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1

Ethyl-bis-triazinylpyridine (Et-BTP) for the separation of americium(III) from trivalent lanthanides using solvent extraction and supported liquid membrane methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper deals with the solvent extraction and supported liquid membrane studies on Ln(III)\\/An(III) separation using ethyl-bis-triazinylpyridine (Et-BTP) as the extractant. The solvent extraction studies involved evaluation of a) diluents, b) phase modifiers, c) stripping agents and d) role of feed acidity. Though reasonably high separation factor values were obtained when Et-BTP was used along with ?-bromo carboxylic acids,

A. Bhattacharyya; P. K. Mohapatra; A. Roy; T. Gadly; S. K. Ghosh; V. K. Manchanda

2009-01-01

2

Supported liquid membrane system  

DOEpatents

A cell apparatus for a supported liquid membrane including opposing faceplates, each having a spirally configured groove, an inlet groove at a first end of the spirally configured groove, and an outlet groove at the other end of the spirally configured groove, within the opposing faces of the faceplates, a microporous membrane situated between the grooved faces of the faceplates, said microporous membrane containing an extractant mixture selective for a predetermined chemical species within the pores of said membrane, means for aligning the grooves of the faceplates in an directly opposing configuration with the porous membrane being situated therebetween, such that the aligned grooves form a pair of directly opposing channels, separate feed solution and stripping solution compartments connected to respective channels between the faceplates and the membrane, separate pumping means for passing feed solution and stripping solution through the channels is provided.

Takigawa, D.Y.; Bush, H. Jr.

1990-12-31

3

Supported liquid membrane electrochemical separators  

SciTech Connect

A separator is described for use in electrochemical cells, comprising: a hydrophobic microporous membrane; and a liquid ionic transport agent comprising an organic agent dissolved in an organic solvent supported by a porous matrix of the membrane that selectively transports specific cation or anion species through the membrane while rejecting others, wherein the liquid ionic transport agent is insoluble in the electrochemical electrolyte solution. An alkaline battery is described comprising at least one pair of a positive electrode and a negative electrode the improvement comprising a hydrophobic microporous membrane which supports within its porous matrix a liquid ionic transport agent interposed between the negative and the positive electrode. The agent is substantially insoluble in the electrochemical electrolyte solution and consists essentially of an organic ion transport agent in a polar organic solvent therefore, such that the electrolyte insoluble agent selectively transports specific cation and anion species through the microporous membrane.

Pemsler, J.P.; Dempsey, M.D.

1986-06-03

4

Structure of the Toll/interleukin 1 receptor (TIR) domain of the immunosuppressive Brucella effector BtpA/Btp1/TcpB.  

PubMed

BtpA/Btp1/TcpB is a virulence factor produced by Brucella species that possesses a Toll interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain. Once delivered into the host cell, BtpA interacts with MyD88 to interfere with TLR signalling and modulates microtubule dynamics. Here the crystal structure of the BtpA TIR domain at 3.15Å is presented. The structure shows a dimeric arrangement of a canonical TIR domain, similar to the Paracoccus denitrificans Tir protein but secured by a unique long N-terminal ?-tail that packs against the TIR:TIR dimer. Structure-based mutations and multi-angle light scattering experiments characterized the BtpA dimer conformation in solution. The structure of BtpA will help with studies to understand the mechanisms involved in its interactions with MyD88 and with microtubules. PMID:24076024

Kaplan-Türköz, Burcu; Koelblen, Thomas; Felix, Christine; Candusso, Marie-Pierre; O'Callaghan, David; Vergunst, Annette C; Terradot, Laurent

2013-09-25

5

Liquid-liquid extraction and flat sheet supported liquid membrane studies on Am(III) and Eu(III) separation using 2,6-bis(5,6-dipropyl-1,2,4-triazin-3-yl)pyridine as the extractant.  

PubMed

Solvent extraction and supported liquid membrane transport studies for the preferential removal of Am(3+) from feeds containing a mixture of Am(3+) and Eu(3+) was carried out using 2,6-bis(5,6-dipropyl-1,2,4-triazin-3-yl)pyridine (n-Pr-BTP) as the extractant. Diluent plays an important role in these studies. It was observed that the distribution coefficients deteriorate significantly for both Am(3+) and Eu(3+) though the separation factors were affected only marginally. The transport studies were carried out at pH 2.0 in the presence of NaNO(3) to result in the preferential Am(3+) transport with high separation factors. Effect of different experimental parameters, viz. feed composition, stripping agents, diluents of the organic liquid membrane and membrane pore size was studied on the transport and separation behaviour of Am(3+) and Eu(3+). The supported liquid membrane studies indicated about 85% Am(3+) and 6% Eu(3+) transport in 6h using 0.03 M n-Pr-BTP in n-dodecane/1-octanol (7:3) diluent mixture for a feed containing 1M NaNO(3) at pH 2 and a receiver phase containing pH 2 solution as the strippant. Consequently, a permeability coefficient of (1.75 ± 0.21) × 10(-4)cms(-1) was determined for the Am(3+) transport. Stability of the n-Pr-BTP and its SLM was also studied by carrying out the distribution and transport experiment after different time intervals. PMID:21889846

Bhattacharyya, A; Mohapatra, P K; Gadly, T; Raut, D R; Ghosh, S K; Manchanda, V K

2011-08-17

6

Supported Ionic Liquid Membranes for Gas Separation  

SciTech Connect

Ionic liquids have been rapidly gaining attention for various applications including solvent separation and gas capture. These substances are noted for extremely low vapor pressure and high CO2 solubility making them ideal as transport or capture media for CO2 abatement in power generation applications. Ionic liquids, combined with various supports to form membranes, have been proven selective in CO2 separation. Several ionic liquids and a variety of polymer supports have been studied over a temperature range from 37°C to 300°C and have been optimized for stability. The membranes have demonstrated high permeability and high selectivity since the supported ionic liquid membranes incorporate functionality capable of chemically complexing CO2. A study aimed at improving supported ionic liquid membranes will examine their durability with greater transmembrane pressures and the effects on CO2 permeance, CO2/H2 selectivity and thermal stability.

Myers, C.R.; Ilconich, J.B.; Pennline, H.W.; Luebke, D.R.

2007-08-01

7

Separation of metals by supported liquid membrane  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a process of separating a preselected chemical species selected from the group consisting of aluminum, arsenic, antimony, bismuth, cadmium, chromium, copper, cobalt, gallium, gold, hafnium, indium, iridium, iron, lead, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, neodymium, nickel, niobium, osmium, palladium, platinum, rhenium, rhodium, ruthenium, selenium, silver, tantalum, tellurium, thallium, thorium, tin, tungsten, uranium, vanadium, zinc, or zirconium from a feedstream. It comprises providing a supported liquid membrane having both a first and a second side, the membrane comprised of microporous polybenzimidazole, the polybenzimidazole containing within the polybenzimidazole pores an extractant mixture selective for the preselected chemical species; contacting a feedstream containing the preselected chemical species with the first side of the supported liquid membrane in a feed compartment adjacent to the supported liquid membrane for a time sufficient to extract at least a portion of the preselected chemical species from the feedstream into the extractant mixture; and, contacting a stripping solution with the second side of the supported liquid membrane in a stripping compartment adjacent to the supported liquid membrane, for a time sufficient to extract at least a portion of the preselected chemical species from the extractant mixture into the stripping solution.

Takigawa, D.Y.

1992-05-19

8

Separation of metals by supported liquid membrane  

DOEpatents

A supported liquid membrane system for the separation of a preselected chemical species within a feedstream, preferably an aqueous feedstream, includes a feed compartment containing a feed solution having at least one preselected chemical species therein, a stripping compartment containing a stripping solution therein, and a microporous polybenzimidazole membrane situated between the compartments, the microporous polybenzimidazole membrane containing an extractant mixture selective for the preselected chemical species within the membrane pores is disclosed along with a method of separating preselected chemical species from a feedstream with such a system, and a supported liquid membrane for use in such a system.

Takigawa, Doreen Y. (Los Alamos, NM)

1992-01-01

9

Flexible Support Liquid Argon Heat Intercept  

SciTech Connect

A device in the flexible support system for the Central Calorimeter is the Liquid Argon Heat Intercept. The purpose of this apparatus is to intercept heat outside the inner vessel so that bubbles do not form inside. If bubbles did happen to form inside the vessel, they would cause an electric arc between the read-out board and the absorption plates, thus destroying the pre-amplifier. Since this heat intercept is located in the center of the flexible support, it must also support the load of the Central Caloimeter. Figure 1 shows how the intercept works. The subcooled liquid argon is driven through a 1/4-inch x 0.049-inch w tube by hydrostatic pressure. the ambient heat boils the subcooled argon. The gaseous argon flows through the tube and is condensed at the top of the vessel by a 100 kW cooling coil. This process is rpesent in all four flexible support systems.

Rudland, D.L.; /Fermilab

1987-05-18

10

Separations by supported liquid membrane cascades  

DOEpatents

The invention describes a new separation technique which leads to multi-stage operations by the use of a series (a cascade) of alternated carrier-containing supported-liquid cation exchanger extractant and a liquid anion exchanger extractant (or a neutral extractant) as carrier. The membranes are spaced between alternated aqueous electrolytic solutions of different composition which alternatively provide positively charged extractable species and negatively charged (or zero charged) extractable species, of the chemical species to be separated. The alternated aqueous electrolytic solutions in addition to providing the driving force to the process, simultaneously function as a stripping solution from one type of membrane and as an extraction-promoting solution for the other type of membrane. The aqueous electrolytic solution and the supported liquid membranes are arranged to provide a continuous process.

Danesi, P.R.

1983-09-01

11

Self-Supporting Liquid Crystal Composite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colloid-liquid crystal composites are a novel type of soft condensed matter, formed from dispersions of colloidal particles in liquid crystalline hosts. Here, we investigate the kinetics of network formation in mixtures of the thermotropic liquid crystal 5CB and nearly hard sphere colloids (polymethylmethacrylate particles), occurring as the liquid crystal undergoes a transition from the isotropic to the nematic phase. In

Julie Cleaver; Doris Vollmer; Jason Crain; Wilson Poon

2004-01-01

12

Effect of porous support composition and operating parameters on the performance of supported liquid membranes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Factors, such as porous support composition and operating parameters, that influence the performance of supported liquid membranes (SLMs) were investigated. SLMs of varying porous support compositions and structures were studied for the transport of metal...

D. Y. Takigawa

1991-01-01

13

Development of Practical Supported Ionic Liquid Membranes: A Systematic Approach  

SciTech Connect

Supported liquid membranes (SLMs) are a class of materials that allow the researcher to utilize the wealth of knowledge available on liquid properties to optimize membrane performance. These membranes also have the advantage of liquid phase diffusivities, which are higher than those observed in polymers and grant proportionally greater permeabilities. The primary shortcoming of the supported liquid membranes demonstrated in past research has been the lack of stability caused by volatilization of the transport liquid. Ionic liquids, which may possess high CO2 solubility relative to light gases such as H2, are excellent candidates for this type of membrane since they are stable at elevated temperatures and have negligible vapor pressure. A study has been conducted evaluating the use of a variety of ionic liquids in supported ionic liquid membranes for the capture of CO2 from streams containing H2. In a joint project, researchers at the University of Notre Dame synthesized and characterized ionic liquids, and researchers at the National Energy Technology Laboratory incorporated candidate ionic liquids into supports and evaluated membrane performance for the resulting materials. Several steps have been taken in the development of practical supported ionic liquid membranes. Proof-of-concept was established by showing that ionic liquids could be used as the transport media in SLMs. Results showed that ionic liquids are suitable media for gas transport, but the preferred polymeric supports were not stable at temperatures above 135oC. The use of cross-linked nylon66 supports was found to produce membranes mechanically stable at temperatures exceeding 300oC but CO2/H2 selectivity was poor. An ionic liquid whose selectivity does not decrease with increasing temperature was needed, and a functionalized ionic liquid that complexes with CO2 was used. An increase in CO2/H2 selectivity with increasing temperature over the range of 37 to 85oC was observed and the dominance of a facilitated transport mechanism established. The presentation will detail membrane development, the effect of increasing transmembrane pressure, and preliminary results dealing with other gas pairs and contaminants.

Luebke, D.R.; Ilconich, J.B.; Myers, C.R.; Pennline, H.W.

2007-11-01

14

Carbon Dioxide Separation with Supported Ionic Liquid Membranes  

SciTech Connect

Supported liquid membranes are a class of materials that allow the researcher to utilize the wealth of knowledge available on liquid properties as a direct guide in the development of a capture technology. These membranes also have the advantage of liquid phase diffusivities higher than those observed in polymeric membranes which grant proportionally greater permeabilities. The primary shortcoming of the supported liquid membranes demonstrated in past research has been the lack of stability caused by volatilization of the transport liquid. Ionic liquids, which possess high carbon dioxide solubility relative to light gases such as hydrogen, are an excellent candidate for this type of membrane since they have negligible vapor pressure and are not susceptible to evaporation. A study has been conducted evaluating the use of several ionic liquids, including 1-hexyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bis(trifuoromethylsulfonyl)imide, 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium nitrate, and 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium sulfate in supported ionic liquid membranes for the capture of carbon dioxide from streams containing hydrogen. In a joint project, researchers at the University of Notre Dame lent expertise in ionic liquid synthesis and characterization, and researchers at the National Energy Technology Laboratory incorporated candidate ionic liquids into supports and evaluated the resulting materials for membrane performance. Initial results have been very promising with carbon dioxide permeabilities as high as 950 barrers and significant improvements in carbon dioxide/hydrogen selectivity over conventional polymers at 37C and at elevated temperatures. Results include a comparison of the performance of several ionic liquids and a number of supports as well as a discussion of innovative fabrication techniques currently under development.

Luebke, D.R.; Ilconich, J.B.; Myers, C.R.; Pennline, H.W.

2007-04-01

15

26. DETAIL OF CONCRETE PIPE SUPPORTS LEADING TO NEW LIQUID ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

26. DETAIL OF CONCRETE PIPE SUPPORTS LEADING TO NEW LIQUID HYDROGEN TANK FARM; VIEW TO WEST. - Cape Canaveral Air Station, Launch Complex 17, Facility 28402, East end of Lighthouse Road, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

16

25. DETAIL OF NEW CONCRETE PIPE SUPPORTS FOR YETTOBEINSTALLED LIQUID ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

25. DETAIL OF NEW CONCRETE PIPE SUPPORTS FOR YET-TO-BE-INSTALLED LIQUID HYDGROGEN PIPING; VIEW TO WEST. - Cape Canaveral Air Station, Launch Complex 17, Facility 28402, East end of Lighthouse Road, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

17

A New Type of BTP\\/Zeolites Nanocomposites as Mixed-phase Fire Suppressant: Preparation, Characterization, and Extinguishing Mechanism Discussion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new type of nanocomposites consisting of solid 4A zeolites and gaseous fire extinguishing agent of 2-bromo-3,3,3-trifluoropropene (BTP) was fabricated in large scale, in which BTP anchored in the porous zeolites. Laboratory-scale fire extinguishment tests showed that the nanocomposites as additives can greatly improve the performance of conventional sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3) dry powder for relatively shorter extinguishing time and

Xiaomin Ni; Kaiqian Kuang; Xishi Wang; Guangxuah Liao

2010-01-01

18

Unusual traits of the pyoverdin-mediated iron acquisition system in Pseudomonas putida strain BTP1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorescent Pseudomonas species are characterized by the production of pyoverdin-type siderophores for Fe3+ acquisition in iron-limited environments. Since it produces a structurally specific pyoverdin, Pseudomonas putida strain BTP1 could represent a valuable tool in an attempt to correlate the structural features of these compounds with some specificity in their two main properties i.e. affinity for iron and recognition rate by

Marc Ongena; Philippe Jacques; Philippe Delfosse; Philippe Thonart

2002-01-01

19

Carbon Dioxide Separation with Supported Ionic Liquid Membranes  

SciTech Connect

A practical form of CO2 capture at water-gas shift conditions in the IGCC process could serve the dual function of producing a pure CO2 stream for sequestration and forcing the equilibrium-limited shift reaction to completion enriching the stream in H2. The shift temperatures, ranging from the low temperature shift condition of 260°C to the gasification condition of 900°C, limit capture options by diminishing associative interactions which favor removal of CO2 from the gas stream. Certain sorption interactions, such as carbonate formation, remain available but generally involve exceptionally high sorbent regeneration energies that contribute heavily to parasitic power losses. Carbon dioxide selective membranes need only establish an equilibrium between the gas phase and sorption states in order to transport CO2, giving them a potential energetic advantage over other technologies. Supported liquid membranes take advantage of high, liquid phase diffusivities and a solution diffusion mechanism similar to that observed in polymeric membranes to achieve superior permeabilities and selectivites. The primary shortcoming of the supported liquid membranes demonstrated in past research has been the lack of stability caused by volatilization of the transport liquid. Ionic liquids, which possess high CO2 solubility relative to light gases such as H2, are excellent candidates for this type of membrane since they have negligible vapor pressure and are not susceptible to evaporation. A study has been conducted evaluating the use of ionic liquids including 1-hexyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bis(trifuoromethylsulfonyl)imide in supported ionic liquid membranes for the capture of CO2 from streams containing H2. In a joint project, researchers at the University of Notre Dame synthesized and characterized ionic liquids, and researchers at the National Energy Technology Laboratory incorporated candidate ionic liquids into supports and evaluated the resulting materials for membrane performance. Improvements to the ionic liquid and support have allowed testing of these supported ionic liquid membranes at temperatures up to 300°C without loss of support mechanical stability or degradation of the ionic liquid. Substantial improvements in selectivity have also been observed at elevated temperature with the best membrane currently achieving optimum performance at 75°C.

Luebke, D.R.; Ilconich, J.B.; Pennline, H.W.; Myers, C.R.

2007-05-01

20

Study on gas separation by supported liquid membranes applying novel ionic liquids  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, the permeability of H2, N2 and CO2 was investigated through supported liquid membranes prepared by using four types of novel ionic liquids (VACEM 42, VACEM 44, VACEM 47, VACEM 58) under various gas phase pressures (2.2 bar, 1.8 bar, 1.4 bar) and temperatures (30°C, 40°C, 50°C). VACEM type ionic liquids, which are built up of a

P. Cserjési; N. Nemestóthy; A. Vass; Zs. Csanádi; K. Bélafi-Bakó

2009-01-01

21

Solid Supported Liquid–Liquid Extraction of Chemical Warfare Agents and Related Chemicals from Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid-supported liquid–liquid extraction was optimized to extract the chemical warfare agents and their non-toxic analogues\\u000a from water. The developed method was compared to the conventionally used liquid–liquid extraction. This method yielded high\\u000a recoveries (70–80%) of non-toxic analogues of chemical warfare agents and good recoveries (65–75%) of the nerve agent sarin\\u000a and Lewisite-III. The limits of detection of non-toxic analogues of

Pankaj K. Kanaujia; Deepak Pardasani; Vijay Tak; D. K. Dubey

2009-01-01

22

Mechanism of supported liquid membrane degradation: emulsion formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new hypothesis for the degradation mechanism of supported liquid membranes is advanced: emulsion formation induced by shear forces. Experiments show that the removal of LM-phase from the membrane depends in the molecular structure of the carrier and the type of solvent. The instability of SLMs is regulated by the presence of counter-ions in the same way as in the

A. M. Neplenbroek; D. Bargeman; C. A. Smolders

1992-01-01

23

Acid extraction by supported liquid membranes containing basic carriers  

SciTech Connect

The extraction of HNO/sub 3/ (nitric acid) from aqueous solutions by permeation through a number of supported liquid membranes containing basic carriers dissolved in diethylbenzene has been studied. The results have shown that the best permeations are obtained with long chain aliphatic amines (TLA, Primene JM-T) followed by TOPO (trioctylphosphine oxide) and then by other monofunctional and bifunctional organophosphorous basic carriers. The influence of an aliphatic diluent on the permeability of HNO/sub 3/ through a supported liquid membrane containing TLA as carrier was also investigated. In this case the permeability to HNO/sub 3/ decreases as a result of the lower diffusion coefficient of the acid-carrier complex in the more vicous aliphatic solvent. 4 figures.

Danesi, P.R.; Cianetti, C.; Horwitz, E.P.

1983-01-01

24

Dye/water separation through supported liquid membrane extraction.  

PubMed

The separation of synthetic dye Rhodamine 6G (R6G) and water was investigated using blended organic liquids in a supported liquid membrane (SLM) extraction system. Liquid membrane (LM) components include octyl alcohol (OcOH) as the dye extractant and a polysiloxane liquid as the stabilizing agent. Initial permeation results revealed the suitability of poly (phenyl methyl) siloxane (PPMS) over poly (octyl methyl) siloxane as the blending agent. The most acceptable condition for dye extraction was determined at feed solution pH congruent with 1, wherein highest distribution coefficient, K(D) (OcOH/H(2)O)=18, was attained. Though permeability decreased at optimal blending condition of 1:1 (w/w) OcOH/PPMS, SLM longevity was exhibited with>98% LM retention after 15 h operation in contrast to pure OcOH SLM system (>60% LM loss). Equilibrium experiments reveal that dye extraction followed Langmuir adsorption principle. The dye transport was elucidated using mass transfer analysis wherein it showed a decrease in overall coefficient (k(o)) at increasing feed concentrations. This was a direct consequence of K(D) decline, which becomes more apparent at higher concentrations when SLM saturation point is approached. At varied hydrodynamic conditions, improved k(o) values were observed up to Re(omega)=10,000 when minimal variation in film resistance is attained. Beyond this condition, k(o) becomes independent from stirring rate effect nonetheless SLM stability is compromised due to shear-induced LM losses. PMID:20553932

Nisola, Grace M; Cho, Eulsaeng; Beltran, Arnel B; Han, Mideok; Kim, Younghee; Chung, Wook-Jin

2010-08-01

25

Surface-functionalized ionic liquid crystal-supported ionic liquid phase materials: ionic liquid crystals in mesopores.  

PubMed

The influence of confinement on the ionic liquid crystal (ILC) [C(18)C(1)Im][OTf] is studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), polarized optical microscopy (POM), and diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS). The ILC studied is supported on Si-based powders and glasses with pore sizes ranging from 11 to 50 nm. The temperature of the solid-to-liquid-crystalline phase transition seems mostly unaffected by the confinement, whereas the temperature of the liquid-crystalline-to-liquid phase transition is depressed for smaller pore sizes. A contact layer with a thickness in the order of 2 nm is identified. The contact layer exhibits a phase transition at a temperature 30 K lower than the solid-to-liquid-crystalline phase transition observed for the neat ILC. For applications within the "supported ionic liquid phase (SILP)" concept, the experiments show that in pores of diameter 50 nm a pore filling of ?>0.4 is sufficient to reproduce the phase transitions of the neat ILC. PMID:22069236

Kohler, Florian T U; Morain, Bruno; Weiss, Alexander; Laurin, Mathias; Libuda, Jörg; Wagner, Valentin; Melcher, Berthold U; Wang, Xinjiao; Meyer, Karsten; Wasserscheid, Peter

2011-11-08

26

Liquid supported denture-management of flabby ridges  

PubMed Central

The ideal properties of a denture are adequate rigidity on polished surface to bear masticatory forces and at the same time, flexibility and softness on the tissue surface for proper and even distribution of masticatory forces. The problem with conventional denture is rigidity of tissue surface; leads to uneven distribution of load. This drawback even worsens in the case of flabby, atrophic and unemployed ridges with excessive bone resorption. The liquid supported denture allows continued adaptation and eliminates the disadvantages of denture designs based on the application of temporary tissue conditioners or soft liners.

Mody, Pranav V.; Kumar, Girish; Kumar, Manish; Shetty, Brijesh

2012-01-01

27

Enantioselective separations using chiral supported liquid crystalline membranes.  

PubMed

Porous and nonporous supported liquid crystalline membranes were produced by impregnating porous cellulose nitrate supports with cholesteric liquid crystal (LC) materials consisting of 4-cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl (5CB) mixed with a cholesterol-based dopant (cholesteryl oleyl carbonate [COC], cholesteryl nonanoate [CN], or cholesteryl chloride [CC]). The membranes exhibit selectivity for R-phenylglycine and R-1-phenylethanol because of increased interactions between the S enantiomers and the left-handed cholesteric phase. The selectivity of both phenylglycine and 1-phenylethanol in 5CB/CN membranes decreases with effective pore diameter while the permeabilities increase, as expected. Phenylglycine, which is insoluble in the LC phase, exhibits no transport in the nonporous (completely filled) membranes; however, 1-phenylethanol, which is soluble in the LC phase, exhibits transport but negligible enantioselectivity. The enantioselectivity for 1-phenylethanol was higher (1.20 in 5CB/COC and 5CB/CN membranes) and the permeability was lower in the cholesteric phase than in the isotropic phase. Enantioselectivity was also higher in the 5CB/COC cholesteric phase than in the nematic phase of undoped 5CB (1.03). Enantioselectivity in the cholesteric phase of 5CB doped with CC (1.1), a dopant lacking hydrogen bonding groups, was lower than in the 5CB/COC phases. Finally, enantioselectivity increases with the dopant concentration up to a plateau value at approximately 17 mol%. PMID:22581655

Han, Sangil; Rabie, Feras; Marand, Eva; Martin, Stephen M

2012-05-12

28

[Preparation and applications of a supported liquid-liquid extraction column with a composite diatomite material].  

PubMed

A rapid and special supported liquid-liquid extraction (SLE) column was developed with a composite diatomite material. The SLE column was evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with acidic, neutral and alkaline compounds dissolved in water. Furthermore, some real complex samples were also analyzed by HPLC with the SLE method. The recoveries of benzoic acid (acidic), p-nitroaniline (alkaline) and 4-hydroxy-benzoic methyl ester (neutral) treated by the SLE column were 90.6%, 98.1% and 97.7%. However, the recoveries of the three compounds treated by traditional liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) method were 71.9%, 81.9% and 83.9%. The results showed that the SLE technique had higher recoveries than the traditional LLE method. The spiked recoveries of the complex samples, such as benzoic acid in Sprite and dexamethasone acetate, chlorphenamine maleate, indomethacin in bovine serum, were between 80% and 110% and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were less than 15%. For biological specimen, the results could be accepted. Meantime, many disadvantages associated with traditional LLE method, such as emulsion formation, didn't occur using SLE column. The SLE column technique is a good sample preparation method with many advantages, such as rapid, simple, robust, easily automated, high recovery and high-throughput, which would be widely used in the future. PMID:23256382

Bao, Jianmin; Ma, Zhishuang; Sun, Ying; Wang, Yongzun; Li, Youxin

2012-08-01

29

The elicitation of a systemic resistance by Pseudomonas putida BTP1 in tomato involves the stimulation of two lipoxygenase isoforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Some non-pathogenic rhizobacteria called Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) possess the capacity to induce in plant defense mechanisms effective against pathogens. Precedent studies showed the ability of Pseudomonas putida BTP1 to induce PGPR-mediated resistance, termed ISR (Induced Systemic Resistance), in different plant species. Despite extensive works, molecular defense mechanisms involved in ISR are less well understood that in the

Martin Mariutto; Francéline Duby; Akram Adam; Charlotte Bureau; Marie-Laure Fauconnier; Marc Ongena; Philippe Thonart; Jacques Dommes

2011-01-01

30

Extraction of glyphosate by a supported liquid membrane technique.  

PubMed

The possible application of the supported liquid membrane (SLM) technique for the extraction of glyphosate is presented. For the extraction of this compound the SLM system has been applied with utilisation of Aliquat 336 as a cationic carrier incorporated into the membrane phase. The extraction efficiency of glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine] is dependent on the donor phase pH, carrier concentration in the organic phase and NaCl concentration in the acceptor phase. The optimal extraction conditions are: donor phase pH>11, acceptor phase of 2 M NaCl solution and the organic phase composed of 20% (w/w) Aliquot 336 solution in di-hexyl ether. Counter-coupled transport of chloride anions from the acceptor phase to the donor phase is a driving force of the mass transfer in this system. PMID:10985540

Dzygiel, P; Wieczorek, P

2000-08-11

31

Systemic resistance and lipoxygenase-related defence response induced in tomato by Pseudomonas putida strain BTP1  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies showed the ability of Pseudomonas putida strain BTP1 to promote induced systemic resistance (ISR) in different host plants. Since ISR is long-lasting and not conducive for development of resistance of the targeted pathogen, this phenomenon can take part of disease control strategies. However, in spite of the numerous examples of ISR induced by PGPR in plants, only a few biochemical studies have associated the protective effect with specific host metabolic changes. Results In this study, we showed the protective effect of this bacterium in tomato against Botrytis cinerea. Following treatment by P. putida BTP1, analyses of acid-hydrolyzed leaf extracts showed an accumulation of antifungal material after pathogen infection. The fungitoxic compounds thus mainly accumulate as conjugates from which active aglycones may be liberated through the activity of hydrolytic enzymes. These results suggest that strain BTP1 can elicit systemic phytoalexin accumulation in tomato as one defence mechanism. On another hand, we have shown that key enzymes of the lipoxygenase pathway are stimulated in plants treated with the bacteria as compared with control plants. Interestingly, this stimulation is observed only after pathogen challenge in agreement with the priming concept almost invariably associated with the ISR phenomenon. Conclusion Through the demonstration of phytoalexin accumulation and LOX pathway stimulation in tomato, this work provides new insights into the diversity of defence mechanisms that are inducible by non-pathogenic bacteria in the context of ISR.

Akram, Adam; Ongena, Marc; Duby, Franceline; Dommes, Jacques; Thonart, Philippe

2008-01-01

32

Recovery of phenol from aqueous solution by supported liquid membrane using vegetable oils as liquid membrane.  

