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1

Supported liquid membrane electrochemical separators  

DOEpatents

Supported liquid membrane separators improve the flexibility, efficiency and service life of electrochemical cells for a variety of applications. In the field of electrochemical storage, an alkaline secondary battery with improved service life is described in which a supported liquid membrane is interposed between the positive and negative electrodes. The supported liquid membranes of this invention can be used in energy production and storage systems, electrosynthesis systems, and in systems for the electrowinning and electrorefining of metals.

Pemsler, J. Paul (Lexington, MA); Dempsey, Michael D. (Revere, MA)

1986-01-01

2

A comparative study of some BTP and BTBP class ligands  

SciTech Connect

Partitioning and transmutation (P and T) of the long lived nuclides in spent nuclear fuel into short-lived ones is an important step in decreasing the radiotoxicity, volume, and time necessary for storage in a repository. A proper separation of the metals used in the transmutation process is necessary and solvent extraction with different ligands is one of the possibilities. This separation has been extensively tested in Europe using the BTP and BTBP class ligands. In this paper a comparative study of the extraction capabilities of CyMe{sub 4}-BTP and CyMe{sub 4}-BTBP as function of different diluents and kinetics has been made. (authors)

Retegan, T.; Fermvik, A.; Skarnemark, G. [Nuclear Chemistry, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, 412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Ekberg, C. [Industrial Materials Recycling, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, 412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Foreman, M.R. St J. [Nuclear Chemistry, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, 412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Industrial Materials Recycling, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, 412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden)

2008-07-01

3

Separation of metals by supported liquid membrane  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a process of separating a preselected chemical species selected from the group consisting of aluminum, arsenic, antimony, bismuth, cadmium, chromium, copper, cobalt, gallium, gold, hafnium, indium, iridium, iron, lead, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, neodymium, nickel, niobium, osmium, palladium, platinum, rhenium, rhodium, ruthenium, selenium, silver, tantalum, tellurium, thallium, thorium, tin, tungsten, uranium, vanadium, zinc, or zirconium from a feedstream. It comprises providing a supported liquid membrane having both a first and a second side, the membrane comprised of microporous polybenzimidazole, the polybenzimidazole containing within the polybenzimidazole pores an extractant mixture selective for the preselected chemical species; contacting a feedstream containing the preselected chemical species with the first side of the supported liquid membrane in a feed compartment adjacent to the supported liquid membrane for a time sufficient to extract at least a portion of the preselected chemical species from the feedstream into the extractant mixture; and, contacting a stripping solution with the second side of the supported liquid membrane in a stripping compartment adjacent to the supported liquid membrane, for a time sufficient to extract at least a portion of the preselected chemical species from the extractant mixture into the stripping solution.

Takigawa, D.Y.

1992-05-19

4

Rare Earth Recovery by Supported Liquid Membrane.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A supported liquid membrane (SLM) process was studied for rare earth recovery from dilute solutions. The SLM technique proved to be suitable for recovering and concentrating rare earth from the solutions containing NaCl or (NH4)2SO4. The influences of var...

X. W. Yang, L. Liu, B. Gou

1994-01-01

5

Separations by supported liquid membrane cascades  

DOEpatents

The invention describes a new separation technique which leads to multi-stage operations by the use of a series (a cascade) of alternated carrier-containing supported-liquid membranes. The membranes contain alternatively a liquid cation exchanger extractant and a liquid anion exchanger extractant (or a neutral extractant) as carrier. The membranes are spaced between alternated aqueous electrolytic solutions of different composition which alternatively provide positively charged extractable species and negatively charged (or zero charged) extractable species, of the chemical species to be separated. The alternated aqueous electrolytic solutions in addition to providing the driving force to the process, simultaneously function as a stripping solution from one type of membrane and as an extraction-promoting solution for the other type of membrane. The aqueous electrolytic solutions and the supported liquid membranes are arranged in such a way to provide a continuous process which leads to the continuous enrichment of the species which show the highest permeability coefficients. By virtue of the very high number of stages which can be arranged, even chemical species having very similar chemical behavior (and consequently very similar permeability coefficients) can be completely separated. The invention also provide a way to concentrate the separated species.

Danesi, Pier R. (Clarendon Hills, IL) [Clarendon Hills, IL

1986-01-01

6

Feasibility of Surfactant-Free Supported Emulsion Liquid Membrane Extraction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Supported emulsion liquid membrane (SELM) is an effective means to conduct liquid-liquid extraction. SELM extraction is particularly attractive for separation tasks in the microgravity environment where density difference between the solvent and the inter...

S. Y. B. Hu J. Li J. M. Wiencek

2001-01-01

7

Radiolysis and Ageing of C2-BTP in Cinnamaldehyde/Hexanol Mixtures  

SciTech Connect

The separation of actinides from lanthanides is an important step in the alternative methods for nuclear waste treatment currently under development. Polycyclic molecules containing nitrogen are synthesised and used for solvent extraction. A potential problem in the separation process is the degradation of the molecule due to irradiation or ageing. An addition of nitrobenzene has proved to have an inhibitory effect on degradation when added to a system containing C2-BTP in hexanol before irradiation. In this study, 2,6-di(5,6-diethyl-1,2,4-triazine-3-yl)pyridine (C2-BTP) was dissolved in different mixtures of cinnamaldehyde and hexanol and the effects on extraction after ageing and irradiation were investigated. Similar to nitrobenzene, cinnamaldehyde contains an aromatic ring which generally has a relatively high resistance towards radiolysis. Both C2-BTP in cinnamaldehyde and C2-BTP in hexanol seem to degrade with time. The system with C2-BTP in pure hexanol is relatively stable up to 17 days but then starts slowly to degrade. The solution with pure cinnamaldehyde as diluent started to degrade after only {approx}20 hours. The opposite is true for degradation caused by radiolysis; hexanol systems are more sensitive to radiolysis than cinnamaldehyde systems. Most of the radiolytic degradation took place during the first days of irradiation, up to a dose of 4 kGy. (authors)

Fermvik, Anna; Ekberg, Christian; Retegan, Teodora; Skarnemark, Gunnar [Nuclear Chemistry, Chalmers University of Technology, Kemiv. 4, Gothenburg, SE-412 96 (Sweden)

2007-07-01

8

Actinide separations by supported liquid membranes  

SciTech Connect

The work has demonstrated that actinide removal from synthetic waste solutions using both flat-sheet and hollow-fiber SLM's is a feasible chemical process at the laboratory scale level. The process is characterized by the typical features of SLM's processes: very small quantities of extractant required; the potential for operations with high feed/strip volume ratios, resulting in a corresponding concentration factor of the actinides; and simplicity of operation. Major obstacles to the implementation of the SLM technology to the decontamination of liquid nuclear wastes are the probable low resistance of polypropylene supports to high radiation fields, which may prevent the application to high-level nuclear wastes; the unknown lifetime of the SLM; and the high Na content of the separated actinide solution.

Danesi, P.R.; Horwitz, E.P.; Rickert, P.; Chiarizia, R.

1984-01-01

9

A New Type of BTP\\/Zeolites Nanocomposites as Mixed-phase Fire Suppressant: Preparation, Characterization, and Extinguishing Mechanism Discussion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new type of nanocomposites consisting of solid 4A zeolites and gaseous fire extinguishing agent of 2-bromo-3,3,3-trifluoropropene (BTP) was fabricated in large scale, in which BTP anchored in the porous zeolites. Laboratory-scale fire extinguishment tests showed that the nanocomposites as additives can greatly improve the performance of conventional sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3) dry powder for relatively shorter extinguishing time and

Xiaomin Ni; Kaiqian Kuang; Xishi Wang; Guangxuah Liao

2010-01-01

10

Rejuvenation of Spent Media via Supported Emulsion Liquid Membranes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The overall goal of this project is to maximize the reuseability of spent fermentation media. Supported emulsion liquid membrane separation, a highly efficient extraction technique, is used to remove inhibitory byproducts during fermentation; thus, improv...

J. M. Wiencek

2002-01-01

11

An attempt for the stabilization of supported liquid membrane  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a part of the investigation on the treatment of low-level radioactive wastewater using supported liquid membranes, a method for stabilizing a supported liquid membrane (SLM) is proposed. Aqueous Ce(III) solutions containing sodium nitrate and nitric acid were used as the simulated low level radioactive wastewater. The SLM consisted of octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) as a carrier of Ce(III), tributyl phosphate

Masaaki Teramoto; Yasusi Sakaida; Sheng Sheng Fu; Noriaki Ohnishi; Hideto Matsuyama; Taisuke Maki; Toshiki Fukui; Kazihiro Arai

2000-01-01

12

Fabrication of fiber supported ionic liquids and methods of use  

DOEpatents

One or more embodiments relates to the production of a fabricated fiber having an asymmetric polymer network and having an immobilized liquid such as an ionic liquid within the pores of the polymer network. The process produces the fabricated fiber in a dry-wet spinning process using a homogenous dope solution, providing significant advantage over current fabrication methods for liquid-supporting polymers. The fabricated fibers may be effectively utilized for the separation of a chemical species from a mixture based on the selection of the polymer, the liquid, and the solvent utilized in the dope.

Luebke, David R; Wickramanayake, Shan

2013-02-26

13

Magnetic nanoparticles supported ionic liquids improve firefly luciferase properties.  

PubMed

Ionic liquids as neoteric solvents, microwave irradiation, and alternative energy source are becoming as a solvent for many enzymatic reactions. We recently showed that the incubation of firefly luciferase from Photinus pyralis with various ionic liquids increased the activity and stability of luciferase. Magnetic nanoparticles supported ionic liquids have been obtained by covalent bonding of ionic liquids-silane on magnetic silica nanoparticles. In the present study, the effects of [?-Fe2O3@SiO2][BMImCl] and [?-Fe2O3@SiO2][BMImI] were investigated on the structural properties and function of luciferase using circular dichroism, fluorescence spectroscopy, and bioluminescence assay. Enzyme activity and structural stability increased in the presence of magnetic nanoparticles supported ionic liquids. Furthermore, the effect of ingredients which were used was not considerable on K(m) value of luciferase for adenosine-5'-triphosphate and also K(m) value for luciferin. PMID:24492953

Noori, Ali Reza; Hosseinkhani, Saman; Ghiasi, Parisa; Akbari, Jafar; Heydari, Akbar

2014-03-01

14

The use of supported acidic ionic liquids in organic synthesis.  

PubMed

Catalysts obtained by the immobilisation of acidic ionic liquids (ILs) on solid supports offer several advantages compared to the use of catalytically active ILs themselves. Immobilisation may result in an increase in the number of accessible active sites of the catalyst and a reduction of the amount of the IL required. The ionic liquid films on the carrier surfaces provide a homogeneous environment for catalytic reactions but the catalyst appears macroscopically as a dry solid, so it can simply be separated from the reaction mixture. As another advantage, it can easily be applied in a continuous fixed bed reactor. In the present review the main synthetic strategies towards the preparation of supported Lewis acidic and Brønsted acidic ILs are summarised. The most important characterisation methods and structural features of the supported ionic liquids are presented. Their efficiency in catalytic reactions is discussed with special emphasis on their recyclability. PMID:24972271

Skoda-Földes, Rita

2014-01-01

15

Pertraction of lactic acid through supported liquid membranes containing phosphonium ionic liquid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pertraction of lactic acid (LA) through supported liquid membranes (SLM) was investigated in a spiral channel flat sheet module using a liquid membrane with ionic liquid tetradecyl(trihexyl)phosphonium bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)phosphinate (IL-104) which is an effective extractant of LA. The increase in IL-104 concentration in n-dodecane from 0.32 to 0.72kmolm?3 did not result in an increase of the overall mass-transfer coefficient of LA,

Ján Marták; Štefan Schlosser; Silvia Vl?ková

2008-01-01

16

Transport of salicylic acid through supported liquid membrane based on ionic liquids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transport of salicylic acid (SA) through flat-sheet supported liquid membrane (SLM) was investigated using as liquid membrane the ionic liquids 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C6mim][PF6]) or ethylammonium nitrate (EAN). Using [C6mim][PF6], it has been observed that the transport efficiency decreases with increasing pH, indicating that the un-dissociated form of SA is mainly extracted. On the other hand, the ionic dissociated form of

Noura kouki; Rafik Tayeb; Ramzi Zarrougui; Mahmoud Dhahbi

2010-01-01

17

A TRLFS study on the complexation of novel BTP type ligands with Cm(III).  

PubMed

Two BTP-type N-donor ligands with different numbers of aromatic nitrogen atoms (2,6-bis(4-ethyl-pyridazin-1-yl)pyridine, Et-BDP and 2,6-bis(4-(n)propyl-2,3,5,6-tetrazine-1-yl)pyridine, (n)Pr-Tetrazine) have been synthesized and characterized by NMR and MS techniques. The complexation with Cm(III) in 2-propanol-water (1?:?1, vol.) is studied for both ligands using time resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) and the complexation properties are compared to (n)Pr-BTP. With increasing the ligand concentration three different species, the 1?:?1-, 1?:?2- and 1?:?3-complex, were found. Log ?3 values of 7.6 for the formation of Cm(Et-BDP)3 and 9.2 for the formation of Cm((n)Pr-Tetrazine)3 are determined. The complexation with (n)Pr-Tetrazine shows slow kinetics. Thermodynamic data of the complexation reactions are determined in a temperature range of 25 °C-60 °C. The complexation with Et-BDP is exothermic (?H = -16.3 ± 1.2 kJ mol(-1)) and exergonic (?G = -43.8 ± 2.6 kJ mol(-1)) whereas the complexation with (n)Pr-Tetrazine is endothermic (?H = 43.9 ± 3.1 kJ mol(-1)) and exergonic (?G = -51.7 ± 2.2 kJ mol(-1)). In the case of the latter the complexation is driven by a highly positive reaction entropy change (?S = 320.6 ± 15.4 J mol(-1) K(-1)). In comparison to (n)Pr-BTP, less negative ?G values were found for the complexation of Cm(III) with both ligands. PMID:23552476

Beele, Björn B; Rüdiger, Elias; Schwörer, Felicitas; Müllich, Udo; Geist, Andreas; Panak, Petra J

2013-09-14

18

Internal mass transfer in hollow fiber supported liquid membranes  

SciTech Connect

The study of mass transfer in hollow fiber supported liquid membranes is justified by a large number of separation processes. The analysis starts from the definition of an overall permeability coefficient which is a lumped parameter of a particular system and process conditions which gathers both mass transfer and operation parameters. By applying the film theory the contribution of the interfacial mass-transfer coefficient due to the inner boundary layer and the contribution of the supported liquid membrane permeability coefficient can be separated and analyzed. The study yields overall permeability coefficients that can be compared with those expected from hollow fiber design equations suggested earlier. The second approach considers the continuity mass conservation equation and the associated boundary conditions for the solute in the inner fluid. The analysis by means of the fundamental equations separates the effects of the operation variables such as the hydrodynamic conditions and length and diameter of the fibers from the mass-transfer properties of the system, described by the wall Sherwood number. The scope of the present work is to compare both methods of describing a hollow fiber supported liquid membrane module, analyzing the influence of the internal mass transfer on the design of such systems. In the experimental system under consideration, the simultaneous separation-concentration of phenol from aqueous solutions with hollow fiber supported liquid membrane modules is performed. The influence of the flow rate of the inner aqueous phase on the phenol separation rate has been studied.

Urtiaga, A.M.; Irabien, J.A. (Univ. de Cantabria, Santander (Spain))

1993-03-01

19

Alkaline ionic liquids applied in supported ionic liquid catalyst for selective hydrogenation of citral to citronellal  

PubMed Central

The challenge in preparation of ionic liquids containing a strong alkaline anion is to identify a suitable cation which can tolerate the harsh conditions induced by the anion. In this study, a commercial quaternary ammonium compound (quat) benzalkonium [ADBA] (alkyldimethylbenzylammonium) was used as a cation in the synthesis of different alkaline ionic liquids. In fact, the precursor, benzalkonium chloride, is a mixture of alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chlorides of various alkyl chain lengths and is commonly used in the formulation of various antiseptic products. The prepared ionic liquids were utilized as Supported Ionic Liquid Catalysts (SILCAs). Typically, a SILCA contains metal nanoparticles, enzymes, or metal complexes in an ionic liquid layer which is immobilized on a solid carrier material such as an active carbon cloth (ACC). The catalysts were applied in the selective hydrogenation of citral to citronellal which is an important perfumery chemical. Interestingly, 70% molar yield toward citronellal was achieved over a catalyst containing the alkaline ionic liquid benzalkonium methoxide.

Salminen, Eero; Virtanen, Pasi; Mikkola, Jyri-Pekka

2014-01-01

20

Alkaline ionic liquids applied in supported ionic liquid catalyst for selective hydrogenation of citral to citronellal.  

PubMed

The challenge in preparation of ionic liquids containing a strong alkaline anion is to identify a suitable cation which can tolerate the harsh conditions induced by the anion. In this study, a commercial quaternary ammonium compound (quat) benzalkonium [ADBA] (alkyldimethylbenzylammonium) was used as a cation in the synthesis of different alkaline ionic liquids. In fact, the precursor, benzalkonium chloride, is a mixture of alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chlorides of various alkyl chain lengths and is commonly used in the formulation of various antiseptic products. The prepared ionic liquids were utilized as Supported Ionic Liquid Catalysts (SILCAs). Typically, a SILCA contains metal nanoparticles, enzymes, or metal complexes in an ionic liquid layer which is immobilized on a solid carrier material such as an active carbon cloth (ACC). The catalysts were applied in the selective hydrogenation of citral to citronellal which is an important perfumery chemical. Interestingly, 70% molar yield toward citronellal was achieved over a catalyst containing the alkaline ionic liquid benzalkonium methoxide. PMID:24790972

Salminen, Eero; Virtanen, Pasi; Mikkola, Jyri-Pekka

2014-01-01

21

Use of ionic liquids in a lipase-facilitated supported liquid membrane  

Microsoft Academic Search

A lipase-facilitated transport of 4-phenoxybutyric acid, 3-phenoxypropionic acid, 2-phenylpropionic acid, 2-phenoxybutyric acid, mandelic acid and 2-amino-2-phenylbutyric acid was carried out using a supported liquid membrane based on room temperature ionic liquids. There were marked differences in the permeate fluxes of various organic acids due to the substrate specificity of the lipases. The maximum permeate flux (44×10-2 mmol cm-2?×?h) was obtained using

Eijiro Miyako; Tatsuo Maruyama; Noriho Kamiya; Masahiro Goto

2003-01-01

22

Acid extraction by supported liquid membranes containing basic carriers  

SciTech Connect

The extraction of HNO/sub 3/ (nitric acid) from aqueous solutions by permeation through a number of supported liquid membranes containing basic carriers dissolved in diethylbenzene has been studied. The results have shown that the best permeations are obtained with long chain aliphatic amines (TLA, Primene JM-T) followed by TOPO (trioctylphosphine oxide) and then by other monofunctional and bifunctional organophosphorous basic carriers. The influence of an aliphatic diluent on the permeability of HNO/sub 3/ through a supported liquid membrane containing TLA as carrier was also investigated. In this case the permeability to HNO/sub 3/ decreases as a result of the lower diffusion coefficient of the acid-carrier complex in the more vicous aliphatic solvent. 4 figures.

Danesi, P.R.; Cianetti, C.; Horwitz, E.P.

1983-01-01

23

Feasibility of Surfactant-Free Supported Emulsion Liquid Membrane Extraction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Supported emulsion liquid membrane (SELM) is an effective means to conduct liquid-liquid extraction. SELM extraction is particularly attractive for separation tasks in the microgravity environment where density difference between the solvent and the internal phase of the emulsion is inconsequential and a stable dispersion can be maintained without surfactant. In this research, dispersed two-phase flow in SELM extraction is modeled using the Lagrangian method. The results show that SELM extraction process in the microgravity environment can be simulated on earth by matching the density of the solvent and the stripping phase. Feasibility of surfactant-free SELM (SFSELM) extraction is assessed by studying the coalescence behavior of the internal phase in the absence of the surfactant. Although the contacting area between the solvent and the internal phase in SFSELM extraction is significantly less than the area provided by regular emulsion due to drop coalescence, it is comparable to the area provided by a typical hollow-fiber membrane. Thus, the stripping process is highly unlikely to become the rate-limiting step in SFSELM extraction. SFSELM remains an effective way to achieve simultaneous extraction and stripping and is able to eliminate the equilibrium limitation in the typical solvent extraction processes. The SFSELM design is similar to the supported liquid membrane design in some aspects.

Hu, Shih-Yao B.; Li, Jin; Wiencek, John M.

2001-01-01

24

Extraction of glyphosate by a supported liquid membrane technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possible application of the supported liquid membrane (SLM) technique for the extraction of glyphosate is presented. For the extraction of this compound the SLM system has been applied with utilisation of Aliquat 336 as a cationic carrier incorporated into the membrane phase. The extraction efficiency of glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine] is dependent on the donor phase pH, carrier concentration in the

Pawe? D?ygiel; Piotr Wieczorek

2000-01-01

25

Cooling tower with concrete support structure, fiberglass panels, and a fan supported by the liquid distribution system  

SciTech Connect

A liquid cooling tower includes precast concrete support legs and cross beams and fiberglass reinforced polyester resin side and top panels. A liquid distribution system is supplied with liquid by a vertically extending main pipe, and a fan and fan motor are supported by the main pipe.

Bardo, C. J.; Clark Jr., J. L.; Dylewski, A. J.; Seawell, J. Q.

1985-09-24

26

Surface-functionalized ionic liquid crystal-supported ionic liquid phase materials: ionic liquid crystals in mesopores.  

PubMed

The influence of confinement on the ionic liquid crystal (ILC) [C(18)C(1)Im][OTf] is studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), polarized optical microscopy (POM), and diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS). The ILC studied is supported on Si-based powders and glasses with pore sizes ranging from 11 to 50 nm. The temperature of the solid-to-liquid-crystalline phase transition seems mostly unaffected by the confinement, whereas the temperature of the liquid-crystalline-to-liquid phase transition is depressed for smaller pore sizes. A contact layer with a thickness in the order of 2 nm is identified. The contact layer exhibits a phase transition at a temperature 30 K lower than the solid-to-liquid-crystalline phase transition observed for the neat ILC. For applications within the "supported ionic liquid phase (SILP)" concept, the experiments show that in pores of diameter 50 nm a pore filling of ?>0.4 is sufficient to reproduce the phase transitions of the neat ILC. PMID:22069236

Kohler, Florian T U; Morain, Bruno; Weiss, Alexander; Laurin, Mathias; Libuda, Jörg; Wagner, Valentin; Melcher, Berthold U; Wang, Xinjiao; Meyer, Karsten; Wasserscheid, Peter

2011-12-23

27

Polymer-supported ionic-liquid-like phases (SILLPs): transferring ionic liquid properties to polymeric matrices.  

PubMed

The physico-chemical properties of polymers with ionic-liquid-like moieties covalently bound to their surfaces (SILLPs) have been studied by thermal and spectroscopic techniques, as well as by direct impedance and dielectric measurements, and compared to those of the corresponding bulk ionic liquids. The effective transfer of properties from ionic liquids in solution to the supported species has thereby been demonstrated. The effects of the chemical nature of these tunable "solid solvents" on their macroscopic swelling and microwave heating, as well as the stabilities and activities of different catalytic moieties immobilized on the SILLPs, have been studied. Finally, the experimental effect observed in microwave heating can be directly correlated with the values of tan ? derived from dielectric measurements. PMID:21274940

Sans, Victor; Karbass, Naima; Burguete, M Isabel; Compañ, Vicente; García-Verdugo, Eduardo; Luis, Santiago V; Pawlak, Milena

2011-02-01

28

Enantioselective separations using chiral supported liquid crystalline membranes.  

PubMed

Porous and nonporous supported liquid crystalline membranes were produced by impregnating porous cellulose nitrate supports with cholesteric liquid crystal (LC) materials consisting of 4-cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl (5CB) mixed with a cholesterol-based dopant (cholesteryl oleyl carbonate [COC], cholesteryl nonanoate [CN], or cholesteryl chloride [CC]). The membranes exhibit selectivity for R-phenylglycine and R-1-phenylethanol because of increased interactions between the S enantiomers and the left-handed cholesteric phase. The selectivity of both phenylglycine and 1-phenylethanol in 5CB/CN membranes decreases with effective pore diameter while the permeabilities increase, as expected. Phenylglycine, which is insoluble in the LC phase, exhibits no transport in the nonporous (completely filled) membranes; however, 1-phenylethanol, which is soluble in the LC phase, exhibits transport but negligible enantioselectivity. The enantioselectivity for 1-phenylethanol was higher (1.20 in 5CB/COC and 5CB/CN membranes) and the permeability was lower in the cholesteric phase than in the isotropic phase. Enantioselectivity was also higher in the 5CB/COC cholesteric phase than in the nematic phase of undoped 5CB (1.03). Enantioselectivity in the cholesteric phase of 5CB doped with CC (1.1), a dopant lacking hydrogen bonding groups, was lower than in the 5CB/COC phases. Finally, enantioselectivity increases with the dopant concentration up to a plateau value at approximately 17 mol%. PMID:22581655

Han, Sangil; Rabie, Feras; Marand, Eva; Martin, Stephen M

2012-07-01

29

A functional link between store-operated and TRPC channels revealed by the 3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)pyrazole derivative, BTP2.  

PubMed

The coupling between receptor-mediated Ca2+ store release and the activation of "store-operated" Ca2+ entry channels is an important but so far poorly understood mechanism. The transient receptor potential (TRP) superfamily of channels contains several members that may serve the function of store-operated channels (SOCs). The 3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)pyrazole derivative, BTP2, is a recently described inhibitor of SOC activity in T-lymphocytes. We compared its action on SOC activation in a number of cell types and evaluated its modification of three specific TRP channels, canonical transient receptor potential 3 (TRPC3), TRPC5, and TRPV6, to throw light on any link between SOC and TRP channel function. Using HEK293 cells, DT40 B cells, and A7r5 smooth muscle cells, BTP2 blocked store-operated Ca2+ entry within 10 min with an IC50 of 0.1-0.3 microM. Store-operated Ca2+ entry induced by Ca2+ pump blockade or in response to muscarinic or B cell receptor activation was similarly sensitive to BTP2. Using the T3-65 clonal HEK293 cell line stably expressing TRPC3 channels, TRPC3-mediated Sr2+ entry activated by muscarinic receptors was also blocked by BTP2 with an IC50 of <0.3 microM. Importantly, direct activation of TRPC3 channels by diacylglycerol was also blocked by BTP2 (IC50 approximately 0.3 microM). BTP2 still blocked TRPC3 in medium with N-methyl-D-glucamine-chloride replacing Na+, indicating BTP2 did not block divalent cation entry by depolarization induced by activating monovalent cation entry channels. Whereas whole-cell carbachol-induced TRPC3 current was blocked by 3 microM BTP2, single TRPC3 channel recordings revealed persistent short openings suggesting BTP2 reduces the open probability of the channel rather than its pore properties. TRPC5 channels transiently expressed in HEK293 cells were blocked by BTP2 in the same range as TRPC3. However, function of the highly Ca(2+)-selective TRPV6 channel, with many channel properties akin to SOCs, was entirely unaffected by BTP2. The results indicate a strong functional link between the operation of expressed TRPC channels and endogenous SOC activity. PMID:15647288

He, Li-Ping; Hewavitharana, Thamara; Soboloff, Jonathan; Spassova, Maria A; Gill, Donald L

2005-03-25

30

FOURTH ORDER BTP SPDES ON R+ × Rd: BROWNIAN-TIME RANDOM WALK SDDES LIMITS SOLUTIONS AND DIMENSION-DEPENDENT REGULARITY FOR 1 ? d ? 3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discretizing space and leaving time continuous, we view our re- cently introduced fourth order space-time white noise driven BTP SPDE through the eyes of their associated SDDEs (stochastic differential-difference equations) on d-dimensional spatial lattices. BTP SPDEs are stochastic equations in which the fourth order PDE part is solved by running our recently introduced Brownian-time processes (BTPs). To extend our SDDEs

HASSAN ALLOUBA

31

Extraction of glyphosate by a supported liquid membrane technique.  

PubMed

The possible application of the supported liquid membrane (SLM) technique for the extraction of glyphosate is presented. For the extraction of this compound the SLM system has been applied with utilisation of Aliquat 336 as a cationic carrier incorporated into the membrane phase. The extraction efficiency of glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine] is dependent on the donor phase pH, carrier concentration in the organic phase and NaCl concentration in the acceptor phase. The optimal extraction conditions are: donor phase pH>11, acceptor phase of 2 M NaCl solution and the organic phase composed of 20% (w/w) Aliquot 336 solution in di-hexyl ether. Counter-coupled transport of chloride anions from the acceptor phase to the donor phase is a driving force of the mass transfer in this system. PMID:10985540

Dzygiel, P; Wieczorek, P

2000-08-11

32

Non-classical hydrogen bonds (C–H?X, X = Cl and N) induced 3D architecture: Trigonal bipyramidal ferric complex, [Fe(btp)Cl 3] n (btp = 2,6-bis( N1-1,2,4-triazolyl)pyridine)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The slow diffusion reaction of a solution of FeCl3·6H2O in acetone into a CH2Cl2 solution of btp [2,6-bis(N1-1,2,4-triazolyl)pyridine] afforded the ferric complex, [Fe(btp)Cl3]n (1), in which the iron centre adopts a trigonal bipyramidal geometry. Three chloride ligands occupy the vertices of the trigonal plane and two nitrogen atoms of btp ligands complete the trigonal bipyramidal geometry. Interestingly, 1 shows a

Kyoung-Tae Youm; Jaejung Ko; Moo-Jin Jun

2006-01-01

33

The effect of porous support composition and operating parameters on the performance of supported liquid membranes  

SciTech Connect

Factors, such as porous support composition and operating parameters, that influence the performance of supported liquid membranes (SLMs) were investigated. SLMs of varying porous support compositions and structures were studied for the transport of metal ions. A microporous polybenzimidazole support was synthesized and prepared in the form of an SLM. This SLM containing the selective extractant di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid was evaluated for the transport of copper and neodymium. Dramatically improved performance over that of commercially available membranes was found in tests for removing the metal ions from solution. Metal ion transport reaches near completion in less than 3 hours, whereas Celgard-polypropylene and Nuclepore-polycarbonate reaches only 50% completion even after 15 hours. The transport driving force for acidic extractants is a pH gradient between the feed and strip solutions. Polybenzimidazole, an acid- and radiation-resistant polymer, has two protonatable tertiary nitrogens per repeat unit that may help sustain the pH driving force. Another factor may be the ability of the polybenzimidazole to hydrogen bond with the extractant. Transport through the flat-sheet SLMs were tested using a unique cell design. Countercurrent flow of the feed and strip solutions was established through machined channels in half-cell faceplates that are in a spiral, mirror-image pattern with respect to each other, with the flat-sheet SLM interposed between the two channeled solutions. 7 refs., 14 figs.

Takigawa, D.Y.

1991-02-01

34

The elicitation of a systemic resistance by Pseudomonas putida BTP1 in tomato involves the stimulation of two lipoxygenase isoforms  

PubMed Central

Background Some non-pathogenic rhizobacteria called Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) possess the capacity to induce in plant defense mechanisms effective against pathogens. Precedent studies showed the ability of Pseudomonas putida BTP1 to induce PGPR-mediated resistance, termed ISR (Induced Systemic Resistance), in different plant species. Despite extensive works, molecular defense mechanisms involved in ISR are less well understood that in the case of pathogen induced systemic acquired resistance. Results We analyzed the activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and lipoxygenase (LOX), key enzymes of the phenylpropanoid and oxylipin pathways respectively, in tomato treated or not with P. putida BTP1. The bacterial treatment did not stimulate PAL activity and linoleate-consuming LOX activities. Linolenate-consuming LOX activity, on the contrary, was significantly stimulated in P. putida BTP1-inoculated plants before and two days after infection by B. cinerea. This stimulation is due to the increase of transcription level of two isoforms of LOX: TomLoxD and TomLoxF, a newly identified LOX gene. We showed that recombinant TomLOXF preferentially consumes linolenic acid and produces 13-derivative of fatty acids. After challenging with B. cinerea, the increase of transcription of these two LOX genes and higher linolenic acid-consuming LOX activity were associated with a more rapid accumulation of free 13-hydroperoxy-octadecatrienoic and 13-hydroxy-octadecatrienoic acids, two antifungal oxylipins, in bacterized plants. Conclusion In addition to the discovery of a new LOX gene in tomato, this work is the first to show differential induction of LOX isozymes and a more rapid accumulation of 13-hydroperoxy-octadecatrienoic and 13-hydroxy-octadecatrienoic acids in rhizobacteria mediated-induced systemic resistance.

2011-01-01

35

Formation of semi-permeable polyamide skin layers on the surface of supported liquid membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The instability of supported liquid membranes has been a major impediment to practical applications. To address this shortcoming, we have developed a method to form semi-permeable polyamide skin layers in situ on supported liquid membranes containing an anion-exchange extractant (trioctylamine) and a neutral extractant (tributyl phosphate). These skin layers encapsulate large extractant molecules within the membranes but allow the transport

Yuchun Wang; Yonathan S. Thio; Fiona M. Doyle

1998-01-01

36

Potent inhibition of Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ channels and T-lymphocyte activation by the pyrazole derivative BTP2.  

PubMed

Ca2+ entry through store-operated Ca2+release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channels is essential for T-cell activation and proliferation. Recently, it has been shown that 3,5-bistrifluoromethyl pyrazole (BTP) derivatives are specific inhibitors of Ca2+-dependent transcriptional activity in T-cells (Trevillyan, J. M., Chiou, X. G., Chen, Y. W., Ballaron, S. J., Sheets, M. P., Smith, M. L., Wiedeman, P. E., Warrior, U., Wilkins, J., Gubbins, E. J., Gagne, G. D., Fagerland, J., Carter, G. W., Luly, J. R., Mollison, K. W., and Djuric, S. W. (2001) J. Biol. Chem. 276, 48118-48126). Whereas inhibition of Ca2+ signals was reported for BTP2 (Ishikawa, J., Ohga, K., Yoshino, T., Takezawa, R., Ichikawa, A., Kubota, H., and Yamada, T. (2003) J. Immunol. 170, 4441-4449), it was not found for BTP3 (Chen, Y., Smith, M. L., Chiou, G. X., Ballaron, S., Sheets, M. P., Gubbins, E., Warrior, U., Wilkins, J., Surowy, C., Nakane, M., Carter, G. W., Trevillyan, J. M., Mollison, K., and Djuric, S. W. (2002) Cell. Immunol. 220, 134-142). We show that BTP2 specifically inhibits CRAC channels in T-cells with an IC(50) of approximately 10 nm. It does not interfere with other mechanisms important for Ca2+ signals in T-cells, including Ca2+ pumps, mitochondrial Ca2+ signaling, endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release, and K+ channels. BTP2 inhibits Ca2+ signals in peripheral blood T-lymphocytes (in particular in CD4+ T-cells) and in human Jurkat T-cells. Inhibition of Ca2+ signals is independent of the stimulation method as Ca2+ entry was blocked following stimulation with anti-CD3, which activates the T-cell receptor, and also following stimulation with thapsigargin or inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. BTP2 also inhibited Ca2+-dependent gene expression (interleukins 2 and 5 and interferon gamma) and proliferation of T-lymphocytes with similar IC(50) values. BTP2 is the first potent and specific inhibitor of CRAC channels in primary T-lymphocytes. The inhibition of CRAC channels as well as Ca2+-dependent signal transduction with similar IC(50) values in T-lymphocytes emphasizes the importance of CRAC channel activity during T-cell activation. Furthermore, BTP2 could prove to be a tool to finally unmask the molecular identity of CRAC channels. PMID:14718545

Zitt, Christof; Strauss, Bettina; Schwarz, Eva C; Spaeth, Nicola; Rast, Georg; Hatzelmann, Armin; Hoth, Markus

2004-03-26

37

Lithium Extraction from a Multicomponent Mixture Using Supported Liquid Membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing demand for lithium metal is expected to rise above the current production levels. Most lithium production is currently from mining and recovery of pegmatite ores. Recent research has emphasized recovery from brine sources such as geothermal water and seawater. A novel liquid-membrane-extraction process is investigated here for the recovery of lithium metal from these natural resources. Different carriers and

PAUL MA; XIAO DONG CHEN

2000-01-01

38

In situ radiological characterization to support a test excavation at a liquid waste disposal site  

SciTech Connect

An in situ radiological detection system was developed to support a small test excavation at a liquid waste disposal site at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. Instrumentation, calibration and comparisons to samples are discussed.

Keele, B.D.; Bauer, R.G.; Blewett, G.R.; Troyer, G.L.

1994-05-01

39

Separation of mercury from its aqueous solution through supported liquid membrane using environmentally benign diluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an experimental investigation on the facilitated transport of mercury through flat sheet supported liquid membrane (SLM) containing trioctylamine (TOA) as carrier and coconut oil, an environmentally benign solvent, as diluent. Co-transport mode of mercury transfer was studied using aqueous solution of NaOH as the strip phase. Various polymeric supports were tested in order to select the best

Kabita Chakrabarty; Prabirkumar Saha; Aloke Kumar Ghoshal

2010-01-01

40

Simultaneous separation of mercury and lignosulfonate from aqueous solution using supported liquid membrane  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an experimental investigation on facilitated and simultaneous transport of mercury and lignosulfonate (LS) through a flat sheet supported liquid membrane (SLM) having Nylon 6,6 as support, trioctylamine (TOA) as carrier and dichloroethane as solvent. The experiments were performed at various operating conditions such as strip phase concentration, feed pH, carrier concentration and feed concentration to find the

Kabita Chakrabarty; Prabirkumar Saha; Aloke Kumar Ghoshal

2010-01-01

41

Biopolymer-supported ionic-liquid-phase ruthenium catalysts for olefin metathesis.  

PubMed

Original ruthenium supported ionic liquid phase (SILP) catalysts based on alginates as supports were developed for olefin metathesis reactions. The marine biopolymer, which fulfills most of the requisite properties for a support such as widespread abundance, insolubility in the majority of organic solvents, a high affinity for ionic liquids, high chemical stability, biodegradability, low cost, and easy processing, was impregnated by [bmim][PF6 ] containing an ionically tagged ruthenium catalyst. These biosourced catalysts show promising performances in ring-closing metathesis (RCM) and cross-metathesis (CM) reactions, with a high level of recyclability and reusability combined with a good reactivity. PMID:24616203

Clousier, Nathalie; Filippi, Alexandra; Borré, Etienne; Guibal, Eric; Crévisy, Christophe; Caijo, Fréderic; Mauduit, Marc; Dez, Isabelle; Gaumont, Annie-Claude

2014-04-01

42

A novel seven-helix transmembrane protein BTP1 of Botrytis cinerea controls the expression of GST-encoding genes, but is not essential for pathogenicity.  

PubMed

SUMMARY To gain new insights into the signalling mechanisms of the grey mould Botrytis cinerea, which causes several pre- and post-harvest diseases on a variety of host plants, we cloned, sequenced and functionally characterized a gene, btp1, encoding a novel 391-amino acid transmembrane protein. The protein BTP1 shows similarity to the transmembrane protein pth11, which is essential for appressorium formation and successful colonization of plant tissue in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea. Analyses of the deduced amino acid sequence of btp1 predicted a seven alpha-helical transmembrane topology, which is known to be typical for G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and therefore the protein is thought to play a role in mediation of extracellular signals to intracellular effectors. The gene is located next to the gene bcgstII encoding a new putative glutathione S-transferase, and both genes are transcribed in opposite directions from the same promoter. BcGSTII shows similarity to the glutathione S-transferase GSTII of Schizosaccharomyces pombe, a protein thought to be involved in detoxification of several antifungal drugs. From the sequence similarity of BTP1 to GPCRs, and its expression in planta, we suggested that it might play a role in mediation of plant signals and therefore in pathogenicity. However, targeted gene replacement of btp1 did not result in a phenotype markedly affecting either pathogenicity or sensitivity to chemical stress when compared with the wild-type strain; however, the ten-fold dilution of conidial suspension used for the pathogenicity assay resulted in slight reduction of virulence. Visible symptom development of the mutants on bean plants was also different from the wild-type. The brownish ring, which appears at the margin of secondary lesions in wild-type infections, was brighter and almost absent in Deltabtp1 mutants. Interestingly, deletion of btp1 not only affected the expression of the physically linked bcgstII gene, but in addition the expression of the other two GST-encoding genes in B. cinerea for bcgstI was down-regulated, bcgstII was slightly up-regulated and bcgstIII was strongly up-regulated in the mutant. PMID:20565654

Gronover, Christian Schulze; Schumacher, Julia; Hantsch, Phillip; Tudzynski, Bettina

2005-05-01

43

An experimental study of gas transport and separation properties of ionic liquids supported on nanofiltration membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Permeability of gas molecules H2, O2, N2, and CO in four types of ionic liquids ([C4-mim][NTf2], [C10-mim][NTf2], [N8881][NTf2], [C8Py][NTf2]) with a common anion but different cations supported on nanofiltration membranes was studied in single gas feed and under varying gas phase pressure. The separation property in terms of H2\\/CO selectivity in the selected ionic liquids was examined in binary gas

Quan Gan; David Rooney; Minliang Xue; Gillian Thompson; Yiran Zou

2006-01-01

44

Amino Acids, Iron, and Growth Rate as Key Factors Influencing Production of the Pseudomonas Putida BTP1 Benzylamine Derivative Involved in Systemic Resistance Induction in Different Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biological control bacterium Pseudomonas putida BTP1 exerts its protective effect mostly by inducing an enhanced state of resistance in the host plant against pathogen attack\\u000a [induced systemic resistance (ISR)]. We previously reported that a specific compound derived from benzylamine may be involved\\u000a in the elicitation of the ISR phenomenon by this Pseudomonas strain. In this article, we provide further

Marc Ongena; Emmanuel Jourdan; Akram Adam; Mathias Schäfer; Herbert Budzikiewicz; Philippe Thonart

2008-01-01

45

High Temperature Separation of Carbon Dioxide/Hydrogen Mixtures Using Facilitated Supported Ionic Liquid Membranes  

SciTech Connect

Efficiently separating CO2 from H2 is one of the key steps in the environmentally responsible uses of fossil fuel for energy production. A wide variety of resources, including petroleum coke, coal, and even biomass, can be gasified to produce syngas (a mixture of COand H2). This gas stream can be further reacted with water to produce CO2 and more H2. Once separated, the CO2 can be stored in a variety of geological formations or sequestered by other means. The H2 can be combusted to operate a turbine, producing electricity, or used to power hydrogen fuel cells. In both cases, onlywater is produced as waste. An amine functionalized ionic liquid encapsulated in a supported ionic liquid membrane (SILM) can separate CO2 from H2 with a higher permeability and selectivity than any known membrane system. This separation is accomplished at elevated temperatures using facilitated transport supported ionic liquid membranes.

Myers, C.R.; Pennline, H.W.; Luebke, D.R.; Ilconich, J.B.; Dixon, J.K. (Univ. of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN); Maginn, E.J. (Univ. of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN); Brennecke, J.F. (Univ. of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN)

2008-09-01

46

A review on the use and stability of supported liquid membranes in the pervaporation process  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent decades, pervaporation has been one of the most studied membrane separation processes and has undergone substantial progress and exciting breakthroughs due to its effectiveness in separating azeotropic mixtures and its low energy consumption. Often, pervaporation processes are operated using a solid membrane. However, the inherent limitations of solid membranes prompted the use of supported liquid membranes (SLMs), which

Yit Thai Ong; Kian Fei Yee; Yoke Kooi Cheng; Soon Huat Tan

2012-01-01

47

Electrochemical studies of ion transfer at micro-machined supported liquid membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new type of supported liquid membranes comprised of two micro-machined thin polymer films has been developed. Electrochemical studies were carried out to investigate ion transfer reactions across the aqueous solution membrane interfaces composed of an array of micro-interfaces. The extraction of lead from a lead\\/zinc solution illustrates the principle of electrochemically assisted solvent extraction.

C. Beriet; H. H. Girault

1998-01-01

48

Liquid phase methanol LaPorte process development unit: Modification, operation, and support studies  

SciTech Connect

This report consists of Detailed Data Acquisition Sheets for Runs E-6 and E-7 for Task 2.2 of the Modification, Operation, and Support Studies of the Liquid Phase Methanol Laporte Process Development Unit. (Task 2.2: Alternate Catalyst Run E-6 and Catalyst Activity Maintenance Run E-7).

Not Available

1991-02-02

49

Production of fungal antibiotics using polymeric solid supports in solid-state and liquid fermentation.  

PubMed

The use of inert absorbent polymeric supports for cellular attachment in solid-state fungal fermentation influenced growth, morphology, and production of bioactive secondary metabolites. Two filamentous fungi exemplified the utility of this approach to facilitate the discovery of new antimicrobial compounds. Cylindrocarpon sp. LL-Cyan426 produced pyrrocidines A and B and Acremonium sp. LL-Cyan416 produced acremonidins A-E when grown on agar bearing moist polyester-cellulose paper and generated distinctly different metabolite profiles than the conventional shaken or stationary liquid fermentations. Differences were also apparent when tenfold concentrated methanol extracts from these fermentations were tested against antibiotic-susceptible and antibiotic-resistant Gram-positive bacteria, and zones of inhibition were compared. Shaken broth cultures of Acremonium sp. or Cylindrocarpon sp. showed complex HPLC patterns, lower levels of target compounds, and high levels of unwanted compounds and medium components, while agar/solid support cultures showed significantly increased yields of pyrrocidines A and B and acremonidins A-E, respectively. This method, mixed-phase fermentation (fermentation with an inert solid support bearing liquid medium), exploited the increase in surface area available for fungal growth on the supports and the tendency of some microorganisms to adhere to solid surfaces, possibly mimicking their natural growth habits. The production of dimeric anthraquinones by Penicillium sp. LL-WF159 was investigated in liquid fermentation using various inert polymeric immobilization supports composed of polypropylene, polypropylene cellulose, polyester-cellulose, or polyurethane. This culture produced rugulosin, skyrin, flavomannin, and a new bisanthracene, WF159-A, after fermentation in the presence and absence of polymeric supports for mycelial attachment. The physical nature of the different support systems influenced culture morphology and relative metabolite yields, as determined by HPLC analysis and measurement of antimicrobial activity. The application of such immobilized-cell fermentation methods under solid and liquid conditions facilitated the discovery of new antibiotic compounds, and offers new approaches to fungal fermentation for natural product discovery. PMID:16680458

Bigelis, Ramunas; He, Haiyin; Yang, Hui Y; Chang, Li-Ping; Greenstein, Michael

2006-10-01

50

Supported ionic liquid membranes for removal of dioxins from high-temperature vapor streams.  

