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Supported liquid membrane system  

SciTech Connect

A cell apparatus for a supported liquid membrane including opposing faceplates, each having a spirally configured groove, an inlet groove at a first end of the spirally configured groove, and an outlet groove at the other end of the spirally configured groove, within the opposing faces of the faceplates, a microporous membrane situated between the grooved faces of the faceplates, said microporous membrane containing an extractant mixture selective for a predetermined chemical species within the pores of said membrane, means for aligning the grooves of the faceplates in an directly opposing configuration with the porous membrane being situated therebetween, such that the aligned grooves form a pair of directly opposing channels, separate feed solution and stripping solution compartments connected to respective channels between the faceplates and the membrane, separate pumping means for passing feed solution and stripping solution through the channels is provided.

Takigawa, D.Y.; Bush, H. Jr.



Supported liquid membrane electrochemical separators  


Supported liquid membrane separators improve the flexibility, efficiency and service life of electrochemical cells for a variety of applications. In the field of electrochemical storage, an alkaline secondary battery with improved service life is described in which a supported liquid membrane is interposed between the positive and negative electrodes. The supported liquid membranes of this invention can be used in energy production and storage systems, electrosynthesis systems, and in systems for the electrowinning and electrorefining of metals.

Pemsler, J. Paul (Lexington, MA); Dempsey, Michael D. (Revere, MA)



Separation of metals by supported liquid membranes  

SciTech Connect

A supported liquid membrane system for the separation of a preselected chemical species within a feedstream, preferably an aqueous feedstream, includes a feed compartment containing a feed solution having at least one preselected chemical species therein, a stripping compartment containing a stripping solution therein, and a microporous polybenzimidazole membrane situated between the compartments, the microporous polybenzimidazole membrane containing an extractant mixture selective for the preselected chemical species within the membrane pores is disclosed along with a method of separating preselected chemical species from a feedstream with such a system, and a supported liquid membrane for use in such a system.

Takigawa, D.Y.



The Effect of BTP on the Development of Allergic Asthma in Mice  

E-print Network

93 The Effect of BTP on the Development of Allergic Asthma in Mice Alana Curry, McNair Scholar of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences Penn State University Abstract Allergic Asthma is an inflammatory disease determined whether BTP affects the development of symptoms of allergic asthma in a murine model

Omiecinski, Curtis


Oligomannan Synthesis Using Ionic Liquid Supported Glycosylation§  

PubMed Central

The synthesis of complex oligosaccharides has been a challenge for researchers. Herein, we describe a strategy for the synthesis of an activated oligomannan 1 that employs ionic liquid (IL) support glycosylation methodology on an IL-tagged mannosyl fluoride donor. This method is capable of rapidly producing linear ?(1?6) oligomannan thioglycosides in a convenient and cost-effective manner without the need of column purification after each glycosylation step. PMID:18069846

Pathak, Ashish K.; Yerneni, Charu K.; Young, Zac; Pathak, Vibha



Ionic-liquid-supported synthesis: a novel liquid-phase strategy for organic synthesis.  


Soluble ionic liquids have recently been used as supports for catalyst/reagent immobilization and synthesis in homogeneous solution phase. The wide range of ionic liquid supports available makes their use as supports compatible with most common chemistries. The solubility properties of these ionic liquid supports can be tuned by the variation of cations and anions to make them phase separate from less polar organic solvents and aqueous media. The ionic-liquid-supported species can therefore be purified from the reaction mixture by simple washings. Ionic-liquid-supported catalysts and reagents have been prepared and used, and they are easily recovered and reused. Parallel and combinatorial libraries of small molecules have been synthesized. Ionic-liquid-supported synthesis (ILSS) has been applied to the preparation of oligopeptides and oligosaccharides. The comparison of ILSS with solid-phase synthesis, soluble-polymer-supported synthesis, and fluorous phase synthesis has been highlighted where applicable. PMID:17176028

Miao, Weishi; Chan, Tak Hang



Characterization of redox sensitive plutonium(iii) complexed with alkylated 2,6-ditriazinylpyridine (BTP) in organic solution.  


Spectroscopic, solvent extraction methods and computational chemistry are applied for the characterization of redox sensitive trivalent plutonium complexed with the N-donor extracting agent alkylated 2,6-ditriazinylpyridines (n-C(3)H(7)-BTP) in organic solution. The redox stabilization and speciation of Pu(iii) is discussed. Extraction of Pu(iii) with n-C(3)H(7)-BTP is compared to that for redox stable Am(iii). The speciation of Pu(iii) with n-C(3)H(7)-BTP in organic solution is studied by UV-Vis/NIR and XAFS spectroscopy. Only the 1 : 3 complex, [Pu(n-C(3)H(7)-BTP)(3)](3+) is observed to form, which is confirmed by EXAFS and solvent extraction. The [Pu(n-C(3)H(7)-BTP)(3)](3+) complex is compared to the isostructural U(iii), Am(iii), and Cm(iii) complexes studied earlier. PMID:20383350

Banik, Nidhu L; Schimmelpfennig, Bernd; Marquardt, Christian M; Brendebach, Boris; Geist, Andreas; Denecke, Melissa A



Vital support systems for liquid metal collector homopolar machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

High current density homopolar machines which employ current collectors containing a liquid metal, such as NaK, require critical support systems to guarantee long term machine operation. This report describes experimental results concerning materials compatibility, liquid metal recirculation and purification systems, and the inert, protective cover gas systems necessary for machine operation. Experimental studies, as well as operation of a 3000

R. E. Witkowski; F. G. Arcella; A. R. Keeton




Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

26. DETAIL OF CONCRETE PIPE SUPPORTS LEADING TO NEW LIQUID HYDROGEN TANK FARM; VIEW TO WEST. - Cape Canaveral Air Station, Launch Complex 17, Facility 28402, East end of Lighthouse Road, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL


Fabrication of fiber supported ionic liquids and methods of use  


One or more embodiments relates to the production of a fabricated fiber having an asymmetric polymer network and having an immobilized liquid such as an ionic liquid within the pores of the polymer network. The process produces the fabricated fiber in a dry-wet spinning process using a homogenous dope solution, providing significant advantage over current fabrication methods for liquid-supporting polymers. The fabricated fibers may be effectively utilized for the separation of a chemical species from a mixture based on the selection of the polymer, the liquid, and the solvent utilized in the dope.

Luebke, David R; Wickramanayake, Shan



Rejuvenation of Spent Media via Supported Emulsion Liquid Membranes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The overall goal of this project was to maximize the reuseability of spent fermentation media. Supported emulsion liquid membrane separation, a highly efficient extraction technique, was used to remove inhibitory byproducts during fermentation; thus, improve the yield while reducing the need for fresh water. The key objectives of this study were: (1) Develop an emulsion liquid membrane system targeting low molecular weight organic acids which has minimal toxicity on a variety of microbial systems. (2) Conduct mass transfer studies to allow proper modeling and design of a supported emulsion liquid membrane system. (3) Investigate the effect of gravity on emulsion coalescence within the membrane unit. (4) Access the effect of water re-use on fermentation yields in a model microbial system. and (5) Develop a perfusion-type fermentor utilizing a supported emulsion liquid membrane system to control inhibitory fermentation byproducts (not completed due to lack of funds)

Wiencek, John M.



Extraction of molybdenum by a supported liquid membrane method.  


This is a report on the extraction of molybdenum(VI) ions using a supported liquid membrane, prepared by dissolving in kerosene, the extractant Alamine 336 (a long-chain tertiary amine) employed as mobile carrier. A flat hydrophobic microporous membrane was utilised as solid support. Appropriate conditions for Mo(VI) extraction through the liquid membrane were obtained from the results of liquid-liquid extraction and stripping partition experiments. The influence of feed solution acidity, the carrier extractant concentration in the organic liquid film and the content of strip agent on the metal flux through membrane were investigated. It was established that maximal extraction of metal is achieved at a pH 2.0 if sulphuric acid is used in the feed solution and at a pH value over 11.0 if Na(2)CO(3) is used as strip agent. Moreover, the molybdenum extraction through membrane is enhanced when a 0.02 mol l(-1) content of the amine carrier in the organic phase is used. The present paper deals with an equilibrium investigation of the extraction of Mo(VI) by Alamine 336 and its permeation conditions through the liquid membrane, and examines a possible mechanism of extraction. PMID:18968990

Basualto, Carlos; Marchese, José; Valenzuela, Fernando; Acosta, Adolfo



Friedel-Crafts acylation of aromatics catalysed by supported ionic liquids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different ionic liquids were used as catalysts for Friedel-Crafts acylation reactions. Supported chloroferrate ionic liquids were tested in liquid and in gas phase reactions. The catalysts, consisting of the ionic liquid and charcoal as a carrier, are easy to prepare and show interesting catalytic properties. Comparisons between different ionic liquids in the liquid phase are presented, as well as reactions

M. H Valkenberg; C deCastro; W. F Hölderich



Liquid supported denture-management of flabby ridges  

PubMed Central

The ideal properties of a denture are adequate rigidity on polished surface to bear masticatory forces and at the same time, flexibility and softness on the tissue surface for proper and even distribution of masticatory forces. The problem with conventional denture is rigidity of tissue surface; leads to uneven distribution of load. This drawback even worsens in the case of flabby, atrophic and unemployed ridges with excessive bone resorption. The liquid supported denture allows continued adaptation and eliminates the disadvantages of denture designs based on the application of temporary tissue conditioners or soft liners. PMID:23293491

Mody, Pranav V.; Kumar, Girish; Kumar, Manish; Shetty, Brijesh



Supported liquid membranes in 1986: new technology or scientific curiosity  

SciTech Connect

Thin layers of organic solutions of solvent extraction reagents (membrane carriers), immobilized on microporous inert supports and interposed between two aqueous solutions (feed and strip), were first proposed more than two decades ago as a new and promising technique for separating and concentrating metal species. Such immobilized layers, representing supported liquid membranes (SLM), have been extensively studies by our group during the last six years mainly for their ability to separate and concentrate metal ions of critical and strategic importance and of relevance to the nuclear industry. In this presentation the major results obtained by our group up to 1986 in the field of SLM's are summarized. A brief indication of the major problems to be addressed to implement SLM's as a new separation technology is also given. 5 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Danesi, P.R.



[Preparation and applications of a supported liquid-liquid extraction column with a composite diatomite material].  


A rapid and special supported liquid-liquid extraction (SLE) column was developed with a composite diatomite material. The SLE column was evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with acidic, neutral and alkaline compounds dissolved in water. Furthermore, some real complex samples were also analyzed by HPLC with the SLE method. The recoveries of benzoic acid (acidic), p-nitroaniline (alkaline) and 4-hydroxy-benzoic methyl ester (neutral) treated by the SLE column were 90.6%, 98.1% and 97.7%. However, the recoveries of the three compounds treated by traditional liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) method were 71.9%, 81.9% and 83.9%. The results showed that the SLE technique had higher recoveries than the traditional LLE method. The spiked recoveries of the complex samples, such as benzoic acid in Sprite and dexamethasone acetate, chlorphenamine maleate, indomethacin in bovine serum, were between 80% and 110% and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were less than 15%. For biological specimen, the results could be accepted. Meantime, many disadvantages associated with traditional LLE method, such as emulsion formation, didn't occur using SLE column. The SLE column technique is a good sample preparation method with many advantages, such as rapid, simple, robust, easily automated, high recovery and high-throughput, which would be widely used in the future. PMID:23256382

Bao, Jianmin; Ma, Zhishuang; Sun, Ying; Wang, Yongzun; Li, Youxin



Pilot-scale evaluation of supported liquid membrane extraction  

SciTech Connect

An evaluation of a solvent extraction system employing supported liquid membranes has recently been completed by Rockwell Hanford Operations. The focus was on a pilot-scale, tube and shell arrangement configured for continuous operation. The tube bundle consisted of 333 polypropylene microporous fibers with a total surface of 3.6 mS. Results are reported for the evaluation of operating parameters such as flow rates and corresponding aqueous pressure differences, solvent impregnation techniques, and test system durability. Chemical and physical test results, including permeability data, are also reported for the systems nitrate ion/nitric acid/tertiary amine and (nonradioactive) Group IA-IIA metal/nitric acid/phosphoric acid extractant.

Dworzak, W.R.; Naser, A.J.



Extraction of glyphosate by a supported liquid membrane technique.  


The possible application of the supported liquid membrane (SLM) technique for the extraction of glyphosate is presented. For the extraction of this compound the SLM system has been applied with utilisation of Aliquat 336 as a cationic carrier incorporated into the membrane phase. The extraction efficiency of glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine] is dependent on the donor phase pH, carrier concentration in the organic phase and NaCl concentration in the acceptor phase. The optimal extraction conditions are: donor phase pH>11, acceptor phase of 2 M NaCl solution and the organic phase composed of 20% (w/w) Aliquot 336 solution in di-hexyl ether. Counter-coupled transport of chloride anions from the acceptor phase to the donor phase is a driving force of the mass transfer in this system. PMID:10985540

Dzygiel, P; Wieczorek, P



The elicitation of a systemic resistance by Pseudomonas putida BTP1 in tomato involves the stimulation of two lipoxygenase isoforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Some non-pathogenic rhizobacteria called Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) possess the capacity to induce in plant defense mechanisms effective against pathogens. Precedent studies showed the ability of Pseudomonas putida BTP1 to induce PGPR-mediated resistance, termed ISR (Induced Systemic Resistance), in different plant species. Despite extensive works, molecular defense mechanisms involved in ISR are less well understood that in the

Martin Mariutto; Francéline Duby; Akram Adam; Charlotte Bureau; Marie-Laure Fauconnier; Marc Ongena; Philippe Thonart; Jacques Dommes



Systemic resistance and lipoxygenase-related defence response induced in tomato by Pseudomonas putida strain BTP1  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies showed the ability of Pseudomonas putida strain BTP1 to promote induced systemic resistance (ISR) in different host plants. Since ISR is long-lasting and not conducive for development of resistance of the targeted pathogen, this phenomenon can take part of disease control strategies. However, in spite of the numerous examples of ISR induced by PGPR in plants, only a few biochemical studies have associated the protective effect with specific host metabolic changes. Results In this study, we showed the protective effect of this bacterium in tomato against Botrytis cinerea. Following treatment by P. putida BTP1, analyses of acid-hydrolyzed leaf extracts showed an accumulation of antifungal material after pathogen infection. The fungitoxic compounds thus mainly accumulate as conjugates from which active aglycones may be liberated through the activity of hydrolytic enzymes. These results suggest that strain BTP1 can elicit systemic phytoalexin accumulation in tomato as one defence mechanism. On another hand, we have shown that key enzymes of the lipoxygenase pathway are stimulated in plants treated with the bacteria as compared with control plants. Interestingly, this stimulation is observed only after pathogen challenge in agreement with the priming concept almost invariably associated with the ISR phenomenon. Conclusion Through the demonstration of phytoalexin accumulation and LOX pathway stimulation in tomato, this work provides new insights into the diversity of defence mechanisms that are inducible by non-pathogenic bacteria in the context of ISR. PMID:19000301

Akram, Adam; Ongena, Marc; Duby, Francéline; Dommes, Jacques; Thonart, Philippe



Early Transcriptional Responses of Bovine Chorioallantoic Membrane Explants to Wild Type, ?virB2 or ?btpB Brucella abortus Infection  

PubMed Central

The pathogenesis of the Brucella-induced inflammatory response in the bovine placenta is not completely understood. In this study we evaluated the role of the B. abortus Type IV secretion system and the anti-inflammatory factor BtpB in early interactions with bovine placental tissues. Transcription profiles of chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) explants inoculated with wild type (strain 2308), ?virB2 or ?btpB Brucella abortus were compared by microarray analysis at 4 hours post infection. Transcripts with significant variation (>2 fold change; P<0.05) were functionally classified, and transcripts related to defense and inflammation were assessed by quantitative real time RT-PCR. Infection with wild type B. abortus resulted in slightly more genes with decreased than increased transcription levels. Conversely, infection of trophoblastic cells with the ?virB2 or the ?btpB mutant strains, that lack a functional T4SS or that has impaired inhibition of TLR signaling, respectively, induced more upregulated than downregulated genes. Wild type Brucella abortus impaired transcription of host genes related to immune response when compared to ?virB and ?btpB mutants. Our findings suggest that proinflammatory genes are negatively modulated in bovine trophoblastic cells at early stages of infection. The virB operon and btpB are directly or indirectly related to modulation of these host genes. These results shed light on the early interactions between B. abortus and placental tissue that ultimately culminate in inflammatory pathology and abortion. PMID:25259715

Mol, Juliana P. S.; Costa, Erica A.; Carvalho, Alex F.; Sun, Yao-Hui; Tsolis, Renee M.; Paixao, Tatiane A.; Santos, Renato L.



Early Transcriptional Responses of Bovine Chorioallantoic Membrane Explants to Wild Type, ?virB2 or ?btpB Brucella abortus Infection.  


The pathogenesis of the Brucella-induced inflammatory response in the bovine placenta is not completely understood. In this study we evaluated the role of the B. abortus Type IV secretion system and the anti-inflammatory factor BtpB in early interactions with bovine placental tissues. Transcription profiles of chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) explants inoculated with wild type (strain 2308), ?virB2 or ?btpB Brucella abortus were compared by microarray analysis at 4 hours post infection. Transcripts with significant variation (>2 fold change; P<0.05) were functionally classified, and transcripts related to defense and inflammation were assessed by quantitative real time RT-PCR. Infection with wild type B. abortus resulted in slightly more genes with decreased than increased transcription levels. Conversely, infection of trophoblastic cells with the ?virB2 or the ?btpB mutant strains, that lack a functional T4SS or that has impaired inhibition of TLR signaling, respectively, induced more upregulated than downregulated genes. Wild type Brucella abortus impaired transcription of host genes related to immune response when compared to ?virB and ?btpB mutants. Our findings suggest that proinflammatory genes are negatively modulated in bovine trophoblastic cells at early stages of infection. The virB operon and btpB are directly or indirectly related to modulation of these host genes. These results shed light on the early interactions between B. abortus and placental tissue that ultimately culminate in inflammatory pathology and abortion. PMID:25259715

Mol, Juliana P S; Costa, Erica A; Carvalho, Alex F; Sun, Yao-Hui; Tsolis, Reneé M; Paixão, Tatiane A; Santos, Renato L



The elicitation of a systemic resistance by Pseudomonas putida BTP1 in tomato involves the stimulation of two lipoxygenase isoforms  

PubMed Central

Background Some non-pathogenic rhizobacteria called Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) possess the capacity to induce in plant defense mechanisms effective against pathogens. Precedent studies showed the ability of Pseudomonas putida BTP1 to induce PGPR-mediated resistance, termed ISR (Induced Systemic Resistance), in different plant species. Despite extensive works, molecular defense mechanisms involved in ISR are less well understood that in the case of pathogen induced systemic acquired resistance. Results We analyzed the activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and lipoxygenase (LOX), key enzymes of the phenylpropanoid and oxylipin pathways respectively, in tomato treated or not with P. putida BTP1. The bacterial treatment did not stimulate PAL activity and linoleate-consuming LOX activities. Linolenate-consuming LOX activity, on the contrary, was significantly stimulated in P. putida BTP1-inoculated plants before and two days after infection by B. cinerea. This stimulation is due to the increase of transcription level of two isoforms of LOX: TomLoxD and TomLoxF, a newly identified LOX gene. We showed that recombinant TomLOXF preferentially consumes linolenic acid and produces 13-derivative of fatty acids. After challenging with B. cinerea, the increase of transcription of these two LOX genes and higher linolenic acid-consuming LOX activity were associated with a more rapid accumulation of free 13-hydroperoxy-octadecatrienoic and 13-hydroxy-octadecatrienoic acids, two antifungal oxylipins, in bacterized plants. Conclusion In addition to the discovery of a new LOX gene in tomato, this work is the first to show differential induction of LOX isozymes and a more rapid accumulation of 13-hydroperoxy-octadecatrienoic and 13-hydroxy-octadecatrienoic acids in rhizobacteria mediated-induced systemic resistance. PMID:21294872




Microsoft Academic Search

A novel catalytic synthesis gas oxidation process using molten carbonate salts supported on compatible fluidized iron oxide particles (supported-liquid-phase-catalyst (SLPC) fluidized bed process) was investigated. This process combines the advantages of large scale fluidized bed processing with molten salt bath oxidation. Molten salt catalysts can be supported within porous fluidized particles in order to improve mass transfer rates between the

Alan W. Weimer; Peter Czerpak; Patrick Hilbert



In situ radiological characterization to support a test excavation at a liquid waste disposal site  

SciTech Connect

An in situ radiological detection system was developed to support a small test excavation at a liquid waste disposal site at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. Instrumentation, calibration and comparisons to samples are discussed.

Keele, B.D.; Bauer, R.G.; Blewett, G.R.; Troyer, G.L.



Facilitated transport of boric acid by 1,3-diols through supported liquid membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boric acid is selectively transported by 1,3-diols from a source aqueous phase into a receiving alkaline aqueous phase through a phase of organic solvent (o-dichlorobenzene). Measurements of the transport rates were made using a U-tube apparatus. The process was adapted to liquid membranes supported on polypropylene films. The factors which influence the stability of the supported liquid membrane are discussed.

N. Bachelier; C. Chappey; D. Langevin; M. Métayer; J.-F. Verchère



On-line automated sample preparation for liquid chromatography using parallel supported liquid membrane extraction and microporous membrane liquid-liquid extraction.  


An automated system was developed for analysis of non-polar and polar ionisable compounds at trace levels in natural water. Sample work-up was performed in a flow system using two parallel membrane extraction units. This system was connected on-line to a reversed-phase HPLC system for final determination. One of the membrane units was used for supported liquid membrane (SLM) extraction, which is suitable for ionisable or permanently charged compounds. The other unit was used for microporous membrane liquid-liquid extraction (MMLLE) suitable for uncharged compounds. The fungicide thiophanate methyl and its polar metabolites carbendazim and 2-aminobenzimidazole were used as model compounds. The whole system was controlled by means of four syringe pumps. While extracting one part of the sample using the SLM technique. the extract from the MMLLE extraction was analysed and vice versa. This gave a total analysis time of 63 min for each sample resulting in a sample throughput of 22 samples per 24 h. PMID:12458761

Sandahl, Margareta; Mathiasson, Lennart; Jönsson, Jan Ake



Rapid Reaction?Diffusion Model for the Enantioseparation of Phenylalanine across Hollow Fiber Supported Liquid Membrane  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the rapid reaction?diffusion model of the transport and enantioseparation factor of (d\\/l)?phenylalanine across hollow fiber supported liquid membranes. Mass transfer resistance of the boundary layer in the tube side and the boundary layer in the shell?side, diffusion in the membrane phase, and interfacial chemical reactions at the liquid membrane interfaces are taken into account in the

Dushu Huang; Kelong Huang; Shiping Chen; Suqin Liu; Jingang Yu



Separation of Co(II) and Li(I) by supported liquid membrane using Cyanex 272 as mobile carrier  

Microsoft Academic Search

The permeation rate of Co(II) and Li(I) from a dilute aqueous sulfate media using supported liquid membrane (SLM) technique has been studied. The microporous hydrophobic PVDF film was used as the solid support for the liquid membrane and Cyanex 272 was used as mobile carrier. The liquid–liquid extraction of Co(II) and Li(I) using Cyanex 272 in sulfate media was studied

Basudev Swain; Jinki Jeong; Jae-chun Lee; Gae-Ho Lee




Microsoft Academic Search

The facilitated transport of HN03 through a supported liquid membrane consisting of a porous polypropylene film containing a solution of trllaurylamine 1n diethyl benzene as carrier was studied as a function of the stirring speed of the aqueous solutions and the membrane composition. A physico-chemical model which takes Into account diffusion through an aqueous boundary layer, a fast Interfaclal chemical

C. Cianetti; P. R. Danesi



Facilitated transport of sugars by a resorcinarene through a supported liquid membrane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supported liquid membranes (SLM) containing the resorcinarene carrier 1 have been used for the selective transport of monosaccharides (pentoses and hexoses) from concentrated aqueous solutions. The membranes, made of PTFE films of different porosities impregnated with a CCl4 solution of 1, are stable for at least 10 days. The permeabilities of the SLMs for various sugars were calculated. The results

T Rhlalou; M Ferhat; M. A Frouji; D Langevin; M Métayer; J.-F Verchère



Selective separation of lanthanides by supported liquid membranes containing Cyanex 925 as a carrier  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work describes in detail the transport of lanthanides between chloride solutions by a facilitated transport through a supported liquid membrane (SLM) containing Cyanex 925 (a mixture of alkylphosphine oxides, Cyanamid). The chemical nature of this carrier requires a strong difference of chloride content between the two sides of the membrane which leads to a strong rise in the osmotic

R. Garcia-Valls; M. Muñoz; M. Valiente



Recovery of Plutonium From Analytical Laboratory Waste Using Hollow Fibre Supported Liquid Membrane Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plutonium from analytical laboratory waste was recovered on litres scale using Hollow Fibre Supported Liquid Membrane (HFSLM) technique using 30% TBP\\/n-dodecane as the carrier. The technique is faster, gives lower radiation exposure to the working personnel and generates lower volume of secondary waste as compared to traditional precipitation \\/ ion-exchange technique. The recovery of plutonium was carried out in two

S. A. Ansari; S. Chaudhury; P. K. Mohapatra; S. K. Aggarwal; V. K. Manchanda



Transport of chromium (VI) through a Cyanex 923–xylene flat-sheet supported liquid membrane  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present investigation deals with carrier-facilitated membrane transport of chromium (VI) from chloride media across a flat-sheet supported liquid membrane (FSSLM) using as organic reagent the phosphine oxide, Cyanex 923. The permeation of Cr (VI) has been studied under various experimental conditions: stirring speed of the source phase, initial metal and carrier concentrations, organic phase diluent, HCl concentration in the

F. J. Alguacil; A. G. Coedo; M. T. Dorado



Production of fungal antibiotics using polymeric solid supports in solid-state and liquid fermentation.  


The use of inert absorbent polymeric supports for cellular attachment in solid-state fungal fermentation influenced growth, morphology, and production of bioactive secondary metabolites. Two filamentous fungi exemplified the utility of this approach to facilitate the discovery of new antimicrobial compounds. Cylindrocarpon sp. LL-Cyan426 produced pyrrocidines A and B and Acremonium sp. LL-Cyan416 produced acremonidins A-E when grown on agar bearing moist polyester-cellulose paper and generated distinctly different metabolite profiles than the conventional shaken or stationary liquid fermentations. Differences were also apparent when tenfold concentrated methanol extracts from these fermentations were tested against antibiotic-susceptible and antibiotic-resistant Gram-positive bacteria, and zones of inhibition were compared. Shaken broth cultures of Acremonium sp. or Cylindrocarpon sp. showed complex HPLC patterns, lower levels of target compounds, and high levels of unwanted compounds and medium components, while agar/solid support cultures showed significantly increased yields of pyrrocidines A and B and acremonidins A-E, respectively. This method, mixed-phase fermentation (fermentation with an inert solid support bearing liquid medium), exploited the increase in surface area available for fungal growth on the supports and the tendency of some microorganisms to adhere to solid surfaces, possibly mimicking their natural growth habits. The production of dimeric anthraquinones by Penicillium sp. LL-WF159 was investigated in liquid fermentation using various inert polymeric immobilization supports composed of polypropylene, polypropylene cellulose, polyester-cellulose, or polyurethane. This culture produced rugulosin, skyrin, flavomannin, and a new bisanthracene, WF159-A, after fermentation in the presence and absence of polymeric supports for mycelial attachment. The physical nature of the different support systems influenced culture morphology and relative metabolite yields, as determined by HPLC analysis and measurement of antimicrobial activity. The application of such immobilized-cell fermentation methods under solid and liquid conditions facilitated the discovery of new antibiotic compounds, and offers new approaches to fungal fermentation for natural product discovery. PMID:16680458

Bigelis, Ramunas; He, Haiyin; Yang, Hui Y; Chang, Li-Ping; Greenstein, Michael



Amino Acids, Iron, and Growth Rate as Key Factors Influencing Production of the Pseudomonas Putida BTP1 Benzylamine Derivative Involved in Systemic Resistance Induction in Different Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biological control bacterium Pseudomonas putida BTP1 exerts its protective effect mostly by inducing an enhanced state of resistance in the host plant against pathogen attack\\u000a [induced systemic resistance (ISR)]. We previously reported that a specific compound derived from benzylamine may be involved\\u000a in the elicitation of the ISR phenomenon by this Pseudomonas strain. In this article, we provide further

Marc Ongena; Emmanuel Jourdan; Akram Adam; Mathias Schäfer; Herbert Budzikiewicz; Philippe Thonart



Mechanism of ion transfer in supported liquid membrane systems: electrochemical control over membrane distribution.  


A polarization study carried out on a thin supported liquid membrane separating two aqueous compartments is presented. Transfer of both the ionized and uncharged form of an organic tracer dye, rhodamine B ([9-(2-carboxyphenyl)-6-diethylamino-3-xanthenylidene]-diethylammonium chloride), across supported liquid membranes composed of one of 1-octanol (octan-1-ol), 1,9-decadiene (deca-1,9-diene), 1,2-dichlorobenzene, or nitrophenyl octyl ether (1-(2-nitrophenoxy)octane) was studied using cyclic voltammetry and UV-vis absorption spectrophotometry. Concentration analysis indicates that the high membrane concentration of rhodamine B determines the ionic transfer observed via voltammetry, which is consistent with the low aqueous ionic concentration and large membrane/aqueous distribution of the molecule. The observed double-transfer voltammogram, although it has been largely neglected in previous literature, is a logical consequence of the presence of two liquid-liquid interfaces and is rationalized in terms of ion transfer across the two interfaces on either side of the membrane and supported by voltammograms obtained for a series of ions of varied lipophilicity. The bipolar nature of the voltammetric response offers an effective way of mass transport control via changing polarity of the applied voltage and finds immediate use in extraction, purification, and separation applications. PMID:24299270

Velický, Mat?j; Tam, Kin Y; Dryfe, Robert A W



Carbon Dioxide Selective Supported Ionic Liquid Membranes: The Effect of Contaminants  

SciTech Connect

The integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) is widely viewed as a promising technology for the large scale production of energy in a carbon constrained world. These cycles, which include gasification, contaminant removal, water-gas shift, CO2 capture and compression, and combustion of the reduced-carbon fuel gas in a turbine, often have significant efficiency advantages over conventional combustion technologies. A CO2 selective membrane capable of maintaining performance at conditions approaching those of low temperature water-gas shift (260oC) could facilitate the production of carbon-neutral energy by simultaneously driving the shift reaction to completion and concentrating CO2 for sequestration. Supported ionic liquid membranes (SILMs) have been previously evaluated for this application and determined to be physically and chemically stable to temperatures in excess of 300oC. These membranes were based on ionic liquids which interacted physically with CO2 and diminished considerably in selectivity at higher temperatures. To alleviate this problem, the original ionic liquids were replaced with ionic liquids able to form chemical complexes with CO2. These complexing ionic liquid membranes have a local maximum in selectivity which is observed at increasing temperatures for more stable complexes. Efforts are currently underway to develop ionic liquids with selectivity maxima at temperatures greater than 75oC, the best result to date, but other practical concerns must also be addressed if the membrane is to be realistically expected to function under water-gas shift conditions. A CO2 selective membrane must function not only at high temperature, but also in the presence of all the reactants and contaminants likely to be present in coal-derived fuel gas, including water, CO, and H2S. A study has been undertaken which examines the effects of each of these gases on both complexing and physically interacting supported liquid membranes. In a joint project, researchers at the University of Notre Dame synthesized and characterized ionic liquids, and researchers at the National Energy Technology Laboratory incorporated candidate ionic liquids into supports and evaluated the resulting materials for membrane performance.

Luebke, D.R.; Ilconich, J.B.; Myers, C.R.; Pennline, H.W.



Catalytic performance of polymer-supported ionic liquids in the cycloaddition of carbon dioxide to allyl glycidyl ether  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ionic liquids immobilized onto structurally modified Merrifield peptide resin (MPR) were prepared through the reaction of\\u000a imidazole with alkoxylated MPR. Elemental analysis and SEM images showed that the immobilized ionic liquid groups were well\\u000a incorporated onto the support. The MPR-supported ionic liquids (MPR-IL) proved to be effective heterogeneous catalysts for\\u000a the solvent-free synthesis of a cyclic carbonate from allyl glycidyl

Jeong-In Yu; Hye-Ji Choi; Manickam Selvaraj; Dae-Won Park



Phase transfer membrane supported liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction combined with large volume sample injection capillary electrophoresis-ultraviolet detection for the speciation of inorganic and organic mercury.  


In this paper, a novel sample pretreatment technique termed phase transfer based liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction (PT-LLLME) was proposed for the simultaneous extraction of inorganic and organic mercury species. In PT-LLLME, an intermediate solvent (acetonitrile) was added into the donor phase to improve the contacting between target mercury species and complexing reagent. Meanwhile, a membrane supported (MS)-LLLME unit was designed to realize the PT-LLLME procedure. By using nylon membrane as supporting carrier, larger than 50 ?L of acceptor solution could be hung up. Following PT/MS-LLLME, the acceptor solutions were directly analyzed by large volume sample stacking capillary electrophoresis/ultraviolet detection (LVSS-CE/UV). Accordingly, a new method of PT/MS-LLLME combined with LVSS-CE/UV was developed for the simultaneous speciation of inorganic and organic mercury species. Parameters affecting the extraction efficiency of PT/MS-LLLME were investigated in details. Under the optimized conditions, enrichment factors (EFs) ranging from 160- to 478-fold were obtained for the extraction of target mercury species by PT/MS-LLLME. By combining PT/MS-LLLME with LVSS-CE/UV, EFs were magnified up to 12,138-fold and the limits of detection (at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3) were at sub ppb level. The established approach of PT/MS-LLLME-LVSS-CE/UV was successfully applied to simultaneous determination of inorganic and organic mercury species in biological samples and environmental water samples. PMID:22098933

Li, Pingjing; Zhang, Xing; Hu, Bin



Determination of phthalate ester plasticizers in the aquatic environment using hollow fibre supported liquid membranes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phthalates are known to be carcinogenic, teratogenic as well as endocrine disruptors. The potential risk to human and animals health generated from them has drawn great attention all over the world. Hollow fibre supported liquid membrane (HFSLM) online with high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to determine benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and Diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) in wastewater. Toluene, di-n-hexyl ether and undecane were used as liquid barriers separating both donor (sample) and acceptor phase. Toluene performed much better than undecane and was used in sample preparation. The presence of toluene showed the potential for the enrichment and removal of phthalates to the concentrations ranges from 0 to 1.7 mg L-1.

Mtibe, A.; Msagati, Titus A. M.; Mishra, Ajay K.; Mamba, Bhekie B.


Ignition capsules with aerogel-supported liquid DT fuel for the National Ignition Facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For high repetition-rate fusion power plant applications, capsules with aerogel-supported liquid DT fuel can have much reduced fill time compared to ?-layering a solid DT fuel layer. The melting point of liquid DT can be lowered once liquid DT is embedded in an aerogel matrix, and the DT vapor density is consequently closer to the desired density for optimal capsule design requirement. We present design for NIF-scale aerogel-filled capsules based on 1-D and 2-D simulations. An optimal configuration is obtained when the outer radius is increased until the clean fuel fraction is within 65 - 75% at peak velocity. A scan (in ablator and fuel thickness parameter space) is used to optimize the capsule configurations. The optimized aerogel-filled capsule has good low-mode robustness and acceptable high-mode mix.

Ho, D. D.-M.; Salmonson, J. D.; Clark, D. S.; Lindl, J. D.; Haan, S. W.; Amendt, P.; Wu, K. J.



Hollow-fiber-supported liquid membrane microextraction of amlodipine and atorvastatin.  


A simple, environmentally friendly, and efficient method, based on hollow-fiber-supported liquid membrane microextraction, followed by high-performance liquid chromatography has been developed for the extraction and determination of amlodipine (AML) and atorvastatin (ATO) in water and urine samples. The AML in two-phase hollow-fiber liquid microextraction is extracted from 24.0 mL of the aqueous sample into an organic phase with microliter volume located inside the pores and lumen of a polypropylene hollow fiber as acceptor phase, but the ATO in three-phase hollow-fiber liquid microextraction is extracted from aqueous donor phase to organic phase and then back-extracted to the aqueous acceptor phase, which can be directly injected into the high-performance liquid chromatograph for analysis. The preconcentration factors in a range of 34-135 were obtained under the optimum conditions. The calibration curves were linear (R(2) ? 0.990) in the concentration range of 2.0-200 ?g/L for AML and 5.0-200 ?g/L for ATO. The limits of detection for AML and ATO were 0.5 and 2.0 ?g/L, respectively. Tap water and human urine samples were successfully analyzed for the existence of AML and ATO using the proposed methods. PMID:24833551

Panahi, Homayon Ahmad; Chabouk, Monireh; Ejlali, Maryam



Molecular recognition of carbohydrates by a resorcinarene. Selective transport of alditols through a supported liquid membrane  

Microsoft Academic Search

A supported liquid membrane (SLM) containing a resorcinarene carrier has been used for the selective transport of erythritol, threitol, ribitol and xylitol from concentrated (1.0–0.01 M) aqueous solutions. The membrane is made of a microporous polytetrafluoroethylene film impregnated with a 0.01 M solution of the carrier in CCl4. The permeabilities of the SLM for all alditols were calculated. On the

Nabila Tbeur; Touria Rhlalou; Dominique Langevin; Michel Métayer; Jean-François Verchère



Hollow-fiber supported liquid membrane (HFSLM) for the separation of lanthanides and actinides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transport behavior of Nd(III) was investigated using hollow-fiber supported liquid membranes (HFSLM) from an acidic feed solution using N,N,N',N'-tetraoctyl-diglycolamide (TODGA) in normal paraffinic hydrocarbon (NPH) as the carrier. Near quantitative transport (>99%) of Nd(III) from 500 mL of feed containing 1 g\\/L Nd in 3.5 M HNO was possible in about 45 minutes. Quantitative transport time increased when the

P. K. Mohapatra; S. A. Ansari; A. Bhattacharyya; V. K. Manchanda; C. B. Patil



Dialkylphosphoric acids as carriers in separation of lanthanides and thorium on supported liquid membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Permeation of seven lanthanides (Ln) and thorium through a supported liquid membrane containing di-(n- octyl)phosphoric (DOPA) or di-(n-pentyl)phosphoric (DPPA) acid as a carrier has been studied as a function of the chemical composition of the system. The results have been compared with a previous study in which di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid was used.Metal cations were transported from feed solutions of pH 1.1–4.8

A. Hrdli?ka; I. Fialová; J. Dolezalová



Constructing CO2-facilitated transport highway in supported ionic liquid membranes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Carbon dioxide-facilitated transport highway (CO2-FTH) on the microporous surface of a membrane matrix was designed using the amino carrier 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES). Owing to the reversible reaction between CO2 molecules and fixed-site carriers, this supported ionic liquid membrane was able to selectively transfer CO2 more quickly. This concept may inspire means of fabricating a highly permeable and selective membrane to break through Robeson's upper bound.

Sun, Xiang Jun; Luo, Ju Jie; Zhang, Meng; Li, Jin Ping



Supported imidazolium ionic liquid phases: a new material for solid-phase extraction.  


This study reports a material that is based on the concept of ionic liquid analogue: a slightly crosslinked polymer-supported imidazolium trifluoroacetate salt (IL-CF(3)COO(-)) that favorably combines the properties of ionic liquids (ILs) and the advantages of a solid support. The ionic liquid-supported material was evaluated for the first time as a solid-phase extraction (SPE) sorbent for selectively and quantitatively extracting pharmaceuticals from aqueous samples. The novel IL-CF(3)COO(-) was evaluated under reversed-phase (RP), weak anion exchange (WAX), strong anion exchange (SAX) and strong cation exchange (SCX) SPE procedures, and we found that SAX conditions are the most suitable for investigating the behaviour of the IL-CF(3)COO(-) material. Under SAX conditions, the IL-CF(3)COO(-) material was capable of selectively and quantitatively extracting a group of acidic compounds from aqueous samples, while washing basic analytes that were also present in the sample. The SPE method using IL-CF(3)COO(-) material was used to analyse 1000 ml of different aqueous samples (ultrapure, tap and river) with complete recovery of the acidic compounds studied. Moreover, the method provided clean chromatogram and high recoveries when percolating complex real samples, such as 1000 ml of river water and 250 ml of effluent wastewater from a sewage treatment plant spiked at low levels with the analytes studied. PMID:19782223

Fontanals, Núria; Ronka, Sylwia; Borrull, Francesc; Trochimczuk, Andrzej W; Marcé, Rosa M



An application of supported liquid membranes for removal of inorganic contaminants from groundwater  

SciTech Connect

This review paper summarizes the results of an investigation on teh use of supported liquid membranes for the removal of uranium (VI) and some anionic contaminants (technetium(VII), chromium(VI) and nitrates) from the Hanford site groundwater. As a membrane carrier for U(VI), bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)phosphinic acid was selected because of its high selectivity over calcium and magnesium. The water soluble complexing agent 1-hydroxyethane-1,1-diphosphonic acid was used as stripping agent. For the anionic contaminants the long-chain aliphatic amines Primene JM-T (primary)., Amberlite LA-1 (secondary) and trilaurylamine (tertiary) were investigated as membrane carriers. Among these amines, Amberlite LA-2 proved to be the most effective carrier for the simultaneous removal of the investigated anion contaminants. A good long-term stability (at least one month) of the liquid membranes was obtained, especially in the uranium(VI) removal. 8 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

Chiarizia, R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Horwitz, E.P. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Hodgson, K.M. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)



An application of supported liquid membranes for removal of inorganic contaminants from groundwater  

SciTech Connect

This review paper summarizes the results of an investigation on teh use of supported liquid membranes for the removal of uranium (VI) and some anionic contaminants (technetium(VII), chromium(VI) and nitrates) from the Hanford site groundwater. As a membrane carrier for U(VI), bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)phosphinic acid was selected because of its high selectivity over calcium and magnesium. The water soluble complexing agent 1-hydroxyethane-1,1-diphosphonic acid was used as stripping agent. For the anionic contaminants the long-chain aliphatic amines Primene JM-T (primary)., Amberlite LA-1 (secondary) and trilaurylamine (tertiary) were investigated as membrane carriers. Among these amines, Amberlite LA-2 proved to be the most effective carrier for the simultaneous removal of the investigated anion contaminants. A good long-term stability (at least one month) of the liquid membranes was obtained, especially in the uranium(VI) removal. 8 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

Chiarizia, R. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States) Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)); Horwitz, E.P. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Hodgson, K.M. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States))



The simultaneous stripping of arsenic and selenium from wastewaters using hollow-fibre supported liquid membranes.  


The extraction of total arsenic and selenium using hollow-fibre supported liquid membranes (HFSLMs), with specific interest in the optimal conditions for the extraction in wastewater, is reported. The extraction time, type of liquid membrane, sample and donor pH and stirring rate were optimised, and thereafter, the developed method was tested in real wastewater samples. The optimal HFSLMs adopted, after optimisation tests, comprised of Aliquat 336, 0.8 M NaOH, 200 rpm and 80 min as the extractant, stripping phase, stirring rate and reaction time, respectively. The developed method had reasonable-to-high extraction efficiencies in real wastewater samples with the final effluent recording as high as 73 and 78 % removal efficiencies for Se and As, respectively. Considering the initial concentrations found in the samples, use of this developed method could bring down the concentrations to levels admissible by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US-EPA) and World Health Organisation (WHO). PMID:25252794

Mafu, Lihle D; Msagati, Titus A M; Mamba, Bhekie B



Asymmetric Michael reactions catalyzed by a highly efficient and recyclable quaternary ammonium ionic liquid-supported organocatalyst in aqueous media.  


A novel ionic liquid-support organocatalyst, which contains the quaternary ammonium ion moiety, was recently developed and successfully applied to the asymmetric Michael reaction in the presence of a newly developed ionic liquid-supported (ILS) benzoic acid as co-catalyst. For the reactions studied, in which various aldehydes and nitroolefins were examined, excellent diastereo- and enantioselectivities were obtained with low catalyst loading. Also, the catalyst could be recycled for ten times without significant loss of enantioselectivity. PMID:23381599

Ghosh, Subrata K; Qiao, Yupu; Ni, Bukuo; Headley, Allan D



A dicationic ruthenium alkylidene complex for continuous biphasic metathesis using monolith-supported ionic liquids.  