PubMed

The transport of phenol through a flat sheet supported liquid membrane (SLM) containing vegetable oil as liquid membrane (LM) has been investigated. The permeation of phenol was investigated by varying the experimental conditions like, selection of LM, support material, feed phase pH, stripping solution concentration, stirring speed and different initial concentration of phenol. It has been found that, each LM investigated in the present study shows the effective removal of phenol using polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membrane and PP supported membrane as a solid support. Among the various oils tested, palm oil has chosen to be the best LM with permeability of 8.5x10(-6) m/s in acidic feed of pH 2.0 with 0.2 M sodium hydroxide as effective stripping agent. After 6 h all the phenol from the feed side gets transported to strip solution with an initial concentration of 100 mg/L. A concentration factor of five has been achieved in the present investigation easily with 0.2 M sodium hydroxide as stripping reagent. After 10 transport studies with one impregnation of LM, the LM showed no significant loss in the transport rate with average permeability of 7.9x10(-6) m/s with initial concentration 100 mg/L. Further study has also been attempted with cresols to explore the possibility of applying this to industrial wastewater under the optimized conditions for phenol. After 14 h of the transport studies in the phenol-formaldehyde industry wastewater, phenolic concentration in the feed solution was found to be below detectable level (1x10(-2) mg/L). For wood processing industry wastewater the transport takes place at the initial permeability of 7.1x10(-5) m/s. Thus it has been demonstrated the use of renewable, cheap, non toxic, naturally occurring vegetable oils as a novel, green liquid membrane for the recovery of phenol from aqueous solution in SLM, which has never been employed before in liquid membrane techniques. PMID:16236443

Venkateswaran, P; Palanivelu, K

2005-10-19

33

Ionic liquid based hollow fiber supported liquid phase microextraction of ultraviolet filters.  

PubMed

Hollow fiber protected liquid phase microextraction using an ionic liquid as supported phase and acceptor phase (IL-HF-LPME) is proposed for the determination of four ultraviolet (UV) filters (benzophenone, 3-(4-methylbenzylidene)-camphor, 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone and 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone) in water samples for the first time. In the present study, four different ILs 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate) [HMIM][FAP], 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate [BMPL][FAP], 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium phosphate ([BMIM][PO(4)]) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([BMIM][PF(6)]) were evaluated as extraction solvent. Only [HMIM][FAP] showed high chemical affinity to the analytes which permits a selective isolation of the UV filters from the sample matrix, allowing also their preconcentration. IL-HF-LPME and high performance liquid chromatography provides repeatability from 1.1% to 8.2% and limits of detection between 0.3 and 0.5 ng/ml. Real water samples spiked with the analytes extracted were analyzed, and yielded relative recoveries ranging from 82.6% to 105.9%. PMID:22307149

Ge, Dandan; Lee, Hian Kee

2012-01-10

34

Effects of Membrane Parameters on Performance of Vapor Permeation through a Composite Supported Liquid Membrane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Support liquid membranes have been used in air dehumidification due to their inherent high mass transfer rates. In this study, the effects of membrane structural parameters on vapor permeation through a LiCl solution based supported liquid membrane are investigated. To aid in the analysis, a mass transfer model has been proposed for moisture transfer through the membrane, which is composed

2006-01-01

35

Modification of supports with liquid phases by thermal treatment in a closed system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diatomaceous earth type supports are modified with a liquid phase, by high-temperature thermal treatment in a closed system. It is shown that the retention characteristics of the support changes by this treatment. The main advantage of this method, as compared with modification in a flow-through system is that liquid phase evaporation and possibility of oxydation during the process can be

N. D. Petsev; G. I. Pekov; M. D. Alexandrova; Chr Dimitrov

1985-01-01

36

Hyperhydricity and flavonoid content of Scutellaria species in vitro on polyester-supported liquid culture systems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Three Scutellaria species (Scutellaria lateriflora, S. costaricana and S. baicalensis) were grown in different in vitro physical environments: agar, liquid culture, and liquid culture with fiber-supported paper (with initial media volumes of 20 mL and 30 mL). During an eight-week time course, tiss...

37

Gas separations using non-hexafluorophosphate [PF 6] ? anion supported ionic liquid membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previously, we reported on using Room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) in place of traditional solvents for supported liquid membranes to take advantage of their unique properties. This previous work used RTILs with the hexafluorophosphate [PF6]? anion. However, the [PF6]? anion in the presence of water can break down into HF. In the current work, we studied RTIL-membranes made from the

Paul Scovazzo; Jesse Kieft; Daniel A Finan; Carl Koval; Dan DuBois; Richard Noble

2004-01-01

38

In situ radiological characterization to support a test excavation at a liquid waste disposal site  

SciTech Connect

An in situ radiological detection system was developed to support a small test excavation at a liquid waste disposal site at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. Instrumentation, calibration and comparisons to samples are discussed.

Keele, B.D.; Bauer, R.G.; Blewett, G.R.; Troyer, G.L.

1994-05-01

39

Management of flabby ridges using liquid supported denture: a case report  

PubMed Central

Flabby ridges commonly occur in edentulous patients. Inadequate retention and stability of a complete denture are the often encountered problems in these patients. A liquid supported denture due to its flexible tissue surface allows better distribution of stress and hence provides an alternate treatment modality in such cases. This case report presents the use of a liquid supported denture in a patient with completely edentulous maxillary arch with flabby tissue in anterior region opposing a partially edentulous mandibular arch.

Aras, Meena Ajay; Chitre, Vidya

2011-01-01

40

Carbon dioxide separation through supported ionic liquids membranes in polymeric matrixes  

SciTech Connect

As compared to other gas separation techniques, membranes have several advantages which can include low capital cost, relatively low energy usage and scalability. While it could be possible to synthesize the ideal polymer for membrane separation of carbon dioxide from fuel gas, it would be very intensive in terms of money and time. Supported liquid membranes allow the researcher to utilize the wealth of knowledge available on liquid properties. Ionic liquids, which can be useful in capturing CO2 from fuel gas because they posses high CO2 solubility in the ionic liquid relative to H2, are an excellent candidate for this type of membrane. Ionic liquids are not susceptible to evaporation due to their negligible vapor pressure and thus eliminate the main problem typically seen with supported liquid membranes. A study has been conducted evaluating the use of the ionic liquid 1-hexyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bis(trifuoromethylsulfonyl)imide in supported ionic liquid membranes for the capture of CO2 from streams containing H2. In a joint project, the ionic liquid was synthesized and characterized at the University of Notre Dame, incorporated into a polymeric matrix, and tested at the National Energy Technology Laboratory. Initial results have been very promising with calculated CO2 permeabilities as high as 950 barrers and significant improvements in CO2/H2 selectivity over the unmodified polymer at 37 oC along with promising results at elevated temperatures. In addition to performance, the study included examining the choice of polymeric supports on performance and membrane stability in more realistic operating conditions. Also included in this study was an evaluation of novel approaches to incorporate the ionic liquid into polymer matrices to optimize the performance and stability of the membranes.

Ilconich, J.B.; Luebke, D.R.; Myers, C.R.; Pennline, H.W

2006-09-01

41

Fabrication of a lithium chloride solution based composite supported liquid membrane and its moisture permeation analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel composite supported liquid membrane has been prepared for ventilation air moisture recovery. The membrane is composed of three layers: two hydrophobic protective layers and a sandwiched hydrophilic support layer in which LiCl solution is immobilized to facilitate water vapor transfer. A test is conducted to measure the moisture permeation rate through the composite membrane. Various resistances in the

Li-Zhi Zhang

2006-01-01

42

SEPARATION PROPERTIES OF SURFACE MODIFIED SILICA SUPPORTED LIQUID MEMBRANES FOR DIVALENT METAL REMOVAL/RECOVERY  

EPA Science Inventory

The synthesis and separation properties of a mesoporous silica supported liquid membrane (SLM) were studied. The membranes consisted of a silica layer, from dip-coated colloidal silica, on a a-alumina support, modified with DCDMS (dichlorodimethyl silane) to add surface methyl g...

43

Technique of supported liquid membranes (SLMs) for the facilitated transport of vanadium ions (VO 2 +)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two supported liquid membranes (SLMs) containing two different carriers but formed by the same polymer support polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) and the same organic phase (xylene), were used to realize the facilitated transport of vanadium ions (VO2+) from the concentrated acid solutions. The SLM support was a micro porous PVDF polymer film of thickness 100µm with pore size 0.45µm which has

M. Hor; A. Riad; A. Benjjar; L. Lebrun; M. Hlaïbi

2010-01-01

44

An experimental study of gas transport and separation properties of ionic liquids supported on nanofiltration membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Permeability of gas molecules H2, O2, N2, and CO in four types of ionic liquids ([C4-mim][NTf2], [C10-mim][NTf2], [N8881][NTf2], [C8Py][NTf2]) with a common anion but different cations supported on nanofiltration membranes was studied in single gas feed and under varying gas phase pressure. The separation property in terms of H2\\/CO selectivity in the selected ionic liquids was examined in binary gas

Quan Gan; David Rooney; Minliang Xue; Gillian Thompson; Yiran Zou

2006-01-01

45

Modeling of the mass transfer rates of metal ions across supported liquid membranes. 1: Theory  

SciTech Connect

This paper deals with the modeling of the transport and separation of metal ions across supported liquid membranes. The mass transfer resistance at the liquid-membrane interfaces and the interfacial chemical reactions at both the extracting side and the stripping side are taken into account in the model equations. Simple analysis of the time scale of the system shows the influence of various important parameters and their interactions on the overall transport rate. Parametric studies are also dealt with in this paper.

Elhassadi, A.A. [Univ. of Garyounis, Benghazi (Libyan Arab Jamahiriya). Dept. of Chemistry; Do, D.D. [Univ. of Queensland, St. Lucia (Australia). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1999-01-01

46

Liquid-Supported Dentures: A Soft Option--A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Liquid-supported denture technique allows continued adaptation of denture to the mucosa both at resting and functional state. A complete denture prosthesis is unacceptable if it violates the foundation on which it rests. In this case, a technique for fabrication of a complete denture prosthesis that eliminates the disadvantages of tissue conditioners and soft liners (i.e., poor bond strength to acrylic, candidal colonization, etc.) and preserves the remaining tissues is described. Liquid-supported denture can be a permanent solution to some patients with problematic conditions like diabetes, xerostomia, atrophied ridge, and so forth.

Jain, Anoop; Puranik, Shivakumar; Jagadeesh, M. S.; Kattimani, Puttaraj; Akki, Savita; Kumar, Pawan; laxmi', Vijaya

2013-01-01

47

Spectroscopic studies of amino acid ionic liquid-supported Schiff bases.  

PubMed

Amino acid ionic liquid-supported Schiff bases, derivatives of salicylaldehyde and various amino acids (L-threonine, L-valine, L-leucine, L-isoleucine and L-histidine) have been investigated by means of various spectroscopic techniques (NMR, UV-Vis, IR, MS) and deuterium isotope effects on ¹³C-NMR chemical shifts. The results have shown that in all studied amino acid ionic liquid-supported Schiff bases (except the L-histidine derivative) a proton transfer equilibrium exists and the presence of the COO? group stabilizes the proton transferred NH-form. PMID:23629755

Ossowicz, Paula; Janus, Ewa; Schroeder, Grzegorz; Rozwadowski, Zbigniew

2013-04-29

48

Theories to support method development in comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography--a review.  

PubMed

On-line comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography techniques promise to resolve samples that current one-dimensional liquid chromatography methods cannot adequately deal with. To make full use of the potential of two-dimensional liquid chromatography, optimization is required. Optimization of two-dimensional liquid chromatography is a relatively new yet important research topic the aim of which is to predict combinations of stationary and mobile phases, column formats, and chromatographic conditions that maximize resolving power and minimize analysis time. In on-line two-dimensional liquid chromatography, dilution-related issues play also an important role and these should be taken into account when developing optimization strategies. In this work, state-of-the-art strategies that support method development for on-line two-dimensional liquid chromatography through a rigorous choice of chromatographic parameters are critically reviewed. The final aim is to provide practitioners with a clear understanding of which aspects can be optimized using current on-line two-dimensional liquid chromatography strategies (and which ones cannot). In two-dimensional liquid chromatography, maximizing resolving power for a given analysis time and dilution requires optimizing efficiency, selectivity and retention. While great strides forward have been made in the optimization of efficiency-related issues, considerable effort needs still to be made in terms of (1) developing models that can predict the retention factors that given stationary/mobile phase systems can provide and (2) using this information for choosing the two ones that maximize two-dimensional liquid chromatography orthogonality. Because of this limitation, in two-dimensional liquid chromatography, this aspect is typically dealt with a posteriori through examining chromatograms. This review clearly shows that important progress in the optimization of on-line two-dimensional liquid chromatography has recently been made. PMID:22807354

Bedani, Filippo; Schoenmakers, Peter J; Janssen, Hans-Gerd

2012-07-01

49

EXTRACTION OF Cd(II) FROM AQUEOUS NITRATE SOLUTION BY THERMOSENSITIVE GEL CROSSLINKED WITH 2,6DI(3-VINYLBENZYL-1,2,4- TRIAZOL-5-YL)PYRIDINE (BTP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A poly-N-isopropylacrylamide (poly-NIPA) gel crosslinked with 2,6-di(3-vinylbenzyl-1,2,4-triazol-5-yl)pyridine (BTP) was prepared by the ultrasonic polymerization technique and the extraction of Cd(II) from an aqueous nitrate solution was tested. The BTP-NIPA gel showed phase transition phenomena, in which the gel was shrunken at temperature higher than the phase transition temperature (304 K) and swollen at less than 304 K. The extraction capacity

Kenji Takeshita; Motoki Tanaka; Yoshio Nakano

2002-01-01

50

L'adaptation au secteur spatial d'une méthode de gestion prévisionnelle de projets issue de l'ingénierie du BTP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cette contribution étudie une tentative d'adaptation de pratiques de gestion prévisionnelle de projets d'ingénierie de précontrainte du BTP à un programme spatial scientifique. Une telle démarche s'inscrit dans la problématique plus générale et non résolue de la maitrise des couts des grands projets de haute technologie. Le processus décrit se focalise sur la question de l'anticipation des coûts. L'actualisation des

Christophe Belleval

2004-01-01

51

Some Methods for Human Liquid and Solid Waste Utilization in Bioregenerative Life-Support Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioregenerative life-support systems (BLSS) are studied for developing the technology for a future biological life-support\\u000a system for long-term manned space missions. Ways to utilize human liquid and solid wastes to increase the closure degree of\\u000a BLSS were investigated. First, urine and faeces underwent oxidation by Kudenko’s physicochemical method. The products were\\u000a then used for root nutrition of wheat grown by

S. A. Ushakova; I. G. Zolotukhin; A. A. Tikhomirov; N. A. Tikhomirova; Yu. A. Kudenko; I. V. Gribovskaya; Yu. Balnokin; J. B. Gros

2008-01-01

52

SEPARATION OF ACTINIDES AND LANTHANIDES FROM ACIDIC NUCLEAR WASTES BY SUPPORTED LIQUID MEMBRANES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supported liquid membranes, SLM, consisting of a solution of 0.25 M octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) and 0.75 ? tributylphosphate (TBP) in decalin absorbed on thin micropocous polypropylene supports, have been studied for their ability to perform selective separations and concentrations of actinide and lanthanide ions from synthetic acidic nuclear wastes. The permeability coefficients of selected actinides (Am, Pu, U, Np) and

P. R. Danesi; R. Chiarizia; P. Rickert; E. P. Horwitz

1985-01-01

53

Comparison of Copper Speciation in Estuarine Water Measured Using Analytical Voltammetry and Supported Liquid Membrane Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

The supported liquid membrane (SLM) is a promising separation and preconcentration technique that is well- suited for trace metal speciation in natural waters. The technique is based on the selective complexation of metal ions by a hydrophobic ligand (carrier) dissolved in a water- immiscible organic solvent immobilized in a porous, inert membrane. This membrane separates two aqueous solutions: the test

KURIA N DUNGU; MATTHEW P. H URST; KENNETH W. B RULAND

2005-01-01

54

Transport of chromium (VI) through a Cyanex 923–xylene flat-sheet supported liquid membrane  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present investigation deals with carrier-facilitated membrane transport of chromium (VI) from chloride media across a flat-sheet supported liquid membrane (FSSLM) using as organic reagent the phosphine oxide, Cyanex 923. The permeation of Cr (VI) has been studied under various experimental conditions: stirring speed of the source phase, initial metal and carrier concentrations, organic phase diluent, HCl concentration in the

F. J. Alguacil; A. G. Coedo; M. T. Dorado

2000-01-01

55

Supported liquid membrane extraction of 17? ? ? ?- estradiol and its metabolites in a variety of biological matrices  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sample purification and enrichment technique involving the use of supported liquid membrane (SLM) has been developed for the selective extraction of 17? ? ? ?- estradiol and its metabolites, namely 17? ? ? ?-estriol and estrone in various biological matrices and water. The biological matrices in which extraction was done included bovine kidney and liver tissues, milk and urine.

Titus A. M. Msagati; Mathew M. Nindi

56

Recovery of Plutonium From Analytical Laboratory Waste Using Hollow Fibre Supported Liquid Membrane Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plutonium from analytical laboratory waste was recovered on litres scale using Hollow Fibre Supported Liquid Membrane (HFSLM) technique using 30% TBP\\/n-dodecane as the carrier. The technique is faster, gives lower radiation exposure to the working personnel and generates lower volume of secondary waste as compared to traditional precipitation \\/ ion-exchange technique. The recovery of plutonium was carried out in two

S. A. Ansari; S. Chaudhury; P. K. Mohapatra; S. K. Aggarwal; V. K. Manchanda

2012-01-01

57

Supported ionic liquid membranes for removal of dioxins from high-temperature vapor streams.  

PubMed

Dioxins and dioxin-like chemicals are predominantly produced by thermal processes such as incineration and combustion at concentrations in the range of 10-100 ng of I-TEQ/kg (I-TEQ = international toxic equivalents). In this work, a new approach for the removal of dioxins from high-temperature vapor streams using facilitated supported ionic liquid membranes (SILMs) is proposed. The use of ceramic membranes containing specific ionic liquids, with extremely low volatility, for dioxin removal from incineration sources is proposed owing to their stability at very high temperatures. Supported liquid membranes were prepared by successfully immobilizing the ionic liquids tri-C(8)-C(10)-alkylmethylammonium dicyanamide ([Aliquat][DCA]) and 1-n-octyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide ([Omim][DCA]) inside the porous structure of ceramic membranes. The porous inorganic membranes tested were made of titanium oxide (TiO(2)), with a nominal pore size of 30 nm, and aluminum oxide (Al(2)O(3)), with a nominal pore size of 100 nm. The ionic liquids were characterized, and the membrane performance was assessed for the removal of dioxins. Different materials (membrane pore size, type of ionic liquid, and dioxin) and different operating conditions (temperature and flow rate) were tested to evaluate the efficiency of SILMs for dioxin removal. All membranes prepared were stable at temperatures up to 200 °C. Experiments with model incineration gas were also carried out, and the results obtained validate the potential of using ceramic membranes with immobilized ionic liquids for the removal of dioxins from high-temperature vapor sources. PMID:22087544

Kulkarni, Prashant S; Neves, Luisa A; Coelhoso, Isabel M; Afonso, Carlos A M; Crespo, João G

2011-11-30

58

Carbon Dioxide Selective Supported Ionic Liquid Membranes: The Effect of Contaminants  

SciTech Connect

The integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) is widely viewed as a promising technology for the large scale production of energy in a carbon constrained world. These cycles, which include gasification, contaminant removal, water-gas shift, CO2 capture and compression, and combustion of the reduced-carbon fuel gas in a turbine, often have significant efficiency advantages over conventional combustion technologies. A CO2 selective membrane capable of maintaining performance at conditions approaching those of low temperature water-gas shift (260oC) could facilitate the production of carbon-neutral energy by simultaneously driving the shift reaction to completion and concentrating CO2 for sequestration. Supported ionic liquid membranes (SILMs) have been previously evaluated for this application and determined to be physically and chemically stable to temperatures in excess of 300oC. These membranes were based on ionic liquids which interacted physically with CO2 and diminished considerably in selectivity at higher temperatures. To alleviate this problem, the original ionic liquids were replaced with ionic liquids able to form chemical complexes with CO2. These complexing ionic liquid membranes have a local maximum in selectivity which is observed at increasing temperatures for more stable complexes. Efforts are currently underway to develop ionic liquids with selectivity maxima at temperatures greater than 75oC, the best result to date, but other practical concerns must also be addressed if the membrane is to be realistically expected to function under water-gas shift conditions. A CO2 selective membrane must function not only at high temperature, but also in the presence of all the reactants and contaminants likely to be present in coal-derived fuel gas, including water, CO, and H2S. A study has been undertaken which examines the effects of each of these gases on both complexing and physically interacting supported liquid membranes. In a joint project, researchers at the University of Notre Dame synthesized and characterized ionic liquids, and researchers at the National Energy Technology Laboratory incorporated candidate ionic liquids into supports and evaluated the resulting materials for membrane performance.

Luebke, D.R.; Ilconich, J.B.; Myers, C.R.; Pennline, H.W.

2008-04-01

59

Methods to improve supports of class I piping for elevated temperature liquid metal breeder reactor operation  

SciTech Connect

In the design of French liquid metal breeder reactors, the secondary sodium piping is very important. It connects the intermediate heat exchangers to the steam generators. It has a large length-to radius ratio (for each branch L/R > 200), a large radius-to-thickness ratio (R/t > 30), and must accommodate severe thermal expansion, seismic loads and a pressure pulse due to a water-sodium reaction in the steam generator. The purpose of this paper is to study a possibility to replace the initial set of supports of a hot branch of the intermediate circuit by a more economical and reliable set of supports. A method of designing the supports is proposed based upon the specifity of each load applied to the piping system. Results of the initial support design are discussed and compared with those predicted for the new support design.

Baylac, G.; Larabi, M.

1982-01-01

60

Determination of phthalate ester plasticizers in the aquatic environment using hollow fibre supported liquid membranes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phthalates are known to be carcinogenic, teratogenic as well as endocrine disruptors. The potential risk to human and animals health generated from them has drawn great attention all over the world. Hollow fibre supported liquid membrane (HFSLM) online with high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to determine benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and Diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) in wastewater. Toluene, di-n-hexyl ether and undecane were used as liquid barriers separating both donor (sample) and acceptor phase. Toluene performed much better than undecane and was used in sample preparation. The presence of toluene showed the potential for the enrichment and removal of phthalates to the concentrations ranges from 0 to 1.7 mg L-1.

Mtibe, A.; Msagati, Titus A. M.; Mishra, Ajay K.; Mamba, Bhekie B.

61

Ignition Capsules with Aerogel-Supported Liquid DT Fuel For The National Ignition Facility  

SciTech Connect

For high repetition-rate fusion power plant applications, capsules with aerogel-supported liquid DT fuel can have much reduced fill time compared to {beta}-layering a solid DT fuel layer. The melting point of liquid DT can be lowered once liquid DT is embedded in an aerogel matrix, and the DT vapor density is consequently closer to the desired density for optimal capsule design requirement. We present design for NIF-scale aerogel-filled capsules based on 1-D and 2-D simulations. An optimal configuration is obtained when the outer radius is increased until the clean fuel fraction is within 65-75% at peak velocity. A scan (in ablator and fuel thickness parameter space) is used to optimize the capsule configurations. The optimized aerogel-filled capsule has good low-mode robustness and acceptable high-mode mix.

Ho, D D; Salmonson, J D; Clark, D S; Lindl, J D; Haan, S W; Amendt, P; Wu, K J

2011-10-25

62

High-Throughput Screening of Drugs of Abuse in Urine by Supported Liquid–Liquid Extraction and UHPLC Coupled to Tandem MS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A qualitative method, involving supported liquid–liquid extraction (SLE) and ultra high pressure liquid chromatography coupled\\u000a to tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS–MS), was developed for the rapid tentative identification of various drugs of abuse\\u000a in urine. In this study, 28 drugs and metabolites were covered by the screening procedure. Before analysis, urine samples\\u000a were extracted by SLE and good extraction recoveries were

Aubert Maquille; Davy Guillarme; Serge Rudaz; Jean-Luc Veuthey

2009-01-01

63

Separation of L-valine from fermentation broths using a supported liquid membrane.  

PubMed

A carrier-mediated counter transport process is proposed to separate and to purify an amino acid produced by microbial fermentation. The case of L-valine permeation through a liquid membrane, constituted by a solution of Aliquat 336 in decanol and supported by a hydrophobic microporous membrane, is reported. A mathematical model was developed to estimate distribution coefficients and permeabilities and to predict the influence of hydrodynamic and pH conditions on supported liquid membrane (SLM) performances. Optimum conditions for the transport and the concentration of valine were achieved with synthetic aqueous valine solutions. Series of experiments on fermentation broths, where molasses and biomass contents were varied, permitted pointing out the role of the broth composition on the kinetics and yields of separation. The selectivity of transport of valine by an Aliquat 336/decanol liquid membrane was about 10 toward molasses dyes, 100 toward glucose, and beyond 1000 toward sucrose. This allowed us to achieve the recovery and one step of purification of the product in a single operation. The stability of the Aliquat 336/decanol liquid membrane was sufficient to ensure a selective transport of valine during a continuous run lasting 18 days. PMID:18592501

Deblay, P; Minier, M; Renon, H

1990-01-20

64

Supported Room Temperature Ionic Liquid Membranes for CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} Separation  

SciTech Connect

Room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) are organic salts which are liquid at or around room temperature. These compounds exhibit many outstanding physical properties such as great thermal stability and no measurable vapor pressure. In this work supported ionic liquid membranes (SILMs) were prepared by impregnating pores of ?-alumina inorganic supports with various ionic liquids. In addition to membranes prepared with pure RTILs we were able to synthesize membranes with RTIL mixtures using 1-aminopyridinium iodide dissolved in 1-butyl-4-methylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate or methyltrioctylammonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide. This combination of an RTIL with an organic salt containing an amine group dramatically improved the membrane separation properties. The SILMs displayed CO{sub 2} permeance on the order of 5 × 10{sup ?10} to 5 × 10{sup ?9} mol m{sup ?2} s{sup ?1} Pa{sup ?1} combined with CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} selectivity of 5–30. Although these values are comparable with the current systems for CO{sub 2} purification, CO{sub 2} permeance is still rather low for these compounds.

Iarikov, D. D.; Hacarlioglu, P.; Oyama, S. T.

2011-01-01

65

Facilitated supported liquid membrane transport of gold (I) and gold (III) using Cyanex ® 921  

Microsoft Academic Search

The commercially available extractant Cyanex® 921 (phosphine oxide) was studied to be applied in the carrier-facilitated transport of gold (I) (cyanide media) and gold (III) (chloride media), across a flat-sheet supported liquid membrane (FSSLM). Gold (I) is transported from alkaline pH values. The presence of lithium salts in the aqueous media improves the transport. In chloride media, the carrier is

F. J. Alguacil; M. Alonso; A. M. Sastre

2005-01-01

66

Carbohydrate–resorcinarene complexes involved in the facilitated transport of alditols across a supported liquid membrane  

Microsoft Academic Search

A supported liquid membrane (SLM) containing a resorcinarene carrier has been used for the selective transports of arabinitol and perseitol from concentrated aqueous solutions (0.2–0.025M). Maltitol and lactitol, two alditols derived from disaccharides, were also studied. The membrane is made of a microporous poly(tetrafluoroethylene) film impregnated with a 0.01M solution of the carrier in CCl4. The permeabilities of the SLM

Miloudi Hlaïbi; Nabila Tbeur; Abdelkhalek Benjjar; Oussama Kamal; Laurent Lebrun

2011-01-01

67

An Efficient and Recyclable Ionic Liquid-Supported Proline Catalyzed Knoevenagel Condensation  

PubMed Central

The Knoevenagel condensation reaction of aldehydes with malononitrile was described in this study, which was catalyzed by an efficient and recyclable ionic liquid-supported proline. The method represented an attractive alternative to the classical synthesis strategies and exhibited the advantage of performing homogeneous chemistry on a large scale additionally avoided large excesses of reagents. The products were obtained in good yields and reasonable purities without the need for further chromatographic purification. Moreover, the catalyst could be reused for at least four times.