PubMed

Dioxins and dioxin-like chemicals are predominantly produced by thermal processes such as incineration and combustion at concentrations in the range of 10-100 ng of I-TEQ/kg (I-TEQ = international toxic equivalents). In this work, a new approach for the removal of dioxins from high-temperature vapor streams using facilitated supported ionic liquid membranes (SILMs) is proposed. The use of ceramic membranes containing specific ionic liquids, with extremely low volatility, for dioxin removal from incineration sources is proposed owing to their stability at very high temperatures. Supported liquid membranes were prepared by successfully immobilizing the ionic liquids tri-C(8)-C(10)-alkylmethylammonium dicyanamide ([Aliquat][DCA]) and 1-n-octyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide ([Omim][DCA]) inside the porous structure of ceramic membranes. The porous inorganic membranes tested were made of titanium oxide (TiO(2)), with a nominal pore size of 30 nm, and aluminum oxide (Al(2)O(3)), with a nominal pore size of 100 nm. The ionic liquids were characterized, and the membrane performance was assessed for the removal of dioxins. Different materials (membrane pore size, type of ionic liquid, and dioxin) and different operating conditions (temperature and flow rate) were tested to evaluate the efficiency of SILMs for dioxin removal. All membranes prepared were stable at temperatures up to 200 °C. Experiments with model incineration gas were also carried out, and the results obtained validate the potential of using ceramic membranes with immobilized ionic liquids for the removal of dioxins from high-temperature vapor sources. PMID:22087544

Kulkarni, Prashant S; Neves, Luisa A; Coelhoso, Isabel M; Afonso, Carlos A M; Crespo, João G

2012-01-01

51

Carbon Dioxide Selective Supported Ionic Liquid Membranes: The Effect of Contaminants  

SciTech Connect

The integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) is widely viewed as a promising technology for the large scale production of energy in a carbon constrained world. These cycles, which include gasification, contaminant removal, water-gas shift, CO2 capture and compression, and combustion of the reduced-carbon fuel gas in a turbine, often have significant efficiency advantages over conventional combustion technologies. A CO2 selective membrane capable of maintaining performance at conditions approaching those of low temperature water-gas shift (260oC) could facilitate the production of carbon-neutral energy by simultaneously driving the shift reaction to completion and concentrating CO2 for sequestration. Supported ionic liquid membranes (SILMs) have been previously evaluated for this application and determined to be physically and chemically stable to temperatures in excess of 300oC. These membranes were based on ionic liquids which interacted physically with CO2 and diminished considerably in selectivity at higher temperatures. To alleviate this problem, the original ionic liquids were replaced with ionic liquids able to form chemical complexes with CO2. These complexing ionic liquid membranes have a local maximum in selectivity which is observed at increasing temperatures for more stable complexes. Efforts are currently underway to develop ionic liquids with selectivity maxima at temperatures greater than 75oC, the best result to date, but other practical concerns must also be addressed if the membrane is to be realistically expected to function under water-gas shift conditions. A CO2 selective membrane must function not only at high temperature, but also in the presence of all the reactants and contaminants likely to be present in coal-derived fuel gas, including water, CO, and H2S. A study has been undertaken which examines the effects of each of these gases on both complexing and physically interacting supported liquid membranes. In a joint project, researchers at the University of Notre Dame synthesized and characterized ionic liquids, and researchers at the National Energy Technology Laboratory incorporated candidate ionic liquids into supports and evaluated the resulting materials for membrane performance.

Luebke, D.R.; Ilconich, J.B.; Myers, C.R.; Pennline, H.W.

2008-04-01

52

Ignition Capsules with Aerogel-Supported Liquid DT Fuel For The National Ignition Facility  

SciTech Connect

For high repetition-rate fusion power plant applications, capsules with aerogel-supported liquid DT fuel can have much reduced fill time compared to {beta}-layering a solid DT fuel layer. The melting point of liquid DT can be lowered once liquid DT is embedded in an aerogel matrix, and the DT vapor density is consequently closer to the desired density for optimal capsule design requirement. We present design for NIF-scale aerogel-filled capsules based on 1-D and 2-D simulations. An optimal configuration is obtained when the outer radius is increased until the clean fuel fraction is within 65-75% at peak velocity. A scan (in ablator and fuel thickness parameter space) is used to optimize the capsule configurations. The optimized aerogel-filled capsule has good low-mode robustness and acceptable high-mode mix.

Ho, D D; Salmonson, J D; Clark, D S; Lindl, J D; Haan, S W; Amendt, P; Wu, K J

2011-10-25

53

Organomercurial removal from vaccine production wastewaters in a supported liquid membrane bioreactor.  

PubMed

Vaccine production effluents are strongly polluted with thiomersal, a highly toxic organomercurial compound, for which there is presently no remediation technology available. This work describes a new remediation process based on the extraction of thiomersal from the wastewater to a biological compartment, where it is degraded by a microbial strain. The selective extraction of thiomersal is achieved by using an ionic liquid immobilized in a porous membrane. In the biological compartment, thiomersal is degraded to metallic mercury, under aerobic conditions, by a Pseudomonas putida strain. The utilization of ionic liquids in supported liquid membranes for thiomersal transport, and the kinetics of thiomersal biodegradation by a Pseudomonas putida strain are presented and discussed. PMID:15296135

Fortunato, R; Afonso, C A M; Crespo, J G; Reis, M A

2003-01-01

54

Supported Room Temperature Ionic Liquid Membranes for CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} Separation  

SciTech Connect

Room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) are organic salts which are liquid at or around room temperature. These compounds exhibit many outstanding physical properties such as great thermal stability and no measurable vapor pressure. In this work supported ionic liquid membranes (SILMs) were prepared by impregnating pores of ?-alumina inorganic supports with various ionic liquids. In addition to membranes prepared with pure RTILs we were able to synthesize membranes with RTIL mixtures using 1-aminopyridinium iodide dissolved in 1-butyl-4-methylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate or methyltrioctylammonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide. This combination of an RTIL with an organic salt containing an amine group dramatically improved the membrane separation properties. The SILMs displayed CO{sub 2} permeance on the order of 5 × 10{sup ?10} to 5 × 10{sup ?9} mol m{sup ?2} s{sup ?1} Pa{sup ?1} combined with CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} selectivity of 5–30. Although these values are comparable with the current systems for CO{sub 2} purification, CO{sub 2} permeance is still rather low for these compounds.

Iarikov, D. D.; Hacarlioglu, P.; Oyama, S. T.

2011-01-01

55

Constructing CO2-facilitated transport highway in supported ionic liquid membranes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Carbon dioxide-facilitated transport highway (CO2-FTH) on the microporous surface of a membrane matrix was designed using the amino carrier 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES). Owing to the reversible reaction between CO2 molecules and fixed-site carriers, this supported ionic liquid membrane was able to selectively transfer CO2 more quickly. This concept may inspire means of fabricating a highly permeable and selective membrane to break through Robeson's upper bound.

Sun, Xiang Jun; Luo, Ju Jie; Zhang, Meng; Li, Jin Ping

2014-01-01

56

Extraction of platinum(IV) with supported liquid membrane containing trioctylamine carrier  

SciTech Connect

A trioctylamine(TOA)-supported liquid membrane was applied to the separation and concentration of platinum. Platinum was transported and concentrated from the hydrochloric acid solution to the alkaline solution across the membrane. The effects of the concentration of TOA and those of platinum in the feed and stripping solutions on the permeation rate are clarified. The mechanism of platinum transport through the membrane is discussed based on a simple permeation model.

Nishiki, T.; Bautista, R.G.

1983-01-01

57

Extraction of platinum(IV) with supported liquid membrane containing trioctylamine carrier  

SciTech Connect

A trioctylamine-supported liquid membrane was applied to separation and concentration of platinum. Platinum was transported and concentrated from the hydrochloric acid solution to the sodium carbonate solution across the membrane. The effects of the concentration of TOA and those of platinum in the feed and stripping solutions on the permeation rate are clarified. The mechanism of platinum transport through the membrane is discussed based on a simple permeation model.

Nishiki, T.; Bautista, R.G.

1982-01-01

58

Liquid phase oxidation of limonene catalyzed by palladium supported on hydrotalcites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Palladium supported on copper–magnesium–aluminium hydrotalcites (HTs) were prepared by using coprecipitation and impregnation techniques. The different palladium\\/hydrotalcites solid catalysts were tested in the liquid phase oxidation of pure limonene using molecular oxygen as the sole oxidant agent. Both palladium and copper were found to influence the conversion versus reaction time profile of limonene oxidation. A chain reaction mechanism is proposed

Juan Bussi; Alejandro López; Francisco Peña; Pablo Timbal; Daniel Paz; Daniel Lorenzo; Eduardo Dellacasa

2003-01-01

59

Coupled Transport of Zr(IV) through Tri-n-butylphosphate-Xylene-Based Supported Liquid Membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transport of Zr(IV) through tri-n-butylphosphate-xylene-based liquid membranes, supported in a polypropylene hydrophobic microporous film, has been studied. The concentration of HNO3 in the feed solution and tri-n-butylphosphate (TBP) carrier in the membrane were varied, and the flux and permeability coefficients were determined. The optimum conditions found for maximum flux were determined to be 10 mol\\/dm HNO3 and 2.93 mol\\/dm

M. Ashraf Chaudry; M. Tayyib Malik; Kaleem Hussain

1989-01-01

60

Hollow-fiber-supported liquid membrane microextraction of amlodipine and atorvastatin.  

PubMed

A simple, environmentally friendly, and efficient method, based on hollow-fiber-supported liquid membrane microextraction, followed by high-performance liquid chromatography has been developed for the extraction and determination of amlodipine (AML) and atorvastatin (ATO) in water and urine samples. The AML in two-phase hollow-fiber liquid microextraction is extracted from 24.0 mL of the aqueous sample into an organic phase with microliter volume located inside the pores and lumen of a polypropylene hollow fiber as acceptor phase, but the ATO in three-phase hollow-fiber liquid microextraction is extracted from aqueous donor phase to organic phase and then back-extracted to the aqueous acceptor phase, which can be directly injected into the high-performance liquid chromatograph for analysis. The preconcentration factors in a range of 34-135 were obtained under the optimum conditions. The calibration curves were linear (R(2) ? 0.990) in the concentration range of 2.0-200 ?g/L for AML and 5.0-200 ?g/L for ATO. The limits of detection for AML and ATO were 0.5 and 2.0 ?g/L, respectively. Tap water and human urine samples were successfully analyzed for the existence of AML and ATO using the proposed methods. PMID:24833551

Panahi, Homayon Ahmad; Chabouk, Monireh; Ejlali, Maryam

2014-08-01

61

An application of supported liquid membranes for removal of inorganic contaminants from groundwater  

SciTech Connect

This review paper summarizes the results of an investigation on teh use of supported liquid membranes for the removal of uranium (VI) and some anionic contaminants (technetium(VII), chromium(VI) and nitrates) from the Hanford site groundwater. As a membrane carrier for U(VI), bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)phosphinic acid was selected because of its high selectivity over calcium and magnesium. The water soluble complexing agent 1-hydroxyethane-1,1-diphosphonic acid was used as stripping agent. For the anionic contaminants the long-chain aliphatic amines Primene JM-T (primary)., Amberlite LA-1 (secondary) and trilaurylamine (tertiary) were investigated as membrane carriers. Among these amines, Amberlite LA-2 proved to be the most effective carrier for the simultaneous removal of the investigated anion contaminants. A good long-term stability (at least one month) of the liquid membranes was obtained, especially in the uranium(VI) removal. 8 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

Chiarizia, R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Horwitz, E.P. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Hodgson, K.M. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1991-12-31

62

An application of supported liquid membranes for removal of inorganic contaminants from groundwater  

SciTech Connect

This review paper summarizes the results of an investigation on teh use of supported liquid membranes for the removal of uranium (VI) and some anionic contaminants (technetium(VII), chromium(VI) and nitrates) from the Hanford site groundwater. As a membrane carrier for U(VI), bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)phosphinic acid was selected because of its high selectivity over calcium and magnesium. The water soluble complexing agent 1-hydroxyethane-1,1-diphosphonic acid was used as stripping agent. For the anionic contaminants the long-chain aliphatic amines Primene JM-T (primary)., Amberlite LA-1 (secondary) and trilaurylamine (tertiary) were investigated as membrane carriers. Among these amines, Amberlite LA-2 proved to be the most effective carrier for the simultaneous removal of the investigated anion contaminants. A good long-term stability (at least one month) of the liquid membranes was obtained, especially in the uranium(VI) removal. 8 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

Chiarizia, R. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States) Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)); Horwitz, E.P. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Hodgson, K.M. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States))

1991-01-01

63

SUPPORTED LIQUID CATALYSTS FOR REMOVAL OF HIGH TEMPERATURE FUEL CELL CONTAMINANTS  

SciTech Connect

A novel catalytic synthesis gas oxidation process using molten carbonate salts supported on compatible fluidized iron oxide particles (supported-liquid-phase-catalyst (SLPC) fluidized bed process) was investigated. This process combines the advantages of large scale fluidized bed processing with molten salt bath oxidation. Molten salt catalysts can be supported within porous fluidized particles in order to improve mass transfer rates between the liquid catalysts and the reactant gases. Synthesis gas can be oxidized at reduced temperatures resulting in low NO{sub x} formation while trace sulfides and halides are captured in-situ. Hence, catalytic oxidation of synthesis gas can be carried out simultaneously with hot gas cleanup. Such SLPC fluidized bed processes are affected by inter-particle liquid capillary forces that may lead to agglomeration and de-fluidization of the bed. An understanding of the origin and strength of these forces is needed so that they can be overcome in practice. Process design is based on thermodynamic free energy minimization calculations that indicate the suitability of eutectic Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}/K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} mixtures for capturing trace impurities in-situ (< 1 ppm SO{sub x} released) while minimizing the formation of NO{sub x}(< 10 ppm). Iron oxide has been identified as a preferred support material since it is non-reactive with sodium, is inexpensive, has high density (i.e. inertia), and can be obtained in various particle sizes and porosities. Force balance modeling has been used to design a surrogate ambient temperature system that is hydrodynamically similar to the real system, thus allowing complementary investigation of the governing fluidization hydrodynamics. The primary objective of this research was to understand the origin of and to quantify the liquid capillary interparticle forces affecting the molten carbonate SLPC fluidized bed process. Substantial theoretical and experimental exploratory results indicate process feasibility. The potential environmental gain from success is enormous, impacting all areas of the world where coal is burned to supply steam or direct industrial heat. Project success may lead to an integrated combustion system providing for simultaneous catalytic oxidation and hot gas cleanup of raw synthesis gas from an upstream coal gasifier.

Alan W. Weimer (PI); Peter Czerpak; Patrick Hilbert

2000-01-01

64

Direct coupling of supported liquid membranes to capillary electrophoresis for analysis of complex samples: a tutorial.  

PubMed

This tutorial provides an overview of direct coupling of extraction techniques based on supported liquid membranes (SLMs) to capillary electrophoresis (CE) for treatment and subsequent analysis of complex samples. Pros and cons of using each of the described instrumental arrangement are addressed and where relevant, comments with personal experience of the authors are presented. Solid porous membrane based extraction techniques coupled directly to CE are also presented in this tutorial and a comprehensive discussion is included on their instrumental set-ups and their possible adaptation for use with SLMs. PMID:23830417

Kubá?, Pavel; Bo?ek, Petr

2013-07-17

65

High performance liquid chromatographic studies on lanthanides, uranium and thorium on amide modified reversed phase supports.  

PubMed

The retention behavior of uranium, thorium and lanthanides has been investigated with amide modified reversed phase C(18) supports using alpha-hydroxy isobutyric acid (alpha-HIBA) as the mobile phase. Four structurally different amide moieties namely, 4-hydroxy-N,N-dihexyl butyramide (4HHBA), 4-hydroxy-N,N-di-2-ethylhexylhexanamide (4HEHHA), bis(N,N,N',N'-2-ethylhexyl)malonamide (B2EHM) and N-methyl-tris(dihexylcarbamoyl-3-methoxy)pivolamide (MTDCMPA) have been synthesized and studied. Among the various amide coated columns, the supports modified with 4HHBA, B2EHM and MTDCMPA exhibit an interesting retention for uranium and thorium, which is different from 4HEHHA modified support. The retention time for uranium and thorium increases with increasing amide concentration for 4HHBA, B2EHM and MTDCMPA supports, while the same decreases with increasing 4HEHHA content. However, the separation factor for uranium and thorium is greater on a 4HEHHA support, compared to an unmodified C(18) column, reflecting the amide's preferential complexation of uranium over thorium. Columns modified with 4HHBA, B2EHM and MTDCMPA exhibit relatively higher retentions for lanthanides. However, MTDCMPA modified support shows a different elution profile for lanthanides compared to 4HHBA, and B2EHM modified columns. Individual separations of heavier lanthanides, i.e., from gadolinium to lutetium also have been achieved using 4HHBA and B2EHM modified supports. The influence of modifier content, mobile phase concentration and its pH on the retention of metal ions has also been studied. Based on these investigations, an efficient high performance liquid chromatographic method (HPLC) has been developed for the rapid separation of uranium from thorium as well as for the individual separation of heavier lanthanides. PMID:19071679

Akhila Maheswari, M; Prabhakaran, D; Subramanian, M S; Sivaraman, N; Srinivasan, T G; Vasudeva Rao, P R

2007-04-30

66

Summary of Liquid Propulsion System Needs in Support of the Constellation Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In January 2004, the President of the United States established the Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) to complete the International Space Station, retire the Space Shuttle and develop its replacement, and expand the human presence on the Moon as a stepping stone to human exploration of Mars and worlds beyond. In response, NASA developed the Constellation Program, consisting of the components shown in Figure 1. This paper will summarize the manned spaceflight liquid propulsion system needs in support of the Constellation Program over the next 10 years. It will address all liquid engine needs to support human exploration from low Earth orbit (LEO) to the lunar surface, including an overview of engines currently under contract, those baselined but not yet under contract, and those propulsion needs that have yet to be initiated. There may be additional engine needs for early demonstrators, but those will not be addressed as part of this paper. Also, other portions of the VSE architecture, including the planned Orion abort test boosters and the Lunar Precursor Robotic Program, are not addressed here as they either use solid motors or are focused on unmanned elements of returning humans to the Moon.

Lorier, Terry; Sumrall, Phil; Baine, Michael

2008-01-01

67

Membrane-supported liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction combined with anion-selective exhaustive injection capillary electrophoresis-ultraviolet detection for sensitive analysis of phytohormones.  

PubMed

A novel method based on off-line membrane-supported liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction (MS-LLLME) combined with on-column anion-selective exhaustive injection (ASEI) capillary electrophoresis-ultraviolet (CE-UV) detection was established for the analysis of seven phytohormones (abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid (JA), 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 1-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), salicylic acid (SA) and gibberellic acid (GA)). In MS-LLLME, the target phytohormones were extracted from the acid donor phase to the alkaline acceptor phase, and the acceptor solutions were directly analyzed by ASEI-CE-UV. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the analytical performance of the method was evaluated. The limits of detection (LODs) of ABA, JA, 2,4-D, NAA, IAA, SA and GA were determined to be 1.00, 2.21, 0.33, 0.17, 0.67, 0.05 and 16.5ng/mL, respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSDs, n=7) ranged from 4.7% to 12.9%, and the enrichment factors were in the range of 307 to 20,160. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of multiple phytohormones in banana, cabbage and cucumber extracts, and ABA, IAA and SA were detected in these samples. The recoveries for the spiked samples were in the range of 79.0 to 116.4%. The proposed method was demonstrated to be suitable for the simultaneous quantification of multiple phytohormones with high sensitivity and good sample cleanup ability. PMID:24720904

Huang, Linfang; He, Man; Chen, Beibei; Hu, Bin

2014-05-23

68

Separation of carbon dioxide from nitrogen or methane by supported ionic liquid membranes (SILMs): influence of the cation charge of the ionic liquid.  

PubMed

Supported ionic liquid membranes (SILMs) are promising tools for the separation of carbon dioxide from other gases. In this paper, new imidazolium, pyrrolidinium, piperidinium, and morpholinium ionic liquids with a triethylene glycol side chain and tosylate anions, as well as their symmetrical dicationic analogues, have been synthesized and incorporated into SILMs. The selectivities for CO2/N2 and CO2/CH4 separations have been measured. The selectivities exhibited by the dicationic ionic liquids are up to two times higher than the values of the corresponding monocationic ionic liquids. Quantum chemical calculations have been used to investigate the difference in the interaction of carbon dioxide with monocationic and dicationic ionic liquids. The reason for the increased gas separation selectivity of the dicationic ionic liquids is two-fold: (1) a decrease in permeance of nitrogen and methane through the ionic liquid layer, presumably due to their less favorable interactions with the gases, while the permeance of carbon dioxide is reduced much less; (2) an increase in the number of interaction sites for the interactions with the quadrupolar carbon dioxide molecules in the dicationic ionic liquids, compared to the monocationic analogues. PMID:24199938

Hojniak, Sandra D; Khan, Asim Laeeq; Hollóczki, Oldamur; Kirchner, Barbara; Vankelecom, Ivo F J; Dehaen, Wim; Binnemans, Koen

2013-12-01

69

Augmenting Microbial Fuel Cell power by coupling with Supported Liquid Membrane permeation for zinc recovery.  

PubMed

Simultaneous removal of organic and zinc contamination in parallel effluent streams using a Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC) would deliver a means of reducing environmental pollution whilst also recovering energy. A Microbial Fuel Cell system has been integrated with Supported Liquid Membrane (SLM) technology to simultaneously treat organic- and heavy metal containing wastewaters. The MFC anode was fed with synthetic wastewater containing 10 mM acetate, the MFC cathode chambers were fed with 400 mg L(-1) Zn(2+) and this then acted as a feed phase for SLM extraction. The MFC/SLM combination produces a synergistic effect which enhances the power performance of the MFC significantly; 0.233 mW compared to 0.094 mW in the control. It is shown that the 165 ± 7 mV difference between the MFC/SLM system and the MFC control is attributable to the lower cathode pH in the integrated system experiment, the consequent lower activation overpotential and higher oxygen reduction potential. The change in the substrate removal efficiency and Coulombic Efficiency (CE) compared to controls is small. Apart from the electrolyte conductivity, the conductivities of the bipolar and liquid membrane were also found to increase during operation. The diffusion coefficient of Zn(2+) through the liquid membrane in the MFC/SLM (4.26*10(-10) m(2) s(-1)) is comparable to the SLM control (5.41*10(-10) m(2) s(-1)). The system demonstrates that within 72 h, 93  ±  4% of the zinc ions are removed from the feed phase, hence the Zn(2+) removal rate is not significantly affected and is comparable to the SLM control (96  ±  1%), while MFC power output is significantly increased. PMID:24602866

Fradler, Katrin R; Michie, Iain; Dinsdale, Richard M; Guwy, Alan J; Premier, Giuliano C

2014-05-15

70

Size stabilization of surface-supported liquid aerosols using tapered optical fiber coupling.  

PubMed

We demonstrate long-term size stabilization of surface-supported liquid aerosols of salt-water. Single tapered optical fibers were used to couple the light from independent heating and probe lasers into individual microdroplets that were kept on a superhydrophobic surface in a high-humidity chamber. Size stabilization of microdroplets resulted from competition between resonant absorption of the infrared heating laser by a microdroplet whispering gallery mode and water condensation in the sample chamber. Microdroplet size was continuously monitored using the tunable red probe laser. Thanks to the narrow linewidth of the heating laser, stabilization of the 110 ?m radius of a microdroplet with a precision down to 0.54 nm was achieved for a period of 410 s. PMID:23455301

Karadag, Yasin; Jonáš, Alexandr; Kucukkara, Ibrahim; Kiraz, Alper

2013-03-01

71

Supported liquid membrane as a novel tool for driving the equilibrium of ?-transaminase catalyzed asymmetric synthesis.  

PubMed

An attractive option to produce chiral amines of industrial importance is through asymmetric synthesis using ?-transaminase. However, reaching high yields often requires a strategy for shifting the equilibrium position. This paper describes a novel strategy for handling this problem. It involves the use of a supported liquid membrane (SLM) together with a packed bed reactor. The reactor contains Escherichia coli cells with ?-transaminase from Arthrobacter citreus, immobilized by flocculation with chitosan. The SLM consists of a hollow fibre membrane contactor in which the pores contain undecane. The system enables continuous extraction of the amine product and was used to successfully shift the equilibrium in asymmetric synthesis of (S)-?-methylbenzylamine (MBA). A conversion of 98% was reached, compared to 50% without product extraction. Moreover, a selective extraction of the produced MBA was realized. A high product concentration of 55g/l was reached after 80h, and the system showed promising potential for continuous operation. PMID:24675224

Rehn, Gustav; Adlercreutz, Patrick; Grey, Carl

2014-06-10

72

Hollow-fiber supported liquid membrane (HFSLM) for the separation of lanthanides and actinides  

SciTech Connect

The transport behavior of Nd(III) was investigated using hollow-fiber supported liquid membranes (HFSLM) from an acidic feed solution using N,N,N',N'-tetraoctyl-diglycolamide (TODGA) in normal paraffinic hydrocarbon (NPH) as the carrier. Near quantitative transport (>99%) of Nd(III) from 500 mL of feed containing 1 g/L Nd in 3.5 M HNO{sub 3} was possible in about 45 minutes. Quantitative transport time increased when the volume or Nd(III ) concentration in the feed was increased. The liquid membrane had excellent stability as indicated by eight consecutive runs that gave consistent transport rates. The HFSLM data using Cyanex- 301 in n-dodecane as carrier extractant for the lanthanide-actinide separation with the feed solution 1 M NaNO{sub 3} at pH 3.5 and stripping solution 0.01 M EDTA at a pH 3.5 were promising. (authors)

Mohapatra, P.K.; Ansari, S.A.; Bhattacharyya, A.; Manchanda, V.K. [Radiochemistry Division, B.A.R.C., Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India); Patil, C.B. [PREFRE Lab, N.R.G., B.A.R. C., Tarapur, Maharashtra-401502 (India)

2008-07-01

73

Purification studies on a thermo-active amidase of Geobacillus pallidus BTP-5x MTCC 9225 isolated from thermal springs of Tatapani (Himachal Pradesh).  

PubMed

An intracellular aliphatic amide degrading inducible thermo-active amidase produced by Geobacillus pallidus BTP-5x MTCC 9225 was purified to apparent homogeneity using anion exchange and gel filtration chromatography, giving a yield of 6.7 % and a specific activity of 30.49 units mg(-1). The purified protein migrated as a single band of estimated molecular mass of 158 kDa (homo-tetramer) in 8 % polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and ?38.5 kDa in 12 % sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Optima of pH and temperature varied widely in broad pH range (pH 6-9) and temperature range (45-70 °C). The purified amidase was stable up to 6 h at 50 °C, with a t (1/2) of 7 h at 55 °C. The multimeric nature of the holozyme (tetramer) contributed to protection of the enzyme against thermal denaturation. The enzyme showed resistance to metal chelating agents (EDTA, 8-hydroxyquinoline, and sodium azide), explaining its non-metallic nature, and is strongly inhibited by thiol reagents that means cysteine is involved in catalysis. The amidase of G. pallidus BTP-5x preferentially hydrolyzed only small aliphatic amides and has a narrow substrate spectrum. The K (M) value for acrylamide is 10.54 mM, V (max) 45.19 ?mol(-1)?min(-1)?mg(-1) protein, and k (cat) 4.29 min(-1). The sequence of amino acids of the purified enzyme MRHGDISSSHDTVGI appears similar to thermophilic amidases. Sequence analysis of the amidase gene showed that the enzyme is 347 amino-acid-long with a molecular weight of 38.4 kDa (as observed in SDS-PAGE), theoretical pI 5.38, and show strong similarity to thermostable amidases, possessing unique restriction sites. PMID:23096998

Sharma, Monica; Sharma, Nitya Nand; Bhalla, Tek Chand

2013-01-01

74

Some methods for human liquid and solid waste utilization in bioregenerative life-support systems.  

PubMed

Bioregenerative life-support systems (BLSS) are studied for developing the technology for a future biological life-support system for long-term manned space missions. Ways to utilize human liquid and solid wastes to increase the closure degree of BLSS were investigated. First, urine and faeces underwent oxidation by Kudenko's physicochemical method. The products were then used for root nutrition of wheat grown by the soil-like substrate culture method. Two means of eliminating sodium chloride, introduced into the irrigation solution together with the products of urine oxidation, were investigated. The first was based on routine electrodialysis of irrigation water at the end of wheat vegetation. Dialysis eliminated about 50% of Na from the solution. This desalinization was performed for nine vegetations. The second method was new: after wheat cultivation, the irrigation solution and the solution obtained by washing the substrate containing mineral elements not absorbed by the plants were used to grow salt-tolerant Salicornia europaea L. plants (saltwort). The above-ground biomass of this plant can be used as a food, and roots can be added to the soil-like substrate. Four consecutive wheat and Salicornia vegetations were cultivated. As a result of this wheat and Salicornia cultivation process, the soil-like substrate salinization by NaCl were considerably decreased. PMID:18581263

Ushakova, S A; Zolotukhin, I G; Tikhomirov, A A; Tikhomirova, N A; Kudenko, Yu A; Gribovskaya, I V; Balnokin, Yu; Gros, J B

2008-12-01

75

Effect of Ammonium- and Phosphonium-Based Ionic Liquids on the Separation of Lactic Acid by Supported Ionic Liquid Membranes (SILMs)  

PubMed Central

Biodegradable polymers have attracted much attention from an environmental point of view. Optically pure lactic acid that can be prepared by fermentation is one of the important raw materials for biodegradable polymer. The separation and purification of lactic acid from the fermentation broth are the major portions of the production costs. We proposed the application of supported ionic liquid membranes to recovering lactic acid. In this paper, the effect of ionic liquids, such as Aliquat 336, CYPHOS IL-101, CYPHOS IL-102, CYPHOS IL-104, CYPHOS IL-109 and CYPHOS IL-111 on the lactic acid permeation have been studied. Aliquat 336, CYPHOS IL-101 and CYPHOS IL-102 were found to be the best membrane solvents as far as membrane stability and permeation of lactic acid are concerned. CYPHOS IL-109 and CYPHOS IL-111 were found to be unsuitable, as they leak out from the pores of the supported liquid membrane (SLM), thereby allowing free transport of lactic acid as well as hydrochloric acid. CYPHOS IL-102 was found to be the most adequate (Permeation rate = 60.41%) among these ionic liquids as far as the separation of lactic acid is concerned. The permeation mechanisms, by which ionic liquid-water complexes act as the carrier of lactate and hydrochloric acid, were proposed. The experimental permeation results have been obtained as opposed to the expected values from the solution-diffusion mechanism.

Matsumoto, Michiaki; Panigrahi, Abhishek; Murakami, Yuuki; Kondo, Kazuo

2011-01-01

76

Morphology and growth of mammalian cells in a liquid/liquid culture system supported with oxygenated perfluorodecalin.  

PubMed

Adherent A431, BHK-21, and C2C12 cells were cultured on a flexible interface formed between two immiscible liquid phases: (i) hydrophobic perfluorodecalin (PFD) and (ii) aqueous culture medium (DMEM). BHK-21 cells formed multicellular aggregates characterized by irregular shapes. A431, as well as C2C12 cells, grew as tight multicellular sheets of 3-D cells. Enhanced mass transfer and facilitated access of the cells to the O2 dissolved in PFD/DMEM by approx. 250 % and thereby increased the density of BHK-21 cells. Thus the liquid/liquid system is a simple, ready-to-use, and fully scalable (independent of vessel shapes); consequently it is a method for 3-D cultures of adherent animal cells in which the growth of anchorage-dependent cells is not limited by confluence effect. PMID:23666427

Pilarek, Maciej; Grabowska, Iwona; Ciemerych, Maria A; D?bkowska, Katarzyna; Szewczyk, Krzysztof W

2013-09-01

77

Thorium ions transport across Tri-n-butyl phosphate-benzene based supported liquid membranes  

SciTech Connect

Transport of Th(IV) ions across tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) benzene based liquid membranes supported in microporous hydrophobic polypropylene film (MHPF) has been studied. Various parameters such as variation of nitric acid concentration in the feed, TBP concentration in the membrane, and temperature on the given metal ions transport have been investigated. The effects of nitric acid and TBP concentrations on the distribution coefficient were also studied, and the data obtained were used to determine the Th ions-TBP complex diffusion coefficient in the membrane. Permeability coefficients of Th(IV) ions were also determined as a function of the TBP and nitric acid concentrations. The optimal conditions for the transport of Th(IV) ions across the membrane are 6 mol{sm_bullet}dm{sup -3} HNO{sub 3} concentration, 2.188 mol {center_dot} dm{sup -3} TBP concentration, and 25{degrees}C. The stoichiometry of the chemical species involved in chemical reaction during the transport of Th(IV) ions has also been studied.

Rasul, G.; Chaudry, M.A. [Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Chemistry, Islamabad (Pakistan); Afzal, M. [Quaid-I-Azam Univ., Islamabad (Pakistan)

1995-12-01

78

Ion-selective supported liquid membranes placed under steady-state diffusion control.  

PubMed

Supported liquid membranes are used here to establish steady-state concentration profiles across ion-selective membranes rapidly and reproducibly. This opens up new avenues in the area of nonequilibrium potentiometry, where reproducible accumulation and depletion processes at ion-selective membranes may be used to gain valuable analytical information about the sample. Until today, drifting signals originating from a slowly developing concentration profile across the ion-selective membrane made such approaches impractical in zero current potentiometry. Here, calcium- and silver-selective membranes were placed between two identical aqueous electrolyte solutions, and the open circuit potential was monitored upon changing the composition of one solution. Steady state was reached in approximately 1 min with 25-microm porous polypropylene membranes filled with bis(2-ethylhexyl) sebacate doped with ionophore and lipophilic ion exchanger. Ion transport across the membrane resulted on the basis of nonsymmetric ion-exchange processes at both membrane sides. The steady-state potential was calculated as the sum of the two membrane phase boundary potentials, and good correspondence to experiment was observed. Concentration polarizations in the contacting aqueous phases were confirmed with stirring experiments. It was found that interferences (barium in the case of calcium electrodes and potassium with silver electrodes) induce a larger potential change than expected with the Nicolsky equation because they influence the level of polarization of the primary ion (calcium or silver) that remains potential determining. PMID:16316191

Tompa, Károly; Birbaum, Karin; Malon, Adam; Vigassy, Tamás; Bakker, Eric; Pretsch, Ernö

2005-12-01

79

Textile anionic dyes recovery using tri-n-butyl phosphate as carrier through supported liquid membrane.  

PubMed

The recovery of anionic dyes Acid Red10 B (CI Acid Violet 54) and Acid Pink BE (CI Acid Red 183) in flat type supported liquid membrane (SLM) using tri-n-butyl phosphate as carrier was studied. The parameters studied were the effect of feed phase pH, stripping reagent concentration, string speed and initial dye concentration on permeability of dyes. The influence of salt concentration such as sodium chloride and sodium sulphate on the dye recovery was examined. The reusability of membrane and kinetics of transport were also studied. The optimum conditions of transport are feed phase pH 1 +/- 0.1, 0.1 M sodium hydroxide as stripping phase, stirring speed at 500 rpm. The maximum recovery under optimum conditions was observed as 94.2 % for Acid Red10 B and 85.7 % for Acid Pink BE. The maximum permeability was 11.0 x 10(-6) m/s for Acid Red10 B and 7.7 x 10(-6) m/s for Acid Pink BE. PMID:18472557

Hajarabeevi, N; Bilal, I Mohammed; Amalraj, S; Palanivelu, K

2007-01-01

80

Stability assessment of density reference liquids supported by GC–MS analysis (density reference liquids stability supported by GC–MS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Density measurements are frequently associated to specific requirements to evaluate the quality of a process or to determine mass and\\/or volume of the material. Certified reference liquids can be used to assure metrological traceability of density measurements to the SI with uncertainty lower than 0.005%. This paper presents the new approach of INRIM to set density standards.The procedure involved accurate

Salvatore Lorefice; Elena Amico di Meane; Michela Sega

2010-01-01

81

Ion insertion into ionic liquid supported toluene generated by electrochemical redox reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ion transfer across the toluene|water, toluene–ionic liquid mixture|water and ionic liquid|water boundary generated by electrochemical redox reaction of tert-butylferrocene (tBuFc) was studied with the glassy carbon (GC) electrode partially covered by the organic liquid deposit and immersed in the aqueous electrolyte solution. The electrooxidation of the redox probe in toluene deposit is followed by ejection of newly formed cation into

Galyna Shul; Wojciech Adamiak; Marcin Opallo

2008-01-01

82

Transport of chromium(VI) through a supported liquid membrane containing tri-n-octylphosphine oxide  

SciTech Connect

In this study the transport of chromium(VI) from aqueous solutions of pH 2--4 through a supported liquid membrane (SLM) with tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) dissolved in kerosene as a mobile carrier was investigated. The transport flux of Cr(VI) increased with an increase in the concentrations of Cr(VI) in the feed phase and of TOPO in the membrane phase, but with a decrease in pH of the feed phase. Considering the equilibria of various Cr(VI) species in the aqueous phase and of the Cr(VI)-TOPO complexes formed in the membrane phase, a permeation model including the aqueous film diffusion of HCrO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} and Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7}{sup 2{minus}} toward the membrane, the interfacial chemical reaction between them and TOPO, and the membrane diffusion of the Cr(VI)-TOPO complexes ({ovr H{sub 2}CrO{sub 4}{center_dot}(TOPO)} and {ovr H{sub 2}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7}{center_dot}(TOPO){sub 3}}) was proposed to describe the transport of Cr(VI) through the SLM. By best fitting the transport flux equations of Cr(VI) with the experimental data using the Rosenbrock method, the apparent mass-transfer coefficients of HCrO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} and Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7}{sup 2{minus}} across the aqueous film, and those of {ovr H{sub 2}CrO{sub 4}{center_dot}(TOPO)} and {ovr H{sub 2}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7}{center_dot}(TOPO){sub 3}} across the membrane phase, were obtained. This work helps to clarify the transport mechanism of Cr(VI) through an SLM.

Huang, T.C.; Huang, C.C.; Chen, D.H. [National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1998-09-01

83

Comparison of copper speciation in estuarine water measured using analytical voltammetry and supported liquid membrane techniques.  

PubMed

The supported liquid membrane (SLM) is a promising separation and preconcentration technique that is well-suited for trace metal speciation in natural waters. The technique is based on the selective complexation of metal ions by a hydrophobic ligand (carrier) dissolved in a water-immiscible organic solvent immobilized in a porous, inert membrane. This membrane separates two aqueous solutions: the test (or donor) solution and the strip (or acceptor) solution. The metal carrier complex is transported by diffusion across the membrane from the source to the strip solution where metal ions are back-extracted. The technique offers great potential to tune the selectivity by incorporating different complexing ligands in the membrane. A SLM was used to analyze the dissolved (<0.45 microm) copper speciation from two sites in the San Francisco Bay estuary; Dumbarton Bridge, [Cu]total approximately 27 nM, and San Bruno Shoals, [Cu]total approximately 23 nM. The sites were also characterized independently by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV) using a Nafion-coated thin mercury film electrode (NCTMFE). The SLM employed 10 mM lasalocid, a naturally occurring carboxylic polyether ionophore, in nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE) asthe membrane complexing ligand, supported by a microporous, polypropylene, hydrophobic membrane. This is the first study where SLM technique has been compared with an independent speciation technique in marine waters. Results of copper speciation measurements from Dumbarton Bridge, a site in South San Francisco Bay where copper speciation has been well-characterized in previous studies using various voltammetric techniques, indicated that only about 3% (0.9 nM) of the total dissolved copper was SLM labile. The corresponding DPASV labile copper fraction was <0.4% (<0.1 nM) of total dissolved copper. The concentration of total copper binding ligands measured by the membrane technique was 471 nM as compared to 354 nM measured by DPASV, more than 1 order of magnitude higher than the total dissolved copper concentration. The SLM measurements were consistent with earlier copper speciation measurements that were made in South San Francisco Bay using other voltammetric stripping techniques. PMID:15926567

Ndungu, Kuria; Hurst, Matthew P; Bruland, Kenneth W

2005-05-01

84

Ion transfer processes at the room temperature ionic liquid|aqueous solution interface supported by a hydrophobic carbon nanofibers – silica composite film  

Microsoft Academic Search

A thin film of carbon nanofibers embedded into a hydrophobic sol–gel material and deposited onto tin-doped indium oxide substrate electrodes is employed as a support for liquid|liquid redox systems. The system 1-decyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide|aqueous electrolyte is studied with t-butylferrocene as an electrochemically active component in the ionic liquid phase. Redox processes within the ionic liquid are coupled to ion transfer processes

Ewa Rozniecka; Joanna Niedziolka; Juliette Sirieix-Plenet; Laurent Gaillon; Maria A. Murphy; Frank Marken; Marcin Opallo

2006-01-01

85

Synthesis and characterization of heteropolytungstate-ionic liquid supported on the surface of silica coated magnetite nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silica coated magnetic nanoparticles supported ionic liquid, IL-SCMNPs, was prepared by covalent attachment of chloropropyl silyl groups and reacted with 1-methyl imidazole on the surface of the silica coated magnetic nanoparticles. Then, reaction of IL-SCMNPs with H3PW12O40 resulted in the preparation of heteropolytungstate-ionic liquid supported on the surface of silica coated magnetite nanoparticles, PW-IL-SCMNPs. The PW-IL-SCMNPs were characterized with different physicochemical methods such as Fourier transform Infrared and atomic absorption spectroscopies, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), and thermogravimetric analyses. VSM analysis showed superparamagnetic properties of the materials and TEM and SEM analyses indicated the relatively uniform spherical nanoparticles with 20 nm average size. Finally, catalytic activity of the prepared PW-IL-SCMNPs was examined in the epoxidation of olefins with H2O2.

Bagheri, M.; Masteri-Farahani, M.; Ghorbani, M.

2013-02-01

86

Determination of short-chain fatty acids in serum by hollow fiber supported liquid membrane extraction coupled with gas chromatography.  

PubMed

A method based on hollow fiber supported liquid membrane extraction coupled with a gas chromatograph equipped with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) was developed for the determination of six short-chain fatty acids including acetic acid, propionic acid, i-butyric acid, n-butyric acid, i-valeric acid and n-valeric acid in serum. Hollow fiber supported liquid membrane extraction was employed for preconcentration and clean-up of the samples. The fatty acids were extracted from the acidic donor (diluted serum) into a liquid membrane formed in the wall of the hollow fiber with 10% tri-n-octylphoshphine oxide (TOPO) in di-n-hexyl ether, and then extracted back into a basic acceptor solution filled in the lumen of the hollow fiber. After being acidified with HCl, the acceptor was directly analyzed by GC-FID. The acceptor concentration, donor pH, membrane liquid and extracting time were optimized giving an enrichment factor up to 155 times. The good linearity (r(2)>0.980), reasonable recovery (87.2-121%), and satisfactory intra-assay (8.2-11.5%) and inter-assay (6.1-11.6%) precision illustrated the good performance of the present method. Limits of detection (LOD) ranged from 0.04 to 0.24 microM and limits of quantification (LOQ) varied from 0.13 to 0.80 microM. PMID:17070116

Zhao, Guohua; Liu, Jing-Fu; Nyman, Margareta; Jönsson, Jan Ake

2007-02-01

87

Liquid phase methanol LaPorte Process Development Unit: Modification, operation, and support studies  

SciTech Connect

The LPMEOH process was conceived and patented by Chem Systems Inc. in 1975. Initial research and studies on the process focused on two distinct modes of operation. The first was a liquid fluidized mode with relatively large catalyst pellets suspended in a fluidizing liquid, and the second was an entrained (slurry) mode with fine catalyst particles slurried in an inert liquid. The development of both operating modes progressed in parallel from bench scale reactors, through an intermediate scale lab PDU, and then to the LaPorte PDU in 1984. The slurry mode of operation was ultimately chosen as the operating mode of choice due to its superior performance.

Not Available

1991-02-28

88

Determination of free copper concentrations in natural waters by using supported liquid membrane extraction under equilibrium conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described for measurement of freely dissolved copper concentrations in natural water samples using supported liquid membrane (SLM) extraction under equilibrium conditions, a technique denoted “equilibrium sampling through membranes” (ESTM). For this purpose, 1,10-dibenzyl-1,10-diaza-18-crown-6 as neutral carrier and oleic acid were used in the membrane phase. The main variables optimised were the carrier used to form the metal

Roberto Romero; Jan Åke Jönsson

2005-01-01

89

Transformation of platinum supported on silicon-doped alumina during the catalytic decomposition of energetic ionic liquid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stability of 10 wt% platinum supported on Si-doped alumina (Pt\\/Si–Al2O3) during the catalytic decomposition of energetic ionic liquid (or propellant) at 40?°C was studied. The reaction was performed by successive injections of 79 wt% HAN (hydroxylammonium nitrate NH3OHNO3) aqueous solution onto the catalysts in a constant volume batch reactor. The four studied catalysts remain active with a fast reaction

L. Courtheoux; E. Gautron; S. Rossignol; C. Kappenstein

2005-01-01

90

Critical parameters in a supported liquid membrane extraction technique for ionizable organic compounds with a stagnant acceptor phase.  

