direct examination, culture, nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR were performed on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens in Tehran, Iran. Patients and Methods: During 16 months, 46 BAL specimens were obtained from individuals with allogeneic HSCT (n = 18) and patients with hematological malignancies (n = 28). Direct wet mounts with 20% potassium hydroxide (KOH) and culture on mycological media were performed. The molecular detection of Aspergillus fumigatus and A. flavus was done by amplifying the conserved sequences of internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) ribosomal DNA by nested-PCR and the β-tubulin gene by TaqMan real-time PCR. Results: Seven (15.2%) out of 46 specimens were positive in direct examination and showed branched septate hyphae; 11 (23.9%) had positive culture including eight (72.7%) A. flavus and three (27.3%) A. fumigatus; 22 (47.8%) had positive nested-PCR and eight (17.4%) had positive real-time PCR. The incidence of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in these patients included proven IPA in 1 (2.2%), probable IPA in 10 (21.7%), possible IPA in 19 (41.3%) and not IPA in 16 cases (34.8%). Conclusions: The incidence of IPA in allogeneic HSCT and patients with hematological malignancies was relatively high and A. flavus was the most common cause of PA. As molecular methods had higher sensitivity, it may be useful as screening methods in HSCT and patients with hematological malignancies, or to determine when empirical antifungal therapy can be withheld. PMID:25763133

  16. Extension of Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program's Fluid Property Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, Kishan

    2011-01-01

    This internship focused on the development of additional capabilities for the General Fluid Systems Simulation Program (GFSSP). GFSSP is a thermo-fluid code used to evaluate system performance by a finite volume-based network analysis method. The program was developed primarily to analyze the complex internal flow of propulsion systems and is capable of solving many problems related to thermodynamics and fluid mechanics. GFSSP is integrated with thermodynamic programs that provide fluid properties for sub-cooled, superheated, and saturation states. For fluids that are not included in the thermodynamic property program, look-up property tables can be provided. The look-up property tables of the current release version can only handle sub-cooled and superheated states. The primary purpose of the internship was to extend the look-up tables to handle saturated states. This involves a) generation of a property table using REFPROP, a thermodynamic property program that is widely used, and b) modifications of the Fortran source code to read in an additional property table containing saturation data for both saturated liquid and saturated vapor states. Also, a method was implemented to calculate the thermodynamic properties of user-fluids within the saturation region, given values of pressure and enthalpy. These additions required new code to be written, and older code had to be adjusted to accommodate the new capabilities. Ultimately, the changes will lead to the incorporation of this new capability in future versions of GFSSP. This paper describes the development and validation of the new capability.

  17. Standardization of Thermo-Fluid Modeling in Modelica.Fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Franke, Rudiger; Casella, Francesco; Sielemann, Michael; Proelss, Katrin; Otter, Martin; Wetter, Michael

    2009-09-01

    This article discusses the Modelica.Fluid library that has been included in the Modelica Standard Library 3.1. Modelica.Fluid provides interfaces and basic components for the device-oriented modeling of onedimensional thermo-fluid flow in networks containing vessels, pipes, fluid machines, valves and fittings. A unique feature of Modelica.Fluid is that the component equations and the media models as well as pressure loss and heat transfer correlations are decoupled from each other. All components are implemented such that they can be used for media from the Modelica.Media library. This means that an incompressible or compressible medium, a single or a multiple substance medium with one or more phases might be used with one and the same model as long as the modeling assumptions made hold. Furthermore, trace substances are supported. Modeling assumptions can be configured globally in an outer System object. This covers in particular the initialization, uni- or bi-directional flow, and dynamic or steady-state formulation of mass, energy, and momentum balance. All assumptions can be locally refined for every component. While Modelica.Fluid contains a reasonable set of component models, the goal of the library is not to provide a comprehensive set of models, but rather to provide interfaces and best practices for the treatment of issues such as connector design and implementation of energy, mass and momentum balances. Applications from various domains are presented.