Zhuo, Chen; Xian, Dong; Jian-wei, Wu; Hui, Xie

2011-01-01

68

Coupled Transport of Zr(IV) through Tri-n-butylphosphate-Xylene-Based Supported Liquid Membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transport of Zr(IV) through tri-n-butylphosphate-xylene-based liquid membranes, supported in a polypropylene hydrophobic microporous film, has been studied. The concentration of HNO3 in the feed solution and tri-n-butylphosphate (TBP) carrier in the membrane were varied, and the flux and permeability coefficients were determined. The optimum conditions found for maximum flux were determined to be 10 mol\\/dm HNO3 and 2.93 mol\\/dm

M. Ashraf Chaudry; M. Tayyib Malik; Kaleem Hussain

1989-01-01

69

Facilitated Transport of Naphthalene Derivatives through a Supported Liquid Membrane Containing a Water-Soluble Cyclophane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyclophane-mediated transport of two- or three-ring aromatic compounds across aqueous supported liquid membranes (SLMs) was investigated. SLMs containing water-soluble cyclophanes, OCP44 and 66, exhibited facilitated transport for aromatic compounds but not for aliphatic compounds. The flux of 2,6-dimethylnaphthalene was decreased with an increase of membrane thickness, indicating that the rate-determining step of the present cyclophane-mediated transport is the diffusion process

TOSHIO SHINBO; YOSHIHITO SHIMABUKURO; TOMOHIKO YAMAGUCHI

2000-01-01

70

Modification of nanoporous supported lyotropic liquid crystal polymer membranes by atomic layer deposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supported type I bicontinuous cubic (QI) lyotropic liquid crystal (LLC) polymer membranes with a 3D-interconnected porous structure and an effective pore size of 0.75nm were modified by alumina atomic layer deposition (ALD). The ALD-modified polymer membranes have an effective pore size smaller than 0.55nm and show promise for gas separations. With 10 cycles of alumina ALD coating, the selectivity of

Xinhua Liang; Xiaoyun Lu; Miao Yu; Andrew S. Cavanagh; Douglas L. Gin; Alan W. Weimer

2010-01-01

71

Hollow fiber based supported liquid membrane: a novel analytical system for trace metal analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new versatile tool for speciation of trace metals, in particular Cu, Pb and Cd based on a hollow fiber supported liquid membrane (HFSLM) consisting of 1,10-didecyl diaza 18-crown-6, fatty acid and a mixture of toluene and phenylhexane (1 + 1) has been studied for application in natural water conditions. Two types of single hollow fiber modules i.e. non flow

N. Parthasarathy; M. Pelletier; J. Buffle

1997-01-01

72

Facilitated supported liquid-membrane transport of gold(I) using LIX 79 in cumene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The permeation of gold(I), as Au(CN)2?, through supported liquid membrane (LM) impregnated with LIX 79 (guanidine derivative) in cumene has been studied. A model is reported describing the transport mechanism which consists of (a) diffusion process through the feed aqueous diffusion layer, (b) fast interfacial chemical reaction and (c)diffusion through the membrane. The mathematical equations describing the rate of permeation

A. M. Sastre; A. Madi; F. J. Alguacil

2000-01-01

73

Detection of organophosphorous nerve agents using liquid crystals supported on chemically functionalized surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report use of thin films of the nematic liquid crystal E7 supported on chemically functionalized surfaces to indicate the presence of vapors of the organophosphorous nerve agents sarin (GB), soman (GD), tabun (GA) and VX. The surfaces were prepared by the deposition of metal perchlorate salts onto carboxylic acid-terminated self-assembled monolayers. When using surfaces prepared from aluminum perchlorate salts,

Katie D. Cadwell; Nathan A. Lockwood; Barbara A. Nellis; Mahriah E. Alf; Colin R. Willis; Nicholas L. Abbott

2007-01-01

74

A supported polymeric liquid membrane process for removal of carboxylic acids from a waste stream  

SciTech Connect

The removal or elimination of organic residues from aqueous waste streams represents a major need in the chemical industry. The authors have developed a new class of membrane called supported polymeric liquid membranes that are capable of removing and concentrating low molecular weight organic compounds from dilute aqueous solutions, especially those that also contain high concentrations of inorganic salts. Attractive features of this membrane process include the ability to recover the contaminants in concentrated form for either recycle or more economical disposal, low pressure (ambient) operation, simple scale-up using commercial hollow fiber modules, and ease of in-situ regeneration of the polymeric liquid. The process has shown treatment feasibility for several types of aqueous waste streams. This paper describes the laboratory development activities for treating a waste stream containing a dilute mixture of C2-C6 carboxylic acids and nitric acid.

Ho, S.V.

1999-12-31

75

An application of supported liquid membranes for removal of inorganic contaminants from groundwater  

SciTech Connect

This review paper summarizes the results of an investigation on teh use of supported liquid membranes for the removal of uranium (VI) and some anionic contaminants (technetium(VII), chromium(VI) and nitrates) from the Hanford site groundwater. As a membrane carrier for U(VI), bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)phosphinic acid was selected because of its high selectivity over calcium and magnesium. The water soluble complexing agent 1-hydroxyethane-1,1-diphosphonic acid was used as stripping agent. For the anionic contaminants the long-chain aliphatic amines Primene JM-T (primary)., Amberlite LA-1 (secondary) and trilaurylamine (tertiary) were investigated as membrane carriers. Among these amines, Amberlite LA-2 proved to be the most effective carrier for the simultaneous removal of the investigated anion contaminants. A good long-term stability (at least one month) of the liquid membranes was obtained, especially in the uranium(VI) removal. 8 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

Chiarizia, R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Horwitz, E.P. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Hodgson, K.M. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1991-12-31

76

An application of supported liquid membranes for removal of inorganic contaminants from groundwater  

SciTech Connect

This review paper summarizes the results of an investigation on teh use of supported liquid membranes for the removal of uranium (VI) and some anionic contaminants (technetium(VII), chromium(VI) and nitrates) from the Hanford site groundwater. As a membrane carrier for U(VI), bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)phosphinic acid was selected because of its high selectivity over calcium and magnesium. The water soluble complexing agent 1-hydroxyethane-1,1-diphosphonic acid was used as stripping agent. For the anionic contaminants the long-chain aliphatic amines Primene JM-T (primary)., Amberlite LA-1 (secondary) and trilaurylamine (tertiary) were investigated as membrane carriers. Among these amines, Amberlite LA-2 proved to be the most effective carrier for the simultaneous removal of the investigated anion contaminants. A good long-term stability (at least one month) of the liquid membranes was obtained, especially in the uranium(VI) removal. 8 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

Chiarizia, R. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States) Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)); Horwitz, E.P. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Hodgson, K.M. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States))

1991-01-01

77

Supported liquid membrane extraction for identification of phenolic compounds in the nutrient solution of closed hydroponic growing systems for tomato  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the present study was to adapt and develop suitable methods to study the occurrence metabolites in the nutrient solution of hydroponically grown tomato. The organic–chemical nature of the nutrient solution from tomato grown in closed hydroponic systems was studied by supported liquid membrane technique (SLM) and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Further, we aimed to identify

V Jung; L Chimuka; J.-Å Jönsson; N Niedack; P Bowens; B Alsanius

2002-01-01

78

SUPPORTED LIX-84 LIQUID MEMBRANES FOR METAL ION SEPARATION: A STUDY ON METAL ION SORPTION EQUILIBRIUM AND KINETICS  

EPA Science Inventory

Supported 2-hydroxy-5-nonyl-acetophenone oxime (LIX-84) liquid membranes have potential applications for the removal (or recovery) of copper ions from waste streams. But, the stability of such a liquid membrane remains the major hurdle for its practical applications. Inorganic su...

79

Rate and mechanism of facilitated americium(III) transport through a supported liquid membrane containing a bifunctional organophosphorus mobile carrier  

Microsoft Academic Search

The facilitated transport of Am(III) from aqueous nitrate solutions to formic acid aqueous solutions through a supported liquid membrane (SLM) is described. The supported liquid membrane consists of a solution of a new (carbamoylmethyl)phosphine oxide in diethylbenzene (DEB) absorbed into a 48 ..mu..m thick microporous polypropylene film. The transport mechanism consists of a diffusion process through an aqueous diffusion film,

P. R. Danesi; E. P. Horwitz; P. G. Rickert

1983-01-01

80

[Carbon dioxide SHF-desorption from liquid regenerated sorbent in a physicochemical human life support system].  

PubMed

Desorption of carbon dioxide from monoethanol ethylene diamine solution with the use of SHF was compared to the thermal technology both in static condition and with a fixed absorbent expenditure. In the static condition, CO2 evacuation by SHF was more complete, without precipitation, and within a short interaction time. With absorbent expenditure and CO2 production rate permanent, SHF desorption occurred at a lower temperature and, therefore, lower absorbed power than the conventional thermal process. Testing demonstrated efficiency of the non-inertial volumetric SHF heating in regeneration of the liquid absorbent charged in physicochemical life support systems for different pressurized habitats. PMID:15500172

Klimarev, S I

81

SUPPORTED LIQUID CATALYSTS FOR REMOVAL OF HIGH TEMPERATURE FUEL CELL CONTAMINANTS  

SciTech Connect

A novel catalytic synthesis gas oxidation process using molten carbonate salts supported on compatible fluidized iron oxide particles (supported-liquid-phase-catalyst (SLPC) fluidized bed process) was investigated. This process combines the advantages of large scale fluidized bed processing with molten salt bath oxidation. Molten salt catalysts can be supported within porous fluidized particles in order to improve mass transfer rates between the liquid catalysts and the reactant gases. Synthesis gas can be oxidized at reduced temperatures resulting in low NO{sub x} formation while trace sulfides and halides are captured in-situ. Hence, catalytic oxidation of synthesis gas can be carried out simultaneously with hot gas cleanup. Such SLPC fluidized bed processes are affected by inter-particle liquid capillary forces that may lead to agglomeration and de-fluidization of the bed. An understanding of the origin and strength of these forces is needed so that they can be overcome in practice. Process design is based on thermodynamic free energy minimization calculations that indicate the suitability of eutectic Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}/K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} mixtures for capturing trace impurities in-situ (< 1 ppm SO{sub x} released) while minimizing the formation of NO{sub x}(< 10 ppm). Iron oxide has been identified as a preferred support material since it is non-reactive with sodium, is inexpensive, has high density (i.e. inertia), and can be obtained in various particle sizes and porosities. Force balance modeling has been used to design a surrogate ambient temperature system that is hydrodynamically similar to the real system, thus allowing complementary investigation of the governing fluidization hydrodynamics. The primary objective of this research was to understand the origin of and to quantify the liquid capillary interparticle forces affecting the molten carbonate SLPC fluidized bed process. Substantial theoretical and experimental exploratory results indicate process feasibility. The potential environmental gain from success is enormous, impacting all areas of the world where coal is burned to supply steam or direct industrial heat. Project success may lead to an integrated combustion system providing for simultaneous catalytic oxidation and hot gas cleanup of raw synthesis gas from an upstream coal gasifier.

Alan W. Weimer (PI); Peter Czerpak; Patrick Hilbert

2000-01-01

82

Direct coupling of supported liquid membranes to capillary electrophoresis for analysis of complex samples: a tutorial.  

PubMed

This tutorial provides an overview of direct coupling of extraction techniques based on supported liquid membranes (SLMs) to capillary electrophoresis (CE) for treatment and subsequent analysis of complex samples. Pros and cons of using each of the described instrumental arrangement are addressed and where relevant, comments with personal experience of the authors are presented. Solid porous membrane based extraction techniques coupled directly to CE are also presented in this tutorial and a comprehensive discussion is included on their instrumental set-ups and their possible adaptation for use with SLMs. PMID:23830417

Kubá?, Pavel; Bo?ek, Petr

2013-05-15

83

Supported Phospholipid Bilayer Defects Created by a Cation or Anion of a Room-Temperature Ionic Liquid  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In this work, the independent effects on a supported phospholipid bilayer (SPB) caused by a cation and anion of a room-temperature ionic liquid (RT-IL) were studied via atomic force microscopy (AFM). The supported phospholipid bilayer was composed only of 1,2-dielaidoylphosphatidylcholine (DEPC) an...

84

Ultra-thin gates for the transport of phenol from supported liquid membranes to permanent surface modified membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on the development of membranes with an ultra-thin hydrophobic layer that can be used to support a liquid membrane or serve as a selective gate without further modification when the pore size is small enough. We use a thin layer of gold deposited on commercially available alumina supports to generate a layer on the surface that can be

Quyen T. H Le; Deborah S Ehler; T. Mark McCleskey; Robert C Dye; David R Pesiri; Gordon D Jarvinen; Nancy N Sauer

2002-01-01

85

Selective permeation of plutonium(IV) through supported liquid membrane containing 2-ethylhexyl 2-ethylhexyl phosphonic acid as ion carrier  

Microsoft Academic Search

The selective transport of plutonium across supported liquid membrane using an indigenously synthesized 2-ethylhexyl 2-ethylhexyl phosphonic acid (KSM-17, equivalent to PC 88A) dissolved in dodecane as carrier has been investigated in this work. Laminar type polypropylene hydrophobic microporous membranes were used as solid supports. Transport experiments were carried out to evaluate the effect of varied hydrodynamic and chemical compositions of

C. S Kedari; S. S Pandit; A Ramanujam

1999-01-01

86

Chromium speciation in natural waters using serially connected supported liquid membranes.  

PubMed

A supported liquid membrane (SLM) method for the speciation of chromium has been developed. The method is based on selective extraction and enrichment of anionic Cr(VI) and cationic Cr(III) species in two serially connected SLM units. Methyltricaprylammonium chloride (Aliquat) and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (DEHPA), respectively were used as the selective extractants in the membrane liquid. Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) was utilised for final determination. Optimised conditions for the DEHPA membrane were, sample solution at pH 3, acceptor solution 0.1 M HNO(3) and 10% w/w carrier in kerosene. The corresponding values for the Aliquat membrane were pH 7, 0.75 M HNO(3) and 6% w/w carrier in di-n-hexylether. This gave extraction efficiencies for Cr(III) and Cr(VI) of 90 and 40%, respectively. The method was used to measure the concentration of Cr III and Cr VI in surface water from an abandoned tannery site. Storage experiments at different pH showed that preservation at neutral pH gave almost constant values over a period of one month. At acidic pH (pH=3.0) the concentration of Cr(VI) decreased rapidly while the concentration of Cr(III) increased. The detection limit, expressed as three times the standard deviation of enriched blank samples was 0.01 microg l(-1). PMID:18967556

Djane, N K; Ndung'u, K; Johnsson, C; Sartz, H; Tornstrom, T; Mathiasson, L

1999-05-01

87

Computational Fluid Dynamics in Support of the SNS Liquid Mercury Thermal-Hydraulic Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Experimental and computational thermal-hydraulic research is underway to support the liquid mercury target design for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) facility. The SNS target will be subjected to internal nuclear heat generation that results from pulsed proton beam collisions with the mercury nuclei. Recirculation and stagnation zones within the target are of particular concern because of the likelihood that they will result in local hot spots and diminished heat removal from the target structure. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models are being used as a part of this research. Recent improvements to the 3D target model include the addition of the flow adapter which joins the inlet/outlet coolant pipes to the target body and an updated heat load distribution at the new baseline proton beam power level of 2 MW. Two thermal-hydraulic experiments are planned to validate the CFD model.

Siman-Tov, M.; Wendel, M.W.; Yoder, G.L.

1999-11-14

88

Size stabilization of surface-supported liquid aerosols using tapered optical fiber coupling.  

PubMed

We demonstrate long-term size stabilization of surface-supported liquid aerosols of salt-water. Single tapered optical fibers were used to couple the light from independent heating and probe lasers into individual microdroplets that were kept on a superhydrophobic surface in a high-humidity chamber. Size stabilization of microdroplets resulted from competition between resonant absorption of the infrared heating laser by a microdroplet whispering gallery mode and water condensation in the sample chamber. Microdroplet size was continuously monitored using the tunable red probe laser. Thanks to the narrow linewidth of the heating laser, stabilization of the 110 ?m radius of a microdroplet with a precision down to 0.54 nm was achieved for a period of 410 s. PMID:23455301

Karadag, Yasin; Jonáš, Alexandr; Kucukkara, Ibrahim; Kiraz, Alper

2013-03-01

89

Purification studies on a thermo-active amidase of Geobacillus pallidus BTP-5x MTCC 9225 isolated from thermal springs of Tatapani (Himachal Pradesh).  

PubMed

An intracellular aliphatic amide degrading inducible thermo-active amidase produced by Geobacillus pallidus BTP-5x MTCC 9225 was purified to apparent homogeneity using anion exchange and gel filtration chromatography, giving a yield of 6.7 % and a specific activity of 30.49 units mg(-1). The purified protein migrated as a single band of estimated molecular mass of 158 kDa (homo-tetramer) in 8 % polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and ?38.5 kDa in 12 % sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Optima of pH and temperature varied widely in broad pH range (pH 6-9) and temperature range (45-70 °C). The purified amidase was stable up to 6 h at 50 °C, with a t (1/2) of 7 h at 55 °C. The multimeric nature of the holozyme (tetramer) contributed to protection of the enzyme against thermal denaturation. The enzyme showed resistance to metal chelating agents (EDTA, 8-hydroxyquinoline, and sodium azide), explaining its non-metallic nature, and is strongly inhibited by thiol reagents that means cysteine is involved in catalysis. The amidase of G. pallidus BTP-5x preferentially hydrolyzed only small aliphatic amides and has a narrow substrate spectrum. The K (M) value for acrylamide is 10.54 mM, V (max) 45.19 ?mol(-1)?min(-1)?mg(-1) protein, and k (cat) 4.29 min(-1). The sequence of amino acids of the purified enzyme MRHGDISSSHDTVGI appears similar to thermophilic amidases. Sequence analysis of the amidase gene showed that the enzyme is 347 amino-acid-long with a molecular weight of 38.4 kDa (as observed in SDS-PAGE), theoretical pI 5.38, and show strong similarity to thermostable amidases, possessing unique restriction sites. PMID:23096998

Sharma, Monica; Sharma, Nitya Nand; Bhalla, Tek Chand

2012-10-25

90

Some methods for human liquid and solid waste utilization in bioregenerative life-support systems.  

PubMed

Bioregenerative life-support systems (BLSS) are studied for developing the technology for a future biological life-support system for long-term manned space missions. Ways to utilize human liquid and solid wastes to increase the closure degree of BLSS were investigated. First, urine and faeces underwent oxidation by Kudenko's physicochemical method. The products were then used for root nutrition of wheat grown by the soil-like substrate culture method. Two means of eliminating sodium chloride, introduced into the irrigation solution together with the products of urine oxidation, were investigated. The first was based on routine electrodialysis of irrigation water at the end of wheat vegetation. Dialysis eliminated about 50% of Na from the solution. This desalinization was performed for nine vegetations. The second method was new: after wheat cultivation, the irrigation solution and the solution obtained by washing the substrate containing mineral elements not absorbed by the plants were used to grow salt-tolerant Salicornia europaea L. plants (saltwort). The above-ground biomass of this plant can be used as a food, and roots can be added to the soil-like substrate. Four consecutive wheat and Salicornia vegetations were cultivated. As a result of this wheat and Salicornia cultivation process, the soil-like substrate salinization by NaCl were considerably decreased. PMID:18581263

Ushakova, S A; Zolotukhin, I G; Tikhomirov, A A; Tikhomirova, N A; Kudenko, Yu A; Gribovskaya, I V; Balnokin, Yu; Gros, J B

2008-06-26

91

Influence of the Sorptive Properties of Zinc Oxide as Support on the Reflected Lightband from Cholesteric Liquid Crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

In previous work, we have found for the first time that, besides the known conditions that influence the selectively reflected lightband from cholesteric liquid crystals. the physical sorptive properties of their supports also influence the reflected wavelengths. Thus, it was possible to differentiate metal oxides with different microstructures, chemically from electrolytically prepared metals, sulfated from not sulfated monument surfaces, and

Th. Skoulikidis; M. Koui; N. Skotaras

1997-01-01

92

Transport of Eu through a Bis(2-ethylhexyl)-phosphoric Acid, n-Dodecane Solid Supported Liquid Membrane  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coupled transport of Eu and H ions through a solid supported liquid membrane consisting of a porous polypropylene film immobilizing an HDEHP solution in n-dodecane has been studied as a function of the membrane area, stirring speed of the aqueous solutions, membrane composition, and acidity of the feed solution. The experimental results are in agreement with predictions derived from

P. R. Danesi; E. P. Horwitz; P. Rickert

1982-01-01

93

An electrochemical gas sensor based on paper supported room temperature ionic liquids.  

PubMed

A sensitive and fast-responding membrane-free amperometric gas sensor is described, consisting of a small filter paper foil soaked with a room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL), upon which three electrodes are screen printed with carbon ink, using a suitable mask. It takes advantage of the high electrical conductivity and negligible vapour pressure of RTILs as well as their easy immobilization into a porous and inexpensive supporting material such as paper. Moreover, thanks to a careful control of the preparation procedure, a very close contact between the RTIL and electrode material can be achieved so as to allow gaseous analytes to undergo charge transfer just as soon as they reach the three-phase sites where the electrode material, paper supported RTIL and gas phase meet. Thus, the adverse effect on recorded currents of slow steps such as analyte diffusion and dissolution in a solvent is avoided. To evaluate the performance of this device, it was used as a wall-jet amperometric detector for flow injection analysis of 1-butanethiol vapours, adopted as the model gaseous analyte, present in headspace samples in equilibrium with aqueous solutions at controlled concentrations. With this purpose, the RTIL soaked paper electrochemical detector (RTIL-PED) was assembled by using 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide as the wicking RTIL and printing the working electrode with carbon ink doped with cobalt(II) phthalocyanine, to profit from its ability to electrocatalyze thiol oxidation. The results obtained were quite satisfactory (detection limit: 0.5 ?M; dynamic range: 2-200 ?M, both referring to solution concentrations; correlation coefficient: 0.998; repeatability: ±7% RSD; long-term stability: 9%), thus suggesting the possible use of this device for manifold applications. PMID:22076475

Dossi, Nicolò; Toniolo, Rosanna; Pizzariello, Andrea; Carrilho, Emanuel; Piccin, Evandro; Battiston, Simone; Bontempelli, Gino

2011-11-10

94

Stability assessment of density reference liquids supported by GC–MS analysis (density reference liquids stability supported by GC–MS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Density measurements are frequently associated to specific requirements to evaluate the quality of a process or to determine mass and\\/or volume of the material. Certified reference liquids can be used to assure metrological traceability of density measurements to the SI with uncertainty lower than 0.005%. This paper presents the new approach of INRIM to set density standards.The procedure involved accurate

Salvatore Lorefice; Elena Amico di Meane; Michela Sega

2010-01-01

95

Thorium ions transport across Tri-n-butyl phosphate-benzene based supported liquid membranes  

SciTech Connect

Transport of Th(IV) ions across tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) benzene based liquid membranes supported in microporous hydrophobic polypropylene film (MHPF) has been studied. Various parameters such as variation of nitric acid concentration in the feed, TBP concentration in the membrane, and temperature on the given metal ions transport have been investigated. The effects of nitric acid and TBP concentrations on the distribution coefficient were also studied, and the data obtained were used to determine the Th ions-TBP complex diffusion coefficient in the membrane. Permeability coefficients of Th(IV) ions were also determined as a function of the TBP and nitric acid concentrations. The optimal conditions for the transport of Th(IV) ions across the membrane are 6 mol{sm_bullet}dm{sup -3} HNO{sub 3} concentration, 2.188 mol {center_dot} dm{sup -3} TBP concentration, and 25{degrees}C. The stoichiometry of the chemical species involved in chemical reaction during the transport of Th(IV) ions has also been studied.

Rasul, G.; Chaudry, M.A. [Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Chemistry, Islamabad (Pakistan); Afzal, M. [Quaid-I-Azam Univ., Islamabad (Pakistan)

1995-12-01

96

Permeation of a fully ionized species across a polarized supported liquid membrane.  

PubMed

An analytical technique for the detection of permeation of a fully ionized analyte across a lipophilic membrane is reported. The system, which is comprised of two aqueous compartments (donor and acceptor) separated by a supported liquid membrane, is based on the parallel artificial membrane permeation assay (PAMPA), widely used in the drug discovery process to estimate permeability in vivo. The in situ spectroelectrochemical method developed here employs mechanical stirring of the solution phases on either side of the membrane, external polarization of the membrane, and in situ detection of the analyte via UV-vis spectrophotometry. The flux of the crystal violet cation across the membrane is simultaneously measured via UV-vis spectrophotometry and voltammetry/chronoamperometry as a function of applied potential. The relative contribution of two permeation modes, i.e., that due to naked ions and ion-pairs, is thereby quantified. The open circuit potential difference between the two aqueous compartments and the cyclic voltammetric response are also recorded as a function of time and compared with the predicted values. PMID:22283849

Velický, Mat?j; Tam, Kin Y; Dryfe, Robert A W

2012-02-22

97

Modeling of the mass transfer rates of metal ions across supported liquid membranes. 2: Comparison between theory and experiment  

SciTech Connect

The model equations developed in Part 1 were tested using experimental data reported in the literature and produced in this work. It was found that uranium(VI) and thorium(IV) can be selectively separated and concentrated using supported liquid membranes. Depending on the way the liquid membranes are designed, the selectivity toward a specific metal can be predetermined. The effect of the ratio of the effective diffusivity to bulk diffusivity in free solution was found to behave with the same characteristic of systems of preferentially adsorbed solutes.

Elhassadi, A.A. [Univ. of Garyounis, Benghazi (Libyan Arab Jamahiriya). Dept. of Chemistry; Do, D.D. [Univ. of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland (Australia). Dept of Chemical Engineering

1999-02-01

98

Ovarian cancer detection from metabolomic liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry data by support vector machines  

PubMed Central

Background The majority of ovarian cancer biomarker discovery efforts focus on the identification of proteins that can improve the predictive power of presently available diagnostic tests. We here show that metabolomics, the study of metabolic changes in biological systems, can also provide characteristic small molecule fingerprints related to this disease. Results In this work, new approaches to automatic classification of metabolomic data produced from sera of ovarian cancer patients and benign controls are investigated. The performance of support vector machines (SVM) for the classification of liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/TOF MS) metabolomic data focusing on recognizing combinations or "panels" of potential metabolic diagnostic biomarkers was evaluated. Utilizing LC/TOF MS, sera from 37 ovarian cancer patients and 35 benign controls were studied. Optimum panels of spectral features observed in positive or/and negative ion mode electrospray (ESI) MS with the ability to distinguish between control and ovarian cancer samples were selected using state-of-the-art feature selection methods such as recursive feature elimination and L1-norm SVM. Conclusion Three evaluation processes (leave-one-out-cross-validation, 12-fold-cross-validation, 52-20-split-validation) were used to examine the SVM models based on the selected panels in terms of their ability for differentiating control vs. disease serum samples. The statistical significance for these feature selection results were comprehensively investigated. Classification of the serum sample test set was over 90% accurate indicating promise that the above approach may lead to the development of an accurate and reliable metabolomic-based approach for detecting ovarian cancer.

Guan, Wei; Zhou, Manshui; Hampton, Christina Y; Benigno, Benedict B; Walker, L DeEtte; Gray, Alexander; McDonald, John F; Fernandez, Facundo M

2009-01-01

99

Influence of Support Geometry and Gravity on the Stability of Liquid Bridges  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental and theoretical investigation of the influence of unequal disk radii combined with axial gravity on the stability boundary of liquid bridges contained between coaxial circular disks has been completed. Experimental work is conducted in an adjustable bouyancy tank such that the Bond number can be varied by changing the density difference between the bridge liquid and the surrounding

Andrew H. Resnick; Lev A. Slobozhanin; J. Iwan D. Alexander

1996-01-01

100

Thermodynamic Data to Support High-Temperature Syngas Quench Design: Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium Calculations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A procedure has been developed, based on a dilute-solution model of the liquid phase and the rigorous viral expansion for the vapor phase, for modeling the vapor-liquid equilibrium between water and a synthetic gas consisting primary of H2, CO, and CO2. C...

A. H. Harvey

2008-01-01

101

Amino acids, iron, and growth rate as key factors influencing production of the Pseudomonas putida BTP1 benzylamine derivative involved in systemic resistance induction in different plants.  

PubMed

The biological control bacterium Pseudomonas putida BTP1 exerts its protective effect mostly by inducing an enhanced state of resistance in the host plant against pathogen attack [induced systemic resistance (ISR)]. We previously reported that a specific compound derived from benzylamine may be involved in the elicitation of the ISR phenomenon by this Pseudomonas strain. In this article, we provide further information about the N,N-dimethyl-N-tetradecyl-N-benzylammonium structure of this determinant for ISR and show that the benzylamine moiety may be important for perception of the molecule by root cells of different plant species. We also investigated some regulatory aspects of elicitor production with the global aim to better understand how in situ expression of these ISR elicitors can be modulated by physiological and environmental factors. The biosynthesis is clearly related to secondary metabolism, and chemostat experiments showed that the molecule is more efficiently produced at low cell growth rate. Interestingly, the presence of free amino acids in the environment is necessary for optimal production, and a specific positive effect of phenylalanine was evidenced in pulsed continuous cultures. The influence of other abiotic factors, such as mineral content, oxygen concentration, or pH, on elicitor production is also reported and discussed with respect to the specific conditions that the producing strain undergoes in the rhizosphere environment. PMID:17597337

Ongena, Marc; Jourdan, Emmanuel; Adam, Akram; Schäfer, Mathias; Budzikiewicz, Herbert; Thonart, Philippe

2007-06-28

102

Synthesis and characterization of heteropolytungstate-ionic liquid supported on the surface of silica coated magnetite nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silica coated magnetic nanoparticles supported ionic liquid, IL-SCMNPs, was prepared by covalent attachment of chloropropyl silyl groups and reacted with 1-methyl imidazole on the surface of the silica coated magnetic nanoparticles. Then, reaction of IL-SCMNPs with H3PW12O40 resulted in the preparation of heteropolytungstate-ionic liquid supported on the surface of silica coated magnetite nanoparticles, PW-IL-SCMNPs. The PW-IL-SCMNPs were characterized with different physicochemical methods such as Fourier transform Infrared and atomic absorption spectroscopies, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), and thermogravimetric analyses. VSM analysis showed superparamagnetic properties of the materials and TEM and SEM analyses indicated the relatively uniform spherical nanoparticles with 20 nm average size. Finally, catalytic activity of the prepared PW-IL-SCMNPs was examined in the epoxidation of olefins with H2O2.

Bagheri, M.; Masteri-Farahani, M.; Ghorbani, M.