PubMed

The reviews cover important critical parameters that are often optimized in a supported liquid membrane extraction technique in both flat sheet and hollow fibre designs for ionizable organic molecules. Understanding of these parameters can enable one to predict the behavior of the compound before hand and thus reduce the number of optimization experiments. Moreover, less number of experiments can be also generated using statistical techniques which are now becoming more commonly used. Supported liquid membrane extraction optimal parameters such as the conditions of the pH of the acceptor and donor phases should easily be fixed from the pKa values of the compounds. Other parameters, including the polarity of the compound can help to predict the partitioning into the membrane and the behavior of the compound. The influence of parameters such as temperature on the mass transfer in supported liquid membrane depends on the design of the module, experimental design and type of mass transfer controlling the extraction process. PMID:20096843

Chimuka, Luke; Msagati, Titus A M; Cukrowska, Ewa; Tutu, Hlanganani

2010-04-16

91

Application of hollow fiber supported liquid membrane extraction to the simultaneous determination of pesticide residues in vegetables by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A new analytical procedure using a hollow fiber supported liquid membrane (HFSLM) has been developed for the simultaneous determination of pesticide residues in vegetables by liquid chromatography (LC) coupled with electrospray mass spectrometry (MS). The extraction technique requires minimal sample preparation and solvent consumption. Optimum extraction conditions have been evaluated with respect to sample pH, ionic strength, liquid membrane composition, extraction time, stirring rate and acceptor composition. The extraction method has been validated for matrices such as cucumber, tomato and pepper, indicating that cucumber can be selected as representative matrix for routine analysis of these food commodities. Linear ranges of pesticides in vegetable samples were 10 to 200 microg/kg, and the repeatability of the method was less than 20% for the lowest calibration point. The limits of detection ranged from 0.06 to 2.7 microg/kg and the limits of quantification from 0.2 to 9.0 microg/kg, which were low enough to determine the pesticide residues at concentrations below or equal to the maximum residue levels (MRLs) specified by European Union. The method was finally applied to the determination of more than 20 pesticides in market vegetable samples and the concentrations found in these samples were always lower than the MRLs. This new approach can be considered as a powerful alternative to the traditional extraction techniques. PMID:16921567

Romero-González, Roberto; Pastor-Montoro, Elena; Martínez-Vidal, José Luis; Garrido-Frenich, Antonia

2006-01-01

92

Multiresidue determination of sulfonamides in a variety of biological matrices by supported liquid membrane with high pressure liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry detection.  

PubMed

A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to a mass spectrometer (MS) was used for a simultaneous determination of 16 sulfonamide compounds spiked in water, urine, milk, and bovine liver and kidney tissues. Supported liquid membrane (SLM) made up of 5% tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) dissolved in hexyl amine was used as a sample clean-up and/or enrichment technique. The sulfonamides mixture was made up of 5-sulfaminouracil, sulfaguanidine, sulfamethoxazole, sulfamerazine, sulfamethizole, sulfamethazine (sulfadimidine), sulfacetamide, sulfapyridine, sulfabenzamide, sulfamethoxypyridazine, sulfamonomethoxine, sulfadimethoxine sulfasalazine, sulfaquinoxaline, sulfadiazine, and sulfathiazole. Some of these compounds, such as, sulfaquinoxaline, sulfadiazine, sulfabenzamide, sulfathiazole and sulfapyridine failed to be trapped efficiently by the same liquid membrane (5% TOPO in hexylamine). The detection limits (DL) obtained were 1.8ppb for sulfaguanidine and sulfamerazine and between 3.3 and 10ppb in bovine liver and kidney tissues for the other sulfonamides that were successfully enriched with SLM; 2.1ppb for sulfaguanidine and sulfamerazine and between 7.5 and 15ppb in cow's urine, whereas the DL values in milk were 12.4ppb for sulfaguanidine and sulfamerazine and between 16.8 and 24.3 for the other compounds that were successfully enriched by the membrane. Several factors affecting the extraction efficiency during SLM enrichment, such as donor pH, acceptor pH, enrichment time and the membrane solvent were studied. PMID:18969572

Msagati, Titus A M; Nindi, Mathew Muzi

2004-09-01

93

Liquid phase nitration of benzene over supported ammonium salt of 12-molybdophosphoric acid catalysts prepared by sol-gel method.  

PubMed

A mild and clean liquid nitration of benzene with 65% nitric acid as nitrating agent over silica supported ammonium salt of 12-molybdophosphoric acid catalysts has been investigated. These catalysts with different loadings were prepared by sol-gel method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and FTIR spectra. The acidity of these catalysts was measured by the potentiometric titration method. The XRD and IR analysis revealed that supported catalysts possess the Keggin structure which is similar to 12-molybdophosphoric acid. And it can be found that the supported catalysts had high nitration reaction catalytic activity and selectivity over nitrobenzene. The effects of various parameters such as nitric acid/benzene volume ratio, temperature and time of reaction have also been systematically studied. PMID:20185228

Gong, Shuwen; Liu, Lijun; Cui, Qingxin; Ding, Junhong

2010-06-15

94

Urine sample preparation of tricyclic antidepressants by means of a supported liquid membrane technique for high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis.  

PubMed

Supported liquid membrane (SLM) technique for sample work-up and enrichment was used for determination of tricyclic antidepressant drugs in urine by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV detection. The studied antidepressant drugs were amitriptyline, opipramol, noxiptyline and additionally diethazine was used as possible internal standard. Alkaline phosphoric buffer with urine sample, as the donor solution, was passed over the liquid membrane into which investigated substances were extracted. On the other side of the membrane, analyzed compounds were trapped due to creating non-extractable form in acidic acceptor solution. Enriched and cleaned up drugs were then injected into a HPLC system with ultraviolet detection to analyze of their concentration in acceptor solution. Optimum extraction efficiency was determined by changing acceptor and donor solutions pH, application of different flow rates of donor solution and by using different solvents in the membrane. Also, donor solution volume, extraction time and concentration of analytes were varied to check the linearity of extraction process. The highest extraction efficiency: 43% for opipramol, 56% for noxiptyline, 43% for amitriptyline and 42% for diethazine (R.S.D. values were <6% and n=3) was achieved when 0.05 M phosphate buffer pH 4.0 and 9.5 were used as donor and acceptor solutions, respectively, n-undecane with 5% tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) was used as liquid membrane. Limit of quantification (LOQ) for tricyclic antidepressants after enrichment of 100ml of urine sample was about 1 ng/ml. PMID:14751789

Trocewicz, J

2004-03-01

95

Concentration of europium(III) with supported liquid membrane containing a xylene solution of Di-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid  

SciTech Connect

The mechanism of europium transport through a supported liquid membrane is presented. The membrane consisted of a Teflon filter membrane with xylene solution of di-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid (HDEHP) as a mobile carrier held within the pores by capillary forces. Interposing the liquid membrane between two aqueous solutions of different pH, europium was transported and concentrated from the high pH solution to the low pH solution across the liquid membrane. The experiments were carried out to investigate the effects of the concentration of europium in the aqueous phase and HDEHP concentration in the membrane solution on permeation rates. The results have been compared with a transport model for concentrating europium across the liquid membrane. The permeation rates of europium can be explained approximately by the diffusion process of the complex formed between the europium ion and HDEHP at the membrane interface through the membrane in addition to the diffusion process of europium in the aqueous film adjacent to the membrane interface.

Nishiki, T.; Bautista, R.G.

1983-03-01

96

Extraction of europium (III) with supported liquid membrane containing a xylene solution of Di-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid  

SciTech Connect

The mechanism of europium transport through a supported liquid membrane is presented. The membrane consisted of a Teflon filter membrane with xylene solution of di-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid (HDEHP) as a mobile carrier held within the pores by capillary forces. Interposing the liquid membrane between two aqueous solutions of different pH, europium was transported and concentrated from the high pH solution to the low pH solution across the liquid membrane. The experiments were carried out to investigate the effects of the concentration of europium in the aqueous phase and HDEHP concentration in the membrane solution on the permeation rates of europium. The experimental results have been compared with a transport model for concentrating europium across the liquid membrane. The permeation rates of europium can be explained approximately by the diffusion process of the complex formed between europium ion and HDEHP at the membrane interface through the membrane in addition to the diffusion process of europium in the aqueous film adjacent to the membrane interface.

Nishiki, T.; Bautista, R.G.

1982-01-01

97

Monitoring of N-methyl carbamate pesticide residues in water using hollow fibre supported liquid membrane and solid phase extraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this work was to develop a method for the determination of N-methyl carbamates in water involving hollow fibre supported liquid membrane (HFSLM) and solid phase extraction (SPE) as sample preparation methods. Four N-methyl carbamate pesticides, aldicarb, carbaryl, carbofuran and methiocarb sulfoxide, were simultaneously extracted and analysed by a liquid chromatograph with a diode array detector (LC-UV/DAD) and a liquid chromatograph coupled to a ion trap quadrupole mass spectrometer (LC-ESI-MS). The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation of carabamate extracts was performed on a C18 column with water-acetonitrile as the mobile phase. The mass spectrometry analyses were carried out in the positive mode, operating under both the selected ion monitoring (SIM) and full scan modes. The solid phase recoveries of the extracts ranged between 8% and 98%, with aldicarb having the highest recoveries, followed by carbaryl, carbofuran and methiocarb had the lowest recovery. The HFSLM recovery ranged between 8% and 58% and the order of recovery was similar to the SPE trend. Factors controlling the efficiency of the HFSLM extraction such as sample pH, stripping phase pH, enrichment time, stirring speed as well as organic solvent used for entrapment of analytes, were optimised to achieve the highest enrichment factors.

Msagati, Titus A. M.; Mamba, Bhekie B.

98

THE USE OF GC-MS TO SUPPORT STABILITY ASSESSMENT OF DENSITY REFERENCE LIQUIDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Density measurements are frequently associated to specific requirements in order to evaluate the quality of a process or to determine mass and\\/or volume of the material. Certified reference liquids can be used to assure metrological traceability of density measurements to the International System of Units (SI) with uncertainty lower than 0.005 %. This paper presents the new approach of the

Salvatore Lorefice; Elena Amico di Meane; Michela Sega

99

Effects of Silica Nanoparticle Supported Ionic Liquid as Additive on Thermal Reversibility of Human Carbonic Anhydrase II  

PubMed Central

Silica nanoparticle supported imidazolium ionic liquid [SNImIL] was synthesized and utilized as a biocompatible additive for studying the thermal reversibility of human carbonic anhydrase II (HCA II). For this purpose, we prepared additive by modification of nanoparticles through the grafting of ionic liquids on the surface of nanoparticles (SNImIL). The SNImIL were fully characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and thermo gravimetric analysis. The characterization of HCA II was investigated by various techniques including UV–Vis and ANS fluorescence spectrophotometry, differential scanning calorimetry, and docking study. SNImIL induced disaggregation, enhanced protein stability and increased thermal reversibility of HCA II by up to 42% at pH 7.75.

Fallahbagheri, Azadeh; Saboury, Ali Akbar; Ma'mani, Leila; Taghizadeh, Mohammad; Khodarahmi, Reza; Ranjbar, Samira; Bohlooli, Mousa; Shafiee, Abbas; Foroumadi, Alireza; Sheibani, Nader; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar

2013-01-01

100

Selective mass transfer of iron(III) in supported liquid membrane using highly acidic extractants, 3-phenyl-4-acyl-5-isoxazolones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ion-size recognition of three trivalent metal ions (Fe(III), Al(III), Cr(III)) with 3-phenyl-4-acyl-5-isoxazolones derivatives has been studied by the liquid-liquid extraction method. The diffusion of the corresponding complexes with Fe(III) in supported liquid membrane (SLM) system has been evaluated. It was found that the selectivity improves as the 4-acyl groups become bulkier. This improvement could be attributed to the narrowed distance

M. G. Buonomenna; R. Molinari; E. Drioli

2002-01-01

101

Mass Transfer and Chemical Reaction of Gaseous Species in Non-Catalytic and Catalytic Porous Media Supporting Catalytic and Non-Catalytic Liquids.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results of a research program aimed at obtaining fundamental understanding about the kinetic and transport behavior of supported liquid-phase catalysts (SLPC) are summarized. Details of the research are provided in the appended journal publications. In ad...

R. G. Rinker

1981-01-01

102

Transport of titanium(IV) ions across di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid-CCl 4 supported liquid membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transport study for Ti(IV) ions using di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid (D2EHPA) (carrier)-CCl4 (diluent) liquid supported membrane in microporous polypropylene hydrophobic film has been performed. The parameters studied are effects of carrier, H2SO4, stripping agent (NH4F) concentrations and temperature variation on flux and permeability coefficients of the metal ion. The optimum concentrations of transport found are 2.04 mol·dm–3 D2EHPA, 1.0 mol·dm–3 H2SO4 in

M. Ashraf Chaudry; M. Tayyib Malik; Munir Ahmad

1992-01-01

103

Study of the separation limits of continuous solid support free liquid-liquid chromatography: separation of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin by centrifugal partition chromatography.  

PubMed

Sequential centrifugal partition chromatography (sCPC) is a cyclic solid support-free liquid-liquid chromatographic process, in which a continuously introduced feed mixture is separated into two sequentially collected product streams. The few experimental demonstrations of this concept already revealed its potential for the preparative separation of pharmaceuticals and fine chemicals. In this work not only the possibilities, but also the limits of the sCPC technology are explored. A feed mixture consisting of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin, whose molecular structure differs in only one double bond, was selected for this purpose. The sCPC unit operating parameters needed for a complete separation of the feed mixture were selected using the recently published approach, which uses the partition coefficient of the feed components and the hydrodynamic characteristics of the system as input data. A complete separation of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin with the solvent system heptane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water:1/1/1/1 (v/v/v/v) was achieved, although the separation factor was only 1.32. The sCPC unit separation performance was successfully simulated using the cell model. PMID:23466203

Goll, Johannes; Frey, Andreas; Minceva, Mirjana

2013-04-01

104

A chemically defined liquid medium that supports primary isolation of Rochalimaea (Bartonella) henselae from blood and tissue specimens.  

PubMed

Rochalimaea (Bartonella) henselae is a fastidious, slowly growing, gram-negative bacillus that is an etiologic agent of bacillary angiomatosis, cat scratch disease, and related syndromes. Accumulation of direct microbiologic evidence of the relationship between the organism and the syndromes compatible with cat scratch disease has been hindered by the difficulties in the primary isolation of the organism from infected tissue specimens. A chemically defined liquid medium was developed to support the growth of Rochalimaea species to facilitate study of the organism. This medium was also used successfully to isolate R. henselae from clinical specimens from infected patients and a domestic cat. Recovery of R. henselae in this was more successful than when recovery was attempted on solid agar. This cell-free, extract-free, defined medium additionally supported the growth of Rochalimaea quintana and Afipia felis. PMID:7538511

Wong, M T; Thornton, D C; Kennedy, R C; Dolan, M J

1995-03-01

105

The XT-tube extractor: a hollow fiber-based supported liquid membrane extractor for bioanalytical sample preparation.  

PubMed

A new supported liquid membrane extractor for bioanalytical sample preparation is presented. The extractor consists of a polypropylene hollow fiber mounted inside a PTFE tube by means of a cross-connector and a tee-connector. All parts are commercially available, inexpensive, and easily assembled. An organic solvent in the pores of the fiber forms a liquid membrane that separates the sample, which is pumped along the outside of the fiber, from the acceptor phase, which is pumped inside. The length of the hollow fiber may easily be varied to meet different demands on extractive surface and extract volumes. To test the system, the strongly acidic plasticizer/flame retardant metabolite diphenyl phosphate ester (DPhP), with a pKa value of 0.26, was extracted from urine. DPhP was protonated using 4 M hydrochloric acid and extracted into an acceptor phase at pH 9. Thirty extractions were made with the same liquid membrane without any decrease in extraction efficiency and with a relative standard deviation <7%. An analyte concentration enrichment of 5-10 times was achieved in the extraction step, giving a limit of detection (S/N = 3) of 0.014 microg/mL with LC/ESI-MS and 0.18 microg/mL with CE-UV. The effects on extraction efficiency using different sample pH, organic solvents, sample flow rates, and lengths of the fiber were evaluated. PMID:14570204

Jonsson, Ove B; Nordlöf, Ulrika; Nilsson, Ulrika L

2003-07-15

106

Luttinger liquid theory of Coulomb drag in mesoscopic rings,(Supported in part by US DOE.)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop a Luttinger liquid theory of the Coulomb drag of persistent currents, flowing in concentric mesoscopic rings, by incorporating non-linear corrections to the electron dispersion relation. We demonstrate that at low temperatures interactions between electrons in different rings generate an additional phase and thus alter the period of Aharonov-Bohm oscillations. The resulting nondissipative(A. G. Rojo and G. D. Mahan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68) 2074 (1992). drag depends strongly on the relative parity of the electron numbers. We also show that interactions set a new temperature scale below which the linear response theory does not apply at certain values of external flux.

Shahbazyan, T. V.; Ulloa, S. E.

1997-03-01

107

Status of development and licensing support for advanced liquid metal reactors in the United States  

SciTech Connect

The cornerstones of the United States Advanced Liquid Metal Cooled Reactor (ALMR) program sponsored by the Department of Energy are: the ALMR plant design program at General Electric based on the PRISM (Power Reactor Innovative Small Module) concept, and the Integral Fast Reactor program (IFR) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The goal of the US program is to produce a standard, commercial ALMR, including the associated fuel cycle. The paper addresses the status of the IFR program, the ALMR program and the interaction of the ALMR program with the regulatory environment.

Pedersen, D.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Gyorey, G. [General Electric Co., San Jose, CA (United States)

1991-12-01

108

Status of development and licensing support for advanced liquid metal reactors in the United States  

SciTech Connect

The cornerstones of the United States Advanced Liquid Metal Cooled Reactor (ALMR) program sponsored by the Department of Energy are: the ALMR plant design program at General Electric based on the PRISM (Power Reactor Innovative Small Module) concept, and the Integral Fast Reactor program (IFR) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The goal of the US program is to produce a standard, commercial ALMR, including the associated fuel cycle. The paper addresses the status of the IFR program, the ALMR program and the interaction of the ALMR program with the regulatory environment.

Pedersen, D.R. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Gyorey, G. (General Electric Co., San Jose, CA (United States))

1991-01-01

109

Apparatus for supporting contactors used in extracting nuclear materials from liquids  

DOEpatents

Apparatus is provided for supporting one or more contactor stages used to remove radioactive materials from aqueous solutions. The contactor stages include a housing having an internal rotor, a motor secured to the top of the housing for rotating the rotor, and a drain in the bottom of the housing. The support apparatus includes two or more vertical members each secured to a ground support that is horizontal and perpendicular to the frame member, and a horizontally disposed frame member. The frame member may be any suitable shape, but is preferably a rectangular tube having substantially flat, spaced top and bottom surfaces separated by substantially vertical side surfaces. The top and bottom surfaces each have an opening through which the contactor housing is secured so that the motor is above the frame and the drain is below the frame during use.

Leonard, Ralph A. (River Forest, IL); Frank, Robert C. (Crestwood, IL)

1991-01-01

110

Liquid-phase hydrogenation of o-chloronitrobenzene over supported nickel catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of supports (SiO2, ZrO2, TiO2 and Al2O3) on the performance of nickel catalysts for the hydrogenation of o-chloronitrobenzene was investigated. It was found that the supports strongly influenced the catalytic performance of the catalysts, and Ni\\/TiO2 showed the best catalytic performance. Over Ni\\/TiO2, 99.9% conversion of o-chloronitrobenzene and 99.5% selectivity of o-chloroaniline were obtained at 1.5MPa and 363K.

Jun Xiong; Jixiang Chen; Jiyan Zhang

2007-01-01

111

Influence of support on the performance of molybdenum sulfide catalysts used to hydrotreat coal liquids  

SciTech Connect

Supports for molybdenum sulfide hydrotreating catalysts included silica, silica-magnesia, titania, chromia-alumina, activated carbon and nitrided activated carbon. The alumina supported Amocat 1A and Amocat 1C as well as the silica-alumina supported, Harshaw CoMo-0402 were also studied. Catalysts were characterized by BET surface area, mercury porosimetry and x-ray powder diffraction. Acidity was measured by the temperature programmed desorption of tert-butyl amine. Initial activity screening studies were conducted in a stirred autoclave batch reactor to determine appropriate metals loadings for the various supports. Initially active catalysts were then tested in a bench scale, trickle bed reactor to determine activity maintenance, coking tendency and selectivity at lined out conditions. Selectivities for hydrodenitrogenation and for the production of hydrogen donor molecules were of interest. The donatable hydrogen content of the produce was determined by {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy. The results indicated a strong correlation between lined out hydrogenation activity and the volume in 60-200 {angstrom} diameter pores. A second correlation was observed between HDN activity and acid site density, indicating the importance of acid sites in denitrogenation. Low acidity catalysts appeared to produce a greater hydrogen donor content in the product oil than did high acidity catalysts but the results were not conclusive. The results also suggest that Bronsted acid sites can markedly reduce coking tendency but that in general, coke formation is related in a complex way to the acid/base chemistry of the surface.

McCormick, R.L.

1988-01-01

112

Evolution of Sodium Technology R and D Actions Supporting French Liquid-Metal Fast Breeder Reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the evolution of sodium technology research and development in parallel to sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor (FBR) developments in France and provides information concerning operating plants and existing projects. This paper also discusses how supporting research has adapted to the decline in FBR activities since the decommissioning of Superphenix, while capitalizing on knowledge acquired over more than four

G. Rodriguez; F. Baque; J. C. Astegiano

2005-01-01

113

The Role of the Liquid?Solid Interface in the Preparation of Supported Catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contribution of the Interface Science to the preparation of supported catalysts during the last two decades is presented. It is illustrated how the concepts and the methodologies of the Interface Science could be effectively used for an in?depth understanding of the phenomena involved in the initial preparation step. This, extremely critical step, concerns the deposition of transition metal species

Kyriakos Bourikas; Christos Kordulis; Alexis Lycourghiotis

2006-01-01

114

Theory of acoustic scattering by supported ridges at a solid-liquid interface.  

PubMed

We combine a general Green's function formalism and an approach due to Nyborg [W. L. Nyborg, in Acoustic Streaming, Physical Acoustics, edited by W. P. Mason (Academic, London, 1965), Vol. II B, Chap. 11] to calculate the first-order pressure and second-order pressure gradient fields in the vicinity of solid inhomogeneities at a solid/liquid interface. We treat the problem of scattering of an incident acoustic plane wave by a single ridge and two parallel ridges separated by a trench on a planar substrate. The calculated vibrational density of states shows the existence of resonances at low frequencies, especially in the case of a trench. Excitation of a trench resonant vibrational mode enhances the magnitude of the first-order pressure and of the second-order pressure gradient. The resonant frequencies of a trench decrease and the pressure enhancement increases with increasing aspect ratio of the ridges (height to width). PMID:11909279

Khelif, A; Vasseur, J O; Lambin, Ph; Djafari-Rouhani, B; Deymier, P A

2002-03-01

115

Supported phospholipid bilayer interaction with components found in typical room-temperature ionic liquids - a QCM-D and AFM Study.  

PubMed

Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) monitoring and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were combined to evaluate the defects created by an ionic liquid anion and a cation in a supported phospholipid bilayer composed of zwitterionic lipids on a silica surface. The cation 1-octyl-3-methyl imidazolium (OMIM(+)) was shown to remove lipids from the bilayer, increase the roughness to approximately 2.8 nm (~0.2 for stable supported bilayer) and possibly redeposit lipids with entrapped water. The anion bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (Tf(2)N(-)) was found to leave distinct defects within the bilayer that had large pore-like interiors which left the surrounding bilayer intact. However, the ionic liquid 1-butyl-1-methyl pyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (BMP-Tf(2)N) formed a film over the supported bilayer. This work demonstrates, for the first time, the direct effects common components of ionic liquids have on a supported phospholipids bilayer. PMID:19325765

Evans, Kervin O

2008-04-01

116

Production of fungal antibiotics using polymeric solid supports in solid-state and liquid fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of inert absorbent polymeric supports for cellular attachment in solid-state fungal fermentation influenced growth, morphology, and production of bioactive secondary metabolites. Two filamentous fungi exemplified the utility of this approach to facilitate the discovery of new antimicrobial compounds. Cylindrocarpon sp. LL-Cyan426 produced pyrrocidines A and B and Acremonium sp. LL-Cyan416 produced acremonidins A–E when grown on agar bearing

Ramunas Bigelis; Haiyin He; Hui Y. Yang; Li-Ping Chang; Michael Greenstein

2006-01-01

117

Development of one-step hollow fiber supported liquid phase sampling technique for occupational workplace air analysis using high performance liquid chromatography with ultra-violet detector.  

PubMed

In this study, a simple and novel one-step hollow-fiber supported liquid-phase sampling (HF-LPS) technique was developed for enriched sampling of gaseous toxic species prior to chemical analysis for workplace air monitoring. A lab-made apparatus designed with a gaseous sample generator and a microdialysis sampling cavity (for HF-LPS) was utilized and evaluated to simulate gaseous contaminant air for occupational workplace analysis. Gaseous phenol was selected as the model toxic species. A polyethersulfone hollow fiber dialysis module filled with ethylene glycol in the shell-side was applied as the absorption solvent to collect phenol from a gas flow through the tube-side, based on the concentration distribution of phenol between the absorption solvent and the gas flow. After sampling, 20 ?L of the extractant was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV). Factors that influence the generation of gaseous standards and the HF-LPS were studied thoroughly. Results indicated that at 25 °C the phenol (2000 ?g/mL) standard solution injected at 15-?L/min can be vaporized into sampling cavity under nitrogen flow at 780 mL/min, to generate gaseous phenol with concentration approximate to twice the permissible exposure limit. Sampling at 37.3 mL/min for 30 min can meet the requirement of the workplace air monitoring. The phenol in air ranged between 0.7 and 10 cm³/m³ (shows excellent linearity) with recovery between 98.1 and 104.1%. The proposed method was identified as a one-step sampling for workplace monitoring with advantages of convenience, rapidity, sensitivity, and usage of less-toxic solvent. PMID:22673811

Yan, Cheing-Tong; Chien, Hai-Ying

2012-07-13

118

Liquid phase methanol LaPorte process development unit: Modification, operation, and support studies  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this program are to implement and test the process improvements identified through the engineering studies of the current program to demonstrate the capability of long-term catalyst activity maintenance, and to perform process and design engineering work that can be applied to a scaled-up Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH) facility. An optional series of PDU runs is offered to extend the testing of the process improvements. A parallel research program will be performed to enhance the LPMEOH technical data base to improve the likelihood of commercialization of the LPMEOH process. Activities this quarter include: Flow sheet development for La Porte PDU modifications continues. A preliminary P ID review was completed and flow sheet modifications were identified and are being incorporated. A preliminary hazards review was completed on 22 May. Some minor flow sheet modifications resulted and a number of action items were identified. The most significant action item is to develop a materials reactivity and compatibility grid for the different alcohols, ethers, and esters which will be produced at the PDU. Heat and material balances were completed for the maximum production case of the mixed DME/MEOH synthesis campaign. An improved rate expression was developed. 1 fig.

Not Available

1990-10-23

119

Liquid phase methanol LaPorte PDU: Modification, operation, and support studies  

SciTech Connect

Operation of a methanol synthesis reactor in the liquid phase requires an efficient catalyst poison removal system. A number of commercially available adsorbents were screened for their ability to remove the following methanol catalyst poisons: Fe(CO){sub 5}, Ni(CO){sub 4}, COS, H{sub 2}S, and HCl. Adsorption isotherms were measured at various carrier gas pressures and two temperatures on several adsorbents, including active carbons, zeolites, alumina, silica gel, metal oxide impregnated active carbons, metal oxide promoted zinc oxide, metal oxide promoted alumina, and spent methanol catalyst. By monitoring the approach to equilibrium as a function of time, mass transfer coefficients for the adsorption of these trace impurities were also determined. From this adsorbent screening, the preferred adsorbent for removal of each catalyst poison was identified. The equilibrium and kinetic adsorptive properties for each poison/adsorbent system were used to design a poison removal scheme. This design will be tested in a pilot unit using coal gas from a commercial gasifier. 5 refs., 30 figs., 3 tabs.

Not Available

1990-09-28

120

Liquid phase methanol LaPorte process development unit: Modification, operation, and support studies  

SciTech Connect

Contract objectives are to perform process and design engineering work that can be applied to a scaled-up Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH*) facility. An optional series of runs on the Process Development Unit (PDU) is offered to extend the testing of the process improvements. This quarter a four-parameter, mathematical model based on a dual-site Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism was used by PSG Researchers to successfully describe LPMEOH reaction kinetics with BASF S3-85 catalyst. Methanol synthesis catalyst is susceptible to poisoning by trace contaminants (eg. H{sub 2}S, COS, iron carbonyl) present in coal-derived synthesis gas. A guard-bed adsorption system developed by PSG Research to treat feed gas to a LPMEOH reactor was successfully tested in the final phase of the Iron Run laboratory program. The first series of coal gas clean-up experiments at the Great Plains Synfuels plant site were completed. Catalyst activity experienced persistent decline. Two scenarios were identified as the most likely reasons for the deactivation. 12 figs., 5 tabs.

Brown, D.M. (Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (USA)); Frank, M.E. (Chem Systems, Inc., Tarrytown, NY (USA))

1990-06-18

121

A review of the supply of liquid propellants and other fluids in support of the Space Shuttle Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this study, over twenty significant liquid propellants and other fluids were reviewed as to their supply in support of the Space Shuttle Program (SSP), primarily at KSC. The uniqueness of most of the products, either by their application or production characteristics, present a variety of supply issues to contend with. Each, however, is critical to the success of the SSP. It becomes necessary to formulate, and maintain, a logistic approach to assure a continued availability of each product. For convenience, two categories were established. One, labeled limited-availability, represents those products wherein they are single sourced, have production restrictions and/or there has been a history of supply problems. The other, labeled universally-available, is characteristic of those having several sources and/or having little, if any, historical supply problems. This last category was not examined in depth. Through concepts of establishing stockpile inventories, multiple supply contracts, or other arrangements, the supply of liquid propellants and other fluids can be assured.

Churchwell, Stacy E.; Bain, A. L.

1989-01-01

122

MAGNETIC LIQUID DEFORMABLE MIRRORS FOR ASTRONOMICAL APPLICATIONS: ACTIVE CORRECTION OF OPTICAL ABERRATIONS FROM LOWER-GRADE OPTICS AND SUPPORT SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

Deformable mirrors are increasingly used in astronomy. However, they still are limited in stroke for active correction of high-amplitude optical aberrations. Magnetic liquid deformable mirrors (MLDMs) are a new technology that has the advantages of high-amplitude deformations and low costs. In this paper, we demonstrate extremely high strokes and interactuator strokes achievable by MLDMs which can be used in astronomical instrumentation. In particular, we consider the use of such a mirror to suggest an interesting application for the next generation of large telescopes. We present a prototype 91 actuator deformable mirror made of a magnetic liquid (ferrofluid). This mirror uses a technique that linearizes the response of such mirrors by superimposing a large and uniform magnetic field on the magnetic field produced by an array of small coils. We discuss experimental results that illustrate the performance of MLDMs. A most interesting application of MLDMs comes from the fact they could be used to correct the aberrations of large and lower optical quality primary mirrors held by simple support systems. We estimate basic parameters of the needed MLDMs, obtaining reasonable values.

Borra, E. F., E-mail: borra@phy.ulaval.ca [Departement de Physique, de Genie Physique et d'Optique, Universite Laval, Quebec, QC G1V 0A6 (Canada)

2012-08-01

123

Separation and pre-concentration of glucocorticoids in water samples by ionic liquid supported vortex-assisted synergic microextraction and HPLC determination.  

PubMed

We have developed a synergic microextraction procedure based on ionic liquid for the pre-concentration and determination of glucocorticoids in water samples. Using nonionic surfactant Triton X-100 (TX-100) as synergic reagent, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexa-fluorophosphate accomplished extraction rapidly without heating in water bath. One key property of ionic liquids that highlights their potential is their wide liquid temperature range. The improved extraction was named as ionic liquid supported vortex-assisted synergic microextraction. Compared with the traditional liquid-liquid extraction and cloud point extraction, ionic liquid supported vortex-assisted synergic microextraction was accomplished in 8 min with considerably high recovery. The proposed method greatly improved the sensitivity of HPLC for the determination of glucocorticoids. The results obtained indicated a good linearity with the correlation coefficient of 0.997 over the range of 0.6-300 ng/mL and high sensitivity with LODs of 4.11, 9.19, and 7.50 ng/mL for hydrocortisone butyrate, beclomethasone dipropionate, and nandrolone phenylpropionate, respectively. The RSD of the method was 1.57-1.81% (n = 6) with enrichment factor of 99.85, and good recovery (?97.24%). The method was successfully applied to the determination of glucocorticoids in mineral water, water of Dianchi lake, and tap water samples. PMID:23418157

Qin, Hui; Li, Bi; Liu, Mou Sheng; Yang, Ya Ling

2013-04-01

124

Use of halophytic plants for recycling NaCl in human liquid waste in a bioregenerative life support system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this work was to develop technology for recycling NaCl containing in human liquid waste as intrasystem matter in a bioregenerative life support system (BLSS). The circulation of Na + and Cl - excreted in urine is achieved by inclusion of halophytes, i.e. plants that naturally inhabit salt-rich soils and accumulate NaCl in their organs. A model of Na + and Cl - recycling in a BLSS was designed, based on the NaCl turnover in the human-urine-nutrient solution-halophytic plant-human cycle. The study consisted of (i) selecting a halophyte suitable for inclusion in a BLSS, and (ii) determining growth conditions supporting maximal Na + and Cl - accumulation in the shoots of the halophyte growing in a nutrient solution simulating mineralized urine. For the selected halophytic plant, Salicornia europaea, growth rate under optimal conditions, biomass production and quantities of Na + and Cl - absorbed were determined. Characteristics of a plant production conveyor consisting of S.europaea at various ages, and allowing continuity of Na + and Cl - turnover, were estimated. It was shown that closure of the NaCl cycle in a BLSS can be attained if the daily ration of fresh Salicornia biomass for a BLSS inhabitant is approximately 360 g.

Balnokin, Yurii; Nikolai, Myasoedov; Larisa, Popova; Alexander, Tikhomirov; Sofya, Ushakova; Christophe, Lasseur; Jean-Bernard, Gros

2010-09-01

125

Gaseous fuel production from nonrecyclable paper wastes by using supported metal catalysts in high-temperature liquid water.  

PubMed

Paper wastes are used for the production of gaseous fuels over supported metal catalysts. The gasification of the nonrecyclable paper wastes, such as shredded documents and paper sludge, is carried out in high-temperature liquid water. The order of the catalytic activity for the gasification is found to be ruthenium>rhodium>platinum>palladium. A charcoal-supported ruthenium catalyst (Ru/C) is the most effective for the gasification of paper and cellulose. Paper wastes are gasified to a limited degree (32.6 carbon %) for 30 min in water at 523 K to produce methane and carbon dioxide, with a small amount of hydrogen. At 573 K, more complete gasification with almost 100 carbon % is achieved within 10 min in water. At 523 K, the gas yield of paper gasification over Ru/C is higher than that of cellulose powder. The gas yields are increased by ball-milling treatment of the recycled paper and cellulose powder. Printed paper wastes are also gasified at 523 K in water. PMID:20512801

Yamaguchi, Aritomo; Hiyoshi, Norihito; Sato, Osamu; Bando, Kyoko K; Shirai, Masayuki

2010-06-21

126

Simultaneous determination of total fatty acid esters of chloropropanols in edible oils by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with solid-supported liquid-liquid extraction.  

PubMed

This study aimed to establish a novel robust method for the simultaneous determination of total fatty acid esters of 4 chloropropanols including fatty acid esters of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD esters), 2-monochloropropane-1,3-diol (2-MCPD esters), 1,3-dichloropropan-2-ol (1,3-DCP esters) and 2,3-dichloropropan-1-ol (2,3-DCP esters) in edible oils. In this method, sodium methylate in methanol was used as the reagent for the ester cleavage reaction of chloropropanols esters. The reaction products were extracted by a sodium sulfate solution, and then purified by solid-supported liquid-liquid extraction (SLE) using diatomaceous earth (Hydromatrix™) as the sorbent. Finally, the extracts were derivatized with heptafluorobutyrylim idazole (HFBI) and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Quantification was achieved using deuterated chloropropanols as their respective internal standards, including 3-MCPD-d5, 2-MCPD-d5, 1,3-DCP-d5 and 2,3-DCP-d5. A good linear relationship between peak area and concentrations was obtained within the range of 0.025-2.000mgL(-1) with a correlation coefficients not less than 0.999 for all the chloropropanols esters. The limits of detection (LODs) of esters of 3-MCPD, 2-MCPD, 1,3-DCP and 2,3-DCP (calculated as corresponding chloropropanols) were 30, 30, 100 and 30?gkg(-1), respectively. The average recoveries of the 3-MCPD esters and the 4 chloropropanols spiked at 0.1, 0.5 and 2mgkg(-1) into blank oil matrix were typically in a range from 70.7% to 113.3%. The robust method validation data including calibration, LOD/LOQ, accuracy and repeatability and proficiency test results (Z-score: -0.5) of the official Food Analysis Performance Assessment Scheme (FAPAS) indicated that the present quantitative method could be successfully applied to the determination of total chloropropanols esters in various edible oils. PMID:24070627

Liu, Qing; Han, Feng; Xie, Ke; Miao, Hong; Wu, Yongning

2013-11-01

127

Iron(III) chloride supported on MCM-41 molecular sieve as a catalyst for the liquid-phase oxidation of phenol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

FeCl3 was supported on MCM-41 mesoporous molecular sieve via adsorption or coordination bonding and by embedding as an anionic constituent of covalently immobilized imidazolium ionic liquid (IL). The synthesized materials were characterized by N2-BET, SEM, TEM, FT-IR, 1H, 13C, and 29Si NMR, and DSC-TG. All of the catalysts were shown to be active for the liquid-phase oxidation of phenol by hydrogen peroxide. Supported FeCl3 species present as tetrachloroferrate counterions of immobilized IL are the most resistant to iron leaching.

Sirotin, S. V.; Moskovskaya, I. F.; Kolyagin, Yu. G.; Yatsenko, A. V.; Romanovsky, B. V.

2011-03-01

128

Partitioning of Actinides from High Level Waste of PUREX Origin Using Octylphenyl-N,N'-diisobutylcarbamoylmethyl Phosphine Oxide (CMPO)Based Supported Liquid Membrane  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present studies deal with the application of the supported liquid membrane (SLM) technique for partitioning of actinides from high level waste of PUREX origin. The process uses a solution of octylphenyl-N,N'-diisobutylcarbamoylmethyl phosphine oxide (CMPO) in n-dodecane as a carrier with a polytetrafluoroethylene support and a mixture of citric acid, formic acid, and hydrazine hydrate as the receiving phase. The

A. Ramanujam; P. S. Dhami; V. Gopalakrishnan; N. L. Dudwadkar; R. R. Chitnis; J. N. Mathur

1999-01-01

129

Mass transfer and chemical reaction of gaseous species in non-catalytic and catalytic porous media supporting catalytic and non-catalytic liquids  

SciTech Connect

Results of a research program aimed at obtaining fundamental understanding about the kinetic and transport behavior of supported liquid-phase catalysts (SLPC) are summarized. Details of the research are provided in the appended journal publications. In addition, several graduate theses resulted from the research. Their titles and the students names are listed in the main body of the report.

Rinker, R.G.

1981-01-01

130

Determination of free copper concentrations in natural waters by using supported liquid membrane extraction under equilibrium conditions.  

PubMed

A method is described for measurement of freely dissolved copper concentrations in natural water samples using supported liquid membrane (SLM) extraction under equilibrium conditions, a technique denoted "equilibrium sampling through membranes" (ESTM). For this purpose, 1,10-dibenzyl-1,10-diaza-18-crown-6 as neutral carrier and oleic acid were used in the membrane phase. The main variables optimised were the carrier used to form the metal complexes, the organic solvent used in the membrane, the countercation, pH, the ligand used in the acceptor phase, the extraction time, and the flow rate of the donor phase. After the optimisation process an enrichment factor of 18.5 was obtained. Equilibrium conditions were reached after extraction for 60 min if a flow rate of 1.0 mL min(-1) or greater was used. When different ligands such as humic acids, phthalic acid, and EDTA were added to the sample solution, and sample pH ranged from 6 to 8, the results obtained for freely dissolved copper concentrations were in a good agreement with results from speciation calculations performed with Visual Minteq V 2.30, Cheaqs V L20.1, and WinHumic V. The developed technique was applied to analysis of stream and leachate water. PMID:15759138

Romero, Roberto; Jönsson, Jan Ake

2005-04-01

131

Determination of selected pharmaceutical compounds in biosolids by supported liquid extraction and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

In this work, an analytical method was developed for the determination of pharmaceutical drugs in biosolids. Samples were extracted with an acidic mixture of water and acetone (1:2, v/v) and supported liquid extraction was used for the clean-up of extracts, eluting with ethyl acetate:methanol (90:10, v/v). The compounds were determined by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using matrix-match calibration after silylation to form their t-butyldimethylsilyl derivatives. This method presents various advantages, such as a fairly simple operation for the analysis of complex matrices, the use of inexpensive glassware and low solvent volumes. Satisfactory mean recoveries were obtained with the developed method ranging from 70 to 120% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) ? 13%, and limits of detection between 0.5 and 3.6 ng g(-1). The method was then successfully applied to biosolids samples collected in Madrid and Catalonia (Spain). Eleven of the sixteen target compounds were detected in the studied samples, at levels up to 1.1 ?g g(-1) (salicylic acid). Ibuprofen, caffeine, paracetamol and fenofibrate were detected in all of the samples analyzed. PMID:24582395

Albero, Beatriz; Sánchez-Brunete, Consuelo; Miguel, Esther; Aznar, Ramón; Tadeo, José L

2014-04-01

132

Tank 241-C-103 organic vapor and liquid characterization and supporting activities, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. Environmental Assessment  

SciTech Connect

The action proposed is to sample the vapor space and liquid waste and perform other supporting activities in Tank 241-C-103 located in the 241-C Tank Farm on the Hanford Site. Operations at Tank 241-C-103 are curtailed because of an unreviewed safety question (USQ) concerning flammability issues of the organic waste in the tank. This USQ must be resolved before normal operation and surveillance of the tank can resume. In addition to the USQ, Tank 241-C-103 is thought to be involved in several cases of exposure of individuals to noxious vapors. This safety issue requires the use of supplied air for workers in the vicinity of the tank. Because of the USQ, the US Department of Energy proposes to characterize the waste in the vapor space and the organic and aqueous layers, to determine the volume of the organic layer. This action is needed to: (1) assess potential risks to workers, the public, and the environment from continued routine tank operations and (2) provide information on the waste material in the tank to facilitate a comprehensive safety analysis of this USQ. The information would be used to determine if a flammable condition within the tank is credible. This information would be used to prevent or mitigate an accident during continued waste storage and future waste characterization. Alternatives to the proposed activities have been considered in this analysis.

Not Available

1993-08-10

133

Utilization of liquid human wastes and introduction into the material cycling in biological life-support systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possibilities of step-by-step utilization of liquid human wastes in biological life-support systems on long-functioning space stations have been considered in this work. Utilization involves "wet" urine incineration with hydrogen peroxide at normal pressure and 90 - 95°C temperature, urease-enzymic decomposition of urine and biological desalination in the higher plant link. The soybean flour was used as a source of urease. Growing soya plants as a component of the higher plant link would give a steady source of urease to the system. To decompose urea (9-15g) contained in 1l of incinerated urine we used 0.5 - 1 g of soy flour. The duration of hydrolysis of daily urea excreted by a human is 70 - 95 hours. It is supposed that ammonia excreted in the reaction of urea decomposition will be processed by nitrifying bacteria. The concentration of total nitrogen in urine after urea hydrolysis and removal of ammonia formed during the reaction constituted 0.6 - 1.2 g/l. Further biological desalination was carried out in the higher plant link, for that the edible salt-accumulating halophytes Salicornia europaea were used. To grow this plant under the aqueous culture conditions, the urine was additionally mineralized at 180 °C after incineration and decomposition of urea. The process of additional mineralization was related to the necessity of removal of organic materials and nitrogen residues, which higher concentration under the aqueous culture conditions has negative effect on plants. The volume of the nutrient solution for growing 6 plants of Salicornia europaea was 1.5 l (daily norm of urine excreted by human), the planting area was 0.032 m2. By the end of vegetation the productivity and mineral composition of Salicornia europaea plants were analyzed. The productivity of plants grown on liquid human wastes (the experiment) practically was not different from the productivity of plants grown on the mineral solution with sodium chloride (checkout). In experimental plants the content of potassium increased on 30% and the sodium content decreased on 30% as compared to the check plants. As a result the NaCl content constituted 23% of dry plant mass. The variant making the additional mineralization of urine at 180 °C avoidable has been considered in this work as well. For this purpose the technology of substrate growing of Salicornia europaea plants and intermittent introduction of urine during vegetation after "wet" incineration and urease-enzymatic decomposition of urea has been introduced.

Kovaleva, N. P.>; Ushakova, S. A.; Gribovskaya, I. V.; Kudenko, U. A.

134

Pumice-supported Pd-Pt bimetallic catalysts: Synthesis, structural characterization, and liquid-phase hydrogenation of 1,3-cyclooctadiene  

SciTech Connect

A series of pumice-supported palladium-platinum bimetallic catalysts were prepared and investigated by X-ray scattering (WAXS and SAXS) and XPS techniques. An alloy Pd-Pt was formed. The less abundant metal was found to segregate to the surface. The catalysts were tested in the liquid-phase hydrogenation of 1,3-cyclooctadiene to cyclooctene, and compared with similarly prepared pumice-supported palladium and platinum catalysts and other supported Pd-Pt catalysts reported in the literature. The addition of platinum reduces the activity and the selectivity of the palladium catalysts. Differences between the activity of these pumice-supported catalysts and the activity of previously described Pd and Pd-Pt catalysts on other supports, are attributed to the presence, in the latter, of diffusional processes. 50 refs., 4 figs. 2 tabs.