  18. Stellar Astrophysical Fluid Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Michael J.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jørgen

    2003-05-01

    Preface; 1. A selective overview Jørgen Christensen-Dalsgaard and Michael J. Thompson; Part I. Stellar Convection and Oscillations: 2. On the diversity of stellar pulsations Wojciech A. Dziembowski; 3. Acoustic radiation and mode excitation by turbulent convection Günter Houdek; 4. Understanding roAp stars Margarida S. Cunha; 5. Waves in the magnetised solar atmosphere Colin S. Rosenthal; Part II. Stellar Rotation and Magnetic Fields: 6. Stellar rotation: a historical survey Leon Mestel; 7. The oscillations of rapidly rotating stars Michel Rieutord; 8. Solar tachocline dynamics: eddy viscosity, anti-friction, or something in between? Michael E. McIntyre; 9. Dynamics of the solar tachocline Pascale Garaud; 10. Dynamo processes: the interaction of turbulence and magnetic fields Michael Proctor; 11. Dynamos in planets Chris Jones; Part III. Physics and Structure of Stellar Interiors: 12. Solar constraints on the equation of state Werner Däppen; 13. 3He transport and the solar neutrino problem Chris Jordinson; 14. Mixing in stellar radiation zones Jean-Paul Zahn; 15. Element settling and rotation-induced mixing in slowly rotating stars Sylvie Vauclair; Part IV. Helio- and Asteroseismology: 16. Solar structure and the neutrino problem Hiromoto Shibahashi; 17. Helioseismic data analysis Jesper Schou; 18. Seismology of solar rotation Takashi Sekii; 19. Telechronohelioseismology Alexander Kosovichev; Part V. Large-Scale Numerical Experiments: 20. Bridges between helioseismology and models of convection zone dynamics Juri Toomre; 21. Numerical simulations of the solar convection zone Julian R. Elliott; 22. Modelling solar and stellar magnetoconvection Nigel Weiss; 23. Nonlinear magnetoconvection in the presence of a strong oblique field Keith Julien, Edgar Knobloch and Steven M. Tobias; 24. Simulations of astrophysical fluids Marcus Brüggen; Part VI. Dynamics: 25. A magic electromagnetic field Donald Lynden-Bell; 26. Continuum equations for stellar dynamics Edward A

  19. Stellar Astrophysical Fluid Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Michael J.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jørgen

    2008-02-01

    Preface; 1. A selective overview Jørgen Christensen-Dalsgaard and Michael J. Thompson; Part I. Stellar Convection and Oscillations: 2. On the diversity of stellar pulsations Wojciech A. Dziembowski; 3. Acoustic radiation and mode excitation by turbulent convection Günter Houdek; 4. Understanding roAp stars Margarida S. Cunha; 5. Waves in the magnetised solar atmosphere Colin S. Rosenthal; Part II. Stellar Rotation and Magnetic Fields: 6. Stellar rotation: a historical survey Leon Mestel; 7. The oscillations of rapidly rotating stars Michel Rieutord; 8. Solar tachocline dynamics: eddy viscosity, anti-friction, or something in between? Michael E. McIntyre; 9. Dynamics of the solar tachocline Pascale Garaud; 10. Dynamo processes: the interaction of turbulence and magnetic fields Michael Proctor; 11. Dynamos in planets Chris Jones; Part III. Physics and Structure of Stellar Interiors: 12. Solar constraints on the equation of state Werner Däppen; 13. 3He transport and the solar neutrino problem Chris Jordinson; 14. Mixing in stellar radiation zones Jean-Paul Zahn; 15. Element settling and rotation-induced mixing in slowly rotating stars Sylvie Vauclair; Part IV. Helio- and Asteroseismology: 16. Solar structure and the neutrino problem Hiromoto Shibahashi; 17. Helioseismic data analysis Jesper Schou; 18. Seismology of solar rotation Takashi Sekii; 19. Telechronohelioseismology Alexander Kosovichev; Part V. Large-Scale Numerical Experiments: 20. Bridges between helioseismology and models of convection zone dynamics Juri Toomre; 21. Numerical simulations of the solar convection zone Julian R. Elliott; 22. Modelling solar and stellar magnetoconvection Nigel Weiss; 23. Nonlinear magnetoconvection in the presence of a strong oblique field Keith Julien, Edgar Knobloch and Steven M. Tobias; 24. Simulations of astrophysical fluids Marcus Brüggen; Part VI. Dynamics: 25. A magic electromagnetic field Donald Lynden-Bell; 26. Continuum equations for stellar dynamics Edward A

  20. Fluid Dynamics with Free Surfaces

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1992-02-01

    RIPPLE is a two-dimensional, transient, free surface incompressible fluid dynamics program. It allows multiple free surfaces with surface tension and wall adhesion forces and has a partial cell treatment which allows curved boundaries and interior obstacles.