2013-02-01

103

Modelling of mass transfer in facilitated supported liquid membrane transport of gold(III) using phospholene derivatives as carriers  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental study of gold(III) transport through solid-supported liquid membranes using phospholene derivatives as carriers has been performed using batch experiments. A model is reported describing the transport mechanism which consists of a diffusion process through a feed aqueous diffusion layer, a fast interfacial chemical reaction and a diffusion of HAuCl4L and HAuCl4L2 through the membrane. The mathematical equations describing

A. Sastre; A. Madi; J. L. Cortina; N. Miralles

1998-01-01

104

Silica gel supported pyrrolidine-based chiral ionic liquid as recyclable organocatalyst for asymmetric Michael addition to nitrostyrenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel silica gel supported pyrrolidine-based chiral ionic liquid 6a has been developed and found to be a highly effective catalyst for the Michael addition reaction of ketones with nitrostyrenes. The reactions generated the corresponding products in good yields (up to 94%), excellent enantioselectivities (up to >99% ee), and high diastereoselectivities (up to >99:1 dr). In addition, the catalyst 6a

Pinhua Li; Lei Wang; Yicheng Zhang; Guanwu Wang

2008-01-01

105

Concentration of amino acids using supported liquid membranes with di-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid as a carrier  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basic studies of a procedure for extraction of amino acids using a supported liquid membrane containing di-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid are presented. The extractions are made from an aqueous donor phase with pH 3 to a more acidic acceptor phase and the mass transfer is driven by the proton gradient between these phases. For 0.01 mM tryptophan and with 1 M

Piotr Wieczorek; Jan Åke Jönsson; Lennart Mathiasson

1997-01-01

106

Selective Liquid-Phase Semihydrogenation of Functionalized Acetylenes and Propargylic Alcohols with Silica-Supported Bimetallic Palladium?Copper Catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silica-supported, bimetallic palladium-copper catalysts were prepared in solution under mild conditions by reacting lithium di(4-tolyl)cuprate with palladium acetate in the presence of silica particles. Small bimetallic palladium-copper particles were deposited on the silica surface as confirmed with TEM-EDAX and EXAFS. The new material has been applied as catalyst in the liquid-phase semihydrogenation of mono- and disubstituted alkynes and showed high

G. van Koten; M. P. R. Spee; Michel D. Meijer; Martijn Q. Slagt; John W. Geus

2001-01-01

107

Supported liquid membrane-modified piezoelectric flow sensor with molecularly imprinted polymer for the determination of vanillin in food samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

An on-line supported liquid membrane-piezoelectric detection system, based on a molecularly imprinted polymer (SLM-QCM-MIP) manifold, has been developed and applied to the quantitative determination of vanillin in food samples. The analyte is extracted from a donor phase into the hydrophobic membrane, and then back extracted into a second aqueous phase used as the acceptor solution. The quantification of vanillin was

Mónica Ávila; Mohammed Zougagh; Alberto Escarpa; Ángel Ríos

2007-01-01

108

Hollow fiber supported liquid membrane: a novel technique for separation and recovery of plutonium from aqueous acidic wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low plutonium content acidic waste is generated in nuclear chemical facilities. Study was initiated to develop hollow fiber supported liquid membrane (HFSLM) technique for quantitative separation and recovery of plutonium (Pu) from such wastes using tri-n-butyle phosphate (TBP) in dodecane as carrier. Hollow fiber test module was fabricated using 20 lumens of 33.91cm2 surface area and 9cm length. After satisfactory

N. S Rathore; J. V Sonawane; Anil Kumar; A. K Venugopalan; R. K Singh; D. D Bajpai; J. P Shukla

2001-01-01

109

Piping support system for liquid-metal fast-breeder reactor  

DOEpatents

A pipe support consisting of a rigid link pivotally attached to a pipe and an anchor, adapted to generate stress or strain in the link and pipe due to pipe thermal movement, which stress or strain can oppose further pipe movement and generally provides pipe support. The pipe support can be used in multiple combinations with other pipe supports to form a support system. This support system is most useful in applications in which the pipe is normally operated at a constant elevated or depressed temperature such that desired stress or strain can be planned in advance of pipe and support installation. The support system is therefore especially useful in steam stations and in refrigeration equipment.

Brussalis, Jr., William G. (Forward Township, Washington County, PA)

1984-01-01

110

Determination of benzodiazepines in ante-mortem and post-mortem whole blood by solid-supported liquid-liquid extraction and UPLC-MS/MS.  

PubMed

A solid-supported liquid-liquid extraction ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the determination of benzodiazepines commonly found in Norway, for use in cases with suspected driving impairment and autopsy cases by analysis of human whole blood samples. The following compounds were included: alprazolam, bromazepam, clonazepam, diazepam, flunitrazepam, lorazepam, midazolam, nitrazepam, nordiazepam (metabolite of diazepam), oxazepam and phenazepam. Aliquots of 500 ?L whole blood were added 500 ?L of borate buffer pH 11 and extracted by solid-supported liquid-liquid extraction on ChemElut(®) columns using three times 2.5 mL of methyl tert-butyl ether. Deuterated analogues were used as internal standards (IS) for all analytes, except for midazolam, phenazepam and bromazepam which had no commercially available deuterated analogues at the time the method was developed, and therefore used diazepam-d(5), flunitrazepam-d(7) and nitrazepam-d(5), respectively. The analytes were separated using UPLC with a 2.1×100 mm BEH C(18)-column, 1.7 ?m particle size, and quantified by MS/MS using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) in positive mode. Two transitions were used for the analytes and one transition for the IS. The run time of the method was 8 min including equilibration time. The concentrations of the benzodiazepines in the method span a broad range varying from the lowest concentration of 0.005 ?M for flunitrazepam to the highest of 20 ?M for oxazepam. The calibration curves of extracted whole blood standards were fitted by second-order calibration curves weighted 1/x, with R(2) values ranging from 0.9981 to 0.9998. The intermediate precision had a CV (%) ranging between 2 and 19%. Recoveries of the analytes were from 71 to 96%. The LLOQs for the analytes varied from 0.0006 to 0.075 ?M and the LODs from 0.005 to 3.0 nM. Matrix effects were studied by post extraction addition and found to be between 95 and 104% when calculated against an internal standard. A comparison with two other LC-MS methods was performed during method validation. Good correlation was seen for all analytes. The method has been running on a routine basis for several years, and has proven to be very robust and reliable with good results for external quality samples. The method also meets the requirements of the legislative limits for driving under the influence of non-alcohol drugs to be introduced in the Norwegian legislative system from 2012. PMID:22119506

Sauve, E N; Langødegård, M; Ekeberg, D; Øiestad, A M L

2011-11-03

111

A promising method of liquid separation in orbital station's life support systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A combined method of liquid separation from a gas-liquid flow is presented based on an analysis of existing methods of separation and experience gained from the Russian space stations Salut, Mir and the International Space Station. This method combines the advantages of both water-holding materials and semi-permeable membranes. The paper describes an actual device as well as laboratory test results for materials and the separator. The separator described has successfully been in experimental operation on the ISS since the 1st of September 2009.

Kapitsa Anna, A.

2012-11-01

112

Monitoring of N-methyl carbamate pesticide residues in water using hollow fibre supported liquid membrane and solid phase extraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this work was to develop a method for the determination of N-methyl carbamates in water involving hollow fibre supported liquid membrane (HFSLM) and solid phase extraction (SPE) as sample preparation methods. Four N-methyl carbamate pesticides, aldicarb, carbaryl, carbofuran and methiocarb sulfoxide, were simultaneously extracted and analysed by a liquid chromatograph with a diode array detector (LC-UV/DAD) and a liquid chromatograph coupled to a ion trap quadrupole mass spectrometer (LC-ESI-MS). The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation of carabamate extracts was performed on a C18 column with water-acetonitrile as the mobile phase. The mass spectrometry analyses were carried out in the positive mode, operating under both the selected ion monitoring (SIM) and full scan modes. The solid phase recoveries of the extracts ranged between 8% and 98%, with aldicarb having the highest recoveries, followed by carbaryl, carbofuran and methiocarb had the lowest recovery. The HFSLM recovery ranged between 8% and 58% and the order of recovery was similar to the SPE trend. Factors controlling the efficiency of the HFSLM extraction such as sample pH, stripping phase pH, enrichment time, stirring speed as well as organic solvent used for entrapment of analytes, were optimised to achieve the highest enrichment factors.

Msagati, Titus A. M.; Mamba, Bhekie B.

113

THE USE OF GC-MS TO SUPPORT STABILITY ASSESSMENT OF DENSITY REFERENCE LIQUIDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Density measurements are frequently associated to specific requirements in order to evaluate the quality of a process or to determine mass and\\/or volume of the material. Certified reference liquids can be used to assure metrological traceability of density measurements to the International System of Units (SI) with uncertainty lower than 0.005 %. This paper presents the new approach of the

Salvatore Lorefice; Elena Amico di Meane; Michela Sega

114

On the importance of the nature of the ionic liquids in the selective simultaneous separation of the substrates and products of a transesterification reaction through supported ionic liquid membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previously, we reported the selective simultaneous separation of the substrates and products of a transesterification reaction (vinyl butyrate, 1-butanol, butyl butyrate, and butyric acid) through supported liquid membranes (SLMs) based on two ionic liquids (ILs): 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, [bmim+][PF6?], and 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, [omim+][PF6?]. The significant differences observed in the selectivity values, attributed to the different nature of the ionic liquid phase

Antonia P. de los Ríos; Francisco J. Hernández-Fernández; Francisca Tomás-Alonso; Manuel Rubio; Demetrio Gómez; Gloria Víllora

2008-01-01

115

Experimental investigation of the permeability and selectivity of supported ionic liquid membranes for CO 2\\/He separation at temperatures up to 125 °C  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supported liquid membranes have been prepared by impregnation of commercial porous polymer films with the ionic liquid 1-n-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide. The ionic liquid has been characterized, and the membranes have been tested to determine performance in the selective separation of CO2 from He. Experiments were conducted in a constant pressure system, and pure gas permeability\\/selectivity data are reported. Membranes prepared with

Jeffery Ilconich; Christina Myers; Henry Pennline; David Luebke

2007-01-01

116

Transport Study of Hafnium(IV) and Zirconium(IV) Ions Mutual Separation by Using Tri-n-butyl Phosphate-Xylene-Based Supported Liquid Membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Hf transport study through supported liquid membranes has been carried out to determine flux and permeability data for this metal ion. Tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP)-xylene-based liquid membranes supported in polypropylene hydrophobic microporous film have been used. These data for hafnium and the previous data for zirconium have furnished the Zr to Hf flux ratio (S) as a function of nitric

M. Ashraf Chaudry; Bashir Ahmed

1992-01-01

117

Applications of new liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry technologies for drug development support  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have evaluated (i) a multiplexed electrospray interface, (ii) serial sample introduction, and (iii) a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer for quantitative bioanalysis in compliance with good laboratory practice. These evaluations were done using a 96-well plate liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry method for the quantitation of loratadine and its metabolite, descarboethoxyloratadine. The assay has a dynamic range of 1–1000 ng\\/ml with

Liyu Yang; Ning Wu; Patrick J Rudewicz

2001-01-01

118

A supported liquid membrane (SLM) with resorcinarene for facilitated transport of methyl glycopyranosides: Parameters and mechanism relating to the transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

A supported liquid membrane (SLM) containing a resorcinarene carrier, previously used for the transport of aldoses and alditols, has been used for the selective transport of methyl-?-d-glucopyranoside, methyl-?-d-glucopyranoside, methyl-?-d-galactopyranoside, methyl-?-d-mannopyranoside, and methyl-?-d-xylopyranoside from concentrated (0.20–0.025M) aqueous solutions. The membrane is made of a microporous polytetrafluoroethylene film (PTFE), impregnated with a 0.01M solution of the carrier in CCl4. The permeabilities of

Khalifa Touaj; Nabila Tbeur; Mustapha Hor; Jean-François Verchère; Miloudi Hlaïbi

2009-01-01

119

Uranium Permeation from Nitrate Medium Across Supported Liquid Membrane Containing Acidic Organophosphorous Extractants and their Mixtures with Neutral Oxodonors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Permeation of U(VI) from nitric acid solution has been studied across supported liquid membrane (SLM) using bis[2,4,4 trimethyl pentyl] phosphinic acid (Cyanex 272) either alone or in combination with neutral donors like Cyanex 923 (a mixture of four trialkyl phosphine oxides viz. R3PO, R2R?PO, RR?2PO and R?3PO where R: n-octyl and R?: n-hexyl chain), TBP (tri-n-butyl phosphate), and TEHP (tris-2-ethylhexyl

Sujoy Biswas; P. N. Pathak; Sangita Pal; S. B. Roy; P. K. Tewari; V. K. Manchanda

2011-01-01

120

Acid effect on 99m Tc and 99 Mo mutual separation and their transport across supported liquid membrane extraction system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Work on 99mTc extraction using supported liquid membrane (SLM) has been performed with tri-n-octylamine as a carrier. MoO42- ions transport with TOA-xylene has alos been studied with respect to HCl concentration (0.001 to 0.05M) in the feed solution. 99mTc transport in the same HCl concentration range has shown that while MoO42- ions flux is higher at -5mol\\/m2.s, the TcO4- ions

M. Ashraf Chaudry

2000-01-01

121

Influence of Support Geometry and Gravity on the Stability of Liquid Bridges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental and theoretical investigation of the influence of unequal disk radii combined with axial gravity on the stability boundary of liquid bridges contained between coaxial circular disks has been completed. Experimental work is conducted in an adjustable bouyancy tank such that the Bond number can be varied by changing the density difference between the bridge liquid and the surrounding liquid. The influence of unequal disks and finite axial gravity has also been considered. Unlike earlier work, the theoretical work accounts for arbitrary (not only axisymmetric) perturbations and the entire stability boundary is constructed. Theoretical and experimental investigations on the behavior of the weightless bridge when its axisymmetric shape loses stability has also been investigated. From the solution of the bifurcation problem for critical axisymmetric states under zero-g it has been established that loss of stability on the maximum volume limit leads to a continuous transition to stable non-axisymmetric states if the length to diameter ratio exceeds 0.495 and to a jump tansition if it is less than this value. Experimental investigation based upon a neutral bouyancy technique shows that this jump is finite and that a critical bridge undergoes a finite deformation to a stable non-axisymmetric state.

Resnick, Andrew H.; Slobozhanin, Lev A.; Alexander, J. Iwan D.

1996-11-01

122

Study of the separation limits of continuous solid support free liquid-liquid chromatography: separation of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin by centrifugal partition chromatography.  

PubMed

Sequential centrifugal partition chromatography (sCPC) is a cyclic solid support-free liquid-liquid chromatographic process, in which a continuously introduced feed mixture is separated into two sequentially collected product streams. The few experimental demonstrations of this concept already revealed its potential for the preparative separation of pharmaceuticals and fine chemicals. In this work not only the possibilities, but also the limits of the sCPC technology are explored. A feed mixture consisting of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin, whose molecular structure differs in only one double bond, was selected for this purpose. The sCPC unit operating parameters needed for a complete separation of the feed mixture were selected using the recently published approach, which uses the partition coefficient of the feed components and the hydrodynamic characteristics of the system as input data. A complete separation of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin with the solvent system heptane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water:1/1/1/1 (v/v/v/v) was achieved, although the separation factor was only 1.32. The sCPC unit separation performance was successfully simulated using the cell model. PMID:23466203

Goll, Johannes; Frey, Andreas; Minceva, Mirjana

2013-02-08

123

Simple and rapid determination of norethindrone in human plasma by supported liquid extraction and ultra performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

We report for the first time an ultra performance liquid chromatographic method with tandem mass spectrometric detection (UPLC/MS/MS) for the determination of norethindrone alone in human plasma over the concentration range of 50.0-25000 pg mL(-1) using a sample volume of 0.250 mL. Norethindrone and its internal standard (ISTD), norethindrone-(13)C(2), were extracted from human plasma by supported liquid extraction (SLE). After evaporation of the organic solvent, samples were reconstituted and analyzed on an UPLC/MS/MS system. The UPLC system used a Waters BEH C18 (100 mm × 2.1mm, 1.7 ?m) column with mobile phase A of 0.05% formic acid in water:acetonitrile (65:35, v/v) and mobile phase B of 0.05% formic acid in methanol:acetonitrile (50:50, v/v). The flow rate was 0.500 mL min(-1). The method was fully validated. The inter-run accuracy and precision at the lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ), low, mid and high quality control (QC) concentration levels were 99.2-108.4% with a <8.1% CV (coefficient of variation), respectively. The validated method has been successfully applied to analysis of thousands of pharmacokinetic samples. PMID:22365683

Gong, Zhilong; Chandler, Kiresha; Webster, Stephen; Kerley, Remy; Buist, Susan; McCort-Tipton, Melanie

2012-01-14

124

Electrochemical gas sensors based on paper-supported room-temperature ionic liquids for improved analysis of acid vapours.  

PubMed

A prototype of a fast-response task-specific amperometric gas sensor based on paper-supported room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) is proposed here for improved analysis of volatile acid species. It consists of a small filter paper foil soaked with a RTIL mixture containing an ionic liquid whose anion (acetate) displays a basic character, upon which three electrodes are screen printed by carbon ink profiting from a suitable mask. It takes advantage of the high electrical conductivity and negligible vapour pressure of RTILs and of their easy immobilization into a porous and inexpensive supporting material such as paper. The performance of this device, used as a wall-jet amperometric detector for flow injection analyses of headspace samples in equilibrium with aqueous solutions at controlled concentrations, was evaluated for phenol and 1-butanethiol vapours which were adopted as model acid gaseous analytes. The results obtained showed that the quite high potentials required for the detection of these analytes are lowered significantly, thanks to the addition of the basic acetate RTIL. In such a way, overlap with the medium discharge is avoided, and the possible adverse effect of interfering species is minimised. The sensor performance was quite satisfactory (detection limits, ca. 0.3 ?M; dynamic range, ca. 1-200 ?M, both referred to solution concentrations; correlation coefficients in the range 0.993-0.997; repeatability, ± 6% RSD; long-term stability, 9%); thus suggesting the possible use of this device for manifold applications. PMID:23232956

Toniolo, Rosanna; Dossi, Nicolò; Pizzariello, Andrea; Casagrande, Alice; Bontempelli, Gino

2012-12-13

125

Triplet state properties of the OLED emitter Ir(btp)2(acac): characterization by site-selective spectroscopy and application of high magnetic fields.  

PubMed

The well-known red emitting complex Ir(btp)2(acac) (bis(2-(2'-benzothienyl)-pyridinato-N,C3')iridium(acetylacetonate)), frequently used as emitter material in OLEDs, has been investigated in a polycrystalline CH2Cl2 matrix. The studies were carried out under variation of temperature down to 1.2 K and at magnetic fields up to B=10 T. Highly resolved emission and excitation spectra of several specific sites are obtained by site-selective spectroscopy. For the preferentially investigated site (I-->0 at 16268 cm-1), the three substates I, II, and III of the T1 triplet state are separated by DeltaEII-I=2.9 cm-1 and DeltaEIII-I=25.0 cm-1, respectively. DeltaEIII-I represents the total zero-field splitting (ZFS). The individual decay times of these substates are tauI=150 micros, tauII=58 micros, and tauIII=2 micros, respectively. The long decay time of the lowest substate I indicates its almost pure triplet character. The time for relaxation from state II to state I (spin-lattice relaxation, SLR) is as long as 22 micros at T=1.5 K, while the thermalization between the two lower lying substates and substate III is fast. Application of a magnetic field induces Zeeman mixing of the substates of T1, resulting in an increased splitting between the two lower lying substates from 2.9 cm-1 at zero field to, for example, 6.8 cm-1 at B=10 T. Further, the decay time of the B-field perturbed lowest substate IB decreases by a factor of about 7 up to 10 T. The magnetic field properties clearly show that the three investigated states belong to the same triplet parent term of one single site. Other sites show a similar behavior, though the values of ZFS vary between 15 and 27 cm-1. Since the amount of ZFS reflects the extent of MLCT (metal-to-ligand charge transfer) parentage, it can be concluded that the emitting state T1 is a 3LC (ligand centered) state with significant admixtures of 1,3MLCT (metal-to-ligand charge transfer) character. Interestingly, the results show that the MLCT perturbation is different for the various sites. An empirical correlation between the amount of ZFS and the compound's potential for its use as emitter material in an OLED is presented. As a rule of thumb, a triplet emitter is considered promising for application in OLEDs, if it has a ZFS larger than about 10 cm-1. PMID:17488070

Finkenzeller, Walter J; Hofbeck, Thomas; Thompson, Mark E; Yersin, Hartmut

2007-05-09

126

Apparatus for supporting contactors used in extracting nuclear materials from liquids  

DOEpatents

Apparatus is provided for supporting one or more contactor stages used to remove radioactive materials from aqueous solutions. The contactor stages include a housing having an internal rotor, a motor secured to the top of the housing for rotating the rotor, and a drain in the bottom of the housing. The support apparatus includes two or more vertical members each secured to a ground support that is horizontal and perpendicular to the frame member, and a horizontally disposed frame member. The frame member may be any suitable shape, but is preferably a rectangular tube having substantially flat, spaced top and bottom surfaces separated by substantially vertical side surfaces. The top and bottom surfaces each have an opening through which the contactor housing is secured so that the motor is above the frame and the drain is below the frame during use.

Leonard, Ralph A. (River Forest, IL); Frank, Robert C. (Crestwood, IL)

1991-01-01

127

Arctic Observations Supporting Liquid-Dependent Ice Nucleation at Low-Altitudes and Moderate Temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nucleation of ice crystals in mixed-phase stratiform clouds can play a large role in controlling cloud lifetime, and therefore cloud radiative impact. Several recent field campaigns (e.g. M-PACE, ISDAC) were completed in part to better understand how ice forms in these cloud structures. Additionally, continuous measurements at ground-based observation sites in Barrow, AK, Eureka, Canada and over the Beaufort Sea during SHEBA provide us with an interesting perspective on the patterns and frequency of ice formation in the lower four kilometers of the atmosphere. Using a combination of lidar, radar, microwave radiometer and radiosonde measurements, multiple cases are observed revealing an initial resistance to ice formation despite cold (<-15 C) and ice-supersaturated conditions. In these cases, ice is eventually observed, but only immediately following formation of a liquid cloud layer. A statistical analysis of data collected at all three locations reveals that mixed-phase clouds are observed much more readily than ice-only clouds between -5 and -30 C. Additionally, very few ice-only clouds were observed within this temperature range at relative humidities between ice and liquid saturation. We will present these results in more detail, and provide discussion points on location-dependent differences and implications on the simulation of ice nucleation over a wide variety of model scales.

de Boer, G.; Morrison, H.; Shupe, M.; Hildner, R.

2010-12-01

128

HELP (high efficiency liquid phase) new oligonucleotide synthesis on soluble polymeric support.  

PubMed Central

A simple, rapid and high-yielding method for the synthesis of oligonucleotides by the phosphotriesters approach is described. The use of polyethylene glycol (PEG) as soluble polymeric support preserves some convenient features of the solid-phase synthesis with new interesting advantages. Short oligonucleotides in hundred milligrams scale can be obtained from few grams of functionalized PEG.

Bonora, G M; Scremin, C L; Colonna, F P; Garbesi, A

1990-01-01

129

Evolution of Sodium Technology R and D Actions Supporting French Liquid-Metal Fast Breeder Reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the evolution of sodium technology research and development in parallel to sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor (FBR) developments in France and provides information concerning operating plants and existing projects. This paper also discusses how supporting research has adapted to the decline in FBR activities since the decommissioning of Superphenix, while capitalizing on knowledge acquired over more than four

G. Rodriguez; F. Baque; J. C. Astegiano

2005-01-01

130

Device providing anti-seismic support for an apparatus immersed in the bath of liquid alkali metal surrounding a fast neutron nuclear reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present invention relates to a device providing anti-seismic support for an apparatus immersed in the bath of liquid alkali metal surrounding a fast neutron nuclear reactor, and abutting by a flange on a slab traversed by the apparatus and resistant to the load that it constitutes, wherein the flange for supporting the apparatus is connected to a sleeve for

J. Andro; J. Marjollet

1984-01-01

131

Diffusion coefficient of an inclusion in a liquid membrane supported by a solvent of arbitrary thickness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The diffusion coefficient of an inclusion in a liquid membrane is investigated by taking into account the interaction between membranes and bulk solvents of arbitrary thickness. As illustrative examples, the diffusion coefficients of two types of inclusions, a circular domain composed of fluid with the same viscosity as the host membrane and that of a polymer chain embedded in the membrane, are studied. The diffusion coefficients are expressed in terms of the hydrodynamic screening lengths, which vary according to the solvent thickness. When the membrane fluid is dragged by the solvent of finite thickness, via stick boundary conditions, multiple hydrodynamic screening lengths together with the weight factors to the diffusion coefficients are obtained from the characteristic equation. The conditions for which the diffusion coefficients can be approximated by the expression including only a single hydrodynamic screening length are also shown.

Seki, Kazuhiko; Ramachandran, Sanoop; Komura, Shigeyuki

2011-08-01

132

Diffusion coefficient of an inclusion in a liquid membrane supported by a solvent of arbitrary thickness.  

PubMed

The diffusion coefficient of an inclusion in a liquid membrane is investigated by taking into account the interaction between membranes and bulk solvents of arbitrary thickness. As illustrative examples, the diffusion coefficients of two types of inclusions, a circular domain composed of fluid with the same viscosity as the host membrane and that of a polymer chain embedded in the membrane, are studied. The diffusion coefficients are expressed in terms of the hydrodynamic screening lengths, which vary according to the solvent thickness. When the membrane fluid is dragged by the solvent of finite thickness, via stick boundary conditions, multiple hydrodynamic screening lengths together with the weight factors to the diffusion coefficients are obtained from the characteristic equation. The conditions for which the diffusion coefficients can be approximated by the expression including only a single hydrodynamic screening length are also shown. PMID:21929018

Seki, Kazuhiko; Ramachandran, Sanoop; Komura, Shigeyuki

2011-08-04

133

Supported Phospholipid Bilayer Interaction with Components Found in Typical Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids - a QCM-D and AFM Study †  

PubMed Central

Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) monitoring and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were combined to evaluate the defects created by an ionic liquid anion and a cation in a supported phospholipid bilayer composed of zwitterionic lipids on a silica surface. The cation 1-octyl-3-methyl imidazolium (OMIM+) was shown to remove lipids from the bilayer, increase the roughness to approximately 2.8 nm (~0.2 for stable supported bilayer) and possibly redeposit lipids with entrapped water. The anion bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (Tf2N-) was found to leave distinct defects within the bilayer that had large pore-like interiors which left the surrounding bilayer intact. However, the ionic liquid 1-butyl-1-methyl pyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (BMP-Tf2N) formed a film over the supported bilayer. This work demonstrates, for the first time, the direct effects common components of ionic liquids have on a supported phospholipids bilayer.

Evans, Kervin O.

2008-01-01

134

Production of fungal antibiotics using polymeric solid supports in solid-state and liquid fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of inert absorbent polymeric supports for cellular attachment in solid-state fungal fermentation influenced growth, morphology, and production of bioactive secondary metabolites. Two filamentous fungi exemplified the utility of this approach to facilitate the discovery of new antimicrobial compounds. Cylindrocarpon sp. LL-Cyan426 produced pyrrocidines A and B and Acremonium sp. LL-Cyan416 produced acremonidins A–E when grown on agar bearing

Ramunas Bigelis; Haiyin He; Hui Y. Yang; Li-Ping Chang; Michael Greenstein

2006-01-01

135

Evolution of Sodium Technology R and D Actions Supporting French Liquid-Metal Fast Breeder Reactors  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the evolution of sodium technology research and development in parallel to sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor (FBR) developments in France and provides information concerning operating plants and existing projects. This paper also discusses how supporting research has adapted to the decline in FBR activities since the decommissioning of Superphenix, while capitalizing on knowledge acquired over more than four decades to be passed down to future generations.

Rodriguez, G.; Baque, F.; Astegiano, J.C. [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, Cadarache (France)

2005-04-15

136

Development of one-step hollow fiber supported liquid phase sampling technique for occupational workplace air analysis using high performance liquid chromatography with ultra-violet detector.  

PubMed

In this study, a simple and novel one-step hollow-fiber supported liquid-phase sampling (HF-LPS) technique was developed for enriched sampling of gaseous toxic species prior to chemical analysis for workplace air monitoring. A lab-made apparatus designed with a gaseous sample generator and a microdialysis sampling cavity (for HF-LPS) was utilized and evaluated to simulate gaseous contaminant air for occupational workplace analysis. Gaseous phenol was selected as the model toxic species. A polyethersulfone hollow fiber dialysis module filled with ethylene glycol in the shell-side was applied as the absorption solvent to collect phenol from a gas flow through the tube-side, based on the concentration distribution of phenol between the absorption solvent and the gas flow. After sampling, 20 ?L of the extractant was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV). Factors that influence the generation of gaseous standards and the HF-LPS were studied thoroughly. Results indicated that at 25 °C the phenol (2000 ?g/mL) standard solution injected at 15-?L/min can be vaporized into sampling cavity under nitrogen flow at 780 mL/min, to generate gaseous phenol with concentration approximate to twice the permissible exposure limit. Sampling at 37.3 mL/min for 30 min can meet the requirement of the workplace air monitoring. The phenol in air ranged between 0.7 and 10 cm³/m³ (shows excellent linearity) with recovery between 98.1 and 104.1%. The proposed method was identified as a one-step sampling for workplace monitoring with advantages of convenience, rapidity, sensitivity, and usage of less-toxic solvent. PMID:22673811

Yan, Cheing-Tong; Chien, Hai-Ying

2012-05-11

137

Preparation and SO{sub 2} sorption/desorption behavior of an Ionic liquid supported on porous silica particles  

SciTech Connect

The ionic liquid 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidinium lactate (TMGL) was supported onto porous silica particles via a facile impregnation-vaporization method. The TMGL-supported particles gave high porosity and large specific surface area. The SO{sub 2} sorption/desorption properties of the silica-supported TMGL (TMGL-SiO{sub 2}) were evaluated, and high SO{sub 2} sorption capacity and rate were achieved. Its capacity reached 0.6 g SO{sub 2}/g TMGL in 15-30 min with pure SO{sub 2} gas and 0.15 g SO{sub 2}/g TMGL in 17 h with a N{sub 2}/SO{sub 2} mixture gas that contained 2160 ppm SO{sub 2}. The SO{sub 2} concentration was reduced to 12.6 ppm after sorption. The TMGL-SiO{sub 2} system could be reused for many sorption/desorption cycles without change in its capacity. It was also characterized by good mechanical strength and thermal stability at temperature up to 130{sup o}C. The SO{sub 2} sorbent system appears to be useful in gas desulfurization.