Deganello, G.; Duca, D.; Liotta, L.F.; Martorana, A.; Venezia, M. [Istituto di Chimica e Technologia dei Prodotti Naturali del CNR, Palermo (Italy)] [Istituto di Chimica e Technologia dei Prodotti Naturali del CNR, Palermo (Italy); Benedetti, A.; Fagherazz, G. [Universita di Venezia, Venice (Italy)] [Universita di Venezia, Venice (Italy)

1995-01-01

135

Determination of glyphosate and its metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid in fruit juices using supported-liquid membrane preconcentration method with high-performance liquid chromatography and UV detection after derivatization with p-toluenesulphonyl chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of supported-liquid membrane (SLM) technique for effective extraction of N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine (glyphosate) and its primary metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) from juices (orange, grapefruit, apple and blackcurrant) in combination with HPLC-UV detection after derivatization with p-toluenesulphonyl chloride (TsCl) is presented. The influence of various parameters such as the composition of acceptor phase, flow-rate, concentration of analytes, on the performance of

Maxim V. Khrolenko; Piotr P. Wieczorek

2005-01-01

136

Automatic selective determination of caffeine in coffee and tea samples by using a supported liquid membrane-modified piezoelectric flow sensor with molecularly imprinted polymer  

Microsoft Academic Search

An on-line supported liquid membrane-piezoelectric detection based on molecularly imprinted polymer (SLM-PZ-MIP) manifold was developed and applied to the quantitative determination of caffeine in coffee and tea samples. The proposed assembly provides all the advantages of an on-line system as regards automation, in addition to good selectivity, acceptable sensitivity and precision. The slurry sample was directly placed in SLM unit

Mohammed Zougagh; Angel Ríos; Miguel Valcárcel

2005-01-01

137

Application of ionic-liquid-supported magnetic dispersive solid-phase microextraction for the determination of acaricides in fruit juice samples.  

PubMed

In this study, ionic liquid (IL) supported magnetic dispersive solid-phase microextraction was developed and a systematic investigation was conducted on imidazolium ILs for their extraction performance. This nano-based pretreatment procedure was then applied for the determination of acaricides in fruit juice samples for the first time. A feature of this technique is that the commonly laborious chemical modification of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) was skillfully circumvented. Because of the combination of ILs, dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, and dispersive MNP solid-phase microextraction, the extraction efficiency can be significantly improved using commercial MNPs. Parameters of the extraction method were investigated by one-factor-at-a-time approach. The optimal experimental conditions were as follows: emulsification for 2 min by sonication with the addition of 50 ?L [C6MIM][NTf2] in the dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction step and vortexing for 90 s after adding 40 mg spherical barium ferrite nanoparticles (20 nm). The desorption time was 2 min. Good linearity (0.5-500 ng/mL) and detection limits within the range of 0.05-0.53 ng/mL were achieved. The application of the proposed method was demonstrated by the analysis of real fruit juice samples, in which recoveries between 85.1 and 99.6% were obtained. PMID:23894018

Zhang, Jiaheng; Li, Min; Li, Yubo; Li, Zongyang; Wang, Fenfen; Li, Qiu; Zhou, Wenfeng; Lu, Runhua; Gao, Haixiang

2013-10-01

138

Multi-residue quantification of veterinary drugs in milk with a novel extraction and cleanup technique: Salting out supported liquid extraction (SOSLE).  

PubMed

A quantitative liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry method was developed for the determination of more than one hundred compounds belonging to a variety of veterinary drug classes in bovine milk. Salting out supported liquid extraction (SOSLE), a novel extraction and cleanup technique, was introduced to ensure high extraction efficiency and good sample cleanup. The high salt (ammonium sulfate) concentration in the aqueous donor phase permits supported liquid/liquid extraction (SLE) with a relative polar organic acceptor phase (acetonitrile). This is different from traditional SLE, in which the need for phase separation results in the selection of organic solvents with intermediate polarities (e.g., ethyl acetate or dichloromethane). Hence, SOSLE is more efficient in recovering polar analytes than conventional SLE. SOSLE was also compared to classical approaches like solid phase extraction, QuEChERS and ultra-filtration. The proposed technique resulted in extracts of equal or superior cleanliness and with higher average recoveries than those obtained with QuEChERS or SPE. The recovery (median for all compounds) was 73% for QuEChERS, 83% for SPE and 91% for SOSLE. The most significant improvements were observed for polar analytes (penicillines, quinolones and tetracyclines) which are hardly recovered by QuEChERS. The chromatographic separation and detection was based on an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography Q-Orbitrap system (Q-Exactive plus). The developed analytical method has been validated (based on the commission decision 2002/957/EC) as required for quantitative veterinary drug methods. PMID:24745738

Kaufmann, A; Butcher, P; Maden, K; Walker, S; Widmer, M

2014-04-11

139

Rapid and simple pretreatment of human body fluids using electromembrane extraction across supported liquid membrane for capillary electrophoretic determination of lithium.  

PubMed

Electromembrane extraction was used for simultaneous sample cleanup and preconcentration of lithium from untreated human body fluids. The sample of a body fluid was diluted 100 times with 0.5 mM Tris solution and lithium was extracted by electromigration through a supported liquid membrane composed of 1-octanol into 100 mM acetic acid acceptor solution. Matrix compounds, such as proteins, red blood cells, and other high-molecular-weight compounds were efficiently retained on the supported liquid membrane. The liquid membrane was anchored in pores of a short segment of a polypropylene hollow fiber, which represented a low cost, single use, disposable extraction unit and was discarded after each use. Acceptor solutions were analyzed using capillary electrophoresis with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (CE-C(4) D) and baseline separation of lithium was achieved in a background electrolyte solution consisting of 18 mM L-histidine and 40 mM acetic acid at pH 4.6. Repeatability of the electromembrane extraction-CE-C(4) D method was evaluated for the determination of lithium in standard solutions and real samples and was better than 0.6 and 8.2% for migration times and peak areas, respectively. The concentration limit of detection of 9 nM was achieved. The developed method was applied to the determination of lithium in urine, blood serum, blood plasma, and whole blood at both endogenous and therapeutic concentration levels. PMID:21500213

Strieglerová, Lenka; Kubá?, Pavel; Bo?ek, Petr

2011-05-01

140

Extraction of phenol from aqueous solutions by means of supported liquid membrane (MLS) containing tri-n-octyl phosphine oxide (TOPO).  

PubMed

This paper deals with the liquid-liquid extraction and the facilitated transport through a supported liquid membrane (SLM) system of aqueous phenol using tri-n-octyl phosphine oxide (TOPO) dissolved in an appropriate organic solvent. Phenol has been quantitatively extracted from aqueous acidic solutions using TOPO dissolved in kerosene as organic phase. The effect of TOPO concentration dissolved in kerosene on the extraction efficiency reveals that TOPO combined with phenol in the ratio of 1:1. Using a flat-sheet SLM (FSSLM) system, more than 65% of the initial phenol content in the feed phase was extracted and stripped in a NaOH aqueous receiving phase. The important operational variables affecting the facilitated transport of phenol through the FSSLM system studied are concentration of TOPO, membrane viscosity, feed phase pH, initial phenol concentration, polymeric support type and membrane stability. Regardless of its comparatively low extraction efficiency of phenol, the SLM based on TOPO exhibits higher long-term stability as compared to tributyl phosphate (TBP). Elaborated SLM system retained its stability and initial performance during the 5 days long experiment contrary to the TBP-SLM system where a time dependent negative tendency (transport efficiency decline) was observed. PMID:21871728

Zidi, Chiraz; Tayeb, Rafik; Dhahbi, Mahmoud

2011-10-30

141

MEASUREMENTS TAKEN IN SUPPORT OF QUALIFICATION OF PROCESSING SAVANNAH RIVER SITE LOW-LEVEL LIQUID WASTE INTO SALTSTONE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Saltstone Facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS) immobilizes low-level liquid waste into Saltstone to be disposed of in the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility, Class Three Landfill. In order to meet the permit conditions and regulatory limits set by the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Environmental

M. Reigel; N. Bibler; C. Diprete; A. Cozzi; A. Staub; J. Ray

2010-01-01

142

Electrokinetic injection across supported liquid membranes: new sample pretreatment technique for online coupling to capillary electrophoresis. Direct analysis of perchlorate in biological samples.  

PubMed

A simple and sensitive method for quantifying perchlorate in biological samples using CE and capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection was developed. An online combination of a supported liquid membrane, an inert polypropylene membrane impregnated with 1-hexanol, and electrokinetic injection of perchlorate across the supported liquid membrane directly into the separation capillary reduced the need for laborious sample pretreatment procedures, resulting in a cheap and rapid method with low LODs capability. Baseline separation of perchlorate and other anions in biological samples was achieved in background electrolyte solution consisting of 15 mM nicotinic acid and 1 mM 3-(N,N-dimethylmyristylammonio)propanesulfonate at pH 3.3. The analytical method showed excellent parameters in terms of reproducibility; RSD values for peak areas and corrected migration times at a spiked concentration of 100 ?g/L of perchlorate were below 10 and 0.4%, respectively. Linear calibration curves were obtained for perchlorate in the concentration range 10-1000 ?g/L (r(2) >0.999) with LODs between 2 and 5 ?g/L for human urine, breast milk, serum, cow's milk, and red wine. Recoveries at 25 ?g/L of perchlorate were between 97 and 106% for all biological samples. The low LODs rivaling those of presently used analytical methods support the use of this method for quantification of perchlorate in biological samples in the future. PMID:22965714

Kubá?, Pavel; Kiplagat, Isaac K; Bo?ek, Petr

2012-09-01

143

Rare-earth metal-ion separation using a supported liquid membrane mediated by a narrow rim phosphorylated calix[4]arene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transport of rare-earth metal ions through a supported liquid membrane mediated by 5,11,17,23-tetra-tert-butyl-25,26,27,28-tetrakis(diphenylphosphinoylmethoxy)calix[4]arene (1) (cone conformation) in o-nitrophenyl hexyl ether (NPHE) has been investigated. The effect of the initial metal concentration, salting-out agent concentration in the feed phase and temperature as well as the carrier concentration on the flux was studied. The separation ability of ligand 1 was tested

M. R Yaftian; M Burgard; C. B Dieleman; D Matt

1998-01-01

144

Comparison of different imidazolium supported ionic liquid polymeric phases with strong anion-exchange character for the extraction of acidic pharmaceuticals from complex environmental samples.  

PubMed

Two imidazolium supported ionic liquid phases (SILPs) containing different anions, trifluoromethanesulphonate [CF(3)SO(3)(-)], and tetrafluoroborate [BF(4)(-)], were synthesized and evaluated as solid-phase extraction sorbents for extracting acidic pharmaceuticals from aqueous samples under strong anion-exchange conditions, which include an effective cleanup of the sample. The best SILP material [MI(+)][CF(3)SO(3)(-) ] was selected and successfully applied to the determination of acidic pharmaceuticals in different types of water samples (river water and effluent wastewater). The results were then compared to the previously synthesized SILP material based on [MI(+)][CF(3)COO(-)] and the commercially available Oasis MAX sorbent. PMID:22865758

Bratkowska, Dominika; Fontanals, Núria; Ronka, Sylwia; Trochimczuk, Andrzej W; Borrull, Francesc; Marcé, Rosa M

2012-08-01

145

Investigation of a Nonlinear Outcoupling Feature Observed in Optically-Pumped Cylindrical Liquid Jets Supporting Stimulated Raman Scattering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two processes associated with the generation of stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) in optically-pumped cylindrical liquid jets are investigated. First, the mechanism of frequency selectivity occurring in a micro-cavity with a continuum of resonant frequencies is discussed. It appears that the restrictions placed on the continuous parameter beta, which describes the z dependence of the normal modes of the micro-cylinder, results

Thomas Eric Ruekgauer

1995-01-01

146

Investigation of a Nonlinear Outcoupling Feature Observed in Optically-Pumped Cylindrical Liquid Jets Supporting Stimulated Raman Scattering.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two processes associated with the generation of stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) in optically-pumped cylindrical liquid jets are investigated. First, the mechanism of frequency selectivity occurring in a micro-cavity with a continuum of resonant frequencies is discussed. It appears that the restrictions placed on the continuous parameter beta, which describes the z dependence of the normal modes of the micro-cylinder, results in a discrete emission spectrum for the stimulated processes (e.g., dye-lasing and SRS) occurring in the dielectric micro-cylinder. A simple model, based on geometric optics, describing the gain and leakage loss for a semi-infinite dielectric slab containing a (semi-infinite) gain region is used to illuminate the role which the parameter beta plays in the generation of stimulated processes in the dielectric micro-cylinder. The results of the model, along with various experimental results, indicate that beta = 0 is the preferred condition for the stimulated processes. Second, it appears as if SRS occurring in the optically-pumped cylindrical liquid jets is responsible for the generation of a newly-observed outcoupling (scattering) feature. This geometrically well-defined feature takes the form of a thin ring, lying in the rm e_{r}-rm e_ {phi} plane, with a spatial extent along the cylinder axis direction of <=q 5 mum. The ring feature is found to be a threshold process, as it is observed to outcouple resident SRS light only above a well-defined optical pump intensity. Finally, it is observed that the ring feature can take on a periodic (in phi) character for particular liquids (ethanol and water) and over a range of optical pump intensities. An explanation for the mechanism responsible for the generation of the ring feature based on plasma generation resulting from self-focusing of the SRS fields is offered.

Ruekgauer, Thomas Eric

1995-01-01

147

Liquid-Phase Hydrogenation of Chloronitrobenzene Over Pt-Sn-B Amorphous Catalyst Supported by Carbon Nanotubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pt-Sn-B\\/carbon nanotubes (CNTs) catalyst was prepared by impregnation-chemical reduction method. Its catalytic performance\\u000a was evaluated by liquid-phase hydrogenation of chloronitrobenzene (CNB). The results showed that the catalyst had higher catalytic\\u000a performance than common hydrogenation catalysts. The conversion of CNB could reach 99.9%, and the dechlorination of chloroaniline\\u000a (CAN) was less than 1.9% when catalyzed by Pt-Sn-B\\/CNTs and more than

Xinhuan Yan; Junqing Sun; Yongbin Fang; Zhenyuan Xu; Wenjing Wang

2006-01-01

148

MEASUREMENTS TAKEN IN SUPPORT OF QUALIFICATION OF PROCESSING SAVANNAH RIVER SITE LOW-LEVEL LIQUID WASTE INTO SALTSTONE  

SciTech Connect

The Saltstone Facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS) immobilizes low-level liquid waste into Saltstone to be disposed of in the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility, Class Three Landfill. In order to meet the permit conditions and regulatory limits set by the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), both the low-level salt solution and Saltstone samples are analyzed quarterly. Waste acceptance criteria (WAC) are designed to confirm the salt solution sample from the Tank Farm meets specific radioactive and chemical limits. The toxic characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) is used to confirm that the treatment has immobilized the hazardous constituents of the salt solution. This paper discusses the methods used to characterize the salt solution and final Saltstone samples from 2007-2009.

Reigel, M.; Bibler, N.; Diprete, C.; Cozzi, A.; Staub, A.; Ray, J.

2010-01-27

149

Functionalized mesoporous silica supported copper(II) and nickel(II) catalysts for liquid phase oxidation of olefins.  

PubMed

Highly ordered 2D-hexagonal mesoporous silica has been functionalized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (3-APTES). This is followed by its condensation with a dialdehyde, 4-methyl-2,6-diformylphenol to produce an immobilized Schiff-base ligand (I). This material is separately treated with methanolic solution of copper(II) chloride and nickel(II) chloride to obtain copper and nickel anchored mesoporous materials, designated as Cu-AMM and Ni-AMM, respectively. The materials have been characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and UV-vis diffuse reflectance (DRS) spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), N(2) adsorption-desorption studies and (13)C CP MAS NMR spectroscopy. The metal-grafted mesoporous materials have been used as catalysts for the efficient and selective epoxidation of alkenes, viz. cyclohexene, trans-stilbene, styrene, ?-methyl styrene, cyclooctene and norbornene to their corresponding epoxides in the presence of tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) as the oxidant under mild liquid phase conditions. PMID:21989952

Nandi, Mahasweta; Roy, Partha; Uyama, Hiroshi; Bhaumik, Asim

2011-12-14

150

Comparative study of sample preparation methods; supported liquid membrane and solid phase extraction in the determination of benzimidazole anthelmintics in biological matrices by liquid chromatography-electrospray-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Supported liquid membrane (SLM) and solid phase extraction (SPE) have been applied as clean-up and/or enrichment techniques for a mixture of five benzimidazole anthelmintics compounds, namely albendazole, fenbendazole, mebendazole, oxibendazole, and thiabendazole. Two biological matrices, mainly urine and milk, and ultra high purity (UHP) water were spiked with a mixture of these five compounds. Waters Oasis MCX and International Sorbent Technology (IST) HCX SPE sorbents were used. The liquid membrane used for clean-up and/or enrichment of these compounds was 5% tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) dissolved in n-undecane/di-n-hexyl ether (1:1). The SLM extraction efficiencies and SPE percentage recoveries ranged between 60 and 100%. The detection limits (DLs) for different benzimidazole compounds by SPE/LC-ES-MS for thiabendazole, oxibendazole, and albendazole was 0.1 ng/L, for fenbendazole and mebendazole was 1 and 10 ng/L, respectively. Similarly, the detection limits of SLM/LC-ES-MS for thiabendazole, oxibendazole, and albendazole was 0.1 ng/L and for fenbendazole and mebendazole was 1 ng/L. The results of optimization of various parameters of the SLM method are reported. PMID:18970561

Msagati, Titus A M; Nindi, Mathew Muzi

2006-03-15

151

Determination of glyphosate and its metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid in fruit juices using supported-liquid membrane preconcentration method with high-performance liquid chromatography and UV detection after derivatization with p-toluenesulphonyl chloride.  

PubMed

The application of supported-liquid membrane (SLM) technique for effective extraction of N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine (glyphosate) and its primary metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) from juices (orange, grapefruit, apple and blackcurrant) in combination with HPLC-UV detection after derivatization with p-toluenesulphonyl chloride (TsCl) is presented. The influence of various parameters such as the composition of acceptor phase, flow-rate, concentration of analytes, on the performance of extraction procedure, was studied. It was shown that by appropriate manipulation of SLM parameters the level of detection could be significantly improved. The influence of SLM conditions on extraction efficiency of studied compounds was also discussed. Selection of the optimal conditions enable detection of glyphosate and AMPA in juices at concentrations as low as 0.025 mg/l. The calculated recoveries for glyphosate were-71.1, 72.1, 93.6, and 102.7% and for AMPA-64.1, 64.6, 81.7, and 89.2%, for orange, grapefruit, apple and blackcurrant juices, respectively. The results suggest that the application of SLM extraction as a method for glyphosate and AMPA enrichment from complicated liquid matrices may be useful mean of routine analysis. PMID:16233876

Khrolenko, Maxim V; Wieczorek, Piotr P

2005-11-01

152

Resistance of Lactobacillus casei in plastic-composite-support biofilm reactors during liquid membrane extraction and optimization of the lactic acid extraction system.  

PubMed

Lactic acid fermentations were performed with plastic-composite-support (PCS) disks in solvent-saturated media with Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus (ATCC 11443). The PCS disks contained 50% (w/w) polypropylene, 35% (w/w) ground soybean hulls, 5% (w/w) yeast extract, 5% (w/w) soybean flour, and 5% (w/w) bovine albumin. Bioassays were performed by growing L. casei in solvent-saturated media after soaking the PCS disks. Eighteen different solvent and carrier combinations were evaluated. Overall, L. casei biofilm fermentation demonstrated the same lactic acid production in solvent-saturated medium as suspended cells in medium without solvents (control). To evaluate PCS solvent-detoxifying properties, two bioassays were developed. When solvent-saturated medium in consecutive equal volumes (10 mL then 10 mL) was exposed to PCS, both media demonstrated lactic acid fermentation equal to the control. However, when solvent-saturated medium with two consecutive unequal volumes (10 mL then 90 mL) was exposed to PCS, some degree of toxicity was observed. Furthermore, iso-octane, tributylphosphate (TBP), and Span 80 were optimized for recovery as 91%, 5%, and 4% (v/v), respectively, with a 1:1 ratio of 1.2 M Na(2)CO(3) stripping solution. Also, recovery by emulsion liquid extraction in the hollow-fiber contactor was minimal due to low recovery at pH 5.0 and incompatibility of the solvent and hollow-fiber material. These results suggest that PCS biofilm reactors can benefit lactic acid fermentation by eliminating the toxic effect from solvent leakage into the fermentation medium from liquid-liquid extractive integrated fermentations. PMID:12889015

Demirci, Ali; Cotton, Julie C; Pometto, Anthony L; Harkins, Kristi R; Hinz, Paul N

2003-09-30

153

Passive extraction and clean-up of phenoxy acid herbicides in samples from a groundwater plume using hollow fiber supported liquid membranes.  

PubMed

Hollow fiber supported liquid membranes were applied for the passive extraction of phenoxy acid herbicides from water samples. Polypropylene hollow fiber membranes (240 microm i.d., 30 microm wall thickness, 0.05 microm pore size, 30 cm length) were impregnated with 2.0% tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) in di-n-hexyl ether in the pores of the fiber wall to form a liquid membrane. They were then filled with basic solution in the lumen as acceptor and finally placed into the sample (donor). Complete extraction of phenoxy acid herbicides including 2,4-D, MCPA, dichlorprop, and mecoprop from an acidified sample (4 mL, adjusted to pH 1.5 with HCl) into basic acceptor (10 microL of 0.2M NaOH) was achieved after 4 h of shaking (100 rpm) resulting in an enrichment factor of 400 times. The acceptor was then neutralized by addition of HCl and injected into a HPLC system for the determination of the phenoxy acid herbicides. Environmentally relevant salinity (0-3.5% NaCl) and dissolved organic matter (0-25 mg/L of dissolved organic carbon) had no significant effect on the extraction. The method provided extraction efficiencies of more than 91%, detection limits of 0.3-0.6 microg/L, and combined extraction and clean up in one single step. This procedure was applied to determine aqueous concentrations of phenoxy acid herbicides in groundwater samples collected from an old dumping site (Cheminova, Denmark) with detected concentrations up to 5800 microg/L. Although the samples were very dirty with large amounts of suspended particles, non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) and dissolved organic matters, good spike recoveries (80-126%) were obtained for 10 of the 11 samples. PMID:17449052

Liu, Jing-Fu; Toräng, Lars; Mayer, Philipp; Jönsson, Jan Ake

2007-08-10

154

Cr(VI) transport via a supported ionic liquid membrane containing CYPHOS IL101 as carrier: System analysis and optimization through experimental design strategies.  

PubMed

Chromium(VI) transport through a supported liquid membrane (SLM) system containing the commercial ionic liquid CYPHOS IL101 as carrier was studied. A reducing stripping phase was used as a mean to increase recovery and to simultaneously transform Cr(VI) into a less toxic residue for disposal or reuse. General functions which describe the time-depending evolution of the metal fractions in the cell compartments were defined and used in data evaluation. An experimental design strategy, using factorial and central-composite design matrices, was applied to assess the influence of the extractant, NaOH and citrate concentrations in the different phases, while a desirability function scheme allowed the synchronized optimization of depletion and recovery of the analyte. The mechanism for chromium permeation was analyzed and discussed to contribute to the understanding of the transfer process. The influence of metal concentration was evaluated as well. The presence of different interfering ions (Ca(2+), Al(3+), NO3(-), SO4(2-), and Cl(-)) at several Cr(VI): interfering ion ratios was studied through the use of a Plackett and Burman experimental design matrix. Under optimized conditions 90% of recovery was obtained from a feed solution containing 7mgL(-1) of Cr(VI) in 0.01moldm(-3) HCl medium after 5h of pertraction. PMID:24751491

Rodríguez de San Miguel, Eduardo; Vital, Xóchitl; de Gyves, Josefina

2014-05-30

155

?-Radiolysis of ionic liquid irradiated with helium ion beam and the influence of radiolytic products on Dy3+ extraction.  

PubMed

Helium ion (He(+)) beam produced by a heavy ion linear accelerator was used to simulate ?-rays for studying the radiation effect on 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquid ([C4mim][NTf2]). The water-soluble radiolytic products of [C4mim][NTf2] under He(+) beam irradiation were analysed, and it was found that they were similar to those by ?-ray irradiation, but their amount was much less than that by ?-ray irradiation, which was attributed to the recombination of [C4mim][NTf2] radical cations in track by high linear energy transfer (LET) radiations of the He(+) beam. The extracting behaviour of Dy(3+) using irradiated [C4mim][NTf2] in combination with alkylated bis-triazinyl-pyridine (CA-BTP) was assessed, and found that the influence of He(+) beam on the extraction was less than that of ?-ray irradiation. In addition, radiolytic products have a different influence on Dy(3+) extraction at different doses; Dy(3+) partitioning decreases at 50 kGy due to the protonation of CA-BTP and the inhibition of cation exchange mechanism by radiation-formed hydrogen ions. The abnormal increase of Dy(3+) partitioning at 100 kGy is mainly attributed to the precipitation formed between Dy(3+) and radiolytic products (F(-) and SO3(2-)). PMID:24549120

Ao, Yinyong; Zhou, Hanyang; Yuan, Weijin; Wang, Shuojue; Peng, Jing; Zhai, Maolin; Wang, Jianyong; Zhao, Ziqiang; Zhao, Long; Wei, Yuezhou

2014-04-14

156

Microfunnel-supported liquid-phase microextraction: Application to extraction and determination of Irgarol 1051 and diuron in the Persian Gulf seawater samples.  

PubMed

In the present work, microfunnel-supported liquid-phase microextraction method (MF-LPME) based on applying low density organic solvent was developed for the determination of antifoulings (Irgarol 1051, diuron and 3,4-dichloroaniline) from seawater samples. In this method, home-designed MF device was used for facile loading and retrieving of organic solvent during the extraction procedure. The extraction was carried out with introduction of 400?L of toluene via syringe into the MF device placed on the surface of sample solution (300mL) containing analytes. After the extraction, extractant layer was narrowed into the capillary part of MF by pushing the device inside the sample and withdrawn by using a syringe to evaporate by nitrogen purging. The residual redissolved into 50?L methanol, diluted to 100?L with deionized water and injected into the high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection (HPLC-UV). Several factors influencing the extraction such as the type and volume of extraction solvent, sample pH, extraction time and ionic strength were investigated and optimized. Under the optimized conditions, the limits of detection in seawater were 1.4, 4.8 and 1.0ngL(-1) for 3,4-dichloroaniline (DCA), diuron and Irgarol 1051, respectively. Enrichment factors were obtained 333, 150 and 373 for DCA, diuron and Irgarol 1051, respectively. The precision of the technique was evaluated in terms of repeatability which was less than 12.0% (n=5). The applicability of the proposed method was evaluated by the extraction and determination of antifoulings from seawater samples collected from harbors of Bushehr located in northern Persian Gulf coast. PMID:25016323

Saleh, Abolfazl; Sheijooni Fumani, Neda; Molaei, Saeideh

2014-08-22

157

Calculation and mitigation of isotopic interferences in liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry assays and its application in supporting microdose absolute bioavailability studies.  

PubMed

A methodology for the accurate calculation and mitigation of isotopic interferences in liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assays and its application in supporting microdose absolute bioavailability studies are reported for the first time. For simplicity, this calculation methodology and the strategy to minimize the isotopic interference are demonstrated using a simple molecule entity, then applied to actual development drugs. The exact isotopic interferences calculated with this methodology were often much less than the traditionally used, overestimated isotopic interferences simply based on the molecular isotope abundance. One application of the methodology is the selection of a stable isotopically labeled internal standard (SIL-IS) for an LC-MS/MS bioanalytical assay. The second application is the selection of an SIL analogue for use in intravenous (i.v.) microdosing for the determination of absolute bioavailability. In the case of microdosing, the traditional approach of calculating isotopic interferences can result in selecting a labeling scheme that overlabels the i.v.-dosed drug or leads to incorrect conclusions on the feasibility of using an SIL drug and analysis by LC-MS/MS. The methodology presented here can guide the synthesis by accurately calculating the isotopic interferences when labeling at different positions, using different selective reaction monitoring (SRM) transitions or adding more labeling positions. This methodology has been successfully applied to the selection of the labeled i.v.-dosed drugs for use in two microdose absolute bioavailability studies, before initiating the chemical synthesis. With this methodology, significant time and cost saving can be achieved in supporting microdose absolute bioavailability studies with stable labeled drugs. PMID:22540405

Gu, Huidong; Wang, Jian; Aubry, Anne-Françoise; Jiang, Hao; Zeng, Jianing; Easter, John; Wang, Jun-sheng; Dockens, Randy; Bifano, Marc; Burrell, Richard; Arnold, Mark E

2012-06-01

158

Supported liquid membrane extraction coupled in-line to commercial capillary electrophoresis for rapid determination of formate in undiluted blood samples.  

PubMed

A cheap, disposable sample pretreatment device with planar supported liquid membrane (SLM) was proposed, assembled and placed into an autosampler carousel of a commercial capillary electrophoresis (CE) instrument for automated pretreatment and analysis of formate in undiluted whole blood and serum samples. All analytical procedures except for filling the pretreatment device with donor and acceptor solutions, i.e., extraction across SLM, injection of the extracted sample and CE-UV determination of formate, were performed fully automatically. The pretreatment device required only ?L volumes of blood sample and organic solvent per extraction and was disposed off after each extraction. Good repeatability of peak areas (?7.7%) and migration times (?1.5%), linear relationship (r(2)=0.998-0.999) and limits of detection (?35?M) were achieved. The overall analytical process including blood withdrawal, filling the SLM device with respective solutions, extraction of blood sample, injection into separation capillary and CE separation of formate from other anions took less than 4min. The method was proved useful by direct determination of elevated formate concentrations in undiluted serum samples of a methanol intoxicated patient. Due to its compatibility with currently commercially available CE instrumentation, disposability of extraction devices, minimum sample handling/consumption, and short extraction/analysis times, the developed method might be attractive for rapid diagnosis of methanol poisoning in clinical and toxicological laboratories. PMID:23777836

Pant??ková, Pavla; Kubá?, Pavel; Bo?ek, Petr

2013-07-19

159

Amino acid analysis by gas-liquid chromatography of N-heptafluorobutyryl isobutyl esters. Complete resolution using a support-coated open-tubular capillary column.  

PubMed

Amino acids have been separated by gas-liquid chromatography as their N-heptafluorobutyryl isobutyl esters. Complete resolution of derivatives of all the common amino acids has been achieved using a high-performance support-coated open-tubular capillary column. The analysis time was 30 min. Modifications to the derivatization procedure of MacKenzie and Tenaschuk have been introduced. Acylation by heating at 150 degrees was shown to be destructive; 110 degrees has been selected for routine preparation. To obtain a volatile histidine derivative it has been found necessary to add an antioxidant and to heat samples with ethoxyformic anhydride prior to injection. Amino acid analysis of beta-lactoglobulin after 6 N HCl digestion yielded results in good agreement with those obtained by the conventional ion-exchange method. The method has also been successfully applied to estimation of the different caseins in whole casein and in purified fractions by amino acid analysis of residues liberated by carboxy-peptidase digestion. PMID:885953

Pearce, R J

1977-06-01

160

Cadmium accumulation by a Citrobacter sp. immobilized on gel and solid supports: applicability to the treatment of liquid wastes containing heavy metal cations  

SciTech Connect

Polyacrylamide gel-immobilized cells of a Citrobacter sp. removed cadmium from flows supplemented with glycerol 2-phosphate, the metal uptake mechanism being mediated by the activity of a cell-bound phosphatase that precipitates liberated inorganic phosphate with heavy metals at the cell surface. The constraints of elevated flow rate and temperature were investigated and the results discussed in terms of the kinetics of immobilized enzymes. Loss in activity with respect to cadmium accumulation but not inorganic phosphate liberation was observed at acid pH and was attributed to the pH-dependent solubility of cadmium phosphate. Similarly high concentrations of chloride ions, and traces of cyanide inhibited cadmium uptake and this was attributed to the ability of these anions to complex heavy metals, especially the ability of CN/sup -/ to form complex anions with Cd/sup 2 +/. The data are discussed in terms of the known chemistry of chloride and cyanide-cadmium complexes and the relevance of these factors in the treatment of metal-containing liquid wastes is discussed. The cells immobilized in polyacrylamide provided a convenient small-scale laboratory model system. It was found that the Citrobacter sp. could be immobilized on glass supports with no chemical treatment or modification necessary. Such cells were also effective in metal accumulation and a prototype system more applicable to the treatment of metal-containing streams on a larger scale is described.

Macaskie, L.E.; Wates, J.M.; Dean, A.C.R.

1987-01-01

161

In silico and in vitro metabolism studies support identification of designer drugs in human urine by liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Human phase I metabolism of four designer drugs, 2-desoxypipradrol (2-DPMP), 3,4-dimethylmethcathinone (3,4-DMMC), ?-pyrrolidinovalerophenone (?-PVP), and methiopropamine (MPA), was studied using in silico and in vitro metabolite prediction. The metabolites were identified in drug abusers’ urine samples using liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/Q-TOF/MS). The aim of the study was to evaluate the ability of the in silico and in vitro methods to generate the main urinary metabolites found in vivo. Meteor 14.0.0 software (Lhasa Limited) was used for in silico metabolite prediction, and in vitro metabolites were produced in human liver microsomes (HLMs). 2-DPMP was metabolized by hydroxylation, dehydrogenation, and oxidation, resulting in six phase I metabolites. Six metabolites were identified for 3,4-DMMC formed via N-demethylation, reduction, hydroxylation, and oxidation reactions. ?-PVP was found to undergo reduction, hydroxylation, dehydrogenation, and oxidation reactions, as well as degradation of the pyrrolidine ring, and seven phase I metabolites were identified. For MPA, the nor-MPA metabolite was detected. Meteor software predicted the main human urinary phase I metabolites of 3,4-DMMC, ?-PVP, and MPA and two of the four main metabolites of 2-DPMP. It assisted in the identification of the previously unreported metabolic reactions for ?-PVP. Eight of the 12 most abundant in vivo phase I metabolites were detected in the in vitro HLM experiments. In vitro tests serve as material for exploitation of in silico data when an authentic urine sample is not available. In silico and in vitro designer drug metabolism studies with LC/Q-TOF/MS produced sufficient metabolic information to support identification of the parent compound in vivo. PMID:23797910

Tyrkkö, Elli; Pelander, Anna; Ketola, Raimo A; Ojanperä, Ilkka

2013-08-01

162

Capillary electrophoresis with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection: a universal tool for the determination of supported liquid membrane selectivity in electromembrane extraction of complex samples.  

PubMed

Monitoring the selectivity of supported liquid membranes (SLMs) is of paramount importance since the amount and type of compounds that are transferred across a SLM directly influence the transfer efficiency, reproducibility and accuracy. To apply a correct SLM in particular sample pretreatment, rapid determination of the transfer of analytes and matrix compounds across the SLM is necessary, which requires the use of an analytical method with universal detection technique. Capillary electrophoresis with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (CE-C(4)D) has proven to be a useful tool for the determination of SLM selectivity. Background electrolyte solution consisting of 1M acetic acid (pH 2.4) was used for simultaneous separation and detection of three basic drugs (nortriptyline, haloperidol and loperamide) and major matrix components (inorganic cations, proteins, amino acids, etc.) after electromembrane extraction (EME) of standard solutions and complex samples. The CE-C(4)D method has evidenced for the first time that large proteins, such as human serum albumin, are efficiently retained on all examined SLMs and that transfer of other matrix components and the analytes is strongly SLM dependent. Excellent transfer of the analytes was achieved across SLMs impregnated with 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE) or 1-ethyl-2-nitrobenzene, however, an increased co-extraction of interfering matrix components, which disabled quantitative determination of haloperidol with the current CE-C(4)D setup, was observed for the latter. After addition of a commonly used ion carrier (bis(2-ethylhexyl)phosphate) to NPOE, a wide range of matrix components were transferred across the SLM with no measurable transfer of the analytes. Best selectivity regarding transfer of the basic drugs and elimination of matrix components was obtained using SLM impregnated with NPOE. An optimized EME-CE-C(4)D method was used to determine the basic drugs in various samples and satisfactory analytical parameters were obtained. PMID:22835694

Kubá?, Pavel; Bo?ek, Petr

2012-12-01

163

Preparation of Butyl Chloride from Butanol and Hydrochloric Acid Using Ionic Liquids as Catalyst * * Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No.20376004)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The catalytic performance of some quaternary ammonium salts for the liquid phase reaction of butanol and hydrochloric acid at different conditions was studied experimentally and compared with the traditional catalyst (ZnCl2). The organic ammonium catalysts investigated include ionic liquids N-butyl-N-methyl imidazolium fluoborate ([BMIM][BF4]) and N-butyl-N-methylimidazolium chloride ([BMIM]Cl) as well as hydrochloric salts of N-methylimidazol ([HMIM]Cl), pyridine ([HPy]Cl) and triethylamine ([HEt3N]Cl).

Aijun SUN; Yi NIE; Chunxi LI; Zihao WANG

2008-01-01

164

Conveyor Cultivation of the Halophytic Plant Salicornia europaea for the Recycling of NaCl from Human Liquid Waste in a Biological Life Support System.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One problem in designing bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS) is developing technolo-gies to include human liquid and solid waste in intrasystem recycling. A specific task is recycling of NaCl excreted in urine by humans. We showed recently that this could be achieved through inclusion of the salt accumulating halophyte Salicornia europaea in the autotrophic compart-ment of the BLSS (Balnokin et al., ASR, 2010, in press). A model of NaCl circulation in BLSS with inclusion of S. europaea was based on the NaCl turnover in the human -urine -nutrient solution -S. europaea -human cycle. Mineralized urine was used as a basis for preparation of a nutrient solution for the halophyte cultivation. The shoots of the halophyte cultivated in the mineralized urine and containing NaCl could to be used by the BLSS inhabitants in their diets. In this report we describe cultivation of S. europaea which allows turnover of NaCl and produces daily shoot biomass containing Na+ and Cl- in quantities approximately equal to those excreted in daily human urine. The plants were grown in water culture in a climatic chamber under controlled conditions. A solution simulating mineralized urine (SSMU) was used as a basis for preparation of a nutri-ent solution for S. europaea cultivation. For continuous biomass production, seedlings of S. europaea, germinated preliminary in moist sand, were being transferred to the nutrient solu-tion at regular intervals (every two days). Duration of the conveyor operation was 112 days. During the first 56 days, the seedlings were being planted in SSMU diluted by a factor of 1.5 (2/3 SSMU). The same solution was introduced into the growth vessels as volumes of growth medium decreased due to plant transpiration. Starting from the 56th day as conveyor operation was initiated, the plants were being harvested every two days; the solutions from the discharged vessels were mixed with the fresh SSMU and the mixture was introduced into all other growth vessels of the conveyor. Thus, during the first 56-d period, the plants grew only in the fresh nutrient solution, whereas during the second 56-d period, the worked out nutrient solutions were being returned into the cycle having been added to the growth vessels along with the fresh SSMU. Growth characteristics, water and ionic relations of S. europaea plants, balance of nutrients between organs and growth media for the first and second 56-d periods of the conveyor operation are presented. There was no significant difference in the rates of shoot biomass production during the first and the second periods. The plants were producing shoot biomass with the rates close to those observed under optimal conditions. However, substantial increase in root biomass production (by 50% on the dry mass basis) was observed in the second period as compared with the first one. Decrease in organ water contents on the dry mass basis (by 13% and 30% for shoots and roots, respectively) and transpiration rates (by 25%) occurred also in the second period as compared with the first one. Measurements of Na+ , Cl- and nutrient contents in the growth media and plant organs and calculation of their balances showed that the plants did not suffer from a deficiency of nutrients during the 112 days of the conveyor operation while accumulating required NaCl amounts. Observed root proliferation and deterioration of water relations in the second 56-d period of the conveyor operation may be caused by toxic plant metabolites exuded by roots into the growth medium.

Balnokin, Yurii; Myasoedov, Nikolay; Popova, Larissa; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Ushakova, Sofya; Tikhomirova, Natalia; Lasseur, Christophe; Gros, Jean-Bernard

165

Liquid phase methanol LaPorte process development unit: Modification, operation, and support studies. Task 3.8, Catalyst poisons field demonstration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As part of the liquid phase methanol process development program the present study evaluated adsorptive schemes to remove catalyst poisons from coal gas at pilot scale. In addition to a lab test with coal gas from Coolwater, two field tests were performed...

1990-01-01

166

Liquid-Phase-Methanol Process-Development Unit: Installation, Operation, and Support Studies. Technical Progress Report No. 5, 1 October 1982-31 December 1982.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report covers the fifth period of Contract performance. The overall objective of this program is to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMeOH) process at theProcess Development Unit (PDU) scale of operation. Revision ...

1983-01-01

167

Application of hollow fiber-supported liquid-phase microextraction coupled with HPLC for the determination of guaifenesin enantiomer-protein binding.  

PubMed

A hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction technique coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection was employed for determination and evaluation of the binding characteristics of drugs to bovine serum albumin (BSA). Enantiomers of guaifenesin (an expectorant drug) were investigated as a model system. After optimization of some influencing parameters on microextraction, the proposed method was used for calculation of the target drug distribution coefficient between n-octanol and the buffer solution as well as study of drug-BSA binding in physiological conditions. The developed method shows a new, improved and simple procedure for determination of free drug concentration in biological fluids and the extent of drug-protein binding. PMID:22102436

Hatami, Mehdi; Farhadi, Khalil

2012-07-01

168

Experimental data and analysis to support the design of an ion-exchange process for the treatment of Hanford tank waste supernatant liquids  

SciTech Connect

Hanford`s 177 underground storage tanks contain a mixture of sludge, salt cake, and alkaline supernatant liquids. Disposal options for these wastes are high-level waste (HLW) glass for disposal in a repository or low-level waste (LLW) glass for onsite disposal. Systems-engineering studies show that economic and environmental considerations preclude disposal of these wastes without further treatment. Difficulties inherent in transportation and disposal of relatively large volumes of HLW make it impossible to vitrify all of the tank waste as HLW. Potential environmental impacts make direct disposal of all of the tank waste as LLW glass unacceptable. Although the pretreatment and disposal requirements are still being defined, most pretreatment scenarios include retrieval of the aqueous liquids, dissolution of the salt cakes, and washing of the sludges to remove soluble components. Most of the cesium is expected to be in the aqueous liquids, which are the focus of this report on cesium removal by ion exchange. The main objectives of the ion-exchange process are removing cesium from the bulk of the tank waste (i.e., decontamination) and concentrating the separated cesium for vitrification. Because exact requirements for removal of {sup 137}Cs have not yet been defined, a range of removal requirements will be considered. This study addresses requirements to achieve {sup 137}Cs levels in LLW glass between (1) the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Class C (10 CFR 61) limit of 4600 Ci/m{sup 3} and (2) 1/10th of the NRC Class A limit of 1 Ci/m{sup 3} i.e., 0.1/m{sup 3}. The required degrees of separation of cesium from other waste components is a complex function involving interactions between the design of the vitrification process, waste form considerations, and other HLW stream components that are to be vitrified.

Kurath, D.E.; Bray, L.A.; Brooks, K.P.; Brown, G.N.; Bryan, S.A.; Carlson, C.D.; Carson, K.J.; DesChane, J.R.; Elovich, R.J.; Kim, A.Y.

1994-12-01

169

Development of a new and environment friendly hollow fiber-supported liquid phase microextraction using vesicular aggregate-based supramolecular solvent.  

PubMed

Hollow fiber-based liquid phase microextraction (HF-LPME) using conventional solvents is limited by their relative instability and high volatility. The use of supramolecular solvents as a liquid membrane phase could overcome these inconveniences due to their negligible vapour pressure and high viscosity. In the present study, a novel and highly flexible method was developed based on supramolecular solvents constructed of vesicles of decanoic acid, which were used for the first time as a solvent in HF-LPME. This solvent is produced from the coacervation of decanoic acid aqueous vesicles by the action of tetrabutylammonium (Bu(4)N(+)). In this work, halogenated anilines as model compounds were extracted from water samples into a supramolecular solvent impregnated in the pores and also filled inside the porous polypropylene hollow fiber membrane. The extracted anilines were separated and determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The technique requires minimal sample preparation time and toxic organic solvent consumption, and provides a significant advantage over conventional analytical methods. The important parameters influencing the extraction efficiency were studied and optimized utilizing two different optimization methods: one variable at a time and the Box-Behnken design. Under the optimum conditions, the preconcentration factors were in the range of 74 to 203. Linearity of the method was obtained in the range of 1.0-100 ?g L(-1) with the correlation coefficients of determination (R(2)) ranging from 0.9901 to 0.9986. The limits of detection for the target anilines were 0.5-1.0 ?g L(-1). The relative standard deviations varied from 3.9% to 6.0%. The relative recoveries of the three halogenated anilines from water samples at a spiking level of 20.0 ?g L(-1) were in the range of 90.4-107.4%. PMID:22733347

Moradi, Morteza; Yamini, Yadollah; Rezaei, Fatemeh; Tahmasebi, Elham; Esrafili, Ali

2012-08-01

170

HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) THERMAL & SEISMIC PROJECT SEISMIC ANALYSIS IN SUPPORT OF INCREASED LIQUID LEVEL IN 241-AP TANK FARMS  

SciTech Connect

The overall scope of the project is to complete an up-to-date comprehensive analysis of record of the DST System at Hanford. The "Double-Shell Tank (DST) Integrity Project - DST Thermal and Seismic Project" is in support of Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-48-14.

MACKEY TC; ABBOTT FG; CARPENTER BG; RINKER MW

2007-02-16

171

The Biochemical, Physiological, and Metabolic Evaluation of Human Subjects in a Life Support Systems Evaluator and on a Liquid Food Diet.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A 6-week study with 4 students as volunteer subjects was conducted to evaluate their water, caloric, and protein requirements under simulated stresses of aerospace. The subjects spent 28 days in the Life Support Systems Evaluator; 2 subjects wore the MA-1...