  1. Helices of fractionalized Maxwell fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamil, Muhammad; Abro, Kashif Ali; Khan, Najeeb Alam

    2015-12-01

    In this paper the helical flows of fractionalized Maxwell fluid model, through a circular cylinder, is studied. The motion is produced by the cylinder that at the initial moment begins to rotate around its axis with an angular velocity Omegatp, and to slide along the same axis with linear velocity Utp. The solutions that have been obtained using Laplace and finite Hankel transforms and presented in series form in terms of the newly defined special function M(z), satisfy all imposed initial and boundary conditions. Moreover, the corresponding solutions for ordinary Maxwell and Newtonian fluid obtained as special cases of the present general solution. Finally, the influence of various pertinent parameters on fluid motion as well as the comparison among different fluids models is analyzed by graphical illustrations.

  2. The Variety of Fluid Dynamics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Francis; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Discusses three research topics which are concerned with eminently practical problems and deal at the same time with fundamental fluid dynamical problems. These research topics come from the general areas of chemical and biological engineering, geophysics, and pure mathematics. (HM)

  3. Fluid management systems technology summaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stark, J. A.; Blatt, M. H.; Bennett, F. O., Jr.; Campbell, B. J.

    1974-01-01

    A summarization and categorization of the pertinent literature associated with fluid management systems technology having potential application to in-orbit fluid transfer and/or associated storage are presented. A literature search was conducted to obtain pertinent documents for review. Reports determined to be of primary significance were summarized in the following manner: (1) report identification, (2) objective(s) of the work, (3) description of pertinent work performed, (4) major results, and (5) comments of the reviewer. Pertinent figures are presented on a single facing page separate from the text. Specific areas covered are: fluid line dynamics and thermodynamics, low-g mass gauging, other instrumentation, stratification/pressurization, low-g vent systems, fluid mixing refrigeration and reliquefaction, and low-g interface control and liquid acquisition systems. Reports which were reviewed and not summarized, along with reasons for not summarizing, are also listed.

  4. Electrokinetic effects and fluid permeability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    G. Berryman, James

    2003-10-01

    Fluid permeability of porous media depends mainly on connectivity of the pore space and two physical parameters: porosity and a pertinent length-scale parameter. Electrical imaging methods typically establish connectivity and directly measure electrical conductivity, which can then often be related to porosity by Archie's law. When electrical phase measurements are made in addition to the amplitude measurements, information about the pertinent length scale can then be obtained. Since fluid permeability controls the ability to flush unwanted fluid contaminants from the subsurface, inexpensive maps of permeability could improve planning strategies for remediation efforts. Detailed knowledge of fluid permeability is also important for oil field exploitation, where knowledge of permeability distribution in three dimensions is a common requirement for petroleum reservoir simulation and analysis, as well as for estimates on the economics of recovery.

  5. Improved perfluoroalkyl ether fluid development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, William R., Jr.; Paciorek, Kazimiera J. L.; Nakahara, James H.; Smythe, Mark E.; Kratzer, Reinhold H.

    1987-01-01

    The feasibility of transforming a commercial linear perfluoroalkylether fluid into a material stable in the presence of metals and metal alloys in oxidizing atmospheres at 300 C without the loss of the desirable viscosity temperature characteristics was determined. The approach consisted of thermal oxidative treatment in the presence of catalyst to remove weak links, followed by transformation of the created functional groups into phospha-s-triazine linkages. It is found that the experimental material obtained in 66 percent yield from the commercial fluid exhibits, over an 8 hr period at 300 C in the presence of Ti(4Al, 4Mn) alloy, thermal oxidative stability better by a factor of 2.6 x 1000 based on volatiles evolved than the commercial product. The viscosity and molecular weight of the developed fluid are unchanged and are essentially identical with the commercial material. No metal corrosion occurs with the experimental fluid at 300 C.

  6. Fluid Mechanics Can Be Fun.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanks, Robert F.

    1979-01-01

    A humanistic approach to teaching fluid mechanics is described which minimizes lecturing, increases professor-student interaction, uses group and individual problem solving sessions, and allows for student response. (BB)

  7. FLUID TRANSPORT THROUGH POROUS MEDIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fluid transport through porous media is a relevant topic to many scientific and engineering fields. Soil scientists, civil engineers, hydrologists and hydrogeologists are concerned with the transport of water, gases and nonaqueous phase liquid contaminants through porous earth m...