A dicationic ruthenium-alkylidene complex [Ru(dmf)(3)(IMesH(2))(=CH-2-(2-PrO)-C(6)H(4))][(BF(4))(2)] (1; IMesH(2) =1,3-dimesitylimidazolin-2-ylidene) has been prepared and used in continuous metathesis reactions by exploiting supported ionic-liquid phase (SILP) technology. For these purposes, ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP)-derived monoliths were prepared from norborn-2-ene, tris(norborn-5-ene-2-ylmethyloxy)methylsilane, and [RuCl(2)(PCy(3))(2)(CHPh)] (Cy=cyclohexyl) in the presence of 2-propanol and toluene and surface grafted with norborn-5-en-2-ylmethyl-N,N,N-trimethylammonium tetrafluoroborate ([NBE-CH(2)-NMe(3)][BF(4)]). Subsequent immobilization of the ionic liquid (IL), 1-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BDMIM][BF(4)]), containing ionic catalyst 1 created the SILP catalyst. The use of a second liquid transport phase, which contained the substrate and was immiscible with the IL, allowed continuous metathesis reactions to be realized. High turnover numbers (TONs) of up to 3700 obtained in organic solvents for the ring-closing metathesis (RCM) of, for example, N,N-diallyltrifluoroacetamide, diethyl diallylmalonate, diethyl di(methallyl)malonate, tert-butyl-N,N-diallylcarbamate, N,N-diallylacetamide, diphenyldiallylsilane, and 1,7-octadiene, as well as in the self-metathesis of methyl oleate, could be further increased by using biphasic conditions with [BDMIM][BF(4)]/heptane. Under continuous SILP conditions, TONs up to 900 were observed. Due to the ionic character of the initiator, catalyst leaching into the transport phase was very low (<0.1 %). Finally, the IL can, together with decomposed catalyst, be removed from the monolithic support by flushing with methanol. Upon reloading with [BDMIM][BF(4)]/1, the recycled support material again qualified for utilization in continuous metathesis reactions. PMID:22996838

Autenrieth, Benjamin; Frey, Wolfgang; Buchmeiser, Michael R




SciTech Connect

A novel catalytic synthesis gas oxidation process using molten carbonate salts supported on compatible fluidized iron oxide particles (supported-liquid-phase-catalyst (SLPC) fluidized bed process) was investigated. This process combines the advantages of large scale fluidized bed processing with molten salt bath oxidation. Molten salt catalysts can be supported within porous fluidized particles in order to improve mass transfer rates between the liquid catalysts and the reactant gases. Synthesis gas can be oxidized at reduced temperatures resulting in low NO{sub x} formation while trace sulfides and halides are captured in-situ. Hence, catalytic oxidation of synthesis gas can be carried out simultaneously with hot gas cleanup. Such SLPC fluidized bed processes are affected by inter-particle liquid capillary forces that may lead to agglomeration and de-fluidization of the bed. An understanding of the origin and strength of these forces is needed so that they can be overcome in practice. Process design is based on thermodynamic free energy minimization calculations that indicate the suitability of eutectic Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}/K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} mixtures for capturing trace impurities in-situ (< 1 ppm SO{sub x} released) while minimizing the formation of NO{sub x}(< 10 ppm). Iron oxide has been identified as a preferred support material since it is non-reactive with sodium, is inexpensive, has high density (i.e. inertia), and can be obtained in various particle sizes and porosities. Force balance modeling has been used to design a surrogate ambient temperature system that is hydrodynamically similar to the real system, thus allowing complementary investigation of the governing fluidization hydrodynamics. The primary objective of this research was to understand the origin of and to quantify the liquid capillary interparticle forces affecting the molten carbonate SLPC fluidized bed process. Substantial theoretical and experimental exploratory results indicate process feasibility. The potential environmental gain from success is enormous, impacting all areas of the world where coal is burned to supply steam or direct industrial heat. Project success may lead to an integrated combustion system providing for simultaneous catalytic oxidation and hot gas cleanup of raw synthesis gas from an upstream coal gasifier.

Alan W. Weimer (PI); Peter Czerpak; Patrick Hilbert



Ionic liquid-reconstituted cellulose composites as solid support matrices for biocatalyst immobilization.  


Preparation of cellulose-polyamine composite films and beads, which provide high loading of primary amines on the surface allowing direct one-step bioconjugation of active species, is reported using an ionic liquid (IL) dissolution and regeneration process. Films and bead architectures were prepared and used as immobilization supports for laccase as a model system demonstrating the applicability of this approach. Performance of these materials, compared to commercially available products, has been assessed using millimeter-sized beads of the composites and the lipase-catalyzed transesterification of ethyl butyrate. PMID:16153085

Turner, Megan B; Spear, Scott K; Holbrey, John D; Daly, Daniel T; Rogers, Robin D



Effect of the supporting electrolytes on voltammetry at liquid\\/liquid microinterfaces between water and nitrobenzene, 1,2-dichloroethane or 1,6-dichlorohexane  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transfers of the ions of tetraalkylammonium picrates (-methyl, -ethyl, -propyl, -butyl), from water (W) to nitrobenzene (NB), 1,2-dichloroethane (DCE) or 1,6-dichlorohexane (DCH), have been studied by voltammetry at liquid\\/liquid microinterfaces. Electrochemistry is possible in the absence of supporting electrolytes in both phases, even in the less dissociating solvents, DCE and DCH, when the concentration of the picrate is lower

Mickaël Rimboud; Kevin Charreteur; Vladimir Sladkov; Catherine Elleouet; François Quentel; Maurice L’Her



Membrane-supported liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction combined with anion-selective exhaustive injection capillary electrophoresis-ultraviolet detection for sensitive analysis of phytohormones.  


A novel method based on off-line membrane-supported liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction (MS-LLLME) combined with on-column anion-selective exhaustive injection (ASEI) capillary electrophoresis-ultraviolet (CE-UV) detection was established for the analysis of seven phytohormones (abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid (JA), 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 1-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), salicylic acid (SA) and gibberellic acid (GA)). In MS-LLLME, the target phytohormones were extracted from the acid donor phase to the alkaline acceptor phase, and the acceptor solutions were directly analyzed by ASEI-CE-UV. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the analytical performance of the method was evaluated. The limits of detection (LODs) of ABA, JA, 2,4-D, NAA, IAA, SA and GA were determined to be 1.00, 2.21, 0.33, 0.17, 0.67, 0.05 and 16.5ng/mL, respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSDs, n=7) ranged from 4.7% to 12.9%, and the enrichment factors were in the range of 307 to 20,160. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of multiple phytohormones in banana, cabbage and cucumber extracts, and ABA, IAA and SA were detected in these samples. The recoveries for the spiked samples were in the range of 79.0 to 116.4%. The proposed method was demonstrated to be suitable for the simultaneous quantification of multiple phytohormones with high sensitivity and good sample cleanup ability. PMID:24720904

Huang, Linfang; He, Man; Chen, Beibei; Hu, Bin



Investigations of Water Structure at the Solid/Liquid Interface in the Presence of Supported Lipid Bilayers by  

E-print Network

slower than that of positively charged and neutral SLBs. Introduction Solid supported lipid bilayersInvestigations of Water Structure at the Solid/Liquid Interface in the Presence of Supported Lipid-dimensionally confined waterlayer,whichhasbeenestimatedtobeapproximately 0.5-1.5 nm in thickness, acts as a lubricant


Determination of thiophanate-methyl and its metabolites at trace level in spiked natural water using the supported liquid membrane extraction and the microporous membrane liquid-liquid extraction techniques combined on-line with high-performance liquid chromatography.  


On-line supported liquid membrane (SLM) extraction and microporous membrane liquid-liquid extraction (MMLLE) techniques for sample preparation of natural water samples have been developed for the determination of thiophanate-methyl (TM), carbendazim (MBC) and 2-aminobenzimidazole (2-AB) using reversed-phase HPLC. The combination of SLM extraction and MMLLE offers extraction conditions that makes it possible to determine a wide variety of compounds, i.e., permanently charged, ionisable and non-polar at sub ppb level. The detection limits obtained after extraction are about 0.1 microg/l for MBC and 2-AB using SLM, and 0.5 x Lg/l for TM using MMLLE and the precision is better than 5% for both systems. Typical enrichment rates are 0.6 and 2.7 times/min using SLM and MMLLE, respectively. PMID:11043593

Sandahl, M; Mathiasson, L; Jönsson, J A



Hollow-fiber supported liquid membrane (HFSLM) for the separation of lanthanides and actinides  

SciTech Connect

The transport behavior of Nd(III) was investigated using hollow-fiber supported liquid membranes (HFSLM) from an acidic feed solution using N,N,N',N'-tetraoctyl-diglycolamide (TODGA) in normal paraffinic hydrocarbon (NPH) as the carrier. Near quantitative transport (>99%) of Nd(III) from 500 mL of feed containing 1 g/L Nd in 3.5 M HNO{sub 3} was possible in about 45 minutes. Quantitative transport time increased when the volume or Nd(III ) concentration in the feed was increased. The liquid membrane had excellent stability as indicated by eight consecutive runs that gave consistent transport rates. The HFSLM data using Cyanex- 301 in n-dodecane as carrier extractant for the lanthanide-actinide separation with the feed solution 1 M NaNO{sub 3} at pH 3.5 and stripping solution 0.01 M EDTA at a pH 3.5 were promising. (authors)

Mohapatra, P.K.; Ansari, S.A.; Bhattacharyya, A.; Manchanda, V.K. [Radiochemistry Division, B.A.R.C., Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India); Patil, C.B. [PREFRE Lab, N.R.G., B.A.R. C., Tarapur, Maharashtra-401502 (India)



Photo-uncaging of Ceramides Promotes Reorganization of Liquid-Ordered Domains in Supported Lipid Bilayers  

PubMed Central

6-Bromo-7-hydroxycoumarin (Bhc)-caged ceramide (Cer) analogs were incorporated into supported lipid bilayers containing a mixture of coexisting liquid-ordered (Lo) and liquid-disordered (Ld) phases. The release of N-palmitoyl and N-butanoyl-D-erythro-sphingosine (C16- and C4-Cer) by photolysis of the caged Cers using long wavelength UV light was studied using a combination of atomic force microscopy and fluorescence microscopy. This approach demonstrated the ability to generate Cer with spatial and temporal control, providing an alternative method to the enzymatic generation of Cer. The generation of C16-Cer from Bhc-C16-Cer disrupted the Lo domains, with the incorporation of small fluid phase regions and the disappearance of some smaller domains. Cer-rich gel-phase domains were not observed, in contrast to results reported by either direct Cer incorporation or enzymatic Cer generation. Photorelease of C4-Cer from Bhc-C4-Cer resulted in qualitatively similar changes in bilayer morphology, with disappearance of some Lo domains and no evidence for Cer-rich gel domains, but with a smaller height difference between the ordered and disordered phases. PMID:23402522

Carter Ramirez, Daniel M.; Pitre, Spencer P.; Kim, Young Ah; Bittman, Robert; Johnston, Linda J.



Photouncaging of ceramides promotes reorganization of liquid-ordered domains in supported lipid bilayers.  


6-Bromo-7-hydroxycoumarin (Bhc)-caged ceramide (Cer) analogs were incorporated into supported lipid bilayers containing a mixture of coexisting liquid-ordered (Lo) and liquid-disordered (Ld) phases. The release of N-palmitoyl and N-butanoyl-D-erythro-sphingosine (C16- and C4-Cer) by the photolysis of caged Cers using long-wavelength UV light was studied using a combination of atomic force microscopy and fluorescence microscopy. This approach demonstrated the ability to generate Cer with spatial and temporal control, providing an alternative method to the enzymatic generation of Cer. The generation of C16-Cer from Bhc-C16-Cer disrupted the Lo domains, with the incorporation of small fluid-phase regions and the disappearance of some smaller domains. Cer-rich gel-phase domains were not observed, in contrast to results reported by either direct Cer incorporation or enzymatic Cer generation. The photorelease of C4-Cer from Bhc-C4-Cer resulted in qualitatively similar changes in bilayer morphology, with the disappearance of some Lo domains and no evidence of Cer-rich gel domains but with a smaller height difference between the ordered and disordered phases. PMID:23402522

Ramirez, Daniel M Carter; Pitre, Spencer P; Kim, Young Ah; Bittman, Robert; Johnston, Linda J



Some methods of human liquid and solid wastes utilization in bioregenerative life support systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possibility of stepwise utilization of human liquid and solid wastes with the purpose of an increase of a closure degree of bioregenerative life support systems BLSS and sodium chloride inclusion in the organic matter turnover was investigated On the first stage urine and faeces were subjected to oxidation by Yu A Kudenko physicochemical method On the next stage the products of human liquid and solid wastes oxidation were used for roots nutrition of wheat grown by substrate culture method Soil-like substrate the technology of which was described earlier was used as a substrate After the wheat cultivation the irrigational solution and the solution obtained in the result of substrate washing containing mineral elements not absorbed by the plants were used for cultivation of salt-tolerant Salicornia europaea plants The above-ground biomass of these vegetables can be used as a food and roots washed from dissoluble mineral elements can be added to the soil-like substrate Four consecutive wheat and Salicornia europaea vegetations were cultivated In the result of this complex technology of wheat and Salicornia europaea cultivation the soil-like substrate salinization by NaCl introduced into the irrigational solution together with the products of urine oxidation has considerably decreased

Tikhomirova, N. A.; Ushakova, S. Á.; Tikhomirov, A. Á.; Zolotukhin, I. G.; Gribovskaya, I. V.; Gros, J. B.


Computational Fluid Dynamics in Support of the SNS Liquid Mercury Thermal-Hydraulic Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Experimental and computational thermal-hydraulic research is underway to support the liquid mercury target design for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) facility. The SNS target will be subjected to internal nuclear heat generation that results from pulsed proton beam collisions with the mercury nuclei. Recirculation and stagnation zones within the target are of particular concern because of the likelihood that they will result in local hot spots and diminished heat removal from the target structure. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models are being used as a part of this research. Recent improvements to the 3D target model include the addition of the flow adapter which joins the inlet/outlet coolant pipes to the target body and an updated heat load distribution at the new baseline proton beam power level of 2 MW. Two thermal-hydraulic experiments are planned to validate the CFD model.

Siman-Tov, M.; Wendel, M.W.; Yoder, G.L.



The application of supported liquid membrane separators to alkaline secondary batteries  

SciTech Connect

A new separator technology under development utilizes the highly specific transport properties of select organic reagents to provide what is, at least in principal, the ideal alkaline battery, separator. In the case of Ni-Zn cells, by providing a membrane that transports hydroxyl ions and rejects zincate ions the possibility of dendrite shorting is eliminated and, furthermore, attendant benefits may be obtained in zinc shape changes by controlling water transport during charge and discharge. Laboratory Ni-Zn test cells incorporating supported liquid membrane battery separators have been cycled extensively. Cells routinely operate over 100 cycles at moderate current densities. Possible benefits to other alkaline systems such as Ni-Cd and Ag-Zn are also discussed.

Pemsler, J.P.; Demsey, M.D.



Supported liquid membrane as a novel tool for driving the equilibrium of ?-transaminase catalyzed asymmetric synthesis.  


An attractive option to produce chiral amines of industrial importance is through asymmetric synthesis using ?-transaminase. However, reaching high yields often requires a strategy for shifting the equilibrium position. This paper describes a novel strategy for handling this problem. It involves the use of a supported liquid membrane (SLM) together with a packed bed reactor. The reactor contains Escherichia coli cells with ?-transaminase from Arthrobacter citreus, immobilized by flocculation with chitosan. The SLM consists of a hollow fibre membrane contactor in which the pores contain undecane. The system enables continuous extraction of the amine product and was used to successfully shift the equilibrium in asymmetric synthesis of (S)-?-methylbenzylamine (MBA). A conversion of 98% was reached, compared to 50% without product extraction. Moreover, a selective extraction of the produced MBA was realized. A high product concentration of 55g/l was reached after 80h, and the system showed promising potential for continuous operation. PMID:24675224

Rehn, Gustav; Adlercreutz, Patrick; Grey, Carl



Size stabilization of surface-supported liquid aerosols using tapered optical fiber coupling.  


We demonstrate long-term size stabilization of surface-supported liquid aerosols of salt-water. Single tapered optical fibers were used to couple the light from independent heating and probe lasers into individual microdroplets that were kept on a superhydrophobic surface in a high-humidity chamber. Size stabilization of microdroplets resulted from competition between resonant absorption of the infrared heating laser by a microdroplet whispering gallery mode and water condensation in the sample chamber. Microdroplet size was continuously monitored using the tunable red probe laser. Thanks to the narrow linewidth of the heating laser, stabilization of the 110 ?m radius of a microdroplet with a precision down to 0.54 nm was achieved for a period of 410 s. PMID:23455301

Karadag, Yasin; Jonáš, Alexandr; Kucukkara, Ibrahim; Kiraz, Alper



Effect of Ammonium- and Phosphonium-Based Ionic Liquids on the Separation of Lactic Acid by Supported Ionic Liquid Membranes (SILMs)  

PubMed Central

Biodegradable polymers have attracted much attention from an environmental point of view. Optically pure lactic acid that can be prepared by fermentation is one of the important raw materials for biodegradable polymer. The separation and purification of lactic acid from the fermentation broth are the major portions of the production costs. We proposed the application of supported ionic liquid membranes to recovering lactic acid. In this paper, the effect of ionic liquids, such as Aliquat 336, CYPHOS IL-101, CYPHOS IL-102, CYPHOS IL-104, CYPHOS IL-109 and CYPHOS IL-111 on the lactic acid permeation have been studied. Aliquat 336, CYPHOS IL-101 and CYPHOS IL-102 were found to be the best membrane solvents as far as membrane stability and permeation of lactic acid are concerned. CYPHOS IL-109 and CYPHOS IL-111 were found to be unsuitable, as they leak out from the pores of the supported liquid membrane (SLM), thereby allowing free transport of lactic acid as well as hydrochloric acid. CYPHOS IL-102 was found to be the most adequate (Permeation rate = 60.41%) among these ionic liquids as far as the separation of lactic acid is concerned. The permeation mechanisms, by which ionic liquid-water complexes act as the carrier of lactate and hydrochloric acid, were proposed. The experimental permeation results have been obtained as opposed to the expected values from the solution-diffusion mechanism. PMID:24957613

Matsumoto, Michiaki; Panigrahi, Abhishek; Murakami, Yuuki; Kondo, Kazuo



Application of supported liquid membranes for removal of uranium from groundwater  

SciTech Connect

The separation of uranium from Hanford site groundwater as studied by hollow-fiber supported liquid membranes, SLM. The carrier bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)phosphinic acid, H(DTMPep), contained in the commercial extractant Cyanex{trademark} 272 was used as a membrane carrier, because of its selectivity for U over calcium and magnesium. The water soluble complexing agent, 1-hydroxyethane-1,1-diphosphonic acid, HEDPA, was used as stripping agent. Polypropylene hollow-fibers and n-dodecane were used as polymeric support and diluent, respectively. Laboratory scale hollow-fiber modules were employed in a recycling mode, using as feed synthetic groundwater at pH 2, to confirm the capability of the proposed SLM system to separate and concentrate U(VI) in the strip solution. Information was obtained on the U(VI) concentration factor and on the long-term performance of the SLMs. Encouraging results were obtained both with a conventional module and with a module containing a carrier solution reservoir. Industrial scale modules were used at Hanford to test the SLM separation of U(VI) from real contaminated groundwater. The uranium concentration was reduced from approximately 3500 ppB to about 1 ppB in a few hours. 9 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

Chiarizia, R.; Horwitz, E.P.; Rickert, P.G.; Hodgson, K.M. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA); Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (USA))



Metal-organic framework supported ionic liquid membranes for CO2 capture: anion effects.  


IRMOF-1 supported ionic liquid (IL) membranes are investigated for CO(2) capture by atomistic simulation. The ILs consist of identical cation 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium [BMIM](+), but four different anions, namely hexafluorophosphate [PF(6)](-), tetrafluoroborate [BF(4)](-), bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide [Tf(2)N](-), and thiocyanate [SCN](-). As compared with the cation, the anion has a stronger interaction with IRMOF-1 and a more ordered structure in IRMOF-1. The small anions [PF(6)](-), [BF(4)](-), and [SCN](-) prefer to locate near to the metal-cluster, particularly the quasi-spherical [PF(6)](-) and [BF(4)](-). In contrast, the bulky and chain-like [BMIM](+) and [Tf(2)N](-) reside near the phenyl ring. Among the four anions, [Tf(2)N](-) has the weakest interaction with IRMOF-1 and thus the strongest interaction with [BMIM](+). With increasing the weight ratio of IL to IRMOF-1 (W(IL/IRMOF-1)), the selectivity of CO(2)/N(2) at infinite dilution is enhanced. At a given W(IL/IRMOF-1), the selectivity increases as [Tf(2)N](-) < [PF(6)](-) < [BF(4)](-) < [SCN](-). This hierarchy is predicted by the COSMO-RS method, and largely follows the order of binding energy between CO(2) and anion estimated by ab initio calculation. In the [BMIM][SCN]/IRMOF-1 membrane with W(IL/IRMOF-1) = 1, [SCN](-) is identified to be the most favorable site for CO(2) adsorption. [BMIM][SCN]/IRMOF-1 outperforms polymer membranes and polymer-supported ILs in CO(2) permeability, and its performance surpasses Robeson's upper bound. This simulation study reveals that the anion has strong effects on the microscopic properties of ILs and suggests that MOF-supported ILs are potentially intriguing for CO(2) capture. PMID:22433933

Gupta, Krishna M; Chen, Yifei; Hu, Zhongqiao; Jiang, Jianwen



Hollow fiber supported ionic liquid membrane microextraction for determination of sulfonamides in environmental water samples by high-performance liquid chromatography.  


By using ionic liquid as membrane liquid and tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) as additive, hollow fiber supported liquid phase microextraction (HF-LPME) was developed for the determination of five sulfonamides in environmental water samples by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection The extraction solvent and the parameters affecting the extraction enrichment factor such as the type and amount of carrier, pH and volume ratio of donor phase and acceptor phase, extraction time, salt-out effect and matrix effect were optimized. Under the optimal extraction conditions (organic liquid membrane phase: [C(8)MIM][PF(6)] with 14% TOPO (w/v); donor phase: 4mL, pH 4.5 KH(2)PO(4) with 2M Na(2)SO(4); acceptor phase: 25microL, pH 13 NaOH; extraction time: 8 h), low detection limits (0.1-0.4microg/L, RSDor=0.999) were obtained for all the analytes. The presence of humic acid (0-25mg/L dissolved organic carbon) and bovine serum albumin (0-100microg/mL) had no significant effect on the extraction efficiency. Good spike recoveries over the range of 82.2-103.2% were obtained when applying the proposed method on five real environmental water samples. These results indicated that this present method was very sensitive and reliable with good repeatabilities and excellent clean-up in water samples. The proposed method confirmed hollow fiber supported ionic liquid membrane based LPME to be robust to monitoring trace levels of sulfadiazine, sulfamerazine, sulfamethazine, sulfadimethoxine and sulfamethoxazole in aqueous samples. PMID:19632683

Tao, Yong; Liu, Jing-Fu; Hu, Xia-Lin; Li, Hong-Cheng; Wang, Thanh; Jiang, Gui-Bin



Highly selective transport of silver ion through a supported liquid membrane using calix[4]pyrroles as suitable ion carriers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Facilitated transport of silver ion across a supported liquid membrane (SLM) by calix[4]pyrroles, as selective ion carriers, dissolved in kerosene has been investigated. The influences of fundamental parameters affecting the transport of silver ion including ion carrier concentration in the membrane phase, thiosulfate concentration in strip phase, picric acid concentration in the feed phase, stirring speed of aqueous phases, type

Ali Asghar Amiri; Afsaneh Safavi; Ali Reza Hasaninejad; Hashem Shrghi; Mojtaba Shamsipur



Synergistic separation of yttrium ions in lanthanide series from rare earths mixture via hollow fiber supported liquid membrane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Separation of yttrium ions from the mixture of rare earths in lanthanide series has been examined by a microporous hydrophobic hollow fiber supported liquid membrane. Cyanex 272 and TBP in kerosene are used separately as an extractant. Nitric acid solution is used as a stripping solution. Increasing the concentration of Cyanex 272 increases the percentages of extraction and stripping of

Prakorn Ramakul; Tossaporn Supajaroon; Tatchanok Prapasawat; Ura Pancharoen; Anchaleeporn W. Lothongkum



Troponin T immunosensor based on liquid crystal and silsesquioxane-supported gold nanoparticles.  


A nanostructured immunosensor based on the liquid crystal (E)-1-decyl-4-[(4-decyloxyphenyl)diazenyl]pyridinium bromide (Br-Py) and gold nanoparticles supported by the water-soluble hybrid material 3-n-propyl-4-picolinium silsesquioxane chloride (AuNP-Si4Pic(+)Cl(-)) was built for the detection of troponin T (cTnT), a cardiac marker for acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The functionalized nanostructured surface was used to bind anti-cTnT monoclonal antibodies through electrostatic interaction. The immunosensor (ab-cTnT/AuNP-Si4Pic(+)Cl(-)/Br-Py/GCE) surface was characterized by microscopy techniques. The electrochemical behavior of the immunosensor was studied by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. A calibration curve was obtained by square-wave voltammetry. The immnunosensor provided a limit of detection of 0.076 ng mL(-1) and a linear range between 0.1 and 0.9 ng mL(-1) (appropriate for AMI diagnosis). PMID:25111622

Zapp, Eduardo; da Silva, Paulo Sérgio; Westphal, Eduard; Gallardo, Hugo; Spinelli, Almir; Vieira, Iolanda Cruz



Thorium ions transport across Tri-n-butyl phosphate-benzene based supported liquid membranes  

SciTech Connect

Transport of Th(IV) ions across tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) benzene based liquid membranes supported in microporous hydrophobic polypropylene film (MHPF) has been studied. Various parameters such as variation of nitric acid concentration in the feed, TBP concentration in the membrane, and temperature on the given metal ions transport have been investigated. The effects of nitric acid and TBP concentrations on the distribution coefficient were also studied, and the data obtained were used to determine the Th ions-TBP complex diffusion coefficient in the membrane. Permeability coefficients of Th(IV) ions were also determined as a function of the TBP and nitric acid concentrations. The optimal conditions for the transport of Th(IV) ions across the membrane are 6 mol{sm_bullet}dm{sup -3} HNO{sub 3} concentration, 2.188 mol {center_dot} dm{sup -3} TBP concentration, and 25{degrees}C. The stoichiometry of the chemical species involved in chemical reaction during the transport of Th(IV) ions has also been studied.

Rasul, G.; Chaudry, M.A. [Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Chemistry, Islamabad (Pakistan); Afzal, M. [Quaid-I-Azam Univ., Islamabad (Pakistan)



Supporting implementation of evidence-based behavioral interventions: the role of data liquidity in facilitating translational behavioral medicine.  


The advancement of translational behavioral medicine will require that we discover new methods of managing large volumes of data from disparate sources such as disease surveillance systems, public health systems, and health information systems containing patient-centered data informed by behavioral and social sciences. The term "liquidity," when applied to data, refers to its availability and free flow throughout human/computer interactions. In seeking to achieve liquidity, the focus is not on creating a single, comprehensive database or set of coordinated datasets, nor is it solely on developing the electronic health record as the "one-stop shopping" source of health-related data. Rather, attention is on ensuring the availability of secure data through the various methods of collecting and storing data currently existent or under development-so that these components of the health information infrastructure together support a liquid data system. The value of accessible, interoperable, high-volume, reliable, secure, and contextually appropriate data is becoming apparent in many areas of the healthcare system, and health information liquidity is currently viewed as an important component of a patient-centered healthcare system. The translation from research interventions to behavioral and psychosocial indicators challenges the designers of healthcare systems to include this new set of data in the correct context. With the intention of advancing translational behavioral medicine at the local level, "on the ground" in the clinical office and research institution, this commentary discusses data liquidity from the patient's and clinician's perspective, requirements for a liquid healthcare data system, and the ways in which data liquidity can support translational behavioral medicine. PMID:24073032

Abernethy, Amy P; Wheeler, Jane L; Courtney, Paul K; Keefe, Francis J



Development of supported liquid membrane techniques for the monitoring of trace levels of organic pollutants in wastewaters and water purification systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The supported liquid membrane (SLM) extraction technique has been developed and successfully used for the monitoring of trace quantities of ionisable organic contaminants, including 17?-estradiol and its metabolites, testosterones and their methyl ester derivatives, benzimidazole anthelmintic antibiotics and sulphonamides in aquatic systems. A number of parameters which control the mass transfer in the supported liquid membrane extraction process such as

Titus A. M. Msagati; Bhekie B. Mamba



Dialkylphosphoric acids as carriers in separation of lanthanides and thorium on supported liquid membranes.  


Permeation of seven lanthanides (Ln) and thorium through a supported liquid membrane containing di-(n- octyl)phosphoric (DOPA) or di-(n-pentyl)phosphoric (DPPA) acid as a carrier has been studied as a function of the chemical composition of the system. The results have been compared with a previous study in which di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid was used. Metal cations were transported from feed solutions of pH 1.1-4.8 (HNO(3)) into strip solutions of 0.015-0.1 mol l(-1) nitric acid. The ionic strength was kept constant at 0.1 mol l(-1) (HNO(3), KNO(3)). The initial lanthanide concentration and carrier concentration in the liquid membrane were varied from 0.5 to 500 mumol l(-1) and from 0.01 to 0.5 mol l(-1) respectively. To describe the mass transfer of metal cations, permeability coefficients have been determined by inductively-coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy or by on-line flow-injection analysis of metal concentrations in strip or feed solution. Probably as the result of a higher solubility of the carrier in aqueous media, transport of Ln with DPPA was not observed. By using DOPA, La, Ce, Pr, and Nd permeated through the membrane while transport of heavier Ln was partly or totally suppressed. This enables these four Ln (separation factor alpha = 3.0 for Nd and Sm) to be separated from the others. Furthermore, at a very low acidity gradient, only La (III) is transported over the membrane (alpha >/= 3.4 for La, Ce and next Ln). The seven elements from La to Tb can be separated from Th(IV) because no evidence of its permeation through the membrane was found under the conditions of Ln transport. In contrast to previous studies on Ln transport with dialkylphosphoric acid carrier, the possibility of participation of species other than Ln(AHA)(3) in the transport has been discussed. The decrease of permeability observed at higher Ln concentrations and higher pH of the feed solution has been explained as the result of formation of species, e.g. polymeric ones, that are unable to permeate through the membrane. PMID:18966531

Hrdlicka, A; Fialová, I; Dolezalová, J



Microextraction of mebendazole across supported liquid membrane forced by pH gradient and electrical field.  


In the present study, extraction of mebendazole across a supported-liquid membrane (SLM) was performed based on two different driving forces: (1) pH gradient over the SLM, and (2) electrical field sustained over the SLM. The extracted drug concentration was studied using reversed-phase HPLC-UV. At passive extraction conditions, mebendazole was extracted from alkaline samples (0.01 mmol L(-1) NaOH) into 1-undecanol immobilized in the pores of a porous hollow fiber of polypropylene (SLM), and then transported into 25 ?L of 100mM HCl as the acceptor solution. Under electrokinetic migration conditions, mebendazole transported under applied voltage from acidic solutions (100 mmol L(-1) HCl) through 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE) immobilized in the pores of hollow fiber, into 25 ?L of 100 mmol L(-1) HCl as the acceptor solution. The effects of several factors including the nature of organic solvent, pH of donor and acceptor solutions, extraction time and stirring speed on the extraction efficiency of the drug were investigated and optimized. Under optimal conditions, preconcentration factors (PF) of 211 and 190 were obtained for the drug based on passive transport and electromembrane extraction (EME), respectively. Also, linear range of 0.5-1000 ?g L(-1) with estimation of coefficient higher than 0.994 was obtained for both of the proposed methods. The results showed that EME has higher speed in comparison with simple passive transport. The methods were successfully applied to extract mebendazole from plasma and urine samples and satisfactory results were obtained. PMID:21211924

Eskandari, Mahboube; Yamini, Yadollah; Fotouhi, Lida; Seidi, Shahram



Synthesis of Diphosphine Dioxides for Extraction of Actinides using Supported Liquid Membranes Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recurrent method for synthesis of linear and macrocyclic diphosphine dioxides has been applied to synthesize new phosphoryl ligands with P-C bonds, stable in strongly acidic aqueous solution and therefore useful for extraction and recovering of actinides from nuclear wastes. The influence of the structural parameters on their liquid-liquid extraction properties of plutonium and neptunium is studied. Plutonium and Neptunium

Henri-Jean Cristau; Patrick Mouchet; Jean-François Dozol; Helene Rouquette



Palladium nanoparticles supported onto ionic carbon nanotubes as robust recyclable catalysts in an ionic liquid.  


Palladium nanoparticles have been deposited onto imidazolium bromide-functionalized ionic MWCNTs through hydrogen reduction of Na2PdCl4 in water without aid of surfactants under extremely mild conditions, and combined with an ionic liquid to create a new recyclable ionic liquid-based catalytic system allowing up to 50 times recycling. PMID:18283343

Chun, Yu Sung; Shin, Ju Yeon; Song, Choong Eui; Lee, Sang-gi



Formation of Self-Supporting Reversible Cellular Networks in Suspensions of Colloids and Liquid Crystals  

E-print Network

Form: March 10, 2005 In mixtures of thermotropic liquid crystals with spherical poly (methyl to separation of the liquid crystal into two compartments with different phase transformation kinetics Crystals Doris Vollmer,*, Gerald Hinze, Beate Ullrich, Wilson C. K. Poon,§,| Michael E. Cates,§ and Andrew

Schofield, Andrew


Liquid phase methanol LaPorte Process Development Unit: Modification, operation, and support studies  

SciTech Connect

The LPMEOH process was conceived and patented by Chem Systems Inc. in 1975. Initial research and studies on the process focused on two distinct modes of operation. The first was a liquid fluidized mode with relatively large catalyst pellets suspended in a fluidizing liquid, and the second was an entrained (slurry) mode with fine catalyst particles slurried in an inert liquid. The development of both operating modes progressed in parallel from bench scale reactors, through an intermediate scale lab PDU, and then to the LaPorte PDU in 1984. The slurry mode of operation was ultimately chosen as the operating mode of choice due to its superior performance.

Not Available



Piping support system for liquid-metal fast-breeder reactor  


A pipe support consisting of a rigid link pivotally attached to a pipe and an anchor, adapted to generate stress or strain in the link and pipe due to pipe thermal movement, which stress or strain can oppose further pipe movement and generally provides pipe support. The pipe support can be used in multiple combinations with other pipe supports to form a support system. This support system is most useful in applications in which the pipe is normally operated at a constant elevated or depressed temperature such that desired stress or strain can be planned in advance of pipe and support installation. The support system is therefore especially useful in steam stations and in refrigeration equipment.

Brussalis, Jr., William G. (Forward Township, Washington County, PA)



Supporting Information for 3D Motion of DNA-Au Nanoconjugates in Graphene Liquid Cell EM  

E-print Network

: () () , the same as that for free individual particles. Text S2 Dosage calculation 1. The suitable imaging experiment, dosage is calculated as follows: #12;4" " ( ) ( ) This dosage allows the required sufficient sample statistics for each group of nanocrystals in the same liquid pocket. 2. Calculation

Zettl, Alex


Synergistic separation of Co(II)\\/Li(I) for the recycling of LIB industry wastes by supported liquid membrane using Cyanex 272 and DR8R  

Microsoft Academic Search

The separation of Co(II) and Li(I) from simulated solution of lithium ion battery (LIB) industry wastes has been studied by a supported liquid membrane (SLM) process. The synergistic effect of mixture of the extractants Cyanex 272 and DP-8R on the permeation rate and separation factor of Co(II) and Li(I) from dilute aqueous sulfate media using a supported liquid membrane (SLM)

Basudev Swain; Jinki Jeong; Kyoungkeun Yoo; Jae-chun Lee



Determination of ketamine, norketamine and dehydronorketamine in urine by hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction using an essential oil as supported liquid membrane.  


Here, we present a method for the determination of ketamine (KT) and its main metabolites, norketamine (NK) and dehydronorketamine (DHNK) in urine samples by using hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction (HF-LPME) in the three-phase mode. The fiber pores were filled with eucalyptus essential oil and a solution of 1.0mol/L of HCl was introduced into the lumen of the fiber (acceptor phase). The fiber was submersed in the alkalinized urine containing 10% NaCl, and the system was submitted to lateral shaking (2400rpm) during 30min. Acceptor phase was withdrawn from the fiber, dried and the residue was then derivatized with trifluoroacetic anhydride (TFAA) for further determination by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The calibration curves were linear over the specified range and limits of detection (LoDs) obtained for KT, NK and DHNK were below the cut-off value (1.0ng/mL) recommended by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). A totally "green chemistry" approach of the sample extraction was obtained by using essential oil as a supported liquid membrane in HF-LPME. The developed method was successfully validated and applied to urine samples collected from two clinical cases in which KT was suspected to be involved. PMID:24810678

Bairros, André Valle de; Lanaro, Rafael; Almeida, Rafael Menck de; Yonamine, Mauricio



Liquid perfluorochemical-supported hybrid cell culture system for proliferation of chondrocytes on fibrous polylactide scaffolds.  


CP5 bovine chondrocytes were cultured on biodegradable electrospun fibrous polylactide (PLA) scaffolds placed on a flexible interface formed between two immiscible liquid phases: (1) hydrophobic perfluorochemical (PFC) and (2) aqueous culture medium, as a new way of cartilage implant development. Robust and intensive growth of CP5 cells was achieved in our hybrid liquid-solid-liquid culture system consisting of the fibrous PLA scaffolds in contrast to limited growth of the CP5 cells in traditional culture system with PLA scaffold placed on solid surface. The multicellular aggregates of CP5 cells covered the surface of PLA scaffolds and the chondrocytes migrated through and overgrew internal fibers of the scaffolds. Our hybrid culture system simultaneously allows the adhesion of adherent CP5 cells to fibers of PLA scaffolds as well as, due to use of phase of PFC, enhances the mass transfer in the case of supplying/removing of respiratory gases, i.e., O2 and CO2. Our flexible (independent of vessel shape) system is simple, ready-to-use and may utilize a variety of polymer-based scaffolds traditionally proposed for implant development. PMID:24532258

Pilarek, Maciej; Grabowska, Iwona; Senderek, Ilona; Wojasi?ski, Micha?; Janicka, Justyna; Janczyk-Ilach, Katarzyna; Ciach, Tomasz



Liquid phase methanol LaPorte process development unit: Modification, operation, and support studies  

SciTech Connect

Liquid-entrained operations at the LaPorte Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH) Process Development Unit (PDU) continued during June and July 1988 under Tasks 2.1 and 2.2 of Contract No. DE-AC22-87PC90005 for the US Department of Energy. The primary focus of this PDU operating program was to prepare for a confident move to the next scale of operation with an optimized and simplified process. Several new design options had been identified and thoroughly evaluated in a detailed process engineering study completed under the LPMEOH Part-2 contract (DE-AC22-85PC80007), which then became the basis for the current PDU modification/operating program. The focus of the Process Engineering Design was to optimize and simplifications focused on the slurry loop, which consists of the reactor, vapor/liquid separator, slurry heat exchanger, and slurry circulation pump. Two-Phase Gas Holdup tests began at LaPorte in June 1988 with nitrogen/oil and CO- rich gas/oil systems. The purpose of these tests was to study the hydrodynamics of the reactor, detect metal carbonyl catalyst poisons, and train operating personnel. Any effect of the new gas sparger and the internal heat exchanger would be revealed by comparing the hydrodynamic data with previous PDU hydrodynamic data. The Equipment Evaluation'' Run E-5 was conducted at the LaPorte LPMEOH PDU in July 1988. The objective of Run E-5 was to systematically evaluate each new piece of equipment (sparger, internal heat exchanger, V/L disengagement zone, demister, and cyclone) which had been added to the system, and attempt to run the reactor in an internal-only mode. In addition, a successful catalyst activation with a concentrated (45 wt % oxide) slurry was sought. 9 refs., 26 figs., 15 tabs.

Not Available



Development of one-step hollow fiber supported liquid phase sampling technique for occupational workplace air analysis using high performance liquid chromatography with ultra-violet detector.  


In this study, a simple and novel one-step hollow-fiber supported liquid-phase sampling (HF-LPS) technique was developed for enriched sampling of gaseous toxic species prior to chemical analysis for workplace air monitoring. A lab-made apparatus designed with a gaseous sample generator and a microdialysis sampling cavity (for HF-LPS) was utilized and evaluated to simulate gaseous contaminant air for occupational workplace analysis. Gaseous phenol was selected as the model toxic species. A polyethersulfone hollow fiber dialysis module filled with ethylene glycol in the shell-side was applied as the absorption solvent to collect phenol from a gas flow through the tube-side, based on the concentration distribution of phenol between the absorption solvent and the gas flow. After sampling, 20 ?L of the extractant was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV). Factors that influence the generation of gaseous standards and the HF-LPS were studied thoroughly. Results indicated that at 25 °C the phenol (2000 ?g/mL) standard solution injected at 15-?L/min can be vaporized into sampling cavity under nitrogen flow at 780 mL/min, to generate gaseous phenol with concentration approximate to twice the permissible exposure limit. Sampling at 37.3 mL/min for 30 min can meet the requirement of the workplace air monitoring. The phenol in air ranged between 0.7 and 10 cm³/m³ (shows excellent linearity) with recovery between 98.1 and 104.1%. The proposed method was identified as a one-step sampling for workplace monitoring with advantages of convenience, rapidity, sensitivity, and usage of less-toxic solvent. PMID:22673811

Yan, Cheing-Tong; Chien, Hai-Ying



Diffusion coefficient of an inclusion in a liquid membrane supported by a solvent of arbitrary thickness  

E-print Network

The diffusion coefficient of a circular shaped inclusion in a liquid membrane is investigated by taking into account the interaction between membranes and bulk solvents of arbitrary thickness. As illustrative examples, the diffusion coefficients of two types of inclusions - a circular domain composed of fluid with the same viscosity as the host membrane and that of a polymer chain embedded in the membrane are studied.The diffusion coefficients are expressed in terms of the hydrodynamic screening lengths which vary according to the solvent thickness. When the membrane fluid is dragged by the solvent of finite thickness, via stick boundary conditions, multiple hydrodynamic screening lengths together with the weight factors to the diffusion coefficients are obtained from the dispersion relation. The condition for which the diffusion coefficients can be approximated by the expression including only a single hydrodynamic screening length are also shown.

Kazuhiko Seki; Sanoop Ramachandran; Shigeyuki Komura




SciTech Connect

Deformable mirrors are increasingly used in astronomy. However, they still are limited in stroke for active correction of high-amplitude optical aberrations. Magnetic liquid deformable mirrors (MLDMs) are a new technology that has the advantages of high-amplitude deformations and low costs. In this paper, we demonstrate extremely high strokes and interactuator strokes achievable by MLDMs which can be used in astronomical instrumentation. In particular, we consider the use of such a mirror to suggest an interesting application for the next generation of large telescopes. We present a prototype 91 actuator deformable mirror made of a magnetic liquid (ferrofluid). This mirror uses a technique that linearizes the response of such mirrors by superimposing a large and uniform magnetic field on the magnetic field produced by an array of small coils. We discuss experimental results that illustrate the performance of MLDMs. A most interesting application of MLDMs comes from the fact they could be used to correct the aberrations of large and lower optical quality primary mirrors held by simple support systems. We estimate basic parameters of the needed MLDMs, obtaining reasonable values.

Borra, E. F., E-mail: [Departement de Physique, de Genie Physique et d'Optique, Universite Laval, Quebec, QC G1V 0A6 (Canada)



The effective recovery of praseodymium from mixed rare earths via a hollow fiber supported liquid membrane and its mass transfer related  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recovery of praseodymium from mixed rare earths via a hollow fiber supported liquid membrane (HFSLM) was examined. Bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) phosphinic acid – known as Cyanex 272 – was used as an extractant carrier. The stripping solution was hydrochloric acid solution. The experiments examined in functions of the concentrations of the carrier in liquid membrane, the (initial) pH's of initial feed

Pharannalak Wannachod; Srestha Chaturabul; Ura Pancharoen; Anchaleeporn W. Lothongkum; Weerawat Patthaveekongka



Ionic liquid-based preparation of cellulose-dendrimer films as solid supports for enzyme immobilization.  


Surface-active cellulose films for covalent attachment of bioactive moieties were achieved by codissolution of cellulose with polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers in an ionic liquid followed by regeneration of the composite as a film. Different generations of PAMAM were used for the formation of cellulose-dendrimer composites, as well as films with the dendrimer covalently bonded to the cellulose by means of the linker 1,3-phenylene diisocyanate. Surface characterization, thermal stability, and utility for immobilization of laccase were determined. The presence of the dendrimer amino groups was confirmed by detailed characterization of the films' surfaces. These modified films exhibit acceptable thermal stability, comparable to that of other regenerated cellulose films, but the number of active functional groups on the surface is much smaller than the theoretical amount expected. Films made with 1,3-phenylene diisocyanate as linker for covalently bound cellulose and dendrimers exhibit a better performance for immobilization of laccase than those prepared by simple mixing of the cellulose and dendrimer. In general, a linear correspondence between the dendrimer generation within the films and the specific activity of immobilized laccase in such films was not observed. PMID:18163541

Bagheri, Mozhgan; Rodríguez, Héctor; Swatloski, Richard P; Spear, Scott K; Daly, Daniel T; Rogers, Robin D



Attraction of Meso-Scale Objects on the Surface of a Thin Elastic Film Supported on a Liquid  

E-print Network

We study the interaction of two parallel rigid cylinders on the surface of a thin elastic film supported on a pool of liquid. The excess energy of the surface due to the curvature of the stretched film induces attraction of the cylinders that can be quantified by the variation of their gravitational potential energies as they descend into the liquid while still floating on the film. Although the experimental results follow the trend predicted from the balance of the gravitational and elastic energies of the system, they are somewhat underestimated. The origin of this discrepancy is the hysteresis of adhesion between the cylinder and the elastic film that does not allow the conversion of the total available energy into gravitational potential energy as some part of it is recovered in stretching the film behind the cylinders while they approach each other. A modification of the model accounting for the effects of adhesion hysteresis improves the agreement between theoretical and experimental results. The contribution of the adhesion hysteresis can be reduced considerably by introducing a thin hydrogel layer atop the elastic film that enhances the range of attraction of the cylinders (as well as rigid spheres) in a dramatic way. Morphological instabilities in the gel project corrugated paths to the motion of small spheres, thus leading to a large numbers of particles to aggregate along their defects. These observations suggest that a thin hydrogel layer supported on a deformable elastic film affords an effective model system to study elasticity and defects mediated interaction of particles on its surface.