B. J. Katchman G. M. Homer J. P. F. Murphy C. A. Linder V. R. Must

1967-01-01

172

Nano Pd(0) supported on cellulose: A highly efficient and recyclable heterogeneous catalyst for the Suzuki coupling and aerobic oxidation of benzyl alcohols under liquid phase catalysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nano palladium(0) supported on cellulose was found to be highly efficient recyclable heterogeneous catalyst for the Suzuki coupling between aryl bromides and phenyl boronic acid in water and aerobic oxidation of benzyl alcohols using air as the source of molecular oxygen in acetonitrile. The Cell-Pd(0) was prepared by stirring commercially available cellulose with Pd(OAc)2 in ethanol at 25°C followed by

Navjot Jamwal; Ravinderpal Kour Sodhi; Princy Gupta; Satya Paul

2011-01-01

173

Catalytic features of a low-temperature reduced alumina-supported platinum catalyst. Activity and selectivity in the liquid-phase hydrogenation of benzaldehyde and nitrobenzene  

Microsoft Academic Search

A low-temperature reduced (LR) supported platinum catalyst was used for the hydrogenation of benzaldehyde, nitrobenzene and\\u000a their mixture in ethanol, and compared with a high-temperature reduced (HR) catalyst. For benzaldehyde the LR catalyst was\\u000a highly active to the formation of benzyl alcohol and did not give benzaldehyde diethyl acetal, which was largely formed by\\u000a the HR catalyst. For the mixture,

M. Arai; A. Obata; Y. Nishiyama

1997-01-01

174

Interionic Interactions in Imidazolium-Based Ionic Liquids: The Role of the C2-Position Revealed by Raman Scattering and Supported by IR and NMR Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intermolecular interactions determine the state of aggregation of a substance at given temperature. Based on that, changes in intermolecular interactions can lead to microscopic reordering which may be observed macroscopically in terms of altered physicochemical properties. Especially, when chemicals are employed in technical processes, it is important to control and regulate their properties to guarantee product quality. A special group of chemical substances increasingly gaining interest in the field of chemical and process engineering are room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs). In general, RTILs are organic salts with melting points ``below the boiling point of water''. The variety of possible combinations of cations and anions lead to a wide range of chemical and thermo-physical properties. In fact, it is possible to tune their properties by adjusting the ratio of Coulomb and van der Waals interactions. However, because it is hardly possible to investigate a reasonable fraction of the potential cation-anion combinations, a molecular-based understanding of their properties is crucial to make a rational design possible. In this regard vibrational spectroscopy has proven to be very beneficial for structural analysis and the investigation of interionic and intermolecular interactions. Therein, especially Raman spectroscopy shows a significant advantage of being insensitive to water interference and it is widely applied in the field of ionic liquids. Among others the 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium [RMIM] based ILs have been employed as model ILs in structural analysis, and most vibrational studies available in literature have been carried out investigating this kind of ILs. In contrast, spectroscopic data and calculations of C2-methylated 1,2-dialkyl-3-methylimidazolium based ILs, are available to a much lesser extend. The substitution in the C2 position in those ILs disrupts the main hydrogen-bonding interaction between the cation and the anion and is expected to lead to lower melting points and reduced viscosities. However, in contrast to the intuitively expected behavior, e.g., in the case of 1-ethyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, [EMMIM][Tf2N], the viscosity turned out to be about three times higher than that of [EMIM][Tf2N]. This emphasizes the need for further investigation.

Noack, Kristina; Paape, Natalia; Kiefer, Johannes; Wasserscheid, Peter; Leipertz, Alfred

2010-08-01

175

Liquid chromatographic determination of the adenosine receptor agonist CGS 21680 in blood using on-line solid-phase extraction on a phenylboronic acid support and fluorescence detection.  

PubMed

An analytical method is described for the selective determination of A1 or A2 adenosine receptor agonists in blood. By implementing solid-phase extraction using immobilized-phenylboronic acid (PBA) in sample pretreatment, all adenosine derivatives are retained via their intact cis-diol group. On-line desorption of the analytes from the PBA support to the C18 analytical column is performed by injection of a small plug of perchloric acid. Fluorescence and UV detection are employed for the different adenosine derivatives. The method is applied to the determination of 2-[p-(2-carboxyethyl)phenylethylamino]-5'-N- ethylcarboxyamidoadenosine (CGS 21680, I) in blood using fluorescence detection. The only off-line sample handling step is the extraction of blood with ethyl acetate and subsequent evaporation of the extraction solvent. The detection limit of the method was 0.25 ng (signal-to-noise ratio 3:1) and the determination limit for I in blood (pretreatment of 100 microliters) was 5 ng/ml. The method was validated and used to study the pharmacokinetics of I in rats. PMID:7952127

Irth, H; Cleton, A; Mathôt, R A; Danhof, M; IJzerman, A P; Tjaden, U R; van der Greef, J

1994-08-01

176

Tube support  

DOEpatents

A tube support for supporting horizontal tubes from an inclined vertical support tube passing between the horizontal tubes. A support button is welded to the vertical support tube. Two clamping bars or plates, the lower edges of one bearing on the support button, are removably bolted to the inclined vertical tube. The clamping bars provide upper and lower surface support for the horizontal tubes.

Mullinax, Jerry L. (Green Township, Summit County, OH)

1988-01-01

177

Engineering Support Services.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains a summary of the work performed by the Aerojet Liquid Rocket Company (ALRC) under Contract F19628-72-C-0229 from the Electronic Systems Division, AFSC. The work consisted of field support for launches of sounding rocket vehicles from E...

E. Highfield J. A. Mattice R. P. Arnold R. W. Johnson T. L. Pearson

1973-01-01

178

Liquid metal pump  

DOEpatents

The liquid metal pump comprises floating seal rings and attachment of the pump diffuser to the pump bowl for isolating structural deflections from the pump shaft bearings. The seal rings also eliminate precision machining on large assemblies by eliminating the need for a close tolerance fit between the mounting surfaces of the pump and the seals. The liquid metal pump also comprises a shaft support structure that is isolated from the pump housing for better preservation of alignment of shaft bearings. The shaft support structure also allows for complete removal of pump internals for inspection and repair.

Pennell, William E. (Greensburg, PA)

1982-01-01

179

PREFACE: Functionalized Liquid Liquid Interfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most natural processes take place at interfaces. For this reason, surface science has been a focal point of modern research. At solid-liquid interfaces one can induce various species to adsorb or react, and thus may study interactions between the substrate and adsorbates, kinetic processes, optical properties, etc. Liquid-liquid interfaces, formed by immiscible liquids such as water and oil, have a

Hubert Girault; Alexei A. Kornyshev; Charles W. Monroe; Michael Urbakh

2007-01-01

180

Blanc Reaction of Aromatic Compounds Catalyzed by Ionic Liquids * * Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (20376015), the Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province (32491) and Guangzhou Project of Science & Technology (2004J1-C0151)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ionic liquids have been used as catalysts for Blanc reaction of toluene. The effects of reaction temperature, reaction time and dosage of the ionic liquid catalyst have been investigated, and the catalytic performance of different ionic liquid catalysts for toluene chloromethylation was also studied. The reaction was found to proceed under mild conditions with excellent conversion (up to 90%) in

Yanxiong FANG; Yunquan DENG; Qinggang REN; Jingping HUANG; Saidan ZHANG; Baohua HUANG; Kun ZHANG

2008-01-01

181

Comparison of methods of liquid medium culture for banana micropropagation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five different liquid medium culture methods for meristem propagation of bananas were investigated and compared with solid medium culture. Treatments studied were: gelled culture medium (treatment 1); liquid medium with immersion of the plants (treatment 2); liquid medium with cellulose culture support (treatment 3); liquid medium with partial immersion of the plants (treatment 4); liquid medium aerated by bubbling (treatment

D. Alvard; F. Cote; C. Teisson

1993-01-01

182

Steam generator support system  

DOEpatents

A support system for connection to an outer surface of a J-shaped steam generator for use with a nuclear reactor or other liquid metal cooled power source. The J-shaped steam generator is mounted with the bent portion at the bottom. An arrangement of elongated rod members provides both horizontal and vertical support for the steam generator. The rod members are interconnected to the steam generator assembly and a support structure in a manner which provides for thermal distortion of the steam generator without the transfer of bending moments to the support structure and in a like manner substantially minimizes forces being transferred between the support structure and the steam generator as a result of seismic disturbances.

Moldenhauer, James E. (Simi Valley, CA)

1987-01-01

183

Steam generator support system  

DOEpatents

A support system for connection to an outer surface of a J-shaped steam generator for use with a nuclear reactor or other liquid metal cooled power source is disclosed. The J-shaped steam generator is mounted with the bent portion at the bottom. An arrangement of elongated rod members provides both horizontal and vertical support for the steam generator. The rod members are interconnected to the steam generator assembly and a support structure in a manner which provides for thermal distortion of the steam generator without the transfer of bending moments to the support structure and in a like manner substantially minimizes forces being transferred between the support structure and the steam generator as a result of seismic disturbances. 4 figs.

Moldenhauer, J.E.

1987-08-25

184

Do liquidity measures measure liquidity?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the key role of liquidity in finance research, identifying high quality proxies based on daily (as opposed to intraday) data would permit liquidity to be studied over relatively long timeframes and across many countries. Using new measures and widely employed measures in the literature, we run horseraces of annual and monthly estimates of each measure against liquidity benchmarks. Our

Ruslan Y. Goyenko; Craig W. Holden; Charles A. Trzcinka

2009-01-01

185

Tech Support.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses technology-support issues, including staff training, cost, and outsourcing. Describes how various school districts manage technology-support services. Features the Technology Support Index, developed by the International Society for Technology in Education, to gauge the operation of school district technology-support programs. (PKP)

Beem, Kate

2002-01-01

186

Prediction of Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium Data from C—H Band Shift of IR Spectra in Some Binary Systems * * Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No.20573093 and No.20434020)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prediction of vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) is extremely necessary to separate liquid mixture in chemical production, especially when the required experimental data are difficult to measure, or the measurement is not economical. The infinite dilution activities can be used to predict VLE. However, it needs both the ends of the activities that are difficult to obtain for many systems. In the

ZHU Xiao; YAO Jia; LI Haoran; HAN Shijun

2007-01-01

187

Liquid storage tank with floating roof structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a cylindrical wall storage tank for containing a liquid, said tank is described having a floor, a floatable roof supportable by said contained liquid, said roof including a peripheral seal for engaging the cylindrical wall to maintain a fluid-tight sliding seal therewith, and support means associated with said roof including, the improvement in said tank of, at least one

1993-01-01

188

Liquid phase methanol LaPorte Process Development Unit: Modification, operation, and support studies. Task 2.2: Process variable Scan Run E-8 and in-situ activation with syngas Run E-9  

SciTech Connect

The LPMEOH process was conceived and patented by Chem Systems Inc. in 1975. Initial research and studies on the process focused on two distinct modes of operation. The first was a liquid fluidized mode with relatively large catalyst pellets suspended in a fluidizing liquid, and the second was an entrained (slurry) mode with fine catalyst particles slurried in an inert liquid. The development of both operating modes progressed in parallel from bench scale reactors, through an intermediate scale lab PDU, and then to the LaPorte PDU in 1984. The slurry mode of operation was ultimately chosen as the operating mode of choice due to its superior performance.

Not Available

1991-02-28

189

Mystery Liquids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this math lesson, learners analyze the density of liquids in order to explore linear functions. Learners gather mass and volume data for two mystery liquids, oil and water, and then use the data to explore linear functions. Learners discuss the physical meaning of the slopes and y-intercepts of the various lines they create from scatterplots.

Pbs

2012-01-01

190

Liquid Ventilation  

PubMed Central

Mammals have lungs to breathe air and they have no gills to breath liquids. When the surface tension at the air-liquid interface of the lung increases, as in acute lung injury, scientists started to think about filling the lung with fluid instead of air to reduce the surface tension and facilitate ventilation. Liquid ventilation (LV) is a technique of mechanical ventilation in which the lungs are insufflated with an oxygenated perfluorochemical liquid rather than an oxygen-containing gas mixture. The use of perfluorochemicals, rather than nitrogen, as the inert carrier of oxygen and carbon dioxide offers a number of theoretical advantages for the treatment of acute lung injury. In addition, there are non-respiratory applications with expanding potential including pulmonary drug delivery and radiographic imaging. The potential for multiple clinical applications for liquid-assisted ventilation will be clarified and optimized in future.

Tawfic, Qutaiba A.; Kausalya, Rajini

2011-01-01

191

Rotating electric machine with fluid supported parts  

DOEpatents

A rotating electric machine in which the armature winding thereof and other parts are supported by a liquid to withstand the mechanical stresses applied during transient overloads and the like. In particular, a narrow gap is provided between the armature winding and the stator which supports it and this gap is filled with an externally pressurized viscous liquid. The liquid is externally pressurized sufficiently to balance the static loads on the armature winding. Transient mechanical loads which deform the armature winding alter the gap dimensions and thereby additionally pressurize the viscous liquid to oppose the armature winding deformation and more nearly uniformly to distribute the resulting mechanical stresses.

Smith, Jr., Joseph L. (Concord, MA); Kirtley, Jr., James L. (Brookline, MA)

1981-01-01

192

Rotary Liquid Droplet Microbearing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rotational stage with a 10-mm-diameter single-crystal silicon rotor supported by liquid droplet ball bearings is described. The 100–300-$\\\\mu\\\\hbox{m}$-thickness droplet bearings are retained on the rotor surface with a micropatterned amorphous-flouropolymer-based superhydrophobic (SHP) surface coating that yields a 156$^{\\\\circ}$ contact angle. The droplets slide on a SHP bearing raceway that is formed from laser-roughened polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) on the surface of

Brian E. Yoxall; Mei-Lin Chan; Ryan S. Harake; Tingrui Pan; David A. Horsley

2012-01-01

193

Metastable liquids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

How far can one supercool a liquid before it crystallizes? How much can one stretch it before cavitation occurs ? In order to answer such questions, we have studied liquid helium, a model system. In this review, we show the limitations of the elementary 'standard nucleation theory'. We then show that the existence of 'spinodal' limits needs to be considered in the framework of 'density functional' methods. We also briefly consider the possibility of nucleation by quantum tunnelling. The main emphasis is on cavitation and crystallization in liquid helium, but we also mention several connections with more classical systems, in particular water.

Balibar, S.; Caupin, F.

2003-01-01

194

Exploring Liquids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Young learners investigate and observe the properties of three liquids -- water, vegetable oil, and corn syrup. They use their senses to collect data and ask and answer questions. This lesson for young learners introduces the scientific process.

Janulaw, Sharon

2010-01-01

195

Liquid penetrants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Liquid-penetrant inspection is discussed for surface defects in solids. The principle advantages are considered to be its simplicity and economy. The techniques and penetrants are described along with the developers. Commercially available equipment is also described.

Pasley, R. L.

1973-01-01

196

Petroleum liquids  

SciTech Connect

This book contains the following six chapters: Characteristics of Petroleum Products; Behavior of Petroleum Products; Extinguishing Agents; Preplanning for Petroleum-Liquid Emergencies; Strategies and Tactics; and Termination Procedures.

Hawthorne, E.

1987-01-01

197

Method for treating liquid wastes  

DOEpatents

The method of treating liquid waste in a media is accomplished by exposing the media to phosphinimines and sequestering .sup.99 Tc from the media by the phosphinimine (PN) functionalities. The system for treating the liquid waste in the media includes extraction of .sup.99 TcO.sub.4.sup.- from aqueous solutions into organic solvents or mixed organic/polar media, extraction of .sup.99 Tc from solutions on a solid matrix by using a container containing PN functionalities on solid matrices including an inlet and outlet for allowing flow of media through an immobilized phosphinimine ligand system contained within the container. Also, insoluble suspensions of phosphinimine functionalities on solid matrices in liquid solutions or present on supported liquid membranes (SLM) can be used to sequester .sup.99 Tc from those liquids.

Katti, Kattesh V. (Columbia, MO); Volkert, Wynn A. (Columbia, MO); Singh, Prahlad (Columbia, MO); Ketring, Alan R. (Columbia, MO)

1995-01-01

198

Method for treating liquid wastes  

DOEpatents

The method of treating liquid waste in a media is accomplished by exposing the media to phosphinimines and sequestering {sup 99}Tc from the media by the phosphinimine (PN) functionalities. The system for treating the liquid waste in the media includes extraction of {sup 99}TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} from aqueous solutions into organic solvents or mixed organic/polar media, extraction of {sup 99}Tc from solutions on a solid matrix by using a container containing PN functionalities on solid matrices including an inlet and outlet for allowing flow of media through an immobilized phosphinimine ligand system contained within the container. Also, insoluble suspensions of phosphinimine functionalities on solid matrices in liquid solutions or present on supported liquid membranes (SLM) can be used to sequester {sup 99}Tc from those liquids. 6 figs.

Katti, K.V.; Volkert, W.A.; Singh, P.; Ketring, A.R.

1995-12-26

199

Family Support.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This "Feature Issue" of the quarterly journal "Impact" presents 19 brief articles on family support systems in the United States for persons with developmental disabilities and their families. Emphasis is on provisions of Public Law 99-457. Articles include: "Family Support in the United States: Setting a Course for the 1990s" (James Knoll);…

Wieck, Colleen, Ed.; McBride, Marijo, Ed.

1990-01-01

200

Hemp Support  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European Union holds a place of distinction amongst the industrialized world as measured by its long-term support of the flax and hemp fiber sectors. More recently, EU fiber support has resulted from successful lobbying efforts by groups in France, Belgium and the Netherlands, and by the emergence of new technical applications for flax and hemp fibers. Relative to many

Valerie L. Vantreese

2002-01-01

201

Optical Fiber Pressure Sensor for Liquid Level Monitoring.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An apparatus for continuously monitoring changes in a liquid level in accordance with a differential pressure is provided. A sensor body immersed in the liquid supports two thin-filmed metallic diaphragms that are independently, axially responsive to pres...

F. Cuomo

1994-01-01

202

Vapor liquid solid-hydride vapor phase epitaxy (VLS-HVPE) growth of ultra-long defect-free GaAs nanowires: Ab initio simulations supporting center nucleation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High aspect ratio, rod-like and single crystal phase GaAs nanowires (NWs) were grown by gold catalyst-assisted hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE). High resolution transmission electron microscopy and micro-Raman spectroscopy revealed polytypism-free zinc blende (ZB) NWs over lengths of several tens of micrometers for a mean diameter of 50 nm. Micro-photoluminescence studies of individual NWs showed linewidths smaller than those reported elsewhere which is consistent with the crystalline quality of the NWs. HVPE makes use of chloride growth precursors GaCl of which high decomposition frequency after adsorption onto the liquid droplet catalysts, favors a direct and rapid introduction of the Ga atoms from the vapor phase into the droplets. High influxes of Ga and As species then yield high axial growth rate of more than 100 ?m/h. The diffusion of the Ga atoms in the liquid droplet towards the interface between the liquid and the solid nanowire was investigated by using density functional theory calculations. The diffusion coefficient of Ga atoms was estimated to be 3 × 10-9 m2/s. The fast diffusion of Ga in the droplet favors nucleation at the liquid-solid line interface at the center of the NW. This is further evidence, provided by an alternative epitaxial method with respect to metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy and molecular beam epitaxy, of the current assumption which states that this type of nucleation should always lead to the formation of the ZB cubic phase.

André, Yamina; Lekhal, Kaddour; Hoggan, Philip; Avit, Geoffrey; Cadiz, Fabian; Rowe, Alistair; Paget, Daniel; Petit, Elodie; Leroux, Christine; Trassoudaine, Agnès; Réda Ramdani, M.; Monier, Guillaume; Colas, David; Ajib, Rabih; Castelluci, Dominique; Gil, Evelyne

2014-05-01

203

Active silicon support for DNA diagnostics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heated liquid cavities have been studied. Microlitre scale liquid cavities were etched to the surface of a silicon wafer. Liquid cavities were sealed with a glass cover. Integration of active components to the silicon support is also possible. A heater and a thermistor element are integrated into the silicon support. A pole structure was used within the wells for thermal optimization and self-feeding. The pole structure increases the surface area between silicon and liquid, which enhances thermal transport between silicon and liquid. The temperature of the water is also more uniform. The pole structure also makes the liquid cavity semiporous, enabling the self-feeding of samples due to capillary force. Active silicon support could be used in diagnostics and in biotechnology. Silicon supports were tested in PCR (Polymerace Chain Reaction). The construction of the temperature controlling setup for the silicon support is described. Temperature controlling setup is an independent measuring setup. Interface to the silicon support is made with a printed board to a microscope glass slide format. It is possible to use the printed board interface in a microarray reader. The contruction of a fluorescence measurement setup based on a microarray reader is described.

Hokkanen, Ari P.; Koponen, Joona; Kolari, Kai; Stuns, Ingmar

2003-01-01

204

Do Measures of Liquidity Measure Liquidity?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquidity plays an increasingly important role in empirical asset pricing, market efficiency, and corporate finance. Identifying high quality proxies for liquidity based on daily data only (not intraday data) would permit liquidity to be studied over relatively long timeframes and across many countries. We introduce new liquidity measures. We run horseraces of both monthly and annual liquidity measures. We compare

Ruslan Y. Goyenko

205

Vapor liquid solid-hydride vapor phase epitaxy (VLS-HVPE) growth of ultra-long defect-free GaAs nanowires: ab initio simulations supporting center nucleation.  

PubMed

High aspect ratio, rod-like and single crystal phase GaAs nanowires (NWs) were grown by gold catalyst-assisted hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE). High resolution transmission electron microscopy and micro-Raman spectroscopy revealed polytypism-free zinc blende (ZB) NWs over lengths of several tens of micrometers for a mean diameter of 50 nm. Micro-photoluminescence studies of individual NWs showed linewidths smaller than those reported elsewhere which is consistent with the crystalline quality of the NWs. HVPE makes use of chloride growth precursors GaCl of which high decomposition frequency after adsorption onto the liquid droplet catalysts, favors a direct and rapid introduction of the Ga atoms from the vapor phase into the droplets. High influxes of Ga and As species then yield high axial growth rate of more than 100 ?m/h. The diffusion of the Ga atoms in the liquid droplet towards the interface between the liquid and the solid nanowire was investigated by using density functional theory calculations. The diffusion coefficient of Ga atoms was estimated to be 3 × 10(-9) m(2)/s. The fast diffusion of Ga in the droplet favors nucleation at the liquid-solid line interface at the center of the NW. This is further evidence, provided by an alternative epitaxial method with respect to metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy and molecular beam epitaxy, of the current assumption which states that this type of nucleation should always lead to the formation of the ZB cubic phase. PMID:24852556

André, Yamina; Lekhal, Kaddour; Hoggan, Philip; Avit, Geoffrey; Cadiz, Fabian; Rowe, Alistair; Paget, Daniel; Petit, Elodie; Leroux, Christine; Trassoudaine, Agnès; Ramdani, M Réda; Monier, Guillaume; Colas, David; Ajib, Rabih; Castelluci, Dominique; Gil, Evelyne

2014-05-21

206

Kinetic study of a highly active MgCl2-supported Ziegler-Natta catalyst in liquid pool propylene polymerization. II. The influence of alkyl aluminum and alkoxysilane on catalyst activation and deactivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of alkyl aluminum and alkoxysilane on the kinetics in liquid pool propylene batch polymerization was investigated with a highly active Ziegler-Natta catalyst system that consisted of MgCl2\\/TiCl4\\/diester-alkoxysilane\\/AlR3. In this study, diethyl phthalate and t-BuEtSi(OMe)2 were used as a diester and an alkoxysilane, respectively. The catalyst activity depended on the concentration of the alkyl aluminum when it came into

Fumihiko Shimizu; Jochem T. M. Pater; Swaaij van Wim P. M; Günter Weickert

2001-01-01

207

Solid-Liquid Equilibria of Benzoic Acid Derivatives in 1Octanol * * Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No.20676101) and the Natural Science Foundation of Tianjin University of Science & Technology (No.20050207)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solid-liquid equilibrium of benzoic acid derivatives in 1-octanol was first determined in this article. Using a laser monitoring observation technique, the solubility data of 0-amino-benzoic acid, p-amino-benzoic acid, 0-chloro-benzoic acid, and m-nitro-benzoic acid in 1-octanol were measured by the polythermal method in the temperature range of 20–50°C. The experimental data were regressed with the Wilson equation and the ?H

Qingzhu JIA; Peisheng MA; Shaona MA; Chang WANG

2007-01-01

208

Carbon supports from natural organic materials and carbon-supported palladium catalysts  

SciTech Connect

Experimental data are presented concerning the influence of preparation conditions on the pore structure of carbon supports obtained from different types of plant biomass, thermally expanded graphites, and chemically modified anthracites, on the distribution and particle size of supported palladium, and on the activity of the supported catalyst in the liquid-phase hydrogenation of hex-1-ene and cyclohexene.

Kuznetsov, B.N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

2007-07-15

209

Layered Liquids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity involves an exploration of density. Why does oil float on water? How does drain cleaner sink down into the clogged pipe right through standing water? These questions will be answered as students make a layered "parfait" of colored liquids ba

Eichinger, John

2009-05-30

210

Liquid filtration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquid filtration is a fundamental unit operation practiced extensively throughout the chemical process, petroleum, and allied industries. This book is a state-of-the-art review of this operation. The text reviews specific design and selection criteria, both theoretical and practical. There are many actual industrial problems given as a means of further elucidating the principles of filtration that are presented. All of

N. P. Cheremisinoff; D. S. Azbel

1983-01-01

211

Biochemical Blocking Layer for Liquid Crystal Assay.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A rubbed substrate structure for use in a liquid crystal assay device, includes: a biochemical blocking compound chemically immobilized on a surface of one side of a support forming a biochemical blocking layer; and a biomolecule recognition agent deposit...

N. L. Abbott S. R. Kim

2003-01-01

212

Specialist gelator for ionic liquids.  

PubMed

Cyclo(l-beta-3,7-dimethyloctylasparaginyl-L-phenylalanyl) (1) and cyclo(L-beta-2-ethylhexylasparaginyl-L-phenylalanyl) (2), prepared from L-asparaginyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester, have been found to be specialist gelators for ionic liquids. They can gel a wide variety of ionic liquids, including imizazolium, pyridinium, pyrazolidinium, piperidinium, morpholinium, and ammonium salts. The mean minimum gel concentrations (MGCs) necessary to make gels at 25 degrees C were determined for ionic liquids. The gel strength increased at a rate nearly proportional to the concentration of added gelator. The strength of the transparent gel of 1-butylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate ([C(4)py]BF(4)), prepared at a concentration of 60 g L(-1) (gelator 1/[C(4)py]BF(4)), was ca. 1500 g cm(-2). FT-IR spectroscopy indicated that a driving force for gelation was intermolecular hydrogen bonding between amides and that the phase transition from gel to liquid upon heating was brought about by the collapse of hydrogen bonding. The gels formed from ionic liquids were very thermally stable; no melting occurs up to 140 degrees C when the gels were prepared at a concentration of 70 g L(-1) (gelator/ionic liquid). The ionic conductivities of the gels were nearly the same as those of pure ionic liquids. The gelator had electrochemical stability and a wide electrochemical window. When the gels were prepared from ionic liquids containing propylene carbonate, the ionic conductivities of the resulting gels increased to levels rather higher than those of pure ionic liquids. The gelators also gelled ionic liquids containing supporting electrolytes. PMID:16262296

Hanabusa, Kenji; Fukui, Hiroaki; Suzuki, Masahiro; Shirai, Hirofusa

2005-11-01

213

Supporting Sport  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hillary Commission is the public funding agency that encourages New Zealanders to participate and achieve in sport, fitness and leisure. We support around 100 national sport organisations and the 17 regional sports trusts, encourage more people to be more active more often, help athletes compete at top levels, and improve the way sport and physical activity services are delivered.

Colleen Dryden

214

Supported Employment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This "feature issue" reports on major shifts in attitudes, practices, and policies that have led to the growth of supported employment programs for people with disabilities, with special focus on the situation in Minnesota. It contains the following articles: "To the Year 2000 and Beyond: Jobs Won't Be the Problem" (David R. Johnson); "The End of…

Erickson, Ron, Ed.; And Others

1989-01-01

215

[Family Support.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The newsletter offers perspectives on the provision of family support services for families with disabled members. An introductory article by Madeleine Will, Assistant Secretary for Special Education and Rehabilitative Services, stresses the impressive coping skills exhibited by many such families and their relationship to service professionals.…

Focal Point, 1988

1988-01-01

216

Microfabricated Liquid Rocket Motors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under NASA Glenn Research Center sponsorship, MIT has developed the concept of micromachined, bipropellant, liquid rocket engines. This is potentially a breakthrough technology changing the cost-performance tradeoffs for small propulsion systems, enabling new applications, and redefining the meaning of the term low-cost-access-to-space. With this NASA support, a liquid-cooled, gaseous propellant version of the thrust chamber and nozzle was designed, built, and tested as a first step. DARPA is currently funding MIT to demonstrate turbopumps and controls. The work performed herein was the second year of a proposed three-year effort to develop the technology and demonstrate very high power density, regeneratively cooled, liquid bipropellant rocket engine thrust chamber and nozzles. When combined with the DARPA turbopumps and controls, this work would enable the design and demonstration of a complete rocket propulsion system. The original MIT-NASA concept used liquid oxygen-ethanol propellants. The military applications important to DARPA imply that storable liquid propellants are needed. Thus, MIT examined various storable propellant combinations including N2O4 and hydrazine, and H2O2 and various hydrocarbons. The latter are preferred since they do not have the toxicity of N2O4 and hydrazine. In reflection of the newfound interest in H2O2, it is once again in production and available commercially. A critical issue for the microrocket engine concept is cooling of the walls in a regenerative design. This is even more important at microscale than for large engines due to cube-square scaling considerations. Furthermore, the coolant behavior of rocket propellants has not been characterized at microscale. Therefore, MIT designed and constructed an apparatus expressly for this purpose. The report details measurements of two candidate microrocket fuels, JP-7 and JP-10.

Epstein, Alan H.; Joppin, C.; Kerrebrock, J. L.; Schneider, Steven J. (Technical Monitor)

2003-01-01

217

Micropump based on liquid marbles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A micropump based on a pair of liquid marbles coated with various powders and connected with a capillary tube is presented. The idea of the micropump is based on the difference of the Laplace pressures in the marbles. The initial stream was supported by the pressure instability developed under water overflow. The reported experiments validate the concept of the effective

Edward Bormashenko; Revital Balter; Doron Aurbach

2010-01-01

218

Extended mission life support systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The life support systems employed in manned space missions have generally been based on the use of expendables, such as, for instance, liquid oxygen. For the conducted space missions, such systems have advantages related to volume, weight, and economy of power consumption. However, this situation will change in connection with Shuttle Orbiter missions of extended duration, permanent manned facilities in low-earth orbit, and ultimately manned planetary vehicles. A description is given of suitable regenerative life support systems for such extended manned space missions. Attention is given to advanced life support systems technology, air revitalization, CO2 reduction, oxygen generation, nitrogen generation, trace contaminant control, air revitalization system integration, control/monitor instrumentation, water reclamation, solid waste management, manned testing and life support integration, an enhanced duration orbiter, a space operations center, manned interplanetary life support systems, and future development requirements.

Quattrone, P. D.

1984-01-01

219

Transverse excitations in liquid metals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The transverse acoustic excitation modes were detected by inelastic x-ray scattering in liquid Ga, Cu and Fe in the Q range around 10 nm-1 using a third-generation synchrotron radiation facility, SPring-8, although these liquid metals are mostly described by a simple hard-sphere liquid. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations clearly support this finding for liquid Ga. From the detailed analyses for the S(Q,?) spectra with good statistic qualities, the lifetime of less than 1 ps and the propagating length of less than 1 nm can be estimated for the transverse acoustic phonon modes, which correspond to the lifetime and size of cages formed instantaneously in these liquid metals. The microscopic Poisson's ratio estimated from the dynamic velocities of sound is 0.42 for liquid Ga and about -0.2 for liquid transition metals, indicating a rubber-like soft and extremely hard elastic properties of the cage clusters, respectively. The origin of these microscopic elastic properties is discussed in detail.

Hosokawa, S.; Munejiri, S.; Inui, M.; Kajihara, Y.; Pilgrim, W.-C.; Baron, A. Q. R.; Shimojo, F.; Hoshino, K.

2013-02-01

220

Liquid/liquid heat exchanger  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Conceptual design for heat exchanger, utilizing two immiscible liquids with dissimilar specific gravities in direct contact, is more efficient mechanism of heat transfer than conventional heat exchangers with walls or membranes. Concept could be adapted for collection of heat from solar or geothermal sources.

Miller, C. G.

1980-01-01

221

The Isobaric Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium of Butanone-DMF and Toluene-DMF at Reduced Pressures 1 1 Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No.20376073)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The isobaric vapor-liquid equilibrium data of butanone(1)-N, N-dimethylformamide (DMF)(2) at 100.92kPa, 93.32kPa, and 79.99kPa and of toluene(1)-DMF(2) at 100.92kPa were measured using a modified Rose-Williams still. The above data met the thermodynamic consistency test and were correlated with the Wilson, NRTL, and UNIQUAC equations. These data can be used in the analysis and design of the process that involves separating

Chang LIU; Lihua WANG; Chaohong HE; Xiangqun YE

2006-01-01

222

Liquid electrode  

DOEpatents

A dropping electrolyte electrode for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions.

Ekechukwu, Amy A. (Augusta, GA)

1994-01-01

223

Use of foam as a borehole ground support system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described for providing support to an overburden area penetrated by at least one drilled hole from which minerals are hydraulically mined from an underground cavity or reservoir containing a liquid comprising: (a) introducing foam within the cavity which foam floats on the liquid causing pressure to be exerted against the interior of the cavity sufficient to support

Uhri

1986-01-01

224

Pump for Saturated Liquids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Boiling liquids pumped by device based on proven components. Expanding saturated liquid in nozzle and diverting its phases along separate paths in liquid/vapor separator raises pressure of liquid. Liquid cooled in process. Pump makes it unnecessary to pressurize cryogenic liquids in order to pump them. Problems of introducing noncondensable pressurizing gas avoided.

Elliott, D. G.

1986-01-01

225

Bearing for liquid metal pump  

DOEpatents

A liquid metal pump bearing support comprises a series of tangentially oriented spokes that connect the bearing cylinder to the pump internals structure. The spokes may be arranged in a plurality of planes extending from the bearing cylinder to the pump internals with the spokes in one plane being arranged alternately with those in the next plane. The bearing support structure provides the pump with sufficient lateral support for the bearing structure together with the capability of accommodating differential thermal expansion without adversely affecting pump performance.

Dickinson, Robert J. (Shaler Township, Allegheny County, PA); Wasko, John (Plum Borough, PA); Pennell, William E. (Unity Township, Allegheny County, PA)

1984-01-01

226

Liquid air mixing system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A device for mixing liquid nitrogen and liquid oxygen to form liquid air. The mixing device consists of a tube for transferring liquid oxygen positioned within a tube for transferring liquid nitrogen. Supply vessels for liquid oxygen and liquid nitrogen are equally pressurized and connected to the appropriate tubes. Liquid oxygen and nitrogen flow from the supply vessels through the respective tubes and are mixed to form liquid air upon exiting the outlets of the tube. The resulting liquid air is transferred to a holding vessel.

Martin, Robert B. (Inventor)

1997-01-01

227

Liquid Rainbow  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this density activity, students determine the relative densities of five liquids and layer them atop one another in a straw. Directions for conducting the activity are included in addition to lists of the science process skills, complex reasoning strategies, and National Science Education Standards that relate to it. A brief explanation of the activity's science content and an assessment idea are also provided. This activity is part of a set called Whelmers that were designed to inspire students to think about science concepts.

Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning (McREL); Jacobs, Steve

2004-01-01

228

Liquid electrode  

DOEpatents

A dropping electrolyte electrode is described for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions. 2 figures.

Ekechukwu, A.A.

1994-07-05

229

Supporting steel  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) and the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) have just completed a pilot program on the technical and economic viability of direct ironmaking by a process based on bath smelting. In this process, oxygen, prereduced iron ore pellets, coal, and flux are charged into a molten slag bath containing a high percentage of carbon. The carbon removes oxygen from the iron ore and generates carbon monoxide and liquid iron. Oxygen is then injected to burn some of the carbon monoxide gas before it leaves the smelting vessel. The partially combusted gas is sued to preheat and prereduced the ore before it is injected into the bath. There are several competing cokeless ironmaking processes in various stages of development around the world. A brief comparison of these processes provides a useful perspective with which to gauge the progress and objectives of the AISI-DOE research initiative. The principal competing foreign technologies include the Corex process, DIOS, HIsmelt, and Jupiter. The advantages of the direct ironmaking process examined by AISI-DOE were not sufficiently demonstrated to justify commercialization without further research. However, enough knowledge was gained from laboratory and pilot testing to teach researchers how to optimize the direct ironmaking process and to provide the foundation for future research. Researchers now better understand issues such as the dissolution of materials, reduction mechanisms and rates, slag foaming and control, the behavior of sulfur, dust generation, and the entire question of energy efficiency--including post combustion and the role of coal/volatile matter.

Badra, C. [International Trade Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

1995-10-01

230

Carbon cloth supported electrode  

DOEpatents

A flow-by anode is disclosed made by preparing a liquid suspension of about to about 18% by weight solids, the solids comprising about 3.5 to about 8% of a powdered catalyst of platinum, palladium, palladium oxide, or mixtures thereof; about 60 to about 76% carbon powder (support) having a particle size less than about 20 m.mu.m and about 20 to about 33% of an inert binder having a particle size of less than about 500 m.mu.m. A sufficient amount of the suspension is poured over a carbon cloth to form a layer of solids about 0.01 to about 0.05 cm thick on the carbon cloth when the electrode is completed. A vacuum was applied to the opposite side of the carbon cloth to remove the liquid and the catalyst layer/cloth assembly is dried and compressed at about 10 to about 50 MPa's. The binder is then sintered in an inert atmosphere to complete the electrode. The electrode is used for the oxidation of sulfur dioxide in a sulfur based hybrid cycle for the decomposition of water.

Lu, Wen-Tong P. (Upper St. Clair, PA); Ammon, Robert L. (Baldwin both of, PA)

1982-01-01

231

Tool to Prioritize Energy Efficiency Investments  

SciTech Connect

To provide analytic support of the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of the Building Technology Program (BTP), NREL developed a Microsoft Excel-based tool to provide an open and objective comparison of the hundreds of investment opportunities available to BTP. This tool uses established methodologies to evaluate the energy savings and cost of those savings.

Farese, P.; Gelman, R.; Hendron, R.

2012-08-01

232

One-dimensional fermions with neither Luttinger-liquid nor Fermi-liquid behavior.  

PubMed

It is well known that, generically, one-dimensional interacting fermions cannot be described in terms of a Fermi liquid. Instead, they present a different phenomenology, that of a Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid: the Landau quasiparticles are ill defined, and the fermion occupation number is continuous at the Fermi energy. We demonstrate that suitable fine tuning of the interaction between fermions can stabilize a peculiar state of one-dimensional matter, which is dissimilar to both Tomonaga-Luttinger and Fermi liquids. We propose to call this state a quasi-Fermi liquid. Technically speaking, such a liquid exists only when the fermion interaction is irrelevant (in the renormalization group sense). The quasi-Fermi liquid exhibits the properties of both a Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid and a Fermi liquid. Similar to a Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid, no finite-momentum quasiparticles are supported by the quasi-Fermi liquid; on the other hand, its fermion occupation number demonstrates a finite discontinuity at the Fermi energy, which is a hallmark feature of a Fermi liquid. A possible realization of the quasi-Fermi liquid with the help of cold atoms in an optical trap is discussed. PMID:24679312

Rozhkov, A V

2014-03-14

233

Synthesis and high performance liquid chromatography/electrospray mass spectrometry single-bead decoding of split-pool structural libraries of polyamines supported on polystyrene and polystyrene/ethylene glycol resins.  

PubMed

Natural polyamines are ubiquitous biomolecules present in all living cells. These cationic compounds play essential roles in both cell growth and differentiation and are known to interact in complex ways with polyanionic biomolecules. Consequently, there is significant interest in expanding nature's polyamine diversity using combinatorial synthesis and screening strategies. This article describes an efficient split-pool solid-phase synthetic strategy toward the generation of encoded libraries of polyamines via the exhaustive borane-promoted reduction of trityl-linked, resin-bound polyamides. Model structural libraries of tetra- and pentaamines were designed from a set of geometrically diverse amino acid building blocks. To encode the libraries, a partial termination synthesis approach was employed at the polyamide stage, allowing each library to be analyzed from single beads by HPLC/ESMS under two sets of conditions featuring both pH extremes. Determination of the sequence of polyamine residues was simply achieved by the mass differences observed between the full oligomers and the terminated ones. Both polystyrene- and TentaGel-supported libraries, including a library of 4913 pentaamines, were prepared and successfully decoded. For the TentaGel-supported libraries, suitable for on-bead aqueous screening of biomolecules, a novel trityl-derivatized resin was prepared in which the trityl group is anchored to the poly(ethylene glycol) chains via a methylene group. The resulting resin is much more resistant than other commercially available polystyrene-poly(ethylene glycol) trityl resins to the harsh borane reduction conditions required. Two workup conditions for the cleavage of the resultant borane-amine adducts were evaluated on the TentaGel bound polyamide 14. Although the two methods showed a comparable efficiency when using the polystyrene support, with 14 it was found that the piperidine-exchange method afforded polyamines of higher purity than the iodine-based oxidative method previously developed in our laboratory. PMID:12857106

Manku, Sukhdev; Wang, Fan; Hall, Dennis G

2003-01-01

234

The Paradox Of Liquidity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The more liquid a firm's assets, the greater their value in a short-notice liquidation. It is generally thought that a firm should find it easier to raise external finance against more liquid assets. This paper focuses on the dark side of liquidity: greater asset liquidity reduces the firm's ability to commit to a specific course of action. As a result,

Stewart C. Myers; Raghuram G. Rajan

1998-01-01

235

Forced Oscillations of Supported Drops  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Oscillations of supported liquid drops are the subject of wide scientific interest, with applications in areas as diverse as liquid-liquid extraction, synthesis of ceramic powders, growing of pure crystals in low gravity, and measurement of dynamic surface tension. In this research, axisymmetric forced oscillations of arbitrary amplitude of viscous liquid drops of fixed volume which are pendant from or sessile on a rod with a fixed or moving contact line and surrounded by an inviscid ambient gas are induced by moving the rod in the vertical direction sinusiodally in time. In this paper, a preliminary report is made on the computational analysis of the oscillations of supported drops that have 'clean' interfaces and whose contact lines remain fixed throughout their motions. The relative importance of forcing to damping can be increased by either increasing the amplitude of rod motion A or Reynolds number Re. It is shown that as the ratio of forcing to damping rises, for drops starting from an initial rest state a sharp increase in deformation can occur when they are forced to oscillate in the vicinity of their resonance frequencies, indicating the incipience of hysteresis. However, it is also shown that the existence of a second stable limit cycle and the occurrence of hysteresis can be observed if the drop is subjected to a so-called frequency sweep, where the forcing frequency is first increased and then decreased over a suitable range. Because the change in drop deformation response is abrupt in the vicinity of the forcing frequencies where hysteresis occurs, it should be possible to exploit the phenomenon to accurately measure the viscosity and surface tension of the drop liquid.

Wilkes, Edward D.; Basaran, Osman A.

1996-01-01

236

Liquid-liquid-solid transition in viscoelastic liquids  

PubMed Central

Liquid-liquid-solid transitions (LLST) are known to occur in confined liquids, exist in supercooled liquids and emerge in liquids driven from equilibrium. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations claim many successes in forecasting the phenomena. The transitions are also studied in the framework of thermodynamics based methods and minimalistic models. In here, the proposed approach is derived in the framework of continuum and includes spatial and temporal dynamic heterogeneities; the approach is meant to capture the material behavior at small scales. We conjecture that the liquid-like and solid-like behaviors are dissimilar enough for the two to be governed by different constitutive relations. In this way, we gain additional degree of freedom, which is found essential when predicting the transitional phenomena. As a result, we derive the LLST criteria for liquids in equilibrium, during steady flow and at transient conditions. Lastly, we forecast short-lived LLSTs in human blood during cardiac cycle.

Zubelewicz, Aleksander

2013-01-01

237

Liquid-liquid-solid transition in viscoelastic liquids.  

PubMed

Liquid-liquid-solid transitions (LLST) are known to occur in confined liquids, exist in supercooled liquids and emerge in liquids driven from equilibrium. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations claim many successes in forecasting the phenomena. The transitions are also studied in the framework of thermodynamics based methods and minimalistic models. In here, the proposed approach is derived in the framework of continuum and includes spatial and temporal dynamic heterogeneities; the approach is meant to capture the material behavior at small scales. We conjecture that the liquid-like and solid-like behaviors are dissimilar enough for the two to be governed by different constitutive relations. In this way, we gain additional degree of freedom, which is found essential when predicting the transitional phenomena. As a result, we derive the LLST criteria for liquids in equilibrium, during steady flow and at transient conditions. Lastly, we forecast short-lived LLSTs in human blood during cardiac cycle. PMID:23429528

Zubelewicz, Aleksander

2013-01-01

238

Fermentation of Liquids.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent application discloses a method and an apparatus for fermenting liquids. Liquids are fermented by controlling flow patterns within the liquid so as to retain fermentation culture medium in a fermenting chamber while at the same time removing fer...

E. Wick

1978-01-01

239

Liquid Crystal Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Liquid Crystal Institute website provides information on the interdisciplinary research and development of liquid crystal optoelectronic materials, technology, and consumer products. It provides basic information on what liquid crystals are as well as how they are made and used.

Institute, Liquid C.

2003-10-10

240

Liquid Crystal Polyester Thermosets.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present invention relates to the field of curable liquid crystal polyester monomers and to thermoset liquid crystalline polyester compositions prepared therefrom. It is an object of this invention to provide curable liquid crystalline polyester materi...

B. C. Benicewicz A. E. Hoyt

1990-01-01

241

Liquid crystal polyester thermosets.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present invention relates to the field of curable liquid crystal polyester monomers and to thermoset liquid crystalline polyester compositions prepared therefrom. It is an object of this invention to provide curable liquid crystalline polyester materi...

B. C. Benicewicz A. E. Hoyt

1990-01-01

242

Lacerations - liquid bandage  

MedlinePLUS

... attention. If the cut is minor, a liquid bandage (liquid adhesive) can be used on the cut ... wound and help stop bleeding. Using a liquid bandage is quick and painless to apply. Skin adhesives, ...