  8. PREFACE: XXI Fluid Mechanics Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szmyd, Janusz S.; Fornalik-Wajs, Elzbieta; Jaszczur, Marek

    2014-08-01

    This Conference Volume contains the papers presented at the 21st Fluid Mechanics Conference (XXI FMC) held at AGH - University of Science and Technology in Krakow, Poland, 15-18 June 2014, and accepted for Proceedings published in the Journal of Physics: Conference Series. The Fluid Mechanics Conferences have been taking place every two years since 1974, a total of forty years. The 21st Fluid Mechanics Conference (XXI FMC) is being organized under the auspices of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Committee of Mechanics. The goal of this conference is to provide a forum for the exposure and exchange of ideas, methods and results in fluid mechanics. Conference topics include, but are not limited to Aerodynamics, Atmospheric Science, Bio-Fluids, Combustion and Reacting Flows, Computational Fluid Dynamics, Experimental Fluid Mechanics, Flow Machinery, General Fluid Dynamics, Hydromechanics, Heat and Fluid Flow, Measurement Techniques, Micro- and Nano- Flow, Multi-Phase Flow, Non-Newtonian Fluids, Rotating and Stratified Flows, Turbulence. Within the general subjects of this conference, the Professor Janusz W. Elsner Competition for the best fluid mechanics paper presented during the Conference is organized. Authors holding a M.Sc. or a Ph.D. degree and who are not older than 35 years of age may enter the Competition. Authors with a Ph.D. degree must present individual papers; authors with a M.Sc. degree may present papers with their supervisor as coauthor, including original results of experimental, numerical or analytic research. Six state-of-the-art keynote papers were delivered by world leading experts. All contributed papers were peer reviewed. Recommendations were received from the International Scientific Committee, reviewers and the advisory board. Accordingly, of the 163 eligible extended abstracts submitted, after a review process by the International Scientific Committee, 137 papers were selected for presentation at the 21st Fluid Mechanics Conference, 68

  9. Variable flexure-based fluid filter

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Steve B.; Colston, Jr., Billy W.; Marshall, Graham; Wolcott, Duane

    2007-03-13

    An apparatus and method for filtering particles from a fluid comprises a fluid inlet, a fluid outlet, a variable size passage between the fluid inlet and the fluid outlet, and means for adjusting the size of the variable size passage for filtering the particles from the fluid. An inlet fluid flow stream is introduced to a fixture with a variable size passage. The size of the variable size passage is set so that the fluid passes through the variable size passage but the particles do not pass through the variable size passage.

  10. Ideal and incompressible fluid dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oneill, M. E.; Chorlton, F.

    An introductory treatment of fluid mechanics theory, emphasizing mathematical methods and techniques, is given. Basic mathematical techniques of flow analysis are outlined in connection with viscous and inviscid flows, compressible and incompressible flows, and ideal flows. Among the specific flow problems addressed are: the kinematics of fluids in motion; equations of motion in boundary layer flows; and the stream functions for two-dimensional flows. Methods for analyzing wave motion in rectangular and cylindrical tanks are also described.

  11. Hamiltonian analysis of interacting fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Rabin; Ghosh, Subir; Mitra, Arpan Krishna

    2015-05-01

    Ideal fluid dynamics is studied as a relativistic field theory with particular stress on its hamiltonian structure. The Schwinger condition, whose integrated version yields the stress tensor conservation, is explicitly verified both in equal-time and light-cone coordinate systems. We also consider the hamiltonian formulation of fluids interacting with an external gauge field. The complementary roles of the canonical (Noether) stress tensor and the symmetric one obtained by metric variation are discussed.

  12. Apparatus for Pumping a Fluid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boeyen, Robert Van; Reeh, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    A fluid pump has been developed for mechanically pumped fluid loops for spacecraft thermal control. Lynntech's technology utilizes a proprietary electrochemically driven pumping mechanism. Conventional rotodynamic and displacement pumps typically do not meet the stringent power and operational reliability requirements of space applications. Lynntech's developmental pump is a highly efficient solid-state pump with essentially no rotating or moving components (apart from metal bellows).

  13. Fracturing fluid characterization facility (FFCF)

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, R.D.; Roegiers, J.C.; Fagan, J.

    1993-12-31

    The Fracturing Fluid Characterization Facility project has as its main focus the design, fabrication, and construction of a high pressure simulator (HPS) and a low pressure simulator (LPS) to be used to experimentally investigate the rheological properties and transport characteristics of proppant laden fracturing fluids. A discussion of each apparatus is provided as well as the auxiliary equipment, and data acquisition and control systems associated with the simulators.