Zhang, Z.M.; Wu, L.B.; Dong, J.; Li, B.G.; Zhu, S.P. [Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China)

2009-02-15

138

Influence of the reaction conditions and catalytic properties on the liquid-phase hydrodebromination of bromobenzene over palladium supported catalysts: activity and deactivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The liquid-phase hydrodebromination of bromobenzene with molecular hydrogen over palladium supported catalysts was studied. The reaction was found to be structure-sensitive as regards both the initial activity and the final conversion (deactivation). The influence of the palladium content and the catalytic support effect on the initial activity were negligible in catalysts of similar metal dispersion. The supports tested, viz. SiO2\\/AlPO4,

M. A. Aramend??a; V. Boráu; I. M. Garc??a; C. Jiménez; J. M. Marinas; F. J. Urbano

1999-01-01

139

MAGNETIC LIQUID DEFORMABLE MIRRORS FOR ASTRONOMICAL APPLICATIONS: ACTIVE CORRECTION OF OPTICAL ABERRATIONS FROM LOWER-GRADE OPTICS AND SUPPORT SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

Deformable mirrors are increasingly used in astronomy. However, they still are limited in stroke for active correction of high-amplitude optical aberrations. Magnetic liquid deformable mirrors (MLDMs) are a new technology that has the advantages of high-amplitude deformations and low costs. In this paper, we demonstrate extremely high strokes and interactuator strokes achievable by MLDMs which can be used in astronomical instrumentation. In particular, we consider the use of such a mirror to suggest an interesting application for the next generation of large telescopes. We present a prototype 91 actuator deformable mirror made of a magnetic liquid (ferrofluid). This mirror uses a technique that linearizes the response of such mirrors by superimposing a large and uniform magnetic field on the magnetic field produced by an array of small coils. We discuss experimental results that illustrate the performance of MLDMs. A most interesting application of MLDMs comes from the fact they could be used to correct the aberrations of large and lower optical quality primary mirrors held by simple support systems. We estimate basic parameters of the needed MLDMs, obtaining reasonable values.

Borra, E. F., E-mail: borra@phy.ulaval.ca [Departement de Physique, de Genie Physique et d'Optique, Universite Laval, Quebec, QC G1V 0A6 (Canada)

2012-08-01

140

Supported liquid membrane transport of alkali metal cations by monoazacryptand with a partially fluorinated sidearm and the corresponding monoazacrown ethers.  

PubMed

Monoazacryptand [20.18.18] (1), monoaza-15-crown-5 (2a), and monoaza-18-crown-6 (2b) with a partially fluorinated sidearm were newly prepared and their transport abilities were estimated in a supported liquid membrane containing a mixture of 2- (perfluorohexyl) ethyl alcohol and 2- (perfluorooctyl) ethyl alcohol. In competitive passive transport of K+, Na+, and Li+ under neutral conditions, the K+ selectivity increased in the order: ionophore 2a

Nakatsuji, Yohji; Fujimoto, Shingo; Nakamura, Misako; Muraoka, Masahiro

2010-01-01

141

Prediction of extraction efficiency in supported liquid membrane with a stagnant acceptor phase by means of artificial neural network.  

PubMed

An artificial neural network model of supported liquid membrane extraction process with a stagnant acceptor phase is proposed. Triazine herbicides and phenolic compounds were used as model compounds. The model is able to predict the compound extraction efficiency within the same family based on the octanol-water partition coefficient, water solubility, molecular mass and ionisation constant of the compound. The network uses the back-propagation algorithm for evaluating the connection strengths representing the correlations between inputs (octanol-water partition coefficients logP, acid dissociation constant pK(a), water solubility and molecular weight) and outputs (extraction efficiency in dihexyl ether and undecane as organic solvents). The model predicted results in good agreement with the experimental data and the average deviations for all the cases are found to be smaller than ±3%. Moreover, standard statistical methods were applied for exploration of relationships between studied parameters. PMID:23378188

Michel, Monika; Chimuka, Luke; Kowalkowski, Tomasz; Cukrowska, Ewa M; Buszewski, Bogus?aw

2013-02-04

142

Selective transport of silver ion through a supported liquid membrane using hexathia-18-crown-6 as carrier.  

PubMed

A facile supported liquid membrane (SLM) system for the selective and efficient transport of silver ion is introduced. The SLM used is a thin porous polyvinyldifluoride membrane impregnated with hexathia-18-crown-6 (HT18C6) dissolved in nitrophenyloctyl ether. HT18C6 acts as a specific carrier for the uphill transport of Ag+ ion as its picrate ion paired complex through the SLM. In the presence of thiosulfate ion as a suitable stripping agent in the strip solution, transport of silver occurs almost quantitatively after 4 h. The selectivity and efficiency of silver transport from aqueous solutions containing other Mn+ cations such as Mg2+, Ca2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Pb2+, Cd2+, Hg2+, Fe3+ and Cr3+ ions were investigated. PMID:11990563

Shamsipur, M; Azimi, G; Mashhadizadeh, M H; Madaeni, S S

2001-04-01

143

Dynamic supported liquid membrane tip extraction of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid followed by capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection.  

PubMed

A dynamic supported liquid membrane tip extraction (SLMTE) procedure for the effective extraction and preconcentration of glyphosate (GLYP) and its metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in water has been investigated. The SLMTE procedure was performed in a semi-automated dynamic mode and demonstrated a greater performance against a static extraction. Several important extraction parameters such as donor phase pH, cationic carrier concentration, type of membrane solvent, type of acceptor stripping phase, agitation and extraction time were comprehensively optimized. A solution of Aliquat-336, a cationic carrier, in dihexyl ether was selected as the supported liquid incorporated into the membrane phase. Quantification of GLYP and AMPA was carried out using capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection. An electrolyte solution consisting of 12 mM histidine (His), 8 mM 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid (MES), 75 microM cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), 3% methanol, pH 6.3, was used as running buffer. Under the optimum extraction conditions, the method showed good linearity in the range of 0.01-200 microg/L (GLYP) and 0.1-400 microg/L (AMPA), acceptable reproducibility (RSD 5-7%, n=5), low limits of detection of 0.005 microg/L for GLYP and 0.06 microg/L for AMPA, and satisfactory relative recoveries (90-94%). Due to the low cost, the SLMTE device was disposed after each run which additionally eliminated the possibility of carry-over between runs. The validated method was tested for the analysis of both analytes in spiked tap water and river water with good success. PMID:20696433

See, Hong Heng; Hauser, Peter C; Sanagi, M Marsin; Ibrahim, Wan Aini Wan

2010-07-23

144

Feasible way of Human Solid and Liquid Wastes' Inclusion Into Intersystem Mass Exchange of Biological-Technical Life Support Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The basic objective arising at use of mineralized human solid and liquid wastes serving as the source of mineral elements for plants cultivation in biological-technical life support systems appears to be NaCl presence in them. The given work is aimed at feasibility study of mineralized human metabolites' utilization for nutrient solutions' preparation for their further employment at a long-term cultivation of uneven-aged wheat and Salicornia europaea L. cenosis in a conveyer regime. Human solid and liquid wastes were mineralized by the "wet incineration" method developed by Yu. Kudenko. On their base the solutions were prepared which were used for cultivation of 5-aged wheat conveyer with the time step-interval of 14 days. Wheat was cultivated by hydroponics method on expanded clay aggregate. For partial demineralization of nutrient solution every two weeks after regular wheat harvesting 12 L of solution was withdrawn from the wheat irrigation tank and used for Salicornia europaea cultivation by the water culture method in a conveyer regime. The Salicornia europaea conveyer was represented by 2 ages with the time step-interval of 14 days. Resulting from repeating withdrawal of the solution used for wheat cultivation, sodium concentration in the wheat irrigation solution did not exceed 400 mg/l, and mineral elements contained in the taken solution were used for Salicornia europaea cultivation. The experiment lasted 7 months. Total wheat biomass productivity averaged 30.1 g*m-2*day-1 at harvest index equal to 36.8The work was carried out under support of SB RAS grant 132 and INTAS 05-1000008-8010

Ushakova, Sofya; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Tikhomirova, Natalia; Kudenko, Yurii; Griboskaya, Illiada; Gros, Jean-Bernard; Lasseur, Christophe

145

Liquid phase methanol LaPorte process development unit: Modification, operation, and support studies  

SciTech Connect

As part of the liquid phase methanol process development program the present study evaluated adsorptive schemes to remove catalyst poisons from coal gas at pilot scale. In addition to a lab test with coal gas from Coolwater, two field tests were performed at Great Plains with live coal gas. In the lab with Coolwater, gas iron carbonyl, carbonyl sulfide,and hydrogen sulfide were effectively removed from the coal gas. The capacities of H-Y zeolite and BPL carbon for Fe(CO){sub 5} agreed well with the previous bench scale results at similar CO{sub 2} partial pressure. COS appeared to be chemisorbed on FCA carbon; its capacity was non-regenerable by hot nitrogen purge. A Cu/Zn catalyst, used to remove H{sub 2}S adsorptively, worked adequately. With the adsorption system on-line, a downstream methanol catalyst showed stable activity for 120 hours of operation. In the two field tests, it was demonstrated that the Great Plains (GP) syngas could be treated by adsorption for LPMEOH process. The catalyst deactivation observed in the first field test was much improved in the second field test after regular (every three days) regeneration of the adsorbents was practiced. The absorption system, which was designed for the removal of iron/nickel carbonyls, hydrogen/carbonyl sulfide and hydrochloric acid, needed to be modified to accommodate other unexpected impurities, such as acetonitrile and ethylene which were observed during both field tests. A lab test with a simulated GP gas indicated that low CO{sub 2} content (0.5%) in the GP gas does not cause catalyst deactivation. Adjusting the CO{sub 2} content of the feed to 5% by CO{sub 2} addition, increased methanol productivity by 40% in both the lab and the second field test. 6 refs., 25 figs., 14 tabs.

Not Available

1990-11-09

146

Shoot multiplication kinetics and hyperhydric status of regenerated shoots of gladiolus in agar-solidified and matrix-supported liquid cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vitro shoot regeneration of gladiolus in three different culture systems, viz., semi-solid agar (AS), membrane raft (MR),\\u000a and duroplast foam liquid (DF) cultures was evaluated following the kinetics of shoot multiplication and hyperhydricity at\\u000a optimized growth regulator combinations. Compared to the AS system, matrix-supported liquid cultures enhanced shoot multiplication.\\u000a The peak of shoot multiplication rate was attained at 18 days

S. Dutta GuptaV; V. S. S. Prasad

2010-01-01

147

Use of halophytic plants for recycling NaCl in human liquid waste in a bioregenerative life support system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this work was to develop technology for recycling NaCl containing in human liquid waste as intrasystem matter in a bioregenerative life support system (BLSS). The circulation of Na+ and Cl- excreted in urine is achieved by inclusion of halophytes, i.e. plants that naturally inhabit salt-rich soils and accumulate NaCl in their organs. A model of Na+ and Cl- recycling in a BLSS was designed, based on the NaCl turnover in the human-urine-nutrient solution-halophytic plant-human cycle. The study consisted of (i) selecting a halophyte suitable for inclusion in a BLSS, and (ii) determining growth conditions supporting maximal Na+ and Cl- accumulation in the shoots of the halophyte growing in a nutrient solution simulating mineralized urine. For the selected halophytic plant, Salicornia europaea, growth rate under optimal conditions, biomass production and quantities of Na+ and Cl- absorbed were determined. Characteristics of a plant production conveyor consisting of S.europaea at various ages, and allowing continuity of Na+ and Cl- turnover, were estimated. It was shown that closure of the NaCl cycle in a BLSS can be attained if the daily ration of fresh Salicornia biomass for a BLSS inhabitant is approximately 360 g.

Balnokin, Yurii; Nikolai, Myasoedov; Larisa, Popova; Alexander, Tikhomirov; Sofya, Ushakova; Christophe, Lasseur; Jean-Bernard, Gros

2010-09-01

148

Simultaneous determination of total fatty acid esters of chloropropanols in edible oils by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with solid-supported liquid-liquid extraction.  

PubMed

This study aimed to establish a novel robust method for the simultaneous determination of total fatty acid esters of 4 chloropropanols including fatty acid esters of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD esters), 2-monochloropropane-1,3-diol (2-MCPD esters), 1,3-dichloropropan-2-ol (1,3-DCP esters) and 2,3-dichloropropan-1-ol (2,3-DCP esters) in edible oils. In this method, sodium methylate in methanol was used as the reagent for the ester cleavage reaction of chloropropanols esters. The reaction products were extracted by a sodium sulfate solution, and then purified by solid-supported liquid-liquid extraction (SLE) using diatomaceous earth (Hydromatrix™) as the sorbent. Finally, the extracts were derivatized with heptafluorobutyrylim idazole (HFBI) and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Quantification was achieved using deuterated chloropropanols as their respective internal standards, including 3-MCPD-d5, 2-MCPD-d5, 1,3-DCP-d5 and 2,3-DCP-d5. A good linear relationship between peak area and concentrations was obtained within the range of 0.025-2.000mgL(-1) with a correlation coefficients not less than 0.999 for all the chloropropanols esters. The limits of detection (LODs) of esters of 3-MCPD, 2-MCPD, 1,3-DCP and 2,3-DCP (calculated as corresponding chloropropanols) were 30, 30, 100 and 30?gkg(-1), respectively. The average recoveries of the 3-MCPD esters and the 4 chloropropanols spiked at 0.1, 0.5 and 2mgkg(-1) into blank oil matrix were typically in a range from 70.7% to 113.3%. The robust method validation data including calibration, LOD/LOQ, accuracy and repeatability and proficiency test results (Z-score: -0.5) of the official Food Analysis Performance Assessment Scheme (FAPAS) indicated that the present quantitative method could be successfully applied to the determination of total chloropropanols esters in various edible oils. PMID:24070627

Liu, Qing; Han, Feng; Xie, Ke; Miao, Hong; Wu, Yongning

2013-09-07

149

Iron(III) chloride supported on MCM-41 molecular sieve as a catalyst for the liquid-phase oxidation of phenol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

FeCl3 was supported on MCM-41 mesoporous molecular sieve via adsorption or coordination bonding and by embedding as an anionic constituent of covalently immobilized imidazolium ionic liquid (IL). The synthesized materials were characterized by N2-BET, SEM, TEM, FT-IR, 1H, 13C, and 29Si NMR, and DSC-TG. All of the catalysts were shown to be active for the liquid-phase oxidation of phenol by hydrogen peroxide. Supported FeCl3 species present as tetrachloroferrate counterions of immobilized IL are the most resistant to iron leaching.

Sirotin, S. V.; Moskovskaya, I. F.; Kolyagin, Yu. G.; Yatsenko, A. V.; Romanovsky, B. V.

2011-03-01

150

Ultrasensitive determination of cadmium in seawater by hollow fiber supported liquid membrane extraction coupled with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new procedure, based on hollow fiber supported liquid membrane preconcentration coupled with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) detection, was developed for the determination of trace Cd in seawater samples. With 1-octanol that contained a mixture of dithizone (carrier) and oleic acid immobilized in the pores of the polypropylene hollow fiber as a liquid membrane, Cd was selectively extracted from water samples into 0.05 M HNO3 that filled the lumen of the hollow fiber as a stripping solution. The main extraction related parameters were optimized, and the effects of salinity and some coexisting interferants were also evaluated. Under the optimum extraction conditions, an enrichment factor of 387 was obtained for a 100-mL sample solution. In combination with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, a very low detection limit (0.8 ng L- 1) and a relative standard deviation (2.5% at 50 ng L- 1 level) were achieved. Five seawater samples were analyzed by the proposed method without dilution, with detected Cd concentration in the range of 56.4 264.8 ng L- 1 and the relative spiked recoveries over 89%. For comparison, these samples were also analyzed by the Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) method after a 10-fold dilution for matrix effect elimination. Statistical analysis with a one-way ANOVA shows no significant differences (at 0.05 level) between the results obtained by the proposed and ICP-MS methods. Additionally, analysis of certified reference materials (GBW (E) 080040) shows good agreement with the certified value. These results indicate that this present method is very sensitive and reliable, and can effectively eliminate complex matrix interferences in seawater samples.

Peng, Jin-Feng; Liu, Rui; Liu, Jing-Fu; He, Bin; Hu, Xia-Lin; Jiang, Gui-Bin

2007-05-01

151

Uranium Permeation Studies from Nitric Acid Medium across Supported Liquid Membrane Impregnated with PC88A and its Mixtures with Neutral Oxodonors in n-paraffin as Carriers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The permeation of U(VI) from nitric acid medium using supported liquid membrane (SLM) technique has been studied employing varying compositions of feed (uranium concentration and acidity), carrier, and receiving phase. Microporous polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membranes were used as a solid support and 2-ethylhexyl phosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (PC88A) either alone or as a mixture of neutral donors like tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP),

Sujoy Biswas; P. N. Pathak; S. B. Roy; V. K. Manchanda

2011-01-01

152

A simple method for preparing highly active palladium catalysts loaded on various carbon supports for liquid-phase oxidation and hydrogenation reactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preparation of nanosized palladium (Pd) catalysts supported on various carbon supports using a simple liquid-phase reduction of aqueous Pd complexes with potassium borohydride (KBH4) was investigated. We found that addition of appropriate amounts of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) into aqueous solutions of sodium tetrachloropalladate (Na2PdCl4) followed by reduction with KBH4 produced highly dispersed Pd nanoparticles less than 5nm in diameter on

Takashi Harada; Shigeru Ikeda; Mayu Miyazaki; Takao Sakata; Hirotaro Mori; Michio Matsumura

2007-01-01

153

Studies on recovery of hexavalent chromium from plating wastewater by supported liquid membrane using tri- n-butyl phosphate as carrier  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transport of chromium(VI) ions from an aqueous feed solution through a flat type supported liquid membrane (SLM) containing tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) as carrier was studied. The influence of pH on the source phase, effect of concentration of receiving phase, stirring speed, effect of initial Cr(VI) concentration, feed to strip ratio and the influence of support characteristics was studied. Polytetrafluoroethylene

P. Venkateswaran; K. Palanivelu

2005-01-01

154

Comparative study of sample preparation methods; supported liquid membrane and solid phase extraction in the determination of benzimidazole anthelmintics in biological matrices by liquid chromatography–electrospray–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supported liquid membrane (SLM) and solid phase extraction (SPE) have been applied as clean-up and\\/or enrichment techniques for a mixture of five benzimidazole anthelmintics compounds, namely albendazole, fenbendazole, mebendazole, oxibendazole, and thiabendazole. Two biological matrices, mainly urine and milk, and ultra high purity (UHP) water were spiked with a mixture of these five compounds. Waters Oasis® MCX and International Sorbent

Titus A. M. Msagati; Mathew Muzi Nindi

2006-01-01

155

DEVELOPMENT OF A QUALITY CONTROL DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR REAL-TIME QUALITY CONTROL OF LIQUID TRANSFER OPERATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quality control in liquid transfer operations can eliminate false assay results due to transfer failures, monitor the stability of laboratory equipment, provide baselines for continuous improvement, and enable automatic recovery actions for a number of fault conditions. This paper describes the work done to add real-time quality control capability in liquid transfer operations on a closed-loop controlled MEMS based liquid

Hakki Ozgur UNVER; Greg WENDEL; John HOWLAND

156

Experimental investigation of the permeability and selectivity of supported ionic liquid membranes for CO2/He separation at temperatures up to 125° C  

SciTech Connect

Supported liquid membranes have been prepared by impregnation of commercial porous polymer films with the ionic liquid 1-n-hexyl-3- methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide. The ionic liquid has been characterized, and the membranes have been tested to determine performance in the selective separation of CO2 from He. Experiments were conducted in a constant pressure system, and pure gas permeability/selectivity data are reported. Membranes prepared with polysulfone supports have been found to be stable to 125 °C. The CO2 permeability of the membranes increases from 744 to 1200 barrer as the temperature increases from 37 to 125 °C. The CO2/He selectivity decreased from 8.7 to 3.1 over the same temperature range.

Ilconich, J.B.; Myers, C.R.; Pennline, H.W.; Luebke, D.R.

2007-07-01

157

Modification of the commercial carrier in supported liquid membrane system to enhance lactic acid flux and to separate l, d-lactic acid enantiomers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enhancement of lactic acid transmembrane flux through a supported liquid membrane system by using a modified carrier is first time demonstrated in this work. The results show that with the replacement of the chloride ion with a carbonate one in the commercial quaternary ammonium salt (Aliquat™ 336), the lactic acid fluxes are always higher at the correspondingly same volume ratio

Qian Yang; Tai-Shung Chung

2007-01-01

158

A Study of Boilover in Liquid Pool Fires Supported on Water Part I: Effects of a Water Sublayer on Pool Fires  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under certain circumstances, the water on which a burning pool of liquid fuel is supported may begin to boil. The water vapor that is released and escapes through the fuel surface tends to atomize the oil, which results in an emulsive-droplet flame above the fuel surface. This phenomenon, called boilover, has been observed for large scale pool fires, but the

M. ARAI; K. SAITO; R. A. ALTENKIRCH

1990-01-01

159

Selective separation of radio-cesium from acidic solutions using supported liquid membrane containing chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide (CCD) in phenyltrifluoromethyl sulphone (PTMS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A supported liquid membrane method was developed using chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide (CCD) in phenyltrifluoromethyl sulphone (PTMS) as the carrier, impregnated in PTFE flat sheet membranes for the selective separation of Cs(I) from nitric acid feed solution. Solvent extraction studies were carried out for optimizing the feed as well as strip conditions. >95% Facilitated transport of Cs(I) was observed in about

P. K. Mohapatra; A. Bhattacharyya; V. K. Manchanda

2010-01-01

160

Influence of the Reaction Conditions and Catalytic Properties on the Liquid-Phase Hydrodechlorination of Chlorobenzene over Palladium-Supported Catalysts: Activity and Deactivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The liquid-phase hydrodechlorination of chlorobenzene with molecular hydrogen was studied over palladium-supported catalysts. The reaction takes place at a gradually decreasing rate through progressive poisoning of the active phase by chloride ions. It is found that the correct choice of the metallic precursor (free of chloride ions) is crucial for the optimum performance of the final solid obtained. In addition,

M. A. Aramend??a; V. Boráu; I. M. Garc??a; C. Jiménez; F. Lafont; A. Marinas; J. M. Marinas; F. J. Urbano

1999-01-01

161

Utilization of liquid human wastes and introduction into the material cycling in biological life-support systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possibilities of step-by-step utilization of liquid human wastes in biological life-support systems on long-functioning space stations have been considered in this work. Utilization involves "wet" urine incineration with hydrogen peroxide at normal pressure and 90 - 95°C temperature, urease-enzymic decomposition of urine and biological desalination in the higher plant link. The soybean flour was used as a source of urease. Growing soya plants as a component of the higher plant link would give a steady source of urease to the system. To decompose urea (9-15g) contained in 1l of incinerated urine we used 0.5 - 1 g of soy flour. The duration of hydrolysis of daily urea excreted by a human is 70 - 95 hours. It is supposed that ammonia excreted in the reaction of urea decomposition will be processed by nitrifying bacteria. The concentration of total nitrogen in urine after urea hydrolysis and removal of ammonia formed during the reaction constituted 0.6 - 1.2 g/l. Further biological desalination was carried out in the higher plant link, for that the edible salt-accumulating halophytes Salicornia europaea were used. To grow this plant under the aqueous culture conditions, the urine was additionally mineralized at 180 °C after incineration and decomposition of urea. The process of additional mineralization was related to the necessity of removal of organic materials and nitrogen residues, which higher concentration under the aqueous culture conditions has negative effect on plants. The volume of the nutrient solution for growing 6 plants of Salicornia europaea was 1.5 l (daily norm of urine excreted by human), the planting area was 0.032 m2. By the end of vegetation the productivity and mineral composition of Salicornia europaea plants were analyzed. The productivity of plants grown on liquid human wastes (the experiment) practically was not different from the productivity of plants grown on the mineral solution with sodium chloride (checkout). In experimental plants the content of potassium increased on 30% and the sodium content decreased on 30% as compared to the check plants. As a result the NaCl content constituted 23% of dry plant mass. The variant making the additional mineralization of urine at 180 °C avoidable has been considered in this work as well. For this purpose the technology of substrate growing of Salicornia europaea plants and intermittent introduction of urine during vegetation after "wet" incineration and urease-enzymatic decomposition of urea has been introduced.

Kovaleva, N. P.>; Ushakova, S. A.; Gribovskaya, I. V.; Kudenko, U. A.

162

Use of modified membrane carrier system for recovery of gold cyanide from alkaline cyanide media using hollow fiber supported liquid membranes: feasibility studies and mass transfer modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation is concerned with the applications of hollow fiber supported liquid membranes for the recovery of gold(I) (Au(CN)2?) from alkaline cyanide media using microporous hydrophobic hollow fiber with modified membrane extractant (carrier). The organic extractant used for gold(I) permeation was LIX79 alone and mixture of TOPO+LIX79 diluted with n-heptane. The mixture of LIX79+TOPO affords better performance than LIX79 alone.

Anil Kumar; R. Haddad; G. Benzal; R. Ninou; A. M. Sastre

2000-01-01

163

Transport of Americium(III) through a supported liquid membrane containing N, N, N?, N?-tetraoctyl-3-oxapentane diamide (TODGA) in n-dodecane as the carrier  

Microsoft Academic Search

The facilitated transport of Am(III) from aqueous nitrate solutions through a supported liquid membrane (SLM) made from N,N,N?,N?-tetraoctyl-3-oxapentane diamide (TODGA) in n-dodecane as the carrier inside microporous PTFE membranes of 0.45?m pore size was investigated from an aqueous feed containing nitric acid. The transport mechanism consists of a diffusion process through an aqueous diffusion film, a fast interfacial chemical reaction,

S. A. Ansari; P. K. Mohapatra; D. R. Prabhu; V. K. Manchanda

2006-01-01

164

SEPARATION OF TRIVALENT EUROPIUM, TERBIUM, AMERICIUM AND CURIUM BY A SUPPORTED LIQUID MEMBRANE IMPREGNATED WITH DI(2-ETHYLHEXYL)PHOSPHORIC ACID  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mass transfer of Eu(III) Tb(III),Am(III)and Cm(III)through HDEHP solid supported liquid membranes has been studied. The best experimental conditions to perform Am(III)-Cm(III),Eu(III)-Tb(III)and Eu(III)-Am(III) separation have been found. The coefficients of separation of the above mentioned pairs have been determined to be equal to 5.0, 10.8 and more then 102, respectively.

A. P. Novikov; B. F. Myasoedov

1987-01-01

165

Electrochemical behaviour of tetra- n-butylammonium nonaflate as an ionic liquid and as a supporting electrolyte in aprotic solvents: A comparative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tetra-n-butylammonium nonaflate was synthesized, characterized and employed as a neat ionic liquid and as supporting electrolyte in acetonitrile, N,N?-dimethylformamide, propylene carbonate and sulfolane media. The electrochemical oxidation of ferrocene and hydroquinone as well as the electrochemical reduction of anthracene were investigated in all the media. Good correlation is established between the charge transfer rate, diffusion coefficient of all the three

Arumugam Manivel; David Velayutham; Michael Noel

2011-01-01

166

Automatic selective determination of caffeine in coffee and tea samples by using a supported liquid membrane-modified piezoelectric flow sensor with molecularly imprinted polymer  

Microsoft Academic Search

An on-line supported liquid membrane-piezoelectric detection based on molecularly imprinted polymer (SLM-PZ-MIP) manifold was developed and applied to the quantitative determination of caffeine in coffee and tea samples. The proposed assembly provides all the advantages of an on-line system as regards automation, in addition to good selectivity, acceptable sensitivity and precision. The slurry sample was directly placed in SLM unit

Mohammed Zougagh; Angel Ríos; Miguel Valcárcel

2005-01-01

167

TRANSPORT OF METAL IONS ACROSS A SUPPORTED LIQUID MEMBRANE (SLM) USING DIMETHYLDIBUTYL- TETRADECYL1,3MALONAMIDE (DMDBTDMA) AS THE CARRIER  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of diluents like n-dodecane, n-hexane, cyclohexane, toluene, 1,2-dichloroethane, diethylbenzene, decalin and nitrobenzene on the extraction of Am(III) and its transport from nitric acid medium across a supported liquid membrane (SLM) using DMDBTDMA as the extractant\\/carrier has been investigated. The variation in distribution ratio of Am(III) with diluents displayed a good empirical correlation with some of the physico-chemical parameters

S. Sriram; V. K. Manchanda

2002-01-01

168

Application of ionic-liquid-supported magnetic dispersive solid-phase microextraction for the determination of acaricides in fruit juice samples.  

PubMed

In this study, ionic liquid (IL) supported magnetic dispersive solid-phase microextraction was developed and a systematic investigation was conducted on imidazolium ILs for their extraction performance. This nano-based pretreatment procedure was then applied for the determination of acaricides in fruit juice samples for the first time. A feature of this technique is that the commonly laborious chemical modification of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) was skillfully circumvented. Because of the combination of ILs, dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, and dispersive MNP solid-phase microextraction, the extraction efficiency can be significantly improved using commercial MNPs. Parameters of the extraction method were investigated by one-factor-at-a-time approach. The optimal experimental conditions were as follows: emulsification for 2 min by sonication with the addition of 50 ?L [C6 MIM][NTf2 ] in the dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction step and vortexing for 90 s after adding 40 mg spherical barium ferrite nanoparticles (20 nm). The desorption time was 2 min. Good linearity (0.5-500 ng/mL) and detection limits within the range of 0.05-0.53 ng/mL were achieved. The application of the proposed method was demonstrated by the analysis of real fruit juice samples, in which recoveries between 85.1 and 99.6% were obtained. PMID:23894018

Zhang, Jiaheng; Li, Min; Li, Yubo; Li, Zongyang; Wang, Fenfen; Li, Qiu; Zhou, Wenfeng; Lu, Runhua; Gao, Haixiang

2013-09-01

169

Ionic liquids supported on magnetic nanoparticles as a sorbent preconcentration material for sulfonylurea herbicides prior to their determination by capillary liquid chromatography.  