Aditi Chakrabarti; Manoj K. Chaudhury



Simultaneous determination of total fatty acid esters of chloropropanols in edible oils by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with solid-supported liquid-liquid extraction.  


This study aimed to establish a novel robust method for the simultaneous determination of total fatty acid esters of 4 chloropropanols including fatty acid esters of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD esters), 2-monochloropropane-1,3-diol (2-MCPD esters), 1,3-dichloropropan-2-ol (1,3-DCP esters) and 2,3-dichloropropan-1-ol (2,3-DCP esters) in edible oils. In this method, sodium methylate in methanol was used as the reagent for the ester cleavage reaction of chloropropanols esters. The reaction products were extracted by a sodium sulfate solution, and then purified by solid-supported liquid-liquid extraction (SLE) using diatomaceous earth (Hydromatrix™) as the sorbent. Finally, the extracts were derivatized with heptafluorobutyrylim idazole (HFBI) and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Quantification was achieved using deuterated chloropropanols as their respective internal standards, including 3-MCPD-d5, 2-MCPD-d5, 1,3-DCP-d5 and 2,3-DCP-d5. A good linear relationship between peak area and concentrations was obtained within the range of 0.025-2.000mgL(-1) with a correlation coefficients not less than 0.999 for all the chloropropanols esters. The limits of detection (LODs) of esters of 3-MCPD, 2-MCPD, 1,3-DCP and 2,3-DCP (calculated as corresponding chloropropanols) were 30, 30, 100 and 30?gkg(-1), respectively. The average recoveries of the 3-MCPD esters and the 4 chloropropanols spiked at 0.1, 0.5 and 2mgkg(-1) into blank oil matrix were typically in a range from 70.7% to 113.3%. The robust method validation data including calibration, LOD/LOQ, accuracy and repeatability and proficiency test results (Z-score: -0.5) of the official Food Analysis Performance Assessment Scheme (FAPAS) indicated that the present quantitative method could be successfully applied to the determination of total chloropropanols esters in various edible oils. PMID:24070627

Liu, Qing; Han, Feng; Xie, Ke; Miao, Hong; Wu, Yongning



Gaseous fuel production from nonrecyclable paper wastes by using supported metal catalysts in high-temperature liquid water.  


Paper wastes are used for the production of gaseous fuels over supported metal catalysts. The gasification of the nonrecyclable paper wastes, such as shredded documents and paper sludge, is carried out in high-temperature liquid water. The order of the catalytic activity for the gasification is found to be ruthenium>rhodium>platinum>palladium. A charcoal-supported ruthenium catalyst (Ru/C) is the most effective for the gasification of paper and cellulose. Paper wastes are gasified to a limited degree (32.6 carbon %) for 30 min in water at 523 K to produce methane and carbon dioxide, with a small amount of hydrogen. At 573 K, more complete gasification with almost 100 carbon % is achieved within 10 min in water. At 523 K, the gas yield of paper gasification over Ru/C is higher than that of cellulose powder. The gas yields are increased by ball-milling treatment of the recycled paper and cellulose powder. Printed paper wastes are also gasified at 523 K in water. PMID:20512801

Yamaguchi, Aritomo; Hiyoshi, Norihito; Sato, Osamu; Bando, Kyoko K; Shirai, Masayuki



Total Liquid Ventilation Provides Superior Respiratory Support to Conventional Mechanical Ventilation in a Large Animal Model of Severe Respiratory Failure  

PubMed Central

Total liquid ventilation (TLV) has the potential to provide respiratory support superior to conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) in the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, laboratory studies are limited to trials in small animals for no longer than 4 hours. The objective of this study was to compare TLV and CMV in a large animal model of ARDS for 24 hours. Ten sheep weighing 53 ± 4 (SD) kg were anesthetized and ventilated with 100% oxygen. Oleic acid was injected into the pulmonary circulation until PaO2:FiO2 ? 60 mmHg, followed by transition to a protective CMV protocol (n=5) or TLV (n=5) for 24 hours. Pathophysiology was recorded and the lungs were harvested for histological analysis. Animals treated with CMV became progressively hypoxic and hypercarbic despite maximum ventilatory support. Sheep treated with TLV maintained normal blood gases with statistically greater PO2 (p<10?9) and lower PCO2 (p < 10?3) than the CMV group. Survival at 24 hours in the TLV and CMV groups were 100% and 40% respectively (p< 0.05). Thus, TLV provided gas exchange superior to CMV in this laboratory model of severe ARDS. PMID:21084968

Pohlmann, Joshua R; Brant, David O; Daul, Morgan A; Reoma, Junewai L; Kim, Anne C; Osterholzer, Kathryn R; Johnson, Kent J; Bartlett, Robert H; Cook, Keith E; Hirschl, Ronald B



Comparative study of sample preparation methods; supported liquid membrane and solid phase extraction in the determination of benzimidazole anthelmintics in biological matrices by liquid chromatography–electrospray–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supported liquid membrane (SLM) and solid phase extraction (SPE) have been applied as clean-up and\\/or enrichment techniques for a mixture of five benzimidazole anthelmintics compounds, namely albendazole, fenbendazole, mebendazole, oxibendazole, and thiabendazole. Two biological matrices, mainly urine and milk, and ultra high purity (UHP) water were spiked with a mixture of these five compounds. Waters Oasis® MCX and International Sorbent

Titus A. M. Msagati; Mathew Muzi Nindi



Partitioning of Actinides from High Level Waste of PUREX Origin Using Octylphenyl-N,N'-diisobutylcarbamoylmethyl Phosphine Oxide (CMPO)Based Supported Liquid Membrane  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present studies deal with the application of the supported liquid membrane (SLM) technique for partitioning of actinides from high level waste of PUREX origin. The process uses a solution of octylphenyl-N,N'-diisobutylcarbamoylmethyl phosphine oxide (CMPO) in n-dodecane as a carrier with a polytetrafluoroethylene support and a mixture of citric acid, formic acid, and hydrazine hydrate as the receiving phase. The

A. Ramanujam; P. S. Dhami; V. Gopalakrishnan; N. L. Dudwadkar; R. R. Chitnis; J. N. Mathur



Supported Phospholipid Bilayer Interaction with Components Found in Typical Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids – a QCM-D and AFM Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) monitoring and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were combined to evaluate the defects created by an ionic liquid anion and a cation in a supported phospholipid bilayer composed of zwitterionic lipids on a silica surface. The cation 1-octyl-3-methyl imidazolium (OMIM + ) was shown to remove lipids from the bilayer, increase the roughness to approximately

Kervin O. Evans



Imidazolium-salt-functionalized ionic-CNT-supported Ru-carbene/palladium nanoparticles for recyclable tandem metathesis/hydrogenation reactions in ionic liquids.  


NP and tuck: Two different catalysts, a Ru-carbene complex and palladium nanoparticles, were immobilized onto the same imidazolium-salt-functionalized ionic CNTs. These supported dual-function catalysts showed excellent catalytic activity in tandem metathesis/hydrogenation reactions in an ionic liquid and could be recovered and reused four times. RCM = ring-closing metathesis. PMID:23757260

Lee, Sujin; Shin, Ju Yeon; Lee, Sang-gi



Tank 241-C-103 organic vapor and liquid characterization and supporting activities, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. Environmental Assessment  

SciTech Connect

The action proposed is to sample the vapor space and liquid waste and perform other supporting activities in Tank 241-C-103 located in the 241-C Tank Farm on the Hanford Site. Operations at Tank 241-C-103 are curtailed because of an unreviewed safety question (USQ) concerning flammability issues of the organic waste in the tank. This USQ must be resolved before normal operation and surveillance of the tank can resume. In addition to the USQ, Tank 241-C-103 is thought to be involved in several cases of exposure of individuals to noxious vapors. This safety issue requires the use of supplied air for workers in the vicinity of the tank. Because of the USQ, the US Department of Energy proposes to characterize the waste in the vapor space and the organic and aqueous layers, to determine the volume of the organic layer. This action is needed to: (1) assess potential risks to workers, the public, and the environment from continued routine tank operations and (2) provide information on the waste material in the tank to facilitate a comprehensive safety analysis of this USQ. The information would be used to determine if a flammable condition within the tank is credible. This information would be used to prevent or mitigate an accident during continued waste storage and future waste characterization. Alternatives to the proposed activities have been considered in this analysis.

Not Available



Development of supported liquid membrane techniques for the monitoring of trace levels of organic pollutants in wastewaters and water purification systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The supported liquid membrane (SLM) extraction technique has been developed and successfully used for the monitoring of trace quantities of ionisable organic contaminants, including 17?-estradiol and its metabolites, testosterones and their methyl ester derivatives, benzimidazole anthelmintic antibiotics and sulphonamides in aquatic systems. A number of parameters which control the mass transfer in the supported liquid membrane extraction process such as donor and acceptor pH, extraction time and the type of organic liquid membrane were optimised to enhance the efficiency of the liquid membrane in the removal of these compounds. The method developed gave very low detection limits (0.3 ng/l to 2.4 ng/l for 17?-estradiol and its metabolites; between 1 ?g/l and 20 ?g/l for sulphonamides; and between 0.1 ng/l and 10 ng/l for benzimidazole anthelmintic compounds). The SLM method showed good linearity, reproducibility and repeatability values and is therefore suitable for routine monitoring of such compounds in water and wastewater systems.

Msagati, Titus A. M.; Mamba, Bhekie B.


Palladium supported on filamentous active carbon as effective catalyst for liquid-phase hydrogenation of 2-butyne-1,4-diol to 2-butene-1,4-diol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structured palladium catalysts suitable for three-phase reactions have been developed based on woven fabrics of active carbon fibres (ACF) as the catalytic supports. The Pd\\/ACF were tested in liquid-phase hydrogenation of 2-butyne-1,4-diol showing a selectivity towards 2-butene-1,4-diol up to 97% at conversions up to 80%. The catalyst multiple reuse with stable activity\\/selectivity in a batch reactor was also demonstrated. The

E Joannet; C Horny; L Kiwi-Minsker; A Renken



Ionic liquids supported on magnetic nanoparticles as a sorbent preconcentration material for sulfonylurea herbicides prior to their determination by capillary liquid chromatography.  


A magnetic material based on N-methylimidazolium ionic liquid and Fe(3)O(4) magnetic nanoparticles incorporated in a silica matrix has been used to extract and preconcentrate sulfonylurea herbicides, such as thifensulfuron methyl (TSM), metsulfuron methyl (MSM), triasulfuron (TS), tribenuron methyl (TBM) and primisulfuron methyl (PSM) from polluted water samples, prior to their analysis by capillary liquid chromatography with a diode array detector (DAD). Under the optimum conditions, this method allows the determination of TSM, MSM, TS, TBM and PSM in a linear range between 5 and 100 ng mL(-1), with relative standard deviation values lower than 5.3% (n = 10), in all cases. Detection limits ranging between 1.13 and 2.95 ng mL(-1) were achieved. The usefulness of the proposed method was demonstrated by the analysis of river water samples, obtaining recoveries higher than 91%. PMID:22832671

Bouri, Mohamed; Gurau, Madalina; Salghi, Rachid; Cretescu, Igor; Zougagh, Mohammed; Rios, Ángel



Multi-residue quantification of veterinary drugs in milk with a novel extraction and cleanup technique: salting out supported liquid extraction (SOSLE).  


A quantitative liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry method was developed for the determination of more than one hundred compounds belonging to a variety of veterinary drug classes in bovine milk. Salting out supported liquid extraction (SOSLE), a novel extraction and cleanup technique, was introduced to ensure high extraction efficiency and good sample cleanup. The high salt (ammonium sulfate) concentration in the aqueous donor phase permits supported liquid/liquid extraction (SLE) with a relative polar organic acceptor phase (acetonitrile). This is different from traditional SLE, in which the need for phase separation results in the selection of organic solvents with intermediate polarities (e.g., ethyl acetate or dichloromethane). Hence, SOSLE is more efficient in recovering polar analytes than conventional SLE. SOSLE was also compared to classical approaches like solid phase extraction, QuEChERS and ultra-filtration. The proposed technique resulted in extracts of equal or superior cleanliness and with higher average recoveries than those obtained with QuEChERS or SPE. The recovery (median for all compounds) was 73% for QuEChERS, 83% for SPE and 91% for SOSLE. The most significant improvements were observed for polar analytes (penicillines, quinolones and tetracyclines) which are hardly recovered by QuEChERS. The chromatographic separation and detection was based on an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography Q-Orbitrap system (Q-Exactive plus). The developed analytical method has been validated (based on the commission decision 2002/957/EC) as required for quantitative veterinary drug methods. PMID:24745738

Kaufmann, A; Butcher, P; Maden, K; Walker, S; Widmer, M



Analysis of the organic liquid produced from catalytic cracking of crude palm oil in the presence of alumina supported catalysts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Catalytic cracking of crude palm oil (CPO) was studied in the presence of alumina, 1% Pt/Al2O3 and 1% Pd/Al2O3 as catalyst. The CPO to catalyst weight ratio used was 1:0.05. The experiment was carried out in a simple liquid-phase batch reactor at atmospheric pressure where the sample was heated to 300-350 ?C. Products formed were organic liquid products (OLP) and gaseous product with the solid residue remains in the reactor. The total conversion of CPO was only between 25 - 31% where the residue is suggested to be mainly of polimerised CPO. The OLP was analysed using a gas chromatography with FID detector. Analyses show that the selectivity to liquid fuel is influence by the catalyst used whereby Al2O3 gives the highest selectivity to gasoline while 1% Pt/Al2O3 has the highest selectivity to diesel. However, 1% Pd/Al2O3 is not a suitable catalyst for catalytic cracking of CPO to liquid fuel where less than 17.5% of OLP produced could be classified as liquid fuel.

Ramli, Anita; Razak, Rozlina Abdul



Device providing anti-seismic support for an apparatus immersed in the bath of liquid alkali metal surrounding a fast neutron nuclear reactor  

SciTech Connect

The present invention relates to a device providing anti-seismic support for an apparatus immersed in the bath of liquid alkali metal surrounding a fast neutron nuclear reactor, and abutting by a flange on a slab traversed by the apparatus and resistant to the load that it constitutes, wherein the flange for supporting the apparatus is connected to a sleeve for elastically taking up the horizontal displacements of its top part, independently of an inner envelope of the apparatus and on which a framework for supporting the apparatus whose bottom part is connected to the inner envelope, is fixed at a level determined as a function of the most dangerous earth tremor frequencies.

Andro, J.; Marjollet, J.



One-step synthesis of highly efficient nanocatalysts on the supports with hierarchical pores using porous ionic liquid-water gel.  


Stable porous ionic liquid-water gel induced by inorganic salts was created for the first time. The porous gel was used to develop a one-step method to synthesize supported metal nanocatalysts. Au/SiO2, Ru/SiO2, Pd/Cu(2-pymo)2 metal-organic framework (Cu-MOF), and Au/polyacrylamide (PAM) were synthesized, in which the supports had hierarchical meso- and macropores, the size of the metal nanocatalysts could be very small (<1 nm), and the size distribution was very narrow even when the metal loading amount was as high as 8 wt %. The catalysts were extremely active, selective, and stable for oxidative esterification of benzyl alcohol to methyl benzoate, benzene hydrogenation to cyclohexane, and oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde because they combined the advantages of the nanocatalysts of small size and hierarchical porosity of the supports. In addition, this method is very simple. PMID:24575937

Kang, Xinchen; Zhang, Jianling; Shang, Wenting; Wu, Tianbin; Zhang, Peng; Han, Buxing; Wu, Zhonghua; Mo, Guang; Xing, Xueqing



Comparative Study on the Sulfur Tolerance and Carbon Resistance of Supported Noble Metal Catalysts in Steam Reforming of Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuel  

SciTech Connect

This work was conducted to clarify the influence of the type of metal and support on the sulfur tolerance and carbon resistance of supported noble metal catalysts in steam reforming of liquid hydrocarbons. Al2O3-supported noble metal catalysts (Rh, Ru, Pt, and Pd), Rh catalysts on different supports (Al2O3, CeO2, SiO2, and MgO), and Pt catalyst supported on CeO2 and Al2O3, were examined for steam reforming of a liquid hydrocarbon fuel (Norpar13 from Exxon Mobil) at 800 C for 55 h. The results indicate that (1) Rh/Al2O3 shows higher sulfur tolerance than the Ru, Pt, and Pd catalysts on the same support; (2) both Al2O3 and CeO2 are promising supports for Rh catalyst to process sulfur-containing hydrocarbons; and (3) Pt/CeO2 exhibits better catalytic performance than Pt/Al2O3 in the reaction with sulfur. TEM results demonstrate that the metal particles in Rh/Al2O3 were better dispersed (mostly in 1-3 nm) compared with the other catalysts after reforming the sulfur-containing feed. As revealed by XPS, the binding energy of Rh 3d for Rh/Al2O3 is notably higher than that for Rh/CeO2, implying the formation of electron-deficient Rh particles in the former. The strong sulfur tolerance of Rh/Al2O3 may be related to the formation of well-dispersed electron-deficient Rh particles on the Al2O3 support. Sulfur K-edge XANES illustrates the preferential formation of sulfonate and sulfate on Rh/Al2O3, which is believed to be beneficial for improving its sulfur tolerance as their oxygen-shielded sulfur structure may hinder direct Rh-S interaction. Due to its strong sulfur tolerance, the carbon deposition on Rh/Al2O3 was significantly lower than that on the Al2O3-supported Ru, Pt, and Pd catalysts after the reaction with sulfur. The superior catalytic performance of CeO2-supported Rh and Pt catalysts in the presence of sulfur can be ascribed mainly to the promotion effect of CeO2 on carbon gasification, leading to much lower carbon deposition compared with the Rh/Al2O3, Rh/MgO, Rh/SiO2 and Pt/Al2O3 catalysts.

Xie, Chao; Chen, Yongsheng; Engelhard, Mark H.; Song, Chunshan



Design, testing, fabrication and launch support of a liquid chemical barium release payload (utilizing the liquid fluorine-barium salt/hydrazine system)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A payload was designed which included a cryogenic oxidizer tank, a fuel tank, and burner section. Release of 30 lb of chemicals was planned to occur in 2 seconds at the optimum oxidizer to fuel ratio. The chemicals consisted of 17 lb of liquid fluorine oxidizer and 13 lb of hydrazine-barium salt fuel mixture. The fuel mixture was 17% barium chloride, 16% barium nitrate, and 67% hydrazine, and contained 2.6 lb of available barium. Two significant problem areas were resolved during the program: explosive valve development and burner operation. The release payload was flight tested, from Wallops Island, Virginia. The release took place at an altitude of approximately 260 km. The release produced a luminous cloud which expanded very rapidly, disappearing to the human eye in about 20 seconds. Barium ion concentration slowly increased over a wide area of sky until measurements were discontinued at sunrise (about 30 minutes).

Stokes, C. S.; Smith, E. W.; Murphy, W. J.



Synthesis, structural, photophysical and electrochemical studies of various d-metal complexes of btp [2,6-bis(1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)pyridine] ligands that give rise to the formation of metallo-supramolecular gels.  


2,6-Bis(1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)pyridine (btp) is a terdentate binding motif that is synthesised modularly via the CuAAC reaction. Herein, we present the synthesis of ligands 1 and 2 and the investigation of the coordination chemistry, photophysical behaviour and electrochemistry of complexes of these with a number of d-metal ions (e.g. Ru(II), Ir(III), Ni(II) and Pt(II)). The X-ray crystal structures of ligand 1 and the complexes [Ru·2(2)](PF6)Cl, [Ni·1(2)](PF6)Cl and [Ir·1Cl3] are also presented. All of the complexes displayed non-classical triazolyl C-H···Cl(-) hydrogen bonding. All but one complex showed no metal-based luminescence at room temperature, while all of the Pt(ii) complexes displayed luminescence at 77 K. The electrochemistry of the Ru(II) complexes was also studied and these complexes were found to have higher oxidation potentials than analogous compounds. The redox behaviour of [RuL2](2+) complexes with both 1 and 2 was nearly identical, while [Ru·1Cl2(DMSO)] was oxidised at significantly lower potential. We also show that the Ru(II) complex of 2, [Ru·2(2)](PF6)Cl, gave rise to the formation of a metallo-supramolecular gel, the morphology of which was studied using scanning electron and helium ion microscopy. PMID:24149846

Byrne, Joseph P; Kitchen, Jonathan A; Kotova, Oxana; Leigh, Vivienne; Bell, Alan P; Boland, John J; Albrecht, Martin; Gunnlaugsson, Thorfinnur



Rare-earth metal-ion separation using a supported liquid membrane mediated by a narrow rim phosphorylated calix[4]arene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transport of rare-earth metal ions through a supported liquid membrane mediated by 5,11,17,23-tetra-tert-butyl-25,26,27,28-tetrakis(diphenylphosphinoylmethoxy)calix[4]arene (1) (cone conformation) in o-nitrophenyl hexyl ether (NPHE) has been investigated. The effect of the initial metal concentration, salting-out agent concentration in the feed phase and temperature as well as the carrier concentration on the flux was studied. The separation ability of ligand 1 was tested

M. R Yaftian; M Burgard; C. B Dieleman; D Matt



Multivariate Analysis of Selected Metal Ion Transport through a Hollow?Fiber Supported Liquid Membrane Device used for Passive Sampling Monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hollow fiber supported liquid membrane module using one single fiber impregnated with a mixture of 1,10?dibenzyl?1,10?diaza?18?crown?6 and bis(2?ethylhexyl)phosphate dissolved in hexylbenzene was used for passive sampling of ppb levels of Pb(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Mn(II), Ni(II), and Cd(II) in water. The target ions were simultaneously transported and preconcentrated into a citric acid acceptor solution within the lumen of the hollow

Eduardo Rodríguez de San Miguel; Philipp Mayer; Jan Åke Jönsson



Determination of phenolic acids and flavonoids in raw propolis by silica-supported ionic liquid-based matrix solid phase dispersion extraction high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection.  


The silica-supported ionic liquid (S-SIL) was prepared by impregnation and used as the dispersion adsorbent of matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) for the simultaneous extraction of eight phenolic acids and flavonoids, including caffeic acid, ferulic acid, morin, luteolin, quercetin, apigenin, chrysin, and kaempferide in raw propolis. High performance liquid chromatography with a Zorbax SB-C18 column (150mm×4.6mm, 3.5?m) was used for separation of the analytes. The mobile phase consisted of 0.2% phosphoric acid aqueous solution and acetonitrile and the flow rate of the mobile phase was 0.5mL/min. The experimental conditions for silica-supported ionic liquid-based matrix solid phase dispersion (S-SIL-based MSPD) were optimized. S-SIL containing 10% [C6MIM]Cl was used as dispersant, 20mL of n-hexane as washing solvent and 15mL of methanol as elution solvent. The ratio of S-SIL to sample was selected to be 4:1. The standard curves showed good linear relationship (r>0.9995). The limits of detection and quantification were in the range of 5.8-22.2ngmL(-1) and 19.2-74.0ngmL(-1), respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of intra-day and inter-day determination were lower than 8.80% and 11.19%, respectively. The recoveries were between 65.51% and 92.32% with RSDs lower than 8.95%. Compared with ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and soxhlet extraction, the present method consumed less sample, organic solvent, and extraction time, although the extraction yields obtained by S-SIL-based MSPD are slightly lower than those obtained by UAE. PMID:25190186

Wang, Zhibing; Sun, Rui; Wang, Yuanpeng; Li, Na; Lei, Lei; Yang, Xiao; Yu, Aimin; Qiu, Fangping; Zhang, Hanqi



One molecule of ionic liquid and tert-alcohol on a polystyrene-support as catalysts for efficient nucleophilic substitution including fluorination.  


The tert-alcohol and ionic liquid solvents in one molecule [mim-(t)OH][OMs] was immobilized on polystyrene and reported to be a highly efficient catalyst in aliphatic nucleophilic substitution using alkali metal salts. Herein, we investigated the catalytic activity of a new structurally modified polymer-supported tert-alcohol functionalized imidazolium salt catalyst in nucleophilic substitution of 2-(3-methanesulfonyloxypropyoxy)naphthalene as a model substrate with various metal nucleophiles. The tert-alcohol moiety of the ionic liquid with a hexyl chain distance from polystyrene had a better catalytic activity compared to the other resin which lacked an alkyl linker and tert-alcohol moiety. We found that the maximum [mim-(t)OH][OMs] loading had the best catalytic efficacy among the tested polystyrene-based ionic liquids (PSILs) in nucleophilic fluorination. The catalytic efficiency of the PS[him-(t)OH][OMs] as a phase transfer catalyst (PTC) was determined by carrying out various nucleophilic substitutions using the corresponding alkali metal salts from the third to sixth periodic in CH3CN or tert-BuOH media. The scope of this protocol with primary and secondary polar substrates containing many heteroatoms is also reported. This PS[him-(t)OH][OMs] catalyst not only enhances the reactivity of alkali metal salts and reduces the formation of by-products but also affords high yield with easy isolation. PMID:25302765

Shinde, Sandip S; Patil, Sunil N



Design and Synthesis of Redox-Switched Lariat Ethers and Their Application for Transport of Alkali and Alkaline-Earth Metal Cations Across Supported Liquid Membrane  

PubMed Central

A new class of redox-switched anthraquinone derived lariat ethers 1-(1-anthraquinonyloxy) 3, 6, 9 trioxaundecane 11-ol (M1), 1-(1-anthraquinonyloxy) 3, 6 dioxaoctane 9-ol (M2), 1-(1-anthraquinonyloxy) 3 oxapentane 5-ol (M3), 1-(1-anthraquinonyloxy) 3 oxapentane 5-butane (M4), 1-(1-anthraquinonyloxy) 3, 6 dioxaoctane 9-methane (M5) and 1-(1-anthraquinonyloxy) 3 oxapentane 5-methane (M6) have been synthesized and characterized by spectral analysis. These ionophores were used in liquid membrane carrier facilitated transport of main group metal cations across supported liquid membrane (SLM). Cellulose nitrate membrane was used as membrane support. Effect of various parameters such as variation in concentration of metal as well as ionophore, effect of chain length and end group of ionophore have been studied. The sequence of metal ions transported by ionophore M1 is Na+ > Li+ > K+ > Ca2+ > Mg2+ and the order of metal ions transported by ionophores (M2–M6) is Li+ > Na+ > K+ > Ca2+ > Mg2+. Ionophore M1 is selective for Na+, Li+, and K+ and ionophores (M2–M6) are selective for Li+ and Na+. PMID:17497021

Awasthy, Anubhuti; Bhatnagar, Mamta; Tomar, Jyoti; Sharma, Uma



Impact of anions on electrocatalytic activity in palladium nanoparticles supported on ionic liquid-carbon nanotube hybrids for the oxygen reduction reaction.  


A series of palladium nanoparticles supported on carbon nanotubes (CNTs), which were functionalized covalently with imidazolium polymer salts with different anions, Pd/polyIL(X)-CNTs (IL=ionic liquid; X=Cl, Br, I, ClO(4), BF(4), PF(6)), were prepared to investigate the influence of imidazolim salt anions on electrocatalytic activity in the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). The anions of the imidazolium moiety significantly impacted on the ORR kinetics in a 0.1 M solution of HClO(4). The electronically active surface area results are in good agreement with the order of the ORR kinetic activity of the supported Pd/polyIL(X)-CNTs (X: Cl>ClO(4)>BF(4)>Br?PF(6)?I). In contrast, owing to the facile anion exchange of halide anions with hydroxide anions, anion-dependent catalytic activity has not been observed in 0.1 M NaOH. Iterative ORR experiments in acid-base solutions demonstrated anion exchange on the electrode. These results indicate that subtly varied structures of the IL moiety profoundly influence the performance of IL-CNT hybrid materials and molecular-level control of interfacial interactions between the support material, catalysts, and electrolytes is important in the design of supported metal nanoparticle catalysts for fuel cells. PMID:21688395

Shin, Ju Yeon; Kim, Youn Soo; Lee, Youngmi; Shim, Jun Ho; Lee, Chongmok; Lee, Sang-gi




SciTech Connect

The Saltstone Facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS) immobilizes low-level liquid waste into Saltstone to be disposed of in the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility, Class Three Landfill. In order to meet the permit conditions and regulatory limits set by the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), both the low-level salt solution and Saltstone samples are analyzed quarterly. Waste acceptance criteria (WAC) are designed to confirm the salt solution sample from the Tank Farm meets specific radioactive and chemical limits. The toxic characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) is used to confirm that the treatment has immobilized the hazardous constituents of the salt solution. This paper discusses the methods used to characterize the salt solution and final Saltstone samples from 2007-2009.

Reigel, M.; Bibler, N.; Diprete, C.; Cozzi, A.; Staub, A.; Ray, J.



High-throughput experimentation techniques for the preparation and testing of supported precious metal catalysts in liquid-phase hydrogenation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Miniaturisation and parallelisation are fundamental strategies to enable the productivity improvements achievable by high-throughput\\u000a experimentation (HTE). This paper reports how the approach has been used to allow robotic preparation of supported precious\\u000a metal catalysts and parallel techniques for subsequent reaction testing. It will be shown how HTE can shorten catalyst development\\u000a times through increased productivity, as well as enabling a

Keith E. Simons



A novel support for laccase immobilization: cellulose acetate modified with ionic liquid and application in biosensor for methyldopa detection.  


A material based on cellulose acetate (CA) and the room temperature ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (BMI·N(Tf)(2)) was developed and characterized by scanning electron microscopy, electron dispersive spectroscopy and infrared analysis. Laccase (Lac) from Aspergillus oryzae was immobilized in this material to investigate the behavior of methyldopa by square-wave voltammetry. Under optimized conditions, the Lac biosensor based on CA/BMI·N(Tf)(2) exhibited an excellent electrocatalytic performance: the analytical curve showed good linear range for methyldopa concentrations from 34.8 to 370.3 ?M with a detection limit of 5.5 ?M. This sensor demonstrated acceptable stability (ca. 60 days; at least 350 determinations), good repeatability and reproducibility (relative standard deviations of 1.5 and 4.3%, respectively). The recovery study of methyldopa in pharmaceutical formulations ranged from 94.1 to 105.9%. The determination of this substance using the biosensor compared favorably with that using a spectrophotometry procedure at the 95% confidence level, and indicated potential application to methyldopa determination in pharmaceutical samples. PMID:21353521

Moccelini, Sally K; Franzoi, Ana C; Vieira, Iolanda C; Dupont, Jairton; Scheeren, Carla W



Automatic Supported Liquid Extraction (SLE) Coupled with HILIC-MS/MS: An Application to Method Development and Validation of Erlotinib in Human Plasma  

PubMed Central

A novel bioanalytical method was developed and validated for the quantitative determination of erlotinib in human plasma by using the supported liquid extraction (SLE) sample cleanup coupled with hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometric detection (HILIC-MS/MS). The SLE extract could be directly injected into the HILIC-MS/MS system for analysis without the solvent evaporation and reconstitution steps. Therefore, the method is simple and rapid. In the present method, erlotinib-d6 was used as the internal standard. The SLE extraction recovery was 101.3%. The validated linear curve range was 2 to 2,000 ng/mL based on a sample volume of 0.100-mL, with a linear correlation coefficient of > 0.999. The validation results demonstrated that the present method gave a satisfactory precision and accuracy: intra-day CV < 5.9% (<8.4% for the lower limit of quantitation, LLOQ) with n = 6 and the accuracy of 98.0–106.0%; inter-day CV < 3.2% (<1.5% for LLOQ) with n = 18 and the accuracy of 100.0–103.2%. A dilution factor of 10 with blank plasma was validated for partial volume analysis. The stability tests indicated that the erlotinib in human plasma is stable for three freeze-thaw cycles (100.0–104.5% of the nominal values), or 24-h ambient storage (100.0–104.8% of the nominal values), or 227-day frozen storage at both -20 °C (91.5–94.5% of the nominal values) and -70 °C (93.3–93.8% of the nominal values). The results also showed no significant matrix effect (<6.3%) even with direct injection of organic extract into the LC-MS/MS system. The validated method has been successfully applied to support a clinical study.

Pan, Jiongwei; Jiang, Xiangyu; Chen, Yu-Luan



Derivatization of ethylene dibromide with silica-supported silver picrate for improved high-performance liquid chromatographic detection  

SciTech Connect

Silica-supported silver picrate was used as an off-line, precolumn derivatization reagent for ethylene dibromide (EDB). Two products were obtained, the ratio of which, as a function of reaction conditions, is characteristic of EDB. The derivatives were monitored with UV, reductive electrochemical, and photolysis/oxidative electrochemical detection. Sub-parts-per-billion detection limits were obtained. The method was used to quantitate EDB in leaded gasoline, and the results were confirmed with gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC/ECD). The method was further validated with a single blind analysis of spiked EDB in gasoline. This is the first report of an HPLC method for EDB.

Colgan, S.T.; Krull, I.S.; Dorschel, C.; Bidlingmeyer, B.



?-Radiolysis of ionic liquid irradiated with helium ion beam and the influence of radiolytic products on Dy3+ extraction.  


Helium ion (He(+)) beam produced by a heavy ion linear accelerator was used to simulate ?-rays for studying the radiation effect on 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquid ([C4mim][NTf2]). The water-soluble radiolytic products of [C4mim][NTf2] under He(+) beam irradiation were analysed, and it was found that they were similar to those by ?-ray irradiation, but their amount was much less than that by ?-ray irradiation, which was attributed to the recombination of [C4mim][NTf2] radical cations in track by high linear energy transfer (LET) radiations of the He(+) beam. The extracting behaviour of Dy(3+) using irradiated [C4mim][NTf2] in combination with alkylated bis-triazinyl-pyridine (CA-BTP) was assessed, and found that the influence of He(+) beam on the extraction was less than that of ?-ray irradiation. In addition, radiolytic products have a different influence on Dy(3+) extraction at different doses; Dy(3+) partitioning decreases at 50 kGy due to the protonation of CA-BTP and the inhibition of cation exchange mechanism by radiation-formed hydrogen ions. The abnormal increase of Dy(3+) partitioning at 100 kGy is mainly attributed to the precipitation formed between Dy(3+) and radiolytic products (F(-) and SO3(2-)). PMID:24549120

Ao, Yinyong; Zhou, Hanyang; Yuan, Weijin; Wang, Shuojue; Peng, Jing; Zhai, Maolin; Wang, Jianyong; Zhao, Ziqiang; Zhao, Long; Wei, Yuezhou



A biological method of including mineralized human liquid and solid wastes into the mass exchange of bio-technical life support systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main obstacle to using mineralized human solid and liquid wastes as a source of mineral elements for plants cultivated in bio-technical life support systems (BLSS) is that they contain NaCl. The purpose of this study is to determine whether mineralized human wastes can be used to prepare the nutrient solution for long-duration conveyor cultivation of uneven-aged wheat and Salicornia europaea L. plant community. Human solid and liquid wastes were mineralized by the method of "wet incineration" developed by Yu. Kudenko. They served as a basis for preparing the solutions that were used for conveyor-type cultivation of wheat community represented by 5 age groups, planted with a time interval of 14 days. Wheat was cultivated hydroponically on expanded clay particles. To reduce salt content of the nutrient solution, every two weeks, after wheat was harvested, 12 L of solution was removed from the wheat irrigation tank and used for Salicornia europaea cultivation in water culture in a conveyor mode. The Salicornia community was represented by 2 age groups, planted with a time interval of 14 days. As some portion of the nutrient solution used for wheat cultivation was regularly removed, sodium concentration in the wheat irrigation solution did not exceed 400 mg/L, and mineral elements contained in the removed portion were used for Salicornia cultivation. The experiment lasted 4 months. The total wheat biomass productivity averaged 30.1 g · m-2 · day-1, and the harvest index amounted to 36.8%. The average productivity of Salicornia edible biomass on a dry weight basis was 39.3 g · m-2 · day-1, and its aboveground mass contained at least 20% of NaCl. Thus, the proposed technology of cultivation of wheat and halophyte plant community enables using mineralized human wastes as a basis for preparing nutrient solutions and including NaCl in the mass exchange of the BLSS; moreover, humans are supplied with additional amounts of leafy vegetables.

Ushakova, S. A.; Tikhomirov, A. A.; Tikhomirova, N. A.; Kudenko, Yu. A.; Litovka, Yu. A.; Anishchenko, O. V.



Microfunnel-supported liquid-phase microextraction: application to extraction and determination of Irgarol 1051 and diuron in the Persian Gulf seawater samples.  


In the present work, microfunnel-supported liquid-phase microextraction method (MF-LPME) based on applying low density organic solvent was developed for the determination of antifoulings (Irgarol 1051, diuron and 3,4-dichloroaniline) from seawater samples. In this method, home-designed MF device was used for facile loading and retrieving of organic solvent during the extraction procedure. The extraction was carried out with introduction of 400 ?L of toluene via syringe into the MF device placed on the surface of sample solution (300 mL) containing analytes. After the extraction, extractant layer was narrowed into the capillary part of MF by pushing the device inside the sample and withdrawn by using a syringe to evaporate by nitrogen purging. The residual redissolved into 50 ?L methanol, diluted to 100 ?L with deionized water and injected into the high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection (HPLC-UV). Several factors influencing the extraction such as the type and volume of extraction solvent, sample pH, extraction time and ionic strength were investigated and optimized. Under the optimized conditions, the limits of detection in seawater were 1.4, 4.8 and 1.0 ng L(-1) for 3,4-dichloroaniline (DCA), diuron and Irgarol 1051, respectively. Enrichment factors were obtained 333, 150 and 373 for DCA, diuron and Irgarol 1051, respectively. The precision of the technique was evaluated in terms of repeatability which was less than 12.0% (n=5). The applicability of the proposed method was evaluated by the extraction and determination of antifoulings from seawater samples collected from harbors of Bushehr located in northern Persian Gulf coast. PMID:25016323

Saleh, Abolfazl; Sheijooni Fumani, Neda; Molaei, Saeideh



Distribution Statement A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited *This effort was supported by the Liquid Propulsion portion of NASA's Integrated System Health Management project within the Exploration  

E-print Network

OF UNSUPERVISED ANOMALY DETECTION METHODS FOR SYSTEMS HEALTH MANAGEMENT USING SPACE SHUTTLE MAIN ENGINE DATA* R. A to Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) data to serve the purpose of developing a comprehensive suite was supported by the Liquid Propulsion portion of NASA's Integrated System Health Management project within

Oza, Nikunj C.


Electronic simulation of the supported liquid membrane in electromembrane extraction systems: Improvement of the extraction by precise periodical reversing of the field polarity.  


In order to understand the limitations of electromebrane extraction procedure better, a simple equivalent circuit has been proposed for a supported liquid membrane consisting of a resistor and a low leakage capacitor in series. To verify the equivalent circuit, it was subjected to a simulated periodical polarity changing potential and the resulting time variation of the current was compared with that of a real electromembrane extraction system. The results showed a good agreement between the simulated current patterns and those of the real ones. In order to investigate the impact of various limiting factors, the corresponding values of the equivalent circuit were estimated for a real electromembrane extraction system and were attributed to the physical parameters of the extraction system. A dual charge transfer mechanism was proposed for electromembrane extraction by combining general migration equation and fundamental aspects derived from the simulation. Dual mechanism comprises a current dependent contribution of analyte in total current and could support the possibility of an improvement in performance of an electromembrane extraction by application of an asymmetric polarity changing potential. The optimization of frequency and duty cycle of the asymmetric polarity exchanging potential resulted in a higher recovery (2.17 times greater) in comparison with the conventional electromebrane extraction. The simulation also provided more quantitative approaches toward the investigation of the mechanism of extraction and contribution of different limiting factors in electromembrane extraction. Results showed that the buildup of the double layer is the main limiting factor and the Joule heating has lesser impact on the performance of an electromebrane extraction system. PMID:25109858

Moazami, Hamid Reza; Nojavan, Saeed; Zahedi, Pegah; Davarani, Saied Saeed Hosseiny



In silico and in vitro metabolism studies support identification of designer drugs in human urine by liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry.  


Human phase I metabolism of four designer drugs, 2-desoxypipradrol (2-DPMP), 3,4-dimethylmethcathinone (3,4-DMMC), ?-pyrrolidinovalerophenone (?-PVP), and methiopropamine (MPA), was studied using in silico and in vitro metabolite prediction. The metabolites were identified in drug abusers’ urine samples using liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/Q-TOF/MS). The aim of the study was to evaluate the ability of the in silico and in vitro methods to generate the main urinary metabolites found in vivo. Meteor 14.0.0 software (Lhasa Limited) was used for in silico metabolite prediction, and in vitro metabolites were produced in human liver microsomes (HLMs). 2-DPMP was metabolized by hydroxylation, dehydrogenation, and oxidation, resulting in six phase I metabolites. Six metabolites were identified for 3,4-DMMC formed via N-demethylation, reduction, hydroxylation, and oxidation reactions. ?-PVP was found to undergo reduction, hydroxylation, dehydrogenation, and oxidation reactions, as well as degradation of the pyrrolidine ring, and seven phase I metabolites were identified. For MPA, the nor-MPA metabolite was detected. Meteor software predicted the main human urinary phase I metabolites of 3,4-DMMC, ?-PVP, and MPA and two of the four main metabolites of 2-DPMP. It assisted in the identification of the previously unreported metabolic reactions for ?-PVP. Eight of the 12 most abundant in vivo phase I metabolites were detected in the in vitro HLM experiments. In vitro tests serve as material for exploitation of in silico data when an authentic urine sample is not available. In silico and in vitro designer drug metabolism studies with LC/Q-TOF/MS produced sufficient metabolic information to support identification of the parent compound in vivo. PMID:23797910

Tyrkkö, Elli; Pelander, Anna; Ketola, Raimo A; Ojanperä, Ilkka



Description of transport mechanism during the elimination of copper(II) from wastewaters using supported liquid membranes and Acorga M5640 as carrier.  


The kinetics of copper facilitated transport through a flat-sheet supported liquid membrane is investigated, using the commercially available oxime Acorga M5640 as ionophore, as a function of hydrodynamic conditions, stripping phase composition, concentration of copper(II), and pH of the source phase and carrier concentration in the membrane phase. The performance of the system is also compared using organic diluents of different nature (aliphatic or aromatic) and against other available oxime extractants (LIX 860, LIX 622, LIX 973N and LIX 84-I). A model is presented that describes the transport mechanism, consisting of diffusion through source side aqueous diffusion layer, a fast interfacial chemical reaction, and diffusion carrier and its metal complex through the organic membrane. The organic membrane diffusional resistance (delta(org)) and aqueous diffusional resistances (delta(aq)) were calculated from the proposed model, and their values were 9.3 x 10(-7) and 46565 s/cm, respectively. It was observed that the copper flux across the membrane tends to reach a plateau at high concentration of copper or low concentration of H+ owing to carrier saturation within the membrane and leads to a diffusion-controlled process. The values of the apparent diffusion coefficient (Dorg(a)) and limiting metal flux (Jlim) were calculated from the limiting conditions and found to be 5.2 x 10(-11) and 1.9 x 10(-9) mmol/cm2 s, respectively. The values of the bulk diffusion coefficient (Db,org) and diffusion coefficient (Dorg) calculated from the model were 4.8 x 10(-10) and 1.3 x 10(-10) cm2/s,respectively. The method had proven its feasibility to recover copper(II) from wastewaters. PMID:15871281

Alguacil, F J; Alonso, M



The relative importance of heterogeneous and homogeneous methanol carbonylation using supported rhodium catalysts in the liquid phase 1 Dedicated to Professor Peter Maitlis, a great scientist and friend. 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rhodium catalysts supported on ZrO2, carbon, a cross-linked polystyrene with pendant Ph2P groups (SDT) or polyvinylpyrrolidone have been tested as catalysts for the heterogeneous carbonylation of methanol in the bulk liquid phase. In all cases, leaching of the catalyst into solution occurs and the observed increase in the rate of production of methyl ethanoate with time is attributed to the

Nicola De Blasio; Margaret R. Wright; Enzo Tempesti; Carlo Mazzocchia; David J. Cole-Hamilton



Halophytic plants as a component of a bioregenerative life support system for recycling of NaCl contained in human liquid waste.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently, the closure of matter turnover is one of the urgent problems of bioregenerative life support system (BLSS) designing. The important aspect of the problem is involving of substances contained in liquid and solid exometabolites of humans inhabiting BLSS into intrasystem matter turnover. Recycling of Na+ and Cl- contained in human liquid exometabolites, i.e. urine is acknowledged to be among the main tasks of the matter turnover in BLSS. The ions excreted with urine may be returned to human organism with food. A way to allow this is including edible halophytic plants into the phototrophic compartment of BLSS. Halophytes are defined as plants which can grow on saline soils and produce high biomass under these conditions. Some halophytes can take up high quantities of Na+ and Cl- and accumulate the ions in the shoots or extrude them to leaf surface by means of salt glands. To allow Na+ and Cl- recycling through halophyte utilization, the following principal steps should be accomplished: (i) mineralization of the exometabolites by physicochemical methods; (ii) oxidation of ammonia formed during the exometabolite mineralization to nitrate by nitrifying bacteria, (iii) growing the halophyte on the nutrient solution prepared on the basis of the mineralized exometabolites, (iv) introducing the halophyte green biomass into human food. The present work is devoted to the following problems: (i) selection of a salt-accumulating/extruding halophytic plant suitable for Na+ and Cl- recycling in BLSS and (ii) parameter evaluation of a plant conveyor containing the halophytic plants at various ages. Halophytic plants selected for BLSS should meet the following criteria: (i) ability to grow under 24-hour-illumination, (ii) high productivity, (iii) ability to accumulate Na+ and Cl- in high quantities in shoots or to excrete salts to leaf surface, (iv) edibility, and (v) high nutritive value of the biomass. Relying on these criteria, salt-accumulating halophyte Salicornia europaea was selected from seven halophytic plant candidates, preliminary chosen from observations in their natural habitats, from our previous investigations and literature data. Characterization of the plant performance was obtained in the experiments on plants grown in water culture in a cultivation chamber under controlled conditions. A model nutrient solution simulating mineralized urine was used for halophyte growing. Under the experimental conditions, S.europaea exhibited high productivity and accumulated Na+ and Cl- in the shoots in high quantities. It has been shown that above-ground organs of S.europaea exhibit high nutritive value, the proteins are enriched with the essential amino acids and displayed high abundance of leucine, aspartic and glutamic acids. The results demonstrate that it is feasible to put into practice permanent Na+ and Cl- recycling in BLSS by a various-aged S.europaea conveyor. Relying on data on distribution of Na+ and Cl- between the plant and growth medium, parameters of the conveyor for permanent ion turnover in the system humans - exometabolites - nutrient solution - S.europaea - humans have been evaluated.