243

Liquid Crystal Inquiries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the properties and classification of liquid crystals. Presents a simple experiment that illustrates the structure of liquid crystals and the differences between the various phases liquid crystals can assume. (JRH)

Marroum, Renata-Maria

1996-01-01

244

Transport of samarium(III) and uranium(VI) across a silicone-supported liquid membrane using di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid and tributyl phosphate as mobile carriers  

SciTech Connect

Transport of actinides and lanthanides from dilute acidic solutions through silicone membranes prepared in this laboratory was studied using di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) and tributyl phosphate (TBP) as mobile carriers. It was found that transport of uranyl and samarium ions increased with an increase in carrier concentration dissolved in kerosene in the membrane phase. However, the metal ion flux was optimum at 1 M D2EHPA and 30% (v/v) of TBP, after which it decreased. It was also observed that the higher nitrate ions concentration in the feed enhanced the transport of U (VI) species with TBP carrier. In general, the performance of our silicone membrane compares well with those of other extensively used supported membranes, such as polypropylene and PTFE. 16 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

Gill, J.S.; Marwah, U.R.; Misra, B.M. (Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India))

1994-01-01

245

Liquid-Liquid Extraction of Cobalt.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This invention relates to liquid-liquid extraction of cobalt from leach solutions and, more particularly, to extraction of cobalt from raffinate remaining after extraction of nickel from ammonium sulfate leach solutions containing both nickel and cobalt. ...

D. C. Thompson

1982-01-01

246

Research News: Emulsion Liquid Membrane Extraction in a Hollow-Fiber Contactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This article describes how ELMs (emulsion liquid membranes) can be used for extraction. The article addresses the disadvantages of ELM extraction in a stirred contactor, and the advantages of SELMs (supported emulsion liquid membranes). The introduction of the article provides background information on liquid-liquid solvent extraction and dispersion-free solvent extraction.

Wiencek, John M.; Hu, Shih-Yao

2000-01-01

247

Quantum Spin Liquids and Fractionalization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter discusses quantum antiferromagnets which do not break any symmetries at zero temperature - also called "spin liquids" - and focuses on lattice spin models with Heisenberg-like (i.e. SU(2)-symmetric) interactions in dimensions larger than one. We begin by discussing the Lieb-Schultz-Mattis theorem and its recent extension to D > 1 by Hastings (2004), which establishes an important distinction between spin liquids with an integer and with a half-integer spin per unit cell. Spin liquids of the first kind, "band insulators", can often be understood by elementary means, whereas the latter, "Mott insulators", are more complex (featuring "topological order") and support spin-1/2 excitations (spinons). The fermionic formalism (Affleck and Marston, 1988) is described and the effect of fluctuations about mean-field solutions, such as the possible creation of instabilities, is discussed in a qualitative way. In particular, we explain the emergence of gauge modes and their relation to fractionalization. The concept of the projective symmetry group (X.-G. Wen, 2002) is introduced, with the aid of some examples. Finally, we present the phenomenology of (gapped) short-ranged resonating-valence-bond spin liquids, and make contact with the fermionic approach by discussing their description in terms of a fluctuating Z 2 gauge field. Some recent references are given to other types of spin liquid, including gapless ones.

Misguich, Grégoire

248

Shaped composite liquid marbles.  

PubMed

Shaped "cubic" non-stick droplets are reported. Shaped composite droplets were manufactured via a two-stage process. In the first stage, cubic foamed-polystyrene particles were hydrophilized with cold radiofrequency plasma. Then particles were wetted with water. In the second stage, they were coated with solid, colloidal particles such as lycopodium, Teflon or carbon black. Thus, "liquid marble"-like non-stick shaped droplets were obtained. The shaped "cubic" droplets remained stable when supported by a NaCl water solution. Shaped Janus droplets coated on one side with dielectric Teflon and with semiconductor carbon black on the other side, were prepared. Janus marbles were actuated with an electric field. PMID:24407678

Bormashenko, Edward; Balter, Revital; Aharoni, Hadas; Aurbach, Doron

2014-03-01

249

Flame Spread Across Liquids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The principal goal of our recent research on flame spread across liquid pools is the detailed identification of the mechanisms that control the rate and nature of flame spread when the liquid pool is initially at an isothermal bulk temperature that is below the fuel's flash point temperature. In our project, we specialize the subject to highlight the roles of buoyancy-related processes regarding the mechanisms of flame spread, an area of research cited recently by Linan and Williams as one that needs further attention and which microgravity (micro-g) experiments could help to resolve. Toward resolving the effects of buoyancy on this flame spread problem, comparisons - between 1-g and micro-g experimental observations, and between model predictions and experimental data at each of these gravitational levels - are extensively utilized. The present experimental and computational foundation is presented to support identification of the mechanisms that control flame spread in the pulsating flame spread regime for which long-duration, micro-g flame spread experiments have been conducted aboard a sounding rocket.

Ross, Howard D.; Miller, Fletcher J.; Sirignano, William A.; Schiller, David

1997-01-01

250

Product selectivity control induced by using liquid-liquid parallel laminar flow in a microreactor.  

PubMed

Product selectivity control based on a liquid-liquid parallel laminar flow has been successfully demonstrated by using a microreactor. Our electrochemical microreactor system enables regioselective cross-coupling reaction of aldehyde with allylic chloride via chemoselective cathodic reduction of substrate by the combined use of suitable flow mode and corresponding cathode material. The formation of liquid-liquid parallel laminar flow in the microreactor was supported by the estimation of benzaldehyde diffusion coefficient and computational fluid dynamics simulation. The diffusion coefficient for benzaldehyde in Bu(4)NClO(4)-HMPA medium was determined to be 1.32 × 10(-7) cm(2) s(-1) by electrochemical measurements, and the flow simulation using this value revealed the formation of clear concentration gradient of benzaldehyde in the microreactor channel over a specific channel length. In addition, the necessity of the liquid-liquid parallel laminar flow was confirmed by flow mode experiments. PMID:21483942

Amemiya, Fumihiro; Matsumoto, Hideyuki; Fuse, Keishi; Kashiwagi, Tsuneo; Kuroda, Chiaki; Fuchigami, Toshio; Atobe, Mahito

2011-06-01

251

Experiment to Study Pebble Bed Liquid-Fluoride-Salt Heat Transfer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A forced-convection liquid-fluoride-salt loop is being constructed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This loop was designed as a versatile experimental facility capable of supporting general thermal/fluid/corrosion testing of liquid fluoride salts....

A. Aaron D. Heatherly D. Holcomb D. Wilson F. Peretz G. L. Yoder J. Wilgen M. McCarthy R. Kisner

2013-01-01

252

Traveling Through Different Liquids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners observe and record what happens when they manipulate bottles containing a liquid (water or corn syrup) and one or more objects (screw, nail, paper clip). They should observe differences in how quickly the objects fall in the different liquids. This lesson builds on what learners have studied in previous lessons, Exploring Liquids and Exploring How Liquids Behave.

Janulaw, Sharon

2010-01-01

253

Ionic Liquids Database- (ILThermo)  

National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

SRD 147 Ionic Liquids Database- (ILThermo) (Web, free access)   IUPAC Ionic Liquids Database, ILThermo, is a free web research tool that allows users worldwide to access an up-to-date data collection from the publications on experimental investigations of thermodynamic, and transport properties of ionic liquids as well as binary and ternary mixtures containing ionic liquids.

254

Look-alike Liquids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners add drops of four liquids (water, alcohol, salt water, and detergent solution) to different surfaces and observe the liquids' behavior. Learners will see that liquids have characteristic properties which can be used for identification. In the related activity, " Developing Tests to Distinguish Between Similar-Looking Liquids" (see related resources), learners identify an unknown based on these properties.

Kessler, James H.; Galvan, Patricia M.

2007-01-01

255

Exploring How Liquids Behave  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners apply their knowledge from a previous study to identify different liquids--water, corn syrup, and vegetable oil. They also investigate combinations of liquids, two at a time, to see how they interact. This is meant as a follow-up lesson to the related activity, Exploring Liquids. As an extension, learners can continue their study of these liquids in the lesson, Traveling Through Different Liquids.

Janulaw, Sharon

2010-01-01

256

Liquid-liquid phase transition in water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water shows anomalies different from most of other materials. Different sceniaros have been proposed to explain water anomalies, among which the liquid-liquid phase transition (LLPT) is the most discussed one. It attributes water anomalies to the existence of a hypothesized liquid-liquid critical point (LLCP) buried deep in the supercooled region. We briefly review the recent experimental and theoretical progresses on the study of the LLPT in water. These studies include the discussion on the existence of the first order LLPT in supercooled water and the detection of liquid-liquid critical point. Simulational results of different water models for LLPT and the experimental evidence in confined water are also discussed.

Sun, ZhaoRu; Sun, Gang; Chen, YiXuan; Xu, LiMei

2014-05-01

257

Liquid storage tank with floating roof structure  

SciTech Connect

In a cylindrical wall storage tank for containing a liquid, said tank is described having a floor, a floatable roof supportable by said contained liquid, said roof including a peripheral seal for engaging the cylindrical wall to maintain a fluid-tight sliding seal therewith, and support means associated with said roof including, the improvement in said tank of, at least one cylindrical guide sleeve extending downwardly from said floatable roof; a shoe depending laterally from said at least one cylindrical guide sleeve's lower end for engaging the tank floor when the level of contained liquid is insufficient to support said floatable roof, said shoe having means forming a passage there through to register a support column and, an elongated support column removably positioned in said at least one cylindrical guide sleeve, of being sufficient length to extend downward beyond the shoe to engage the tank floor, whereby to sustain the floatable roof a predetermined distance above said floor after the contained liquid has drained from the tank.

Vaughn, L.G.

1993-07-27

258

Liquid cryobrines in the subsurface of Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liquid cryobrines in the subsurface of Mars D. Mühlmann, DLR Institut für Planetenforschung, Berlin (dirk.moehlmann@dlr.de) Thermodynamics shows that undercooled liquid interfacial water must necessarily exist in the upper surface of Mars, at least temporarily. In case of a given presence of soluble salt grains in the soil with attached interfacial water (of atmospheric-or ice-origin) there must evolve liquid brines ("cryobrines"). The eutectic temperature of cryobrines can be far below 0 C and numerous known brines will remain liquid at martian temperatures. Liquid cryobrines are therefore expected to exist at appropriate sites in the subsurface of Mars, at least temporarily but also at present. Properties like eutectic phase diagrams, related water activity and stability of "Mars-relevant" salts and brines under current martian atmospheric conditions are presented and discussed. It is described that the presence of at least temporarily liquid cryobrines in the subsurface soil can be related to rheological phenomena of viscous liquid brines, and that liquid cryobrines are a current challenge in view of their possible support to a habitability of the subsurface of Mars.

Möhlmann, Diedrich

259

Use of foam as a borehole ground support system  

SciTech Connect

A method is described for providing support to an overburden area penetrated by at least one drilled hole from which minerals are hydraulically mined from an underground cavity or reservoir containing a liquid comprising: (a) introducing foam within the cavity which foam floats on the liquid causing pressure to be exerted against the interior of the cavity sufficient to support the overburden area; and (b) removing the minerals from within the cavity with a hydraulic borehole mining tool while the foam is introduced.

Uhri, D.C.

1986-04-22

260

Liquid-film electron stripper  

DOEpatents

An improved liquid-film electron stripper particularly for high intensity heavy ion beams which produces constant regenerated, stable, free-standing liquid films having an adjustable thickness between 0.3 to 0.05 microns. The improved electron stripper is basically composed of at least one high speed, rotating disc with a very sharp, precision-like, ground edge on one said of the disc's periphery and with a highly polished, flat, radial surface adjacent the sharp edge. A fine stream of liquid, such as oil, impinges at a 90.degree. angle adjacent the disc's sharp outer edge. Film terminators, located at a selected distance from the disc perimeter are positioned approximately perpendicular to the film. The terminators support, shape, and stretch the film and are arranged to assist in the prevention of liquid droplet formation by directing the collected film to a reservoir below without breaking or interfering with the film. One embodiment utilizes two rotating discs and associated terminators, with the discs rotating so as to form films in opposite directions, and with the second disc being located down beam-line relative to the first disc.

Gavin, Basil F. (Albion, CA) [Albion, CA

1986-01-01

261

Liquid level detector  

DOEpatents

A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which apor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

Grasso, Albert P. (Vernon, CT) [Vernon, CT

1986-01-01

262

Liquid level detector  

DOEpatents

A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which vapor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

Grasso, A.P.

1984-02-21

263

Semiconductor nanorod liquid crystals  

SciTech Connect

Rodlike molecules form liquid crystalline phases with orientational order and positional disorder. The great majority of materials in which liquid crystalline phases have been observed are comprised of organic molecules or polymers, even though there has been continuing and growing interest in inorganic liquid crystals. Recent advances in the control of the sizes and shapes of inorganic nanocrystals allow for the formation of a broad class of new inorganic liquid crystals. Here we show the formation of liquid crystalline phases of CdSe semiconductor nanorods. These new liquid crystalline phases may have great importance for both application and fundamental study.

Li, Liang-shi; Walda, Joost; Manna, Liberato; Alivisatos, A. Paul

2002-01-28

264

Exploration Life Support Technology Development Challenges  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Exploration Life Support project is developing technologies to address the needs for life support during NASA s exploration missions. The focus of development is Air Revitalization, Water Recovery, and Waste Management Systems (ARS, WRS, and WMS). The approach to meeting exploration needs for life support intrinsically involves processing mixtures of gases, liquids and solids; thus the effects of micro or hypo gravity must be considered in developing and verifying the technologies. This paper provides an overview of the ELS project, how ELS technologies are planned to be used in exploration vehicles and the challenges being addressed.

Chambliss Joe; Rulis, Susan

2007-01-01

265

Supercooling of Liquid Hydrogen Microparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular hydrogen is a composite boson that is lighter than Helium-4; one of its superfluid phases is predicted for T< 5 K. Since hydrogen freezes at 14 K, the challenge is to supercool the liquid to low tempertures. We will discuss a generator of 20 K liquid hydrogen microparticles that is based on a piezoelectric actuator. The microparticles are injected in a cell kept at 4 K. This cell has optical windows and the microparticles are imaged and analyzed to study their shape dynamics. The microparticles can also be studied using infrared spectroscopy methods. Photoacoustic spectroscopy (PS) is very appropriate because it eliminates the elastic contribution to optical scattering. We will discuss the results obtained using PS. Supported by NSF.

Celestine, K.; Huber, T. E.

2002-03-01

266

Dynamics of liquid crystal microemulsion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied liquid crystal microemulsion that is made by the mixture of the thermotropic and lyotropic liquid crystals. In the transparent nematic phase, where nematic director is locally distorted by the randomly dispersed inverse micelles so that the system has isotropic nature, nevertheless nematic order is completely accomplished. By using the dynamical mechanical measurement, we measure the temperature and concentration dependence of the viscosity in the vicinity of the phase transition between isotropic and transparent nematic phase. Transparent nematic phase shows the true nature of the Newtonian simple fluids behaviors, and its viscosity is lower than that in the isotropic phase. These mechanical properties support our rough speculation for the internal structure of the transparent nematic phase. .

Yamamoto, Jun; Tanaka, Hajime

2000-06-01

267

Liquid metal-based plasmonics.  

PubMed

We demonstrate that liquid metals support surface plasmon-polaritons (SPPs) at terahertz (THz) frequencies, and can thus serve as an attractive material system for a wide variety of plasmonic and metamaterial applications. We use eutectic gallium indium (EGaIn) as the liquid metal injected into a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mold fabricated by soft lithography techniques. Using this approach, we observe enhanced THz transmission through a periodic array of subwavelength apertures. Despite of the fact that the DC conductivity of EGaIn is an order of magnitude smaller than many conventional metals, we clearly observe well-defined transmission resonances. This represents a first step in developing reconfigurable and tunable plasmonic devices that build upon well-developed microfluidic capabilities. PMID:22330473

Wang, Jinqi; Liu, Shuchang; Vardeny, Z Valy; Nahata, Ajay

2012-01-30

268

Plate Performance in Liquid-Liquid Extraction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The relative effectiveness of perforated, nozzle, and burred plates from a capacity and extraction standpoint were studied in a pulsed liquid-liquid extraction system. The experiments were conducted in a 3.8 x 10 exp -2 m diameter column using a mixture o...

R. P. Wadkins

1984-01-01

269

Alt.support: modeling social support online  

Microsoft Academic Search

While there is mounting evidence that people use the Internet to expand their social net- works and receive social support, little is known about how they do so and with what effect the Internet has on overall levels of social support. Based on a survey of 213 online support seekers, this study explored social cognitive mechanism such as self-efficacy and

Matthew S. Eastin; Robert LaRose

2005-01-01

270

Optically Controlled Alignment of Liquid Crystals: Devices and Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optically controlled homogeneous-to-homogeneous alignment of liquid crystal molecules using polarized light is discussed. Applications of this technology and experimental results that support these applications are presented.

Wayne M. Gibbons; Paul J. Shannon; Shao-Tang Sun

1994-01-01

271

Portable liquid dispensing kit  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A portable kit for transporting and dispensing liquid concentrates for beverage mixing includes receptacles for liquid concentrate containers has locking mechanisms for sealing the containers while not in use, as well as, a removable drip tray with a removable grate.

2004-12-07

272

Liquid medication administration  

MedlinePLUS

... easily. Oral syringes have some advantages for giving liquid medications. They are accurate. They are easy to ... cups are also a handy way to give liquid medications. However, dosing errors have occurred with them. ...

273

Liquid seeding atomizer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An atomizer for a liquid having an air supply is described. Liquid supply tubes extend longitudinally along the air supply tube. The air supply tube has at least one air orifice extending from an inner surface of the tube through the tube. The liquid supply tubes are positioned on either side of the air orifices and the liquid tubes are sealed to the air supply tube. The liquid supply tubes with facing liquid orifices are positioned adjacent to each of the air orifices. The liquid supply tubes are laterally spaced apart at the liquid orifices at a distance less than the diameter of the air orifices to enable a beneficial venturi effect when the atomizer is in operation.

Seegmiller, Henry L. B. (inventor)

1987-01-01

274

Liquid Air Cycle Engines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Given here is a definition of Liquid Air Cycle Engines (LACE) and existing relevant technologies. Heat exchanger design and fabrication techniques, the handling of liquid hydrogen to achieve the greatest heat sink capabilities, and air decontamination to ...

J. Rosevear

1992-01-01

275

Liquid Crystal Devices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study of the electrooptic properties of liquid crystals and their potential in several Navy device applications is described. Experimental work in the evaporation and sputtering of photoconductive films for the photoactivation of a liquid crystal device...

M. A. Monahan H. H. Caspers L. B. Stotts M. N. McLandrich

1973-01-01

276

Liquid Crystal Display.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A flexible liquid crystal display is provided wherein an addressable liquid crystal layer is disposed on a single flexible substrate so that the display itself will exhibit flexibility. The substrate is preferably a flexible non-transparent material and m...

A. Green A. A. Khan I. Shiyanovskaya J. W. Doane

2004-01-01

277

High-activity liquid packaging design criteria  

SciTech Connect

In recent studies, it has been acknowledged that there is an emerging need for packaging to transport high-activity liquid off the Hanford Site to support characterization and process development activities of liquid waste stored in underground tanks. These studies have dealt with specimen testing needs primarily at the Hanford Site; however, similar needs appear to be developing at other US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The need to ship single and multiple specimens to offsite laboratories is anticipated because it is predicted that onsite laboratories will be overwhelmed by an increasing number and size (volume) of samples. Potentially, the specimen size could range from 250 mL to greater than 50 L. Presently, no certified Type-B packagings are available for transport of high-activity liquid radioactive specimens in sizes to support Site missions.

Not Available

1994-05-01

278

Filtration performance of microporous ceramic supports.  

PubMed

The use of inorganic membranes in pollution treatment is actually limited by the cost of such membranes. Advantages of inorganic membranes are their chemical, thermal and pH properties. The purpose of this work was the development of microporous ceramic materials based on clay for liquid waste processing. The supports or ceramic filters having various compositions were prepared and thermally treated at 1100 degrees C. The results show that, at the temperature studied, porosity varied according to the support composition from 12% for the double-layered (ceramic) support to 47% for the activated carbon- filled support with a mean pore diameter between 0.8 and 1.3 microm, respectively. Volumes of 5 l of distilled water were filtered tangentially for 3 h under an applied pressure of 3.5 and 5.5 bar. The retention of tubular supports prepared was tested with molecules of varying size (Evans blue, NaCl and Sacharose). The study of the liquid filtration and flow through these supports showed that the retention rate depends on support composition and pore diameter, and solute molecular weight. The S1 support (mixture of barbotine and 1% (w/w) activated carbon) gave a flux for distilled water of 68 L/m2 h while the double-layered support resulted in a flux of 8 L/m2 h for the same solution at the pressure of 3.5 bar. At a pressure of 5.5 bar an increase in the distilled water flux through the various supports was observed. It was significant for the S1 support (230 L/m h). PMID:17904640

Belouatek, Aissa; Ouagued, Abdellah; Belhakem, Mustapha; Addou, Ahmed

2008-04-24

279

Perspectives in liquid membrane extraction of cephalosporin antibiotics.  

PubMed

In this paper an overview of the developments in liquid membrane extraction of cephalosporin antibiotics has been presented. The principle of reactive extraction via the so-called liquid-liquid ion exchange extraction mechanism can be exploited to develop liquid membrane processes for extraction of cephalosporin antibiotics. The mathematical models that have been used to simulate experimental data have been discussed. Emulsion liquid membrane and supported liquid membrane could provide high extraction flux for cephalosporins, but stability problems need to be fully resolved for process application. Non-dispersive extraction in hollow fiber membrane is likely to offer an attractive alternative in this respect. The applicability of the liquid membrane process has been discussed from process engineering and design considerations. PMID:11783841

Sahoo, G C; Dutta, N N

2002-01-01

280

Cosmology with liquid mirror telescopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liquid mirrors provide an exciting means to obtain large optical telescopes for substantially lower costs than conventional technologies. The liquid mirror concept has been demonstrated in the lab with the construction of a diffraction limited 1.5 m mirror. The mirror surface, using liquid mercury, forms a perfect parabolic shape when the mirror cell is rotated at a uniform velocity. A liquid mirror must be able to support a heavy mercury load with minimal flexure and have a fundamental resonant frequency that is as high as possible, to suppress the amplitude of surface waves caused by small vibrations transmitted to the mirror. To minimize the transmission of vibrations to the liquid surface, the entire mirror rests on an air bearing. This necessitates the mirror cell being lightweight, due to the limited load capabilities of the air bearing. The mirror components must also have physical characteristics which minimize the effects of thermal expansion with ambient temperature fluctuations in the observatory. In addition, the 2.7 m mirror construction is designed so that the techniques used may be readily extended to the construction of large mirrors. To attain the goals of a lightweight, rigid mirror, a composite laminant construction was used. The mirror consists of a foam core cut to the desired parabolic shape, with an accuracy of a few mm. An aluminum hub serves as an anchor for the foam and skin, and allows precise centering of the mirror on the air bearing and drive system. Several plys of Kevlar, covered in an epoxy matrix, are then applied to the foam. A final layer of pure epoxy is formed by spin casting. This final layer is parabolic to within a fraction of a mm. An aluminum ring bonded to the circumference of the mirror retains the mercury, and incorporates stainless-steel hard-points for the attachment of balance weights.

Hogg, David W.; Gibson, Brad K.; Hickson, Paul

1993-01-01

281

Liquid-cooled liner for helmets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Liner acts as coolant tubing, manifold, and supporting structures. Fabric of waffle-design is made of several integrated channels (or capillaries) through which coolant liquid can flow. Thin and light-weight liner can be incorporated into any type of helmet or head gear.

Williams, B. A.; Elkins, W.

1974-01-01

282

Liquid fuels from coal derived synthesis gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern synthesis gas chemistry has evolved from technology first developed in Germany early this century. Since that time worldwide interest in the production of liquid fuels from coal has gone through cycles reflecting the perceived availability of petroleum. In the U.S., the Department of Energy (DOE) has supported an indirect coal liquefaction program to investigate new techniques for the production

W. S. Jones; J. Shen; E. Schmetz

1986-01-01

283

Mechanical models for tanks containing two liquids  

SciTech Connect

The well-known Housner`s mechanical model for laterally excited rigid tanks that contain one liquid is generalized to permit consideration of tanks that contain two liquids under the horizontal and rocking base motions. Two mechanical models are developed herein; one is for rigid tanks and the other for flexible tanks. The model for rigid tanks has a rigidly attached mass and infinite number of elastically supported masses. The rigid attached mass which possesses a mass moment of inertia represents the impulsive component, whereas the elastically supported masses which do not possess mass moment of inertia represent the convective component of the response. These masses and their heights are chosen such that, under the same base motions, the base shear and base moments of the model match those of the original liquid-tank system. The spring stiffness constants for the elastically supported masses in the model are determined from the sloshing frequencies of the liquid-tank system. The model for flexible tanks, however, only represents the impulsive action of the hydrodynamic response. It has an elastically supported mass that does not possess mass moment of inertia and a member that has no mass but possesses a mass moment of inertia. This latter model is proposed for the study of the effect of the soil-structure interaction.

Tang, Y.

1994-06-01

284

Dipole Dependent Slip of Simple Liquids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the slippage of various Newtonian liquids on alkylsilane coated glass surfaces using the colloidal probe atomic force microscopy technique. For small contact angle non-polar liquids, the slip length is found to decrease as a wetting transition is approached. By contrast, for large contact angle polar liquids the wettability no longer determines the slip behavior. Instead, we find that the slip length decreases with increasing dipole moment. For highly polar liquids a strong electrostatic repulsive force is also observed. These results strongly suggest that the dipole-dipole and dipole-image dipole interactions in the vicinity of surfaces structure the surface molecules which in turn influence the surface slip behavior. This research was supported by the Petroleum Research Fund, administered by the American Chemical Society, and by NSF through grant number DMR-0097119.

Law, Bruce M.; Cho, Jae-Hie J.; Rieutord, Francois

2004-03-01

285

Diet - clear liquid  

MedlinePLUS

Clear liquid diet ... A clear liquid diet is made up of only clear fluids and foods that turn to clear fluids when they are ... you need for energy. Eating only a clear liquid diet gives you enough nutrition for 3 to ...

286

Thermochromic liquid crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermochromic liquid crystals have been exploited in novelties and in high-technology applications alike since the earliest years of liquid crystal technology. They have also played a central role in the elucidation of the structures of liquid crystal phases and their inter-relationship, the optics of mesophases, the nature of phase transitions and their static and dynamic continuum theory. Despite this long

Ian Sage

2011-01-01

287

Volatile liquid storage system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a method of collecting and abating emission from a volatile liquid in an above ground storage tank. It comprises the liquid storage tank having a bottom, a vertical cylindrical circular wall having a lower edge portion joined to the bottom, and an external fixed roof, the tank having an internal floating roof floating on a volatile liquid

R. J. Laverman; P. J. Winters; J. K. Rinehart

1992-01-01

288

Supergluing MOF liquid marbles.  

PubMed

Growth of NH(2)-MIL-53(Al) on alumina microparticles followed by post-synthetic modification with perfluorooctyl or caproic groups produces highly hydrophobic microparticles which are utilized for the formation of liquid marbles. Interfacial polymerization of ethyl-2-cyanoacrylate on the surface of the liquid marbles produces stable liquid capsules. PMID:23202539

Chin, Jia Min; Reithofer, Michael R; Tan, Tristan Tsai Yuan; Menon, Ajay Govinda; Chen, Eric Yu; Chow, Chin Ann; Hor, Andy Tzi Sum; Xu, Jianwei

2013-01-18

289

Liquid Seeding Atomizer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An atomizer for a liquid having an air supply is described. Liquid supply tubes extend longitudinally along the air supply tube. The air supply tube has at least one air orifice extending from an inner surface of the tube through the tube. The liquid supp...

H. L. B. Seegmiller

1986-01-01

290

Liquid detection circuit  

DOEpatents

Herein is a circuit which is capable of detecting the presence of liquids, especially cryogenic liquids, and whose sensor will not overheat in a vacuum. The circuit parameters, however, can be adjusted to work with any liquid over a wide range of temperatures.

Regan, Thomas O. (North Aurora, IL)

1987-01-01

291

Electrically Deformable Liquid Marbles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquid marbles, which are droplets coated with a hydrophobic powder, were exposed to a uniform electric field. It was established that a threshold value of the electric field, 15 cgse, should be surmounted for deformation of liquid marbles. The shape of the marbles was described as a prolate spheroid. The semi-quantitative theory describing deformation of liquid marbles in a uniform

Edward Bormashenko; Roman Pogreb; Tamir Stein; Gene Whyman; Marcelo Schiffer; Doron Aurbach

2011-01-01

292

Liquid Nitrogen Level Controller.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The liquid nitrogen level in a flask is controlled by the degree of immersion of two sensing coils of copper wire in the liquid nitrogen, activating a solid state switching circuit which controls a liquid nitrogen inlet flow valve. Manual override and sen...

D. Sears

1977-01-01

293

Linear lateral vibration of axisymmetric liquid briges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A liquid bridge is a mass of liquid sustained by the action of the surface tension force between two parallel supporting disks Apart from their basic scientific interest a liquid bridge can be considered as the simplest idealization of the configuration appearing in the floating zone technique used for crystal growth and purification of high melting point materials footnote Messeguer et al emph Crystal Growth Res bf 5 27 1999 This has conferred considerable interest on the study of liquid bridges not only in fluid mechanics but also in the field of material engineering The axisymmetric dynamics of an isothermal liquid bridge has been frequently analysed over the past years The studies have considered different phenomena such as free oscillations footnote Montanero emph E J Mech B Fluids bf 22 169 2003 footnote Acero and Montanero emph Phys Fluids bf 17 078105 2005 forced vibrations footnote Perales and Messeguer emph Phys Fluids A bf 4 1110 1992 g-jitter effects footnote Messeguer and Perales emph Phys Fluids A bf 3 2332 1991 extensional deformation footnote Zhang et al emph J Fluid Mech bf 329 207 1996 and breakup process footnote Espino et al emph Phys Fluids bf 14 3710 2002 among others Works considering the nonaxisymmetric dynamical behaviour of a liquid bridge has been far less common footnote Sanz and Diez emph J Fluid Mech bf 205 503 1989 In the present study the linear vibration of an axisymmetric liquid

Ferrera, C.; Montanero, J. M.; Cabezas, M. G.

294

Rocking response of tanks containing two liquids  

SciTech Connect

A study on the dynamic response of upright circular cylindrical liquid-storage tanks containing two different liquids under a rocking base motion with an arbitrary temporal variation is presented. Only rigid tanks were studied. The response quantities examined include the hydrodynamic pressure, sloshing wave height and the associated frequencies, base shear and moments. Each of these response quantities is expressed as the sum of the so-called impulsive component and convective component. Unlike the case of tanks containing one liquid, in which the response is controlled by one parameter, height-to-radius ratio, the response of tanks containing two different liquids are controlled by three parameters: height-to-radius ratio, and mass density ratio and height ratio of the two liquids. The interrelationship of the responses of the tank-liquid system to rocking and lateral base excitations is established by examining numerical results extensively. The study shows that some of the response quantities for tank-liquid system under a rocking base motion can be determined from the available data for the response of an identical tank under a horizontal base motion. Base rocking motion can occur in a ground-supported tank or in an elevated tank under earthquake motions.

Tang, Y. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Reactor Engineering Div.

1995-01-01

295

Viscosity measurements on clear liquids  

SciTech Connect

During the ITP cold chemical testing program, the efficiency of the benzene strippers will be measured and evaluated. Since the stripping efficiency is partially dependent upon the dynamic viscosity of the liquid phase, this property must be measured on samples taken during the test program. A procedure to measure the dynamic viscosity of salt solutions was developed from standard American Society of Testing and materials (ASTM) methods. The SRS procedure differs from the ASTM procedure and, therefore, a test program was initiated to determine its accuracy and precision. The results of these statistically designed tests are reported elsewhere, but supporting information on the experimental procedures, standards, and equipment are given in this report.

Walker, D.D.

1993-02-09

296

Support effects in hydrogenation of cinnamaldehyde over carbon nanofiber-supported platinum catalysts: Kinetic modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon nanofiber-supported platinum catalysts with a narrow and stable platinum particle size distribution (1-2 nm) were prepared, one with a considerable amount ofoxygen support surf ace groups (PtCNF, 2.8 acidic O atoms \\/nm2) and one with a much smaller amount (PtCNF973, 0.06 acidic O atoms\\/nm2). Their catalytic performance was compared in a series of liquid-phase cinnamaldehyde hydrogenation experiments at 383

Marjolein L. Toebes; T. Alexander Nijhuis; Johannes H. Bitter; A. Jos van Dillen

297

Propagation of a liquid-liquid explosion  

SciTech Connect

Direct contact between two liquids, one cold and the other hot, may be precluded by the presence of a vapor film. Bridging of this film by one or both fluids results in rapid local boiling, which may initiate a propagating liquid-liquid explosion. A mechanism is discussed for the propagation that involves implosion of the film, rapid mixing of the fluids, heat exchange to warm the cold fluid above the temperature for spontaneous nucleation, and the explosive generation of vapor, which in turn continues to sustain the film implosion. Plausibility for the model is demonstrated by means of numerical studies by high-speed computer.

Harlow, F.H.; Ruppel, H.M.

1981-08-01

298

Science Shorts: Comparing Liquids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Children experience the physical properties of liquids as they watch raindrops run down a window, observe how insects can walk on water, and notice how the "shape" of a liquid matches the container in which it is held. Thinking about similarities and differences among liquids helps to build foundational ideas of matter and molecular structure. In the following lesson, students explore the cohesiveness and surface tension of two liquids. Through observations and interactions, students develop an understanding about how liquids are similar and different.

Adams, Barbara

2008-12-01

299

Radiation monitor for liquids  

DOEpatents

A radiation monitor for use with liquids that utilizes air ions created by alpha radiation emitted by the liquids as its detectable element. A signal plane, held at an electrical potential with respect to ground, collects these air ions. A guard plane or guard rings is used to limit leakage currents. In one embodiment, the monitor is used for monitoring liquids retained in a tank. Other embodiments monitor liquids flowing through a tank, and bodies of liquids, such as ponds, lakes, rivers and oceans. 4 figs.

Koster, J.E.; Bolton, R.D.

1999-03-02

300

Radiation monitor for liquids  

DOEpatents

A radiation monitor for use with liquids that utilizes air ions created by alpha radiation emitted by the liquids as its detectable element. A signal plane, held at an electrical potential with respect to ground, collects these air ions. A guard plane or guard rings is used to limit leakage currents. In one embodiment, the monitor is used for monitoring liquids retained in a tank. Other embodiments monitor liquids flowing through a tank, and bodies of liquids, such as ponds, lakes, rivers and oceans.

Koster, James E. (Los Alamos, NM); Bolton, Richard D. (Los Alamos, NM)

1999-01-01

301

Pelvic Support Problems  

MedlinePLUS

... the pelvic floor . Layers of connective tissue called fascia also provide support. These supporting muscles and fascia ... intestine into the upper part of the vagina. Fascia: Tissue that supports the organs and muscles of ...

302

Network User Information Support.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

With increasing interest in the development of computer networks and the proliferation of remote entry capability from user terminals, user support takes on new dimensions. Some user characteristics are outlined as they affect user support. User support r...

A. J. Neumann

1973-01-01

303

Theme: Supporting Professional Diversity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Includes "Supporting Diversity" (Moore); "Reflections on the Need for Diversity" (Bowen); "Understanding Impediments to Diversity in Agricultural Education" (Whent); "Mentoring Diverse Populations" (Jones); "Supporting Diversity: An Unfinished Agenda" (Moore); "Professorial Roles in Supporting Diversity in Teaching, Research, and University…

Moore, Eddie A.; And Others

1994-01-01

304

The Liquid Crystal Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The homepage of the Liquid Crystal Institute (LCI) presents gorgeous color images produced from liquid crystal, research overviews, technology invention abstracts, news and conference links, and more. LCI is part of a consortium, selected by the National Science Foundation, based at the Center for Advanced Liquid Crystalline Optical Materials (ALCOM) at Kent State University. The consortium includes Kent State University, Case Western Reserve University, and the University of Akron. ALCOM focuses on interdisciplinary research and development of liquid crystal optoelectronic materials, technology, and consumer products. A few of the liquid crystal studies featured here are fine structure and oily streak defects, magneto-optic response, text display applications, and organic synthesis. One of LCI's projects, the Polymers and Liquid Crystals Textbook, was featured in the December 13, 1996 Scout Report for Science & Engineering The LCI Website is not especially well-organized, but it contains lots of information about liquid crystal technology.

305

Duality of liquids  

PubMed Central

Liquids flow, and in this sense are close to gases. At the same time, interactions in liquids are strong as in solids. The combination of these two properties is believed to be the ultimate obstacle to constructing a general theory of liquids. Here, we adopt a new approach: instead of focusing on the problem of strong interactions, we zero in on the relative contributions of vibrational and diffusional motion. We show that liquid energy and specific heat are given, to a very good approximation, by their vibrational contributions as in solids over almost entire range of relaxation time in which liquids exist as such, and demonstrate that this result is consistent with liquid entropy exceeding solid entropy. Our analysis therefore reveals an interesting duality of liquids not hitherto known: they are close to solids from the thermodynamic perspective and to flowing gases. We discuss several implications of this result.

Trachenko, K.; Brazhkin, V. V.

2013-01-01

306

Nanowire liquid pumps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to form tiny droplets of liquids and control their movements is important in printing or patterning, chemical reactions and biological assays. So far, such nanofluidic capabilities have principally used components such as channels, nozzles or tubes, where a solid encloses the transported liquid. Here, we show that liquids can flow along the outer surface of solid nanowires at a scale of attolitres per second and the process can be directly imaged with in situ transmission electron microscopy. Microscopy videos show that an ionic liquid can be pumped along tin dioxide, silicon or zinc oxide nanowires as a thin precursor film or as beads riding on the precursor film. Theoretical analysis suggests there is a critical film thickness of ~10 nm below which the liquid flows as a flat film and above which it flows as discrete beads. This critical thickness is the result of intermolecular forces between solid and liquid, which compete with liquid surface energy and Rayleigh-Plateau instability.

Huang, Jian Yu; Lo, Yu-Chieh; Niu, Jun Jie; Kushima, Akihiro; Qian, Xiaofeng; Zhong, Li; Mao, Scott X.; Li, Ju

2013-04-01

307

Liquid Propellant Manipulated Acoustically  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fluids are difficult to manage in the space environment. Without gravity, the liquid and gas do not always remain separated as they do in the 1g environment of Earth. Instead the liquid and gas volumes mix and migrate under the influence of surface tension, thermodynamic forces, and external disturbances. As a result, liquid propellants may not be in a useable location or may even form a chaotic mix of liquid and gas bubbles. In the past, mechanical pumps, baffles, and a variety of specialized passive devices have been used to control the liquid and gas volumes. These methods need to be carefully tuned to a specific configuration to be effective. With increasing emphasis on long-term human activity in space there is a trend toward liquid systems that are more flexible and provide greater control. We are exploring new methods of manipulating liquids by using the nonlinear acoustic effects achieved by using beams of highly directed high-intensity acoustic waves.

Oeftering, Richard C.; Chato, David J.; Mann, Adin, III

2003-01-01

308

Liquid/Gas Vortex Separator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Liquid/gas separator vents gas from tank of liquid that contains gas randomly distributed in bubbles. Centrifugal force separates liquid and gas, forcing liquid out of vortex tube through venturi tube. Gas vented through exhaust port. When liquid detected in vent tube, exhaust port closed, and liquid/gas mixture in vent tube drawn back into tank through venturi.

Morris, B. G.

1986-01-01

309

Redox chemistry at liquid\\/liquid interfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interface between two immiscible liquids with immobilized photosynthetic pigments can serve as the simplest model of a\\u000a biological membrane convenient for the investigation of photoprocesses accompanied by spatial separation of charges. As it\\u000a follows from thermodynamics, if the resolvation energies of substrates and products are very different, the interface between\\u000a two immiscible liquids may act as a catalyst. Theoretical

A. G. Volkov; D. W. Deamer

310

Liquid Crystal Materials and Liquid Crystal Displays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the early 1970s, three major prerequisites have brought the success of the liquid crystal display (LCD) technology to its key role of today. Namely, the discovery of electro-optical field-effects on which the displays are based, the successful search for liquid crystals (LCs) with material properties that meet the complex requirements of electro-optical effects and render the effects applicable in

Martin Schadt

1997-01-01

311

Transport through liquid membranes containing omeprazole and lansoprazole.  

PubMed

Omeprazole and lansoprazole, the therapeutically important drugs belonging to proton pump inhibitor category are extensively used in the treatment of gastric ulcers. Transport through liquid membranes generated by these drugs in lecithin-cholesterol mixture in series with a supporting membrane has been studied. The data obtained show the formation of liquid membrane in series with the supporting membrane. Transport of cations, chloride and bicarbonate ions in the presence liquid membranes generated by omeprazole and lanzoprazole indicate the modification in the permeability of various permeants. PMID:22905399

Nagappa, A N; Pandi, P V; Mishra, P K; Girish, Rahul K; Shanmukh, I

2002-12-01

312

Free vibration analysis of partially filled liquid storage tanks  

SciTech Connect

A study on the free vibration analysis of partially filled liquid storage tanks is presented. The tanks considered are the upright circular cylindrical tanks that are rigidly supported at the base. The top of the tanks are either free or constrained. Two types of constraints are considered, namely, hinged and roller support. The governing differential equations for the tank-liquid system are obtained by application of the Rayleigh-Ritz procedure in combination with Lagrange`s equation. The response functions examined include the frequency of the fundamental mode of vibration of the tank-liquid system and the associated modal pressure.

Tang, Yu; Chang, Y.W.

1993-05-01

313

Free vibration analysis of partially filled liquid storage tanks  

SciTech Connect

A study on the free vibration analysis of partially filled liquid storage tanks is presented. The tanks considered are the upright circular cylindrical tanks that are rigidly supported at the base. the top of the tanks are either free or constrained. Two types of constraints are considered, namely, hinged and roller support. The governing differential equations for the tank-liquid system are obtained by application of the Rayleigh-Ritz procedure in combination with Lagrange`s equation. The response functions examined include the frequency of the fundamental mode of vibration of the tank-liquid system and the associated modal pressure.

Tang, Yu; Chang, Y.W.

1994-06-01

314

Liquid Waste Processing Facilities (LWPF) Reliability and Availability and Maintainability (RAM) Analysis  

SciTech Connect

A reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM) analysis was prepared for the liquid effluents support being provided to the River Protection Project Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). The availability of liquid effluents services to the WTP was determined. Recommendations are provided on improvements and upgrades to increase the availability of the Liquid Waste Processing Facilities treatment and disposal systems.

LOWE, S.S.

2001-02-20

315

Electro-optical Properties of Liquid Crystal Mixtures Containing Fluoroisothiocyanated Compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

To support the requirement for faster switching times, newly developed liquid crystal (LC) mixtures were designed using fluoro-isothiocyanated phenyl liquid crystals. In this study, in order to improve switching time, important reductions in the viscoelastic coefficient, gamma1\\/Keff, are demonstrated and a numerical evaluation of switching properties vs various switching parameters in the fluoro-isothiocyanated phenyl liquid crystals was performed.

Il-Kook Huh; Yong-Bae Kim

2002-01-01

316

Liquid fuels from renewable resources  

SciTech Connect

Informed citizens in many countries are concerned about the long-term effect of the release of fossilized carbon into the atmosphere through the combustion of fossil fuels. Of more immediate concern is the degradation of air quality in urban areas due to pollutants in vehicle exhaust. Fuel from renewable resources is a technology that addresses both these concerns. Combustion of annual-growth biomass recycles carbon. Alcohol fuels are blended with petroleum to add oxygen, and the resulting fuel reduces internal combustion engine emissions. Vegetable oil as a replacement for diesel fuel has a similar advantage of reducing engine emissions. In the United States and many industrialized nations, government is seeking ways to reduce the cost of farm support programs. Liquid fuel and other alternative products from biomass offer a significant new market for agriculture. An ancillary benefit is the opportunity to stimulate depressed rural economies. The Biomass Energy and Alternative Products Committee (FPE-709) planned the Liquid Fuels from Renewable Resources Conference to provide an opportunity for engineers, scientists, and policy makers with a range of interests and viewpoints to meet together and assess current liquid fuel from renewable resources technology. The planning committee was very gratified to receive papers prepared by engineers and scientists from a broad range of disciplines representing both the feedstock production and conversion groups. It is hoped that interaction of the two groups will highlight systems issues which need to be addressed, and stimulate interest in addressing these issues.

Cundiff, J.S. (ed.)

1992-01-01

317

Bent core liquid crystal elastomers  

SciTech Connect

Liquid crystal (LC) elastomers with bent-core side-groups incorporate the properties of bent-core liquid crystals in a flexible and self-supporting polymer network. Bent-core liquid crystal elastomers (BCEs) with uniform alignment were prepared by attaching a reactive bent-core LC to poly(hydrogenmethylsiloxane) and crosslinking with a divinyl crosslinker. Phase behavior studies indicate a nematic phase over a wide temperature range that approaches room temperature, and thermoelastic measurements show that these BCEs can reversibly change their length by more than a factor of two upon heating and cooling. Small-angle X-ray scattering studies reveal multiple, broad low-angle peaks consistent with short-range smectic C order of the bent-core side groups. A comparison of these patterns with predictions of a Landau model for short-range smectic C order shows that the length scale for smectic ordering in BCEs is similar to that seen in pure bent-core LCs. The combination of rubber elasticity and smectic ordering of the bent-core side groups suggests that BCEs may be promising materials for sensing, actuating, and other advanced applications.

Verduzco, R.; DiMasi, E.; Luchette, P.; Ho Hong, S.; Harden, J.; Palffy-Muhoray, P.; Kilbey II, S.M.; Sprunt, S.; Gleeson, G.T. Jakli, A.