  14. Size-Dependent Fluid Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadjesfandiari, Ali; Hajesfandiari, Arezoo; Dargush, Gary

    2013-11-01

    Classical fluid mechanics provides a reasonable basis for analyzing the behavior of fluid flow at the macro scale. However, experiments show that the behavior of fluid in small scales is different from their behavior at macro scales. An additional concern relates to the absence of a length scale in the governing Navier-Stokes equations, when the present description of turbulence seems to need the clear definition of a characteristic size. Consequently, there is need for a more complete fluid dynamics, which spans many scales and, of course, must reduce to classical fluid mechanics for flows with macro-scale size. Here we develop the consistent size-dependent fluid mechanics by discovering the skew-symmetric character of couple stress tensor. As a result, the skew-symmetric mean curvature rate vector as the consistent measure of deformation is introduced. It is demonstrated that this theory may provide a basis for fundamental studies of flows at the finest scales for which a continuum representation is valid and, perhaps, for gaining additional insight into the problem of turbulence.

  15. A Kinetic-fluid Model

    SciTech Connect

    First Author = C.Z. Cheng; Jay R. Johnson

    1998-07-10

    A nonlinear kinetic-fluid model for high-beta plasmas with multiple ion species which can be applied to multiscale phenomena is presented. The model embeds important kinetic effects due to finite ion Larmor radius (FLR), wave-particle resonances, magnetic particle trapping, etc. in the framework of simple fluid descriptions. When further restricting to low frequency phenomena with frequencies less than the ion cyclotron frequency the kinetic-fluid model takes a simpler form in which the fluid equations of multiple ion species collapse into single-fluid density and momentum equations and a low frequency generalized Ohm's law. The kinetic effects are introduced via plasma pressure tensors for ions and electrons which are computed from particle distribution functions that are governed by the Vlasov equation or simplified plasma dynamics equations such as the gyrokinetic equation. The ion FLR effects provide a finite parallel electric field, a perpendicular velocity that modifies the ExB drift, and a gyroviscosity tensor, all of which are neglected in the usual one-fluid MHD description. Eigenmode equations are derived which include magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling effects for low frequency waves (e.g., kinetic/inertial Alfven waves and ballooning-mirror instabilities).

  16. Insertable fluid flow passage bridgepiece and method

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Daniel O.

    2000-01-01

    A fluid flow passage bridgepiece for insertion into an open-face fluid flow channel of a fluid flow plate is provided. The bridgepiece provides a sealed passage from a columnar fluid flow manifold to the flow channel, thereby preventing undesirable leakage into and out of the columnar fluid flow manifold. When deployed in the various fluid flow plates that are used in a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell, bridgepieces of this invention prevent mixing of reactant gases, leakage of coolant or humidification water, and occlusion of the fluid flow channel by gasket material. The invention also provides a fluid flow plate assembly including an insertable bridgepiece, a fluid flow plate adapted for use with an insertable bridgepiece, and a method of manufacturing a fluid flow plate with an insertable fluid flow passage bridgepiece.

  17. Combustion, Complex Fluids, and Fluid Physics Experiments on the ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motil, Brian; Urban, David

    2012-01-01

    From the very early days of human spaceflight, NASA has been conducting experiments in space to understand the effect of weightlessness on physical and chemically reacting systems. NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio has been at the forefront of this research looking at both fundamental studies in microgravity as well as experiments targeted at reducing the risks to long duration human missions to the moon, Mars, and beyond. In the current International Space Station (ISS) era, we now have an orbiting laboratory that provides the highly desired condition of long-duration microgravity. This allows continuous and interactive research similar to Earth-based laboratories. Because of these capabilities, the ISS is an indispensible laboratory for low gravity research. NASA GRC has been actively involved in developing and operating facilities and experiments on the ISS since the beginning of a permanent human presence on November 2, 2000. As the lead Center for combustion, complex fluids, and fluid physics; GRC has led the successful implementation of the Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR) and the Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR) as well as the continued use of other facilities on the ISS. These facilities have supported combustion experiments in fundamental droplet combustion; fire detection; fire extinguishment; soot phenomena; flame liftoff and stability; and material flammability. The fluids experiments have studied capillary flow; magneto-rheological fluids; colloidal systems; extensional rheology; pool and nucleate boiling phenomena. In this paper, we provide an overview of the experiments conducted on the ISS over the past 12 years.

  18. Thrust wedges and fluid overpressures: Sandbox models involving pore fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mourgues, R.; Cobbold, P. R.