Balnokin, Yurii; Balnokin, Yurii; Myasoedov, Nikolay; Popova, Larissa; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Ushakova, Sofya; Tikhomirova, Natalia; Lasseur, Christophe; Gros, Jean-Bernard


Liquid-Liquid Extraction Processes  

E-print Network

Liquid-liquid extraction is the separation of one or more components of a liquid solution by contact with a second immiscible liquid called the solvent. If the components in the original liquid solution distribute themselves differently between...

Fair, J. R.; Humphrey, J. L.



High-Surface-Area CO2 Sponge: High Performance CO2 Scrubbing Based on Hollow Fiber-Supported Designer Ionic Liquid Sponges  

SciTech Connect

IMPACCT Project: The team from ORNL and Georgia Tech is developing a new technology that will act like a sponge, integrating a new, alcohol-based ionic liquid into hollow fibers (magnified image, right) to capture CO2 from the exhaust produced by coal-fired power plants. Ionic liquids, or salts that exist in liquid form, are promising materials for carbon capture and storage, but their tendency to thicken when combined with CO2 limits their efficiency and poses a challenge for their development as a cost-effective alternative to current-generation solutions. Adding alcohol to the mix limits this tendency to thicken in the presence of CO2 but can also make the liquid more likely to evaporate, which would add significantly to the cost of CO2 capture. To solve this problem, ORNL is developing new classes of ionic liquids with high capacity for absorbing CO2. ORNL’s sponge would reduce the cost associated with the energy that would need to be diverted from power plants to capture CO2 and release it for storage.




Electrokinetics over liquid/liquid interfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since liquid-liquid interfaces flow in response to an applied stress, one might expect electrokinetic flows at liquid-liquid interfaces to be significantly higher than over liquid-solid interfaces. The earliest predictions for the electrophoretic mobility of charged mercury drops -- distinct approaches by Frumkin and Levich (1946), and Booth (1951) -- differed by O(a/?D), where a is the radius of the drop and ?D is the Debye screening length. Seeking to reconcile this rather striking discrepancy, Levine (1973) showed double-layer polarization to be the key ingredient. Without a physical mechanism by which electrokinetic effects are enhanced, however, it is difficult to know how general the enhancement is -- whether it holds only for liquid metal surfaces, or more generally, for all liquid/liquid surfaces. By considering a series of systems in which a planar metal strip is coated with either a liquid metal or liquid dielectric, we show that the central physical mechanism behind the enhancement predicted by Frumkin and Levich (1946) is the presence of an unmatched electrical stress upon the electrolyte-liquid interface, which establishes a Marangoni stress on the droplet surface and drives it into motion. The source of the unbalanced electrokinetic stress on a liquid metal surface is clear -- metals represent equipotential surfaces, so no field exists to drive an equal and opposite force on the surface charge. This might suggest that liquid metals represent a unique system, since dielectric liquids can support finite electric fields, which might be expected to exert an electrical stress on the surface charge that balances the electric stress. We demonstrate, however, that electrical and osmotic stresses on relaxed double-layers internal to dielectric liquids precisely cancel, so that internal electrokinetic stresses generally vanish in closed, ideally polarizable liquids. The enhancement for liquid mercury drops can thus be expected quite generally over clean, ideally polarizable liquid drops. More broadly, the ability to reliably engineer liquid interfaces in microfluidic systems, then, may provide a path to significantly enhanced electrokinetic flows.

Squires, Todd M.



The Potential Hazard of Staphylococci and Micrococci to Human Subjects in a Life Support Systems Evaluator and on a Diet of Liquid Foods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two groups of 4 human male subjects participated in 6-week simulated aerospace studies. The subjects were confined and kept under controlled metabolic conditions; during this time, 28 consecutive days were spent in the Life Support Systems Evaluator. The ...

L. P. Lotter, B. S. Horstman, J. V. Rack



Development of a new and environment friendly hollow fiber-supported liquid phase microextraction using vesicular aggregate-based supramolecular solvent.  


Hollow fiber-based liquid phase microextraction (HF-LPME) using conventional solvents is limited by their relative instability and high volatility. The use of supramolecular solvents as a liquid membrane phase could overcome these inconveniences due to their negligible vapour pressure and high viscosity. In the present study, a novel and highly flexible method was developed based on supramolecular solvents constructed of vesicles of decanoic acid, which were used for the first time as a solvent in HF-LPME. This solvent is produced from the coacervation of decanoic acid aqueous vesicles by the action of tetrabutylammonium (Bu(4)N(+)). In this work, halogenated anilines as model compounds were extracted from water samples into a supramolecular solvent impregnated in the pores and also filled inside the porous polypropylene hollow fiber membrane. The extracted anilines were separated and determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The technique requires minimal sample preparation time and toxic organic solvent consumption, and provides a significant advantage over conventional analytical methods. The important parameters influencing the extraction efficiency were studied and optimized utilizing two different optimization methods: one variable at a time and the Box-Behnken design. Under the optimum conditions, the preconcentration factors were in the range of 74 to 203. Linearity of the method was obtained in the range of 1.0-100 ?g L(-1) with the correlation coefficients of determination (R(2)) ranging from 0.9901 to 0.9986. The limits of detection for the target anilines were 0.5-1.0 ?g L(-1). The relative standard deviations varied from 3.9% to 6.0%. The relative recoveries of the three halogenated anilines from water samples at a spiking level of 20.0 ?g L(-1) were in the range of 90.4-107.4%. PMID:22733347

Moradi, Morteza; Yamini, Yadollah; Rezaei, Fatemeh; Tahmasebi, Elham; Esrafili, Ali



Interionic Interactions in Imidazolium-Based Ionic Liquids: The Role of the C2-Position Revealed by Raman Scattering and Supported by IR and NMR Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intermolecular interactions determine the state of aggregation of a substance at given temperature. Based on that, changes in intermolecular interactions can lead to microscopic reordering which may be observed macroscopically in terms of altered physicochemical properties. Especially, when chemicals are employed in technical processes, it is important to control and regulate their properties to guarantee product quality. A special group of chemical substances increasingly gaining interest in the field of chemical and process engineering are room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs). In general, RTILs are organic salts with melting points "below the boiling point of water". The variety of possible combinations of cations and anions lead to a wide range of chemical and thermo-physical properties. In fact, it is possible to tune their properties by adjusting the ratio of Coulomb and van der Waals interactions. However, because it is hardly possible to investigate a reasonable fraction of the potential cation-anion combinations, a molecular-based understanding of their properties is crucial to make a rational design possible. In this regard vibrational spectroscopy has proven to be very beneficial for structural analysis and the investigation of interionic and intermolecular interactions. Therein, especially Raman spectroscopy shows a significant advantage of being insensitive to water interference and it is widely applied in the field of ionic liquids. Among others the 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium [RMIM] based ILs have been employed as model ILs in structural analysis, and most vibrational studies available in literature have been carried out investigating this kind of ILs. In contrast, spectroscopic data and calculations of C2-methylated 1,2-dialkyl-3-methylimidazolium based ILs, are available to a much lesser extend. The substitution in the C2 position in those ILs disrupts the main hydrogen-bonding interaction between the cation and the anion and is expected to lead to lower melting points and reduced viscosities. However, in contrast to the intuitively expected behavior, e.g., in the case of 1-ethyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, [EMMIM][Tf2N], the viscosity turned out to be about three times higher than that of [EMIM][Tf2N]. This emphasizes the need for further investigation.

Noack, Kristina; Paape, Natalia; Kiefer, Johannes; Wasserscheid, Peter; Leipertz, Alfred



A supported liquid extraction-LC-MS/MS method for determination of GDC-0980 (Apitolisib), a dual small-molecule inhibitor of class 1A phosphoinositide 3-kinase and mammalian target of rapamycin, in human plasma.  


A liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the determination of GDC-0980 (Apitolisib) concentrations in human plasma has been developed and validated to support clinical development. Supported liquid extraction (SLE) was used to extract plasma samples (80?L) and the resulting samples were analyzed using reverse-phase chromatography and mass spectrometry coupled with a turbo-ionspray interface. The mass analysis of GDC-0980 was performed using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) transitions in positive ionization mode. The method was validated over the calibration curve range 0.0500-25.0ng/mL using linear regression and 1/x(2) weighting. Within-run relative standard deviation (%RSD) ranged from 0.4 to 3.9%, while the between-run %RSD varied from 1.1 to 1.5% for QCs. The accuracy ranged from 96.1% to 106.7% of nominal for within-run and 96.7-106.7% of nominal for between-run at all concentrations including the LLOQ quality control at 0.0500ng/mL. Extraction recovery of GDC-0980 was between 72.4% and 75.5%. Stability of GDC-0980 was established in human plasma for 547 days at -20°C and -70°C and established in reconstituted sample extracts for 146h when stored at 2-8°C. Stable-labeled internal standard was used to minimize matrix effects. Mean pharmacokinetic parameters determined using this method for the day 1 control group in a phase I trial were: Cmax=11.1ng/mL, AUC0-inf=108ngh/mL, and T1/2=13.1h. PMID:25165011

Ding, X; Li, F; McKnight, J; Schmidt, C; Strooisma, K; Shimizu, H; Faber, K; Ware, J A; Dean, B



Comparison of methods of liquid medium culture for banana micropropagation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five different liquid medium culture methods for meristem propagation of bananas were investigated and compared with solid medium culture. Treatments studied were: gelled culture medium (treatment 1); liquid medium with immersion of the plants (treatment 2); liquid medium with cellulose culture support (treatment 3); liquid medium with partial immersion of the plants (treatment 4); liquid medium aerated by bubbling (treatment

D. Alvard; F. Cote; C. Teisson



Assessing the feasibility of involving gaseous products resulting from physicochemical oxidation of human liquid and solid wastes in the cycling of a bio-technical life support system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study addresses the possible ways of involving gaseous products produced by "wet" incineration of human wastes mixed with H2O2 in an alternating electric field in the cycling of the physical model of a bio-technical life support system (BTLSS). The resulting gas mixture contains CO2 and O2, which are easily involved in the cycling in the closed ecosystem, and NH3, which is unacceptable in the atmosphere of the BTLSS. NH3 fixation has been proposed, which is followed by nitrification and involvement of the resulting products in the mass exchange of the closed system. Experiments have been performed to show that plants can be grown in the atmosphere resulting from the closing of the gas loop that includes a physicochemical installation and a growth chamber with plants representing the phototrophic compartment of the BTLSS. The results of the study suggest the conclusion that the proposed method of organic waste oxidation can be a useful tool in creating a physical model of a closed-loop integrated BTLSS.

Tikhomirov, Alexander; Kudenko, Yurii; Trifonov, Sergey; Ushakova, Sofya



Preconcentration of emerging contaminants in environmental water samples by using silica supported Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles for improving mass detection in capillary liquid chromatography.  


A magnetic material based on Fe(3)O(4) magnetic nanoparticles incorporated in a silica matrix by using a sol-gel procedure has been used to extract and preconcentrate emerging contaminants such as acetylsalicylic acid, acetaminophen, diclofenac and ibuprofen from environmental water samples prior to the analysis with Capillary LC-MS. The use of the proposed silica supported Fe(3)O(4) magnetic nanoparticles enables surfactant free extracts for the analysis with MS detection without interferences in the ionisation step. Under the optimum conditions, we demonstrated the reusability of the magnetic sorbent material during 20 uses without loss in the extraction efficiency. In addition, no cleanup was necessary. The preconcentration factor was 100 and the detection limits were between 50 and 150 ng/L. The proposed procedure has been applied to the analysis of water samples obtaining recoveries between 80 and 110% and RSD values lower than 12%. Concentrations of the target analytes over the range 1.7 and 0.1 ?g/L have been found in different water samples. PMID:21388625

Moliner-Martínez, Yolanda; Ribera, Antonio; Coronado, Eugenio; Campíns-Falcó, P



Do liquidity measures measure liquidity?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the key role of liquidity in finance research, identifying high quality proxies based on daily (as opposed to intraday) data would permit liquidity to be studied over relatively long timeframes and across many countries. Using new measures and widely employed measures in the literature, we run horseraces of annual and monthly estimates of each measure against liquidity benchmarks. Our

Ruslan Y. Goyenko; Craig W. Holden; Charles A. Trzcinka



Sealing liquids with magnetic liquids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stability and durability of magnetic liquid seals have been tested under the condition of sealing other liquids. The results show that the deterioration of the magnetic fluid depends on the nature and combination of magnetic and nonmagnetic liquids as well as on the shaft speed, the temperature of the seal and the gradient of the magnetic field. Seal life

J. Kurfess; H. K. Müller



A study of liquid propellant autoignition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data and theory pertinent to the autoignition of liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen propellants were reviewed. Physical models of the processes supporting or contributing to autoignition were developed. Emphasis was placed on the description of the physical environment and its relationship to the autoignition phenomenon.

Lester, D. H.; Gibbs, A. G.; Lessor, D. L.



PREFACE: Functionalized Liquid Liquid Interfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most natural processes take place at interfaces. For this reason, surface science has been a focal point of modern research. At solid-liquid interfaces one can induce various species to adsorb or react, and thus may study interactions between the substrate and adsorbates, kinetic processes, optical properties, etc. Liquid-liquid interfaces, formed by immiscible liquids such as water and oil, have a number of distinctive features. Both sides of the interface are amenable to detailed physical and chemical analysis. By chemical or electrochemical means, metal or semiconductor nanoparticles can be formed or localised at the interface. Surfactants can be used to tailor surface properties, and also to place organic molecular or supermolecular constructions at the boundary between the liquids. Electric fields can be used to drive ions from one fluid to another, or even change the shape of the interface itself. In many cases, both liquids are optically transparent, making functionalized liquid-liquid interfaces promising for various optical applications based on the transmission or reflection of light. An advantage common to most of these systems is self-assembly; because a liquid-liquid interface is not mechanically constrained like a solid-liquid interface, it can easily access its most stable state, even after it has been driven far from equilibrium. This special issue focuses on four modes of liquid-liquid interfacial functionalization: the controlled adsorption of molecules or nanoparticles, the formation of adlayers or films, electrowetting, and ion transfer or interface-localized reactions. Interfacial adsorption can be driven electrically, chemically, or mechanically. The liquid-liquid interface can be used to study how anisotropic particles orient at a surface under the influence of a field, how surfactants interact with other adsorbates, and how nanoparticles aggregate; the transparency of the interface also makes the chirality of organic adsorbates amenable to optical study. Film formation goes a step beyond adsorption; some surfactants form monolayers or multilayers at the interface. A polymer microfilm or a polymer-particle matrix can be synthesized at the liquid-liquid boundary. Such films exhibit unique adsorption and ion-intercalation properties of their own. Electrowetting refers broadly to the phenomenon in which an applied voltage modulates the shape of a liquid-liquid interface, essentially by altering the surface tension. Electric fields can be used to induce droplets on solid substrates to change shape, or to affect the structure of liquid-liquid emulsions. Various chemical reactions can be performed at the liquid-liquid boundary. Liquid-liquid microelectrodes allow detailed study of ion-transfer kinetics at the interface. Photochemical processes can also be used to control the conformations of molecules adsorbed at the interface. But how much precise control do we actually have on the state of the interfacial region? Several contributions to this issue address a system which has been studied for decades in electrochemistry, but remains essentially unfamilar to physicists. This is the interface between two immiscible electrolytic solutions (ITIES), a progressing interdisciplinary field in which condensed-matter physics and physical chemistry meet molecular electrochemistry. Why is it so exciting? The reason is simple. The ITIES is chargeable: when positioned between two electrodes it can be polarized, and back- to-back electrical double layers form on both sides of the liquid-liquid interface. Importantly, the term immiscible refers not only to oil and water but also to the electrolytes. Inorganic electrolytes, such as alkali halides, tend to stay in water, whereas organic electrolytes, such as tetrabutylammonium tetraphenylborate, stay in oil. This behaviour arises because energies of the order of 0.2-0.3 eV are needed to drive ions across the interface. As long as these free energies of transfer are not exceeded by the external potential bias, the ITIES works as an 'electrode'; there is no traffic of ions

Girault, Hubert; Kornyshev, Alexei A.; Monroe, Charles W.; Urbakh, Michael



Silicon Detectors For Helium Liquid And Vapor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simple electrical-resistance devices made of silicon indicate whether helium liquid or helium vapor present. Devices designed primarily for use in outer space, were tested and found to operate in normal Earth gravity. Silicon cubes supported by stainless-steel wires and strips. Voltage across each cube at fixed current indicates whether immersed in helium liquid or vapor. Liquid cools more than vapor does, resulting in greater electrical resistance. Such helium-liquid/vapor detectors incorporated into ducts or containers of laboratory equipment, and used to infer locations of liquid/vapor interfaces in order to measure quantities of liquid and vapor or to control refill operations.

Di Pirro, M. J.; Serlemitsos, A. T.



Market Liquidity and Funding Liquidity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We provide a model that links an asset's market liquidity (i.e., the ease with which it is traded) and traders' funding liquidity (i.e., the ease with which they can obtain funding). Traders provide market liquidity, and their ability to do so depends on their availability of funding. Conversely, traders' funding, i.e., their capital and margin requirements, depends on the assets'

Markus K. Brunnermeier; Lasse Heje Pedersen



Sulfur poisoning of CeO[subscript 2]-Al[subscript 2]O[subscript 3]-supported mono- and bi-metallic Ni and Rh catalysts in steam reforming of liquid hydrocarbons at low and high temperatures  

SciTech Connect

In order to develop a better understanding on sulfur poisoning of reforming catalysts in fuel processing for hydrogen production, steam reforming of liquid hydrocarbons was performed over CeO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} supported monometallic Ni and Rh and bimetallic Rh-Ni catalysts at 550 and 800 C. XANES was used to identify the sulfur species in the used catalysts and to study their impacts on the metal surface properties probed by XPS. It was found that both monometallic catalysts rapidly deactivated at 550 C, and showed poor sulfur tolerance. Although ineffective for the Ni catalyst, increasing the temperature to 800 C dramatically improved the sulfur tolerance of the Rh catalyst. XANES revealed that metal sulfide and organic sulfide are the dominant sulfur species on the used Ni catalyst, while sulfonate and sulfate predominate on the used Rh catalyst. The presence of sulfur induced severe carbon deposition on the Ni catalyst at 800 C. The superior sulfur tolerance of the Rh catalyst at 800 C may be associated with its capability in sulfur oxidation. It is likely that the formation of the oxygen-shielded sulfur structure of sulfonate and sulfate can suppress the poisoning impact of sulfur on Rh by inhibiting direct rhodium-sulfur interaction. Moreover, XPS indicated that the metal surface properties of the Rh catalysts after the reaction without and with sulfur at 800 C are similar, suggesting that sulfur poisoning on Rh was mitigated under the high-temperature condition. Although the Rh-Ni catalyst exhibited better sulfur tolerance than the monometallic catalysts at 550 C, its catalytic performance was inferior compared with the Rh catalyst in the sulfur-containing reaction at 800 C probably due to the severe carbon deposition on the bimetallic catalyst.

Xie, Chao; Chen, Yongsheng; Li, Yan; Wang, Xiaoxing; Song, Chunshan (Penn)



Liquid penetrants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Liquid-penetrant inspection is discussed for surface defects in solids. The principle advantages are considered to be its simplicity and economy. The techniques and penetrants are described along with the developers. Commercially available equipment is also described.

Pasley, R. L.



Exploring Liquids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Young learners investigate and observe the properties of three liquids -- water, vegetable oil, and corn syrup. They use their senses to collect data and ask and answer questions. This lesson for young learners introduces the scientific process.

Janulaw, Sharon



Liquid phase methanol LaPorte Process Development Unit: Modification, operation, and support studies. Task 2.2: Process variable Scan Run E-8 and in-situ activation with syngas Run E-9  

SciTech Connect

The LPMEOH process was conceived and patented by Chem Systems Inc. in 1975. Initial research and studies on the process focused on two distinct modes of operation. The first was a liquid fluidized mode with relatively large catalyst pellets suspended in a fluidizing liquid, and the second was an entrained (slurry) mode with fine catalyst particles slurried in an inert liquid. The development of both operating modes progressed in parallel from bench scale reactors, through an intermediate scale lab PDU, and then to the LaPorte PDU in 1984. The slurry mode of operation was ultimately chosen as the operating mode of choice due to its superior performance.

Not Available



Supported inorganic membranes  


Supported inorganic membranes capable of molecular sieving, and methods for their production, are provided. The subject membranes exhibit high flux and high selectivity. The subject membranes are substantially defect free and less than about 100 nm thick. The pores of the subject membranes have an average critical pore radius of less than about 5 .ANG., and have a narrow pore size distribution. The subject membranes are prepared by coating a porous substrate with a polymeric sol, preferably under conditions of low relative pressure of the liquid constituents of the sol. The coated substrate is dried and calcined to produce the subject supported membrane. Also provided are methods of derivatizing the surface of supported inorganic membranes with metal alkoxides. The subject membranes find use in a variety of applications, such as the separation of constituents of gaseous streams, as catalysts and catalyst supports, and the like.

Sehgal, Rakesh (Albuquerque, NM); Brinker, Charles Jeffrey (Albuquerque, NM)



Rotating electric machine with fluid supported parts  


A rotating electric machine in which the armature winding thereof and other parts are supported by a liquid to withstand the mechanical stresses applied during transient overloads and the like. In particular, a narrow gap is provided between the armature winding and the stator which supports it and this gap is filled with an externally pressurized viscous liquid. The liquid is externally pressurized sufficiently to balance the static loads on the armature winding. Transient mechanical loads which deform the armature winding alter the gap dimensions and thereby additionally pressurize the viscous liquid to oppose the armature winding deformation and more nearly uniformly to distribute the resulting mechanical stresses.

Smith, Jr., Joseph L. (Concord, MA); Kirtley, Jr., James L. (Brookline, MA)



Liquid Crystals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermochromic liquid crystals, or TLCs, are a type of liquid crystals that react to changes in temperature by changing color. The Hallcrest/NASA collaboration involved development of a new way to visualize boundary layer transition in flight and in wind tunnel testing of aircraft wing and body surfaces. TLCs offered a new and potentially better method of visualizing the boundary layer transition in flight. Hallcrest provided a liquid crystal formulation technique that afforded great control over the sensitivity of the liquid crystals to varying conditions. Method is of great use to industry, government and universities for aerodynamic and hydrodynamic testing. Company's principal line is temperature indicating devices for industrial use, such as non-destructive testing and flaw detection in electric/electronic systems, medical application, such as diagnostic systems, for retail sale, such as room, refrigerator, baby bath and aquarium thermometers, and for advertising and promotion specials. Additionally, Hallcrest manufactures TLC mixtures for cosmetic applications, and liquid crystal battery tester for Duracell batteries.



Liquid-liquid critical point in supercooled silicon  

E-print Network

A novel liquid-liquid phase transition has been proposed and investigated in a wide variety of pure substances recently, including water, silica and silicon. From computer simulations using the Stillinger-Weber classical empirical potential, Sastry and Angell [1] demonstrated a first order liquid-liquid transition in supercooled silicon, subsequently supported by experimental and simulation studies. Here, we report evidence for a liquid-liquid critical end point at negative pressures, from computer simulations using the SW potential. Compressibilities exhibit a growing maximum upon lowering temperature below 1500 K and isotherms exhibit density discontinuities below 1120 K, at negative pressure. Below 1120 K, isotherms obtained from constant volume-temperature simulations exhibit non-monotonic, van der Waals-like behavior signaling a first order transition. We identify Tc ~ 1120 +/- 12 K, Pc -0.60 +/- 0.15 GPa as the critical temperature and pressure for the liquid-liquid critical point. The structure of the liquid changes dramatically upon decreasing the temperature and pressure. Diffusivities vary over 4 orders of magnitude, and exhibit anomalous pressure dependence near the critical point. A strong relationship between local geometry quantified by the coordination number, and diffusivity, is seen, suggesting that atomic mobility in both low and high density liquids can usefully be analyzed in terms of defects in the tetrahedral network structure. We have constructed the phase diagram of supercooled silicon. We identify the lines of compressibility, density extrema (maxima and minima) and the spinodal which reveal the interconnection between thermodynamic anomalies and the phase behaviour of the system as suggested in previous works [2-9

Vishwas V Vasisht; Shibu Saw; Srikanth Sastry



Models for Liquid Impact Onboard Sloshsat FLEVO  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Orbital experiments on the behavior of liquid in spacecraft are planned. The Sloshsat free-flyer is described. Preparation of the experiments, and later evaluation, are supported by models of varying complexity. The characteristics of the models are discussed. Particular attention is given to the momentum transfer between the liquid and the spacecraft, in connection with the liquid impact that may occur at the end of a reorientation maneuver of the spacecraft.

Vreeburg, Jan P. B.; Chato, David J.



Formation of liquid and solid products from liquid phase pyrolysis.  


The aim of the present work was to improve the C:O ratio in biomass by preserving the lignin macrostructure of lignocellulosic feed. The intention of liquid phase pyrolysis is to liquefy biomass and prepare biomass for further upgrading steps like hydrogenation and deoxygenation. Pyrolysis was carried out in a non-aqueous liquid phase heat carrier. The process was carried out in a semi-batch reaction vessel under isothermal conditions at T=350°C, supported by a quench to stop reactions instantaneously in order to observe formation of solid intermediates. This pyrolysis system enables the observation of liquid and solid product formation. Transformation of biomass into biochar was analyzed by infrared spectroscopy and elemental analysis. Stable lignin structure throughout the whole transformation was confirmed. It was shown that the lignin frame in wood remains without substantial loss, while the major amount of carbohydrates is pyrolyzed during liquid phase pyrolysis at T=350°C. PMID:22989638

Schwaiger, N; Witek, V; Feiner, R; Pucher, H; Zahel, K; Pieber, A; Pucher, P; Ahn, E; Chernev, B; Schroettner, H; Wilhelm, P; Siebenhofer, M



Liquid filtration simulation  

SciTech Connect

We have a developed a computer code that simulates 3-D filtration of suspended particles in fluids in realistic filter structures. This code, being the most advanced filtration simulation package developed to date, provides LLNL and DOE with new capabilities to address problems in cleaning liquid wastes, medical fluid cleaning, and recycling liquids. The code is an integrated system of commercially available and LLNL-developed software; the most critical are the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solver and the particle transport program. For the CFD solver, we used a commercial package based on Navier-Stokes equations and a LLNL-developed package based on Boltzman-lattice gas equations. For the particle transport program, we developed a cod based on the 3-D Langevin equation of motion and the DLVO theory of electrical interactions. A number of additional supporting packages were purchased or developed to integrate the simulation tasks and to provide visualization output.

Corey, I.; Bergman, W.



Liquid Hydrogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE letter of W. Hampson, which appears in your issue of May 26, can only mean by implication to charge me with having utilised without acknowledgment an idea of his, conveyed through a third party, in my paper on the liquid hydrogen jet, published in 1895. Such a suggestion is absolutely without any foundation in fact. My results would have

J. Dewar



Hospital support.  


Setting up a successful trauma system requires a significant amount of hospital support. This includes personnel and programs to assist with quality assurance programs, clinical compliance, and rural support and development. It is imperative that orthopaedic trauma surgeons are well versed in the types of hospital support available and the costs associated with each support measure. With this understanding, a strong, sustainable physician-hospital relationship can be created. PMID:24918831

O?Mara, Timothy J; Hill, Austin D; Althausen, Peter L



Microfabricated Liquid Rocket Motors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under NASA Glenn Research Center sponsorship, MIT has developed the concept of micromachined, bipropellant, liquid rocket engines. This is potentially a breakthrough technology changing the cost-performance tradeoffs for small propulsion systems, enabling new applications, and redefining the meaning of the term low-cost-access-to-space. With this NASA support, a liquid-cooled, gaseous propellant version of the thrust chamber and nozzle was designed, built, and tested as a first step. DARPA is currently funding MIT to demonstrate turbopumps and controls. The work performed herein was the second year of a proposed three-year effort to develop the technology and demonstrate very high power density, regeneratively cooled, liquid bipropellant rocket engine thrust chamber and nozzles. When combined with the DARPA turbopumps and controls, this work would enable the design and demonstration of a complete rocket propulsion system. The original MIT-NASA concept used liquid oxygen-ethanol propellants. The military applications important to DARPA imply that storable liquid propellants are needed. Thus, MIT examined various storable propellant combinations including N2O4 and hydrazine, and H2O2 and various hydrocarbons. The latter are preferred since they do not have the toxicity of N2O4 and hydrazine. In reflection of the newfound interest in H2O2, it is once again in production and available commercially. A critical issue for the microrocket engine concept is cooling of the walls in a regenerative design. This is even more important at microscale than for large engines due to cube-square scaling considerations. Furthermore, the coolant behavior of rocket propellants has not been characterized at microscale. Therefore, MIT designed and constructed an apparatus expressly for this purpose. The report details measurements of two candidate microrocket fuels, JP-7 and JP-10.

Epstein, Alan H.; Joppin, C.; Kerrebrock, J. L.; Schneider, Steven J. (Technical Monitor)



Molecular mechanisms of liquid slip  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is now well-established that the liquid adjacent to a solid need not be stationary - it can slip. How this slip occurs is unclear. We present molecular-dynamics (MD) simulation data and results from an analytical model which support two mechanisms of slip. At low levels of forcing, the potential field generated by the solid creates a ground state which

A. Martini; A. Roxin; R. Q. Snurr; Q. Wang; S. Lichter



Liquid tank leakage detection system  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a system for use in detecting leakage within a liquid tank having a filler pipe. It comprises: a standpipe; coupling means; a float; a sensing beam; a beam support means; temperature means; strain measuring means; and float coupling means.

Harrison, J.M.; Marshburn, H.L.



Liquid tank leakage detection system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a system for use in detecting leakage within a liquid tank having a filler pipe. It comprises: a standpipe; coupling means; a float; a sensing beam; a beam support means; temperature means; strain measuring means; and float coupling means.

J. M. Harrison; H. L. Marshburn



Liquid electrode  


A dropping electrolyte electrode for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions.

Ekechukwu, Amy A. (Augusta, GA)



Supporting computer supported cooperative work  

E-print Network

Supporting computer supported cooperative work A case study from telemedicine Margunn Johansena study of a video-based telemedicine project - the DIMedS project (Development of Interactive Medical. Keywords: telemedicine, network, multimedia, support Keywords: HB20, CA10, CA14 Introduction Multimedia

Sahay, Sundeep


Rim-Supported Turbine Seal  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Interstage seal accommodates large pressure drop across vane stage. Sealing surfaces close to inner diameter of gas-flow path. Two blade stages supported by single disk, broached over entire width of rim. Seal concept developed for small rocket turbines as liquid-oxygen pumps. Well suited to turbines with high pressure drops across vane stages.

Longenecker, Kent O.



Viscoelastic cushion for patient support  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flexible container, filled with liquid, provides supportive device which conforms to patient's anatomy. Uniform cushion pressure prevents formation of decubitus ulcers, while the porous sponge substructure damps fluid movement through cushion response so that patient is not dumped when his weight shifts.

Sauers, D. G.



The electromechanics of liquids electrowetting (EWOD) & liquid  

E-print Network

as the energy storage mechanism. Why does virtual work method work? dielectric liquid z We´ C #12;11 Pellat-emulsion droplets #12;4 The original experiment of Pellat 1895 Paris h + V - gravity dielectric liquid: , air: =1 ! h " (#liquid $1)%o Eo 2 2&liquid g #12;5 Quincke bubble method (1883) air bubble trapped between 2

Jones, Thomas B.


Liquid Rainbow  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this density activity, students determine the relative densities of five liquids and layer them atop one another in a straw. Directions for conducting the activity are included in addition to lists of the science process skills, complex reasoning strategies, and National Science Education Standards that relate to it. A brief explanation of the activity's science content and an assessment idea are also provided. This activity is part of a set called Whelmers that were designed to inspire students to think about science concepts.

Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning (McREL); Jacobs, Steve



Hemp Support  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European Union holds a place of distinction amongst the industrialized world as measured by its long-term support of the flax and hemp fiber sectors. More recently, EU fiber support has resulted from successful lobbying efforts by groups in France, Belgium and the Netherlands, and by the emergence of new technical applications for flax and hemp fibers. Relative to many

Valerie L. Vantreese



Guidance Document Cryogenic Liquids  

E-print Network

Guidance Document Cryogenic Liquids [This is a brief and general summary. Read the full MSDS for more details before handling.] Introduction: All cryogenic liquids are gases at normal temperature liquefies them. Cryogenic liquids are kept in the liquid state at very low temperatures. Cryogenic liquids


Ionic liquids as electrolytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salts having a low melting point are liquid at room temperature, or even below, and form a new class of liquids usually called room temperature ionic liquids (RTIL). Information about RTILs can be found in the literature with such key words as: room temperature molten salt, low-temperature molten salt, ambient-temperature molten salt, liquid organic salt or simply ionic liquid. Their

Maciej Gali?ski; Andrzej Lewandowski; Izabela St?pniak



Magnetic Liquids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ferrofluidics Corporation's recent innovation is a spindle for rotating computer discs that supports the disc's rotating shaft on a film of magnetic fluid instead of conventional ball bearings. According to its developers, the spindle offers greatly increased rotational stability, meaning substantially reduced vibration and mechanical noise, and non- repeatable runout. This allows disc drives to store two to 10 times more information.



Liquid-liquid-solid transition in viscoelastic liquids  

PubMed Central

Liquid-liquid-solid transitions (LLST) are known to occur in confined liquids, exist in supercooled liquids and emerge in liquids driven from equilibrium. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations claim many successes in forecasting the phenomena. The transitions are also studied in the framework of thermodynamics based methods and minimalistic models. In here, the proposed approach is derived in the framework of continuum and includes spatial and temporal dynamic heterogeneities; the approach is meant to capture the material behavior at small scales. We conjecture that the liquid-like and solid-like behaviors are dissimilar enough for the two to be governed by different constitutive relations. In this way, we gain additional degree of freedom, which is found essential when predicting the transitional phenomena. As a result, we derive the LLST criteria for liquids in equilibrium, during steady flow and at transient conditions. Lastly, we forecast short-lived LLSTs in human blood during cardiac cycle. PMID:23429528

Zubelewicz, Aleksander



Liquid foams of graphene  

E-print Network

Liquid foams are dispersions of bubbles in a liquid. Bubbles are stabilized by foaming agents that position at the interface between the gas and the liquid. Most foaming agents, such as the commonly used sodium dodecylsulfate, ...

Alcazar Jorba, Daniel



Lacerations - liquid bandage  


... medical attention. If the cut is minor, a liquid bandage (liquid adhesive) can be used on the cut to ... the wound and help stop bleeding. Using a liquid bandage is quick and painless to apply. Skin ...


Liquid Crystal Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Liquid Crystal Institute website provides information on the interdisciplinary research and development of liquid crystal optoelectronic materials, technology, and consumer products. It provides basic information on what liquid crystals are as well as how they are made and used.

Institute, Liquid C.



Coating flow of viscous Newtonian liquids on a rotating vertical disk  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study a Newtonian viscous liquid coating a vertical rotating disk in the creeping flow regime. Experiments were performed at varying disk rotation speeds and liquid volumes, and the thickness profile at steady state was measured. While the maximum liquid supported by the rotating disk varied with rotation rate and liquid viscosity, the numerical value of a dimensionless number signifying

Nilesh H. Parmar; Mahesh S. Tirumkudulu; E. J. Hinch



Liquid annulus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is shown that the specific impulse varies with the square root of the temperature and inversely with the square root of the molecular weight of the propellant. Typical values for specific impulse corresponding to various rocket concepts are shown. The Liquid Annulus core concept consists of a fuel element which will be arranged in a moderator block. The advantages as seen for the system are: high specific impulse; structural material will all run at low temperature; and lower fission product inventory because of evaporation. It is felt that this concept is worth at least a first look because of the promise of very high specific impulse. Because of the low thrust, one would probably need a cluster of engines. This is not necessarily bad because there would be some redundancy, but because of the low thrust one might have to refuel while running. Depending on the fuel vaporization, material can be included in the uranium that is injected as one is running along.

Ludewig, Hans



Flame Spread Across Liquids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The principal goal of our recent research on flame spread across liquid pools is the detailed identification of the mechanisms that control the rate and nature of flame spread when the liquid pool is initially at an isothermal bulk temperature that is below the fuel's flash point temperature. In our project, we specialize the subject to highlight the roles of buoyancy-related processes regarding the mechanisms of flame spread, an area of research cited recently by Linan and Williams as one that needs further attention and which microgravity (micro-g) experiments could help to resolve. Toward resolving the effects of buoyancy on this flame spread problem, comparisons - between 1-g and micro-g experimental observations, and between model predictions and experimental data at each of these gravitational levels - are extensively utilized. The present experimental and computational foundation is presented to support identification of the mechanisms that control flame spread in the pulsating flame spread regime for which long-duration, micro-g flame spread experiments have been conducted aboard a sounding rocket.

Ross, Howard D.; Miller, Fletcher J.; Sirignano, William A.; Schiller, David



Shaped composite liquid marbles.  


Shaped "cubic" non-stick droplets are reported. Shaped composite droplets were manufactured via a two-stage process. In the first stage, cubic foamed-polystyrene particles were hydrophilized with cold radiofrequency plasma. Then particles were wetted with water. In the second stage, they were coated with solid, colloidal particles such as lycopodium, Teflon or carbon black. Thus, "liquid marble"-like non-stick shaped droplets were obtained. The shaped "cubic" droplets remained stable when supported by a NaCl water solution. Shaped Janus droplets coated on one side with dielectric Teflon and with semiconductor carbon black on the other side, were prepared. Janus marbles were actuated with an electric field. PMID:24407678

Bormashenko, Edward; Balter, Revital; Aharoni, Hadas; Aurbach, Doron



Supporting Structures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity about living things and gravity (page 5 of PDF), learners design and build an exoskeleton or an endoskeleton for an animal of their own invention. Learners consider their animal's habitat and body shape when designing its support structure. This guide includes background information, extensions, and a data sheet.

Chang, Kimberly; Moreno, Nancy P.; Tharp, Barbara Z.; Institute, National S.



Administrative Support.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is intended to assist business education teachers in administrative support courses. The materials presented are based on the Arizona validated occupational competencies and tasks for the occupations of receptionist, secretary, and administrative assistant. Word processing skills have been infused into each of the three sections. The…

Doran, Dorothy; And Others


Novelties of liquid–liquid–liquid phase transfer catalysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquid–liquid–liquid phase transfer catalysis (L–L–L PTC) offers orders of magnitude intensification of rates of reaction and better selectivities than the biphasic PTC. The catalyst-rich middle phase is the main reaction phase. The etherification or alkoxylation of p-chloronitrobenzene (PCNB) was conducted by using alkanol and alkali instead of the metal alkoxide. A kinetic model is presented and validated.

G. D Yadav; Suguna S Naik



Look-alike Liquids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners add drops of four liquids (water, alcohol, salt water, and detergent solution) to different surfaces and observe the liquids' behavior. Learners will see that liquids have characteristic properties which can be used for identification. In the related activity, " Developing Tests to Distinguish Between Similar-Looking Liquids" (see related resources), learners identify an unknown based on these properties.

Kessler, James H.; Galvan, Patricia M.



Ionic Liquids Database- (ILThermo)  

National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

SRD 147 Ionic Liquids Database- (ILThermo) (Web, free access)   IUPAC Ionic Liquids Database, ILThermo, is a free web research tool that allows users worldwide to access an up-to-date data collection from the publications on experimental investigations of thermodynamic, and transport properties of ionic liquids as well as binary and ternary mixtures containing ionic liquids.


Traveling Through Different Liquids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners observe and record what happens when they manipulate bottles containing a liquid (water or corn syrup) and one or more objects (screw, nail, paper clip). They should observe differences in how quickly the objects fall in the different liquids. This lesson builds on what learners have studied in previous lessons, Exploring Liquids and Exploring How Liquids Behave.

Janulaw, Sharon



Liquids intermediate between "molecular" and "ionic" liquids: liquid ion pairs?  


Ionic liquids comprised of tetradecyltrihexyl- and tetrabutyl-phosphonium cations paired with chloride or sulfonyl amide anions exhibit properties that reflect strong ion association, including comparatively low viscosity as well as a degree of volatility, and hence exemplify an interesting intermediate state between true ionic and true molecular liquids. PMID:18217657

Fraser, Kevin J; Izgorodina, Ekaterina I; Forsyth, Maria; Scott, Janet L; MacFarlane, Douglas R



Carbon cloth supported electrode  


A flow-by anode is disclosed made by preparing a liquid suspension of about to about 18% by weight solids, the solids comprising about 3.5 to about 8% of a powdered catalyst of platinum, palladium, palladium oxide, or mixtures thereof; about 60 to about 76% carbon powder (support) having a particle size less than about 20 and about 20 to about 33% of an inert binder having a particle size of less than about 500 A sufficient amount of the suspension is poured over a carbon cloth to form a layer of solids about 0.01 to about 0.05 cm thick on the carbon cloth when the electrode is completed. A vacuum was applied to the opposite side of the carbon cloth to remove the liquid and the catalyst layer/cloth assembly is dried and compressed at about 10 to about 50 MPa's. The binder is then sintered in an inert atmosphere to complete the electrode. The electrode is used for the oxidation of sulfur dioxide in a sulfur based hybrid cycle for the decomposition of water.

Lu, Wen-Tong P. (Upper St. Clair, PA); Ammon, Robert L. (Baldwin both of, PA)



Liquid cryobrines in the subsurface of Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liquid cryobrines in the subsurface of Mars D. Mühlmann, DLR Institut für Planetenforschung, Berlin ( Thermodynamics shows that undercooled liquid interfacial water must necessarily exist in the upper surface of Mars, at least temporarily. In case of a given presence of soluble salt grains in the soil with attached interfacial water (of atmospheric-or ice-origin) there must evolve liquid brines ("cryobrines"). The eutectic temperature of cryobrines can be far below 0 C and numerous known brines will remain liquid at martian temperatures. Liquid cryobrines are therefore expected to exist at appropriate sites in the subsurface of Mars, at least temporarily but also at present. Properties like eutectic phase diagrams, related water activity and stability of "Mars-relevant" salts and brines under current martian atmospheric conditions are presented and discussed. It is described that the presence of at least temporarily liquid cryobrines in the subsurface soil can be related to rheological phenomena of viscous liquid brines, and that liquid cryobrines are a current challenge in view of their possible support to a habitability of the subsurface of Mars.