2010-07-28

318

Liquid Effluents Program mission analysis  

SciTech Connect

Systems engineering is being used to identify work to cleanup the Hanford Site. The systems engineering process transforms an identified mission need into a set of performance parameters and a preferred system configuration. Mission analysis is the first step in the process. Mission analysis supports early decision-making by clearly defining the program objectives, and evaluating the feasibility and risks associated with achieving those objectives. The results of the mission analysis provide a consistent basis for subsequent systems engineering work. A mission analysis was performed earlier for the overall Hanford Site. This work was continued by a ``capstone`` team which developed a top-level functional analysis. Continuing in a top-down manner, systems engineering is now being applied at the program and project levels. A mission analysis was conducted for the Liquid Effluents Program. The results are described herein. This report identifies the initial conditions and acceptable final conditions, defines the programmatic and physical interfaces and sources of constraints, estimates the resources to carry out the mission, and establishes measures of success. The mission analysis reflects current program planning for the Liquid Effluents Program as described in Liquid Effluents FY 1995 Multi-Year Program Plan.

Lowe, S.S.

1994-09-27

319

PREFACE: 6th Liquid Matter Conference  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This special issue of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter contains the Proceedings of the 6th Liquid Matter Conference held in Utrecht, The Netherlands, 2-6 July 2005. The three-yearly Liquid Matter Conference is organized by the Liquids Section of the Condensed Matter Division of the European Physical Society. This series of meetings began in Lyon in 1990. The most recent meeting was held in 2003 in Konstanz. The aim of the Liquid Matter Conferences is to bring together scientists working on the liquid state of matter. This rapidly growing field includes the physics, chemistry, biology and chemical engineering of liquid matter as well as various applied research areas. In fact, the Utrecht meeting had, for the first time, a special session devoted to Fundamental Challenges in Applied Liquid Physics and Microfluidics. The Utrecht meeting had 760 registered participants from four continents. An important event at this meeting was the award of the First Liquid Matter Prize of the European Physical Society to Professor Jean-Pierre Hansen FRS, of Cambridge University. In addition to a plenary speech by the recipient of the Liquid Matter Prize, the scientific programme consisted of 10 plenary lectures, 117 symposia talks, 25 of which were keynote lectures and some 650 poster contributions. The meeting also hosted a one-day symposium of the Division of Liquids and Interfaces of the Chemical Sciences division of NWO. This special issue of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter contains 61 of the oral communications. Liquid state physics is at the interface of many fields of research. As a consequence, many of the attendants come from adjacent fields and find in the Liquid Matter Conference a forum to meet experts from other areas of research. This aspect of the Liquid Matter Conference makes it an exciting meeting as it not only offers the participants an up-to-date picture of the status of research into the liquid state of matter, but it also allows them to establish new (and often unexpected) trans-disciplinary contacts for joint scientific endeavours. This applies in particular to the area of soft condensed matter such as colloidal suspensions, polymeric systems and biological materials. The conference was held at the Uithof, the campus of the University of Utrecht. The organizers gratefully acknowledge the generosity of the University and City of Utrecht, which enabled us to stage both the scientific part of the conference and several festive and cultural events in some of the most attractive venues of the Netherlands. We were also delighted by the substantial contributions offered by the sponsors of the 6th Liquid Matter Conference. With this support it became possible to support a large number of scientists who would otherwise not have been able to attend. Finally, we owe a great debt of gratitude to the secretarial staff of the conference and the many students, postdocs and other colleagues who helped tirelessly (and very efficiently) to make the conference run smoothly. The Board of the Liquids Section of the European Physical Society decided that the 7th Liquid Matter Conference will be held in Lund (Sweden). The tentative dates are Friday 27 June 2008 to Tuesday 1 July 2008.

Dijkstra, Marjolein; van Roij, René; Vroege, Gert Jan; Lekkerkerker, Henk; Frenkel, Daan

2005-11-01

320

Organizational Supporting Members  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organizations show their support of the objectives of AGU through supporting membership in one of the following dues categories (1989 rates): Sustaining Members ($3600), Contributing Members ($1800), Supporting Members ($600).Such affiliation is the company's public avowal that it is committed to the support of the objectives of the Union and to the fulfilling of the needs of geophysicists.

321

Child Support Report, 2002.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document comprises the 12 issues for 2002 of the Child Support Report, which explores problems related to child support enforcement, reports on federal and state government child support enforcement initiatives, and summarizes research related to child support. Featured regularly are editorials and information on events of interest and…

Sharman, Phil, Ed.

2002-01-01

322

Child Support Report, 2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document comprises the 12 issues for 2000 of the "Child Support Report," which explores problems related to child support enforcement, reports on federal and state government child support enforcement initiatives, and summarizes research related to child support. Featured regularly are editorials and information on events of interest and…

Sharman, Phil, Ed.

2000-01-01

323

Child Support Report, 1999.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document comprises the 12 issues for 1999 of the "Child Support Report," which explores problems related to child support enforcement, reports on federal and state government child support enforcement initiatives, and summarizes research related to child support. Editorials and information on events and conferences of interest and funding…

Sharman, Phil, Ed.

1999-01-01

324

Pulsating-gliding transition in the dynamics of levitating liquid nitorgen droplets.  

SciTech Connect

Hot surfaces can cause levitation of small liquid droplets if the temperature is kept above the Leidenfrost point (220 C for water) due to the pressure formed because of rapid evaporation. Here, we demonstrate a new class of pulsating-gliding dynamic transitions in a special setting of the Leidenfrost effect at room temperatures and above a viscous fluid for droplets of liquid nitrogen. A whole range of highly dynamic patterns unfolds when droplets of liquid nitrogen are poured on the surface of another, more viscous liquid at room temperature. We also discovered that the levitating droplets induce vortex motion in the supporting viscous liquid. Depending on the viscosity of the supporting liquid, the nitrogen droplets either adopt an oscillating (pulsating) star-like shape with different azimuthal symmetries (from 2-9 petals) or glide on the surface with random trajectories. Thus, by varying the viscosity of the supporting liquid, we achieve controlled morphology and dynamics of Leidenfrost droplets.

Snezhko, A.; Jacob, E. B.; Aranson, I. S.; Materials Science Division; Tel-Aviv Univ.

2008-04-21

325

Monogroove liquid heat exchanger  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A liquid supply control is disclosed for a heat transfer system which transports heat by liquid-vapor phase change of a working fluid. An assembly (10) of monogroove heat pipe legs (15) can be operated automatically as either heat acquisition devices or heat discharge sources. The liquid channels (27) of the heat pipe legs (15) are connected to a reservoir (35) which is filled and drained by respective filling and draining valves (30, 32). Information from liquid level sensors (50, 51) on the reservoir (35) is combined (60) with temperature information (55) from the liquid heat exchanger (12) and temperature information (56) from the assembly vapor conduit (42) to regulate filling and draining of the reservoir (35), so that the reservoir (35) in turn serves the liquid supply/drain needs of the heat pipe legs (15), on demand, by passive capillary action (20, 28).

Brown, Richard F. (Inventor); Edelstein, Fred (Inventor)

1990-01-01

326

Liquid level detector  

DOEpatents

A liquid level detector for conductive liquids for vertical installation in a tank, the detector having a probe positioned within a sheath and insulated therefrom by a seal so that the tip of the probe extends proximate to but not below the lower end of the sheath, the lower end terminating in a rim that is provided with notches, said lower end being tapered, the taper and notches preventing debris collection and bubble formation, said lower end when contacting liquid as it rises will form an airtight cavity defined by the liquid, the interior sheath wall, and the seal, the compression of air in the cavity preventing liquid from further entry into the sheath and contact with the seal. As a result, the liquid cannot deposit a film to form an electrical bridge across the seal.

Tshishiku, Eugene M. (Augusta, GA)

2011-08-09

327

Terahertz Absorption of Nematic Liquid Crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the first systematic study of cyanobiphenyls (CBs) and the phenylcyclohexanes in the range between 50 cm-1 (1.5 THz) and 500 cm-1 (15 THz). The impact of the alkyl chain length and of variations in the core structure on the spectrum is investigated using liquid crystals from the cyanobiphenyl and phenylcyclohexane families. Our measurements are supported by calculations based on density functional theory. This enables us to shine light on the vibrational dynamics of liquid crystal molecules in the terahertz frequency range.

Vieweg, Nico; Celik, Mehmet Ali; Zakel, Sabine; Gupta, Vineet; Frenking, Gernot; Koch, Martin

2014-05-01

328

Temperature Dependent Erosion of Liquid Metal Surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation summarizes recent experiments conducted in PISCES in the area of the erosion of liquid metals in contact with plasma. Samples of lithium, in both solid and liquid states, have been exposed to plasma bombardment in the PISCES-B device. During plasma exposure, line emission from neutral lithium atoms (670.8 nm) in the plasma can be used to provide information on the erosion behavior of the sample. During low temperature exposures, the loss rate is comparable to that expected from sputtering and at high temperature the loss rate equals the evaporation rate from the liquid. However, in the intermediate temperature regime the material loss rate can exceed, by a factor of ten or more, the predicted loss rate from the combination of physical sputtering and thermal evaporation. This behavior is observed for both liquid lithium and liquid gallium samples exposed to either deuterium or helium plasma, indicating that this effect may be generic to all plasma-liquid metal interactions. Possible explanations for this erosion effect will also be discussed. *Work supported under DOE grant DE-FG03-95ER-54301.

Doerner, R. P.; Baldwin, M.; Grossman, A. A.; Luckhardt, S. C.; Seraydarian, R.; Whyte, D. G.

2000-10-01

329

Evidence for Liquid Water on Comets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have reexamined the arguments for the existence of liquid water on comets, and believe that recent cometary flybys along with pre-Giotto data support its presence on short-period comets. Liquid water would affect cometary dynamics, leaving distinct signatures in precession, orbital dynamics, and potential splitting of comets. Liquid water geysers would affect cometary atmosphere, dust evolution, and non-gravitational forces that perturb the orbit. Liquid water would affect the composition of both the interior and exterior of the comet, producing geologic effects consistent with recent flyby photographs. And most importantly, liquid water suppork the growth of lifeforms, which would make a comet a biofriendly incubator for interplanetary transport. The major objection against liquid water is the necessity of a pressure vessel to prevent sublimation into space. We discuss how such a pressure vessel could naturally evolve as a pristine comet makes its first journey inside the orbit of Mars, and suggest that this type of vessel was observed by Giotto, Deep Space I, and Stardust.

Sheldon, Robert; Hoover, Richard

2005-01-01

330

Liquid capillary scintillation detectors  

SciTech Connect

The authors have been developing liquid-in-capillary detectors for tracking applications in high energy physics experiments. The detectors consist of glass capillaries of low refractive index filled with liquids of sufficiently high refractive index to produce an efficient waveguides. This paper describes recent work in which scintillating core liquids were prepared from the solvent 1-phenylnaphthalene and single solutes of selected fluorescent dyes.

Puseljic, D.; Baumbaugh, B.; Ditmire, T.; Kennedy, C.; Ruchti, R.; Ryan, J. (Notre Dame Univ., IN (USA). Dept. of Physics); Baumbaugh, A.; Knickerbocker, K. (Collimated Holes, Inc., Campbell, CA (USA)); Ellis, J.; Mead, R.; Swanson, D. (Collimated Holes, Inc., Campbell, CA (USA))

1990-04-01

331

Modification of liquid hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect

Improved rate of dissolution in liquid hydrocarbon fuels, of specified tert-butylstyrene copolymers capable of imparting anti-misting characteristics to the fuel, is obtained when the copolymer, following its production by aqueous emulsion polymerization of the monomers, is isolated from the resulting latex by a process of flocculation, separation, washing and drying at moderate temperatures. The copolymer thus isolated is advantageously incorporated in the liquid fuel in the form of a slurry with a hydroxylic liquid and an amine.

Roberts, T. S.; Waite, F. A.

1985-09-24

332

Icosahedral order in liquids  

SciTech Connect

The possibility of icosahedral order in liquids and its role in glass transition is discussed in a broad context of statistical mechanics of liquid. It is pointed out that the structures of glasses and liquids are described both in terms of the topology of atomic bond networks as well as the local distortion of the atomic bonds. While topology plays a dominant role in covalent glasses, local distortion is likely to be more important for metallic glasses.

Egami, Takeshi [ORNL

2007-01-01

333

Liquid detection trial with x-ray diffraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SALOME (an acronym for Small Angle Lab Operation Measuring Equipment) is a versatile, energy-dispersive x-ray diffraction imaging (XDi) test-bed facility commissioned and supported by the Transportation Security Laboratory, Atlantic City, USA. In work presented here, the Inverse Fan-beam (IFB) topology has been realized on SALOME and used to investigate the liquids identification capability of x-ray diffraction (XRD). Liquids were investigated from four classes of materials of relevance to security screening of aircraft passenger luggage; namely: dilute aqueous liquids; concentrated aqueous liquids; hydrocarbon fuels; and oxidizers. A set of features associated with the Molecular Interference Function (MIF) were used to classify the liquids. Within the limited scope of this investigation, XRD proved to have excellent capability for discriminating liquids from one another; in particular, for isolating the threat materials without raising false alarms from either household or innocuous substances. Consequences for XRD-based screening of air passenger luggage are summarized.

Harding, G.; Fleckenstein, H.; Olesinski, S.; Zienert, G.

2010-08-01

334

Ionic conductivity of imidazole-functionalized liquid crystal mesogens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Imidazole has been investigated as a novel anhydrous proton conducting functional group that could enable higher temperature operation (> 120 ^oC) of polymer electrolyte fuel cells. Its amphoteric behavior can support Grotthuss-like proton transport; however molecular mobility and a high concentration of imidazole groups are needed to achieve high ionic conductivity. Our hypothesis is that liquid crystal ordering, particularly in layered smectic phase, can facilitate formation of 2D proton transport and promote proton conductivity. We have designed and synthesized two imidazole-terminated liquid crystal mesogens, and the ionic conductivities in the liquid crystalline and isotropic states have been measured. Here we report on synthesis and characterization of diacylhydrazine liquid crystals bearing imidazole terminal groups. The proton conductivity of products is compared to pure liquid imidazole and to liquid crystal mesogens without imidazole groups.

Roddecha, Supacharee; Anthamatten, Mitchell

2012-02-01

335

Liquid crystal optofluidics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By employing anisotropic fluids and namely liquid crystals, fluid flow becomes an additional degree of freedom in designing optofluidic devices. In this paper, we demonstrate optofluidic liquid crystal devices based on the direct flow of nematic liquid crystals in microfluidic channels. Contrary to previous reports, in the present embodiment we employ the effective phase delay acquired by light travelling through flowing liquid crystal, without analysing the polarisation state of the transmitted light. With this method, we demonstrate the variation in the diffraction pattern of an array of microfluidic channels acting as a grating. We also discuss our recent activities in integrating mechanical oscillators for on-chip peristaltic pumping.

Vasdekis, A. E.; Cuennet, J. G.; Psaltis, D.

2012-10-01

336

Ultrasonic liquid level detector  

DOEpatents

An ultrasonic liquid level detector for use within a shielded container, the detector being tubular in shape with a chamber at its lower end into which liquid from in the container may enter and exit, the chamber having an ultrasonic transmitter and receiver in its top wall and a reflector plate or target as its bottom wall whereby when liquid fills the chamber a complete medium is then present through which an ultrasonic wave may be transmitted and reflected from the target thus signaling that the liquid is at chamber level.

Kotz, Dennis M. (North Augusta, SC); Hinz, William R. (Augusta, GA)

2010-09-28

337

Emulsions Containing Perfluorocarbon Support Cell Cultures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Addition of emulsion containing perfluorocarbon liquid to aqueous cell-culture medium increases capacity of medium to support mammalian cells. FC-40 Fluorinert (or equivalent) - increases average density of medium so approximately equal to that of cells. Cells stay suspended in medium without mechanical stirring, which damages them. Increases density enough to prevent cells from setting, and increases viscosity of medium so oxygen bubbled through it and nutrients stirred in with less damage to delicate cells.

Ju, Lu-Kwang; Lee, Jaw Fang; Armiger, William B.

1990-01-01

338

Commercialization of regenerative life support systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past 30 years NASA has funded research into the development of self sustained habitats for use as future Lunar and Martian outposts. A key element of this work has been the development of small scale liquid and solid waste processors. A secondary goal of this research has been to transfer this technology base to the private sector. This paper describes several programs which are involved in this Advanced Life Support technology transfer activity. The two programs highlighted in this paper are the CELSS Antarctic Analog Program and the Advanced Life Support for Extreme Environments program.

Flynn, Michael; Bubenheim, David

1998-01-01

339

Developments in liquid membrane separation of beta-lactam antibiotics.  

PubMed

This paper presents an overview on the developments in liquid membrane separation and purification of commercially important beta-lactam antibiotics. Reactive extraction via liquid-liquid ion exchange or ion-pair extraction mechanism can be exploited to develop liquid membrane processes for separation and concentration of penicillins and cephalosporins. Because of high selectivity and flux, liquid membrane processes can be adopted for direct extraction of beta-lactams from fermentation broth. Other advantages of liquid membrane technologies are low capital and operating costs, compact unit installation in commercial plants, low material inventory, etc. Both emulsion liquid membrane and supported liquid membrane techniques can be effective under the reactive extraction conditions. However, the stability problems of liquid membrane should be resolved before commercial application can be established. Alternately, reactive extraction in non-dispersive mode with hollow fiber membranes can be an attractive and viable strategy for practical application. Applicability of the liquid membrane processes has been discussed from process engineering and design considerations. PMID:8818264

Ghosh, A C; Bora, M M; Dutta, N N

1996-04-01

340

Synthesis of ionic liquids  

DOEpatents

Ionic compounds which are liquids at room temperature are formed by the method of mixing a neutral organic ligand with the salt of a metal cation and its conjugate anion. The liquids are hydrophobic, conductive and stable and have uses as solvents and in electrochemical devices.

Dai, Sheng (Knoxville, TN); Luo, Huimin (Knoxville, TN)

2011-11-01

341

Experimenting with Liquid Membranes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlined are two experiments using liquid membranes that illustrate carrier-facilitated transport, where chemical species are ushered across the membrane by selective "carrier" molecules residing in the membrane. The use of liquid membranes as models for studying and describing biological transport mechanisms is explored. (CS)

Lamb, J. D.; And Others

1980-01-01

342

Understanding Credit Card Liquidity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the growth of credit card liquidity in explaining household credit card use. With data from the 2004 Survey of Consumer Finances we identify key predictors of new credit card charges for households. The data suggest credit card spending appears motivated by low-cost access to credit card liquidity. This is consistent with previous research arguing credit card use

Ryan R. Brady

2008-01-01

343

Liquid-Seeding Atomizer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Particles sprayed in drops of evaporating liquid. Placed near wind-tunnel inlet, atomizer sprays evaporating liquid containing solid particles into wind-tunnel airflow. Particles entrained in flow and scatter light, enabling flow to be observed optically. One end of atomizer slides on stationary pin to accommodate thermal expansion and contraction.

Seegmiller, Henry L. B.

1988-01-01

344

Breakdown of Liquid Dielectrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was made of electrical breakdown of a liquid (hexachlorodiphenyl) the viscosity of which is very dependent on temperature. It is shown that in uniform fields breakdown results from formation and growth of a vapour bubble in the liquid. This was established by direct microscopic observations of the 'breakdown event' at room temperature and by measurements of times to

Z. Krasucki

1966-01-01

345

Precision liquid level sensor  

DOEpatents

A precision liquid level sensor utilizes a balanced R. F. bridge, each arm including an air dielectric line. Changes in liquid level along one air dielectric line imbalance the bridge and create a voltage which is directly measurable across the bridge. 2 figs.

Field, M.E.; Sullivan, W.H.

1985-01-29

346

Advanced proteomic liquid chromatography  

PubMed Central

Liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry is the predominant platform used to analyze proteomics samples consisting of large numbers of proteins and their proteolytic products (e.g., truncated polypeptides) and spanning a wide range of relative concentrations. This review provides an overview of advanced capillary liquid chromatography techniques and methodologies that greatly improve separation resolving power and proteomics analysis coverage, sensitivity, and throughput.

Xie, Fang; Smith, Richard D.; Shen, Yufeng

2012-01-01

347

Liquid Chromatography in 1982.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews trends in liquid chromatography including apparatus, factors affecting efficient separation of a mixture (peak sharpness and speed), simplified problem-solving, adsorption, bonded phase chromatography, ion selectivity, and size exclusion. The current trend is to control chemical selectivity by the liquid phase. (Author/JN)

Freeman, David H.

1982-01-01

348

Synthesis of ionic liquids  

DOEpatents

Ionic compounds which are liquids at room temperature are formed by the method of mixing a neutral organic liqand with the salt of a metal cation and its conjugate anion. The liquids are hydrophobic, conductive and stable and have uses as solvents and in electrochemical devices.

Dai, Sheng [Knoxville, TN; Luo, Huimin [Knoxville, TN

2008-09-09

349

Advanced proteomic liquid chromatography  

SciTech Connect

Liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry is the predominant platform used to analyze proteomics samples consisting of large numbers of proteins and their proteolytic products (e.g., truncated polypeptides) and spanning a wide range of relative concentrations. This review provides an overview of advanced capillary liquid chromatography techniques and methodologies that greatly improve separation resolving power and proteomics analysis coverage, sensitivity, and throughput.

Xie, Fang; Smith, Richard D.; Shen, Yufeng

2012-10-26

350

Supercooled Liquids and Glasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selected aspects of recent progress in the study of supercooled liquids and glasses are presented in this review. As an introduction for nonspecialists, several basic features of the dynamics and thermodynamics of supercooled liquids and glasses are described. Among these are nonexponential relaxation functions, non-Arrhenius temperature dependences, and the Kauzmann temperature. Various theoretical models which attempt to explain these basic

M. D. Ediger; C. A. Angell; Sidney R. Nagel

1996-01-01

351

Liquid crystalline cellulose derivatives  

SciTech Connect

Following the observation that (hydroxypropyl)cellulose in water forms an ordered cholesteric liquid crystalline phase at high polymer concentrations, reports that many other cellulose derivatives in a wide variety of solvents also form liquid crystalline solutions have appeared in the scientific and patent literature. A tabulation of cellulose-based liquid crystalline systems is presented. The formation of the ordered phase is attributed to the limited flexibility of the cellulose chain. However, some cellulose derivatives form liquid crystalline phases only in specific solvents; concentrated solutions in other solvents remain isotropic. Other cellulose derivatives, such as (hydroxypropyl)cellulose, appear to form liquid crystalline solutions in any solvent that dissolves sufficiently high concentrations of the polymer. It has been suggested that the role of flexible side-chain substituents is to allow the main chains to achieve their equilibrium orientational order. The presence of many large substituents on the cellulose backbone also increases the effective chain radius and may change the chain conformation. The effect of side-chain structure on the properties of cellulose liquid crystalline phases is thus of interest. A series of esters of (hydroxypropyl)cellulose have been prepared. In addition to forming liquid crystalline solutions in organic solvents, these materials also were found to form cholesteric thermotropic phases in the absence of solvent. The thermotropic phases show spontaneous molecular orientation and cholesteric reflection. On heating, a transformation to the isotropic melt occurs. The liquid crystalline state of cellulose and its derivatives is thus widely observed. 42 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.

Gray, D.G.

1983-01-01

352

Liquidity risk management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquidity and solvency are the heavenly twins of banking, frequently indistinguishable. An illiquid bank can rapidly become insolvent, and an insolvent bank illiquid. As Tim Congdon noted, (FT, September 2007), in the 1950s liquid assets were typically 30 percent of British clearing banks’ total assets, and these largely consisted of Treasury Bills and short dated government debt. Currently, such cash

C. Goodhart

2008-01-01

353

Inside and Outside Liquidity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Why do financial institutions, industrial companies, and households hold low-yielding money balances, Treasury bills, and other liquid assets? When and to what extent can the state and international financial markets make up for a shortage of liquid assets, allowing agents to save and share risk more effectively? These questions are at the center of all financial crises, including the current

Bengt Holmström; Jean Tirole

354

Synthesis of Ionic Liquids.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ionic compounds which are liquids at room temperature are formed by the method of mixing a neutral organic liqand with the salt of a metal cation and its conjugate anion. The liquids are hydrophobic, conductive and stable and have uses as solvents and in ...

H. Luo S. Dai

2003-01-01

355

Liquid heat capacity lasers  

DOEpatents

The heat capacity laser concept is extended to systems in which the heat capacity lasing media is a liquid. The laser active liquid is circulated from a reservoir (where the bulk of the media and hence waste heat resides) through a channel so configured for both optical pumping of the media for gain and for light amplification from the resulting gain.

Comaskey, Brian J. (Walnut Creek, CA); Scheibner, Karl F. (Tracy, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Livermore, CA)

2007-05-01

356

Ionic liquids in catalysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current state of the art of the application of ionic liquids in catalysis is reviewed. The review selects examples of the different ways in which ionic liquids have been applied in catalysis, i.e. as the catalyst itself, as a co-catalyst or catalyst activator, as the source of a new ligand for a catalytic metal centre, or just as the

Tom Welton

2004-01-01

357

Practical animation of liquids  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a general method for modeling and animating liquids. The system is specifically designed for computer animation and handles viscous liquids as they move in a 3D environment and interact with graphics primitives such as parametric curves and moving polygons. We combine an appropriately modified semi-Lagrangian method with a new approach to calculating fluid flow around objects. This allows

Nick Foster; Ronald Fedkiw

2001-01-01

358

In situ ionic-liquid-dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction of Sudan dyes from liquid samples.  

PubMed

In situ ionic-liquid-dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction was introduced for extracting Sudan dyes from different liquid samples followed by detection using ultrafast liquid chromatography. The extraction and metathesis reaction can be performed simultaneously, the extraction time was shortened notably and higher enrichment factors can be obtained compared with traditional dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction. When the extraction was coupled with ultrafast liquid chromatography, a green, convenient, cheap, and efficient method for the determination of Sudan dyes was developed. The effects of various experimental factors, including type of extraction solvent, amount of 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, ratio of ammonium hexafluorophosphate to 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, pH value, salt concentration in sample solution, extraction time and centrifugation time were investigated and optimized for the extraction of four kinds of Sudan dyes. The limits of detection for Sudan I, II, III, and IV were 0.324, 0.299, 0.390, and 0.655 ng/mL, respectively. Recoveries obtained by analyzing the seven spiked samples were between 65.95 and 112.82%. The consumption of organic solvent (120 ?L acetonitrile per sample) was very low, so it could be considered as a green analytical method. PMID:24840862

Xu, Bo; Song, Daqian; Wang, Yuanpeng; Gao, Yan; Cao, Bocheng; Zhang, Hanqi; Sun, Ying

2014-08-01

359

Liquid Metal Slip Ring.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The liquid metal slip ring described comprises a rotor in the form of a range about an axis and a stator, the rotor being rotatable relative to the stator. The rotor has a channel in which the liquid metal is retained during operation by surface tension. ...

F. D. Berkopec R. R. Lovell D. H. Culp

1979-01-01

360

Liquid Metal Slip Ring.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A liquid metal slip ring is described which comprises a rotor in the form of a ring about an axis and a stator. The rotor is rotatable relative to the stator and has a channel in which the liquid metal is retained during operation by surface tension. The ...

F. D. Berkopec R. R. Lovell D. H. Culp

1976-01-01

361

Liquid Metal Slip Ring.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The liquid metal electrical device includes a rotor with a channel for retaining the liquid by tension. The device also includes a stator in the form of a brush partially immersed in the metal. The brush is bidirectionally symmetrical so that whichever di...

F. D. Berkopec R. R. Lovell D. H. Culp

1978-01-01

362

Liquid Crystalline Symposium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research in the physics, chemistry, and technology of liquid crystals (LCs) is alive and well, as demonstrated by the vitality of this recent LC symposium and the accompanying volume. While symposia focused on liquid crystal (LC) materials scienc have a s...

P. T. Mather

2003-01-01

363

Exercise support for therapy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Constant-value weight-relieving apparatus, which moves on rollers on overhead track, supports weight of walking, stooping, squatting, or standing patient with combination of multiple pulleys and spring clusters. Individually preselected support force is constant for all movements.

Long, M. J.; Irick, S. C.

1976-01-01

364

Programming Support Library.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Programming Support Library (PSL) is a software package designed to provide the facilities for organizing and controlling the development and maintenance of computer programs. The structure and operation of the PSL is oriented toward supporting struct...

1978-01-01

365

SUPERFUND TECHNICAL SUPPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

Under this task, technical support is provided to Regional Remedial Project Managers (RPMs)/On-Scene Coordinators (OSCs) at Superfund, RCRA, and Brownfields sites contaminated with hazardous materials by the Technical Support Center (TSC) for Monitoring and Site Characterization....

366

Liquid-liquid phase transition in a two-dimensional system with anomalous liquid properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phase diagram of the two-dimensional particles interacting through a smooth version of Stell-Hemmer interaction was studied using Monte Carlo computer simulations. By evaluating the pressure-volume isotherms, we observed liquid-liquid, liquid-gas phase transitions and three stable crystal phases. The model shows the liquid-liquid critical point in stable liquid phase and is confirmed by observing properties of other thermodynamic functions such as heat capacity and isothermal compressibility, for example. The liquid-gas and the liquid-liquid critical points were estimated within the thermodynamic limit.

Urbic, Tomaz

2013-12-01

367

Application of Ionic Liquids in Liquid Chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interest in ionic liquids (ILs) for their potential application in analytical chemistry continues to grow. Their usefulness can be due to favourable physicochemical properties, like the lack of vapour pressure, good thermal and chemical stability as well as very good dissolution properties regarding both organic and inorganic compounds. A specific feature of ILs is that these compounds provide strong proton

Micha? Piotr Marsza??; Roman Kaliszan

2007-01-01

368

Enhanced catalyst for converting synthesis gas to liquid motor fuels  

DOEpatents

The conversion of synthesis gas to liquid molar fuels by means of a cobalt Fischer-Tropsch catalyst composition is enhanced by the addition of molybdenum, tungsten or a combination thereof as an additional component of said composition. The presence of the additive component increases the olefinic content of the hydrocarbon products produced. The catalyst composition can advantageously include a support component, such as a molecular sieve, co-catalyst/support component or a combination of such support components.

Coughlin, Peter K. (Yorktown Heights, NY) [Yorktown Heights, NY

1986-01-01

369

Catalyst for converting synthesis gas to liquid motor fuels  

DOEpatents

The addition of an inert metal component, such as gold, silver or copper, to a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst comprising cobalt enables said catalyst to convert synthesis gas to liquid motor fuels at about 240.degree.-370.degree. C. with advantageously reduced selectivity of said cobalt for methane in said conversion. The catalyst composition can advantageously include a support component, such as a molecular sieve, co-catalyst/support component or a combination of such support components.

Coughlin, Peter K. (Yorktown Heights, NY)

1986-01-01

370

Support vector domain description  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows the use of a data domain description method, inspired by the support vector machine by Vapnik, called the support vector domain description (SVDD). This data description can be used for novelty or outlier de- tection. A spherically shaped decision boundary around a set of objects is constructed by a set of support vectors describing the sphere boundary.

David M. J. Tax; Robert P. W. Duin

1999-01-01

371

Software Technology Support Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

The newly formed Software Technology Support Center (STSC) at Hill Air Force Base is designed to act as a US Air Force information center to advocate and support the development of advanced software tools and methods, to sustain these tools and methods during their operational use, and to increase compatibility among and efficiency of support environments. As a focal point

R. S. Alder

1989-01-01

372

Overview of supported employment.  

PubMed Central

This article traces the emergence of supported employment as a result of philosophical changes in expectations for persons with disabilities, based on scientific developments that challenged traditional service-delivery models. Supported employment program characteristics also are reviewed, and the influence of applied behavior analysis is outlined. Finally, areas for future research in supported employment are discussed.

Rusch, F R; Hughes, C

1989-01-01

373

Advanced Life Support  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viewgraphs on Advanced Life Support (ALS) Systems are presented. The topics include: 1) Fundamental Need for Advanced Life Support; 2) ALS organization; 3) Requirements and Rationale; 4) Past Integrated tests; 5) The need for improvements in life support systems; 6) ALS approach to meet exploration goals; 7) ALS Projects showing promise to meet exploration goals; and 9) GRC involvement in ALS.

Chambliss, Joe

2004-01-01

374

Fragility Control Using the Liquid-Liquid Transition in Molecular Liquid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquids, whose viscosity obeys the Arrhenius law, are called ``strong,'' while ``fragile'' liquids have the super-Arrhenius behavior. Here we report the first continuous control of the fragility of liquid of the same material over a wide range of fragility, using a continuous liquid-liquid transition. Our study clearly demonstrates that the fragility is not a material specific quantity, but is controlled

Rei Kurita; Hajime Tanaka

2006-01-01

375

Autothermal Processing of Renewable Liquids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vast majority of petrochemicals are synthesized from just six building block molecules, but current feedstocks are an unsustainable resource with negative externalities. Biomass represents a potentially sustainable feedstock, but needs densification, preferably to a liquid form, to be a suitable replacement. Fermentation to butanol and pyrolysis to bio-oil are two promising liquid intermediates. Catalytic partial oxidation (CPO) of the liquid intermediates over noble metal catalysts, which converts the liquids primarily into syngas and light olefins, is a promising technique for processing densified biomass. The study of liquids at high temperatures requires consideration of a range of complex phenomena, including boiling behavior on hot surfaces, reactions of the feed molecules at high temperatures and on catalyst surfaces, and interactions of impurities in the liquid with the catalyst. Chapter 2 deals with the behavior of the transient liquid that forms when cellulose, a major constituent of biomass, is pyrolized. Fast photography experiments and numerical simulations are performed to show that the aerosols formed in the boiling of this liquid are capable of transporting nonvolatile fragments of biomass intact into the gas phase. These nonvolatile fragments have significant implications in the storage and downstream processing of bio-oil. Some of the behavior of bio-oil at high temperature may also be explained by the variety of molecules in the liquid. Many different functional groups are present, each with its own set of chemical reactions in combustion, pyrolysis, and partial oxidation on a metal catalyst. Chapters 3 and 4 investigate these reactions through a survey of two-carbon surrogates of the functional group classes found in bio-oil. Chapter 3 examines reactions occuring in the complete CPO system over Pt and Rh catalysts, and in the complete system absent O 2. The selectivity data from each molecule and the surface science literature of each molecule are used to propose a reaction mechanism over the catalyst surface. Chapter 4 investigates the reactions that may be occurring in the gas phase and over the alpha-Al2O3 foam monolith support. Significant gas-phase chemistry is likely present in the autothermal reactor, although different temperature gradients between the autothermal reactions and the externally heated tube makes quantification of the amount of homogeneous chemistry in the autothermal system impossible. The alpha-Al2O 3 support may serve as a heat transfer medium and radical quencher (due to its foam structure with small-diameter pores), but not likely acid catalysis, as selectivity to dehydration products was similar both with and without the foam support. Because butanol is another promising liquid intermediate in biomass processing, a series of experiments with butanol in an CPO reactor was also carried out. Chapter 5 compares the four butanol isomers in a CPO reactor over Pt, PtCe, Rh, and RhCe catalysts. The reactivity of tert-butanol was as high or higher than the other alcohols, indicating that the lack of a carbonyl decomposition path does not necessarily in uence the reactivity of the molecule. Rather, the reactivity appeared to be more a function of the initial pyrolysis temperature of the alcohol. Thus, much of the initial chemistry of the higher alcohols in a CPO reactor may be homogeneous. The main function of the catalyst may be to decompose the intermediate carbonyls and alkenes to syngas. To that end, the PtCe had significantly lower reforming activity than the other catalysts, evidenced by the lower selectivity to CO and H2 and generally higher temperatures. Selectivity to syngas and light olefins was high and tunable depending on feed ratios, indicating the potential of CPO to provide petrochemical building blocks from butanol. Chapter 6 combines CPO with a water-gas shift (WGS) stage and investigates the addition of steam to isobutanol for the production of a high-purity H2 stream. A RhCe catalyst was used in the CPO stage to convert 100% of the isobutanol feed to primarily

Kruger, Jacob Scott

376

Supported microporous ceramic membranes  

DOEpatents

A method for the formation of microporous ceramic membranes onto a porous support includes placing a colloidal suspension of metal or metal oxide particles on one side of the porous support and exposing the other side of the porous support to a drying stream of gas or a reactive gas stream so that the particles are deposited on the drying side of the support as a gel. The gel so deposited can be sintered to form a supported ceramic membrane useful for ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, or molecular sieving having mean pore sizes less than 100 Angstroms. 4 figures.

Webster, E.; Anderson, M.

1993-12-14

377

Supported microporous ceramic membranes  

DOEpatents

A method for permformation of microporous ceramic membranes onto a porous support includes placing a colloidal suspension of metal or metal oxide particles on one side of the porous support and exposing the other side of the porous support to a drying stream of gas or a reactive gas stream so that the particles are deposited on the drying side of the support as a gel. The gel so deposited can be sintered to form a supported ceramic membrane useful for ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, or molecular sieving having mean pore sizes less than 100 Angstroms.

Webster, Elizabeth (Madison, WI); Anderson, Marc (Madison, WI)

1993-01-01

378

Liquid Oxygen/Liquid Methane Integrated Propulsion System Test Bed  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In support of NASA?s Propulsion and Cryogenic Advanced Development (PCAD) project, a liquid oxygen (LO2)/liquid methane (LCH4) Integrated Propulsion System Test Bed (IPSTB) was designed and advanced to the Critical Design Review (CDR) stage at the Johnson Space Center. The IPSTB?s primary objectives are to study LO2/LCH4 propulsion system steady state and transient performance, operational characteristics and to validate fluid and thermal models of a LO2/LCH4 propulsion system for use in future flight design work. Two phase thermal and dynamic fluid flow models of the IPSTB were built to predict the system performance characteristics under a variety of operating modes and to aid in the overall system design work. While at ambient temperature and simulated altitude conditions at the White Sands Test Facility, the IPSTB and its approximately 600 channels of system instrumentation would be operated to perform a variety of integrated main engine and reaction control engine hot fire tests. The pressure, temperature, and flow rate data collected during this testing would then be used to validate the analytical models of the IPSTB?s thermal and dynamic fluid flow performance. An overview of the IPSTB design and analytical model development will be presented.

Flynn, Howard; Lusby, Brian; Villemarette, Mark

2011-01-01

379

Liquid Metallic Hydrogen: Building Block of a Liquid Sun  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The establishment by Andrews of critical temperatures (T. Andrews, Phil. Trans. 1869, v. 159, 575-590) soon became one of the great pillars in support of the gaseous models of the Sun. Gases above these temperatures simply could not be liquefied. Given that interior of the Sun was already hypothesized in the 19th century to be at temperatures well exceeding those achievable on Earth in ordinary furnaces, it became inconceivable to think of the solar interior as anything but gaseous. Hence, the models advanced by Secchi, Faye, Stoney, Lane, and Young, could easily gain acceptance. However, modern science is beginning to demonstrate that hydrogen (which under ordinary conditions has a critical point at ˜33 K) can become pressure ionized such that its electrons enter metallic conductions bands, given sufficiently elevated pressures, as the band gap is reduced from 15 eV to ˜0.3 eV. Liquid metallic hydrogen will possess a new critical temperature well above that of ordinary hydrogen. Already, experiments suggests that it can exist at temperatures of thousands of Kelvin and millions of atmospheres (S. T. Weir et al., Phys. Rev. Let. 1996, 76, 1860). The formation of liquid metallic hydrogen brings with it a new candidate for the interior of the Sun and the stars. Its existence shatters the great pillar of the gaseous models of the Sun which the critical point of ordinary gases had erected.

Robitaille, Pierre-Marie

2011-04-01

380

Supported employment, supported education, and career development.  

PubMed

Two articles in the current issue of the Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal bring into focus the important question of the importance of work, and in particular meaningful employment, in people with a serious mental illness. Gewurtz, Cott, Rush, and Kirsh (see record 2012-34112-003) present findings from a change in policy in Canada for the funding of vocational services for people with a serious mental illness from a fee-for-service model to an outcomes-based model, with reimbursement based on successful competitive job placement and retention, irrespective of job type and consumer preference. The results indicated increased rates of competitive work, mainly in entry-level jobs, but they also raised questions as to whether the narrow focus on job attainment may have been at the cost of less career development and ultimately less meaningful work for the consumers. Baksheev, Allott, Jackson, McGorry, and Killackey (see record 2012-34112-002) found that a combined supported employment and education program for people with a first episode of psychosis led to higher rates of employment and class completion than usual services. The analysis presented in this report showed that no individual consumer characteristics other than program assignment (supported employment and education vs. usual services) predicted vocational or educational outcomes. The findings underscore the potency of supported employment, and suggest that combining it with educational services may be fruitful for people who have recently experienced an episode of psychosis. These findings raise several questions that will be touched on in this editorial, including: Why are career development and supported education important? What have we learned about supported education? What are the current gaps in our knowledge about supported education? PMID:23276233

Mueser, Kim T; Cook, Judith A

2012-12-01

381

#3: Continuous Labor Support  

PubMed Central

In this position paper—one of six care practice papers published by Lamaze International and reprinted here with permission—the benefit of continuous labor support is discussed and presented as an evidence-based practice that helps promote, protect, and support normal birth. The paper is written for childbearing women and their families. Women with continuous support are less likely to have a cesarean, an instrument delivery, and regional anesthesia. They are also less likely to report dissatisfaction with or negatively rate their childbirth experience. The value of the doula for both the laboring woman and her labor partner is discussed. The accompanying commentary—written by a leading proponent of maternity care practices—supports evidence that promotes continuous labor support. Lamaze International encourages women to plan for a supportive birth environment that includes continuous support.

Hotelling, Barbara; Amis, Debby; Green, Jeanne; Sakala, Carol

2004-01-01

382

Liquid sampling system  

DOEpatents

A conduit extends from a reservoir through a sampling station and back to the reservoir in a closed loop. A jet ejector in the conduit establishes suction for withdrawing liquid from the reservoir. The conduit has a self-healing septum therein upstream of the jet ejector for receiving one end of a double-ended cannula, the other end of which is received in a serum bottle for sample collection. Gas is introduced into the conduit at a gas bleed between the sample collection bottle and the reservoir. The jet ejector evacuates gas from the conduit and the bottle and aspirates a column of liquid from the reservoir at a high rate. When the withdrawn liquid reaches the jet ejector the rate of flow therethrough reduces substantially and the gas bleed increases the pressure in the conduit for driving liquid into the sample bottle, the gas bleed forming a column of gas behind the withdrawn liquid column and interrupting the withdrawal of liquid from the reservoir. In the case of hazardous and toxic liquids, the sample bottle and the jet ejector may be isolated from the reservoir and may be further isolated from a control station containing remote manipulation means for the sample bottle and control valves for the jet ejector and gas bleed.

Larson, Loren L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1987-01-01

383

Liquid sampling system  

DOEpatents

A conduit extends from a reservoir through a sampling station and back to the reservoir in a closed loop. A jet ejector in the conduit establishes suction for withdrawing liquid from the reservoir. The conduit has a self-healing septum therein upstream of the jet ejector for receiving one end of a double-ended cannula, the other end of which is received in a serum bottle for sample collection. Gas is introduced into the conduit at a gas bleed between the sample collection bottle and the reservoir. The jet ejector evacuates gas from the conduit and the bottle and aspirates a column of liquid from the reservoir at a high rate. When the withdrawn liquid reaches the jet ejector the rate of flow therethrough reduces substantially and the gas bleed increases the pressure in the conduit for driving liquid into the sample bottle, the gas bleed forming a column of gas behind the withdrawn liquid column and interrupting the withdrawal of liquid from the reservoir. In the case of hazardous and toxic liquids, the sample bottle and the jet ejector may be isolated from the reservoir and may be further isolated from a control station containing remote manipulation means for the sample bottle and control valves for the jet ejector and gas bleed. 5 figs.

Larson, L.L.

1984-09-17

384

Liquid metal drop ejection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aim of this project was to demonstrate the possibility of ejecting liquid metals using drop on demand printing technology. The plan was to make transducers for operation in the 100 MHz frequency range and to use these transducers to demonstrate the ability to eject drops of liquid metals such as gallium. Two transducers were made by indium bonding piezoelectric lithium niobate to quartz buffer rods. The lithium niobate plates were thinned by mechanical polishing to a thickness of 37 microns for operation at 100 MHz. Hemispherical lenses were polished in the opposite ends of the buffer rods. The lenses, which focus the sound waves in the liquid metal, had an F-number equals 1. A mechanical housing was made to hold the transducers and to allow precise control over the liquid level above the lens. We started by demonstrating the ability to eject drops of water on demand. The drops of water had a diameter of 15 microns which corresponds to the wavelength of the sound wave in the water. A videotape of this ejection was made. We then used a mixture of Gallium and Indium (used to lower the melting temperature of the Gallium) to demonstrate the ejection of liquid metal drops. This proved to be difficult because of the oxide skin which forms on the surface of the liquid. In some instances, we were able to eject metal drops, however, this was not consistent and reproducible. An experiment was set up at NASA-Lewis to stabilize the process of drop on demand liquid metal ejection. The object was to place the transducer and liquid metal in a vacuum station so that no oxide would form on the surface. We were successful in demonstrating that liquid metals could be ejected on demand and that this technology could be used for making sheet metal in space.

Khuri-Yakub, B. T.

1993-01-01

385

Thermodynamic description of liquid-state limits.  

PubMed

A state of random close packing (RCP) of spheres is found to have a thermodynamic status and a fundamental role in the description of liquid-state equilibria. The RCP limiting amorphous ground state, with reproducible density and well-characterized structure, is obtained by well-defined irreversible and reversible processes. The limiting packing fraction y(RCP) = 0.6366 ± 0.0005 (Buffon's constant within the uncertainty), and a residual entropy per sphere ?S((RCP-FCC)) is approximately equal to k(B) (Boltzmann's constant). Since the Mayer virial expansion does not represent dense fluid equations-of-state for densities exceeding the available-volume percolation transition (?(pa)), we infer that a RCP state belongs to the same thermodynamic phase as prepercolation equilibrium dense hard-sphere fluid and likewise for hard-core fluids with attractive forces. Monte Carlo (MC) calculation of the liquid-state coexistence properties of square-well (SW) attractive spheres, together with existing MC results for liquid-vapor coexistence in the SW fluid, support this conclusion. Further findings for liquid-vapor coexistence limits are reported. The extremely weak second-order available-volume percolation transition of the hard-sphere fluid is strengthened by square-well perturbation as temperature is reduced. At the critical temperature, this transition becomes first order, whereupon a liquid at the percolation density coexists in thermodynamic equilibrium with its vapor at a lower density. The critical coexisting vapor density relates to the extended-volume bonded cluster percolation transition ?(pe)(?) defined for given well width (?). Taking experimental liquid argon data as an example, it can be seen that the thermodynamic description of the coexistence limits, found here for square-well fluids, applies to real liquids. PMID:22423622

Woodcock, Leslie V

2012-03-29

386

Liquid metal electric pump  

DOEpatents

An electrical pump for pumping liquid metals to high pressures in high temperature environments without the use of magnets or moving mechanical parts. The pump employs a non-porous solid electrolyte membrane, typically ceramic, specific to the liquid metal to be pumped. A DC voltage is applied across the thickness of the membrane causing ions to form and enter the membrane on the electrically positive surface, with the ions being neutralized on the opposite surface. This action provides pumping of the liquid metal from one side of the non-porous solid electrolyte membrane to the other.