    2006-05-01

    The well-known model for the critical taper of an accretionary wedge includes overpressure as a first-order parameter. Fluid overpressures reduce frictional resistance at the base of a wedge but they also act as body forces on all material particles of the wedge, in addition to that of gravity. By means of sandbox modeling, many workers have tried to verify the predictions of the critical taper model, but few of them have so far incorporated true fluid pressures. We have used scaled experiments, in which compressed air flows through sand packs, so as to model the deformation of overpressured wedges. A new apparatus provides for a horizontally varying fluid pressure, for example, a linear variation, as in the critical taper model. We have done three series of experiments, involving horizontal shortening of homogeneous or multilayered sand models for various gradients of fluid pressure. As predicted by the critical taper model, the apical angle of the resulting wedge depends on the overpressure gradient. In homogeneous sand at a high overpressure gradient, deformation becomes diffuse and looks ductile. In multilayered models, detachments form beneath layers of low permeability, so that thrusts propagate rapidly toward the undeformed foreland. The efficiency of a detachment and its ability to propagate depend not only on the fluid pressure but also on the permeability ratios between the various layers.

  19. Magnetic susceptibility of petroleum fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivakhnenko, O. P.; Potter, D. K.

    2003-04-01

    Technological progress in petroleum exploration, production and processing requires a profound knowledge of the magnetic properties of the petroleum fluids. However, as far as we know there are not widely available constants of magnetic susceptibility for the majority of petroleum fluids. We have therefore measured the mass magnetic susceptibility (χ_m) of several petroleum fluids (such as crude oils, refined oil fractions, and formation waters) from local and worldwide sites. The magnetic features of natural reservoir petroleum fluids, together with fluids connected with the petroleum industry (such as drilling fluids etc.), fall into the following categories: diamagnetic solutions, paramagnetic suspensions and ferromagnetic "ferrofluid" suspensions. In the current investigations we have concentrated on the natural reservoir fluids, which are generally diamagnetic. There were distinct differences between the χ_m of the crude oils and the formation waters, with the oils having generally a more negative value of χ_m. The magnetic susceptibility of the oils appears to be related to their main physical and chemical properties, such as density, composition of group hydrocarbons, sulphur content and concentration of organometallic compounds. Low acidity and low sulphur oils have more negative values of χ_m. Light fractions of crude oil consisting mainly of paraffinic and naphtenic hydrocarbons are the most diamagnetic. The content of the less diamagnetic aromatics increases in the kerosene and gas oil fractions, and results in an increase in the magnetic susceptibility. Also, the magnetic susceptibility of the heavy oil fraction has a significantly higher χ_m than the light fractions, which appears to be connected with a higher concentration of paramagnetic components in the heavy fraction. The χ_m of the oil from various oil provinces were compared and found to be different. It seems that values of χ_m reflect specific features of the geological conditions for

  20. Parotid fluid cortisol and cortisone

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Fred H.; Shannon, Ira L.

    1969-01-01

    Parotid fluid corticosteroids, substantially comprised of cortisol and cortisone, were previously demonstrated to rise to far greater levels 4 hr after administration of ACTH than they did in the third trimester of pregnancy, although the plasma total corticosteroid concentrations were similar in these two states. It was therefore suggested that only nonproteinbound corticosteroid gains access to parotid fluid. In the present study parotid fluid cortisol and cortisone and plasma dialyzable cortisol concentrations have been measured in normal men before and 2 hr after 40 U ACTH, and, in another group, before and after 10 days of diethystilbestrol (5 mg daily). Total plasma cortisol rose from a mean of 6.3 to 17.9 μg/100 ml after ACTH and from 14.6 to 39.4 mg/100 ml after the estrogen. However parotid fluid cortisol plus cortisone rose from 0.8 to 2.6 μg/100 ml after ACTH and to only 2.2 after estrogen. This rise resembled that of the plasma dialyzable cortisol (control 0.4, ACTH 1.8, estrogen 1.2 μg/100 ml) rather than the increase in total plasma cortisol which was over twice as high after estrogen as after ACTH. Thus parotid fluid corticosteroids seem to be a good measure of nonprotein-bound corticosteroid, the cortisol available to the cell. The total amount of cortisol plus cortisone excreted is approximately constant, independent of parotid fluid flow rate. Cortisone exceeds cortisol in parotid fluid in the basal state, but after ACTH the situation is reversed. PMID:4305375