Möhlmann, Diedrich


Transport of samarium(III) and uranium(VI) across a silicone-supported liquid membrane using di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid and tributyl phosphate as mobile carriers  

SciTech Connect

Transport of actinides and lanthanides from dilute acidic solutions through silicone membranes prepared in this laboratory was studied using di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) and tributyl phosphate (TBP) as mobile carriers. It was found that transport of uranyl and samarium ions increased with an increase in carrier concentration dissolved in kerosene in the membrane phase. However, the metal ion flux was optimum at 1 M D2EHPA and 30% (v/v) of TBP, after which it decreased. It was also observed that the higher nitrate ions concentration in the feed enhanced the transport of U (VI) species with TBP carrier. In general, the performance of our silicone membrane compares well with those of other extensively used supported membranes, such as polypropylene and PTFE. 16 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

Gill, J.S.; Marwah, U.R.; Misra, B.M. (Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India))



Liquid storage tank with floating roof structure  

SciTech Connect

In a cylindrical wall storage tank for containing a liquid, said tank is described having a floor, a floatable roof supportable by said contained liquid, said roof including a peripheral seal for engaging the cylindrical wall to maintain a fluid-tight sliding seal therewith, and support means associated with said roof including, the improvement in said tank of, at least one cylindrical guide sleeve extending downwardly from said floatable roof; a shoe depending laterally from said at least one cylindrical guide sleeve's lower end for engaging the tank floor when the level of contained liquid is insufficient to support said floatable roof, said shoe having means forming a passage there through to register a support column and, an elongated support column removably positioned in said at least one cylindrical guide sleeve, of being sufficient length to extend downward beyond the shoe to engage the tank floor, whereby to sustain the floatable roof a predetermined distance above said floor after the contained liquid has drained from the tank.

Vaughn, L.G.



Liquid level detector  


A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which vapor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

Grasso, A.P.



Liquid level detector  


A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which apor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

Grasso, Albert P. (Vernon, CT)



Kinetics and Control of Liquid-Liquid Transition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently it was revealed that even a single-component liquid can have more than two liquid states. The transition between these liquid states is called "liquid-liquid transition". This phenomenon has attracted a considerable attention because of its counter-intuitive character and the fundamental importance for our understanding of the liquid state of matter. The connection between the liquid-liquid transition and polyamorphism is also an interesting issue. In many cases, liquid-liquid transitions exist in a region which is difficult to access experimentally. Because of this experimental difficulty, the physical nature and kinetics of the transition remains elusive. However, a recent finding of liquid-liquid transition in molecular liquids opens up a possibility to study the kinetics in detail. Here we report the first detailed comparison between experiments and a phenomenological theory for the liquid-liquid transition of a molecular liquid, triphenyl phosphite. Both nucleation-growth-type and spinodal-decomposition-type liquid-liquid transformation are remarkably well reproduced by a two-order-parameter model of liquid that regards the liquid-liquid transition as the cooperative formation of locally favored structures. This may shed new light on the nature and the dynamics of the liquid-liquid transition. We also show evidence that this second order parameter controls the fragility of the liquid. We also discuss a possibility of controlling liquid-liquid transition by spatial confinement. Remaining open questions on the nature of the transition are also discussed.

Tanaka, Hajime; Kurita, Rei; Murata, Ken-ichiro



Nonequilibrium Behavior in Supported Lipid Membranes Containing Cholesterol  

E-print Network

by Langmuir-Scha¨fer deposition onto either silanized glass or existing Langmuir-Blodgett supported monolayers domains are found for vesicles ruptured onto glass surfaces. Although supported membranes on glass capture. Domains transferred to glass supports differ from liquid domains in vesicles because they are static, do

Stottrup, Benjamin L.


Heat exchanger support apparatus in a fluidized bed  


A heat exchanger is mounted in the upper portion of a fluidized combusting bed for the control of the temperature of the bed. A support, made up of tubes, is extended from the perforated plate of the fluidized bed up to the heat exchanger. The tubular support framework for the heat exchanger has liquid circulated therethrough to prevent deterioration of the support.

Lawton, Carl W. (West Hartford, CT)



Tool to Prioritize Energy Efficiency Investments  

SciTech Connect

To provide analytic support of the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of the Building Technology Program (BTP), NREL developed a Microsoft Excel-based tool to provide an open and objective comparison of the hundreds of investment opportunities available to BTP. This tool uses established methodologies to evaluate the energy savings and cost of those savings.

Farese, P.; Gelman, R.; Hendron, R.



Liquid-liquid phase separation in biology.  


Cells organize many of their biochemical reactions in non-membrane compartments. Recent evidence has shown that many of these compartments are liquids that form by phase separation from the cytoplasm. Here we discuss the basic physical concepts necessary to understand the consequences of liquid-like states for biological functions. PMID:25288112

Hyman, Anthony A; Weber, Christoph A; Jülicher, Frank



Liquid metal-based plasmonics.  


We demonstrate that liquid metals support surface plasmon-polaritons (SPPs) at terahertz (THz) frequencies, and can thus serve as an attractive material system for a wide variety of plasmonic and metamaterial applications. We use eutectic gallium indium (EGaIn) as the liquid metal injected into a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mold fabricated by soft lithography techniques. Using this approach, we observe enhanced THz transmission through a periodic array of subwavelength apertures. Despite of the fact that the DC conductivity of EGaIn is an order of magnitude smaller than many conventional metals, we clearly observe well-defined transmission resonances. This represents a first step in developing reconfigurable and tunable plasmonic devices that build upon well-developed microfluidic capabilities. PMID:22330473

Wang, Jinqi; Liu, Shuchang; Vardeny, Z Valy; Nahata, Ajay



Industry Support  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is responsible for the Advanced Communications for Air Traffic Management (AC/ATM) Project, a sub-element task of the Advanced Air Transportation Technologies (AATT) Project of the NASA Aviation System Capacity Program (ASC). The AC/ATM Project is developing new communications technologies and tools that will improve throughput in the U.S. Air Traffic Control System. The goal of the AC/ATM Project is to enable a communications infrastructure providing the capacity, efficiency, and flexibility necessary to realize benefits of the future mature Free-Flight environment. The capabilities and scope of communications technologies needed to accomplish this goal depend on characteristics of the future Free-Flight environment. There are many operational concepts being proposed for a future ATM system to enable user flexibility and efficiency. GRC s focus is on developing new technologies and techniques to support the digital communication of information involving airborne and ground-based users. However, the technologies and techniques must be integrated with the systems and services that industry and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) are developing. Thus, GRC needs to monitor and provide input to the various industry and FAA organizations and committees that are specifying new systems and services. Adoption of technologies by the FAA is partially dependent on acceptance of the technology by the aviation community. The commercial aviation community in particular would like to adopt technologies that can be used throughout the world. As a result, the adoption of common or at least compatible technologies by European countries is a key factor in getting commitments to those technologies by the US aviation community. GRC desires to keep informed of European activities that relate to aviation communication technologies, particularly those that are being supported by Eurocontrol.



Seismic analysis of base-isolated liquid storage tanks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three analytical studies for the seismic response of base-isolated ground supported cylindrical liquid storage tanks under recorded earthquake ground motion are presented. The continuous liquid mass of the tank is modelled as lumped masses referred as sloshing mass, impulsive mass and rigid mass. Firstly, the seismic response of isolated tanks is obtained using the modal superposition technique and compared with

M. K Shrimali; R. S Jangid



Multifragmentation and nuclear phase transitions (liquid-fog and liquid-gas)  

E-print Network

Thermal multifragmentation of hot nuclei is interpreted as the nuclear liquid-fog phase transition. The charge distributions of the intermediate mass fragments produced in p(3.6 GeV) + Au and p(8.1 GeV) + Au collisions are analyzed within the statistical multifragmentation model with the critical temperature for the nuclear liquid-gas phase transition Tc as a free parameter. The analysis presented here provides strong support for a value of Tc > 15 MeV.

V. A. Karnaukhov; H. Oeschler; S. P. Avdeyev; V. K. Rodionov; A. V. Simomenko; V. V. Kirakosyan; A. Budzanowski; W. Karcz; I. Skwirczynska; E. A. Kuzmin; E. Norbeck; A. S. Botvina



Liquid medication administration  


... easily. Oral syringes have some advantages for giving liquid medications. They are accurate. They are easy to ... cups are also a handy way to give liquid medications. However, dosing errors have occurred with them. ...


Zero gravity liquid mixer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An apparatus for mixing liquids under conditions of zero gravity is disclosed. The apparatus is comprised of a closed reservoir for the liquids, with a means for maintaining a positive pressure on the liquids in the reservoir. A valved liquid supply line is connected to the reservoir for supplying the reservoir with the liquids to be mixed in the reservoir. The portion of the reservoir containing the liquids to be mixed is in communication with a pump which alternately causes a portion of the liquids to flow out of the pump and into the reservoir to mix the liquids. The fluids in the reservoir are in communication through a conduit with the pump which alternately causes a portion of the fluids to flow out of the pump and into the sphere. The conduit connecting the pump and sphere may contain a nozzle or other jet-forming structure such as a venturi for further mixing the fluids.

Booth, F. W.; Bruce, R. A. (inventors)



Cosmology with liquid mirror telescopes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Liquid mirrors provide an exciting means to obtain large optical telescopes for substantially lower costs than conventional technologies. The liquid mirror concept has been demonstrated in the lab with the construction of a diffraction limited 1.5 m mirror. The mirror surface, using liquid mercury, forms a perfect parabolic shape when the mirror cell is rotated at a uniform velocity. A liquid mirror must be able to support a heavy mercury load with minimal flexure and have a fundamental resonant frequency that is as high as possible, to suppress the amplitude of surface waves caused by small vibrations transmitted to the mirror. To minimize the transmission of vibrations to the liquid surface, the entire mirror rests on an air bearing. This necessitates the mirror cell being lightweight, due to the limited load capabilities of the air bearing. The mirror components must also have physical characteristics which minimize the effects of thermal expansion with ambient temperature fluctuations in the observatory. In addition, the 2.7 m mirror construction is designed so that the techniques used may be readily extended to the construction of large mirrors. To attain the goals of a lightweight, rigid mirror, a composite laminant construction was used. The mirror consists of a foam core cut to the desired parabolic shape, with an accuracy of a few mm. An aluminum hub serves as an anchor for the foam and skin, and allows precise centering of the mirror on the air bearing and drive system. Several plys of Kevlar, covered in an epoxy matrix, are then applied to the foam. A final layer of pure epoxy is formed by spin casting. This final layer is parabolic to within a fraction of a mm. An aluminum ring bonded to the circumference of the mirror retains the mercury, and incorporates stainless-steel hard-points for the attachment of balance weights.

Hogg, David W.; Gibson, Brad K.; Hickson, Paul



Liquid-liquid phase transition in compressed hydrogen from first-principles simulations  

PubMed Central

The properties of compressed liquid hydrogen, the most abundant fluid in the universe, have been investigated by means of first-principles molecular dynamics at pressures between 75 and 175 GPa and temperatures closer to the freezing line than so far reported in shock-wave experiments. Evidence for a liquid–liquid transition between a molecular and a dissociated phase is provided. The transition is accompanied by a 6% increase in density and by metallization. This finding has important implications for our understanding of the interiors of giant planets and supports predictions of a quantum fluid state at low temperatures. PMID:12626753

Scandolo, Sandro



High Performance Liquid Chromatography  

E-print Network

HPLC - 1 High Performance Liquid Chromatography HPLC MEASUREMENT OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN CIGARETTE SMOKE Last updated: June 17, 2014 #12;HPLC - 2 High Performance Liquid Chromatography identify as many PAH as possible in cigarette smoke using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC

Nizkorodov, Sergey


Liquid detection circuit  


Herein is a circuit which is capable of detecting the presence of liquids, especially cryogenic liquids, and whose sensor will not overheat in a vacuum. The circuit parameters, however, can be adjusted to work with any liquid over a wide range of temperatures.

Regan, Thomas O. (North Aurora, IL)



Rocking response of tanks containing two liquids  

SciTech Connect

A study on the dynamic response of upright circular cylindrical liquid-storage tanks containing two different liquids under a rocking base motion with an arbitrary temporal variation is presented. Only rigid tanks were studied. The response quantities examined include the hydrodynamic pressure, sloshing wave height and the associated frequencies, base shear and moments. Each of these response quantities is expressed as the sum of the so-called impulsive component and convective component. Unlike the case of tanks containing one liquid, in which the response is controlled by one parameter, height-to-radius ratio, the response of tanks containing two different liquids are controlled by three parameters: height-to-radius ratio, and mass density ratio and height ratio of the two liquids. The interrelationship of the responses of the tank-liquid system to rocking and lateral base excitations is established by examining numerical results extensively. The study shows that some of the response quantities for tank-liquid system under a rocking base motion can be determined from the available data for the response of an identical tank under a horizontal base motion. Base rocking motion can occur in a ground-supported tank or in an elevated tank under earthquake motions.

Tang, Y. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Reactor Engineering Div.



Ball Bearings for High Temperature Liquid Sodium  

Microsoft Academic Search

A project has been conducted in support of the liquid metal cooled fast breeder nuclear reactor development, in which ball bearings have been designed, manufactured, and tested specifically for a typical reactor application involving operation in high temperature sodium.A powder-processed tool steel was selected for rings and balls, and cages were manufactured from various candidate materials. Test bearings were made

Warren E. Jamison; James J. McVeigh



A liquid-filled projectile simulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The similarity between the oscillatory motions of a top and a projectile is used in the design of a laboratory-based liquid-filled projectile simulator. The simulator uses a free floating rotor which is supported on a spherical air bearing. Its position is monitored by using novel noncontact transducer systems. It is shown that the behaviour when empty can be matched by

P. J. Richards



Liquidity management with fuzzy qualitative constraints  

Microsoft Academic Search

The treasurer of a bank must balance liquidity flows every day in an environment in which some future interest rates and transactions are known precisely, but some are uncertain. Decision support systems based on traditional mathematical programming approach find the optimal plan with respect to precise quantitative constraints provided by the user; we here suggest a procedure by which such

Francesco Gardin; Richard Power; Enrico Martinelli



Radiation monitor for liquids  


A radiation monitor for use with liquids that utilizes air ions created by alpha radiation emitted by the liquids as its detectable element. A signal plane, held at an electrical potential with respect to ground, collects these air ions. A guard plane or guard rings is used to limit leakage currents. In one embodiment, the monitor is used for monitoring liquids retained in a tank. Other embodiments monitor liquids flowing through a tank, and bodies of liquids, such as ponds, lakes, rivers and oceans.

Koster, James E. (Los Alamos, NM); Bolton, Richard D. (Los Alamos, NM)



Radiation monitor for liquids  


A radiation monitor for use with liquids that utilizes air ions created by alpha radiation emitted by the liquids as its detectable element. A signal plane, held at an electrical potential with respect to ground, collects these air ions. A guard plane or guard rings is used to limit leakage currents. In one embodiment, the monitor is used for monitoring liquids retained in a tank. Other embodiments monitor liquids flowing through a tank, and bodies of liquids, such as ponds, lakes, rivers and oceans. 4 figs.

Koster, J.E.; Bolton, R.D.



Patient & Family Support Programs  

E-print Network

Patients and supporters welcome. Support Services Room, Level 3, NCCC Pancreatic Cancer Support Group May with Pancreatic Cancer Action Network Support Services Room, Level 3, NCCC PSA at NCCC: Prostate Support Alliance

Myers, Lawrence C.


Liquid/Gas Vortex Separator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Liquid/gas separator vents gas from tank of liquid that contains gas randomly distributed in bubbles. Centrifugal force separates liquid and gas, forcing liquid out of vortex tube through venturi tube. Gas vented through exhaust port. When liquid detected in vent tube, exhaust port closed, and liquid/gas mixture in vent tube drawn back into tank through venturi.

Morris, B. G.



Disability Support and Academic Support Support for your Studies  

E-print Network

Support offers advice on study strategies as well as supporting students with dyslexia, dyspraxia and experienced tutors who can provide support if you have, or think you have dyslexia, dyspraxia or other Specific Learning Difficulties such as AD(H)D. Your support might include: ·extratimeinexaminations

Aickelin, Uwe


Liquid Wall Chambers  

SciTech Connect

The key feature of liquid wall chambers is the use of a renewable liquid layer to protect chamber structures from target emissions. Two primary options have been proposed and studied: wetted wall chambers and thick liquid wall (TLW) chambers. With wetted wall designs, a thin layer of liquid shields the structural first wall from short ranged target emissions (x-rays, ions and debris) but not neutrons. Various schemes have been proposed to establish and renew the liquid layer between shots including flow-guiding porous fabrics (e.g., Osiris, HIBALL), porous rigid structures (Prometheus) and thin film flows (KOYO). The thin liquid layer can be the tritium breeding material (e.g., flibe, PbLi, or Li) or another liquid metal such as Pb. TLWs use liquid jets injected by stationary or oscillating nozzles to form a neutronically thick layer (typically with an effective thickness of {approx}50 cm) of liquid between the target and first structural wall. In addition to absorbing short ranged emissions, the thick liquid layer degrades the neutron flux and energy reaching the first wall, typically by {approx}10 x x, so that steel walls can survive for the life of the plant ({approx}30-60 yrs). The thick liquid serves as the primary coolant and tritium breeding material (most recent designs use flibe, but the earliest concepts used Li). In essence, the TLW places the fusion blanket inside the first wall instead of behind the first wall.

Meier, W R



The Liquid Crystal Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The homepage of the Liquid Crystal Institute (LCI) presents gorgeous color images produced from liquid crystal, research overviews, technology invention abstracts, news and conference links, and more. LCI is part of a consortium, selected by the National Science Foundation, based at the Center for Advanced Liquid Crystalline Optical Materials (ALCOM) at Kent State University. The consortium includes Kent State University, Case Western Reserve University, and the University of Akron. ALCOM focuses on interdisciplinary research and development of liquid crystal optoelectronic materials, technology, and consumer products. A few of the liquid crystal studies featured here are fine structure and oily streak defects, magneto-optic response, text display applications, and organic synthesis. One of LCI's projects, the Polymers and Liquid Crystals Textbook, was featured in the December 13, 1996 Scout Report for Science & Engineering The LCI Website is not especially well-organized, but it contains lots of information about liquid crystal technology.


Liquid Propellant Manipulated Acoustically  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fluids are difficult to manage in the space environment. Without gravity, the liquid and gas do not always remain separated as they do in the 1g environment of Earth. Instead the liquid and gas volumes mix and migrate under the influence of surface tension, thermodynamic forces, and external disturbances. As a result, liquid propellants may not be in a useable location or may even form a chaotic mix of liquid and gas bubbles. In the past, mechanical pumps, baffles, and a variety of specialized passive devices have been used to control the liquid and gas volumes. These methods need to be carefully tuned to a specific configuration to be effective. With increasing emphasis on long-term human activity in space there is a trend toward liquid systems that are more flexible and provide greater control. We are exploring new methods of manipulating liquids by using the nonlinear acoustic effects achieved by using beams of highly directed high-intensity acoustic waves.

Oeftering, Richard C.; Chato, David J.; Mann, Adin, III



Nanowire liquid pumps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to form tiny droplets of liquids and control their movements is important in printing or patterning, chemical reactions and biological assays. So far, such nanofluidic capabilities have principally used components such as channels, nozzles or tubes, where a solid encloses the transported liquid. Here, we show that liquids can flow along the outer surface of solid nanowires at a scale of attolitres per second and the process can be directly imaged with in situ transmission electron microscopy. Microscopy videos show that an ionic liquid can be pumped along tin dioxide, silicon or zinc oxide nanowires as a thin precursor film or as beads riding on the precursor film. Theoretical analysis suggests there is a critical film thickness of ~10 nm below which the liquid flows as a flat film and above which it flows as discrete beads. This critical thickness is the result of intermolecular forces between solid and liquid, which compete with liquid surface energy and Rayleigh-Plateau instability.

Huang, Jian Yu; Lo, Yu-Chieh; Niu, Jun Jie; Kushima, Akihiro; Qian, Xiaofeng; Zhong, Li; Mao, Scott X.; Li, Ju



Liquid Metal Transformers  

E-print Network

The room temperature liquid metal is quickly emerging as an important functional material in a variety of areas like chip cooling, 3D printing or printed electronics etc. With diverse capabilities in electrical, thermal and flowing behaviors, such fluid owns many intriguing properties that had never been anticipated before. Here, we show a group of unconventional phenomena occurring on the liquid metal objects. Through applying electrical field on the liquid metals immersed in water, a series of complex transformation behaviors such as self-assembling of a sheet of liquid metal film into a single sphere, quick mergences of separate metal droplets, controlled self-rotation and planar locomotion of liquid metal objects can be realized. Meanwhile, it was also found that two accompanying water vortexes were induced and reliably swirled near the rotating liquid metal sphere. Further, effects of the shape, size, voltage, orientation and geometries of the electrodes to control the liquid metal transformers were clar...

Sheng, Lei; Liu, Jing



Intensification of Liquid-Liquid Contacting Processes  

E-print Network

different energy sources and were investigated in this dissertation. They include electrostatic liquid spraying based on electric field and a two-disc spinning disc reactor based on high gravity field. Interfacial turbulence plays an important role...

Qiu, Zheyan



Pressures exerted on soil due to rocking of liquid storage tanks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large pressure exerting on soil due to dynamic response of a liquid storage tank may cause excessive settlement to the supporting soil. Analysis for the dynamic response of such a system should consider the sloshing of liquid in the tank, the associated hydrodynamic pressure, and the coupling effects of liquid with tank and soil foundation. In this study, a simple

Lun Ma; Ching S. Chang



Liquid Effluents Program mission analysis  

SciTech Connect

Systems engineering is being used to identify work to cleanup the Hanford Site. The systems engineering process transforms an identified mission need into a set of performance parameters and a preferred system configuration. Mission analysis is the first step in the process. Mission analysis supports early decision-making by clearly defining the program objectives, and evaluating the feasibility and risks associated with achieving those objectives. The results of the mission analysis provide a consistent basis for subsequent systems engineering work. A mission analysis was performed earlier for the overall Hanford Site. This work was continued by a ``capstone`` team which developed a top-level functional analysis. Continuing in a top-down manner, systems engineering is now being applied at the program and project levels. A mission analysis was conducted for the Liquid Effluents Program. The results are described herein. This report identifies the initial conditions and acceptable final conditions, defines the programmatic and physical interfaces and sources of constraints, estimates the resources to carry out the mission, and establishes measures of success. The mission analysis reflects current program planning for the Liquid Effluents Program as described in Liquid Effluents FY 1995 Multi-Year Program Plan.

Lowe, S.S.



Solid-ionic liquid interfaces: pore filling revisited.  


The properties of ionic liquids on ordered and non-ordered mesoporous silicas (silica gel, MCM-41, SBA-15) were studied by nitrogen sorption, mercury intrusion and thermogravimetric analyses, as well as (129)Xe-NMR spectroscopy. The ionic liquids investigated are based on the 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium cation, which was combined with anions of low (bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide; [NTf2](-)), medium (trifluoromethylsulfonate; [CF3SO3](-)) to high (acetate; [OAc](-)) basicity. The surface coverage depends on both the type of ionic liquid and support used. This results not only in layer or droplet formation, but also in different physico-chemical properties of the ionic liquid when compared to the bulk, depending mainly on the strength of interaction at the interface. Furthermore, the mercury intrusion analysis of mesopores is shown not to be suitable for supported ionic liquids. PMID:25300707

Heinze, M T; Zill, J C; Matysik, J; Einicke, W D; Gläser, R; Stark, A



PREFACE: 6th Liquid Matter Conference  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This special issue of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter contains the Proceedings of the 6th Liquid Matter Conference held in Utrecht, The Netherlands, 2-6 July 2005. The three-yearly Liquid Matter Conference is organized by the Liquids Section of the Condensed Matter Division of the European Physical Society. This series of meetings began in Lyon in 1990. The most recent meeting was held in 2003 in Konstanz. The aim of the Liquid Matter Conferences is to bring together scientists working on the liquid state of matter. This rapidly growing field includes the physics, chemistry, biology and chemical engineering of liquid matter as well as various applied research areas. In fact, the Utrecht meeting had, for the first time, a special session devoted to Fundamental Challenges in Applied Liquid Physics and Microfluidics. The Utrecht meeting had 760 registered participants from four continents. An important event at this meeting was the award of the First Liquid Matter Prize of the European Physical Society to Professor Jean-Pierre Hansen FRS, of Cambridge University. In addition to a plenary speech by the recipient of the Liquid Matter Prize, the scientific programme consisted of 10 plenary lectures, 117 symposia talks, 25 of which were keynote lectures and some 650 poster contributions. The meeting also hosted a one-day symposium of the Division of Liquids and Interfaces of the Chemical Sciences division of NWO. This special issue of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter contains 61 of the oral communications. Liquid state physics is at the interface of many fields of research. As a consequence, many of the attendants come from adjacent fields and find in the Liquid Matter Conference a forum to meet experts from other areas of research. This aspect of the Liquid Matter Conference makes it an exciting meeting as it not only offers the participants an up-to-date picture of the status of research into the liquid state of matter, but it also allows them to establish new (and often unexpected) trans-disciplinary contacts for joint scientific endeavours. This applies in particular to the area of soft condensed matter such as colloidal suspensions, polymeric systems and biological materials. The conference was held at the Uithof, the campus of the University of Utrecht. The organizers gratefully acknowledge the generosity of the University and City of Utrecht, which enabled us to stage both the scientific part of the conference and several festive and cultural events in some of the most attractive venues of the Netherlands. We were also delighted by the substantial contributions offered by the sponsors of the 6th Liquid Matter Conference. With this support it became possible to support a large number of scientists who would otherwise not have been able to attend. Finally, we owe a great debt of gratitude to the secretarial staff of the conference and the many students, postdocs and other colleagues who helped tirelessly (and very efficiently) to make the conference run smoothly. The Board of the Liquids Section of the European Physical Society decided that the 7th Liquid Matter Conference will be held in Lund (Sweden). The tentative dates are Friday 27 June 2008 to Tuesday 1 July 2008.

Dijkstra, Marjolein; van Roij, René; Vroege, Gert Jan; Lekkerkerker, Henk; Frenkel, Daan



Consolidated incineration facility technical support  

SciTech Connect

In 1996, the Savannah River Site plans to begin operation of the Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) to treat solid and liquid RCRA hazardous and mixed wastes. The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) leads an extensive technical support program designed to obtain incinerator and air pollution control equipment performance data to support facility start-up and operation. Key components of this technical support program include recently completed waste burn tests at both EPA`s Incineration Research Facility and at Energy and Environmental Research Corporation`s Solid Waste Incineration Test Facility. The main objectives for these tests were determining the fate of heavy metals, measuring organics destruction and removal efficiencies, and quantifying incinerator offgas particulate loading and size distribution as a function of waste feed characteristics and incineration conditions. In addition to these waste burning tests, the SRTC has recently completed installations of the Offgas Components Test Facility (OCTF), a 1/10 scale CIF offgas system pilot plant. This pilot facility will be used to demonstrate system operability and maintainability, evaluate and optimize equipment and instrument performance, and provide direct CIF start-up support. Technical support programs of this type are needed to resolve technical issues related with treatment and disposal of combustible hazardous, mixed, and low-level radioactive waste. Implementation of this program will minimize facility start-up problems and help insure compliance with all facility performance requirements.

Burns, D.; Looper, M.G.



Evidence for Liquid Water on Comets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have reexamined the arguments for the existence of liquid water on comets, and believe that recent cometary flybys along with pre-Giotto data support its presence on short-period comets. Liquid water would affect cometary dynamics, leaving distinct signatures in precession, orbital dynamics, and potential splitting of comets. Liquid water geysers would affect cometary atmosphere, dust evolution, and non-gravitational forces that perturb the orbit. Liquid water would affect the composition of both the interior and exterior of the comet, producing geologic effects consistent with recent flyby photographs. And most importantly, liquid water suppork the growth of lifeforms, which would make a comet a biofriendly incubator for interplanetary transport. The major objection against liquid water is the necessity of a pressure vessel to prevent sublimation into space. We discuss how such a pressure vessel could naturally evolve as a pristine comet makes its first journey inside the orbit of Mars, and suggest that this type of vessel was observed by Giotto, Deep Space I, and Stardust.

Sheldon, Robert; Hoover, Richard



Monogroove liquid heat exchanger  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A liquid supply control is disclosed for a heat transfer system which transports heat by liquid-vapor phase change of a working fluid. An assembly (10) of monogroove heat pipe legs (15) can be operated automatically as either heat acquisition devices or heat discharge sources. The liquid channels (27) of the heat pipe legs (15) are connected to a reservoir (35) which is filled and drained by respective filling and draining valves (30, 32). Information from liquid level sensors (50, 51) on the reservoir (35) is combined (60) with temperature information (55) from the liquid heat exchanger (12) and temperature information (56) from the assembly vapor conduit (42) to regulate filling and draining of the reservoir (35), so that the reservoir (35) in turn serves the liquid supply/drain needs of the heat pipe legs (15), on demand, by passive capillary action (20, 28).

Brown, Richard F. (Inventor); Edelstein, Fred (Inventor)



Ionic conductivity of imidazole-functionalized liquid crystal mesogens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Imidazole has been investigated as a novel anhydrous proton conducting functional group that could enable higher temperature operation (> 120 ^oC) of polymer electrolyte fuel cells. Its amphoteric behavior can support Grotthuss-like proton transport; however molecular mobility and a high concentration of imidazole groups are needed to achieve high ionic conductivity. Our hypothesis is that liquid crystal ordering, particularly in layered smectic phase, can facilitate formation of 2D proton transport and promote proton conductivity. We have designed and synthesized two imidazole-terminated liquid crystal mesogens, and the ionic conductivities in the liquid crystalline and isotropic states have been measured. Here we report on synthesis and characterization of diacylhydrazine liquid crystals bearing imidazole terminal groups. The proton conductivity of products is compared to pure liquid imidazole and to liquid crystal mesogens without imidazole groups.

Roddecha, Supacharee; Anthamatten, Mitchell



Liquid cryobrines and habitability in the subsurface of Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Undercooled liquid interfacial water is shown to necessarily exist in the upper surface of Mars, at least temporarily with diurnal and seasonal variations. Thus, there must in case of a given local presence of soluble salt grains in the soil also evolve liquid brines ("cryobrines"). These liquid aqueous salty solutions can have their eutectic temperature far below 0 C and will remain liquid above that temperature. Liquid cryobrines are therefore expected to, also at present, exist at appropriate sites in the subsurface of Mars. Phase diagrams, water activity and stability of "Mars-relevant" salts and related cryobrines in the subsurface of Mars are presented and discussed. The presence of at least temporarily liquid cryobrines in the subsurface soil may, in analogy to terrestrial halophilic bacteria, give conditions, which could support life processes on present Mars. Related "habitability-aspects" and resulting current challenges to "cryobrine-microbiology" are discussed.

Möhlmann, Diedrich


Modification of liquid hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect

Improved rate of dissolution in liquid hydrocarbon fuels, of specified tert-butylstyrene copolymers capable of imparting anti-misting characteristics to the fuel, is obtained when the copolymer, following its production by aqueous emulsion polymerization of the monomers, is isolated from the resulting latex by a process of flocculation, separation, washing and drying at moderate temperatures. The copolymer thus isolated is advantageously incorporated in the liquid fuel in the form of a slurry with a hydroxylic liquid and an amine.

Roberts, T. S.; Waite, F. A.



Icosahedral order in liquids  

SciTech Connect

The possibility of icosahedral order in liquids and its role in glass transition is discussed in a broad context of statistical mechanics of liquid. It is pointed out that the structures of glasses and liquids are described both in terms of the topology of atomic bond networks as well as the local distortion of the atomic bonds. While topology plays a dominant role in covalent glasses, local distortion is likely to be more important for metallic glasses.

Egami, Takeshi [ORNL



Fermi liquid theory: A brief survey in memory of Gerald E. Brown  

E-print Network

I present a brief review of Fermi liquid theory, and discuss recent work on Fermi liquid theory in dilute neutron matter and cold atomic gases. I argue that renewed interest in transport properties of quantum fluids provides fresh support for Landau's approach to Fermi liquid theory, which is based on kinetic theory rather than effective field theory and the renormalization group. I also discuss work on non-Fermi liquids, in particular dense quark matter.

Schaefer, Thomas



Fermi liquid theory: A brief survey in memory of Gerald E. Brown  

E-print Network

I present a brief review of Fermi liquid theory, and discuss recent work on Fermi liquid theory in dilute neutron matter and cold atomic gases. I argue that renewed interest in transport properties of quantum fluids provides fresh support for Landau's approach to Fermi liquid theory, which is based on kinetic theory rather than effective field theory and the renormalization group. I also discuss work on non-Fermi liquids, in particular dense quark matter.

Thomas Schaefer



Liquid level detector  

SciTech Connect

A liquid level sensor having a pair of upright conductors spaced by an insulator defining a first high resistance path between the conductors. An electrically conductive path is interposed between the upright conductors at a discrete location at which liquid level is to be measured. It includes a liquid accessible gap of a dimension such that the electrical resistance across the conductor when the gap is filled with the liquid is detectably less than when the gap is emptied. The conductor might also be physically altered by temperature changes to serve also as an indicator of elevated temperature.

Tokarz, Richard D. (West Richland, WA)



Liquid Crystal Optofluidics  

SciTech Connect

By employing anisotropic fluids and namely liquid crystals, fluid flow becomes an additional degree of freedom in designing optofluidic devices. In this paper, we demonstrate optofluidic liquid crystal devices based on the direct flow of nematic liquid crystals in microfluidic channels. Contrary to previous reports, in the present embodiment we employ the effective phase delay acquired by light travelling through flowing liquid crystal, without analysing the polarisation state of the transmitted light. With this method, we demonstrate the variation in the diffraction pattern of an array of microfluidic channels acting as a grating. We also discuss our recent activities in integrating mechanical oscillators for on-chip peristaltic pumping.

Vasdekis, Andreas E.; Cuennet, J. G.; Psaltis, D.



Liquid Metal Transformers  

E-print Network

The room temperature liquid metal is quickly emerging as an important functional material in a variety of areas like chip cooling, 3D printing or printed electronics etc. With diverse capabilities in electrical, thermal and flowing behaviors, such fluid owns many intriguing properties that had never been anticipated before. Here, we show a group of unconventional phenomena occurring on the liquid metal objects. Through applying electrical field on the liquid metals immersed in water, a series of complex transformation behaviors such as self-assembling of a sheet of liquid metal film into a single sphere, quick mergences of separate metal droplets, controlled self-rotation and planar locomotion of liquid metal objects can be realized. Meanwhile, it was also found that two accompanying water vortexes were induced and reliably swirled near the rotating liquid metal sphere. Further, effects of the shape, size, voltage, orientation and geometries of the electrodes to control the liquid metal transformers were clarified. Such events are hard to achieve otherwise on rigid metal or conventional liquid spheres. This finding has both fundamental and practical significances which suggest a generalized way of making smart soft machine, collecting discrete metal fluids, as well as flexibly manipulating liquid metal objects including accompanying devices.

Lei Sheng; Jie Zhang; Jing Liu



Chiral separation by enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction.  


The literature on enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction (ELLE) spans more than half a century of research. Nonetheless, a comprehensive overview has not appeared during the past few decades. Enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction is a technology of interest for a wide range of chemists and chemical engineers in the fields of fine chemicals, pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, fragrances and foods. In this review the principles and advances of resolution through enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction are discussed, starting with an introduction on the principles of enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction including host-guest chemistry, extraction and phase transfer mechanisms, and multistage liquid-liquid extraction processing. Then the literature on enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction systems is reviewed, structured on extractant classes. The following extractant classes are considered: crown ether based extractants, metal complexes and metalloids, extractants based on tartrates, and a final section with all other types of chiral extractants. PMID:21107491

Schuur, Boelo; Verkuijl, Bastiaan J V; Minnaard, Adriaan J; de Vries, Johannes G; Heeres, Hero J; Feringa, Ben L



Erasing no-man’s land by thermodynamically stabilizing the liquid-liquid transition in tetrahedral particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most controversial hypotheses for explaining the origin of the thermodynamic anomalies characterizing liquid water postulates the presence of a metastable second-order liquid-liquid critical point located in the `no-man’s land’. In this scenario, two liquids with distinct local structure emerge near the critical temperature. Unfortunately, as spontaneous crystallization is rapid in this region, experimental support for this hypothesis relies on significant extrapolations, either from the metastable liquid or from amorphous solid water. Although the liquid-liquid transition is expected to feature in many tetrahedrally coordinated liquids, including silicon, carbon and silica, even numerical studies of atomic and molecular models have been unable to conclusively prove the existence of this transition. Here we provide such evidence for a model in which it is possible to continuously tune the softness of the interparticle interaction and the flexibility of the bonds, the key ingredients controlling the existence of the critical point. We show that conditions exist where the full coexistence is thermodynamically stable with respect to crystallization. Our work offers a basis for designing colloidal analogues of water exhibiting liquid-liquid transitions in equilibrium, opening the way for experimental confirmation of the original hypothesis.

Smallenburg, Frank; Filion, Laura; Sciortino, Francesco



Precision liquid level sensor  


A precision liquid level sensor utilizes a balanced R. F. bridge, each arm including an air dielectric line. Changes in liquid level along one air dielectric line imbalance the bridge and create a voltage which is directly measurable across the bridge. 2 figs.

Field, M.E.; Sullivan, W.H.



Liquid Impact Simulator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The liquid impact simulator is capable of shooting single jets of water of diameters varying from .020 inch to .100 inch at speeds up to 3000 feet per second. Minor adaptations of the apparatus could produce even higher velocity jets. These liquid jets ar...

M. P. Scher



Enhancing liquid jet erosion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Process and apparatus for enhancing the erosive intensity of a high velocity liquid jet when the jet is impacted against a surface for cutting, cleaning, drilling or otherwise acting on the surface. A preferred method comprises the steps of forming a high velocity liquid jet, oscillating the velocity of the jet at a preferred Strouhal number, and impinging the pulsed

Johnson V. E. Jr



Liquid Chromatography in 1982.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews trends in liquid chromatography including apparatus, factors affecting efficient separation of a mixture (peak sharpness and speed), simplified problem-solving, adsorption, bonded phase chromatography, ion selectivity, and size exclusion. The current trend is to control chemical selectivity by the liquid phase. (Author/JN)

Freeman, David H.



Cloud Liquid Water Measurements  

E-print Network

Liquid Water Content? Determines the Potential of Enhancing Precipitation using Cloud Seed TechniquesCloud Liquid Water Measurements By David Delene University of North Dakota #12;Why Measure Cloud (Mali, Saudi Arabia) Basic Cloud Parameter (MPACE) Icing Studies (WISP04, Sikorsky) Comparison

Delene, David J.


Advanced proteomic liquid chromatography  

SciTech Connect

Liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry is the predominant platform used to analyze proteomics samples consisting of large numbers of proteins and their proteolytic products (e.g., truncated polypeptides) and spanning a wide range of relative concentrations. This review provides an overview of advanced capillary liquid chromatography techniques and methodologies that greatly improve separation resolving power and proteomics analysis coverage, sensitivity, and throughput.

Xie, Fang; Smith, Richard D.; Shen, Yufeng



Liquid Crystal Thermometers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore liquid crystal thermometers to observe how heat flows by conduction, convection, radiation, and evaporation. This resource includes five mini-explorations in which learners use basic materials and observe color changes on a liquid crystal thermometer card.

Doherty, Paul



An organocatalytic ionic liquid.  


The carbene concentration in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium-acetate ionic liquid is sufficiently high to act as a catalyst in benzoin condensation, hydroacylation and also in oxidation of an alcohol by using CO(2) and air. This observation reveals the potential of ionic liquid organocatalysts, uniting the beneficial properties of these two families of compounds. PMID:21701727

Kelemen, Zsolt; Hollóczki, Oldamur; Nagy, József; Nyulászi, László



Practical animation of liquids  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a general method for modeling and animating liquids. The system is specifically designed for computer animation and handles viscous liquids as they move in a 3D environment and interact with graphics primitives such as parametric curves and moving polygons. We combine an appropriately modified semi-Lagrangian method with a new approach to calculating fluid flow around objects. This allows

Nick Foster; Ronald Fedkiw




EPA Science Inventory

Nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLS) are hydrocarbons that exist as a separate, immiscible phase when in contact with water and/or air. ifferences in the physical and chemical properties of water and NAPL result in the formation of a physical interface between the liquids which preve...


Natural-gas liquids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Casinghead gasoline or natural gasoline, now more suitably known as natural-gas liquids (NGL), was a nuisance when first found, but was developed into a major and profitable commodity. This part of the petroleum industry began at about the turn of the century, and more than 60 yr later the petroleum industry recovers approx. one million bbl of natural-gas liquids a

W. B. Blackstock; G. W. McCullough; R. C. McCutchan



INEEL Liquid Effluent Inventory  

SciTech Connect

The INEEL contractors and their associated facilities are required to identify all liquid effluent discharges that may impact the environment at the INEEL. This liquid effluent information is then placed in the Liquid Effluent Inventory (LEI) database, which is maintained by the INEEL prime contractor. The purpose of the LEI is to identify and maintain a current listing of all liquid effluent discharge points and to identify which discharges are subject to federal, state, or local permitting or reporting requirements and DOE order requirements. Initial characterization, which represents most of the INEEL liquid effluents, has been performed, and additional characterization may be required in the future to meet regulations. LEI information is made available to persons responsible for or concerned with INEEL compliance with liquid effluent permitting or reporting requirements, such as the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System, Wastewater Land Application, Storm Water Pollution Prevention, Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasures, and Industrial Wastewater Pretreatment. The State of Idaho Environmental Oversight and Monitoring Program also needs the information for tracking liquid effluent discharges at the INEEL. The information provides a baseline from which future liquid discharges can be identified, characterized, and regulated, if appropriate. The review covered new and removed buildings/structures, buildings/structures which most likely had new, relocated, or removed LEI discharge points, and at least 10% of the remaining discharge points.

Major, C.A.



Ionic Liquid Membranes for Carbon Dioxide Separation  

SciTech Connect

Recent scientific studies are rapidly advancing novel technological improvements and engineering developments that demonstrate the ability to minimize, eliminate, or facilitate the removal of various contaminants and green house gas emissions in power generation. The Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) shows promise for carbon dioxide mitigation not only because of its higher efficiency as compared to conventional coal firing plants, but also due to a higher driving force in the form of high partial pressure. One of the novel technological concepts currently being developed and investigated is membranes for carbon dioxide (CO2) separation, due to simplicity and ease of scaling. A challenge in using membranes for CO2 capture in IGCC is the possibility of failure at elevated temperatures or pressures. Our earlier research studies examined the use of ionic liquids on various supports for CO2 separation over the temperature range, 37°C-300°C. The ionic liquid, 1-hexyl-3methylimidazolium Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, ([hmim][Tf2N]), was chosen for our initial studies with the following supports: polysulfone (PSF), poly(ether sulfone) (PES), and cross-linked nylon. The PSF and PES supports had similar performance at room temperature, but increasing temperature caused the supported membranes to fail. The ionic liquid with the PES support greatly affected the glass transition temperature, while with the PSF, the glass transition temperature was only slightly depressed. The cross-linked nylon support maintained performance without degradation over the temperature range 37-300°C with respect to its permeability and selectivity. However, while the cross-linked nylon support was able to withstand temperatures, the permeability continued to increase and the selectivity decreased with increasing temperature. Our studies indicated that further testing should examine the use of other ionic liquids, including those that form chemical complexes with CO2 based on amine interactions. The hypothesis is that the performance at the elevated temperatures could be improved by allowing a facilitated transport mechanism to become dominant. Several amine-based ionic liquids were tested on the cross-linked nylon support. It was found that using the amine-based ionic liquid did improve selectivity and permeability at higher temperature. The hypothesis was confirmed, and it was determined that the type of amine used also played a role in facilitated transport. Given the appropriate aminated ionic liquid with the cross-linked nylon support, it is possible to have a membrane capable of separating CO2 at IGCC conditions. With this being the case, the research has expanded to include separation of other constituents besides CO2 (CO, H2S, etc.) and if they play a role in membrane poisoning or degradation. This communication will discuss the operation of the recently fabricated ionic liquid membranes and the impact of gaseous components other than CO2 on their performance and stability.

Myers, C.R.; Ilconich, J.B.; Luebke, D.R.; Pennline, H.W.



Tunable liquid crystal lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liquid crystal lasers are dye-doped distributed feedback lasing systems. Fabricated by coupling the periodic structure of a liquid crystal medium with a fluorescent dye, the emission from these systems is tunable by controlling the liquid crystal system---be it through electric or thermal field effects, photochemical reactions, mechanical deformations, etc. The laser action arises from an extended interaction time between the radiation field, the laser emission, and the matter field, the periodic liquid crystal medium, at the edge of the photonic band gap. In this thesis, several tunable liquid crystal laser systems are investigated: cholesteric liquid crystals, holographic-polymer dispersed liquid crystals and liquid crystal polarization gratings. The primary focus has been to fabricate systems that are tunable through electrical means, as applications requiring mechanical or thermal changes are often difficult to control. Cholesteric liquid crystal lasers are helical Bragg reflectors, with a band gap for circularly polarized light of equivalent handedness to their helix. These materials were doped with a laser dye and laser emission was observed. The use of an in-plane electric field tends to unwind the helical pitch of the film and in doing so tunable emission was demonstrated for ˜15 nm. Holographic-polymer dispersed liquid crystals (H-PDLCs) are grating structures consisting of alternating layers of polymer and liquid crystal, with different indices of refraction. The application of an electric field index matches these layers and switches off the grating. Thus, laser emission can be switched on and off through the use of an electric field. Spatially tunable H-PDLC lasers were fabricated by creating chirped gratings, formed by divergent beams. The emission was shown to tune ˜5 nm as the pump beam was translated across a 1 inch film. Liquid crystal polarization gratings use photo-patterned alignment layers, through a polarization holography exposure, to induce an alignment in a liquid crystal film. Electrically tunable emission was demonstrated in these systems. Applications of liquid crystal lasers include emissive substrates or backplanes for displays or tunable emission sources for biology and medicine. The potential for such applications are discussed.