PubMed

A magnetic material based on N-methylimidazolium ionic liquid and Fe(3)O(4) magnetic nanoparticles incorporated in a silica matrix has been used to extract and preconcentrate sulfonylurea herbicides, such as thifensulfuron methyl (TSM), metsulfuron methyl (MSM), triasulfuron (TS), tribenuron methyl (TBM) and primisulfuron methyl (PSM) from polluted water samples, prior to their analysis by capillary liquid chromatography with a diode array detector (DAD). Under the optimum conditions, this method allows the determination of TSM, MSM, TS, TBM and PSM in a linear range between 5 and 100 ng mL(-1), with relative standard deviation values lower than 5.3% (n = 10), in all cases. Detection limits ranging between 1.13 and 2.95 ng mL(-1) were achieved. The usefulness of the proposed method was demonstrated by the analysis of river water samples, obtaining recoveries higher than 91%. PMID:22832671

Bouri, Mohamed; Gurau, Madalina; Salghi, Rachid; Cretescu, Igor; Zougagh, Mohammed; Rios, Ángel

2012-07-26

170

Tilt Modulus of a Magnetic Flux-Line Liquid via Nonlinear Hydrodynamics(Research supported by NSF through DMR-9419257)  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important property of the flux-line liquid in high Tc superconductors is the tilt modulus, c_44, which measures the response to a small transverse external magnetic field. We have used a nonlinear hydrodynamic theory to evaluate the enhancement of c_44 arising from ``disentanglement'' of the flux-line liquid. A similar contribution has been calculated before by Tauber and Nelson(U.C. Tauber and

Panayotis Benetatos; M. Cristina Marchetti

1998-01-01

171

Extraction of phenol from aqueous solutions by means of supported liquid membrane (MLS) containing tri-n-octyl phosphine oxide (TOPO).  

PubMed

This paper deals with the liquid-liquid extraction and the facilitated transport through a supported liquid membrane (SLM) system of aqueous phenol using tri-n-octyl phosphine oxide (TOPO) dissolved in an appropriate organic solvent. Phenol has been quantitatively extracted from aqueous acidic solutions using TOPO dissolved in kerosene as organic phase. The effect of TOPO concentration dissolved in kerosene on the extraction efficiency reveals that TOPO combined with phenol in the ratio of 1:1. Using a flat-sheet SLM (FSSLM) system, more than 65% of the initial phenol content in the feed phase was extracted and stripped in a NaOH aqueous receiving phase. The important operational variables affecting the facilitated transport of phenol through the FSSLM system studied are concentration of TOPO, membrane viscosity, feed phase pH, initial phenol concentration, polymeric support type and membrane stability. Regardless of its comparatively low extraction efficiency of phenol, the SLM based on TOPO exhibits higher long-term stability as compared to tributyl phosphate (TBP). Elaborated SLM system retained its stability and initial performance during the 5 days long experiment contrary to the TBP-SLM system where a time dependent negative tendency (transport efficiency decline) was observed. PMID:21871728

Zidi, Chiraz; Tayeb, Rafik; Dhahbi, Mahmoud

2011-08-05

172

Hydrogen evolution across nano-Schottky junctions at carbon supported MoS2 catalysts in biphasic liquid systems.  

PubMed

The activities of a series of MoS(2)-based hydrogen evolution catalysts were studied by biphasic reactions monitored by UV/Vis spectroscopy. Carbon supported MoS(2) catalysts performed best due to an abundance of catalytic edge sites and strong electronic coupling of catalyst to support. PMID:22627998

Ge, Peiyu; Scanlon, Micheál D; Peljo, Pekka; Bian, Xiaojun; Vubrel, Heron; O'Neill, Arlene; Coleman, Jonathan N; Cantoni, Marco; Hu, Xile; Kontturi, Kyösti; Liu, Baohong; Girault, Hubert H

2012-05-24

173

Potential of novel MCM-41 mesoporous molecular sieves as supports for catalytic conversion of coal-derived liquids into clean transportation fuels  

SciTech Connect

The world will continue to rely on liquid fuels to fulfill the world's transportation energy needs. The demonstrated coal reserves in the world would last for 220 years at the world's annual consumption rate in 1996, while the known oil reserves as of 1997 would last a mere 40 years at the world's consumption rate of 1996. Thus the conversion of coal derived liquids into transportation fuels will be an area of long-term research. Heightened awareness and knowledge on the detrimental effects of automobile emissions and pollution from liquid fuels has led society to articulate its desire for improved air quality through stringent environmental regulations concerning fuel quality. These fuel quality standards are getting all the more stringent. A specific example is that of sulfur content in diesel; the now common sulfur content of 500 wppm is set to come down to 30 wppm. Coal derived liquids will, thus, require extensive processing and one important process is hydrotreating. Such fuel quality standards will make the task of hydrotreating at refineries technologically more challenging. One promising approach is to develop hydrotreating catalysts with steep increase in activity. In 1992 researchers at Mobil Technology Company invented a new class of molecular sieves with pore diameters of 2--15 nm, i.e., mesoporous in nature. These mesoporous molecular sieves have high surface area in uniform mesopores and are expected to be of importance in hydroprocessing liquids, which contain large heteroatom-containing molecules such as alkylated dibenzothiophenes. This paper reviews research initiatives, with some of the earliest ones emerging from this laboratory, in the use of mesoporous aluminosilicate-supported catalysts for hydrogenation and hydrotreating.

Turaga, U.; Song, C.

1999-07-01

174

Supporting implementation of evidence-based behavioral interventions: the role of data liquidity in facilitating translational behavioral medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advancement of translational behavioral medicine will require that we discover new methods of managing large volumes of\\u000a data from disparate sources such as disease surveillance systems, public health systems, and health information systems containing\\u000a patient-centered data informed by behavioral and social sciences. The term “liquidity,” when applied to data, refers to its\\u000a availability and free flow throughout human\\/computer interactions.

Amy P Abernethy; Jane L Wheeler; Paul K Courtney; Francis J Keefe

2011-01-01

175

Rare-earth metal-ion separation using a supported liquid membrane mediated by a narrow rim phosphorylated calix[4]arene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transport of rare-earth metal ions through a supported liquid membrane mediated by 5,11,17,23-tetra-tert-butyl-25,26,27,28-tetrakis(diphenylphosphinoylmethoxy)calix[4]arene (1) (cone conformation) in o-nitrophenyl hexyl ether (NPHE) has been investigated. The effect of the initial metal concentration, salting-out agent concentration in the feed phase and temperature as well as the carrier concentration on the flux was studied. The separation ability of ligand 1 was tested

M. R Yaftian; M Burgard; C. B Dieleman; D Matt

1998-01-01

176

Theoretical and experimental correlations of gas dissolution, diffusion, and thermodynamic properties in determination of gas permeability and selectivity in supported ionic liquid membranes.  

PubMed

Supported ionic liquid membranes (SILMs) has the potential to be a new technological platform for gas/organic vapour separation because of the unique non-volatile nature and discriminating gas dissolution properties of room temperature ionic liquids (ILs). This work starts with an examination of gas dissolution and transport properties in bulk imidazulium cation based ionic liquids [C(n)mim][NTf2] (n=2.4, 6, 8.10) from simple gas H(2), N(2), to polar CO(2), and C(2)H(6), leading to a further analysis of how gas dissolution and diffusion are influenced by molecular specific gas-SILMs interactions, reflected by differences in gas dissolution enthalpy and entropy. These effects were elucidated again during gas permeation studies by examining how changes in these properties and molecular specific interactions work together to cause deviations from conventional solution-diffusion theory and their impact on some remarkably contrasting gas perm-selectivity performance. The experimental perm-selectivity for all tested gases showed varied and contrasting deviation from the solution-diffusion, depending on specific gas-IL combinations. It transpires permeation for simpler non-polar gases (H(2), N(2)) is diffusion controlled, but strong molecular specific gas-ILs interactions led to a different permeation and selectivity performance for C(2)H(6) and CO(2). With exothermic dissolution enthalpy and large order disruptive entropy, C(2)H(6) displayed the fastest permeation rate at increased gas phase pressure in spite of its smallest diffusivity among the tested gases. The C(2)H(6) gas molecules "peg" on the side alkyl chain on the imidazulium cation at low concentration, and are well dispersed in the ionic liquids phase at high concentration. On the other hand strong CO(2)-ILs affinity resulted in a more prolonged "residence time" for the gas molecule, typified by reversed CO(2)/N(2) selectivity and slowest CO(2) transport despite CO(2) possess the highest solubility and comparable diffusivity in the ionic liquids. The unique transport and dissolution behaviour of CO(2) are further exploited by examining the residing state of CO(2) molecules in the ionic liquid phase, which leads to a hypothesis of a condensing and holding capacity of ILs towards CO(2), which provide an explanation to slower CO(2) transport through the SILMs. The pressure related exponential increase in permeations rate is also analysed which suggests a typical concentration dependent diffusion rate at high gas concentration under increased gas feed pressure. Finally the strong influence of discriminating and molecular specific gas-ILs interactions on gas perm-selectivity performance points to future specific design of ionic liquids for targeted gas separations. PMID:21333963

Gan, Quan; Zou, Yiran; Rooney, David; Nancarrow, Paul; Thompson, Jillian; Liang, Lizhe; Lewis, Moira

2011-02-01

177

Separation of CO{sub 2} from CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} mixture using supported polymeric liquid membranes at elevated temperatures  

SciTech Connect

Novel supported polymeric liquid (SPL) membranes have been prepared and shown to be applicable for the separation of CO{sub 2} from mixtures with N{sub 2} at the elevated temperature encountered in flue gas. The membranes were fabricated by immobilizing polystyrene, polyethylene, and polydimethylsiloxane into the pores of borosilicate glass supports. At 250 C, the CO{sub 2} permeability and CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} separation factors were 3000--9000 barrer and 1.7--3.7, respectively. It was shown that polymers which have a lower T{sub g} or melting temperature than the operating temperature can be used as SPL membrane materials at elevated temperatures.

Jeong, S.H.; Lee, K.H. [Pohang Univ. of Science and Technology (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1999-09-01

178

Systematic evaluation of supported liquid extraction in reducing matrix effect and improving extraction efficiency in LC-MS/MS based bioanalysis for 10 model pharmaceutical compounds.  

PubMed

In past a few years, there has been a large increase in the application of supported liquid extraction (SLE) for LC-MS/MS based bioanalysis due to its distinct practical advantage in reduced time cost, ease of operation and the feasibility for automation. The main purpose of this study was to systematically evaluate supported liquid extraction in reducing matrix effect and improving extraction efficiency/recovery under various extraction conditions with 10 model pharmaceutical compounds in liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) analysis. Selected compounds have diverse physicochemical properties where logP ranges from 0.1 to 6.24 and pK(a) ranges from 4.0 to 11.1. The factors that may have the impact on the recovery of analytes and phospholipids (PL) were assessed. Over 75% recovery was achieved for every analyte under its respectively optimized extraction conditions where the selection of the polarity of extraction solvent and buffered pH can be critical for efficient recovery. Furthermore, the matrix effect was assessed by postextraction spike and postcolumn infusion method. The matrix effect was considerably reduced for all analytes under most extraction conditions evaluated for SLE, compared with protein precipitation (PPT) method. The correlation between matrix effect and residual phospholipids in sample extract was clearly shown. Although analyte-dependent matrix effect was observed prominently in sample extract prepared by PPT, it was minimized by SLE sample preparation process that effectively removes the majority of phospholipids. Sample extracted by ethyl acetate contained more phospholipids and demonstrated stronger matrix effect than by other organic solvents. Water-miscible organic content, such as methanol and acetonitrile in samples prior to loading has significant impact on PL recovery when eluting with methyl tert-butyl ether. However, isopropanol does not enhance the recovery of PL when adding to dichloromethane for elution. In addition, the compromise between improved extraction efficiency by SLE and reduced matrix effect is sometimes necessary to yield clean extract with acceptable recovery. The effective removal of phospholipids and reduction of matrix effect, while achieving good recovery for all pharmaceutical compounds with diverse physicochemical properties, demonstrated that SLE is a valuable alternative technique to liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) in high throughput LC-MS/MS based bioanalysis. PMID:22410088

Jiang, Hongliang; Cao, Huachuan; Zhang, Yang; Fast, Douglas M

2012-02-23

179

Role of diluent on the separation of 90Y from 90Sr by solvent extraction and supported liquid membrane using T2EHDGA as the extractant.  

PubMed

The separation behaviour of (90)Y from (90)Sr was investigated by diluent variation using solvent extraction and supported liquid membrane techniques employing N,N,N',N'-tetra-2-ethylhexyldiglycolamide (T2EHDGA) as the extractant. Both D(Y) (distribution ratio of Y(III)) and S.F. (separation factor) were found to be high in the solvent extraction studies when chloroform was used as the diluent. Subsequent supported liquid membrane (SLM) studies using PTFE flat sheet membranes containing 0.2M T2EHDGA in various diluents indicated the trend of Y transport as xylene>hexone>chloroform>carbon tetrachloride>n-dodecane+30% iso-decanol mixture. However, the Sr(II) transport rates were also high with xylene, hexone, and carbon tetrachloride as the diluents which led us to carry out subsequent studies using chloroform and n-dodecane+30% iso-decanol mixture. Acid variation studies in chloroform system indicated an interesting phenomena of increasing Y(III) transport and decreasing Sr(II) transport with increasing acid concentration. Separation of (90)Y from a mixture of (90)Sr and (90)Y was also attempted. PMID:22309631

Dutta, S; Raut, D R; Mohapatra, P K

2012-01-25

180

A fully integrated continuous-flow system for asymmetric catalysis: enantioselective hydrogenation with supported ionic liquid phase catalysts using supercritical CO(2) as the mobile phase.  

PubMed

A continuous-flow process based on a chiral transition-metal complex in a supported ionic liquid phase (SILP) with supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO(2)) as the mobile phase is presented for asymmetric catalytic transformations of low-volatility organic substrates at mild reaction temperatures. Enantioselectivity of >99% ee and quantitative conversion were achieved in the hydrogenation of dimethylitaconate for up to 30 h, reaching turnover numbers beyond 100000 for the chiral QUINAPHOS-rhodium complex. By using an automated high-pressure continuous-flow setup, the product was isolated in analytically pure form without the use of any organic co-solvent and with no detectable catalyst leaching. Phase-behaviour studies and high-pressure NMR spectroscopy assisted the localisation of optimum process parameters by quantification of substrate partitioning between the IL and scCO(2). Fundamental insight into the molecular interactions of the metal complex, ionic liquid and the surface of the support in working SILP catalyst materials was gained by means of systematic variations, spectroscopic studies and labelling experiments. In concert, the obtained results provided a rationale for avoiding progressive long-term deactivation. The optimised system reached stable selectivities and productivities that correspond to 0.7 kgL(-1)h(-1) space-time yield and at least 100 kg product per gram of rhodium, thus making such processes attractive for larger-scale application. PMID:23463487

Hintermair, Ulrich; Franciò, Giancarlo; Leitner, Walter

2013-03-05

181

Transport study of hafnium(IV) and zirconium(IV) ions mutual separation by using Tri-n-butyl phosphate-xylene-based supported liquid membranes  

SciTech Connect

A Hf transport study through supported liquid membranes has been carried out to determine flux and permeability data for this metal ion. Tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP)-xylene-based liquid membranes supported in polypropylene hydrophobic microporous film have been used. These data for hafnium and the previous data for zirconium have furnished the Zr to Hf flux ratio (S) as a function of nitric acid and TBP concentrations of the order of 12 in a single stage at room temperature. Optimum conditions for the separation of these two metal ions appear to 5-6 TBP mol/dm{sup 3} HNO{sub 3}, concentrations {le} 2.93 mol/dm{sup 3}, and 10C. The value of S from an aqueous solution containing 2.4% Hf with respect to Zr has been found to be >125 at 10C and 1.78 mol/dm{sup 3} TBP concentration in the membrane. The technique appears to be feasible for purification of Zr respect to Hf or vice versa.

Chaudry, M.A.; Ahmed, B. (Pakistan Inst. of Nuclear Science and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan))

1992-02-01

182

LIQUID PHASE SELECTIVE OXIDATION OF ETHYLBENZENE OVER ACTIVATED AL2O3 SUPPORTED V2O5 CATALYST  

EPA Science Inventory

Acetophenone, a very useful industrial chemical for fragrance and flavoring agent and a solvent for plastics and resins, is usually produced as a byproduct of phenol production from cumeme. Aluminia supported vandium oxide catalyst is now explored for the selective oxidation of e...

183

Direct and sensitized liquid phase photodeposition for the preparation of alumina supported Pd nanoparticles for applications to heterogeneous catalysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different photochemical approaches have been investigated to prepare alumina supported Pd nanoparticles to be used as heterogeneous\\u000a catalysts. The employed techniques were: (i) direct photodeposition, (ii) sensitized photodeposition, and (iii) photodeposition\\u000a in the presence of a protecting agent (polyvinylpirrolidone). The sensitized photodeposition with acetone resulted to be the\\u000a most proper technique, allowing to obtain, in very short irradiation time, Pd

S. Scirè; S. Giuffrida; C. Crisafulli; P. M. Riccobene; A. Pistone

184

Functionalized mesoporous silica supported copper(II) and nickel(II) catalysts for liquid phase oxidation of olefins.  

PubMed

Highly ordered 2D-hexagonal mesoporous silica has been functionalized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (3-APTES). This is followed by its condensation with a dialdehyde, 4-methyl-2,6-diformylphenol to produce an immobilized Schiff-base ligand (I). This material is separately treated with methanolic solution of copper(II) chloride and nickel(II) chloride to obtain copper and nickel anchored mesoporous materials, designated as Cu-AMM and Ni-AMM, respectively. The materials have been characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and UV-vis diffuse reflectance (DRS) spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), N(2) adsorption-desorption studies and (13)C CP MAS NMR spectroscopy. The metal-grafted mesoporous materials have been used as catalysts for the efficient and selective epoxidation of alkenes, viz. cyclohexene, trans-stilbene, styrene, ?-methyl styrene, cyclooctene and norbornene to their corresponding epoxides in the presence of tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) as the oxidant under mild liquid phase conditions. PMID:21989952

Nandi, Mahasweta; Roy, Partha; Uyama, Hiroshi; Bhaumik, Asim

2011-10-11

185

Resistance of Lactobacillus casei in plastic-composite-support biofilm reactors during liquid membrane extraction and optimization of the lactic acid extraction system.  

PubMed

Lactic acid fermentations were performed with plastic-composite-support (PCS) disks in solvent-saturated media with Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus (ATCC 11443). The PCS disks contained 50% (w/w) polypropylene, 35% (w/w) ground soybean hulls, 5% (w/w) yeast extract, 5% (w/w) soybean flour, and 5% (w/w) bovine albumin. Bioassays were performed by growing L. casei in solvent-saturated media after soaking the PCS disks. Eighteen different solvent and carrier combinations were evaluated. Overall, L. casei biofilm fermentation demonstrated the same lactic acid production in solvent-saturated medium as suspended cells in medium without solvents (control). To evaluate PCS solvent-detoxifying properties, two bioassays were developed. When solvent-saturated medium in consecutive equal volumes (10 mL then 10 mL) was exposed to PCS, both media demonstrated lactic acid fermentation equal to the control. However, when solvent-saturated medium with two consecutive unequal volumes (10 mL then 90 mL) was exposed to PCS, some degree of toxicity was observed. Furthermore, iso-octane, tributylphosphate (TBP), and Span 80 were optimized for recovery as 91%, 5%, and 4% (v/v), respectively, with a 1:1 ratio of 1.2 M Na(2)CO(3) stripping solution. Also, recovery by emulsion liquid extraction in the hollow-fiber contactor was minimal due to low recovery at pH 5.0 and incompatibility of the solvent and hollow-fiber material. These results suggest that PCS biofilm reactors can benefit lactic acid fermentation by eliminating the toxic effect from solvent leakage into the fermentation medium from liquid-liquid extractive integrated fermentations. PMID:12889015

Demirci, Ali; Cotton, Julie C; Pometto, Anthony L; Harkins, Kristi R; Hinz, Paul N

2003-09-30

186

Passive extraction and clean-up of phenoxy acid herbicides in samples from a groundwater plume using hollow fiber supported liquid membranes.  

PubMed

Hollow fiber supported liquid membranes were applied for the passive extraction of phenoxy acid herbicides from water samples. Polypropylene hollow fiber membranes (240 microm i.d., 30 microm wall thickness, 0.05 microm pore size, 30 cm length) were impregnated with 2.0% tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) in di-n-hexyl ether in the pores of the fiber wall to form a liquid membrane. They were then filled with basic solution in the lumen as acceptor and finally placed into the sample (donor). Complete extraction of phenoxy acid herbicides including 2,4-D, MCPA, dichlorprop, and mecoprop from an acidified sample (4 mL, adjusted to pH 1.5 with HCl) into basic acceptor (10 microL of 0.2M NaOH) was achieved after 4 h of shaking (100 rpm) resulting in an enrichment factor of 400 times. The acceptor was then neutralized by addition of HCl and injected into a HPLC system for the determination of the phenoxy acid herbicides. Environmentally relevant salinity (0-3.5% NaCl) and dissolved organic matter (0-25 mg/L of dissolved organic carbon) had no significant effect on the extraction. The method provided extraction efficiencies of more than 91%, detection limits of 0.3-0.6 microg/L, and combined extraction and clean up in one single step. This procedure was applied to determine aqueous concentrations of phenoxy acid herbicides in groundwater samples collected from an old dumping site (Cheminova, Denmark) with detected concentrations up to 5800 microg/L. Although the samples were very dirty with large amounts of suspended particles, non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) and dissolved organic matters, good spike recoveries (80-126%) were obtained for 10 of the 11 samples. PMID:17449052

Liu, Jing-Fu; Toräng, Lars; Mayer, Philipp; Jönsson, Jan Ake

2007-04-13

187

Supported liquid extraction in the quantitation of plasma enterolignans using isotope dilution GC/MS with application to flaxseed consumption in healthy adults.  

PubMed

Dietary interventions involving foods that are enriched in lignans, such as flaxseed, are drawing attention due to their beneficial protective effects in various diseases and human conditions. Accurate quantitation of key lignan metabolites such as enterodiol (END) and enterolactone (ENL) is necessary in order to identify factors that may influence overall bioavailability. Here we describe the validation of a novel supported liquid extraction (SLE) method for isolation of plasma enterolignans, END and ENL, using (2)H(6)-labeled isotopes with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in micro selected ion storage (GC/MS-?SIS) mode. Following enzymatic hydrolysis and SLE extraction with 70:30 diethyl ether:ethyl acetate, enterolignans were rapidly separated within 8min. SLE in combination with GC/MS-?SIS gave high recoveries of 96.4% and 96.0% for END and ENL. Intra-assay precision ranged from 2.5 to 5.9% for both compounds whereas the inter-assay precision was 2.6-6.9%. SLE was also directly compared to liquid liquid extraction (LLE). Both techniques offered high precision and accuracy, however, SLE consistently enabled successful analyte extractions and derivatizations, unlike LLE, which had an ?4% failure rate. SLE was also tested in a study where dietary milled flaxseed supplementation (30g/day for 1month) and enterolignan bioavailability was examined in a healthy, human population (n=10). Plasma total enterolignan levels significantly increased (P=0.002) at 4weeks relative to baseline. Average concentrations for END and ENL were 209nM and 304nM, respectively. PMID:23290922

Edel, Andrea L; Aliani, Michel; Pierce, Grant N

2012-11-01

188

Permeation of mixtures of four phenols through a supported liquid membrane in NaCl 1.0 mol/dm{sup 3} medium  

SciTech Connect

The permeation of four phenols (phenol, 2-chlorophenol, 2-nitrophenol, and 2,4-dichlorophenol) through a supported liquid membrane has been studied in NaCl 1.0 mol/dm{sup 3} medium. The flux of each phenol was determined by measuring in real time the change of their concentration in the strip phase by making use of a fiber optic spectrophotometer and a multivariate calibration. The model for the permeation of phenol alone was first developed by making permeation experiments of a phenol, and then permeation studies of the mixture were carried out and the model was extended to those phenols. It was found that the permeation of a phenol is interfered with by the presence of other phenols.

Arana, G.; Borge, G.; Etxebarria, N.; Fernandez, L.A. [Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, Bilbao (Spain)

1999-02-01

189

Equilibrium sampling through membranes of freely dissolved chlorophenols in water samples with hollow fiber supported liquid membrane.  

PubMed

The freely dissolved concentration (C(free)) of pollutants is generally believed to be bioavailable and thus responsible for toxic effects. The C(free) of organic weak acids and bases consists of a dissociated and a nondissociated fraction. By using chlorophenols as model compounds, a negligible-depletion extraction technique, equilibrium sampling through membranes (ESTM), was developed for the measurement of the nondissociated part of the C(free). Polypropylene hollow fiber membranes (280-microm i.d., 50-microm wall thickness, 0.1-microm pore size, 15-cm length) were impregnated with undecane in the pores in the fiber wall as liquid membrane and filled with buffer solution in the lumen as acceptor. Then, the hollow fiber membranes were placed into the sample (donor) for an equilibrium extraction after sealing the two ends. The chlorophenol concentrations in the acceptor were then determined by direct injection into a HPLC system. Finally, the C(free) of the nondissociated and the dissociated species of a chlorophenol were calculated based on its measured concentration in the acceptor, its pK(a) value, and the measured pH in sample and acceptor. Theoretically calculated distribution coefficients (D = 8-970) agree well with the experimental enrichment factors (E(e(max)) = 6-1124), and the equilibration time was observed to increase with increasing distribution coefficients (hours to days). The freely dissolved concentration of five chlorophenols, with a wide range of pK(a) (4.9-9.2) and log K(ow) (2.35-5.24), were successfully determined in model solutions of humic acids and at low-ppb levels in river and leachate water. PMID:16053291

Liu, Jing-fu; Jönsson, Jan Ake; Mayer, Philipp

2005-08-01

190

Core-shell diamond as a support for solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography.  

PubMed

We report the formation of core-shell diamond particles for solid-phase extraction (SPE) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) made by layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition. Their synthesis begins with the amine functionalization of microdiamond by its immersion in an aqueous solution of a primary amine-containing polymer (polyallylamine (PAAm)). The amine-terminated microdiamond is then immersed in an aqueous suspension of nanodiamond, which leads to adsorption of the nanodiamond. Alternating (self-limiting) immersions in the solutions of the amine-containing polymer and the suspension of nanodiamond are continued until the desired number of nanodiamond layers is formed around the microdiamond. Finally, the core-shell particles are cross-linked with 1,2,5,6-diepoxycyclooctane or reacted with 1,2-epoxyoctadecane. Layer-by-layer deposition of PAAm and nanodiamond is also studied on planar Si/SiO(2) surfaces, which were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA). Core-shell particles are characterized by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFT), environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and pore size measurements. Larger (ca. 50 microm) core-shell diamond particles have much higher surface areas and analyte loading capacities in SPE than nonporous solid diamond particles. Smaller (ca. 3 microm), normal and reversed-phase, core-shell diamond particles have been used for HPLC, with 36,300 plates/m for mesitylene in a separation of benzene and alkyl benzenes and 54,800 plates/m for diazinon in a similar separation of two pesticides on a C(18) adsorbent. PMID:20446670

Saini, Gaurav; Jensen, David S; Wiest, Landon A; Vail, Michael A; Dadson, Andrew; Lee, Milton L; Shutthanandan, V; Linford, Matthew R

2010-06-01

191

Extraction and preconcentration of salbutamol and terbutaline from aqueous samples using hollow fiber supported liquid membrane containing anionic carrier.  

PubMed

This paper presents a new three-phase liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) strategy for extraction and preconcentration of salbutamol (SB) and terbutaline (TB) from aqueous samples, including urine. The drugs were extracted from 11 ml of aqueous sample (source phase; SP) into an organic phase with microliter volume located inside the pores of a polypropylene hollow fiber, and then back-extracted into 24 microl of a second aqueous solution as the receiving phase (RP), located in the lumen of the hollow fiber. In preliminary experiments, we tried to transport the drugs using a pH gradient between the two sides of the hollow fiber. Due to the existence of both amine and phenolic groups on the drugs, very little transport occurred and enrichment factors (EF) less than one were obtained. Further experiments were done in the presence of bis(2-ethylhexyl) monohydrogenphosphoric acid (D2EHPA) or methyltrioctylammonium chloride (Aliquat 336) in the organic phase, to extract drugs from acidic and basic matrices, respectively. Results showed that transport of drugs from alkaline solution into 1M of sodium bromide occurred when the membrane was impregnated with dihexyl ether containing 20% Aliquat 336. To optimize the EF, the effects of different parameters such as the nature of organic solvent used to impregnate the membrane, compositions and volumes of SP and RP, type and concentration of carrier, extraction time and stirring rate were investigated. Optimal results were obtained in the presence of 0.005 M of NaOH (pH 11.70) in the SP, 1M of NaBr in the RP, 20% of Aliquat 336 in dihexyl ether as membrane impregnation solvent, stirring rate of 500 rpm and extraction time of 60 min. Under these conditions, enrichment factors of 52.9 and 213.1, dynamic linear ranges of 20-5000 and 10-5000, and limits of detection of 2.5 and 0.5 ng/ml were obtained for salbutamol and terbutaline, respectively. Also determination of drugs in environmental water and urine samples in the range of nanograms per millilitre with RSDs<10% was possible using HPLC-photodiode array detection or HPLC-MS. PMID:16716341

Yamini, Yadollah; Reimann, Curt T; Vatanara, Alireza; Jönsson, Jan Ake

2006-05-22

192

Carbon nanotubes supported Pt Ni catalysts and their properties for the liquid phase hydrogenation of cinnamaldehyde to hydrocinnamaldehyde  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Pt Ni catalysts supported on CNTs have been prepared by wet impregnation and the selective hydrogenation of cinnamaldehyde (CMA) to the corresponding hydrocinnamaldehyde (HCMA) over the catalysts has been studied in ethanol at different reaction conditions. The results show that Pt 0.34 wt% Ni/CNTs catalyst exhibits the highest activity and selectivity at a reaction temperature of 70 °C under a pressure of around 2.0 MPa, and 98.6% for the conversion of CMA and 88.2% for the selectivity of CMA to HCMA, respectively. The selective hydrogenation for the CC bond in CMA would be improved as increasing the reaction temperature, and the hydrogenation for the CO bond in CMA is enhanced as increasing the H2 pressure. In addition, these catalysts have also been characterized using TEM-EDS, XPS, H2-TPR and H2-TPD techniques. The results show that Pt particles are dispersed more homogeneously on the outer surface of the nanotubes, while the strong interaction between Pt and Ni would improve the increasing of activated hydrogen number because of the hydrogen spillover from reduced Pt0 onto CNTs and increase the catalytic activity and selectivity of CMA to HCMA.