Abbin, Joseph P. (Albuquerque, NM) [Albuquerque, NM; Andraka, Charles E. (Albuquerque, NM) [Albuquerque, NM; Lukens, Laurance L. (Albuquerque, NM) [Albuquerque, NM; Moreno, James B. (Albuquerque, NM) [Albuquerque, NM

1992-01-01

387

Solids, Liquids, and Gases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this project you will research solids, liquids, and gases. By the end of this project you will be able to answer the question: Can you tell what is alike and different between solids, liquids, and gases? Read the song about matter. song with music about matter Record your observations on the organizer provided by the teacher. On the diagram write the word solid in one of the circles. Write liquid in one of the circles and write gas in the last circle. As you collect your information write your information under ...

Sibley, Ms.

2009-10-22

388

Liquid metal electric pump  

DOEpatents

An electrical pump for pumping liquid metals to high pressures in high temperature environments without the use of magnets or moving mechanical parts. The pump employs a non-porous solid electrolyte membrane, typically ceramic, specific to the liquid metal to be pumped. A DC voltage is applied across the thickness of the membrane causing ions to form and enter the membrane on the electrically positive surface, with the ions being neutralized on the opposite surface. This action provides pumping of the liquid metal from one side of the non-porous solid electrolyte membrane to the other. 3 figs.

Abbin, J.P.; Andraka, C.E.; Lukens, L.L.; Moreno, J.B.

1992-01-14

389

Exploring Materials: Liquid Crystals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners discover that the way a material behaves on the macroscale is affected by its structure on the nanoscale. Learners investigate the properties of a heat sensitive liquid crystal and make their own liquid crystal sensor to take home. This is a fun and engaging activity, especially since liquid crystals are used in many consumer products, including cell phone displays, laptop computer screens, strip thermometers, and even "mood" rings! SAFETY: learners must be supervised when doing this activity. They must wear safety glasses to protect their eyes. Before doing this activity, read through the Material Safety Data Sheets.

Network, Nanoscale I.; Sciencenter

2010-01-01

390

Liquid-metal corrosion  

SciTech Connect

A review of corrosion and environmental effects on the mechanical properties of candidate structural alloys for use with liquid metals in fusion reactors is presented. The corrosion/mass transfer behavior of austenitic and ferritic steels and vanadium-base alloys is evaluated to determine the preliminary operating temperature limits for circulating and static liquid-lithium and Pb-17Li systems. The influence of liquid-metal environment on the mechanical properties of structural materials is discussed. Corrosion effects of nitrate and fluoride salts are presented. Requirements for additional data are identified.

Chopra, O.K.; DeVan, J.H.; Smith, D.L.; Sze, D.K.; Tortorelli, P.F.

1985-09-01

391

System Support Studies under Production Support Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Studies were made in support of production programs for Wing VI Minuteman second-stage motors. Summaries follow for the five areas of program effort discussed in this volume of the final report. (1) Statistical analyses were made of various materials and ...

H. E. Childres E. J. Mastrolia

1966-01-01

392

Teardown del Rear Support Envejecido del a-320 Ensayado a Fatiga (Fatigue Teardown Tests of the Aged Rear Support of the A320 Aircraft).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The progressive damage of the A320 rear support observed after manufacturing and test steps are reported. The evolution of each defect and the generation of additional defects is studied using ultrasound, macrofractographic and penetrating liquid methods....

J. M. Martin J. M. Bernardo

1988-01-01

393

Geomorphologic evidence for liquid water  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Besides Earth, Mars is the only planet with a record of resurfacing processes and environmental circumstances that indicate the past operation of a hydrologic cycle. However the present-day conditions on Mars are far apart of supporting liquid water on the surface. Although the large-scale morphology of the Martian channels and valleys show remarkable similarities with fluid-eroded features on Earth, there are major differences in their size, small-scale morphology, inner channel structure and source regions indicating that the erosion on Mars has its own characteristic genesis and evolution. The different landforms related to fluvial, glacial and periglacial activities, their relations with volcanism, and the chronology of water-related processes, are presented.

Masson, P.; Carr, M. H.; Costard, F.; Greeley, R.; Hauber, E.; Jaumann, R.

2001-01-01

394

Shear viscosity correlation function of liquid argon and liquid rubidium  

Microsoft Academic Search

A direct calculation of the shear viscosity coefficient for models of liquid rubidium and liquid argon is presented by by neglecting the cross-terms in the auto-correlation function in a fluid. For liquid argon this is found to yield a long decaying tail for the correlation function in qualitative agreement with the computer calculation of Levesque et al. (1973). For liquid

O. Chiakwelu

1978-01-01

395

114. WEST SIDE OF LIQUID OXYGEN CONTROL ROOM (205). LIQUID ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

114. WEST SIDE OF LIQUID OXYGEN CONTROL ROOM (205). LIQUID NITROGEN (LN2) SUBCOOLER ON LEFT; SKID 8, LIQUID OXYGEN CONTROLLER FOR SWITCHING BETWEEN RAPID-LOAD AND TOPPING ON RIGHT. LIQUID OXYGEN LINE FROM SKID 9A AT RIGHT EDGE OF PHOTO. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

396

Modeling of Diffusion in Liquid Ge and Its Alloys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report summarizes progress made on NASA Grant NAG3-1437, Modeling of diffusion in Liquid Ge and Its Alloys, which was in effect from January 15, 1993 through July 10, 1997. It briefly describes the purpose of the grant, and the work accomplished in simulations and other studies of thermophysical properties of liquid semiconductors and related materials. A list of publications completed with the support of the grant is also given.

Stroud, David G.

1998-01-01

397

Terahertz\\/optical sum and difference frequency generation in liquids  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-sensitivity setup for the observation of chi(2)-based, terahertz\\/optical, sum and difference frequency generation in liquids is presented. It relies on launching wavefront modulated terahertz radiation into a liquid traversed by an optical beam. Phase matching and polarization selection rules can be tuned to support three wave mixing via either chiral allowed electric dipole processes or higher order quadrupole\\/magnetic dipole

Thomas Feil; S. J. Allen

2011-01-01

398

Safer Liquid Natural Gas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

After the disaster of Staten Island in 1973 where 40 people were killed repairing a liquid natural gas storage tank, the New York Fire Commissioner requested NASA's help in drawing up a comprehensive plan to cover the design, construction, and operation of liquid natural gas facilities. Two programs are underway. The first transfers comprehensive risk management techniques and procedures which take the form of an instruction document that includes determining liquid-gas risks through engineering analysis and tests, controlling these risks by setting up redundant fail safe techniques, and establishing criteria calling for decisions that eliminate or accept certain risks. The second program prepares a liquid gas safety manual (the first of its kind).

1976-01-01

399

Liquid Crystalline Polymers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The remarkable mechanical properties and thermal stability of fibers fabricated from liquid crystalline polymers (LCPs) have led to the use of these materials in structural applications where weight savings are critical. Advances in processing of LCPs cou...

1990-01-01

400

Policy Manual - Liquid Nitrogen  

Cancer.gov

The purpose of this procedure is to insure that adequate policies, procedures, and practices in place for the safe handling of liquid nitrogen in Hematopathology, Ultrastructural Pathology, and Flow Cytometry.

401

Liquid Assets: Public Health  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video segment from a WPSU documentary Liquid Assets connects public health to the availability of clean and safe drinking water and elaborates on the threats our bodies face due to increasing kinds and quantities of pollutants.

Wpsu

2008-11-19

402

Volatile liquid storage system  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method of collecting and abating emission from a volatile liquid in an above ground storage tank. It comprises the liquid storage tank having a bottom, a vertical cylindrical circular wall having a lower edge portion joined to the bottom, and an external fixed roof, the tank having an internal floating roof floating on a volatile liquid stored in the tank, and air vent means in the tank in communication with a vapor space in the tank constituting at least the space above the floating roof when the floating roof floats on a predetermined maximum volume of volatile liquid in the tank; permitting ambient air; pumping emission laden air from the tank vapor space above the floating roof; and by means of the emissions abatement apparatus eliminating most of the emission from the emissions laden air with formation of a gaseous effluent and then discharging the resulting gaseous effluent to the atmosphere.

Laverman, R.J.; Winters, P.J.; Rinehart, J.K.

1992-09-15

403

Liquid Fuels Market Model  

EIA Publications

Defines the objectives of the Liquid Fuels Market Model (LFMM), describes its basic approach, and provides detail on how it works. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public.

John Powell

2013-12-17

404

Liquid Crystal Sensor  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a classroom activity to explain liquid crystal sensors for middle school students. A list of activity materials and .pdf handouts are included. Objectives: -Understand how liquid crystals (LCs) relate to other phases of matter (liquid, solid, gas) -Observe that liquid crystals reflect many different colors (wavelengths) of light -Learn that thermally sensitive LCs twist and turn (change pitch & orientation) at different temperatures, which changes the particular color of light that they reflect -Learn that just like some LCs can measure temperature, others can 'sense' particular chemicals and biological agents -Explore how LC sensors can be used to detect changes that cannot be seen with the naked eye -Brainstorm particular applications of LC sensors.

2012-08-09

405

Ionic liquid ethanol sensor.  

PubMed

Ionic liquids containing lithium methylsulfonyl group were prepared from the precursors poly(propylene glycol)-block-(ethylene glycol)-block-(propylene glycol)-bis(2-aminopropyl ether) with different molecular weight. These liquids revealed excellent electrical conductivity in the temperature range -25 to 85 degrees C. Also, they exhibited a high boiling temperature and hence a low vapor pressure in ambient condition. Additionally, they showed a high fluidity with their viscosities being comparative with that of water. To determine the sensitivity of an ethanol sensor by using these ionic liquids, these liquids were subjected into a sequential electrochemical tests with nickel electrodes which performed a high sensitivity for the ethanol sensor. It was found that only the derivative with low molecular weight could detect ethanol. Furthermore, a linear relationship between the response current and the concentration of ethanol was constructed. The detection limit was found to be 0.13% (v/v) and its response time was 336 s. PMID:15142574

Lee, Yuan Gee; Chou, Tse-Chuan

2004-07-30

406

Liquid sample processor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Processor is automatic and includes series of extraction tubes packed with fibrous absorbent material of large surface area. When introduced into these tubes, liquid test samples become completely absorbed by packing material as thin film.

Jahnsen, V. J.; Campen, C. F., Jr.

1975-01-01

407

Liquid metals: Supercool order  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electron microscopy reveals ordered layering imposed on liquid aluminium at the interface with a solid. A better understanding of this effect will have important consequences for applications ranging from fluid flow to casting.

Greer, A. Lindsay

2006-01-01

408

Liquid Propellant Gun.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent application relates to a liquid propellant gun featuring concentric propellant pump, valve and bolt. Forward movement of the bolt causes forward movement of the propellant pump by interconnection of ball detents. The valve is forced open by dif...

J. W. Holtrop

1976-01-01

409

Liquid Propellant Gun.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent application relates to a method whereby an injection system is provided for a liquid propellant gun including coaxial flow valves, giving complete mixing of two propellant components by covergent streams. Ullage is eliminated by closely contour...

B. Bartels J. W. Holtrop L. L. Liedtke R. T. Trovinger

1975-01-01

410

Liquid-Cooled Garment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A liquid-cooled bra, offshoot of Apollo moon suit technology, aids the cancer-detection technique known as infrared thermography. Water flowing through tubes in the bra cools the skin surface to improve resolution of thermograph image.

1977-01-01

411

Liquid Assets: Wastewater  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video segment from a WPSU documentary Liquid Assets describes the progression of wastewater management from its early days to present day wastewater treatment systems. The development of Boston’s first-ever waste management system is described.

Wpsu

2008-11-20

412

Liquid Crystal IR Detector  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a student activity on the detection of a warm object with a liquid crystal sheet. This activity also can be a simulation of the detection of infrared radiation. The "For Further Research" section includes questions for the student.

2012-10-30

413

Cryogenic support system  

DOEpatents

A support system is disclosed for restraining large masses at very low or cryogenic temperatures. The support system employs a tie bar that is pivotally connected at opposite ends to an anchoring support member and a sliding support member. The tie bar extends substantially parallel to the longitudinal axis of the cold mass assembly, and comprises a rod that lengthens when cooled and a pair of end attachments that contract when cooled. The rod and end attachments are sized so that when the tie bar is cooled to cryogenic temperature, the net change in tie bar length is approximately zero. Longitudinal force directed against the cold mass assembly is distributed by the tie bar between the anchoring support member and the sliding support member. 7 figs.

Nicol, T.H.; Niemann, R.C.; Gonczy, J.D.

1988-11-01

414

Cryogenic support system  

DOEpatents

A support system is disclosed for restraining large masses at very low or cryogenic temperatures. The support system employs a tie bar that is pivotally connected at opposite ends to an anchoring support member and a sliding support member. The tie bar extends substantially parallel to the longitudinal axis of the cold mass assembly, and comprises a rod that lengthens when cooled and a pair of end attachments that contract when cooled. The rod and end attachments are sized so that when the tie bar is cooled to cryogenic temperature, the net change in tie bar length is approximately zero. Longitudinal force directed against the cold mass assembly is distributed by the tie bar between the anchoring support member and the sliding support member.

Nicol, Thomas H. (Aurora, IL); Niemann, Ralph C. (Downers Grove, IL); Gonczy, John D. (Oak Lawn, IL)

1988-01-01

415

Active colloids at liquid-liquid interfaces: dynamic self-assembly and functionality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Self-assembled materials must actively consume energy and remain out of equilibrium in order to support structural complexity and functional diversity. Colloids of interacting particles suspended at liquid-liquid interfaces and maintained out of equilibrium by external alternating electromagnetic fields develop nontrivial collective dynamics and self-assembly. We use ferromagnetic colloidal micro-particles (so the magnetic moment is fixed in each particle and interactions between colloids is highly anisotropic and directional) suspended over an interface of two immiscible liquids and energized by vertical alternating magnetic fields to demonstrate novel dynamic and active self-assembled structures (``asters'') which are not accessible through thermodynamic assembly. Structures are attributed to the interplay between surface waves, generated at the liquid/liquid interface by the collective response of magnetic microparticles to the alternating magnetic field, and hydrodynamic fields induced in the boundary layers of both liquids forming the interface. Two types of magnetic order are reported. We demonstrate that asters develop self-propulsion in the presence of a small in-plane dc magnetic field. We show that asters can capture, transport, and position target microparticles.

Snezhko, Alexey; Aranson, Igor

2012-02-01

416

Comparative investigation of N donor ligand-lanthanide complexes from the metal and ligand point of view  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

N-donor ligands such as n-Pr-BTP (2,6-bis(5,6-dipropyl-1,2,4-triazin-3-yl)pyridine) studied here preferentially bind An(III) over Ln(III) in liquid-liquid separation of trivalent ac-tinides from spent nuclear fuel. The chemical and physical processes responsible for this selectivity are not yet well understood. We present systematic comparative near-edge X-ray absorption structure (XANES) spectroscopy investigations at the Gd L3 edge of [GdBTP3](NO3)3, [Gd(BTP)3](OTf)3, Gd(NO3)3, Gd(OTf)3 and N K edge of [Gd(BTP)3](NO3)3, Gd(NO3)3 complexes. The pre-edge absorption resonance in Gd L3 edge high-energy resolution X-ray absorption near edge structure spectra (HR-XANES) is explained as arising from 2p3/2 ? 4f/5d electronic transitions by calculations with the FEFF9.5 code. Experimental evidence is found for higher electronic density on Gd in [Gd(BTP)3](NO3)3 and [Gd(BTP)3](OTf)3 compared to Gd in Gd(NO3)3 and Gd(OTf)3, and on N in [Gd(BTP)3](NO3)3 compared to n-Pr-BTP. The origin of the pre-edge structure in the N K edge XANES is explained by density functional theory (DFT) with the ORCA code. Results at the N K edge suggest a change in ligand orbital occupancies and mixing upon complexation but further work is necessary to interpret observed spectral variations.

Prüßmann, T.; Denecke, M. A.; Geist, A.; Rothe, J.; Lindqvist-Reis, P.; Löble, M.; Breher, F.; Batchelor, D. R.; Apostolidis, C.; Walter, O.; Caliebe, W.; Kvashnina, K.; Jorissen, K.; Kas, J. J.; Rehr, J. J.; Vitova, T.

2013-04-01

417

Conduction cooled tube supports  

DOEpatents

In boilers, process tubes are suspended by means of support studs that are in thermal contact with and attached to the metal roof casing of the boiler and the upper bend portions of the process tubes. The support studs are sufficiently short that when the boiler is in use, the support studs are cooled by conduction of heat to the process tubes and the roof casing thereby maintaining the temperature of the stud so that it does not exceed 1400.degree. F.

Worley, Arthur C. (Mt. Tabor, NJ) [Mt. Tabor, NJ; Becht, IV, Charles (Morristown, NJ)

1984-01-01

418

Crystalline titanate catalyst supports  

DOEpatents

A series of new crystalline titanates (CT) are shown to have considerable potential as catalyst supports. For Pd supported catalyst, the catalytic activity for pyrene hydrogenation was substantially different depending on the type of CT, and one was substantially more active than Pd on hydrous titanium oxide (HTO). For 1-hexene hydrogenation the activities of the new CTs were approximately the same as for the hydrous metal oxide supports.

Anthony, R.G.; Dosch, R.G.

1993-01-05

419

Supply of high-pressure combustion-supporting gas to wells  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system and method, for supporting combustion in the downhole portion of an oil well, supply at elevated pressure a combustion-supporting mixture of oxygen and an inert gas (preferably nitrogen) in liquid form at the site of the well. The mixture may be supplied in the necessary proportions either to support combustion in a downhole burner or to initiate and

H. B. Jr

1969-01-01

420

Nonconventional Liquid Fuels  

EIA Publications

Higher prices for crude oil and refined petroleum products are opening the door for nonconventional liquids to displace petroleum in the traditional fuel supply mix. Growing world demand for diesel fuel is helping to jump-start the trend toward increasing production of nonconventional liquids, and technological advances are making the nonconventional alternatives more viable commercially. Those trends are reflected in the AEO2006 projections.

Information Center

2006-02-01

421

Compact Liquid Deaerator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gases are removed from liquids by a new deaerator that takes up only 5 inches (12.7 cm) at top of a medium-sized storage tank. Deaerator has a multiple cascading header that exposes more fluid at lower pressures than typical commercial deaerators. Potential applications are in hydraulic systems for aircraft and heavy machinery, in cooling systems where deaerated liquid is needed to prevent cavitation of pump.

Yamauchi, S. T.

1982-01-01

422

Liquid blocking check valve  

DOEpatents

A liquid blocking check valve useful particularly in a pneumatic system utilizing a pressurized liquid fill chamber. The valve includes a floatable ball disposed within a housing defining a chamber. The housing is provided with an inlet aperture disposed in the top of said chamber, and an outlet aperture disposed in the bottom of said chamber in an offset relation to said inlet aperture and in communication with a cutaway side wall section of said housing.

Merrill, John T. (Pleasant Hill, CA)

1984-01-01

423

Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System (LEMIS) System Construction  

SciTech Connect

The liquid effluent sampling program is part of the effort to minimize adverse environmental impact during the cleanup operation at the Hanford Site. Of the 33 Phase I and Phase II liquid effluents, all streams actively discharged to the soil column will be sampled. The Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System (LEMIS) is being developed as the organized information repository facility in support of the liquid effluent monitoring requirements of the Tri-Party Agreement. It is necessary to provide an automated repository into which the results from liquid effluent sampling will be placed. This repository must provide for effective retention, review, and retrieval of selected sample data by authorized persons and organizations. This System Construction document is the aggregation of the DMR P+ methodology project management deliverables. Together they represent a description of the project and its plan through four Releases, corresponding to the definition and prioritization of requirements defined by the user.

Adams, R.T.

1994-10-11

424

Free vibration analysis of a tank containing two liquids  

SciTech Connect

A study of the dynamic characteristics of rigidly supported upright circular cylindrical tanks containing two different liquids is presented. The governing differential equations for the tank-two liquid system are obtained by application of the Rayleigh-Ritz procedure in combination with Lagrange`s equation. The response functions examined include the fundamental natural frequency, the associated mode of vibration and hydrodynamic pressure exerted against the tank wall. Unlike the cases of tanks containing one liquid in which the dynamic response is controlled by four parameters, the dynamic response of a tank that contains two liquids is controlled by six parameters. The numerical results are presented in tabular and graphic forms, and are compared with those of the identical tank filled with one liquid. Also, a simple approximate equation for evaluating the fundamental natural frequency for preliminary design is proposed.

Tang, Yu; Chang, Y.W.

1993-05-01

425

Vessel structural support system  

DOEpatents

Vessel structural support system for laterally and vertically supporting a vessel, such as a nuclear steam generator having an exterior bottom surface and a side surface thereon. The system includes a bracket connected to the bottom surface. A support column is pivotally connected to the bracket for vertically supporting the steam generator. The system also includes a base pad assembly connected pivotally to the support column for supporting the support column and the steam generator. The base pad assembly, which is capable of being brought to a level position by turning leveling nuts, is anchored to a floor. The system further includes a male key member attached to the side surface of the steam generator and a female stop member attached to an adjacent wall. The male key member and the female stop member coact to laterally support the steam generator. Moreover, the system includes a snubber assembly connected to the side surface of the steam generator and also attached to the adjacent wall for dampening lateral movement of the steam generator. In addition, the system includes a restraining member of "flat" attached to the side surface of the steam generator and a bumper attached to the adjacent wall. The flat and the bumper coact to further laterally support the steam generator.

Jenko, James X. (N. Versailles, PA); Ott, Howard L. (Kiski Twp., Allegheny County, PA); Wilson, Robert M. (Plum Boro, PA); Wepfer, Robert M. (Murrysville, PA)

1992-01-01

426

Nanostructuring of liquids at solid-liquid interfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behavior of liquid molecules, confined in nanometer-scale spaces or at solid-liquid interfaces, is quite different from that in the bulk, which is attributed to the surface-induced structuring of liquids. The structuring of liquids at solid-liquid interfaces was investigated by employing new approaches based on surface force measurement. The combination of surface force measurement and Fourier transform IR spectroscopy in

Kazue Kurihara

427

Nanostructuring of liquids at solid—liquid interfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behavior of liquid molecules, confined in nanometerscale spaces or at solid—liquid interfaces, is quite different from\\u000a that in the bulk, which is attributed to the surface-induced structuring of liquids. The structuring of liquids at solid—liquid\\u000a interfaces was investigated by employing new approaches based on surface force measurement. The combination of surface force\\u000a measurement and Fourier transform IR spectroscopy in

Kazue Kurihara

428

Radiography for a Shock-accelerated Liquid Layer  

SciTech Connect

This program supported the experimental study of the itneraction of planar shock waves with both solid structures (a single cylinder or a bank of cylinders) and single and multiple liquid layers. Objectives of the study included: characterization of the shock refraction patterns; measurements of the impulsive loading of the solid structures; observation of the response of the liquid layers to shock acceleration; assessment of the shock-mitigation effects of single and multiple liquid layers. The uploaded paper is intended as a final report for the entire funding period. The poster described in the paper won the Best Poster Award at the 25 International Symposium on Shock Waves.

P. Meekunnasombat J.G. Oakley\\inst M.H. Anderson R. Bonazza

2005-07-01

429

Dielectric Properties of Cryogenic Liquids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric-breakdown measurements at 60 Hz have been made with cryogenic liquids-nitrogen, hydrogen, and helium. All of the cryogenic liquids have higher breakdown voltages than conventional transformer oil, except liquid helium which breaks down at a considerably lower voltage. The measured values of dielectric constant for the cryogenic liquids agree quite well with the published literature. The dissipation factor of the

KCENNETH N. MATHES

1967-01-01

430

75 FR 38611 - Child Support Enforcement Program; Intergovernmental Child Support  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Child Support Enforcement Program; Intergovernmental Child...0970-AC-37 Child Support Enforcement Program; Intergovernmental Child...AGENCY: Office of Child Support Enforcement (OCSE), Administration...

2010-07-02

431

Direct Support Workforce Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The fourteen brief articles in this theme issue all examine challenges in the development of direct support staff working with people who have developmental disabilities. The articles also include the views of direct support providers and people with developmental disabilities themselves, as well as examples of strategies used by provider agencies…

Impact, 1998

1998-01-01

432

[Providing Effective Behavior Support.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This theme issue addresses the provision of behavioral support for students with behavior disorders. The first article, "Providing Effective Behavior Support to All Students: Procedures and Processes" (George Sugai), summarizes the literature on the effectiveness of various interventions and offers several models for examining the teaching of…

SAIL: Technical Assistance Journal, 1996

1996-01-01

433

Supporting Inclusive Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Written to support all teaching and learning staff in developing good inclusive practice, this book provides knowledge and understanding about a range of inclusion issues, such as what an inclusive school might look like and practical guidance on supporting the development of such a school. It also explores issues surrounding: (1) Ethnicity; (2)…

Knowles, Gianna

2006-01-01

434

Online Help Supports Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of online help for performance support systems focuses on how online help has expanded to allow the design of more effective support systems. Explains embedded help, interactive help, intelligent agents, bubble help (tool tips), "What's This?" help, and expanded help content. (LRW)

Miller, Bill; McCandless, Pat

1999-01-01

435

Student Support Programs: 2021.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Student support programs 20 years hence will most likely be directly related to the configurations of the schools in which they are located. In order to speculate on the nature of the support programs, therefore, it is necessary first to speculate on what types of models schools will assume. This chapter considers some of the more prominent…

Gazda, George M.

436

Measuring Maths Study Support  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents evidence that maths diagnostic assessments, consequent individualized learning programmes and face-to-face maths study support can combine to significantly increase maths related module pass rates and scores for undergraduate engineering students. It is argued that simply having a quiet, relaxed, supported study area,…

Patel, Chetna; Little, John

2006-01-01

437

Services supporting female entrepreneurs  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are many public initiatives that fund services which support women entrepreneurship. In order to help them improve, this paper takes a closer look at the characteristics of female entrepreneurs, their motivations, and the difficulties they face in their ventures. Through a literature review and the results of a Delphi study with 25 technicians from an EU-funded support programme, this

Manuela Pardo-del-Val

2010-01-01

438

Nanostructured catalyst supports  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to SiC nanostructures, including SiC nanopowder, SiC nanowires, and composites of SiC nanopowder and nanowires, which can be used as catalyst supports in membrane electrode assemblies and in fuel cells. The present invention also relates to composite catalyst supports comprising nanopowder and one or more inorganic nanowires for a membrane electrode assembly.

Zhu, Yimin; Goldman, Jay L.; Qian, Baixin; Stefan, Ionel C.

2012-10-02

439

Supporting Evolving Product Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this article is to draw attention to the challenging problems associated with supporting evolving product families. After a general problem description, we focus on a single detail of supporting evolving product families. We propose and evaluate using industrial experts a method to measure the similarity between products.

Piërre van de Laar

2009-01-01

440

Support Vector Data Description  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data domain description concerns the characterization of a data set. A good description covers all target data but includes no superfluous space. The boundary of a dataset can be used to detect novel data or outliers. We will present the Support Vector Data Description (SVDD) which is inspired by the Support Vector Classifier. It obtains a spherically shaped boundary around

David M. J. Tax; Robert P. W. Duin

2004-01-01

441

Performance Support in Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the integrated concept of electronic performance support systems (EPSS) as a solution to meet performance needs of knowledge-rich workplaces where information overload is often a problem. Considers the adoption of information technology, task performance time, and support functions, and gives an example of an EPSS for marine shipping…

Banerji, Ashok

1999-01-01

442

Measuring Social Supports.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although social support has been operationally defined, a lack of conceptual clarity has made measurement modest and unreliable. To investigate the feasibility of measuring social support from a qualitative rather than a quantitative perspective, and to consider negative social interactions in the assessment, 130 college students were administered…

Lehmann, Stan; And Others

443

Biology Curriculum Support Document.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This biology curriculum supplement includes the North Carolina Standard Course of Study Goals, helpful resources, and suggested activities supported by inquiry-based laboratory activities. Contents include a detailed description of content which provides the goals and standards being sough), a materials list for inquiry support labs and…

North Carolina Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh.

444

Support Column of Bridge  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Support column of bridge across Struve Slough, Highway 1. Enlargement of hole where support enters the ground is an effect of lateral shaking, which caused the concrete to break up where the column joined the bridge and was instrumental in the roadbed collapse....

2009-01-26

445

Rebirth through supported employment.  

PubMed

In this column, the author describes how supported employment was a conduit for employment for him, and allowed for a remarkable journey of recovery, involving discovery and empowerment, incorporation, purpose, and belonging. After two decades of unemployment or underemployment, he began to see that work was possible through supported education at college, where he excelled. Federal and state grants paid for two thirds of his college education. He periodically met with a vocational rehabilitation counselor, who was very encouraging. He also had a case manager through a private psychiatric organization who provided support. The author concludes that the root of his problems was the lack of supports to help him become incorporated into society-a lack that ushered in a host of problems, probably similar to what others experience. When supports were given, many of those symptoms disappeared. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24912064

Strickler, David C

2014-06-01

446

Supercooled liquids for pedestrians  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When we lower the temperature of a liquid, at some point we meet a first order phase transition to the crystal. Yet, under certain conditions it is possible to keep the system in its metastable phase and to avoid crystallization. In this way the liquid enters in the supercooled phase. Supercooled liquids have a very rich phenomenology, which is still far from being completely understood. To begin with, there is the problem of how to prevent crystallization and how deeply the liquid can be supercooled before a metastability limit is hit. But by far the most interesting feature of supercooled liquids is the dynamic glass transition: when the temperature is decreased below a certain point, the relaxation time increases so much that a dramatic dynamical arrest intervenes and we are unable to equilibrate the system within reasonable experimental times. The glass transition is a phenomenon whose physical origin has stirred an enormous interest in the last hundred years. Why does it occur? Is it just a conventional reference point, or does it have a more profound physical meaning? Is it a purely dynamical event, or the manifestation of a true thermodynamic transition? What is the correlation length associated to the sharp increase of the relaxation time? Can we define a new kind of amorphous order? A shared theory of supercooled liquids and the glass transition does not yet exist and these questions are still largely open. Here, I will illustrate in the most elementary fashion the main phenomenological traits of supercooled liquids and discuss in a very partial way a few theoretical ideas on the subject.

Cavagna, Andrea

2009-06-01

447

Effective liquid-phase methanol synthesis utilizing liquid-liquid separation  

Microsoft Academic Search

New liquid phase methanol synthesis process is proposed in that methanol is ejected with hydrocarbon solvent exclusively as a liquid phase, while gaseous components are not practically discharged from the reactor. Methanol is obtained in 95% yield with trace amount of feed gas by liquid-liquid separation from hydrophobic solvent. The advantage of the present process is that the gas recycle

K. Hagihara; H. Mabuse; T. Watanabe; M. Kawai; M. Saito

1995-01-01

448

Modification of MCM-41 and SBA-15 mesoporous silicas by imidazolium ionic liquids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MCM-41 and SBA-15 mesoporous molecular sieves are modified with imidazolium ionic liquid (IL) via both physical adsorption and covalent grafting. The considerable effect of IL grafting on the porous structure and the particle morphology of mesoporous supports is shown. The pore size of these supports is found to be a key parameter determining the possibility of loading IL into such support materials.

Onishchenko, M. I.; Tyablikov, I. A.; Knyazeva, E. E.; Chernyshev, V. V.; Yatsenko, A. V.; Romanovsky, B. V.

2013-01-01

449

Implications of liquid-liquid distribution coefficients to mineral-liquid partitioning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to evaluate the influence of a silicate liquid structure on mineral-liquid partitioning, element partitioning data is obtained for coexisting anhydrous immiscible granitic and ferrobasaltic magmas. It is found that: (1) mineral-liquid distribution coefficients indicate the competition of crystal and liquid for cation incorporation, (2) increased polymerization of the residual liquid during crystal-liquid fractionation increases the mineral-liquid distribution coefficients for high-charge-density cations, (3) incompatible element ratios of low- and high-charge-density cations may vary during crystal-liquid fractionation because of changes in the melt composition and structure, (4) relative solubilities of REE's in melts do not vary with melt polymerization, (5) the changes of Sm/Eu ratios during crystal-liquid fractionation depend on the melt composition, and (6) minor components and volatiles can significantly influence the silicate melt structure and the mineral-liquid distribution coefficients.

Ryerson, F. J.; Hess, P. C.

1978-01-01

450

Nanoengineered parabolic liquid mirrors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We give a progress report on an application of a new class of versatile optical elements pioneered by our laboratory: By coating liquids we create reflective surfaces that can be shaped by rotation into a parabolic mirror. Coated ferrofluids can also be shaped with magnetic fields. Low cost is what makes rotating mercury LM Telescopes interesting. However, they are limited by the fact that they cannot be tilted. We are now working on a new generation of LMs that can be tilted. The goal is to produce large inexpensive LMTs that can be tilted by at least twenty degrees. Early work demonstrated a tilted LM that used a high viscosity liquid. An extrapolation law, confirmed by our experiments, shows that it should be possible to tilt LMs by twenty degrees, assuming a liquid having a few times the viscosity of glycerin. Rotating nanoengineered LMTs are interesting even without tilting, since their lower weight would make then less costly than Hg mirrors and high viscosity makes them less sensitive to winds. We have made two major recent technological breakthroughs: We have made a robotic machine which is capable of producing the large quantities of coating material required for large mirrors. We have also developed a technique that allows us to coat the appropriate class of liquids by simply spraying the nanoengineered coating on them. In this contribution, we present optical tests of our liquids as well as optical shop tests of rotating mirrors.

Borra, E. F.; Brousseau, D.; Gagné, G.; Faucher, L.; Ritcey, A. M.

2006-06-01

451

A liquid propulsion panorama  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liquid-propellant rocket engines are widely used all over the world, thanks to their high performances, in particular high thrust-to-weight ratio. The present paper presents a general panorama of liquid propulsion as a contribution of the IAF Advanced Propulsion Prospective Group. After a brief history of its past development in the different parts of the world, the current status of liquid propulsion, the currently observed trends, the possible areas of future improvement and a summarized road map of future developments are presented. The road map includes a summary of the liquid propulsion status presented in the "Year in review 2007" of Aerospace America. Although liquid propulsion is often seen as a mature technology with few areas of potential improvement, the requirements of an active commercial market and a renewed interest for space exploration has led to the development of a family of new engines, with more design margins, simpler to use and to produce associated with a wide variety of thrust and life requirements.

Caisso, Philippe; Souchier, Alain; Rothmund, Christophe; Alliot, Patrick; Bonhomme, Christophe; Zinner, Walter; Parsley, Randy; Neill, Todd; Forde, Scott; Starke, Robert; Wang, William; Takahashi, Mamoru; Atsumi, Masahiro; Valentian, Dominique

2009-12-01

452

Microgravity liquid propellant management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The requirement to settle or to position liquid fluid over the outlet end of a spacecraft propellant tank prior to main engine restart, poses a microgravity fluid behavior problem. Resettlement or reorientation of liquid propellant can be accomplished by providing optimal acceleration to the spacecraft such that the propellant is reoriented over the tank outlet without any vapor entrainment, any excessive geysering, or any other undersirable fluid motion for the space fluid management under microgravity environment. The most efficient technique is studied for propellant resettling through the minimization of propellant usage and weight penalties. Both full scale and subscale liquid propellant tank of Space Transfer Vehicle were used to simulate flow profiles for liquid hydrogen reorientation over the tank outlet. In subscale simulation, both constant and impulsive resettling acceleration were used to simulate the liquid flow reorientation. Comparisons between the constant reverse gravity acceleration and impulsive reverse gravity acceleration to be used for activation of propellant resettlement shows that impulsive reverse gravity thrust is superior to constant reverse gravity thrust.

Hung, R. J.

1990-01-01

453

Solar liquid heating system  

SciTech Connect

A solar liquid heating system has a collector receiving solar energy and heating a liquid. A liquid transfer pump moves the heated liquid to a heat transfer tank which heats water. The collector has a plate assembly mounted on a frame. Heat insulated bottoms, sides, and ends surrounded by the frame form an elongated chamber accommodating the plate assembly. The plate assembly has a plurality of side-by-side longitudinal plates. Adjacent plates have generally c-shaped sections that are located about a longitudinal tube for carrying liquid. Adjacent plates have lip and hook inter-connecting structures that cooperate with each other to clamp the tube between the c-shaped sections of the plates. The opposite ends of the tubes are connected to transverse tubular headers. The headers project through resilient grommets mounted on the sides of the frame. The top sides of the plate assembly are coated with black solar energy absorbing material. A light transparent cover encloses the plate assembly within the chamber of the collector.

Harder, W.J.; Pickett, J.M.

1982-07-13

454

Critical-Like Phenomena Associated with Liquid-Liquid Transition in a Molecular Liquid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contrary to the conventional wisdom that there is only one unique liquid state for any material, recent evidence suggests that there can be more than two liquid states even for a single-component substance. The transition between these liquid states is called a liquid-liquid phase transition. We report the detailed experimental investigation on the kinetics of the continuous spinodal-decomposition-type transformation of

Rei Kurita; Hajime Tanaka

2004-01-01

455

First-Order Liquid-Liquid Phase Transition in Cerium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the first experimental observation of a liquid-liquid phase transition in the monatomic liquid metal cerium, by means of in situ high-pressure high-temperature x-ray diffraction experiments. At 13 GPa, upon increasing temperature from 1550 to 1900 K high-density liquid transforms to a low-density liquid, with a density difference of 14%. Theoretic models based on ab initio calculations are built to investigate the observed phase behavior of the liquids at various pressures. The results suggest that the transition primarily originates from the delocalization of f electrons and is deemed to be of the first order that terminates at a critical point.

Cadien, A.; Hu, Q. Y.; Meng, Y.; Cheng, Y. Q.; Chen, M. W.; Shu, J. F.; Mao, H. K.; Sheng, H. W.

2013-03-01

456

Redox chemistry at liquid/liquid interfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The interface between two immiscible liquids with immobilized photosynthetic pigments can serve as the simplest model of a biological membrane convenient for the investigation of photoprocesses accompanied by spatial separation of charges. As it follows from thermodynamics, if the resolvation energies of substrates and products are very different, the interface between two immiscible liquids may act as a catalyst. Theoretical aspects of charge transfer reactions at oil/water interfaces are discussed. Conditions under which the free energy of activation of the interfacial reaction of electron transfer decreases are established. The activation energy of electron transfer depends on the charges of the reactants and dielectric permittivity of the non-aqueous phase. This can be useful when choosing a pair of immiscible solvents to decrease the activation energy of the reaction in question or to inhibit an undesired process. Experimental interfacial catalytic systems are discussed. Amphiphilic molecules such as chlorophyll or porphyrins were studied as catalysts of electron transfer reactions at the oil/water interface.

Volkov, A. G.; Deamer, D. W.

1997-01-01

457

Liquid lubrication in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The requirement for long-term, reliable operation of aerospace mechanisms has, with a few exceptions, pushed the state of the art in tribology. Space mission life requirements in the early 1960s were generally 6 months to a year. The proposed U.S. space station schedule to be launched in the 1990s must be continuously usable for 10 to 20 years. Liquid lubrication systems are generally used for mission life requirements longer than a year. Although most spacecraft or satellites have reached their required lifetimes without a lubrication-related failure, the application of liquid lubricants in the space environment presents unique challenges. The state of the art of liquid lubrication in space as well as the problems and their solutions are reviewed.

Zaretsky, Erwin V.

1990-01-01

458

Liquid Crystals in Tribology  

PubMed Central

Two decades ago, the literature dealing with the possible applications of low molar mass liquid crystals, also called monomer liquid crystals (MLCs), only included about 50 references. Today, thousands of papers, conference reports, books or book chapters and patents refer to the study and applications of MLCs as lubricants and lubricant additives and efforts are made to develop new commercial applications. The development of more efficient lubricants is of paramount technological and economic relevance as it is estimated that half the energy consumption is dissipated as friction. MLCs have shown their ability to form ordered boundary layers with good load-carrying capacity and to lower the friction coefficients, wear rates and contact temperature of sliding surfaces, thus contributing to increase the components service life and to save energy. This review includes the use of MLCs in lubrication, and dispersions of MLCs in conventional polymers (PDMLCs). Finally, new lubricating system composed of MLC blends with surfactants, ionic liquids or nanophases are considered.

Carrion, Francisco-Jose; Martinez-Nicolas, Gines; Iglesias, Patricia; Sanes, Jose; Bermudez, Maria-Dolores

2009-01-01

459

Thermohydraulics in liquid metals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heat transfer problems in single-phase and two-phase liquid metal forced convection flow are reviewed. Liquid metal boiling heat transfer in pool flow; and dry out heat fluxes are considered. It is shown that in technological plants working with liquid metals, superheating up to 150 C occurs, and can lead to nonstationary hydraulic transition between the single-phase and established two-phase flows. Boiling phases relative to subcooled boiling and bubble boiling have no importance for technological processes. Piston, slug and annular flow patterns dominate. On the basis of the flow patterns observed during boiling, the separate flow model principle is the only one suitable for calculating the two-phase flow pressure drop. Using this model and total pressure drop measurements, a relationship for the two-phase frictional pressure characteristic, valid for tubular and annular geometry, can be determined.

Kottowski, H. M.

460

Liquid Acquisition Device Design Sensitivity Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In-space propulsion often necessitates the use of a capillary liquid acquisition device (LAD) to assure that gas-free liquid propellant is available to support engine restarts in microgravity. If a capillary screen-channel device is chosen, then the designer must determine the appropriate combination screen mesh and channel geometry. A screen mesh selection which results in the smallest LAD width when compared to any other screen candidate (for a constant length) is desirable; however, no best screen exists for all LAD design requirements. Flow rate, percent fill, and acceleration are the most influential drivers for determining screen widths. Increased flow rates and reduced percent fills increase the through-the-screen flow pressure losses, which drive the LAD to increased widths regardless of screen choice. Similarly, increased acceleration levels and corresponding liquid head pressures drive the screen mesh selection toward a higher bubble point (liquid retention capability). After ruling out some screens on the basis of acceleration requirements alone, candidates can be identified by examining screens with small flow-loss-to-bubble point ratios for a given condition (i.e., comparing screens at certain flow rates and fill levels). Within the same flow rate and fill level, the screen constants inertia resistance coefficient, void fraction, screen pore or opening diameter, and bubble point can become the driving forces in identifying the smaller flow-loss-to-bubble point ratios.

VanDyke, M. K.; Hastings, L. J.

2012-01-01

461

Dark Matter Detection with Cryogenic Noble Liquids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations on all fronts strongly support the view of a universe composed of > 96% invisible matter and energy. The invisible matter is non-baryonic, cold and likely in the form of new particles generically referred to as Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs), relics from the early universe. One way to detect WIMPs is to measure the nuclear recoils produced in their rare elastic collisions with ordinary matter. The predicted interaction rate ranges from the best sensitivity of existing experiments of sim 1 evts/kg/yr to sim 1 evts/1000 kg/yr. Efforts are underway worldwide to realize sensitive direct detection experiments, with large target mass and improved background rejection capabilities. In this talk I will review experiments headed in this direction with the use of cryogenic noble liquids, focusing on those experiments which use the common technique of a dual-phase (liquid/gas) time projection chamber to measure simultaneously the ionization and the scintillation signals produced by radiation in a large volume of liquid xenon or liquid argon. The four experiments I will review are XENON, ZEPLIN, WARP and ArDM.

Aprile, E.

2008-10-01

462

Dark Matter Detection with Cryogenic Noble Liquids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations on all fronts strongly support the view of a universe composed of >96% invisible matter and energy. The invisible matter is non-baryonic, cold and likely in the form of new particles generically referred to as Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs), relics from the early universe. One way to detect WIMPs is to measure the nuclear recoils produced in their rare elastic collisions with ordinary matter. The predicted interaction rate ranges from the best sensitivity of existing experiments of ˜ 1 evts/kg/yr to ˜ 1 evts/1000 kg/yr. Efforts are underway worldwide to realize sensitive direct detection experiments, with large target mass and improved background rejection capabilities. In this talk I will review experiments headed in this direction with the use of cryogenic noble liquids, focusing on those experiments which use the common technique of a dual-phase (liquid/gas) time projection chamber to measure simultaneously the ionization and the scintillation signals produced by radiation in a large volume of liquid xenon or liquid argon. These include experiments such as XENON, ZEPLIN, WARP and ArDM.

Aprile, E.

463

Improved liquid-film electron stripper  

DOEpatents

An improved liquid-film electron stripper particularly for high intensity heavy ion beams which produces constant regenerated, stable, free-standing liquid films having an adjustable thickness between 0.3 to 0.05 microns. The improved electron stripper is basically composed of at least one high speed, rotating disc with a very sharp, precision-like, ground edge on one side of the disc's periphery and with highly polished, flat, radial surface adjacent the sharp edge. A fine stream of liquid, such as oil, impinges at a 90/sup 0/ angle adjacent the disc's sharp outer edge. Film terminators, located at a selected distance from the disc perimeter are positioned approximately perpendicular to the film. The terminators support, shape, and stretch the film and are arranged to assist in the prevention of liquid droplet formation by directing the collected film to a reservoir below without breaking or interfering with the film. One embodiment utilizes two rotating discs and associated terminators, with the discs rotating so as to form films in opposite directions, and with the second disc being located down beam-line relative to the first disc.

Gavin, B.F.

1984-11-01