Woltman, Scott J.


Polymers and Liquid Crystals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This newly enhanced site is the result of a cooperative effort between the Department of Physics and the Department of Macromolecular Science and Engineering at Case Western Reserve University in conjunction with the Center for Advanced Liquid Crystalline Optical Materials (ALCOM) at Kent State University. The project aims to demonstrate the potential of the hypertext multimedia medium for instructional use, and is still under development (occasionally users will come across an "under construction" notice). Topics covered include polymers, liquid crystals, polymer liquid crystals, polymer dispersed liquid crystals, polymer stabilized cholesterics, and liquid crystal displays. The previous version, which debuted in January 1996, has been enhanced with more video and audio, frames, and a glossary. Throughout the text, users are invited to enter the Virtual Laboratory, in which browser applets allow control of experiments demonstrating the principles under discussion. A CD-ROM version of the textbook is planned.



Ultrasonic depth gauge for liquids under high pressure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The invention relates to an ultrasonic depth gauge for liquids under high pressure and is particularly useful in the space industry where it is necessary to use a pressurized gas to transfer a liquid from one location to another. Conventional liquid depth gauges do not have the capability to operate under extreme high pressure (i.e., exceeding 300 psi). An ultrasonic depth gauge capable of withstanding high pressure according to the present invention is comprised of a transducer assembly and a supporting electronics unit. The former is mounted in to the bottom wall of a storage vessel with its resonating surface directly exposed to the highly pressurized liquid in the vessel. In operation, the ultrasonic pulse propagates upward through the liquid to the liquid-gas interface in the storage vessel. When the ultrasonic echo returns from the liquid-gas interface, it re-excites the composite resonator into vibration. The supporting electronics unit measures the round-trip transmit time for the ultrasonic pulse and its return echo to traverse the depth of the highly pressurized liquid. The novelty of the invention resides in the use of a conventional transducer rigidly bonded to the inside wall of a bored out conventional high-pressure plug to form a composite resonator capable of withstanding extremely high pressure.

Zuckerwar, Allan J. (inventor); Mazel, David S. (inventor)



Catalyst for converting synthesis gas to liquid motor fuels  


The addition of an inert metal component, such as gold, silver or copper, to a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst comprising cobalt enables said catalyst to convert synthesis gas to liquid motor fuels at about C. with advantageously reduced selectivity of said cobalt for methane in said conversion. The catalyst composition can advantageously include a support component, such as a molecular sieve, co-catalyst/support component or a combination of such support components.

Coughlin, Peter K. (Yorktown Heights, NY)



Autothermal Processing of Renewable Liquids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vast majority of petrochemicals are synthesized from just six building block molecules, but current feedstocks are an unsustainable resource with negative externalities. Biomass represents a potentially sustainable feedstock, but needs densification, preferably to a liquid form, to be a suitable replacement. Fermentation to butanol and pyrolysis to bio-oil are two promising liquid intermediates. Catalytic partial oxidation (CPO) of the liquid intermediates over noble metal catalysts, which converts the liquids primarily into syngas and light olefins, is a promising technique for processing densified biomass. The study of liquids at high temperatures requires consideration of a range of complex phenomena, including boiling behavior on hot surfaces, reactions of the feed molecules at high temperatures and on catalyst surfaces, and interactions of impurities in the liquid with the catalyst. Chapter 2 deals with the behavior of the transient liquid that forms when cellulose, a major constituent of biomass, is pyrolized. Fast photography experiments and numerical simulations are performed to show that the aerosols formed in the boiling of this liquid are capable of transporting nonvolatile fragments of biomass intact into the gas phase. These nonvolatile fragments have significant implications in the storage and downstream processing of bio-oil. Some of the behavior of bio-oil at high temperature may also be explained by the variety of molecules in the liquid. Many different functional groups are present, each with its own set of chemical reactions in combustion, pyrolysis, and partial oxidation on a metal catalyst. Chapters 3 and 4 investigate these reactions through a survey of two-carbon surrogates of the functional group classes found in bio-oil. Chapter 3 examines reactions occuring in the complete CPO system over Pt and Rh catalysts, and in the complete system absent O 2. The selectivity data from each molecule and the surface science literature of each molecule are used to propose a reaction mechanism over the catalyst surface. Chapter 4 investigates the reactions that may be occurring in the gas phase and over the alpha-Al2O3 foam monolith support. Significant gas-phase chemistry is likely present in the autothermal reactor, although different temperature gradients between the autothermal reactions and the externally heated tube makes quantification of the amount of homogeneous chemistry in the autothermal system impossible. The alpha-Al2O 3 support may serve as a heat transfer medium and radical quencher (due to its foam structure with small-diameter pores), but not likely acid catalysis, as selectivity to dehydration products was similar both with and without the foam support. Because butanol is another promising liquid intermediate in biomass processing, a series of experiments with butanol in an CPO reactor was also carried out. Chapter 5 compares the four butanol isomers in a CPO reactor over Pt, PtCe, Rh, and RhCe catalysts. The reactivity of tert-butanol was as high or higher than the other alcohols, indicating that the lack of a carbonyl decomposition path does not necessarily in uence the reactivity of the molecule. Rather, the reactivity appeared to be more a function of the initial pyrolysis temperature of the alcohol. Thus, much of the initial chemistry of the higher alcohols in a CPO reactor may be homogeneous. The main function of the catalyst may be to decompose the intermediate carbonyls and alkenes to syngas. To that end, the PtCe had significantly lower reforming activity than the other catalysts, evidenced by the lower selectivity to CO and H2 and generally higher temperatures. Selectivity to syngas and light olefins was high and tunable depending on feed ratios, indicating the potential of CPO to provide petrochemical building blocks from butanol. Chapter 6 combines CPO with a water-gas shift (WGS) stage and investigates the addition of steam to isobutanol for the production of a high-purity H2 stream. A RhCe catalyst was used in the CPO stage to convert 100% of the isobutanol feed to primarily

Kruger, Jacob Scott


Data liquidity in health information systems.  


In 2001, the Institute of Medicine report Crossing the Quality Chasm and the National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics report Information for Health were released, and they provided the context for the development of information systems used to support health-supporting processes. Both had as their goals, implicit or explicit, to ensure the right data are provided to the right person at the right time, which is one definition of "data liquidity." This concept has had some traction in recent years as a shorthand way to express a system property for health information technology, but there is not a well-defined characterization of what properties of a system or of its components give it better or worse data liquidity. This article looks at some recent work that help to identify those properties and perhaps can help to ground the concept with metrics that are assessable. PMID:21799328

Courtney, Paul K



Liquid sampling system  


A conduit extends from a reservoir through a sampling station and back to the reservoir in a closed loop. A jet ejector in the conduit establishes suction for withdrawing liquid from the reservoir. The conduit has a self-healing septum therein upstream of the jet ejector for receiving one end of a double-ended cannula, the other end of which is received in a serum bottle for sample collection. Gas is introduced into the conduit at a gas bleed between the sample collection bottle and the reservoir. The jet ejector evacuates gas from the conduit and the bottle and aspirates a column of liquid from the reservoir at a high rate. When the withdrawn liquid reaches the jet ejector the rate of flow therethrough reduces substantially and the gas bleed increases the pressure in the conduit for driving liquid into the sample bottle, the gas bleed forming a column of gas behind the withdrawn liquid column and interrupting the withdrawal of liquid from the reservoir. In the case of hazardous and toxic liquids, the sample bottle and the jet ejector may be isolated from the reservoir and may be further isolated from a control station containing remote manipulation means for the sample bottle and control valves for the jet ejector and gas bleed. 5 figs.

Larson, L.L.



Liquid sampling system  


A conduit extends from a reservoir through a sampling station and back to the reservoir in a closed loop. A jet ejector in the conduit establishes suction for withdrawing liquid from the reservoir. The conduit has a self-healing septum therein upstream of the jet ejector for receiving one end of a double-ended cannula, the other end of which is received in a serum bottle for sample collection. Gas is introduced into the conduit at a gas bleed between the sample collection bottle and the reservoir. The jet ejector evacuates gas from the conduit and the bottle and aspirates a column of liquid from the reservoir at a high rate. When the withdrawn liquid reaches the jet ejector the rate of flow therethrough reduces substantially and the gas bleed increases the pressure in the conduit for driving liquid into the sample bottle, the gas bleed forming a column of gas behind the withdrawn liquid column and interrupting the withdrawal of liquid from the reservoir. In the case of hazardous and toxic liquids, the sample bottle and the jet ejector may be isolated from the reservoir and may be further isolated from a control station containing remote manipulation means for the sample bottle and control valves for the jet ejector and gas bleed.

Larson, Loren L. (Idaho Falls, ID)



Nanowire liquid pumps.  


The ability to form tiny droplets of liquids and control their movements is important in printing or patterning, chemical reactions and biological assays. So far, such nanofluidic capabilities have principally used components such as channels, nozzles or tubes, where a solid encloses the transported liquid. Here, we show that liquids can flow along the outer surface of solid nanowires at a scale of attolitres per second and the process can be directly imaged with in situ transmission electron microscopy. Microscopy videos show that an ionic liquid can be pumped along tin dioxide, silicon or zinc oxide nanowires as a thin precursor film or as beads riding on the precursor film. Theoretical analysis suggests there is a critical film thickness of ?10 nm below which the liquid flows as a flat film and above which it flows as discrete beads. This critical thickness is the result of intermolecular forces between solid and liquid, which compete with liquid surface energy and Rayleigh-Plateau instability. PMID:23542904

Huang, Jian Yu; Lo, Yu-Chieh; Niu, Jun Jie; Kushima, Akihiro; Qian, Xiaofeng; Zhong, Li; Mao, Scott X; Li, Ju



Liquid crystalline conducting polymers  

SciTech Connect

Recently we developed side chain liquid crystalline polyacetylene derivatives and achieved a substantial enhancement of electrical conductivity through magnetically forced alignment of the side chain of the polymer. When an electric field is employed as an alternative external force instead of the magnetic force, a ferroelectric liquid crystal should the more favorable than usual liquid crystals. This is because the former can respond more smoothly to the electric field owing to its spontaneous polarization than the latter. Here, in order to develop a novel liquid crystalline conducting polymer, we have synthesized a chiroptical liquid crystalline polyacetylene derivative. The liquid crystalline side chain of the polymer consists of a chiral alkyl moiety as a terminal group and a biphenyl moiety as a mesogenic core and a trimethylene segment as a spacer. The polymerization was carried out using a metathesis catalyst of MoCl{sub 5}-SnPh{sub 4}. Both the monomer and polymer showed the same signs in CD (circular dichroism) bands, indicating that the chirality of the monomer is maintained in the polymer. Measurements of DSC (differential scanning calorimeter) and polarizing microscope indicated that the polymer has a chiral smectic C (S{sub m} C*) phase assignable to the ferroelectric liquid crystal. Electrical and chemical properties of the polymer, including dielectric constant, electrical conductivity upon iodine doping and morphological alignment under an external force, are to be presented.

Akagi, K.; Goto, H.; Shirakawa, H. [Univ. of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)



Thermodynamic description of liquid-state limits.  


A state of random close packing (RCP) of spheres is found to have a thermodynamic status and a fundamental role in the description of liquid-state equilibria. The RCP limiting amorphous ground state, with reproducible density and well-characterized structure, is obtained by well-defined irreversible and reversible processes. The limiting packing fraction y(RCP) = 0.6366 ± 0.0005 (Buffon's constant within the uncertainty), and a residual entropy per sphere ?S((RCP-FCC)) is approximately equal to k(B) (Boltzmann's constant). Since the Mayer virial expansion does not represent dense fluid equations-of-state for densities exceeding the available-volume percolation transition (?(pa)), we infer that a RCP state belongs to the same thermodynamic phase as prepercolation equilibrium dense hard-sphere fluid and likewise for hard-core fluids with attractive forces. Monte Carlo (MC) calculation of the liquid-state coexistence properties of square-well (SW) attractive spheres, together with existing MC results for liquid-vapor coexistence in the SW fluid, support this conclusion. Further findings for liquid-vapor coexistence limits are reported. The extremely weak second-order available-volume percolation transition of the hard-sphere fluid is strengthened by square-well perturbation as temperature is reduced. At the critical temperature, this transition becomes first order, whereupon a liquid at the percolation density coexists in thermodynamic equilibrium with its vapor at a lower density. The critical coexisting vapor density relates to the extended-volume bonded cluster percolation transition ?(pe)(?) defined for given well width (?). Taking experimental liquid argon data as an example, it can be seen that the thermodynamic description of the coexistence limits, found here for square-well fluids, applies to real liquids. PMID:22423622

Woodcock, Leslie V



Liquid metal drop ejection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aim of this project was to demonstrate the possibility of ejecting liquid metals using drop on demand printing technology. The plan was to make transducers for operation in the 100 MHz frequency range and to use these transducers to demonstrate the ability to eject drops of liquid metals such as gallium. Two transducers were made by indium bonding piezoelectric lithium niobate to quartz buffer rods. The lithium niobate plates were thinned by mechanical polishing to a thickness of 37 microns for operation at 100 MHz. Hemispherical lenses were polished in the opposite ends of the buffer rods. The lenses, which focus the sound waves in the liquid metal, had an F-number equals 1. A mechanical housing was made to hold the transducers and to allow precise control over the liquid level above the lens. We started by demonstrating the ability to eject drops of water on demand. The drops of water had a diameter of 15 microns which corresponds to the wavelength of the sound wave in the water. A videotape of this ejection was made. We then used a mixture of Gallium and Indium (used to lower the melting temperature of the Gallium) to demonstrate the ejection of liquid metal drops. This proved to be difficult because of the oxide skin which forms on the surface of the liquid. In some instances, we were able to eject metal drops, however, this was not consistent and reproducible. An experiment was set up at NASA-Lewis to stabilize the process of drop on demand liquid metal ejection. The object was to place the transducer and liquid metal in a vacuum station so that no oxide would form on the surface. We were successful in demonstrating that liquid metals could be ejected on demand and that this technology could be used for making sheet metal in space.

Khuri-Yakub, B. T.



Solids, Liquids, and Gases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this project you will research solids, liquids, and gases. By the end of this project you will be able to answer the question: Can you tell what is alike and different between solids, liquids, and gases? Read the song about matter. song with music about matter Record your observations on the organizer provided by the teacher. On the diagram write the word solid in one of the circles. Write liquid in one of the circles and write gas in the last circle. As you collect your information write your information under ...

Sibley, Ms.



Liquid-level detector  


Aliquid level sensor is described which has a pair of upright conductors spaced by an insulator defining a first high resistance path between the conductors. An electrically conductive path is interposed between the upright conductors at a discrete location at which liquid level is to be measured. It includes a liquid accessible gap of a dimension such that the electrical resistance across the conductor when the gap is filled with the liquid is detectably less than when the gap is emptied. The conductor might also be physically altered by temperature changes to serve also as an indicator of elevated temperature.

Not Available



Liquid propellant rockets.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A brief overview of the state of knowledge in liquid rocket technology is presented and examples are provided of instances where some fundamental principles of chemistry, fluid mechanics, and mathematics can be applied. A liquid propellant rocket classification is discussed together with rocket system performance, applications for liquid propellants, the effective exhaust velocity, aspects of simplified nozzle expansion, questions about theoretical propellant performance, the effect of chamber pressure on equilibrium performance, and the kinetic recombination in nozzles. Details of propellant combustion are examined, giving attention to propellant injection, evaporation-controlled combustion, combustion instability, and monopropellant decomposition.

Dipprey, D. F.



Liquid metal electric pump  


An electrical pump for pumping liquid metals to high pressures in high temperature environments without the use of magnets or moving mechanical parts. The pump employs a non-porous solid electrolyte membrane, typically ceramic, specific to the liquid metal to be pumped. A DC voltage is applied across the thickness of the membrane causing ions to form and enter the membrane on the electrically positive surface, with the ions being neutralized on the opposite surface. This action provides pumping of the liquid metal from one side of the non-porous solid electrolyte membrane to the other.

Abbin, Joseph P. (Albuquerque, NM); Andraka, Charles E. (Albuquerque, NM); Lukens, Laurance L. (Albuquerque, NM); Moreno, James B. (Albuquerque, NM)



Extremely Correlated Fermi Liquids  

E-print Network

We present the theory of an extremely correlated Fermi liquid (ECFL) with $U\\to \\infty$. This liquid has an underlying Fermi liquid (FL) Greens function that is further caparisoned. The theory leads to two parallel hierarchies of equations that permit iterative approximations in a certain parameter. Preliminary results for the spectral functions display a broad background and a distinct $T$ dependent left skew. An important energy scale $\\Delta(\\vec{k},x)$ emerges as the average inelasticity of the FL Greens function, and influences the photoemission spectra profoundly. A duality is identified wherein an apparent loss of coherence of the ECFL results from an excessively sharp FL.

B. Sriram Shastry



Electrically Deformable Liquid Marbles  

E-print Network

Liquid marbles, which are droplets coated with a hydrophobic powder, were exposed to a uniform electric field. It was established that a threshold value of the electric field, 15 cgse, should be surmounted for deformation of liquid marbles. The shape of the marbles was described as a prolate spheroid. The semi-quantitative theory describing deformation of liquid marbles in a uniform electric field is presented. The scaling law relating the radius of the contact area of the marble to the applied electric field shows a satisfactory agreement with the experimental data.

Edward Bormashenko; Roman Pogreb; Tamir Stein; Gene Whyman; Marcelo Schiffer; Doron Aurbach



Geomorphologic evidence for liquid water  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Besides Earth, Mars is the only planet with a record of resurfacing processes and environmental circumstances that indicate the past operation of a hydrologic cycle. However the present-day conditions on Mars are far apart of supporting liquid water on the surface. Although the large-scale morphology of the Martian channels and valleys show remarkable similarities with fluid-eroded features on Earth, there are major differences in their size, small-scale morphology, inner channel structure and source regions indicating that the erosion on Mars has its own characteristic genesis and evolution. The different landforms related to fluvial, glacial and periglacial activities, their relations with volcanism, and the chronology of water-related processes, are presented.

Masson, P.; Carr, M.H.; Costard, F.; Greeley, R.; Hauber, E.; Jaumann, R.



Liquid Phase Miscibility Gap Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The manner in which the microstructural features of liquid-phase miscibility gap alloys develop was determined. This will allow control of the microstructures and the resultant properties of these alloys. The long-duration low gravity afforded by the shuttle will allow experiments supporting this research to be conducted with minimal interference from buoyancy effects and gravitationally driven convection currents. Ground base studies were conducted on Al-In, Cu-Pb, and Te-Tl alloys to determine the effect of cooling rate, composition, and interfacial energies on the phase separation and solidification processes that influence the development of microstructure in these alloys. Isothermal and directional cooling experiments and simulations are conducted. The ground based activities are used as a technological base from which flight experiments formulated and to which these flight experiments are compared.

Gelles, S. H.; Markworth, A. J.



Phase Inversion in a Batch Liquid - Liquid Stirred System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phase inversion phenomenon occurs in many industrial processes including liquid- liquid dispersions. Some parameters such as energy input or the presence of mineral compounds in the system affect this phenomenon. The aim of this research is to study the speed of rotation or energy input at a range of 400 to 800 rpm in a batch liquid-liquid system containing toluene

M. Amouei; P. Khadiv-Parsi; M. M. Moosavian; N. Hedayat; A. A. Davoodi


Active colloids at liquid-liquid interfaces: dynamic self-assembly and functionality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Self-assembled materials must actively consume energy and remain out of equilibrium in order to support structural complexity and functional diversity. Colloids of interacting particles suspended at liquid-liquid interfaces and maintained out of equilibrium by external alternating electromagnetic fields develop nontrivial collective dynamics and self-assembly. We use ferromagnetic colloidal micro-particles (so the magnetic moment is fixed in each particle and interactions between colloids is highly anisotropic and directional) suspended over an interface of two immiscible liquids and energized by vertical alternating magnetic fields to demonstrate novel dynamic and active self-assembled structures (``asters'') which are not accessible through thermodynamic assembly. Structures are attributed to the interplay between surface waves, generated at the liquid/liquid interface by the collective response of magnetic microparticles to the alternating magnetic field, and hydrodynamic fields induced in the boundary layers of both liquids forming the interface. Two types of magnetic order are reported. We demonstrate that asters develop self-propulsion in the presence of a small in-plane dc magnetic field. We show that asters can capture, transport, and position target microparticles.

Snezhko, Alexey; Aranson, Igor



Pelvic Support Problems  


... the pelvic floor . Layers of connective tissue called fascia also provide support. These supporting muscles and fascia ... intestine into the upper part of the vagina. Fascia: Tissue that supports the organs and muscles of ...


The Volatility of Liquidity and Expected Stock Returns  

E-print Network

Ekkehart Boehmer Committee Members, Michael F. Gallmeyer Asqhar Zardkoohi Head of Department, Sorin M. Sorescu August 2011 Major Subject: Finance iii ABSTRACT The Volatility of Liquidity and Expected Stock Returns. (August 2011... for periods of high liquidity to sell. v ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to thank my advisors, Dr. Sorin Sorescu, Dr Ekkehart Boehmer, and Dr. Michael Gallmeyer, for their support and guidance throughout the course of this research. I also want...

Akbas, Ferhat 1981-



Containerless Liquid-Phase Processing of Ceramic Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present project builds on the results of research supported under a previous NASA grant to investigate containerless liquid-phase processing of molten ceramic materials. The research used an aero-acoustic levitator in combination with cw CO2 laser beam heating to achieve containerless melting, superheating, undercooling, and solidification of poorly-conducting solids and liquids. Experiments were performed on aluminum oxide, binary aluminum oxide-silicon dioxide materials, and oxide superconductors.

Weber, J. K. Richard (Principal Investigator); Nordine, Paul C.



Liquidity facilities and signaling  

E-print Network

This dissertation studies the role of signaling concerns in discouraging access to liquidity facilities like the IMF contingent credit lines (CCL) and the Discount Window (DW). In Chapter 1, I analyze the introduction of ...

Arregui, Nicolás



Rock drilling, cooling liquids  

NSF Publications Database

Title : Rock drilling, cooling liquids Type : Antarctic EAM NSF Org: OD / OPP Date : October 23 ... antifreeze agents at Linneaus Terrace, Wright Valley (Site of Special Scientific Interest No. 19 ...


Liquid sample processor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Processor is automatic and includes series of extraction tubes packed with fibrous absorbent material of large surface area. When introduced into these tubes, liquid test samples become completely absorbed by packing material as thin film.

Jahnsen, V. J.; Campen, C. F., Jr.



Liquid Crystal IR Detector  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a student activity on the detection of a warm object with a liquid crystal sheet. This activity also can be a simulation of the detection of infrared radiation. The "For Further Research" section includes questions for the student.



Liquid Assets: Wastewater  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video segment from a WPSU documentary Liquid Assets describes the progression of wastewater management from its early days to present day wastewater treatment systems. The development of Boston’s first-ever waste management system is described.




Liquid rocket engine injectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The injector in a liquid rocket engine atomizes and mixes the fuel with the oxidizer to produce efficient and stable combustion that will provide the required thrust without endangering hardware durability. Injectors usually take the form of a perforated disk at the head of the rocket engine combustion chamber, and have varied from a few inches to more than a yard in diameter. This monograph treats specifically bipropellant injectors, emphasis being placed on the liquid/liquid and liquid/gas injectors that have been developed for and used in flight-proven engines. The information provided has limited application to monopropellant injectors and gas/gas propellant systems. Critical problems that may arise during injector development and the approaches that lead to successful design are discussed.

Gill, G. S.; Nurick, W. H.



Liquid Assets: Public Health  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video segment from a WPSU documentary Liquid Assets connects public health to the availability of clean and safe drinking water and elaborates on the threats our bodies face due to increasing kinds and quantities of pollutants.




Liquid Crystal Sensor  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a classroom activity to explain liquid crystal sensors for middle school students. A list of activity materials and .pdf handouts are included. Objectives: -Understand how liquid crystals (LCs) relate to other phases of matter (liquid, solid, gas) -Observe that liquid crystals reflect many different colors (wavelengths) of light -Learn that thermally sensitive LCs twist and turn (change pitch & orientation) at different temperatures, which changes the particular color of light that they reflect -Learn that just like some LCs can measure temperature, others can 'sense' particular chemicals and biological agents -Explore how LC sensors can be used to detect changes that cannot be seen with the naked eye -Brainstorm particular applications of LC sensors.



Basic Liquid Chromatography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online textbook offers a variety of information on high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Topics covered include instruments, detectors, theory, column selection, and pH effect. This website also contains links to a glossary, useful links, and manufacturer websites.

Kazakevich, Yuri; Mcnair, Harold; Chemistry, Seton H.


Liquid-Cooled Garment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A liquid-cooled bra, offshoot of Apollo moon suit technology, aids the cancer-detection technique known as infrared thermography. Water flowing through tubes in the bra cools the skin surface to improve resolution of thermograph image.



Liquid Phase Heating Systems  

E-print Network

Liquid phase heating systems involve sensible heat transfer in a closed loop wherein a pumped fluid's temperature is raised in a heater, then lowered in a heat user and returned for reheating. No formation and condensation of vapor occurs. High...

Mordt, E. H.



Conceptualizing learner support space  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article addresses three types of learner support: (a) support for optimizing use of a computer program, (b) support for\\u000a learning content, and (c) support for monitoring and enhancing learning. It proposes a multidimensional model of learner-support\\u000a space defined by the intrusiveness of the delivery methods employed and the prescriptiveness of the content of the learner\\u000a support provided. Methods of

Ward Mitchell Cates; Ronald R. Bruce



Liquid blocking check valve  


A liquid blocking check valve useful particularly in a pneumatic system utilizing a pressurized liquid fill chamber. The valve includes a floatable ball disposed within a housing defining a chamber. The housing is provided with an inlet aperture disposed in the top of said chamber, and an outlet aperture disposed in the bottom of said chamber in an offset relation to said inlet aperture and in communication with a cutaway side wall section of said housing.

Merrill, John T. (Pleasant Hill, CA)



Advanced proteomic liquid chromatography  

PubMed Central

Liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry is the predominant platform used to analyze proteomics samples consisting of large numbers of proteins and their proteolytic products (e.g., truncated polypeptides) and spanning a wide range of relative concentrations. This review provides an overview of advanced capillary liquid chromatography techniques and methodologies that greatly improve separation resolving power and proteomics analysis coverage, sensitivity, and throughput. PMID:22840822

Xie, Fang; Smith, Richard D.; Shen, Yufeng



Liquid scintillator sampling calorimetry  

E-print Network

LIQUID SCINTILLATOR SAMPLING CALORIMETRY A Thesis by R. GREG DUDGEON Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1994 Major... Subject: Physics LIQUID SCINTILLATOR SAMPLING CALORIMETRY A Thesis by R. GREG DUDGEON Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved...

Dudgeon, R. Greg



Applications of ionic liquids.  


Ionic liquids have recently gained popularity in the scientific community owing to their special properties and characteristics. One of the reasons why ionic liquids have been termed "green solvents" is due to their negligible vapour pressure. Their use in electrochemical, biological and metal extraction applications is discussed. Wide research has been carried out for their use in batteries, solar panels, fuel cells, drug deliveries and biomass pretreatments. This work aims to consolidate the various findings from previous works in these areas. PMID:22711528

Patel, Divia Dinesh; Lee, Jong-Min



40 CFR 264.1057 - Standards: Valves in gas/vapor service or in light liquid -service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR gas/vapor service or in light liquid -service. gas/vapor service or in light liquid -service. (a) Each valve in gas/vapor or light liquid service shall be monitored...monitoring personnel more than 2 meters above a support surface....



40 CFR 265.1057 - Standards: Valves in gas/vapor service or in light liquid service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...gas/vapor service or in light liquid service. 265...gas/vapor service or in light liquid service. (a) Each valve in gas/vapor or light liquid service shall be...monitoring personnel more than 2 meters above a support...



Control of fluidity and miscibility of a binary liquid mixture by the liquid-liquid transition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Matter in its liquid state is convenient for processing and controlling chemical reactions, owing to its fluidity. Recently much evidence has been accumulated for the existence of a liquid-liquid transition (LLT) in single-component liquids. Here, we report that we can control, by the LLT of a molecular liquid, triphenyl phosphite (TPP), the fluidity and miscibility of its mixture with another molecular liquid. For a mixture of TPP with toluene or aniline, we find that both liquid I and II mix well and liquid II remains in a `liquid' state, in contrast to pure TPP, where liquid II is a non-ergodic amorphous state. This is the first example of a `true' LLT in a molecular liquid. Furthermore, we find demixing induced by the LLT for a mixture of TPP with diethyl ether or ethanol. These findings will open a new phase of research towards various applications of the LLT.

Kurita, Rei; Murata, Ken-Ichiro; Tanaka, Hajime



Radiography for a Shock-accelerated Liquid Layer  

SciTech Connect

This program supported the experimental study of the itneraction of planar shock waves with both solid structures (a single cylinder or a bank of cylinders) and single and multiple liquid layers. Objectives of the study included: characterization of the shock refraction patterns; measurements of the impulsive loading of the solid structures; observation of the response of the liquid layers to shock acceleration; assessment of the shock-mitigation effects of single and multiple liquid layers. The uploaded paper is intended as a final report for the entire funding period. The poster described in the paper won the Best Poster Award at the 25 International Symposium on Shock Waves.

P. Meekunnasombat



Monogroove heat pipe design: Insulated liquid channel with bridging wick  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A screen mesh artery supported concentrically within the evaporator section of a heat pipe liquid channel retains liquid in the channel. Continued and uniform liquid feed to the heat pipe evaporation section (20) during periods of excessive heat transfer is assured. The overall design provides high evaporation and condensation film coefficients for the working fluid by means of the circumferential grooves in the walls of the vapor channel, while not interfering with the overall heat transport capability of the axial groove. The design has particular utility in zero-g environments.

Alario, J. P.; Brown, R. F.; Kosson, R. L. (inventors)



The mechanics of liquid jets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conservation laws for a liquid are considered along with aspects of jet instability, jet geometry, drop size upon jet breakup, the driven jet, and the sol-gel process and other applications of liquid jets. Macroscopic conservation equations for a liquid are examined and stability analyses of cylindrical liquid jets are conducted, taking into account an inviscid and a viscous free cylindrical

J. N. Anno



Transmitting Electromagnetic Energy into Liquids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rough liquid surface enhances coupling. Agitating surface of liquid nitrogen bath with periodic or aperiodic excitation enhances electromagnetic coupling between microwave horn and blackbody temperature standard immersed in liquid. Useful in interfaces between electromagnetic radiation and liquids. Biomedical, radar, and meteorological applications.

Johnston, E. J.



Liquid crystal lasers Andrii Varanytsia  

E-print Network

Liquid crystal lasers Andrii Varanytsia Class: LC Optics and Photonics, Spring 2012 Instructor crystal laser · Methods of control and tuning liquid crystal laser emission · Methods of emission enhancing and lowering lasing threshold in liquid crystal laser · Potential applications of liquid crystal

Palffy-Muhoray, Peter


Emulsions Containing Perfluorocarbon Support Cell Cultures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Addition of emulsion containing perfluorocarbon liquid to aqueous cell-culture medium increases capacity of medium to support mammalian cells. FC-40 Fluorinert (or equivalent) - increases average density of medium so approximately equal to that of cells. Cells stay suspended in medium without mechanical stirring, which damages them. Increases density enough to prevent cells from setting, and increases viscosity of medium so oxygen bubbled through it and nutrients stirred in with less damage to delicate cells.

Ju, Lu-Kwang; Lee, Jaw Fang; Armiger, William B.



Quality user support: Supporting quality users  

SciTech Connect

During the past decade, fundamental changes have occurred in technical computing in the oil industry. Technical computing systems have moved from local, fragmented quantity, to global, integrated, quality. The compute power available to the average geoscientist at his desktop has grown exponentially. Technical computing applications have increased in integration and complexity. At the same time, there has been a significant change in the work force due to the pressures of restructuring, and the increased focus on international opportunities. The profile of the user of technical computing resources has changed. Users are generally more mature, knowledgeable, and team oriented than their predecessors. In the 1990s, computer literacy is a requirement. This paper describes the steps taken by Oryx Energy Company to address the problems and opportunities created by the explosive growth in computing power and needs, coupled with the contraction of the business. A successful user support strategy will be described. Characteristics of the program include: (1) Client driven support; (2) Empowerment of highly skilled professionals to fill the support role; (3) Routine and ongoing modification to the support plan; (4) Utilization of the support assignment to create highly trained advocates on the line; (5) Integration of the support role to the reservoir management team. Results of the plan include a highly trained work force, stakeholder teams that include support personnel, and global support from a centralized support organization.

Woolley, T.C.



Probing liquid surface waves, liquid properties and liquid films with light diffraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface waves on liquids act as a dynamical phase grating for incident light. In this paper, we revisit the classical method of probing such waves (wavelengths of the order of mm) as well as inherent properties of liquids and liquid films on liquids, using optical diffraction. A combination of simulation and experiment is proposed to trace out the surface wave

Tarun Kr Barik; Partha Roy Chaudhuri; Anushree Roy; Sayan Kar



Child Support Report, 1997.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document consists of the twelve issues of "Child Support Report" newsletter published during 1997. Monthly issues typically explore problems related to child support enforcement, report on federal and state government child support enforcement initiatives, and summarize research related to child support. Editorials and information on events…

Sharman, Phil, Ed.



Child Support Report, 1999.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document comprises the 12 issues for 1999 of the "Child Support Report," which explores problems related to child support enforcement, reports on federal and state government child support enforcement initiatives, and summarizes research related to child support. Editorials and information on events and conferences of interest and funding…

Sharman, Phil, Ed.



Child Support Report, 1998.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is comprised of the 12 monthly issues of the 1998 "Child Support Report," which explores problems related to child support enforcement, reports on federal and state government child support enforcement initiatives, and summarizes research related to child support. Editorials and information on events and conferences of interest and…

Sharman, Phil, Ed.



King cobra genome supporting information SUPPORTING INFORMATION  

E-print Network

King cobra genome supporting information 1 SUPPORTING INFORMATION 1. SI MATERIALS AND METHODS 1.1 King cobra tissue acquisitions and processing All animal procedures complied with local king cobra that originated from Bali, Indonesia. Blood was obtained by caudal puncture and frozen

Castoe, Todd A.


Academic Support on Campus Academic Support  

E-print Network

a possible learning disability. Services for Students with Disabilities UU-119, x 7-2686 Academic Advising-2510 Is describing difficulties related to a physical or learning disability Services for Students with DisabilitiesAcademic Support on Campus Academic Support If Your Student: Have Student Contact: Is interested

Suzuki, Masatsugu


Aerobreakup of Newtonian and Viscoelastic Liquids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this review, we consider and unify all aspects of the dynamics of Newtonian and viscoelastic liquid drops in high-speed gas flows, including shock waves. The path to understanding is opened by novel, laser-induced fluorescence visualizations at spatial resolutions of up to 200 pixels for millimeter and exposure times as low as 5 ns. The central role of the competition between Rayleigh-Taylor and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities is assessed in the frame of rich aerodynamics, from low subsonic to supersonic, and the multitude of characteristic length scales and timescales at play with varying liquid properties. Acceleration and liquid redistribution (drop deformation) early in the evolution set the stage for this competition, and we insist on an interpretation of the drag coefficient that is physically meaningful. Two principal breakup regimes (patterns of bodily loss of coherence) are identified depending on whether the gas finds its way through the liquid mass, causing gross disintegration, or goes around to induce, through shear, a surface-layer peeling-and-ejection action. Corresponding criticalities are quantified in terms of key physics, consistent with experiments. This covers in a unified fashion all liquids, independent of viscosity and elasticity, and the potential role of direct numerical simulations in supporting further advances is forecast. The resulting particle-size distributions (in a final equilibrium cloud) depend crucially on the pattern of breakup, although in this respect the role of elasticity obtains a special significance in terms of the underlying entangled-polymer-chain dynamics. From a more general perspective, we explain the canonical significance of this fundamental problem and summarize the wide range of its practical relevance, including the recently renewed interest in predicting shock-induced fluidization (or high-speed, atmospheric dissemination) of large masses of liquid agents (so-called weapons of mass destruction).

Theofanous, T. G.



Critical-Like Phenomena Associated with Liquid-Liquid Transition in a Molecular Liquid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contrary to the conventional wisdom that there is only one unique liquid state for any material, recent evidence suggests that there can be more than two liquid states even for a single-component substance. The transition between these liquid states is called a liquid-liquid phase transition. We report the detailed experimental investigation on the kinetics of the continuous spinodal-decomposition-type transformation of one liquid into another for triphenyl phosphite. From the analysis of the linear regime, we found that the correlation length, ?, of fluctuations of the relevant order parameter diverges as ? = ?0[(TSD - T)/TSD]-? (where ?0 = 60 nm and ? = 0.5) while approaching the spinodal temperature, TSD. This is an indication of a critical-like anomaly associated with the liquid-liquid transition. We also revealed that the order parameter governing the liquid-liquid transition must be of a nonconserved nature.

Kurita, Rei; Tanaka, Hajime



Dynamic Behavior of Liquids in Annuli Entrained with Gas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heat/mass transfer on the moving gas-liquid interface is an important subject directly related to many industrial applications from crystal growth to cooling of electronic devices. In the case of non-uniform temperature in liquid the overall scenario depends on thermo-capillary convection in liquid which is affected by moving gas along the interface. Space experiment JEREMI (Japanese European Research Experiment on Marangoni Instabilities) is devoted to the study of the threshold of hydrothermal instabilities in two-phase systems. The present study is one of the first steps on the way of the experiment preparation. We report the results of numerical and experimental study of two-phase flows in annulus. The internal column consists of solid supports at the bottom and top, while the central part is a liquid zone filled with viscous liquid and kept in its position by surface tension. Gas enters into the annular duct and entrains initially quiescent liquid. The flow field in liquid is investigated for increasing gas velocity from zero up to 2m/s (correspondingly, Reynolds number in gas varies as 0¡Re¡600). The flow field is analyzed for the different viscosity ratios between liquid and gas. An excellent agreement between computed results and experimental data demonstrates that the developed experimental technique and numerical code are capable to capture the main characteristics of the phenomenon studied.

Gaponenko, Yuri; Mialdun, Alexander; Shevtsova, Valentina


Experimental (solid + liquid) or (liquid + liquid) phase equilibria of (amine + nitrile) binary mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

(Solid+liquid) phase diagrams have been determined for (hexylamine, or octylamine, or 1,3-diaminopropane+acetonitrile) mixtures. Simple eutectic systems have been observed in these mixtures. (Liquid+liquid) phase diagrams have been determined for (octylamine, or decylamine+propanenitrile, or +butanenitrile) mixtures. Mixtures with propanenitrile and butanenitrile show immiscibility in the liquid phase with an upper critical solution temperature, UCST. (Solid+liquid) phase diagrams have been correlated using

Urszula Doma?ska; Ma?gorzata Marciniak



Surface Studies on the Ionic Liquid 1Ethyl3-Methylimidazolium Ethylsulfate Using X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface studies of ionic liquids are particularly important for all kinds of multiphasic operations employing ionic liquids, e.g. biphasic homogeneous catalysis or supported ionic liquid phase catalysis. Using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), the surface com- position of the model system 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethylsulfate (EMIM)(EtOSO3) was investigated. By comparing two different samples of this ionic liquid from two different origins, we observed

J. M. Gottfried; D. Gerhard; P. S. Schulz; P. Wasserscheid; H.-P. Steinrück



Modification of MCM-41 and SBA-15 mesoporous silicas by imidazolium ionic liquids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MCM-41 and SBA-15 mesoporous molecular sieves are modified with imidazolium ionic liquid (IL) via both physical adsorption and covalent grafting. The considerable effect of IL grafting on the porous structure and the particle morphology of mesoporous supports is shown. The pore size of these supports is found to be a key parameter determining the possibility of loading IL into such support materials.

Onishchenko, M. I.; Tyablikov, I. A.; Knyazeva, E. E.; Chernyshev, V. V.; Yatsenko, A. V.; Romanovsky, B. V.



Improved liquid-film electron stripper  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An improved liquid-film electron stripper particularly for high intensity heavy ion beams which produces constant regenerated, stable, free-standing liquid films having an adjustable thickness between 0.3 to 0.05 microns is discussed. The improved electron stripper is basically composed of at least one high speed, rotating disc with a very sharp, precision-like, ground edge on one side of the disc's periphery and with highly polished, flat, radial surface adjacent the sharp edge. A fine stream of liquid, such as oil, impinges at a 90(0) angle adjacent the disc's sharp outer edge. Film terminators, located at a selected distance from the disc perimeter are positioned approximately perpendicular to the film. The terminators support, shape, and stretch the film and are arranged to assist in the prevention of liquid droplet formation by directing the collected film to a reservoir below without breaking or interfering with the film. One embodiment utilizes two rotating discs and associated terminators, with the discs rotating so as to form films in opposite directions, and with the second disc being located down beam-line relative to the first disc.

Gavin, B. F.



Liquid Acquisition Device Design Sensitivity Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In-space propulsion often necessitates the use of a capillary liquid acquisition device (LAD) to assure that gas-free liquid propellant is available to support engine restarts in microgravity. If a capillary screen-channel device is chosen, then the designer must determine the appropriate combination screen mesh and channel geometry. A screen mesh selection which results in the smallest LAD width when compared to any other screen candidate (for a constant length) is desirable; however, no best screen exists for all LAD design requirements. Flow rate, percent fill, and acceleration are the most influential drivers for determining screen widths. Increased flow rates and reduced percent fills increase the through-the-screen flow pressure losses, which drive the LAD to increased widths regardless of screen choice. Similarly, increased acceleration levels and corresponding liquid head pressures drive the screen mesh selection toward a higher bubble point (liquid retention capability). After ruling out some screens on the basis of acceleration requirements alone, candidates can be identified by examining screens with small flow-loss-to-bubble point ratios for a given condition (i.e., comparing screens at certain flow rates and fill levels). Within the same flow rate and fill level, the screen constants inertia resistance coefficient, void fraction, screen pore or opening diameter, and bubble point can become the driving forces in identifying the smaller flow-loss-to-bubble point ratios.

VanDyke, M. K.; Hastings, L. J.



Liquid Crystals: LCD Displays  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, by the Concord Consortium's Molecular Literacy project, students will learn the history and applications of liquid crystal technology. This interactive presentation will allow students to not only learn about the technology, but it will actually allow them to analyze and work with examples. Everything from flat panel televisions to mood rings are used to show how liquid crystal plays an integral role in many products. The activity itself is a java-based interactive resource built upon the free, open source Molecular Workbench software. In addition, visitors will find an overview of the activity, assessments, and concepts and their correlation to AAAS and NSES standards.



Liquid xenon scintillation spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A liquid xenon scintillation detector has been worked out. Liquid xenon fills up a volume 27 mm diameter by 12-30 mm long inside a quartz cylinder with a teflon reflector. Both ends of the cylinder are sealed with photomultipliers with quartz windows. The energy resolution of the detector was found to be of the same order of magnitude as NaI(Tl) crystals for the energy 120 KeV. However, the resolution increases for the higher energies and comes up to 15% for 662 KeV. The reasons of such deterioration of resolution with increasing energy are discussed.

Barabanov, I. R.; Gavrin, V. N.; Pshukov, A. M.



Electroplating Using Ionic Liquids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electroplating is a key technology in many large-scale industrial applications such as corrosion-resistant and decorative coatings. Issues with current aqueous processes, such as toxicity of reagents and low current efficiencies, can often be overcome by using ionic liquids, and this approach has turned ionometallurgy into a fast-growing area of research. This review outlines the interactions in ionic liquids that are responsible for the advantageous properties of these solvents in electroplating. It summarizes recent research in which these properties have been analyzed or exploited and highlights fundamental issues in research and technology that need to be addressed.

Abbott, Andrew P.; Frisch, Gero; Ryder, Karl S.



Structure of Liquid Boron  

SciTech Connect

The structure factor S(Q) and the pair distribution function g(r) has been measured for liquid boron in the temperature range 2600{endash}2000thinspthinspK, extending over both the normal and supercooled liquid states. The bond length and coordination number of the first coordination shell are similar to those reported for the crystalline and amorphous solid forms, but the second and third coordination shells are broader and shifted to higher distances. The insulator-metal transition that takes place in boron upon melting is associated with a relatively small change in both volume and short-range order. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

Krishnan, S.; Felten, J.J. [Containerless Research, Inc., 906 University Place, Evanston, Illinois 60201 (United States)] [Containerless Research, Inc., 906 University Place, Evanston, Illinois 60201 (United States); Ansell, S.; Volin, K.J.; Price, D.L. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)] [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)



Structure of Liquid Boron  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structure factor S\\(Q\\) and the pair distribution function g\\(r\\) has been measured for liquid boron in the temperature range 2600-2000 K, extending over both the normal and supercooled liquid states. The bond length and coordination number of the first coordination shell are similar to those reported for the crystalline and amorphous solid forms, but the second and third coordination shells are broader and shifted to higher distances. The insulator-metal transition that takes place in boron upon melting is associated with a relatively small change in both volume and short-range order.