Li, Yan; Lai, Guo-Hua; Zhou, Ren-Xian

2007-03-01

193

Immobilised lipase on structured supports containing covalently attached ionic liquids for the continuous synthesis of biodiesel in scCO2.  

PubMed

Different nanostructured supports, based on 1-decyl-2-methyimidazolium cations covalently attached to a polystyrene divinylbenzene porous matrix, were used as carriers to immobilise Candida antarctica lipase B. The suitability of these immobilised lipase derivatives for the synthesis of biodiesel (methyl oleate) by the methanolysis of triolein has been tested in both tert-butanol and supercritical (sc)CO(2) (18 MPa, 45 °C) as reaction media. The use of modified supports with low ionic-liquid loading covalently attached to the main polymeric backbone chains provide structured materials that led to the best biodiesel yields (up to 95 %) and operational stability (85 % biodiesel yield after 45 cycles of 8-4 h) in scCO(2) (45 °C, 18 MPa). The presence of tert-butanol as an inert cosolvent in the scCO(2) phase at the same concentration as triolein was key to avoid poisoning the biocatalyst through the blockage of its active sites by the polar byproduct (glycerol) produced in the biodiesel synthesis. PMID:22383391

Lozano, Pedro; García-Verdugo, Eduardo; Bernal, Juana M; Izquierdo, Diana F; Burguete, M Isabel; Sánchez-Gómez, Gregorio; Luis, Santiago V

2012-03-01

194

A biological method of including mineralized human liquid and solid wastes into the mass exchange of bio-technical life support systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main obstacle to using mineralized human solid and liquid wastes as a source of mineral elements for plants cultivated in bio-technical life support systems (BLSS) is that they contain NaCl. The purpose of this study is to determine whether mineralized human wastes can be used to prepare the nutrient solution for long-duration conveyor cultivation of uneven-aged wheat and Salicornia europaea L. plant community. Human solid and liquid wastes were mineralized by the method of "wet incineration" developed by Yu. Kudenko. They served as a basis for preparing the solutions that were used for conveyor-type cultivation of wheat community represented by 5 age groups, planted with a time interval of 14 days. Wheat was cultivated hydroponically on expanded clay particles. To reduce salt content of the nutrient solution, every two weeks, after wheat was harvested, 12 L of solution was removed from the wheat irrigation tank and used for Salicornia europaea cultivation in water culture in a conveyor mode. The Salicornia community was represented by 2 age groups, planted with a time interval of 14 days. As some portion of the nutrient solution used for wheat cultivation was regularly removed, sodium concentration in the wheat irrigation solution did not exceed 400 mg/L, and mineral elements contained in the removed portion were used for Salicornia cultivation. The experiment lasted 4 months. The total wheat biomass productivity averaged 30.1 g · m-2 · day-1, and the harvest index amounted to 36.8%. The average productivity of Salicornia edible biomass on a dry weight basis was 39.3 g · m-2 · day-1, and its aboveground mass contained at least 20% of NaCl. Thus, the proposed technology of cultivation of wheat and halophyte plant community enables using mineralized human wastes as a basis for preparing nutrient solutions and including NaCl in the mass exchange of the BLSS; moreover, humans are supplied with additional amounts of leafy vegetables.

Ushakova, S. A.; Tikhomirov, A. A.; Tikhomirova, N. A.; Kudenko, Yu. A.; Litovka, Yu. A.; Anishchenko, O. V.

2012-10-01

195

Polymer-supported ionic liquid solid phase extraction for trace inorganic and organic mercury determination in water samples by flow injection-cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry.  

PubMed

A simple and green technique named polymer-supported ionic liquid solid phase extraction (PSIL-SPE) was developed for mercury (Hg) species determination. Inorganic Hg (InHg) species was complexed with chloride ions followed by its introduction into a flow injection on-line system to quantitatively retain the anionic chlorocomplex (HgCl4(2-)) in a column packed with CYPHOS(®) IL 101-impregnated resin. The trapped InHg was then reduced with stannous chloride (SnCl2) and eluted with the same flow of reducing agent followed by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS) detection. Organic mercury species (OrgHg) did not interact with the impregnated resin and were not retained into the column. Total concentration of OrgHg was evaluated by difference between total Hg and InHg concentration. A 95% extraction efficiency was achieved for InHg when the procedure was developed under optimal experimental conditions. The limit of detection obtained for preconcentration of 40mL of sample was 2.4ngL(-1) InHg. The relative standard deviation (RSD) was 2.7% (at 1µgL(-1) InHg and n=10) calculated from the peak height of absorbance signals (Gaussian-shape and reproducible peaks). This work reports the first polymer-supported IL solid phase extraction approach implemented in a flow injection on-line system for determination of Hg species in mineral, tap and river water samples. PMID:24148384

Escudero, Leticia B; Olsina, Roberto A; Wuilloud, Rodolfo G

2013-05-09

196

Selective transport of copper(I, II), cadmium(II), and zinc(II) ions through a supported liquid membrane containing bathocuproine, neocuproine, or bathophenanthroline  

SciTech Connect

Some selective transport systems for heavy metallic ions through a supported liquid membrane (SLM) containing a 2,2[prime]-dipyridyl derivative ligand, 4,7-diphenyl-2,9-dimethyl-1, 10-phenanthroline (bathocuproine), 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline (neocuproine), or 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (bathophenanthroline), were investigated. The transport of copper(I, II), cadmium(II), zinc(II), lead(II), and cobalt(II) ions was accomplished with a halogen ion such as chloride, bromide, or iodide ion as a pairing ion species for any SLM. The ranking of the permeability of the metallic ions was Cu[sup +,2+], Zn[sup 2+], Cd[sup 2+] [much gt] Pb[sup 2+], Co[sup 2+]. When the oxidation-reduction potential gradient was used as a driving force for metallic ions, the transport of Cu[sup +] ions was higher than those of Cd[sup 2+] and Zn[sup 2+] ions for any SLM containing bathocuproine, neocuproine, or bathophenanthroline. On the other hand, in the transport system which used the concentration gradient of pairing ion species, the permeability of the Cu[sup 2+] ion decreased whereas that of the Cd[sup 2+] ion increased. Moreover, it was found that the different selectivity for the transport of metallic ions is produced by using various pairing ion species. 18 refs., 9 figs.

Saito, Takashi (Kanagawa Institute of Technology, Atsugi (Japan))

1994-06-01

197

Selective separation of radio-cesium from acidic solutions using supported liquid membrane containing chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide (CCD) in phenyltrifluoromethyl sulphone (PTMS).  

PubMed

A supported liquid membrane method was developed using chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide (CCD) in phenyltrifluoromethyl sulphone (PTMS) as the carrier, impregnated in PTFE flat sheet membranes for the selective separation of Cs(I) from nitric acid feed solution. Solvent extraction studies were carried out for optimizing the feed as well as strip conditions. >95% Facilitated transport of Cs(I) was observed in about 3h when 1M HNO(3) and 8M HNO(3) were used as the feed and strip solutions, respectively while 0.025M CCD in PTMS was used as the carrier extractant. Selectivity studies, carried out using a mixture of radiotracers viz. (51)Cr, (59)Fe, (99)Mo, (99m)Tc, (106)Ru, (137)Cs, (152)Eu and (241)Am, indicated selective transport of Cs(I) with DF values >100. Though reproducibility of the transport data was excellent when carried out in two successive transport experiments with freshly loaded carrier solvent, the stability of the membrane was poor which restricts its long term use. PMID:20542376

Mohapatra, P K; Bhattacharyya, A; Manchanda, V K

2010-06-12

198

In silico and in vitro metabolism studies support identification of designer drugs in human urine by liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Human phase I metabolism of four designer drugs, 2-desoxypipradrol (2-DPMP), 3,4-dimethylmethcathinone (3,4-DMMC), ?-pyrrolidinovalerophenone (?-PVP), and methiopropamine (MPA), was studied using in silico and in vitro metabolite prediction. The metabolites were identified in drug abusers’ urine samples using liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/Q-TOF/MS). The aim of the study was to evaluate the ability of the in silico and in vitro methods to generate the main urinary metabolites found in vivo. Meteor 14.0.0 software (Lhasa Limited) was used for in silico metabolite prediction, and in vitro metabolites were produced in human liver microsomes (HLMs). 2-DPMP was metabolized by hydroxylation, dehydrogenation, and oxidation, resulting in six phase I metabolites. Six metabolites were identified for 3,4-DMMC formed via N-demethylation, reduction, hydroxylation, and oxidation reactions. ?-PVP was found to undergo reduction, hydroxylation, dehydrogenation, and oxidation reactions, as well as degradation of the pyrrolidine ring, and seven phase I metabolites were identified. For MPA, the nor-MPA metabolite was detected. Meteor software predicted the main human urinary phase I metabolites of 3,4-DMMC, ?-PVP, and MPA and two of the four main metabolites of 2-DPMP. It assisted in the identification of the previously unreported metabolic reactions for ?-PVP. Eight of the 12 most abundant in vivo phase I metabolites were detected in the in vitro HLM experiments. In vitro tests serve as material for exploitation of in silico data when an authentic urine sample is not available. In silico and in vitro designer drug metabolism studies with LC/Q-TOF/MS produced sufficient metabolic information to support identification of the parent compound in vivo. PMID:23797910

Tyrkkö, Elli; Pelander, Anna; Ketola, Raimo A; Ojanperä, Ilkka

2013-08-01

199

Liquid Phase Methanol Process Development Unit: installation, operation, and support studies. Technical progress report No. 10, 1 January-31 March 1984  

SciTech Connect

This extremely significant 10th quarter was highlighted by the successful shakedown operation of the LaPorte PDU. Obstacles to start-up, which included exotherms in the unit and the presence of carbonyls, were eliminated. For the successful 10-day PDU shakedown operation, 900 lb of EPJ-19LR catalyst were used. Methanol was produced from both balanced and CO-rich synthesis gas at various operating conditions, and ranged from 1.8 to 8.5 tpd. The highest catalyst productivity achieved during the run was 1.75 lb of methanol/lb catalyst-h, which is significantly higher than can be achieved in gas phase synthesis. Catalyst attrition was significant; the catalyst extrudates in the ebullated-bed reactor rapidly attrited. The catalyst formed an 18 wt % slurry by the end of the run. However, during the transition from ebullated to slurry catalyst, the PDU and catalyst performed very well, and catalyst activity remained high. Support work at CSI continued with autoclave testing of a new catalyst candidate for liquid-entrained operations, and with other miscellaneous tests for hydrodynamic characterization of catalyst powders. At APCI, a 250-h test using an ICI catalyst on balanced gas at a 37 wt % loading was successfully completed in the 300-cc autoclave. The results are very encouraging with respect to maximizing productivity on a reactor volume basis. To complete the data base on catalyst aging, a gas phase activity maintenance run was successfully conducted. The results suggest that CO may be important in catalyst deactivation for gas phase methanol synthesis. 6 references, 32 figures, 28 tables.

Not Available

1984-04-20

200

Liquid level sensing device  

DOEpatents

A liquid level sensing device comprising a load cell supporting a column or stack of segments freely resting on one another. The density of each element is substantially identical to that of the surrounding liquid. The elements are freely guided within a surrounding tube. As each element is exposed above the liquid level, its weight will be impressed through the column to the load cell, thereby providing a signal at the load cell directly proportional to the liquid level elevation.

Tokarz, Richard D. (West Richland, WA)

1983-01-01

201

Halophytic plants as a component of a bioregenerative life support system for recycling of NaCl contained in human liquid waste.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently, the closure of matter turnover is one of the urgent problems of bioregenerative life support system (BLSS) designing. The important aspect of the problem is involving of substances contained in liquid and solid exometabolites of humans inhabiting BLSS into intrasystem matter turnover. Recycling of Na+ and Cl- contained in human liquid exometabolites, i.e. urine is acknowledged to be among the main tasks of the matter turnover in BLSS. The ions excreted with urine may be returned to human organism with food. A way to allow this is including edible halophytic plants into the phototrophic compartment of BLSS. Halophytes are defined as plants which can grow on saline soils and produce high biomass under these conditions. Some halophytes can take up high quantities of Na+ and Cl- and accumulate the ions in the shoots or extrude them to leaf surface by means of salt glands. To allow Na+ and Cl- recycling through halophyte utilization, the following principal steps should be accomplished: (i) mineralization of the exometabolites by physicochemical methods; (ii) oxidation of ammonia formed during the exometabolite mineralization to nitrate by nitrifying bacteria, (iii) growing the halophyte on the nutrient solution prepared on the basis of the mineralized exometabolites, (iv) introducing the halophyte green biomass into human food. The present work is devoted to the following problems: (i) selection of a salt-accumulating/extruding halophytic plant suitable for Na+ and Cl- recycling in BLSS and (ii) parameter evaluation of a plant conveyor containing the halophytic plants at various ages. Halophytic plants selected for BLSS should meet the following criteria: (i) ability to grow under 24-hour-illumination, (ii) high productivity, (iii) ability to accumulate Na+ and Cl- in high quantities in shoots or to excrete salts to leaf surface, (iv) edibility, and (v) high nutritive value of the biomass. Relying on these criteria, salt-accumulating halophyte Salicornia europaea was selected from seven halophytic plant candidates, preliminary chosen from observations in their natural habitats, from our previous investigations and literature data. Characterization of the plant performance was obtained in the experiments on plants grown in water culture in a cultivation chamber under controlled conditions. A model nutrient solution simulating mineralized urine was used for halophyte growing. Under the experimental conditions, S.europaea exhibited high productivity and accumulated Na+ and Cl- in the shoots in high quantities. It has been shown that above-ground organs of S.europaea exhibit high nutritive value, the proteins are enriched with the essential amino acids and displayed high abundance of leucine, aspartic and glutamic acids. The results demonstrate that it is feasible to put into practice permanent Na+ and Cl- recycling in BLSS by a various-aged S.europaea conveyor. Relying on data on distribution of Na+ and Cl- between the plant and growth medium, parameters of the conveyor for permanent ion turnover in the system humans - exometabolites - nutrient solution - S.europaea - humans have been evaluated.

Balnokin, Yurii; Balnokin, Yurii; Myasoedov, Nikolay; Popova, Larissa; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Ushakova, Sofya; Tikhomirova, Natalia; Lasseur, Christophe; Gros, Jean-Bernard

202

Coupled transport of Zn(II) through a supported liquid membrane containing bis (2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) phosphinic acid in kerosene. II experimental evaluation of model equations for rate process under different limiting conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The kinetics of the permeation of Zn(II) from its aqueous solution through a solid supported liquid membrane containing bis(2,4,4-trimethyl pentyl) phosphinic acid (cyanex 272) solution in kerosene has been studied under different experimental conditions. The metal ion flux across the membrane is found to be dependent upon the concentrations of Zn(II) and H+ in the feed solution and carrier in

S. B. Kunungo; R. Mohapatra

1995-01-01

203

Regioselective hydrogenation of polynuclear heteroaromatic compounds catalyzed by polymer-supported transition metal complexes: initial rates, mechanism of reduction, model coal liquid experiment, role of p-cresol in rate enhancement of nitrogen ring reduction, catalytic transfer hydrogenation  

SciTech Connect

The research program focused on the utilization of polymer-supported (polystyrene-divinylbenzene, PS-DVB) transition-metal catalysts in the selective catalytic hydrogenation of polynuclear heteroaromatic compounds that are known to be present in coal and coal liquids. We found that the polymer-supported chloro(tristriphenylphosphine)rhodium(l) was the most efficient catalyst for the regiospecific reduction of the nitrogen containing ring in model coal compounds such as quinoline, 5,6 and 7,8-benzoquinoline, and acridine, and in one case, a heteroaromatic sulfur compound, benzothiophene. Interestingly, the polymer-supported rhodium catalyst was more active than the corresponding homogeneous analogue by relative rate factors of 10 to 20 depending on the substrate studied in the reduction. More importantly, a model coal liquid was found to have a relative rate of reduction of quinoline to 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline (THQ) that was 2.2 times faster than a similar experiment without the coal liquid constituents consisting of pyrene, tetralin, methylnaphthalene, p-cresol, quinoline and 2-methylpyridine. Further experimentation clearly showed that the model coal liquid constituent, p-cresol, was responsible for the relative rate enhancement in the highly regiospecific reduction of quinoline to THQ. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) experiments have given some insight into this rate enhancement phenomena. We also found that 9,10-dihydrophenanthridine was an excellent catalytic transfer hydrogenation reagent in the presence of several homogeneous and polymer-supported transition-metal catalysts to transfer hydrogen to such acceptors as quinoline and acridine. We also evaluated dihydroquinoline as a hydrogen transfer reagent, since THQ has been used as a donor solvent in coal liquefaction experiments. 15 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Fish, R.H.; Heinemann, H.

1985-06-01

204

Selective thiacalix[4]arene bearing three amide groups as ionophore of binary Pd(II) and Au(III) extraction by a supported liquid membrane system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thiacalix[4]arene derivatives are considered as specific ligands for metallic species in molecular recognition processes. In the present study, a new macrocyclic compound based on thiacalix[4]arene bearing three amide substituents is investigated for the extraction of gold and palladium in chloride media, and results are compared with those obtained with a similar ligand containing four amide substituents. Results obtained from liquid–liquid

Asma Zaghbani; Rafik Tayeb; Mahmoud Dhahbi; Manuela Hidalgo; Francis Vocanson; Isabelle Bonnamour; Patrick Seta; Clàudia Fontàs

2007-01-01

205

High-Surface-Area CO2 Sponge: High Performance CO2 Scrubbing Based on Hollow Fiber-Supported Designer Ionic Liquid Sponges  

SciTech Connect

IMPACCT Project: The team from ORNL and Georgia Tech is developing a new technology that will act like a sponge, integrating a new, alcohol-based ionic liquid into hollow fibers (magnified image, right) to capture CO2 from the exhaust produced by coal-fired power plants. Ionic liquids, or salts that exist in liquid form, are promising materials for carbon capture and storage, but their tendency to thicken when combined with CO2 limits their efficiency and poses a challenge for their development as a cost-effective alternative to current-generation solutions. Adding alcohol to the mix limits this tendency to thicken in the presence of CO2 but can also make the liquid more likely to evaporate, which would add significantly to the cost of CO2 capture. To solve this problem, ORNL is developing new classes of ionic liquids with high capacity for absorbing CO2. ORNL’s sponge would reduce the cost associated with the energy that would need to be diverted from power plants to capture CO2 and release it for storage.

None

2010-09-01

206

Electrochemistry at micro- and nanoscopic liquid/liquid interfaces.  

PubMed

In this tutorial review, we will briefly introduce the history and basic concepts of micro- and nanoscopic liquid/liquid interfaces (size from nm to ?m) in electrochemical studies of charge (electron and ion) transfer reactions at soft molecular interfaces. Their advantages and problems are usually compared with those of conventional liquid/liquid interfaces (size from mm to cm); and with solid/electrolyte interfaces. Three methods of fabrication of micro-liquid/liquid interfaces and one approach to support a nano-liquid/liquid interface are surveyed. The experimental and theoretical aspects are discussed along with possible approaches to characterize these micro- and nanoscopic liquid/liquid interfaces, and the methods to modify them with new functionality. Unique examples of applications of electrochemistry at micro- and nanoscopic liquid/liquid interfaces are provided. Some novel and potential research interests in the future in this field are discussed. PMID:21390350

Liu, Shujuan; Li, Qing; Shao, Yuanhua

2011-03-09

207

Separation and preconcentration of actinides by extraction chromatography using a supported liquid anion exchanger: application to the characterization of high-level nuclear waste solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel extraction chromatographic resin comprised of a quaternary amine-based liquid anion exchanger sorbed on an inert polymeric substrate for the sorption of actinides from nitric and hydrochloric acids is described. The resin is shown to exhibit preferential retention of tetravalent actinides over a wide range of acidities. The application of this material to the separation and preconcentration of selected

E. Philip Horwitz; Mark L. Dietz; Renato Chiarizia; Herbert Diamond; Sherrod L. Maxwell; Matthew R. Nelson

1995-01-01

208

Laboratory characterization of non-aqueous phase liquid\\/tracer interaction in support of a vadose zone partitioning interwell tracer test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contaminant characterization is important for successful remediation of non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) in the unsaturated zone. A partitioning interwell tracer test (PITT) can provide a good estimate of average subsurface NAPL saturations. Screening experiments were completed in the laboratory to evaluate several gas tracers for a PITT study to be completed in the vadose zone at Kirtland Air Force Base

Neil E. Deeds; Daene C. McKinney; Gary A. Pope

2000-01-01

209

Poly(4-vinylpyridine) supported acidic ionic liquid: A novel solid catalyst for the efficient synthesis of 2,3-dihydroquinazolin-4(1H)-ones under ultrasonic irradiation.  

PubMed

A novel poly(4-vinylpyridine) supported acidic ionic liquid catalyst was synthesized by the reaction of 4-vinylpyridine with 1,3-propanesultone, followed by the polymerization and the addition of the heteropolyacid. Due to the combination of polymer features and ionic liquid, it acted as a heterogeneous catalyst to effectively catalyze the cyclocondensation reaction of anthranilamide with aldehydes under ultrasonic irradiation and afforded the corresponding 2,3-dihydro-4(1H)-quinazolinones compounds in good to excellent yields. In addition, the catalyst could be easily recovered by the filtration and reused six times without significant loss of catalytic activity. More importantly, the use of ultrasonic irradiation can obviously accelerate the reaction. PMID:23751459

Wang, Junke; Zong, Yingxiao; Fu, Rugang; Niu, Yuying; Yue, Guoren; Quan, Zhengjun; Wang, Xicun; Pan, Yi

2013-05-29

210

Liquid level sensor  

SciTech Connect

A liquid level detector, or detector array, for insertion into the pressure vessel of a nuclear reactor, or into any liquid-containing vessel, for that matter. A coaxial cable supports the detector, which includes a sensing element having a positive temperature-coefficient of electrical resistivity. The detector is driven by a constant current source of electricity and the presence of liquid is determined by making a resistance measurement.

Terhune, J. H.; Neissel, J. P.

1985-06-04

211

Efficient evolution of hydrogen from liquid cycloalkanes over Pt-containing catalysts supported on active carbons under “wet–dry multiphase conditions”  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highly efficient evolution of hydrogen is achieved in the dehydrogenation of cycloalkanes such as cyclohexane, methylcyclohexane, and decalin over Pt catalyst supported on active carbon (AC) under “wet–dry multiphase conditions”. Formation rate of hydrogen is largely dependent on reaction conditions such as reactant\\/catalyst ratio, temperature, and support. The highest initial rate of formation of hydrogen, k=8.0×10?3molmin?1, was obtained in the

Nobuko Kariya; Atsushi Fukuoka; Masaru Ichikawa

2002-01-01

212

Experimental data and analysis to support the design of an ion-exchange process for the treatment of Hanford tank waste supernatant liquids  

SciTech Connect

Hanford`s 177 underground storage tanks contain a mixture of sludge, salt cake, and alkaline supernatant liquids. Disposal options for these wastes are high-level waste (HLW) glass for disposal in a repository or low-level waste (LLW) glass for onsite disposal. Systems-engineering studies show that economic and environmental considerations preclude disposal of these wastes without further treatment. Difficulties inherent in transportation and disposal of relatively large volumes of HLW make it impossible to vitrify all of the tank waste as HLW. Potential environmental impacts make direct disposal of all of the tank waste as LLW glass unacceptable. Although the pretreatment and disposal requirements are still being defined, most pretreatment scenarios include retrieval of the aqueous liquids, dissolution of the salt cakes, and washing of the sludges to remove soluble components. Most of the cesium is expected to be in the aqueous liquids, which are the focus of this report on cesium removal by ion exchange. The main objectives of the ion-exchange process are removing cesium from the bulk of the tank waste (i.e., decontamination) and concentrating the separated cesium for vitrification. Because exact requirements for removal of {sup 137}Cs have not yet been defined, a range of removal requirements will be considered. This study addresses requirements to achieve {sup 137}Cs levels in LLW glass between (1) the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Class C (10 CFR 61) limit of 4600 Ci/m{sup 3} and (2) 1/10th of the NRC Class A limit of 1 Ci/m{sup 3} i.e., 0.1/m{sup 3}. The required degrees of separation of cesium from other waste components is a complex function involving interactions between the design of the vitrification process, waste form considerations, and other HLW stream components that are to be vitrified.

Kurath, D.E.; Bray, L.A.; Brooks, K.P.; Brown, G.N.; Bryan, S.A.; Carlson, C.D.; Carson, K.J.; DesChane, J.R.; Elovich, R.J.; Kim, A.Y.

1994-12-01

213

Dynamic structure of oxygen in liquid potassium studied by MD method and statistical geometry 1 Supported by the RFBR, Russia (Project #96-02-16315a). 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of the molecular-dynamics simulation of dissolved oxygen in potassium at temperature of 550 K on the ternary model of (1?3x)K+2xK++xO2? where x=0.085 are presented. For neutral potassium\\/oxygen system as a whole, oxygen anions form clusters of ramified chains from K2+O2? units. The observed structure and atomic dynamics of threefold potassium\\/oxygen system shows the process of clustering oxygen in liquid

I. Yu. Shimkevich; V. V. Kuzin; A. L. Shimkevich

1999-01-01

214

Synergistic effect of dicarbollide anions in liquid-liquid extraction: a molecular dynamics study at the octanol-water interface.  

PubMed

We report a molecular dynamics study of chlorinated cobalt bis(dicarbollide) anions [(B(9)C(2)H(8)Cl(3))(2)Co](-)"CCD(-)" in octanol and at the octanol-water interface, with the main aim to understand why these hydrophobic species act as strong synergists in assisted liquid-liquid cation extraction. Neat octanol is quite heterogeneous and is found to display dual solvation properties, allowing to well solubilize CCD(-), Cs(+) salts in the form of diluted pairs or oligomers, without displaying aggregation. At the aqueous interface, octanol behaves as an amphiphile, forming either monolayers or bilayers, depending on the initial state and confinement conditions. In biphasic octanol-water systems, CCD(-) anions are found to mainly partition to the organic phase, thus attracting Cs(+) or even more hydrophilic counterions like Eu(3+) into that phase. The remaining CCD(-) anions adsorb at the interface, but are less surface active than at the chloroform interface. Finally, we compare the interfacial behavior of the Eu(BTP)(3)(3+) complex in the absence and in the presence of CCD(-) anions and extractant molecules. It is found that when the CCD(-)'s are concentrated enough, the complex is extracted to the octanol phase. Otherwise, it is trapped at the interface, attracted by water. These results are compared to those obtained with chloroform as organic phase and discussed in the context of synergistic effect of CCD(-) in liquid-liquid extraction, pointing to the importance of dual solvation properties of octanol and of the hydrophobic character of CCD(-) for synergistic extraction of cations. PMID:17431527

Chevrot, G; Schurhammer, R; Wipff, G

2007-02-23

215

Liquid-phase methanol process-development unit: installation, operation, and support studies. Technical progress report No. 6, 1 January 1983-31 March 1983  

SciTech Connect

Experiments confirmed the need for iron carbonyl removal equipment, and bids on these items were evaluated. Equipment procurement for the LaPorte PDU has been completed, with the exception of iron carbonyl removal equipment. On 13 January, several technical redirections were proposed to DOE. In reactor modeling, APCI completed a study of the significance of mass transfer and equilibrium constraints on CSI advance funded data. The results suggest that this data is difficult to use for evaluating kinetics. The backflow reactor model was modified. At CSI, all equipment for the analytical portion of the DEC/AIM data acquisition system for LaPorte has been received. In the CSI autoclave, optimization of catalyst reduction procedures continued. Four liquid-entrained commercial catalysts were evaluated. An attrition test unit was constructed and testing of liquid-fluidized catalyst attrition has begun under methanol synthesis conditions. Modifications of the CSI Lab PDU are about 95% complete. APCI signed a contract with Hydrocarbon Research, Inc. (HRI) for cold-flow studies of the ebullated bed reactor design.

Not Available

1983-04-20

216

HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) THERMAL & SEISMIC PROJECT SEISMIC ANALYSIS IN SUPPORT OF INCREASED LIQUID LEVEL IN 241-AP TANK FARMS  

SciTech Connect

The overall scope of the project is to complete an up-to-date comprehensive analysis of record of the DST System at Hanford. The "Double-Shell Tank (DST) Integrity Project - DST Thermal and Seismic Project" is in support of Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-48-14.

MACKEY TC; ABBOTT FG; CARPENTER BG; RINKER MW

2007-02-16

217

Controlling the duality of the mechanism in liquid-phase oxidation of benzyl alcohol catalysed by supported Au-Pd nanoparticles.  

PubMed

In the solvent-free oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde using supported gold-palladium nanoparticles as catalysts, two pathways have been identified as the sources of the principal product, benzaldehyde. One is the direct catalytic oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde by O(2), whereas the second is the disproportionation of two molecules of benzyl alcohol to give equal amounts of benzaldehyde and toluene. Herein we report that by changing the metal oxide used to support the metal-nanoparticles catalyst from titania or niobium oxide to magnesium oxide or zinc oxide, it is possible to switch off the disproportionation reaction and thereby completely stop the toluene formation. It has been observed that the presence of O(2) increases the turnover number of this disproportionation reaction as compared to reactions in a helium atmosphere, implying that there are two catalytic pathways leading to toluene. PMID:21538605

Sankar, Meenakshisundaram; Nowicka, Ewa; Tiruvalam, Ramchandra; He, Qian; Taylor, Stuart H; Kiely, Christopher J; Bethell, Donald; Knight, David W; Hutchings, Graham J

2011-04-27

218

Liquid Sloshing Dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of liquid sloshing in moving or stationary containers remains of great concern to aerospace, civil, and nuclear engineers; physicists; designers of road tankers and ship tankers; and mathematicians. Beginning with the fundamentals of liquid sloshing theory, this book takes the reader systematically from basic theory to advanced analytical and experimental results in a self-contained and coherent format. The book is divided into four sections. Part I deals with the theory of linear liquid sloshing dynamics; Part II addresses the nonlinear theory of liquid sloshing dynamics, Faraday waves, and sloshing impacts; Part III presents the problem of linear and nonlinear interaction of liquid sloshing dynamics with elastic containers and supported structures; and Part IV considers the fluid dynamics in spinning containers and microgravity sloshing. This book will be invaluable to researchers and graduate students in mechanical and aeronautical engineering, designers of liquid containers, and applied mathematicians.