Krishnan, S.; Ansell, S.; Felten, J. J.; Volin, K. J.; Price, D. L.



Liquid cargo container  

SciTech Connect

A double-tank shipping container for general bulk liquid cargo, the container being constituted by a sea-going vessel having a single hull provided with a hold which defines the outer tank of the container and a prefabricated flexible bladder forming an inner tank received within the outer tank and readily removable therefrom. The inner tank has a configuration roughly conforming to the contours of the outer tank and yet capable of sustaining the liquid cargo in the event of a rupture in the outer tank, thereby to prevent spillage from the vessel and to avoid pollution of the seas.

Kohn, J.; Roberts, W.M.



Improved Capacitive Liquid Sensor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improved capacitive sensor used to detect presence and/or measure thickness of layer of liquid. Electrical impedance or admittance of sensor measured at prescribed frequency, and thickness of liquid inferred from predetermined theoretical or experimental relationship between impedance and thickness. Sensor is basically a three-terminal device. Features interdigitated driving and sensing electrodes and peripheral coplanar ground electrode that reduces parasitic effects. Patent-pending because first to utilize ground plane as "shunting" electrode. System less expensive than infrared, microwave, or refractive-index systems. Sensor successfully evaluated in commercial production plants to characterize emulsions, slurries, and solutions.

Waldman, Francis A.



Universality of liquid dynamics  

E-print Network

We investigate the origin of the Stokes-Einstein relation in liquids. The hard-sphere dynamics is analyzed using a new measure of structural relaxation - the minimum Euclidean distance between configurations of particles. It is shown that the universal relation between the structural relaxation and diffusion in liquids is caused by the existence of one dominating length scale imposed by the structural correlations and associated with de Gennes narrowing. We demonstrate that this relation can be described by a model of independent random walkers under the single-occupancy constraint.

Tomas Oppelstrup; Babak Sadigh; Srikanth Sastry; Mikhail Dzugutov



Light propagation in liquid crystals and liquid crystalline structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liquid crystals are optically complex materials, characterized in general by anisotropy, loss and chirality. Understanding light propagation both in uniform samples, and in stratified structures consisting of layers of such materials is of considerable interest for fundamental reasons. It is also essential for the effective use of these materials in technology. Light propagation in matter can be understood classically in terms of solutions to Maxwell's equations. In this work, analytical solutions of Maxwell's equations have been obtained for the first time for general linear optical media[l], that is, biaxial, lossy and optically active material. This result is a key achivement of this dissertation. The explicit expressions are useful for understanding light propagation in optically complex media, including optically active media where both natural and magnetic optical activities are present and lossy biaxial media where the real and imaginary parts of dielectric tensor do not commute. Four, rather than two distinct optical eigenmodes are predicted in the general case. Special representations of the Poynting vector and boundary conditions have been obtained for optically active media. Based on the analytical solution of Maxwell's equations, a new 4 x 4 propagation matrix method has been developed for numerical calculation of light propagation in statified (1-d) liquid crystalline structures. This method has been implemented, and the demonstration software has been coded. It has been shown that this scheme is efficient, accurate and can be used in the general case of chiral materials. We have also studied light propagation in periodic structures with optically complex elements. These are 1-d photonic band gap materials; characteristic propagation matrices have been used to analyse the band structure The results are useful for developing optical devices such as switchable mirrors and the cholesteric laser. A Wave Guide Based Cholesteric Liquid Crystal Display (WGCLCD) has been invented with theoretical and numerical support. Prototype WGCLCDs have been built and demonstrated. These prototypes show good viewing angles, high optical efficiency and contrast ratio, and have faster switching speeds and lower switching voltages than typical conventional cholesteric displays. Because of their simple structure, low cost and easy fabrication, WGCLCDs may be useful for commercial displays.

Yuan, Haijun


Motor Frame Cooling with Hot Liquid Refrigerant and Internal Liquid.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This invention presents the device and method for cooling electric machines with hot liquid refrigerant in a floating refrigerant loop and using an internal liquid such as oil for enhancing the cooling effects. The electric machine cooling apparatus has a...

J. S. Hsu, C. W. Ayers, C. Coomer



Mixed Stationary Liquid Phases for Gas-Liquid Chromatography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a laboratory technique for use in an undergraduate instrumental analysis course that, using the interpretation of window diagrams, prepares a mixed liquid phase column for gas-liquid chromatography. A detailed procedure is provided. (BT)

Koury, Albert M.; Parcher, Jon F.




Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

138. LIQUID NITROGEN INSTRUMENT PANEL ON EAST WALL OF LIQUID NITROGEN CONTROL ROOM (115), LSB (BLDG. 770) - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA


Alumina nanowire forests via unconventional anodization and super-repellency plus low adhesion to diverse liquids.  


Multiple facet supported alumina nanowires are produced very efficiently in a very short time via high field anodization; upon modification with perfluorosilane, the surface becomes super-repellent towards a broad range of liquids, which includes (salted) water, water emulsion, common organic liquids like glycerol and alkanes, and a variety of lubrication oils including ionic liquids, poly(alpha-olefin), polydimethylsiloxane oils etc. PMID:19225630

Wu, Weici; Wang, Xiaolong; Wang, Daoai; Chen, Miao; Zhou, Feng; Liu, Weimin; Xue, Qunji



Spontaneous liquid-liquid phase separation of water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a molecular dynamics simulation demonstrating a fast spontaneous liquid-liquid phase separation of water and a subsequent slow crystallization to ice. It is found that supercooled water separates rapidly into low- and high-density domains so as to reduce the surface energy in the rectangular simulation cell at certain thermodynamic states. The liquid-liquid phase separation, which is about two orders of magnitude faster than the crystallization, suggests a possibility to observe this phenomenon experimentally.

Yagasaki, Takuma; Matsumoto, Masakazu; Tanaka, Hideki



The dynamics of free liquid drops  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The behavior of rotating and oscillating free liquid drops was studied by many investigators theoretically for many years. More recent numerical treatments have yielded predictions which are yet to be verified experimentally. The purpose is to report the results of laboratory work as well as that of the experiments carried out in space during the flight of Spacelab 3, and to compare it with the existing theoretical studies. Ground-based experiments were attempted as a first approximation to the ideal boundary conditions used by the theoretical treatments by neutralizing the overwhelming effects of the Earth's gravitational field with an outside supporting liquid and with the use of levitation technology. The viscous and inertial loading of such a suspending fluid was found to profoundly effect the results, but the information thus gathered has emphasized the uniqueness of the experimental data obtained in the low-gravity environment of space.

Wang, T. G.; Trinh, E. H.; Croonquist, A. P.; Elleman, D. D.



Porous interface stabilized liquid metal current collector  

SciTech Connect

A homopolar machine comprises a stator provided with channel structures containing liquid metal, a rotor concentrically positioned within the stator with circumferential rotor flanges disposed in the channels, and a porous, resilient braided structure slidably positioned in the channels and immersed in the liquid metal to provide a circumferential wetted surface in intimate contact with the peripheral flange surface. The braided structure comprises a longitudinal strip of braided material supported along its longitudinal edge portions by crimped edges of a braid holder such that the central portion of the braided material is resiliently biased toward the peripheral flange surface. The crimped edges of the braid holder are designed to slide into conforming grooves in the stator channel to facilitate easy replacement of the braided structures. Additional resilience is provided by an additional braided element disposed between the braided material and the braid holder.

Cannell, M.J.; Carr, S.L.; Stevens, H.O.; Surosky, H.



Ionic liquids: dissecting the enthalpies of vaporization.  


We calculate the heats of vaporisation for imidazolium-based ionic liquids [C(n)mim][NTf(2)] with n=1, 2, 4, 6, 8 by means of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and discuss their behavior with respect to temperature and the alkyl chain length. We use a force field developed recently. The different cohesive energies contributing to the overall heats of vaporisations are discussed in detail. With increasing alkyl chain length, the Coulomb contribution to the heat of vaporisation remains constant at around 80 kJ mol(-1), whereas the van der Waals interaction increases continuously. The calculated increase of about 4.7 kJ mol(-1) per CH(2)-group of the van der Waals contribution in the ionic liquid exactly coincides with the increase in the heats of vaporisation for n-alcohols and n-alkanes, respectively. The results support the importance of van der Waals interactions even in systems completely composed of ions. PMID:18283693

Köddermann, Thorsten; Paschek, Dietmar; Ludwig, Ralf



Randomized Grain Boundary Liquid Crystal Phase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation of macroscopic, chiral domains, in the B4 and dark conglomerate phases, for example, is a feature of bent-core liquid crystals resulting from the interplay of chirality, molecular bend and molecular tilt. We report a new, chiral phase observed in a hockey stick-like liquid crystal molecule. This phase appears below a smectic A phase and cools to a crystal phase. TEM images of the free surface of the chiral phase show hundreds of randomly oriented smectic blocks several hundred nanometers in size, similar to those seen in the twist grain boundary (TGB) phase. However, in contrast to the TGB phase, these blocks are randomly oriented. The characteristic defects in this phase are revealed by freeze-fracture TEM images. We will show how these defects mediate the randomized orientation and discuss the intrinsic mechanism driving the formation of this phase. This work is supported by NSF MRSEC Grant DMR0820579 and NSF Grant DMR0606528.

Chen, D.; Wang, H.; Li, M.; Glaser, M.; Maclennan, J.; Clark, N.



On the instability of liquid jet and liquid curtain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spatial instability of liquid jets and liquid curtains is investigated by using linear theory. For the case of a viscous liquid jet into an inviscid ambient gas, a unified theory is developed. It is found that the existing theories, including Rayleigh, Keller, Taylor, and Chandrasekhar's modes, are only special cases of the unified theory. Thus, this new theory would

Zhi Wen Lian



Phenomena of liquid drop impact on solid and liquid surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fluid dynamic phenomena of liquid drop impact are described and reviewed. These phenomena include bouncing, spreading and splashing on solid surfaces, and bouncing, coalescence and splashing on liquid surfaces. Further, cavitation and the entrainment of gas into an impacted liquid may be observed. In order to distinguish properly between the results of different experiments different impact scenarios are discussed.

Martin Rein



Enzymatic catalysis via liquid-liquid interfaces.  


Enzymes acting in a biphasic liquid of water and organic solvent may show catalytic activity dependent on the amount of phase interface available. Such an effect may be caused by several mechanisms. For example, for hydroxynitrile lyase from Prunus amygdalus, substrate mass transfer limitation has been advocated, but also adsorption of the enzyme on the interface. In this commentary it is shown that often these two mechanisms will have qualitatively similar consequences. The reaction rate will be influenced by the organic substrate concentration, by the initial enzyme concentration, and by the volume-specific interfacial area, and these influences will be linear at low values but reach a saturation level at high values. To rule out any of the models, their quantitative mathematical descriptions should be compared, taking into account that both models may be valid simultaneously. PMID:12800131

Straathof, Adrie J J




EPA Science Inventory

This task provides remote sensing technical support to the Superfund program. Support includes the collection, processing, and analysis of remote sensing data to characterize hazardous waste disposal sites and their history. Image analysis reports, aerial photographs, and assoc...


Enabling Services Dyslexia Support  

E-print Network

Enabling Services Dyslexia Support information for students website:, George Thomas Building (37), Highfield Campus #12;2 Contents About Dyslexia Support.........................................................11 National and Local Organisations: .....................................12 #12;3 About Dyslexia

Anderson, Jim


Patient & Family Support Programs  

E-print Network

for people in any stage of melanoma. Pancreatic Cancer Support Group September 17 5:00-6:30 pm Call for support, resources, events, and information Quarterly Meeting with Pancreatic Cancer Action Network

Myers, Lawrence C.



EPA Science Inventory

Under this task, technical support is provided to Regional Remedial Project Managers (RPMs)/On-Scene Coordinators (OSCs) at Superfund, RCRA, and Brownfields sites contaminated with hazardous materials by the Technical Support Center (TSC) for Monitoring and Site Characterization....


Energy efficient liquid cooling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theme of this paper is an investigation of the hydrodynamic performance of liquid pumps for electronics cooling applications, considered in conjunction with a range of primary heat exchangers. Pressure-flow characteristics of a set of geometrically- similar, miniature-scale centrifugal pumps are measured, and reductions in hydrodynamic efficiency are seen to occur below a critical Reynolds number. Six primary heat exchangers

Jeff Punch



Time Sequence Liquid Dominant  

E-print Network

Time Sequence Liquid Dominant Evaporation De-pinning Dryout Progress Formation of Nanoparticle of Nanofluid Droplets on a Microheater Array 2-nm Au 20nm 47-nm Al2O3 Distilled Water 30-nm CuO Microheater to examine the effect of nanoparticle sizes on the dryout characteristics. While the distilled water droplet

Kihm, IconKenneth David


Thermodynamics of liquid metal  

SciTech Connect

The thermodynamics of a liquid metal based on quantum-mechanical models of the crystal, electronic, and nuclear structures of the metal are derived in this paper. The models are based on such formulations as the Bohr radius, the Boltzmann constant, the Planck Law, the Fermi surface, and the Pauli principle.

Kushnirenko, A.N.



Realistic Animation of Liquids  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a comprehensive methodology for realistically animating liquid phenomena. Our ap- proach unifies existing computer graphics techniques for simulating fluids and extends them by incorporating more complex behavior. It is based on the Navier-Stokes equations which couple momentum and mass conservation to completely describe fluid motion. Our starting point is an environment containing an arbitrary distribution of fluid, and

Nick Foster; Dimitris N. Metaxas



Clean room wiping liquids  

SciTech Connect

A water-based liquid containing isopropyl alcohol, ammonium hydroxide, and surfactants was developed to replace 1,1,2-trichlorotrifluoroethane for the dampening of clean room wiping cloths used to wipe clean benches, clean room equipment, and latex finger cots and gloves.

Harding, W.B.



Properties of Liquid Plutonium  

SciTech Connect

Unalloyed polycrystalline Pu displays extreme thermal expansion behavior, i.e., {alpha} {yields} {beta} {yields} {gamma} {yields} {delta} increases by 25% in volume and {delta} {yields} {var_epsilon} {yields} liquid decreases by 4.5% in volume. Thus, making it difficult to measure density into the liquid state. Dilatometer outfitted with CaF molten metal cell offers a proven capability to measure thermal expansion in molten metals, but has yet to be proven for Pu. Historic data from the liquid nuclear fuels program will prove extremely useful as a guide to future measurements. 3.3at% Ga changes Pu molten metal properties: 50% increase in viscosity and {approx}3% decrease in density. Fe may decrease the density by a small amount assuming an averaging of densities for Pu-Ga and Pu-Fe liquids. More recent Boivineau (2009) work needs some interpretation, but technique is being employed in (U,Pu)O{sub 2} nuclear fuels program (Pu Futures, 2012).

Freibert, Franz J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mitchell, Jeremy N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schwartz, Daniel S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Saleh, Tarik A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Migliori, Albert [Los Alamos National Laboratory



Ferroelectric liquid crystal display  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A ferroelectric liquid crystal display device employs capacitance spoiling layers to minimize unneeded capacitances created by crossovers of X and Y address lines and to accurately define desired capacitances. The spoiler layers comprise low dielectric constant layers which space electrodes from the ferroelectric at crossover points where capacitance is not needed for device operation.

York, Paul K. (Inventor)



Hydrophobic ionic liquids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ionic liquids having improved properties for application in non-aqueous batteries, electrochemical capacitors, electroplating, catalysis and chemical separations are disclosed. Exemplary compounds have one of the following formulas shown in a diagram wherein Râ, Râ, Râ, Râ, Râ, and Râ are either H; F; separate alkyl groups of from 1 to 4 carbon atoms, respectively, or joined together to constitute a

V. R. Koch; C. Nanjundiah; R. T. Carlin



Liquid rocket valve components  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A monograph on valves for use with liquid rocket propellant engines is presented. The configurations of the various types of valves are described and illustrated. Design criteria and recommended practices for the various valves are explained. Tables of data are included to show the chief features of valve components in use on operational vehicles.



Viscosity Of Liquids - Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Classroom experiment to illustrate the viscosity of different liquids by measuring how quickly pebbles sink through them. The site describes all of the required material for the experiment and also gives a detailed chart for recording the results of the experiment. Altogether, the site is a great activity for the classroom.



Schrodinger Fermi Liquids  

E-print Network

A class of strongly interacting many-body fermionic systems in 2+1D non-relativistic conformal field theory is examined via the gauge-gravity duality correspondence. The 5D charged black hole with asymptotic Schrodinger isometry in the bulk gravity side introduces parameters of background density and finite particle number into the boundary field theory. We propose the holographic dictionary, and realize a quantum phase transition of this fermionic liquid with fixed particle number by tuning the background density $\\beta$ at zero temperature. On the larger $\\beta$ side, we find the signal of a sharp quasiparticle pole on the spectral function A(k,w), indicating a well-defined Fermi surface. On the smaller $\\beta$ side, we find only a hump with no sharp peak for A(k,w), indicating the disappearance of Fermi surface. The dynamical exponent $z$ of quasiparticle dispersion goes from being Fermi-liquid-like $z\\simeq1$ scaling at larger $\\beta$ to a non-Fermi-liquid scaling $z\\simeq 3/2$ at smaller $\\beta$. By comparing the structure of Green's function with Landau Fermi liquid theory and Senthil's scaling ansatz, we further investigate the behavior of this quantum phase transition.

Juven Wang



Detonation in Liquid Explosives  

Microsoft Academic Search

DURING the War a general investigation was commenced at the Road Research Laboratory, on the initiative of Dr. A. H. Davis, into the process of detonation in explosives, the programme including a photographic study of the detonation Waves in transparent liquid explosives-the sensitivity of some of which can be varied by adjusting the constitution-and their relation to primers of different

D. Croney



Solid, Liquid or Gas?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are given a variety of materials and asked to identify if each material as a solid, liquid or gas. They use their five senses â sight, sound, smell, texture and taste â to identify the other characteristics of each item.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program


Liquid Drop Art  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection showcases the work of artist Corrie White, who has combined photographic techniques, use of different liquids, and precise production of drops to produce striking and original images of drops and soap films. Her work has been featured on the APS Division of Fluid Dynamics 2012 Image Gallery. The site includes a link to tutorials that present her methods.

White, Corrie



Transflective liquid crystal displays  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review paper, a detailed overview of the transflective liquid crystal display (LCD) technology is presented. We first introduce the transflector classifications based on their composition and properties. Then, in reviewing the development history, we investigate the mainstream transflective LCDs, including their operating principles, advantages, and disadvantages. Finally, the image quality issues of transflective LCDs, such as color balance,

Xinyu Zhu; Zhibing Ge; Thomas X. Wu; Shin-Tson Wu



Liquid Scintillation Counting Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

3 INCDIE ICPE- CA, 313 Splaiul Unirii, 030138, Bucharest, Romania The method applied to the evaluation of radiation activities implies sample preparation, liquid scintillation cocktail choosing, quench standard curve constructing and implementation, and results verification. We have constructed the quench curve using interpolation method by polynomial spline functions of three degree. In order to evaluate the measurement efficiencies of tritium



Liquid Cooled Garments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronauts working on the surface of the moon had to wear liquid-cooled garments under their space suits as protection from lunar temperatures which sometimes reach 250 degrees Fahrenheit. In community service projects conducted by NASA's Ames Research Center, the technology developed for astronaut needs has been adapted to portable cooling systems which will permit two youngsters to lead more normal lives.



Liquid Rocket Engine Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Comprehensive Liquid Rocket Engine testing is essential to risk reduction for Space Flight. Test capability represents significant national investments in expertise and infrastructure. Historical experience underpins current test capabilities. Test facilities continually seek proactive alignment with national space development goals and objectives including government and commercial sectors.

Rahman, Shamim



The SNS Liquids Reflectometer  

SciTech Connect

The SNS Liquids Reflectometer [1], installed as one of the first instruments at the Spallation Neutron Source, has now been functional for more than a year. This instrument is designed to view liquid and solid surfaces in specular, off specular, and near-surface small angle scattering geometries. The guide system supplies 2 {angstrom} < {angstrom} < 16.5 {angstrom} neutrons at vertical incident angles ranging from 0{sup o} < {alpha}{sub i} < 5.5{sup o} for free liquid surfaces and up to 45{sup o} for solid surfaces. Three bandwidth choppers, synchronized with the spallation source and operating at 15-60 Hz, provide neutrons in bandwidths ranging from 3.5-14 {angstrom} at a fixed incident angle onto a sample. The sample stage enables all of the motions necessary for positioning liquid and solid surfaces, while the detector arm directs a position-sensitive detector to view the sample at specular or off specular angles up to 90{sup o} and can scan out of the specular plane by up to 30{sup o}.

Ankner, John Francis [ORNL; Tao, Xiaodong [ORNL; Halbert, Candice E [ORNL; Browning, Jim [ORNL; Kilbey, II, S Michael [ORNL; Swader, Onome A [ORNL; Dadmun, Mark D [ORNL; Kharlampieva, Dr. Eugenia [Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, New Jersey; Sukhishvili, Prof. Svetlana A. [Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, New Jersey



Liquid–solid interfaces: structure and dynamics from spectroscopy and simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquid–solid interfaces play an important role in a number of phenomena encountered in biological, chemical and physical processes. Surface-induced changes of the material properties are not only important for the solid support but also for the liquid itself. In particular, it is now well established that water at the interface is substantially different from bulk water, even in the proximity

Marie-Pierre Gaigeot; Marialore Sulpizi




E-print Network

and charge detection in liquid argon. They are therefore all grouped in the same vessel which must basically of the Atlas detector use the same detection technique, energy loss in passive plates, followed by ionisation support and keep in place the heavy plates and the detection electrodes and maintain liquid argon at cold

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Liquid plug flow in a vertical two-dimensional channel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gravity and pressure driven liquid plug flow in a two-dimensional vertical channel is investigated as a model of instilled liquid transport in the lungs. There are a number of clinical situations in which liquids are instilled into the lungs. Of particular interest is liquid ventilation where perfluorocarbon liquids are delivered to the lung and subsequently used for ventilation in place of gas. Additionally the perfuorocarbon can be used as a carrier for drugs or genetic material. Some other examples of liquid instillation into the lungs include surfactant replacement therapy, lung lavage, and cardio-pulmonary resuscitation. The desired distribution of liquid depends on the application. Our model is developed using the Stokes equation subject to interfacial and wall boundary conditions, and is solved using the boundary element method. We obtain steady-state and time-dependent solutions. As the plug propagates along the thin-film-lined channel, it takes up liquid from the leading film and deposit liquid in the trailing film. The trailing film thickness, interface shapes and plug speed are determined as functions of the parameters of the problem, Bond number, driving pressure, and leading film thickness and initial plug length for the time-dependent problem. These results are important clinically since the trailing film thickness determines when the plug ruptures affecting the ultimate liquid distribution, and thicker films can result in airway closure. This research was supported by NIH grants HL41126, HL64373, and HL54224-04S1. J.L. Bull is a Parker B. Francis Fellow in Pulmonary Research.

Bull, Joseph; Halpern, David; Grotberg, James



Black Liquid Solar Collector Demonstrator.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the details of constructing, and use of, a solar collector. Uses a black liquid to absorb the energy, the thermosyphon effect to drive the liquid through the collector, and a floodlamp as a surrogate sun. (GA)

Weichman, F. L.; Austen, D. J.



Demonstrating Paramagnetism Using Liquid Nitrogen.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how liquid nitrogen is attracted to the poles of neodymium magnets. Nitrogen is not paramagnetic, so the attraction suggests that the liquid nitrogen contains a small amount of oxygen, which causes the paramagnetism. (MVL)

Simmonds, Ray; And Others



Liquid Crystals - The Mainstream Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A liquid crystal is a substance that flows like a liquid but maintains some of the ordered structure characteristic of crystals. Play this game to see how the crystal moves around in different patterns.

Foundation, Nobel


Support vector domain description  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows the use of a data domain description method, inspired by the support vector machine by Vapnik, called the support vector domain description (SVDD). This data description can be used for novelty or outlier de- tection. A spherically shaped decision boundary around a set of objects is constructed by a set of support vectors describing the sphere boundary.

David M. J. Tax; Robert P. W. Duin



Overview of supported employment.  

PubMed Central

This article traces the emergence of supported employment as a result of philosophical changes in expectations for persons with disabilities, based on scientific developments that challenged traditional service-delivery models. Supported employment program characteristics also are reviewed, and the influence of applied behavior analysis is outlined. Finally, areas for future research in supported employment are discussed. PMID:2693427

Rusch, F R; Hughes, C



Social Support in Marriage.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the role of perceived adequacy of social support provided by spouses for marital and individual functioning. Perceived support adequacy was correlated in the expected direction with marital quality, depressive symptomatology, and perceived stress. Hierarchical multiple regressions indicated perceived support adequacy accounts for…

Dehle, Crystal; Larsen, Debra; Landers, John E.



Enabling Services Dyslexia Support  

E-print Network

Enabling Services Dyslexia Support Information for students Support for students with specific learning difficulties such as dyslexia and dyspraxia Email: Tel: 023 8059 7726 Student Services Centre Building (37) Highfield Campus #12;2 Contents About Dyslexia Support

Anderson, Jim


Quantum convex support  

Microsoft Academic Search

Convex support, the mean values of a set of random variables, is central in information theory and statistics. Equally central in quantum information theory are mean values of a set of observables in a finite-dimensional C?-algebra A, which we call (quantum) convex support. The convex support can be viewed as a projection of the state space of A and it

Stephan Weis



Research Support Postgraduate  

E-print Network

Research Support For Postgraduate Students. Corporate Information & Computing Services. #12;#12;CiCS Support for Research Corporate Information and Computing Services (CiCS) provides a diverse range of computing services to support research. We provide statistical software, programming software, modelling

Martin, Stephen John


Advanced Life Support  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viewgraphs on Advanced Life Support (ALS) Systems are presented. The topics include: 1) Fundamental Need for Advanced Life Support; 2) ALS organization; 3) Requirements and Rationale; 4) Past Integrated tests; 5) The need for improvements in life support systems; 6) ALS approach to meet exploration goals; 7) ALS Projects showing promise to meet exploration goals; and 9) GRC involvement in ALS.

Chambliss, Joe



Rockets using Liquid Oxygen  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is my task to discuss rocket propulsion using liquid oxygen and my treatment must be highly condensed for the ideas and experiments pertaining to this classic type of rocket are so numerous that one could occupy a whole morning with a detailed presentation. First, with regard to oxygen itself as compared with competing oxygen carriers, it is known that the liquid state of oxygen, in spite of the low boiling point, is more advantageous than the gaseous form of oxygen in pressure tanks, therefore only liquid oxygen need be compared with the oxygen carriers. The advantages of liquid oxygen are absolute purity and unlimited availability at relatively small cost in energy. The disadvantages are those arising from the impossibility of absolute isolation from heat; consequently, allowance must always be made for a certain degree of vaporization and only vented vessels can be used for storage and transportation. This necessity alone eliminates many fields of application, for example, at the front lines. In addition, liquid oxygen has a lower specific weight than other oxygen carriers, therefore many accessories become relatively larger and heavier in the case of an oxygen rocket, for example, the supply tanks and the pumps. The advantages thus become effective only in those cases where definitely scheduled operation and a large ground organization are possible and when the flight requires a great concentration of energy relative to weight. With the aim of brevity, a diagram of an oxygen rocket will be presented and the problem of various component parts that receive particularly thorough investigation in this classic case but which are also often applicable to other rocket types will be referred to.

Busemann, Adolf



Liquid metal thermal electric converter  


A liquid metal thermal electric converter which converts heat energy to electrical energy. The design of the liquid metal thermal electric converter incorporates a unique configuration which directs the metal fluid pressure to the outside of the tube which results in the structural loads in the tube to be compressive. A liquid metal thermal electric converter refluxing boiler with series connection of tubes and a multiple cell liquid metal thermal electric converter are also provided.

Abbin, Joseph P. (Albuquerque, NM); Andraka, Charles E. (Albuquerque, NM); Lukens, Laurance L. (Albuquerque, NM); Moreno, James B. (Albuquerque, NM)



Dissolving Different Liquids in Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners add different liquids to water and apply their working definition of âdissolvingâ to their observations. After observing isopropyl rubbing alcohol, vegetable oil, and corn syrup in water, learners can conclude that while some liquids may dissolve in water, different liquids dissolve in water to different extents. Adult supervision recommended.

Kessler, James H.; Galvan, Patricia M.



Liquid diffusion in fibrous insulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vapor condensation in insulated structures degrades their physical properties as well as thermal performance. Motion of the condensate within the insulation is a crucial factor in analyzing this phenomenon. The liquid diffusion can be caused by several driving potentials. A model for isothermal liquid transport in fibrous insulation is presented. The model relates liquid diffusion to the characteristics of the

S. Motakef; M. A. El-Masri



Cavitation pressure in liquid helium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent experiments have suggested that, at low enough temperature, the homogeneous nucleation of bubbles occurs in liquid helium near the calculated spinodal limit. This was done in pure superfluid helium 4 and in pure normal liquid helium 3. However, in such experiments, where the negative pressure is produced by focusing an acoustic wave in the bulk liquid, the local amplitude

Frederic Caupin; Sebastien Balibar



High temperature liquid level sensor  


A length of metal sheathed metal oxide cable is perforated to permit liquid access to the insulation about a pair of conductors spaced close to one another. Changes in resistance across the conductors will be a function of liquid level, since the wetted insulation will have greater electrical conductivity than that of the dry insulation above the liquid elevation.

Tokarz, Richard D. (West Richland, WA)



Zero gravity liquid transfer screen  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A liquid transfer device for use in a zero gravity environment, for transferring liquid from one container to another is described. The device includes a spiral shaped screen type member which is carried in the container for collecting the randomly dispersed liquid and transferring such to an exit port.

Howard, F. S. (inventor)



Stimulated brillouin scattering in liquids  

E-print Network

to Dr. C. F. Squire for his wise advice and. patiently re- strained. guidance. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 111 LIST OF FIGURES... these experiments, which were ultrasonic velocity and atten- uation measurements on liquid argon, there have arisen further questions about the liquid. state, which could only be answered by studying the velocity and attenuation of hypersonic waves in the liquid...

Hubert, Jay Marvin



Accurate viscous free surfaces for buckling, coiling, and rotating liquids  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a fully implicit Eulerian technique for simulating free surface viscous liquids which eliminates artifacts in previous approaches, efficiently supports variable viscosity, and allows the simulation of more compelling viscous behaviour than previously achieved in graphics. Our method exploits a variational principle which automatically enforces the complex boundary condition on the shear stress at the free surface, while giving

Christopher Batty; Robert Bridson



Simple Procedure for Seismic Analysis of Liquid-Storage Tanks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This paper provides the theoretical background of a simplified seismic design procedure for cylindrical ground-supported tanks. The procedure takes into ac- count impulsive and convective (sloshing) actions of the liquid in flexible steel or concrete tanks fixed to rigid foundations. Seismic responses - base shear, over- turning moment, and sloshing wave height - are calculated by using the site

Praveen K. Malhotra; Thomas Wenk; Martin Wieland



Hybrid cooled data center using above ambient liquid cooling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Customers who operate large data centers are looking for new ways to reduce their energy consumption and improve the ability to support higher compute density. An approach to liquid cooling that uses warm water instead of chilled water to cool system components and eliminate or greatly reduce the need for chillers in the data center is described in this paper.

Brandon A Rubenstein; R. Zeighami; R. Lankston; E. Peterson




Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. VIEW OF THE LIQUID CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS. THE FLOOR IS SURFACED WITH STAINLESS STEEL TO CONTAIN SPILLS AND FACILITATE CLEANING. (4/4/66) - Rocky Flats Plant, General Manufacturing, Support, Records-Central Computing, Southern portion of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO


46 CFR 151.03-36 - Liquid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Liquid. 151.03-36 Section 151.03-36...DANGEROUS CARGOES BARGES CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Definitions § 151.03-36 Liquid. In this part liquid includes...



46 CFR 151.03-36 - Liquid.  

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Liquid. 151.03-36 Section 151.03-36...DANGEROUS CARGOES BARGES CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Definitions § 151.03-36 Liquid. In this part liquid includes...



46 CFR 151.03-36 - Liquid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Liquid. 151.03-36 Section 151.03-36...DANGEROUS CARGOES BARGES CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Definitions § 151.03-36 Liquid. In this part liquid includes...



46 CFR 151.03-36 - Liquid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Liquid. 151.03-36 Section 151.03-36...DANGEROUS CARGOES BARGES CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Definitions § 151.03-36 Liquid. In this part liquid includes...



46 CFR 151.03-36 - Liquid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Liquid. 151.03-36 Section 151.03-36...DANGEROUS CARGOES BARGES CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Definitions § 151.03-36 Liquid. In this part liquid includes...



Hydrophobic ionic liquids incorporating N-alkylisoquinolinium cations and their utilization in liquid-liquid separations.  


The first examples of Room Temperature Ionic Liquids (RTIL) containing fused polycyclic N-alkylisoquinolinium cations ([Cnisoq]+) in combination with the bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide anion ([BETI]-) have been synthesized, characterized, and utilized in liquid-liquid partitioning from water; these salts have unexpectedly low melting points and give high distribution ratios for aromatic solutes, especially chlorobenzenes, between the RTIL and water. PMID:12240026

Visser, A E; Holbrey, J D; Rogers, R D



Disintegration of liquid sheets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development, stability, and disintegration of liquid sheets issuing from a two-dimensional air-assisted nozzle is studied. Detailed measurements of mean drop size and velocity are made using a phase Doppler particle analyzer. Without air flow the liquid sheet converges toward the axis as a result of surface tension forces. With airflow a quasi-two-dimensional expanding spray is formed. The air flow causes small variations in sheet thickness to develop into major disturbances with the result that disruption starts before the formation of the main break-up region. In the two-dimensional variable geometry air-blast atomizer, it is shown that the air flow is responsible for the formation of large, ordered, and small chaotic 'cell' structures.

Mansour, Adel; Chigier, Norman



Liquid evaporation light deflector.  


A new type of general purpose digital light deflector is described, which is based on the electrically controlled vaporization of a high refractive index transparent liquid at an inclined interface formed by the liquid and a transparent solid. Deflectors operating on this principle can be designed to provide multiposition linear or angular displacement of a light beam in one or two dimensions. Such deflectors can be random accessed, are capable of large angular deflection, are simple and cheap to build, occupy a small volume, and should have a long operating life. Furthermore, they are not limited to deflecting only small diameter, monochromatic, polarized light beams. Millisecond deflection is possible at power levels of 0.3 W/mm(2) of light beam area. The deflectors have high optical transmission efficiency with on-off contrast ratios of 150: 1 and higher. PMID:20111551

Taylor, G W



Technical support A dedicated support staff for  

E-print Network

/ Networking 4Mechanical construction, including welding 4Laboratory assistance Electronic workshop Laboratory language courses available free of charge on campus Support and contact details Study in Düsseldorf resoances Vacuum chamber for ultracold molecule production Ultra-cold molecular hydrogen ions (Prof

Schiller, Stephan


What constitutes a simple liquid?  

E-print Network

Simple liquids are traditionally defined as many-body systems of classical particles interacting via radially symmetric pair potentials. We suggest that a simple liquid should be defined instead by the property of having strong correlation between virial and potential energy equilibrium fluctuations in the NVT ensemble. There is considerable overlap between the two definitions, but also some notable differences. For instance, in the new definition simplicity is not a property of the intermolecular potential only because a liquid is usually only strongly correlating in part of its phase diagram. Moreover, according to the new definition not all simple liquids are atomic (i.e., with radially symmetric pair potentials) and not all atomic liquids are simple. The main part of the paper motivates the new definition of liquid simplicity by presenting evidence that a liquid is strongly correlating if and only if its intermolecular interactions may be ignored beyond the first coordination shell (FCS). This is demonstrated by NVT simulations of structure and dynamics of 15 atomic and molecular model liquids with a shifted-forces cutoff placed at the first minimum of the radial distribution function. No proof is given that the chemical characterization follows from the strong correlation property, but it is shown to be consistent with the existence of isomorphs in strongly correlating liquids' phase diagram. Finally, we note that the FCS characterization of simple liquids calls into question the basis for standard perturbation theory, according to which the repulsive and attractive forces play fundamentally different roles for the physics of liquids.

Trond S. Ingebrigtsen; Thomas B. Schrøder; Jeppe C. Dyre



Liquid Body Armor  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore how nanotechnology is being used to create new types of protective fabrics. Learners play with samples of âOobleck," a polymer (a long chain of molecules) made of corn starch, food coloring, and water. Oobleck is a non-Newtonian fluid and therefore acts like both a liquid and a solid. Through this activity, learners discover that scientists and engineers are designing new materials to recreate this phenomenon in flexible fabrics.

Network, Nanoscale I.; Houston, Children'S M.



The Liquid Rainbow  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners are challenged to discover the relative densities of colored liquids to create a rainbow pattern in a test tube. Five different solutionsâ3 mixtures of ethyl alcohol, food color and water; red colored water; and pure ethyl alcoholâare used in various combinations. Learners carefully add the solutions to test tubes and observe their relative densities to find the correct order for making a rainbow. Young learners will require adult supervision because of flammable and irritating ingredients.




Hydrophobic ionic liquids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ionic liquids having improved properties for application in non-aqueous batteries, electrochemical capacitors, electroplating, catalysis and chemical separations are disclosed. Exemplary compounds have one of the following formulas: ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4, R.sub.5, and R.sub.6 are either H; F; separate alkyl groups of from 1 to 4 carbon atoms, respectively, or joined together to constitute a unitary alkylene radical

Victor R. Koch; Chenniah Nanjundiah; Richard T. Carlin



Olivine-liquid equilibrium  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of experiments have been conducted in order to study the equilibria between olivine and basaltic liquids and to try and understand the conditions under which olivine will crystallize. These experiments were conducted with several basaltic compositions over a range of temperature (1150–1300° C) and oxygen fugacity (10-0.68–10-12 atm.) at one atmosphere total pressure. The phases in these experimental

P. L. Roeder; R. F. Emslie



Cyclic phosphonium ionic liquids.  


Ionic liquids (ILs) incorporating cyclic phosphonium cations are a novel category of materials. We report here on the synthesis and characterization of four new cyclic phosphonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide ILs with aliphatic and aromatic pendant groups. In addition to the syntheses of these novel materials, we report on a comparison of their properties with their ammonium congeners. These exemplars are slightly less conductive and have slightly smaller self-diffusion coefficients than their cyclic ammonium congeners. PMID:24605146

Lall-Ramnarine, Sharon I; Mukhlall, Joshua A; Wishart, James F; Engel, Robert R; Romeo, Alicia R; Gohdo, Masao; Ramati, Sharon; Berman, Marc; Suarez, Sophia N



Basic Liquid Chromatography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The online textbook, Basic Liquid Chromatography, is provided by Dr. Yuri Kazakevich and Dr. Harold McNair of Seton Hall University. For those needing review or an introduction to the subject, the well designed and easily read document contains a wealth of information. Sections include an introduction, instrumentation, detectors, theory, adsorbents, reversed phase, gel permeation chromatography, column selection, pH effect, and even an online short course.

Kazakevich, Yuri.; McNair, Harold Monroe, 1933-.



Liquid fuel cells  

PubMed Central

Summary The advantages of liquid fuel cells (LFCs) over conventional hydrogen–oxygen fuel cells include a higher theoretical energy density and efficiency, a more convenient handling of the streams, and enhanced safety. This review focuses on the use of different types of organic fuels as an anode material for LFCs. An overview of the current state of the art and recent trends in the development of LFC and the challenges of their practical implementation are presented.



Living Liquid Crystals  

E-print Network

Collective motion of self-propelled organisms or synthetic particles often termed active fluid has attracted enormous attention in broad scientific community because of it fundamentally non-equilibrium nature. Energy input and interactions among the moving units and the medium lead to complex dynamics. Here we introduce a new class of active matter, living liquid crystals (LLCs) that combine living swimming bacteria with a lyotropic liquid crystal. The physical properties of LLCs can be controlled by the amount of oxygen available to bacteria, by concentration of ingredients, or by temperature. Our studies reveal a wealth of new intriguing dynamic phenomena, caused by the coupling between the activity-triggered flow and long-range orientational order of the medium. Among these are (a) non-linear trajectories of bacterial motion guided by non-uniform director, (b) local melting of the liquid crystal caused by the bacteria-produced shear flows, (c) activity-triggered transition from a non-flowing uniform state into a flowing one-dimensional periodic pattern and its evolution into a turbulent array of topological defects, (d) birefringence-enabled visualization of microflow generated by the nanometers-thick bacterial flagella. Unlike their isotropic counterpart, the LLCs show collective dynamic effects at very low volume fraction of bacteria, on the order of 0.2%. Our work suggests an unorthodox design concept to control and manipulate the dynamic behavior of soft active matter and opens the door for potential biosensing and biomedical applications.

Shuang Zhou; Andrey Sokolov; Oleg D Lavrentovich; Igor S Aranson



Quantum Disentangled Liquids  

E-print Network

We propose and explore a new finite temperature phase of translationally invariant multi-component liquids which we call a "Quantum Disentangled Liquid" (QDL) phase. We contemplate the possibility that in fluids consisting of two (or more) species of indistinguishable quantum particles with a large mass ratio, the light particles might "localize" on the heavy particles. We give a precise, formal definition of this Quantum Disentangled Liquid phase in terms of the finite energy density many-particle wavefunctions. While the heavy particles are fully thermalized, for a typical fixed configuration of the heavy particles, the entanglement entropy of the light particles satisfies an area law; this implies that the light particles have not thermalized. Thus, in a QDL phase, thermal equilibration is incomplete, and the canonical assumptions of statistical mechanics are not fully operative. We explore the possibility of QDL in water, with the light proton degrees of freedom becoming "localized" on the oxygen ions. We do not presently know whether a local, generic Hamiltonian can have eigenstates of the QDL form, and if it can not, then the non-thermal behavior discussed here will exist as an interesting crossover phenomena at time scales that diverge as the ratio of the mass of the heavy to the light species also diverges.

Tarun Grover; Matthew P. A. Fisher



Liquid Crystals in Tribology  

PubMed Central

Two decades ago, the literature dealing with the possible applications of low molar mass liquid crystals, also called monomer liquid crystals (MLCs), only included about 50 references. Today, thousands of papers, conference reports, books or book chapters and patents refer to the study and applications of MLCs as lubricants and lubricant additives and efforts are made to develop new commercial applications. The development of more efficient lubricants is of paramount technological and economic relevance as it is estimated that half the energy consumption is dissipated as friction. MLCs have shown their ability to form ordered boundary layers with good load-carrying capacity and to lower the friction coefficients, wear rates and contact temperature of sliding surfaces, thus contributing to increase the components service life and to save energy. This review includes the use of MLCs in lubrication, and dispersions of MLCs in conventional polymers (PDMLCs). Finally, new lubricating system composed of MLC blends with surfactants, ionic liquids or nanophases are considered. PMID:19865534

Carrion, Francisco-Jose; Martinez-Nicolas, Gines; Iglesias, Patricia; Sanes, Jose; Bermudez, Maria-Dolores



Aging of SRC liquids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The viscosity of SRC-LL liquid increases when subjected to accelerated aging by bubbling oxygen in the presence of copper strip at 62°C. Precipitates are formed and can be separated from the aged liquid by Soxhlet extraction with pentane. A 30-70 blend of SRC-I with SRC-LL was subjected to oxygen aging in the absence of copper, and the viscosity increased dramatically after 6 days at 62°. The content of preasphaltene and its molecular size increase with time of aging, accompanied by decrease of asphaltene and pentane-soluble contents. For the preasphaltene fraction on aging, gel permeation chromatography shows formation of larger particles. ESR experiments show that with oxygen aging, spin concentration in the preasphaltene fraction decreases. Perhaps some semiquinone, together with di- and tri-substituted phenoxy radicals, generated by oxygen aging of the coal liquid, interact with the free radicals already present in coal to yield larger particles and reduce free radical concentration. We are currently using the very high-field (600-MHz) NMR spectrometer at Mellon Institute to determine changes in structural parameters before and after aging of SRC-II and its chromatographically separated fractions.

Hara, T.; Jones, L.; Tewari, K. C.; Li, N. C.



Nonequilibrium behavior in supported lipid membranes containing cholesterol.  


We investigate lateral organization of lipid domains in vesicles versus supported membranes and monolayers. The lipid mixtures used are predominantly DOPC/DPPC/Chol and DOPC/BSM/Chol, which have been previously shown to produce coexisting liquid phases in vesicles and monolayers. In a monolayer at an air-water interface, these lipids have miscibility transition pressures of approximately 12-15 mN/m, which can rise to 32 mN/m if the monolayer is exposed to air. Lipid monolayers can be transferred by Langmuir-Schäfer deposition onto either silanized glass or existing Langmuir-Blodgett supported monolayers. Micron-scale domains are present in the transferred lipids only if they were present in the original monolayer before deposition. This result is valid for transfers at 32 mN/m and also at lower pressures. Domains transferred to glass supports differ from liquid domains in vesicles because they are static, do not align in registration across leaflets, and do not reappear after temperature is cycled. Similar static domains are found for vesicles ruptured onto glass surfaces. Although supported membranes on glass capture some aspects of vesicles in equilibrium (e.g., gel-liquid transition temperatures and diffusion rates of individual lipids), the collective behavior of lipids in large liquid domains is poorly reproduced. PMID:15111410

Stottrup, Benjamin L; Veatch, Sarah L; Keller, Sarah L



Immobilization of stationary phases onto chromatographic supports by gamma radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cobalt-60 gamma radiation has been found to be an effective means of immobilizing stationary phases onto gas and liquid chromatographic supports. The ability of a phase to crosslink was determined to be highly dependent on its chemical structure. Gamma radiation was employed to immobilize Se-30, a methylsilicone, and 216 PS onto Chromosorb WHP for packed column chromatography. The resultant columns




Cryogenic support system  


A support system is disclosed for restraining large masses at very low or cryogenic temperatures. The support system employs a tie bar that is pivotally connected at opposite ends to an anchoring support member and a sliding support member. The tie bar extends substantially parallel to the longitudinal axis of the cold mass assembly, and comprises a rod that lengthens when cooled and a pair of end attachments that contract when cooled. The rod and end attachments are sized so that when the tie bar is cooled to cryogenic temperature, the net change in tie bar length is approximately zero. Longitudinal force directed against the cold mass assembly is distributed by the tie bar between the anchoring support member and the sliding support member. 7 figs.

Nicol, T.H.; Niemann, R.C.; Gonczy, J.D.



Cryogenic support system  


A support system is disclosed for restraining large masses at very low or cryogenic temperatures. The support system employs a tie bar that is pivotally connected at opposite ends to an anchoring support member and a sliding support member. The tie bar extends substantially parallel to the longitudinal axis of the cold mass assembly, and comprises a rod that lengthens when cooled and a pair of end attachments that contract when cooled. The rod and end attachments are sized so that when the tie bar is cooled to cryogenic temperature, the net change in tie bar length is approximately zero. Longitudinal force directed against the cold mass assembly is distributed by the tie bar between the anchoring support member and the sliding support member.

Nicol, Thomas H. (Aurora, IL); Niemann, Ralph C. (Downers Grove, IL); Gonczy, John D. (Oak Lawn, IL)



Crystalline titanate catalyst supports  


A series of new crystalline titanates (CT) are shown to have considerable potential as catalyst supports. For Pd supported catalyst, the catalytic activity for pyrene hydrogenation was substantially different depending on the type of CT, and one was substantially more active than Pd on hydrous titanium oxide (HTO). For 1-hexene hydrogenation the activities of the new CTs were approximately the same as for the hydrous metal oxide supports.

Anthony, R.G.; Dosch, R.G.



Crystalline titanate catalyst supports  


A series of new crystalline titanates (CT) are shown to have considerable potential as catalyst supports. For Pd supported catalyst, the catalytic activity for pyrene hydrogenation was substantially different depending on the type of CT, and one was substantially more active than Pd on hydrous titanium oxide (HTO). For 1-hexene hydrogenation the activities of the new CTs were approximately the same as for the hydrous metal oxide supports.

Anthony, Rayford G. (Bryan, TX); Dosch, Robert G. (Albuquerque, NM)



Conduction cooled tube supports  


In boilers, process tubes are suspended by means of support studs that are in thermal contact with and attached to the metal roof casing of the boiler and the upper bend portions of the process tubes. The support studs are sufficiently short that when the boiler is in use, the support studs are cooled by conduction of heat to the process tubes and the roof casing thereby maintaining the temperature of the stud so that it does not exceed F.

Worley, Arthur C. (Mt. Tabor, NJ); Becht, IV, Charles (Morristown, NJ)



Hydrostatic bearing support  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A hydrostatic bearing support system is provided which comprises a bearing housing having a polygonally configured outer surface which defines at least three symmetrically disposed working faces and a plurality of pressure plates, each of which is disposed relatively opposite a corresponding working face and spaced therefrom to define a gap therebetween. A hydrostatic support film is created in the gap for supporting the housing in spaced relationship to the pressure plates.

Cunningham, R. E. (inventor)



High CO2 Solubility, Permeability and Selectivity in Ionic Liquids with the Tetracyanoborate Anion  

SciTech Connect

Five different ionic liquids containing the tetracyanoborate anion were synthesized and evaluated for CO2 separation performance. Measured CO2 solubility values were exceptionally high compared to analogous ionic liquids with different anions and ranged from 0.128 mol L-1 atm-1 to 0.148 mol L-1 atm-1. In addition, CO2 permeability and CO2/N2 selectivity values were measured using a supported ionic liquid membrane architecture and the separations performance of the ionic liquid membranes exceeded the Robeson upper bound. These results establish the distinct potential of the tetracyanoborate, [B(CN)4], anion for the separation of CO2.

Mahurin, Shannon Mark [ORNL; Hillesheim, Patrick C [ORNL; Yeary, Joshua S [ORNL; Jiang, Deen [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL



The role of attractive interactions in the dynamics of molecules in liquids  

E-print Network

The friction kernel (or memory function) $\\gamma(t)$ characterizing single-molecule dynamics in strongly bound liquids exhibits two distinct relaxations with the longer time-scale relaxation associated with attractive intermolecular forces. This observation identifies differing roles of repulsive and attractive interaction in the motions of molecules in equilibrium liquids, and thus provides a basis for a renewed investigation of a van der Waals picture of the transport properties of liquids. This conclusion is supported by extracting $\\gamma(t)$ from molecular dynamics simulation data for four common molecular liquids.

You, X; Rick, S W



Liquid as a required catalyst phase for carbon single-walled nanotube growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evolution of the iron catalyst during carbon single-walled nanotube growth is studied using calorimetry, temperature-programmed oxidation and Raman measurements. Carbon-induced solid-liquid, and solid-liquid-solid phase transitions of the nanocatalyst during the synthesis were observed. We found that liquid phase is favored for the growth of nanotubes, while the solidification of the catalyst nearly terminates the growth. No growth was observed below the eutectic point, when the catalyst is in solid phase. Our results support a growth mechanism of single-walled carbon nanotubes on liquid catalyst particles.

Harutyunyan, A. R.; Tokune, T.; Mora, E.



Flexible Support Stanchion  

SciTech Connect

Figure 1 shows the assembly drawing of the Central Calorimeter Cryostat Flexible Support Stanchion. Figures 2 and 3 show the Flexible Support STanchion in detail. These Stanchions support the cryostat safely, reduce the heat load to the cryostat from the ambient by a factor of more than ten, provide a spring like action that reduce the loads created by thermal contraction of the cryostat and position the cryostate accurately. Table 1 shows all of the details of the Flexible Support system for the C.C. Cryostat.

Rudland, D.L.; /Fermilab



Igniters for Liquid Oxygen/Liquid Methane Technology Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of NASA's technology development of liquid methane / liquid oxygen engines for future exploration missions, two different igniters were recently studied at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The first igniter tested was an impinging injection, spark-initiated torch igniter, and the second was a microwave-generated plasma igniter. The purpose of the ignition tests was to define the ignition limits under vacuum conditions and characterize the transient start-up performance as a function of propellant mixture ratio (MR), mass flow rates, inlet temperatures, and pre-ignition chamber pressure. In addition, for the impinging igniter two different spark plugs were tested, and for the microwave igniter the magnetron filament warm-up time and the magnetron input power were both varied. The results gathered from these tests indicated that the impinging igniter is capable of operating over an MR range of 2 - 27, with methane and oxygen inlet temperatures as low as -161 F and -233 F, respectively. The microwave igniter was tested over an MR range of 2 - 9, with methane and oxygen inlet temperatures as low as -90 F and -200 F, respectively. The microwave igniter achieved ignition over this range, although an upper ignition limit was determined for the oxidizer mass flow rate. In general, the torch exhaust temperatures for the microwave igniter were not as high as those attained with the impinging igniter. The microwave igniter, however, was hot-fired 17 times and was still operational, whereas the impinging igniter spark plugs experienced thermal shock and erosion over nine hot-fire tests. It was concluded that for the microwave igniter better mixing of the propellants might be required in order to both raise the torch exhaust temperature and decrease the required magnetron input power, and for the impinging igniter the spark plug position within the igniter chamber should be varied in future tests to identify a more optimal location. All of the igniter tests were supported by the Propulsion & Cryogenics Advanced Development project, which is part of NASA's Exploration Technology Development Program.

Osborne, Robin J.; Elam, Sandra K.; Peschel, William P.



Heavy liquid metal technologies development in Kalla  

SciTech Connect

The thermo-physical properties of Heavy Liquid Metals (Pb and Pb-Bi Eutectic) such as the low melting and high boiling temperatures, the chemical inertness in direct contact with typical reactor coolants, makes HLMs to relevant candidates as core coolant of critical and sub-critical nuclear systems. In addition the high neutron yield obtained by proton irradiation renders this material attractive for the development of neutron spallation sources. The practical use of HLM as core coolant and spallation material needs to be validated by experimental and computational activities. In this frame the KALLA (Karlsruhe Lead Laboratory) program, which consists of several stagnant and loop experiments, has been defined. Currently KALLA represents one of the most relevant infrastructures, which is in operation in Europe. The capabilities of KALLA make it possible to evaluate thermal-hydraulics parameters in complex geometries, to develop techniques for local and global quantities measurement, to assess the materials compatibility in different conditions and to evaluate basic chemical-physical data as for instance the wetting capability of the liquid metal. The aim of this article is to discuss the most significant development conducted at KALLA to support the activities of Accelerator Driven Transmutation Systems and to overview the experiences gained with the operation of liquid metal facilities. The loop experiments are now operated continuously since several years and a broad experience has been gained for the individual components typically appearing in reactors like pump systems (both electromagnetic and mechanical), oxygen monitoring and control systems, etc. (authors)

Stieglitz, Robert; Knebel, Joachim; Fazio, Concetta; Muller, Georg; Konys, Jurgen [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Herrmann v. Helmholtz Platz 1, D-76344 Leopoldshafen (Germany)



Liquid nitrogen is very, very cold! (liquid nitrogen demonstration)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this YouTube video, chemistry teacher Aaron Keller demonstrates the amazing properties of liquid nitrogen. He explains each demonstration in an understandable way. The temperature of liquid nitrogen is -196C (-321F). He explains how a dewar flask works. He pulls balloons out of a cooler, showing the expansion of a gas as it warms. He demonstrates the explosive power of the expansion of liquid nitrogen in an enclosed container. Liquid nitrogen is so cold that the floor is like a hot griddle. Liquid nitrogen has a very low viscosity. He demonstrates how brittle a flower becomes when frozen in a liquid nitrogen bath. Finally, he shows how to shatter a racquetball. As a bonus he shows how nitrogen gas can be used to put out a candle flame.


A Novel Liquid-Liquid Transition in Undercooled Ti-Zr-Ni Liquids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

If crystallization can be avoided, liquids enter a metastable (undercooled) state below their equilibrium liquidus temperatures, T(sub l), finally 'freezing' into a glass below a characteristic temperature called the glass transition temperature, T(sub g). In rare cases, the undercooled liquid may undergo a liquid-liquid phase transition (liquid polymorphism) before entering the glassy state. This has been suggested from experimental studies of H2O and Si. Such phase transitions have been predicted in some stable liquids, ie. above T(sub l) at atmospheric pressure, for SiO2 and BeF2, but these have not been verified experimentally. They have been observed in liquids of P, Si and C, but only under high pressure. In this letter we present the first experimental evidence for a phase transition in a low viscosity metallic liquid that is driven by an approach to a constant entropy configuration state and correlated with a growing icosahedral order in the liquid. A maximum in the specific heat at constant pressure, similar to what is normally observed near T(sub g), is reported for undercooled liquids of quasicrystal-forming Ti-Zr-Ni alloys. A two-state excitation model that includes cooperativity by incorporating a temperature-dependent excitation energy, fits the specific heat data well, signaling a phase transition. An inflection in the liquid density with decreasing temperature instead of a discontinuity indicates that this is not a typical first order phase transition; it could be a weakly first order or higher order transition. While showing many similarities to a glass transition, this liquid-liquid phase transition occurs in a mobile liquid, making it novel.

Lee, G. W.; Gangopadhyay, A. K.; Kelton, K. F.; Bradshaw, R. C.; Hyers, R. W.; Rathz, T. J.; Rogers, J. R.



Liquid-jet impact on liquid and solid surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were conducted to investigate the mechanisms of the liquid-jet impact on liquid and solid surfaces associated with cavitation damage and rain erosion. In this work, a liquid jet of 3 mm diameter, generated using a single impact jet apparatus, was impacted at ca. 600 m s?1 on the surface of water and polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA) placed 15 mm below the

T. Obara; N. K. Bourne; J. E. Field



Liquid-Liquid Critical Point in Heavy Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the liquid-liquid critical-point hypothesis about water, two liquid waters exist at low temperatures and are supposed to be merged at a critical point. The low-temperature metastable melting curves of D2O ices have been measured. It is found that the melting curve of D2O ice III is smoothly curved around 25 MPa and 238 K, whereas the melting curve

Osamu Mishima



Liquid class predictor for liquid handling of complex mixtures  


A method of establishing liquid classes of complex mixtures for liquid handling equipment. The mixtures are composed of components and the equipment has equipment parameters. The first step comprises preparing a response curve for the components. The next step comprises using the response curve to prepare a response indicator for the mixtures. The next step comprises deriving a model that relates the components and the mixtures to establish the liquid classes.

Seglke, Brent W. (San Ramon, CA); Lekin, Timothy P. (Livermore, CA)



Bioregenerative life support: not a picnic  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

If humans are to live permanently in space, regenerative life support systems are an enabling technology and must replace the picnic approach of taking all supplies required for each mission. These systems are classified by technologies as either physical/chemical or bioregenerative. Both of these system-types can recycle water, remove carbon dioxide, produce oxygen, and recover essential elements from waste products. Bioregenerative can also produce food, thus, making it essential if humans are to exist in space independent of earth. A solely bioregenerative life support system includes plants as a biomass production module and microbial organisms in bioreactors as a resource recovery module. In the Advanced Life Support Program, bioregenerative life support systems are being investigated through a research and technology development project which includes large scale testing as part of the Breadboard Project and human tests conducted in the soon to be constructed BioPlex facility. Research and technology development efforts are directed toward optimizing biomass productivity in controlled chambers by developing light weight, energy efficient, and automated systems; recycling liquid and solid wastes; baselining the operation of bioreactors; determining system microbial stability; assessing chemical contamination; and building models required for long term system operations. The program will include space flight studies in the near future to determine if these life support technologies will function in microgravity. When a bioregenerative system is finally incorporated into a mission, the conversion from a picnic and resupply mentality to permanent recycling and independence from earth will be complete.

Knott, W. M.



Support Vector Data Description  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data domain description concerns the characterization of a data set. A good description covers all target data but includes no superfluous space. The boundary of a dataset can be used to detect novel data or outliers. We will present the Support Vector Data Description (SVDD) which is inspired by the Support Vector Classifier. It obtains a spherically shaped boundary around

David M. J. Tax; Robert P. W. Duin



Fatherhood and Family Support.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

On the assumption that fathers have been relatively absent from family support programs, this publication of the Family Resource Coalition addresses the role of fathers in family support programs, examines the impact of fathers on their children, and describes programs involving fathers successfully. Articles include: (1) "What's Behind the…

Goetz, Kathy, Ed.




E-print Network

FM 1-05 RELIGIOUS SUPPORT OCTOBER 2012 DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: Approved for public release. i Field Manual No. 1-05 Headquarters Department of the Army Washington, DC, 5 October 2012 Religious...................................................................................................iv Chapter 1 RELIGIOUS SUPPORT FOR THE ARMY......................................................... 1

US Army Corps of Engineers


Enabling Services Dyslexia Support  

E-print Network

Enabling Services Dyslexia Support Information for Students Website: Contact details Telephone: 023 8059 7726 Email: #12;2 About Dyslexia Support · We are a team of specialist dyslexia practitioners within the University of Southampton's Enabling Services

Molinari, Marc


Supported Employment in Virginia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Virginia's program to build statewide consensus and participation in supported employment for the disabled from boards, service providers, counselors, parents, consumers, and the business community is described. Activities have included establishment of offices of supported employment in key agencies and establishment of five technical assistance…

Hill, Janet; Revell, W. Grant



Direct Support Workforce Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The fourteen brief articles in this theme issue all examine challenges in the development of direct support staff working with people who have developmental disabilities. The articles also include the views of direct support providers and people with developmental disabilities themselves, as well as examples of strategies used by provider agencies…

Impact, 1998



Online Student Support Services  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Community colleges serve a population of students that is more varied than any other segment of higher education. Commuter, adult, distance education, returning, part-time, working and transfer students have academic support needs that are varied and decentralized. However, frequently these students do not receive or cannot access the support…

Smith, Burck



Supporting Math Vocabulary Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Providing appropriate language support is important for all students and essential to the success of English Language Learners (ELLs), struggling readers, and students with learning disabilities. In a mathematics classroom, the support includes the ongoing development of everyday vocabulary--such as names of fruit and actions such as skipping--and…

Bay-Williams, Jennifer M.; Livers, Stefanie



Sexual Assault Support Resources  

E-print Network

Sexual Assault Support Resources #12;#12;IIf you have been sexually assaulted it can have a serious're not comfortable with. If the sexual assault has occurred in the last 24 to 72 hours, it is usually recommended resource, as appropriate. #12;ON-CAMPUSRESOURCES WHAT TO EXPECT FROM: SEXUAL ASSAULT SURVIVORS' SUPPORT


Performance Support in Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the integrated concept of electronic performance support systems (EPSS) as a solution to meet performance needs of knowledge-rich workplaces where information overload is often a problem. Considers the adoption of information technology, task performance time, and support functions, and gives an example of an EPSS for marine shipping…

Banerji, Ashok



Large Liquid Rocket Testing: Strategies and Challenges  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rocket propulsion development is enabled by rigorous ground testing in order to mitigate the propulsion systems risks that are inherent in space flight. This is true for virtually all propulsive devices of a space vehicle including liquid and solid rocket propulsion, chemical and non-chemical propulsion, boost stage and in-space propulsion and so forth. In particular, large liquid rocket propulsion development and testing over the past five decades of human and robotic space flight has involved a combination of component-level testing and engine-level testing to first demonstrate that the propulsion devices were designed to meet the specified requirements for the Earth to Orbit launchers that they powered. This was followed by a vigorous test campaign to demonstrate the designed propulsion articles over the required operational envelope, and over robust margins, such that a sufficiently reliable propulsion system is delivered prior to first flight. It is possible that hundreds of tests, and on the order of a hundred thousand test seconds, are needed to achieve a high-reliability, flight-ready, liquid rocket engine system. This paper overviews aspects of earlier and recent experience of liquid rocket propulsion testing at NASA Stennis Space Center, where full scale flight engines and flight stages, as well as a significant amount of development testing has taken place in the past decade. The liquid rocket testing experience discussed includes testing of engine components (gas generators, preburners, thrust chambers, pumps, powerheads), as well as engine systems and complete stages. The number of tests, accumulated test seconds, and years of test stand occupancy needed to meet varying test objectives, will be selectively discussed and compared for the wide variety of ground test work that has been conducted at Stennis for subscale and full scale liquid rocket devices. Since rocket propulsion is a crucial long-lead element of any space system acquisition or development, the appropriate plan and strategy must be put in place at the outset of the development effort. A deferment of this test planning, or inattention to strategy, will compromise the ability of the development program to achieve its systems reliability requirements and/or its development milestones. It is important for the government leadership and support team, as well as the vehicle and propulsion development team, to give early consideration to this aspect of space propulsion and space transportation work.

Rahman, Shamim A.; Hebert, Bartt J.



Water: The Strangest Liquid  

SciTech Connect

Water, H2O, is familiar to everyone - it shapes our bodies and our planet. But despite its abundance, water has remained a mystery, exhibiting many strange properties that are still not understood. Why does the liquid have an unusually large capacity to store heat? And why is it denser than ice? Now, using the intense X-ray beams from particle accelerators, investigations into water are leading to fundamental discoveries about the structure and arrangement of water molecules. This lecture will elucidate the many mysteries of water and discuss current studies that are revolutionizing the way we see and understand one of the most fundamental substances of life.

Nilsson, Anders



Nanorheology of Liquid Alkanes  

SciTech Connect

We report molecular dynamics simulations of liquid alkanes, squalane and tetracosane, confined between moving walls to which butane chains are tethered, effectively screening the details of the wall. As in an experiment, heat is removed by thermostatting the tethered molecules. Results obtained at high strain rates, typical of practical applications, suggest little or no difference between the bulk rheology and confined flow, and the occurrence of a high degree of slip at the wall-fluid interface at the conditions studied. At relatively low velocities and high densities, tetracosane shows the formation of fully-extended chains at certain wall spacings.

Gupta, S.A., Cochran, H.D., Cummings, P.T. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering], [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)



High Performance Liquid Chromatography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The North Carolina Community College System BioNetwork's interactive eLearning tools (IETs) are reusable chunks of training that can be deployed in a variety of courses or training programs. IETs are designed to enhance, not replace hands-on training. Learners are able to enter a hands-on lab experience better prepared and more confident. This particular IET delves into High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and its application in discovering the amount of caffeine in two different drinks. Flash is required to participate in this learning module.



Cavitating Jet Method and System for Oxygenation of Liquids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reclamation and re-use of water is critical for space-based life support systems. A number of functions must be performed by any such system including removal of various contaminants and oxygenation. For long-duration space missions, this must be done with a compact, reliable system that requires little or no use of expendables and minimal power. DynaJets cavitating jets can oxidize selected organic compounds with much greater energy efficiency than ultrasonic devices typically used in sonochemistry. The focus of this work was to develop cavitating jets to simultaneously accomplish the functions of oxygenation and removal of contaminants of importance to space-structured water reclamation systems. The innovation is a method to increase the concentration of dissolved oxygen or other gasses in a liquid. It utilizes a particular form of novel cavitating jet operating at low to moderate pressures to achieve a high-efficiency means of transporting and mixing the gas into the liquid. When such a jet is utilized to simultaneously oxygenate the liquid and to oxidize organic compounds within the liquid, such as those in waste water, the rates of contaminant removal are increased. The invention is directed toward an increase in the dissolved gas content of a liquid, in general, and the dissolved oxygen content of a liquid in particular.

Chahine, Georges L.



Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility: Environmental Information Document  

SciTech Connect

At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the treatment of radioactive liquid waste is an integral function of the LANL mission: to assure U.S. military deterrence capability through nuclear weapons technology. As part of this mission, LANL conducts nuclear materials research and development (R&D) activities. These activities generate radioactive liquid waste that must be handled in a manner to ensure protection of workers, the public, and the environment. Radioactive liquid waste currently generated at LANL is treated at the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF), located at Technical Area (TA)-50. The RLWTF is 30 years old and nearing the end of its useful design life. The facility was designed at a time when environmental requirements, as well as more effective treatment technologies, were not inherent in engineering design criteria. The evolution of engineering design criteria has resulted in the older technology becoming less effective in treating radioactive liquid wastestreams in accordance with current National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and Department of Energy (DOE) regulatory requirements. Therefore, to support ongoing R&D programs pertinent to its mission, LANL is in need of capabilities to efficiently treat radioactive liquid waste onsite or to transport the waste off site for treatment and/or disposal. The purpose of the EID is to provide the technical baseline information for subsequent preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the RLWTF. This EID addresses the proposed action and alternatives for meeting the purpose and need for agency action.

Haagenstad, H.T.; Gonzales, G.; Suazo, I.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)




SciTech Connect

The phenomena of vapor space corrosion and liquid/air interface corrosion of carbon steel in simulated liquid waste environments have been investigated. Initial experiments have explored the hypothesis that vapor space corrosion may be accelerated by the formation of a corrosive electrolyte on the tank wall by a process of evaporation of relatively warmer waste and condensation of the vapor on the relatively cooler tank wall. Results from initial testing do not support the hypothesis of electrolyte transport by evaporation and condensation. The analysis of the condensate collected by a steel specimen suspended over a 40 C simulated waste solution showed no measurable concentrations of the constituents of the simulated solution and a decrease in pH from 14 in the simulant to 5.3 in the condensate. Liquid/air interface corrosion was studied as a galvanic corrosion system, where steel at the interface undergoes accelerated corrosion while steel in contact with bulk waste is protected. The zero-resistance-ammeter technique was used to measure the current flow between steel specimens immersed in solutions simulating (1) the high-pH bulk liquid waste and (2) the expected low-pH meniscus liquid at the liquid/air interface. Open-circuit potential measurements of the steel specimens were not significantly different in the two solutions, with the result that (1) no consistent galvanic current flow occurred and (2) both the meniscus specimen and bulk specimen were subject to pitting corrosion.

Zapp, P.; Hoffman, E.



Vaporization of kitaev spin liquids.  


The quantum spin liquid is an exotic quantum state of matter in magnets. This state is a spin analog of liquid helium that does not solidify down to the lowest temperature due to strong quantum fluctuations. In conventional fluids, the liquid and gas possess the same symmetry and adiabatically connect to each other by bypassing the critical end point. We find that the situation is qualitatively different in quantum spin liquids realized in a three-dimensional Kitaev model; both gapless and gapped quantum spin liquid phases at low temperatures are always distinguished from the high-temperature paramagnet (spin gas) by a phase transition. The results challenge the common belief that the absence of thermodynamic singularity down to the lowest temperature is a symptom of a quantum spin liquid. PMID:25415923

Nasu, Joji; Udagawa, Masafumi; Motome, Yukitoshi



Making a Liquid Crystal Thermometer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lab, presented by the National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network, introduces students to the temperature response of liquid crystals, and how they respond in different phases of matter. In addition to liquid, solid, and gas, the fourth phase of matter includes liquid crystals which  " have the particles arranged in a helix, and the color reflected from the liquid crystal depends on the pitch of tightness of the helix. The pitch , which changes with temperature, equals the wavelength of the light reflected which creates the color of the liquid." This can be found in nature, and is also in digital displays. In this lab, students will examine the changes in liquid crystal color and behavior when heat is applied. Included in this lab are: teacher preparation guide, student guide, and a student guide with answers.



SSI effects for a tank containing two liquids  

SciTech Connect

Following a brief review of a mechanical model which permits consideration of the flexibility of the tank wall and the supporting medium, the effects of the soil-structure interaction on the dynamic response of a laterally excited tank that contains two liquids are examined. The quantities examined include the hydrodynamic pressure, base shear and moments. The results are compared with those obtained with no soil-structure interaction. Only the impulsive component of response is examined; the convective component is for all practical purposes unaffected by soil-structure interaction. It is shown that for the conditions considered, soil-structure interaction reduces the peak response of the tank-liquid system.

Tang, Yu



Effect of Liquid Penetrant Sensitivity on Probability of Detection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of the task is to investigate the effect of liquid penetrant sensitivity level on probability of crack detection (POD). NASA-STD-5009 currently requires the use of only sensitivity level 4 liquid penetrants. This requirement is based on the fact that the data generated in the NTIAC Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) Capabilities Data Book was produced using only sensitivity level 4 penetrants. Many NDE contractors supporting NASA Centers routinely use sensitivity level 3 penetrants. Because of the new NASA-STD-5009 requirement, these contractors will have to either shift to sensitivity level 4 penetrants or perform formal POD demonstration tests to qualify their existing process.

Parker, Bradford H.



Wetting states on structured immiscible liquid coated surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water on structured hydrophobic surfaces can be supported in a Wenzel or Cassie state, depending on surface chemistry and structure geometry. The Cassie state is often desirable for superhydrophobic materials as it features high contact angles and low contact angle hysteresis due to an air layer which separates most of the liquid from contact with the solid. We present evidence that multiple wetting states for water can also exist on multiscale structured surfaces with a layer of an immiscible liquid coating the surface and that a Cassie-like state can be achieved which results in enhancement of the surface properties.

Jenner, Elliot; D'Urso, Brian



Study of liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen auxiliary propulsion systems for the space tug  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Design concepts are considered that permit use of a liquid-liquid (as opposed to gas-gas) oxygen/hydrogen thrust chamber for attitude control and auxiliary propulsion thrusters on the space tug. The best of the auxiliary propulsion system concepts are defined and their principal characteristics, including cost as well as operational capabilities, are established. Design requirements for each of the major components of the systems, including thrusters, are developed at the conceptual level. The competitive concepts considered use both dedicated (separate tanks) and integrated (propellant from main propulsion tanks) propellant supply. The integrated concept is selected as best for the space tug after comparative evaluation against both cryogenic and storable propellant dedicated systems. A preliminary design of the selected system is established and recommendations for supporting research and technology to further the concept are presented.

Nichols, J. F.



Micro-liquid flow sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple to realise micro-liquid flow sensor with high sensitivity is presented. The sensor is based on well known thermal anemometer principles. An analytical model for the sensor behaviour applicable for gas\\/liquid fluids is presented. The realisation process of the sensor is described. Model and experimental results agree well. The sensor is simple to integrate with other micro-liquid handling components

Theo S. J. Lammerink; Niels R. Tas; Miko Elwenspoek; Jan H. J. Fluitman



Life's Little Essential: Liquid Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Without liquid water, terrestrial life could not exist. All living organisms on Earth depend on water and its unique chemical and physical properties. In the search for life beyond Earth, scientists have focused their efforts on looking for signs of liquid water. This essay discusses the properties of liquid water that are conducive to life, pointing out that the biochemical reactions that sustain life need a fluid in order to operate, and that water is probably the best solvent in the universe.



Liquid Rocket Engine Testing Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Contents include the following: Objectives and motivation for testing. Technology, Research and Development Test and Evaluation (RDT&E), evolutionary. Representative Liquid Rocket Engine (LRE) test compaigns. Apollo, shuttle, Expandable Launch Vehicles (ELV) propulsion. Overview of test facilities for liquid rocket engines. Boost, upper stage (sea-level and altitude). Statistics (historical) of Liquid Rocket Engine Testing. LOX/LH, LOX/RP, other development. Test project enablers: engineering tools, operations, processes, infrastructure.

Rahman, Shamim



Electron Bubbles in Liquid Helium  

E-print Network

When an electron (or positronium atom) is injected into liquid helium with nearly zero energy, a bubble quickly forms around it. This phenomenon (which also occurs in liquid hydrogen, liquid neon and possibly in solid helium) lowers the mobility of the electron to a value similar to that for a positive ion. We estimate the radius of the bubble at zero pressure and temperature based on the zero point energy of the electron. If the liquid is held in a state of negative pressure, the bubble will expand beyond the radius at zero pressure. We also estimate the negative pressure such that a bubble once formed will grow without limit.

Kirk T. McDonald



Vapor-liquid contacting system  

SciTech Connect

A vapor-liquid contacting tray is described wherein a perforated portion of the tray member forms an active surface area for vapor-liquid contact in the interior of the tray member. The active surface area portion of the tray member is circumscribed by an imperforate peripheral portion of the tray member with a width of from 0.05 to 0.35 times the radius of the tray. The disclosed tray provides upwardly directed laminar jetting of liquid over the tray perforation openings for high selectivity vapor-liquid contacting and has particular utility in the absorption of hydrogen sulfide from a gas mixture containing hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide.

Butwell, K.F.; Sigmund, P.W.



Wicking of liquids in screens  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation was conducted to determine the magnitude of the wicking rates of liquids in various screens. Evaluation of the parameters characterizing the wicking process resulted in the development of an expression which defined the wicking velocity in terms of screen and system geometry, liquid properties, and gravitational effects. Experiment data obtained both in normal gravity and in weightlessness demonstrated that the model successfully predicted the functional relation of the liquid properties and the distance from the liquid source to the wicking velocity. Because the pore geometry in the screens was complex, several screen geometric parameters were lumped into a single constant which was determined experimentally for each screen.

Symons, E. P.



HPLC- High Performance Liquid Chromatography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This primer on High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HCLC) gives a brief history and definition of liquid chromatography (LC), LC techniques, and defines both HPLC and UltraPerformance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC Technology). The other chapters of the primer are available on the left side of the page: How Does High Performance Liquid Chromatography Work?, Identifying and Quantitating Compounds, HPLC Column Hardware, and HPLC Separation Modes. An appendix which defines HPLC nomenclature is also available. Each section is pepper with helpful and clear illustrations to help users visualize the processes and procedures presented.



Forced Oscillations of Tube Bundles in Liquid Cross-Flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stiffness of tube system for industrial heat-exchangers is usually increased by application of intermediate supports with corresponding tube-to-support gaps. The cases are frequent when intensive hydrodynamically excited vibrations and tube wear can arise at the location of tube-to-support contacts. In this case under the conditions of tube-to-support vibrocontacts the mechanism of wear during sliding impact takes place. Such a wear is more intensive one than a pure fretting wear at constant contact parameters. The present report considers an algorithm to solve a problem of tube bundle forced oscillations in liquid cross flow with taking into account the intermediate supports and main design parameters.

Fesenko, T. N.; Foursov, V. N.


Liquid water in the extremely shallow Martian subsurface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The discovery of a near-surface ice layer on Mars by the Phoenix lander has led to speculation about the stability of water in the subsurface, as the availability of liquid water is a major constraint for a potential Martian biosphere. Liquid water is unstable on the surface of Mars due to low atmospheric pressures, but it has been suggested that liquid water might be present as films or adsorbed layers in the regolith. This study was carried out to assess the stability of permafrost and liquid water in the Martian subsurface, and to support the interpretation of conductivity data from the Phoenix mission. Using a new Goddard Martian simulation chamber, we explored the possibility of liquid water formation in the extremely shallow (1-3 cm) subsurface soil layer under low atmospheric pressures (0.1-10 mbar) and analogous Martian surface temperatures (~ -50 C to 0 C). This was achieved through the use of impedance spectroscopy with conductivity probes similar to those used by Phoenix. Our results demonstrate that in a shallow layer of clean permafrost the amount of mobile liquid water present as films can reach several percent, even with temperatures as low as -25 C. The presence of perchlorates, found in the Martian regolith, causes the formation and mobility of liquid water to increase dramatically due to the effects of perchlorates on the melting temperature of ice. This study suggests that despite cold temperatures and low atmospheric pressures, the Martian regolith may contain appreciable amounts of liquid water in the near subsurface. Permafrost on Mars can be expected to extend to some depth, particularly in polar latitudes. These findings have implications for aqueous processing on Mars and the habitability of the Martian subsurface throughout its history.

Shivak, J. N.; Pavlov, A.



Vitrification and levitation of a liquid droplet on liquid nitrogen.  


The vitrification of a liquid occurs when ice crystal formation is prevented in the cryogenic environment through ultrarapid cooling. In general, vitrification entails a large temperature difference between the liquid and its surrounding medium. In our droplet vitrification experiments, we observed that such vitrification events are accompanied by a Leidenfrost phenomenon, which impedes the heat transfer to cool the liquid, when the liquid droplet comes into direct contact with liquid nitrogen. This is distinct from the more generally observed Leidenfrost phenomenon that occurs when a liquid droplet is self-vaporized on a hot plate. In the case of rapid cooling, the phase transition from liquid to vitrified solid (i.e., vitrification) and the levitation of droplets on liquid nitrogen (i.e., Leidenfrost phenomenon) take place simultaneously. Here, we investigate these two simultaneous physical events by using a theoretical model containing three dimensionless parameters (i.e., Stefan, Biot, and Fourier numbers). We explain theoretically and observe experimentally a threshold droplet radius during the vitrification of a cryoprotectant droplet in the presence of the Leidenfrost effect. PMID:20176969

Song, Young S; Adler, Douglas; Xu, Feng; Kayaalp, Emre; Nureddin, Aida; Anchan, Raymond M; Maas, Richard L; Demirci, Utkan



Waves at surfactant-laden liquid-liquid crystal interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theoretical study is presented of surface waves at a monomolecular surfactant film between an isotropic liquid and a nematic liquid crystal for the case when the surfactant film is in the isotropic two-dimensional fluid phase and induces homeotropic (normal to the interface) orientation of the nematic director. The dispersion relation for the surface waves is obtained, and different surface

S. V. Lishchuk



Liquid clathrate formation in ionic liquid-aromatic mixtures.  


1-Alkyl-3-methylimidazolium containing ionic liquids with hexafluorophosphate, bis(trifyl)imide, tetrafluoroborate, and chloride anions form liquid clathrates when mixed with aromatic hydrocarbons; in the system 1,3-dimethylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate-benzene, the aromatic solute could be trapped in the solid state forming a crystalline 2:1 inclusion compound. PMID:12638957

Holbrey, John D; Reichert, W Matthew; Nieuwenhuyzen, Mark; Sheppard, Oonagh; Hardacre, Christopher; Rogers, Robin D




Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

DETAIL OF THE LIQUID HYDROGEN AND LIQUID OXYGEN VENT VALVES, SIXTH LEVEL OF THE EXTERNAL TANK CHECK-OUT CELLS, HB-2, FACING NORTHEAST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL


Vitrification and levitation of a liquid droplet on liquid nitrogen  

PubMed Central

The vitrification of a liquid occurs when ice crystal formation is prevented in the cryogenic environment through ultrarapid cooling. In general, vitrification entails a large temperature difference between the liquid and its surrounding medium. In our droplet vitrification experiments, we observed that such vitrification events are accompanied by a Leidenfrost phenomenon, which impedes the heat transfer to cool the liquid, when the liquid droplet comes into direct contact with liquid nitrogen. This is distinct from the more generally observed Leidenfrost phenomenon that occurs when a liquid droplet is self-vaporized on a hot plate. In the case of rapid cooling, the phase transition from liquid to vitrified solid (i.e., vitrification) and the levitation of droplets on liquid nitrogen (i.e., Leidenfrost phenomenon) take place simultaneously. Here, we investigate these two simultaneous physical events by using a theoretical model containing three dimensionless parameters (i.e., Stefan, Biot, and Fourier numbers). We explain theoretically and observe experimentally a threshold droplet radius during the vitrification of a cryoprotectant droplet in the presence of the Leidenfrost effect. PMID:20176969

Song, Young S.; Adler, Douglas; Xu, Feng; Kayaalp, Emre; Nureddin, Aida; Anchan, Raymond M.; Maas, Richard L.; Demirci, Utkan




Microsoft Academic Search

Two different but related two-dimensional network models are used to elucidate the concept of relative permeability in simultaneous liquid-liquid flow in porous media. The first model is designed for monosized sphere packs while the other, consisting of spherical pore chambers interconnected by capillaries of variable length and radius, is intended for more general porous media. The effects of various operating




Ultralow liquid/solid friction in carbon nanotubes: comprehensive theory for alcohols, alkanes, OMCTS, and water.  


In this work, we perform a theoretical study of liquid flow in graphitic nanopores of different sizes and geometries. Molecular dynamics flow simulations of different liquids (water, decane, ethanol, and OMCTS) in carbon nanotubes (CNT) are shown to exhibit flow velocities 1-3 orders of magnitude higher than those predicted from the continuum hydrodynamics framework and the no-slip boundary condition. These results support previous experimental findings obtained by several groups that reported exceptionally high liquid flow rates in CNT membranes. The liquid/graphite friction coefficient is identified as the crucial parameter for this fast mass transport in CNT. The friction coefficient is found to be very sensitive to wall curvature: friction is independent of confinement for liquids between flat graphene walls with zero curvature, whereas it decreases with increasing positive curvature (liquid inside CNT), and it increases with increasing negative curvature (liquid outside CNT). Furthermore, we present a theoretical approximate expression for the friction coefficient, which predicts qualitatively and semiquantitatively its curvature dependent behavior. The proposed theoretical description, which works well for different kinds of liquids (alcohols, alkanes, and water), sheds light on the physical mechanisms at the origin of the ultra low liquid/solid friction in CNT. In fact, it is due to their perfectly ordered molecular structure and their atomically smooth surface that carbon nanotubes are quasiperfect liquid conductors compared to other membrane pores like nanochannels in amorphous silica. PMID:22974715

Falk, Kerstin; Sedlmeier, Felix; Joly, Laurent; Netz, Roland R; Bocquet, Lydéric



Observation of equilibrium liquid-liquid transition in triphenyl phosphite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermal signature of an equilibrium liquid-liquid transition (LLT) in triphenyl phosphite was detected by differential scanning calorimetry measurements at a fast heating rate reaching 500 K min-1. The estimated temperature, enthalpy, and entropy of the LLT were 241.7 K, 12.0 kJ mol-1, and 49.5 J K-1 mol-1, respectively. The estimated residual entropy for a glacial sample prepared at 224.7 K was 6 J K-1 mol-1; this value is much smaller than that for the normal glassy liquid. This glacial state was found to be a highly ordered liquid compared with the normal glassy liquid in terms of entropy.

Terashima, Y.; Tsuchie, M.; Takeda, K.; Honda, M.



Postpartum Support International  


... those who need it Get involved DONATE Welcome. Postpartum Support International is dedicated to helping women suffering from perinatal mood and anxiety disorders, including postpartum depression, the most common complication of childbirth. We ...


Support the Kids Involved  


... ensure that it stops. Back to top Address Bullying Behavior Parents, school staff, and organizations all have ... friend. Back to top Support Bystanders Who Witness Bullying Even if kids are not bullied or bullying ...


Voyager mission support  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mission support provided by Deep Space Network for Project Voyager is discussed. Mission operations covered include for Voyager 1 the far encounter 2, Saturn near encounter, and the post encounter phase, and for Voyager 2 the Jupiter Saturn cruise phase.

Fanelli, N.; Nance, H. E.



Helios mission support  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Activities of the DSN network operations organization in support of the Helios Project from February 15, 1978 through April 15, 1978 are reported. Mark 3 data subsystems (MDS) testing at the Deep Space Station 2 (Goldstone, Calif.) is included.

Goodwin, P. S.; Jensen, W. N.; Rockwell, G. M.



Stop smoking support programs  


Smokeless tobacco - stop smoking programs; Stop smoking techniques; Smoking cessation programs; Smoking cessation techniques ... It is hard to quit smoking if you are acting alone. Smokers may have a ... of quitting with a support program. Stop smoking programs ...


Chromatography resin support  


An apparatus and method of using an improved chromatography resin support is disclosed. The chromatography support platform is provided by a stainless steel hollow cylinder adapted for being inserted into a chromatography column. An exterior wall of the stainless steel cylinder defines a groove for carrying therein an "O"-ring. The upper surface of the stainless steel column is covered by a fine stainless steel mesh welded to the edges of the stainless steel cylinder. When placed upon a receiving ledge defined within a chromatography column, the "O"-ring provides a fluid tight seal with the inner edge wall of the chromatography cylinder. The stainless steel mesh supports the chromatography matrix and provides a back flushable support which is economical and simple to construct.

Dobos, James G. (North Augusta, SC)



Combustor liner support assembly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A support assembly for a gas turbine engine combustor includes an annular frame having a plurality of circumferentially spaced apart tenons, and an annular combustor liner disposed coaxially with the frame and including a plurality of circumferentially spaced apart tenons circumferentially adjoining respective ones of the frame tenons for radially and tangentially supporting the liner to the frame while allowing unrestrained differential thermal radial movement therebetween.

Halila, Ely E. (Inventor)



Supporting Family Choice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supporting family choice in the decision-making process is recommended practice in the field of early childhood and early\\u000a childhood special education. These decisions may relate to the medical, educational, social, recreational, therapeutic\\/rehabilitative,\\u000a and community aspects of the child's disability. Although this practice conveys the message that families are the primary\\u000a decision-makers for their children, families are not always adequately supported

Mary M. Murray; Kimberly A. Christensen; Gardner T. Umbarger; Karin C. Rade; Kathryn Aldridge; Judith A. Niemeyer



Supporting Crime Scene Investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe the design and development of mobile technology to support crime scene investigation. We briefly\\u000a review the crime scene investigation processes, arguing that it is highly distributed. We then propose the use of a simple\\u000a case-based reasoning (CBR) system to support some aspects of this activity, and a wearable computer to assist in data collection.\\u000a The

Chris Baber; Paul Smith; Sandeep Panesar; Fan Yang; James Cross


SAE Standards Support  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes PNNL activities in FY 2012 in support of the following two vehicle communication standards activities: • Technical support to SAE, ANSI and NIST technical working groups. PNNL actively contributed to the use case development, harmonization, and evaluation of the SAE standards activities for vehicle to grid communication • Tested and validated a set of potential technologies for meeting SAE communication requirements and provided recommendations for technology choices.

Gowri, Krishnan



A Liquid-Liquid Transition in an Undercooled Ti-Zr-Ni Liquid  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

If crystallization can be avoided, liquids enter a metastable (undercooled) state below their equilibrium liquidus temperatures, TI, finally freezing into a glass below a characteristic temperature called the glass transition temperature, T,. In rare cases, the undercooled liquid may undergo a liquid-liquid phase transition (liquid polymorphism) before entering the glassy state. This has been suggested from experimental studies of HzO and Si4. Such phase transitions have been predicted in some stable liquids, i.e. above TI at atmospheric pressure, for Si02 and BeF;, but these have not been verified experimentally. They have been observed in liquids of P7, Sis and C9, but only under high pressure. All of these transitions are driven by an anomalous density change, i.e. change in local structure, with temperature or pressure. In this letter we present the first experimental evidence for a phase transition in a low viscosity liquid that is not driven by an anomalous density change, but by an approach to a constant configuration state. A maximum in the specific heat at constant pressure, similar to what is normally observed near T,, is reported here for undercooled low viscosity liquids of quasicrystal- forming Ti-Zr-Ni alloys. that includes cooperativity, by incorporating a temperature dependent excitation energy fits the data well, signaling a phase transition.