Ibrahim, Raouf A.

2005-06-01

219

Solvent Extraction of Au(III) by the Chloride Salt of the Amine Alamine 304 and Its Application to a Solid Supported Liquid Membrane System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extraction of Au(III) by the chloride salt of the amine Alamine 304 (R3NHCl) in xylene from hydrochloric acid solutions has been investigated. The analysis of metal distribution data by numerical calculations suggested the formation of the species R3NHAuCl4 in the organic phase with formation constant log Kext = 5.44. The results obtained on Au(III) distribution have been implemented in a solid?supported

F. J. Alguacil

2003-01-01

220

Liquid-Phase-Methanol process-development unit: installation, operation, and support studies. Technical progress report No. 7, 1 April 1983-30 June 1983  

SciTech Connect

Notable progress was made in this seventh period of contract performance. Recommendations were received from Hydrocarbon Research, Inc. (HRI) on the design of the LaPorte LPMeOH PDU ebullated reactor. Preliminary drawings of the reactor feed distributor and inlet plenum were reviewed and finalized. HRI completed the supporting cold flow test work and found that both ebullated catalysts EPJ 19 and EPJ 25 exhibited comparable, acceptable bed expansion and attrition characteristics. Heavy activity occurred in the Allentown laboratories in the area of new catalyst preparations and screening. Experimental work on iron carbonyl removal concluded with successful demonstration of the efficacy of an alpha-alumina guard bed to remove high levels of iron carbonyl from feed gas to a live autoclave reactor. To support the effort on catalyst life determination, a new 300 cc autoclave was started on an activity maintenance run with CO-rich, unbalanced gas feed. Revisions were made to the fundamental model computer program to enhance the program. The LaPorte LPMeOH PDU slurry reactor was simulated over a range of proposed operating conditions. Simulation results suggest mass transfer effects will be small, the reactor is not equilibrium limited, and kinetic control is evident. The modifications to the Fairfield Lab PDU were completed. The Lab PDU equipment and instrumentation were commissioned, and shakedown was successfully accomplished up to hot slurry circulation.

Not Available

1983-07-20

221

Ultrasound-assisted ionic liquid-based microextraction combined with least squares support vector machines regression for the simultaneous determination of aluminum, gallium, and indium in water and coal samples.  

PubMed

A new simple and rapid ultrasound-assisted ionic liquid-based microextraction method was applied to preconcentrate aluminum(III), gallium(III), and indium(III) ions from water samples as a prior step to their simultaneous spectrophotometric determination using least squares support vector machines regression. In the novel procedure, 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [C(6)MIM][PF(6)] was dispersed into the aqueous sample solution as fine droplets by ultrasonication, and the analytes were extracted into the ionic liquid phase after complexation with 1,2,5,8-tetrahydroxy anthraquinone (quinalizarine). After centrifuging, the fine droplets of extractant phase were settled to the bottom of the conical-bottom glass centrifuge tube. The detection limits for Al(III), Ga(III), and In(III) were 1.70, 2.02, and 2.06 ng mL(-1), respectively. The precision of the method, evaluated as the relative standard deviation obtained by analyzing a series of ten replicates, was below 3.2% for all elements. The method was successfully applied for the determination of Al(III), Ga(III), and In(III) in real samples. PMID:21789531

Ghasemi, Jahan B; Zolfonoun, Ehsan

2011-07-27

222

Measurement of the azimuthal anchoring energy of liquid crystals in contact with oligo(ethylene glycol)-terminated self-assembled monolayers supported on obliquely deposited gold films.  

PubMed

We report measurements of the orientations and azimuthal anchoring energies of the nematic liquid crystal 4-cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl (5CB) on polycrystalline gold films that are deposited from a vapor at an oblique angle of incidence and subsequently decorated with organized monolayers of oligomers of ethylene glycol. Whereas the gold films covered with monolayers presenting tetra(ethylene glycol) (EG4) lead to orientations of 5CB that are perpendicular to the plane of incidence of the gold, monolayers presenting tri(ethylene glycol) (EG3) direct 5CB to orient parallel to the plane of incidence of the gold during deposition of the gold film. We also measure the azimuthal anchoring energy of the 5CB to be smaller on the surfaces presenting EG3 (3.2 +/- 0.8 microJ/m2) as compared to EG4 (5.5 +/- 0.9 microJ/m2). These measurements, when combined with other results presented in this paper, are consistent with a physical model in which the orientation and anchoring energies of LCs on these surfaces are influenced by both (i) short-range interactions of 5CB with organized oligomers of ethylene glycol at these surfaces and (ii) long-range interactions of 5CB with the nanometer-scale topography of the obliquely deposited films. For surfaces presenting EG3, these short- and long-range interactions oppose each other, leading to small net values of anchoring energies that we predict are dependent on the level of order in the EG3 SAM. These measurements provide insights into the balance of interactions that control the orientational response of LCs to biological species (proteins, viruses, cells) on these surfaces. PMID:16649778

Clare, Brian H; Guzman, Orlando; de Pablo, Juan J; Abbott, Nicholas L

2006-05-01

223

Gammagard Liquid  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... Liquid For maintenance therapy to improve muscle strength and ... license application for Immune Globulin Infusion (Human) [GAMMAGARD LIQUID ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/bloodbloodproducts/approvedproducts

224

Separation, identification and quantification of riboflavin and its photoproducts in blood products using high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection: a method to support pathogen reduction technology.  

PubMed

A medical device using riboflavin (RB) and light is being developed for the reduction of pathogens in platelet concentrates (MIRASOL pathogen reduction technology [PRT]). A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the quantification of RB and its main photoproduct, lumichrome (LC) in blood components has been developed and validated. In addition, the same method has been used to identify and quantify the presence of additional photoproducts-catabolites of RB. Levels of these agents before and after treatment as well as endogenous levels present in normal donor blood are reported using this analytical technique. The method allows for quantitative and qualitative analysis of RB and LC in blood components using HPLC-fluorescence detection, a Zorbax SB-CN (stable bond cyano) column and a methanol-water mobile phase. Quantitation and qualitative analysis of additional photoproducts of RB was also performed, but the method has not been validated for these other components. The method described has passed an 8 day validation and has been found to be adequate for its intended use. The range of the method for RB is 0.016-1.500 microM and for LC is 0.060-1.500 microM. The method detection limit for RB is 0.0006 microM and for LC is 0.012 microM. The acceptance criteria for repeatability were met; the relative standard deviation for RB was 0.64% and for LC was 0.76%. The acceptance criteria for bias were met with a 97% average recovery for RB and a 102% recovery for LC. Samples were centrifuged and diluted 1:50 with 0.9% saline before analysis. No protein precipitation or extraction was required. A mass balance of approximately 93.4-94.4% was achieved after exposure of products to UV light in the intended pathogen reduction treatment method. The method permitted the identification of photoproducts in blood that were both naturally occurring and produced after photolysis of blood samples treated with the PRT process. The identity of these photoproducts has been established using HPLC Tandem Mass Spectrometry (MS/MS) and UV spectroscopic methods and has been correlated with known metabolites and catabolites of RB. HPLC with fluorescence detection using a reverse phase cyano-column allows for accurate separation, identification and quantification of both RB and LC in blood products without the need for solvent extraction or protein precipitation. Additional photoproducts could also be identified and quantified using this method. The presence of these agents in normal, untreated blood suggests that their presence in blood is ubiquitous. PMID:15382964

Hardwick, Christopher C; Herivel, Troy R; Hernandez, Shiloh C; Ruane, Patrick H; Goodrich, Raymond P

225

Preconcentration of emerging contaminants in environmental water samples by using silica supported Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles for improving mass detection in capillary liquid chromatography.  

PubMed

A magnetic material based on Fe(3)O(4) magnetic nanoparticles incorporated in a silica matrix by using a sol-gel procedure has been used to extract and preconcentrate emerging contaminants such as acetylsalicylic acid, acetaminophen, diclofenac and ibuprofen from environmental water samples prior to the analysis with Capillary LC-MS. The use of the proposed silica supported Fe(3)O(4) magnetic nanoparticles enables surfactant free extracts for the analysis with MS detection without interferences in the ionisation step. Under the optimum conditions, we demonstrated the reusability of the magnetic sorbent material during 20 uses without loss in the extraction efficiency. In addition, no cleanup was necessary. The preconcentration factor was 100 and the detection limits were between 50 and 150 ng/L. The proposed procedure has been applied to the analysis of water samples obtaining recoveries between 80 and 110% and RSD values lower than 12%. Concentrations of the target analytes over the range 1.7 and 0.1 ?g/L have been found in different water samples. PMID:21388625

Moliner-Martínez, Yolanda; Ribera, Antonio; Coronado, Eugenio; Campíns-Falcó, P

2011-02-19

226

Assessing the feasibility of involving gaseous products resulting from physicochemical oxidation of human liquid and solid wastes in the cycling of a bio-technical life support system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study addresses the possible ways of involving gaseous products produced by "wet" incineration of human wastes mixed with H2O2 in an alternating electric field in the cycling of the physical model of a bio-technical life support system (BTLSS). The resulting gas mixture contains CO2 and O2, which are easily involved in the cycling in the closed ecosystem, and NH3, which is unacceptable in the atmosphere of the BTLSS. NH3 fixation has been proposed, which is followed by nitrification and involvement of the resulting products in the mass exchange of the closed system. Experiments have been performed to show that plants can be grown in the atmosphere resulting from the closing of the gas loop that includes a physicochemical installation and a growth chamber with plants representing the phototrophic compartment of the BTLSS. The results of the study suggest the conclusion that the proposed method of organic waste oxidation can be a useful tool in creating a physical model of a closed-loop integrated BTLSS.

Tikhomirov, Alexander; Kudenko, Yurii; Trifonov, Sergey; Ushakova, Sofya

2012-01-01

227

Tube support  

DOEpatents

A tube support for supporting horizontal tubes from an inclined vertical support tube passing between the horizontal tubes. A support button is welded to the vertical support tube. Two clamping bars or plates, the lower edges of one bearing on the support button, are removably bolted to the inclined vertical tube. The clamping bars provide upper and lower surface support for the horizontal tubes.

Mullinax, Jerry L. (Green Township, Summit County, OH)

1988-01-01

228

PREFACE: Functionalized Liquid Liquid Interfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most natural processes take place at interfaces. For this reason, surface science has been a focal point of modern research. At solid-liquid interfaces one can induce various species to adsorb or react, and thus may study interactions between the substrate and adsorbates, kinetic processes, optical properties, etc. Liquid-liquid interfaces, formed by immiscible liquids such as water and oil, have a

Hubert Girault; Alexei A. Kornyshev; Charles W. Monroe; Michael Urbakh

2007-01-01

229

Blanc Reaction of Aromatic Compounds Catalyzed by Ionic Liquids * * Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (20376015), the Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province (32491) and Guangzhou Project of Science & Technology (2004J1-C0151)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ionic liquids have been used as catalysts for Blanc reaction of toluene. The effects of reaction temperature, reaction time and dosage of the ionic liquid catalyst have been investigated, and the catalytic performance of different ionic liquid catalysts for toluene chloromethylation was also studied. The reaction was found to proceed under mild conditions with excellent conversion (up to 90%) in

Yanxiong FANG; Yunquan DENG; Qinggang REN; Jingping HUANG; Saidan ZHANG; Baohua HUANG; Kun ZHANG

2008-01-01

230

Liquid-Level-Sensing Device.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A liquid level sensing device is described which comprises load cell supporting a column or stack of segments freely resting on one another. The density of each element is substantially identical to that of the surrounding liquid. The elements are freely ...

1981-01-01

231

Compact gas liquid separator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compact gas-liquid separator comprising a cylindrical separation chamber including an inlet head and a degasifying vessel. The inlet head comprises an inlet tube supporting a nozzle positioned adjacent to the inner wall of a cover situated within the axis of the separation chamber. The cover includes a cylindrical portion closed by a convex cap and extends toward the bottom by

J. Y. J. Deysson; A. P. L. Potiron

1984-01-01

232

Separation of metals by supported liquid membrane  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a process of separating a preselected chemical species selected from the group consisting of aluminum, arsenic, antimony, bismuth, cadmium, chromium, copper, cobalt, gallium, gold, hafnium, indium, iridium, iron, lead, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, neodymium, nickel, niobium, osmium, palladium, platinum, rhenium, rhodium, ruthenium, selenium, silver, tantalum, tellurium, thallium, thorium, tin, tungsten, uranium, vanadium, zinc, or zirconium from a feedstream.

Takigawa

1992-01-01

233

Market Liquidity and Funding Liquidity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We provide a model that links an asset's market liquidity - i.e., the ease with which it is traded - and traders' funding liquidity - i.e., the ease with which they can obtain funding. Traders provide market liquidity, and their ability to do so depends on their availability of funding. Conversely, traders' funding, i.e., their capital and the margins they

Markus Brunnermeier; Lasse Pedersen

2007-01-01

234

Sulfur poisoning of CeO[subscript 2]-Al[subscript 2]O[subscript 3]-supported mono- and bi-metallic Ni and Rh catalysts in steam reforming of liquid hydrocarbons at low and high temperatures  

SciTech Connect

In order to develop a better understanding on sulfur poisoning of reforming catalysts in fuel processing for hydrogen production, steam reforming of liquid hydrocarbons was performed over CeO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} supported monometallic Ni and Rh and bimetallic Rh-Ni catalysts at 550 and 800 C. XANES was used to identify the sulfur species in the used catalysts and to study their impacts on the metal surface properties probed by XPS. It was found that both monometallic catalysts rapidly deactivated at 550 C, and showed poor sulfur tolerance. Although ineffective for the Ni catalyst, increasing the temperature to 800 C dramatically improved the sulfur tolerance of the Rh catalyst. XANES revealed that metal sulfide and organic sulfide are the dominant sulfur species on the used Ni catalyst, while sulfonate and sulfate predominate on the used Rh catalyst. The presence of sulfur induced severe carbon deposition on the Ni catalyst at 800 C. The superior sulfur tolerance of the Rh catalyst at 800 C may be associated with its capability in sulfur oxidation. It is likely that the formation of the oxygen-shielded sulfur structure of sulfonate and sulfate can suppress the poisoning impact of sulfur on Rh by inhibiting direct rhodium-sulfur interaction. Moreover, XPS indicated that the metal surface properties of the Rh catalysts after the reaction without and with sulfur at 800 C are similar, suggesting that sulfur poisoning on Rh was mitigated under the high-temperature condition. Although the Rh-Ni catalyst exhibited better sulfur tolerance than the monometallic catalysts at 550 C, its catalytic performance was inferior compared with the Rh catalyst in the sulfur-containing reaction at 800 C probably due to the severe carbon deposition on the bimetallic catalyst.

Xie, Chao; Chen, Yongsheng; Li, Yan; Wang, Xiaoxing; Song, Chunshan (Penn)

2010-12-01

235

Use of the big liquid argon spectrometer BARS for neutrino and cosmic-ray studies 1 1 The research described in the publication is partially supported by RFBR (grant No 96-02-16857)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of the fine grained 300t liquid argon calorimeter BARS is described. The BARS electronics include about 30K channels of low noise amplifiers and ADCs. The DAQ system makes it possible to select channels with signals above the chosen threshold. 48 scintillation hodoscopes placed inside the liquid argon are used to form the first level trigger. The total number

V. B. Anikeev; S. V. Belikov; S. N. Gurzhiev; A. G. Denisov; S. P. Denisov; N. N. Fedjakin; V. I. Kochetkov; V. M. Korablev; V. I. Koreshev; V. V. Lipaev; S. V. Los; V. N. Mikhailin; A. M. Rybin; A. N. Sytin; A. G. Bogdanov; T. M. Kirina; R. P. Kokoulin; M. A. Reznikov; A. A. Petrukhin; E. E. Yanson; E. N. Alexeyev; A. B. Chernyaev; V. B. Petkov; D. V. Smirnov; A. L. Tsyabuk; A. V. Voevodsky; G. Gennaro; F. Sergiampietri; G. Spandre; M. Lanfranchi; A. Marchionni; G. Conforto; F. Martelli

1998-01-01

236

Supported inorganic membranes  

DOEpatents

Supported inorganic membranes capable of molecular sieving, and methods for their production, are provided. The subject membranes exhibit high flux and high selectivity. The subject membranes are substantially defect free and less than about 100 nm thick. The pores of the subject membranes have an average critical pore radius of less than about 5 .ANG., and have a narrow pore size distribution. The subject membranes are prepared by coating a porous substrate with a polymeric sol, preferably under conditions of low relative pressure of the liquid constituents of the sol. The coated substrate is dried and calcined to produce the subject supported membrane. Also provided are methods of derivatizing the surface of supported inorganic membranes with metal alkoxides. The subject membranes find use in a variety of applications, such as the separation of constituents of gaseous streams, as catalysts and catalyst supports, and the like.

Sehgal, Rakesh (Albuquerque, NM); Brinker, Charles Jeffrey (Albuquerque, NM)

1998-01-01

237

Liquid Polyamorphism and the Anomalous Behavior of Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present evidence from experiments and computer simulations supporting the hypothesis that ?dex{polyamorphism}water displays\\u000a polyamorphism, i.e., water separates into two distinct liquid phases. This concept of a new ?dex{liquid-liquid phase transition}liquid–liquid\\u000a phase transition is finding potential application to other liquids as well as water, such as silicon and silica. Here we review\\u000a the relation between changes in dynamic and thermodynamic

H. E. Stanley; S. V. Buldyrev; S.-H. Chen; G. Franzese; S. Han; P. Kumar; F. Mallamace; M. G. Mazza; L. Xu; Z. Yan

2009-01-01

238

Market Liquidity and Funding Liquidity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We provide a model that links an asset's market liquidity (i.e., the ease with which it is traded) and traders' funding liquidity (i.e., the ease with which they can obtain funding). Traders provide market liquidity, and their ability to do so depends on their availability of funding. Conversely, traders' funding, i.e., their capital and margin requirements, depends on the assets'

Markus K. Brunnermeier; Lasse Heje Pedersen

2009-01-01

239

Mystery Liquids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this math lesson, learners analyze the density of liquids in order to explore linear functions. Learners gather mass and volume data for two mystery liquids, oil and water, and then use the data to explore linear functions. Learners discuss the physical meaning of the slopes and y-intercepts of the various lines they create from scatterplots.

Pbs

2012-01-01

240

Liquid nitrogen  

MedlinePLUS

Liquid nitrogen is a chemical that is super cold, about -200 degrees Celsius. Liquid nitrogen will instantly freeze anything it touches. It is used to kill cells that make up diseased or cancerous tissue. Tissue that has been frozen dries out and falls off.

241

Liquid Ventilation  

PubMed Central

Mammals have lungs to breathe air and they have no gills to breath liquids. When the surface tension at the air-liquid interface of the lung increases, as in acute lung injury, scientists started to think about filling the lung with fluid instead of air to reduce the surface tension and facilitate ventilation. Liquid ventilation (LV) is a technique of mechanical ventilation in which the lungs are insufflated with an oxygenated perfluorochemical liquid rather than an oxygen-containing gas mixture. The use of perfluorochemicals, rather than nitrogen, as the inert carrier of oxygen and carbon dioxide offers a number of theoretical advantages for the treatment of acute lung injury. In addition, there are non-respiratory applications with expanding potential including pulmonary drug delivery and radiographic imaging. The potential for multiple clinical applications for liquid-assisted ventilation will be clarified and optimized in future.

Tawfic, Qutaiba A.; Kausalya, Rajini

2011-01-01

242

Balloon Support.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two instrument bearing arrays were supported by balloons on the Double Tracks event. One large balloon supported a 750-foot high by 1,500-foot wide array at 2,500 feet downwind from ground zero, and 8 small evenly spaced balloons supported instruments up ...

H. G. Laursen

1965-01-01

243

Rotating electric machine with fluid supported parts  

DOEpatents

A rotating electric machine in which the armature winding thereof and other parts are supported by a liquid to withstand the mechanical stresses applied during transient overloads and the like. In particular, a narrow gap is provided between the armature winding and the stator which supports it and this gap is filled with an externally pressurized viscous liquid. The liquid is externally pressurized sufficiently to balance the static loads on the armature winding. Transient mechanical loads which deform the armature winding alter the gap dimensions and thereby additionally pressurize the viscous liquid to oppose the armature winding deformation and more nearly uniformly to distribute the resulting mechanical stresses.

Smith, Jr., Joseph L. (Concord, MA); Kirtley, Jr., James L. (Brookline, MA)

1981-01-01

244

Influence of the Outer Bath on the Eigenfrequencies of Rotating Axisymmetric Liquid BridgesPartial support from the MCYT (Spain) through Grant No. ESP2003-02859 is acknowledged.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In experiments with liquid bridges, the neutral buoyancy technique has frequently been used to simulate microgravity conditions. In this technique the liquid bridge is surrounded by an outer liquid with similar density to compensate partially for the effect of the hydrostatic pressure over the interface. The outer bath is expected to play a relevant role not only in the static problem, but also in the dynamical behaviour of this fluid configuration. In the present contribution the eigenfrequencies characterizing the oscillation modes of a rotating axisymmetric liquid bridge are calculated. The analysis focuses on the influence of the outer bath and the liquid bridge equilibrium shape on those quantities. The results are obtained numerically by solving the inviscid two-dimensional model by means of a finite difference scheme. The method provides accurate results as is shown by comparison with the analytical solution for the cylindrical configuration. The comparison between the theoretical predictions for the first eigenfrequency and the experimental data obtained by Perales and Meseguer (1992) shows the capability of the model to describe the dynamics of real liquid bridges.

Montanero, J. M.

245

Rotary Liquid Droplet Microbearing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rotational stage with a 10-mm-diameter single-crystal silicon rotor supported by liquid droplet ball bearings is described. The 100–300-$\\\\mu\\\\hbox{m}$-thickness droplet bearings are retained on the rotor surface with a micropatterned amorphous-flouropolymer-based superhydrophobic (SHP) surface coating that yields a 156$^{\\\\circ}$ contact angle. The droplets slide on a SHP bearing raceway that is formed from laser-roughened polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) on the surface of

Brian E. Yoxall; Mei-Lin Chan; Ryan S. Harake; Tingrui Pan; David A. Horsley

2012-01-01

246

Exploring Liquids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Young learners investigate and observe the properties of three liquids -- water, vegetable oil, and corn syrup. They use their senses to collect data and ask and answer questions. This lesson for young learners introduces the scientific process.

Janulaw, Sharon

2010-01-01

247

About liquids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the basis of a simplified depiction of liquids, solids, and gases, a qualitative discussion is presented of certain properties of liquids with spherically symmetric atoms: their melting and boiling heats and the corresponding temperatures, their coefficients of viscosity and self-diffusion. Results are compared with data for neon, argon, sodium, aluminum, copper, silver, and mercury. Water is also included for order-of-magnitude comparison, although its molecules are not spherically symmetric and internal degrees of freedom cannot be neglected.

Bernstein, Herbert J.; Weisskopf, Victor F.

1987-11-01

248

Method for treating liquid wastes  

DOEpatents

The method of treating liquid waste in a media is accomplished by exposing the media to phosphinimines and sequestering .sup.99 Tc from the media by the phosphinimine (PN) functionalities. The system for treating the liquid waste in the media includes extraction of .sup.99 TcO.sub.4.sup.- from aqueous solutions into organic solvents or mixed organic/polar media, extraction of .sup.99 Tc from solutions on a solid matrix by using a container containing PN functionalities on solid matrices including an inlet and outlet for allowing flow of media through an immobilized phosphinimine ligand system contained within the container. Also, insoluble suspensions of phosphinimine functionalities on solid matrices in liquid solutions or present on supported liquid membranes (SLM) can be used to sequester .sup.99 Tc from those liquids.

Katti, Kattesh V. (Columbia, MO); Volkert, Wynn A. (Columbia, MO); Singh, Prahlad (Columbia, MO); Ketring, Alan R. (Columbia, MO)

1995-01-01

249

Method for treating liquid wastes  

DOEpatents

The method of treating liquid waste in a media is accomplished by exposing the media to phosphinimines and sequestering {sup 99}Tc from the media by the phosphinimine (PN) functionalities. The system for treating the liquid waste in the media includes extraction of {sup 99}TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} from aqueous solutions into organic solvents or mixed organic/polar media, extraction of {sup 99}Tc from solutions on a solid matrix by using a container containing PN functionalities on solid matrices including an inlet and outlet for allowing flow of media through an immobilized phosphinimine ligand system contained within the container. Also, insoluble suspensions of phosphinimine functionalities on solid matrices in liquid solutions or present on supported liquid membranes (SLM) can be used to sequester {sup 99}Tc from those liquids. 6 figs.

Katti, K.V.; Volkert, W.A.; Singh, P.; Ketring, A.R.

1995-12-26

250

Liquid–liquid transition in a strong bulk metallic glass-forming liquid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polymorphic phase transitions are common in crystalline solids. Recent studies suggest that phase transitions may also exist between two liquid forms with different entropy and structure. Such a liquid–liquid transition has been investigated in various substances including water, Al2O3-Y2O3 and network glass formers. However, the nature of liquid–liquid transition is debated due to experimental difficulties in avoiding crystallization and/or measuring at high temperatures/pressures. Here we report the thermodynamic and structural evidence of a temperature-induced weak first-order liquid–liquid transition in a bulk metallic glass-forming system Zr41.2Ti13.8Cu12.5Ni10Be22.5 characterized by non- (or weak) directional bonds. Our experimental results suggest that the local structural changes during the transition induce the drastic viscosity changes without a detectable density anomaly. These changes are correlated with a heat capacity maximum in the liquid. Our findings support the hypothesis that the ‘strong’ kinetics (low fragility) of a liquid may arise from an underlying lambda transition above its glass transition.

Wei, Shuai; Yang, Fan; Bednarcik, Jozef; Kaban, Ivan; Shuleshova, Olga; Meyer, Andreas; Busch, Ralf

2013-07-01

251

Supporting members  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

All dues-paid members contributing an additional $80 or more in any single year earn recognition as Individual Supporting Members for that year. Among the present Supporting Members, there are 24 Life Supporting Members. To have achieved this special recognition, they have contributed $1500 or more thus far during the AGU-GIFT program. As a benefit (or dividend) they have no further dues obligations.

252

Supporting members  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

All dues-paid members contributing an additional $80 or more in any single year earn recognition as Individual Supporting Members for that year. Among the present Individual Supporting Members, I there are 21 Life Supporting Members. To have achieved this special recognition, they have contributed $1500 or more thus far during the AGU-GIFT program. As a benefit (or dividend) they have no further dues obligations.

253

Micropump based on liquid marbles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A micropump based on a pair of liquid marbles coated with various powders and connected with a capillary tube is presented. The idea of the micropump is based on the difference of the Laplace pressures in the marbles. The initial stream was supported by the pressure instability developed under water overflow. The reported experiments validate the concept of the effective surface tension of liquid marbles. The micropump could be used for precise delivery of small quantities of liquids, the design of microreactors and microfluidics applications.

Bormashenko, Edward; Balter, Revital; Aurbach, Doron

2010-08-01

254

Ventilatory Support  

Microsoft Academic Search

Critically ill patients in respiratory failure often require mechanical respiratory support to treat hypoxaemia, ventilatory failure or both. Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) using an airtight facemask (rather than an endotracheal tube) has been shown to improve survival in suitable groups of patients who require respiratory support. In acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and acute lung injury (see Gunning, page 66), invasive

Peter J Young

2003-01-01

255

Liquid Crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermochromic liquid crystals, or TLCs, are a type of liquid crystals that react to changes in temperature by changing color. The Hallcrest/NASA collaboration involved development of a new way to visualize boundary layer transition in flight and in wind tunnel testing of aircraft wing and body surfaces. TLCs offered a new and potentially better method of visualizing the boundary layer transition in flight. Hallcrest provided a liquid crystal formulation technique that afforded great control over the sensitivity of the liquid crystals to varying conditions. Method is of great use to industry, government and universities for aerodynamic and hydrodynamic testing. Company's principal line is temperature indicating devices for industrial use, such as non-destructive testing and flaw detection in electric/electronic systems, medical application, such as diagnostic systems, for retail sale, such as room, refrigerator, baby bath and aquarium thermometers, and for advertising and promotion specials. Additionally, Hallcrest manufactures TLC mixtures for cosmetic applications, and liquid crystal battery tester for Duracell batteries.

1990-01-01

256

Liquid marbles.  

PubMed

The transport of a small amount of liquid on a solid is not a simple process, owing to the nature of the contact between the two phases. Setting a liquid droplet in motion requires non-negligible forces (because the contact-angle hysteresis generates a force opposing the motion), and often results in the deposition of liquid behind the drop. Different methods of levitation-electrostatic, electromagnetic, acoustic, or even simpler aerodynamic techniques-have been proposed to avoid this wetting problem, but all have proved to be rather cumbersome. Here we propose a simple alternative, which consists of encapsulating an aqueous liquid droplet with a hydrophobic powder. The resulting 'liquid marbles' are found to behave like a soft solid, and show dramatically reduced adhesion to a solid surface. As a result, motion can be generated using gravitational, electrical and magnetic fields. Moreover, because the viscous friction associated with motion is very small, we can achieve quick displacements of the droplets without any leaks. All of these features are of potential benefit in microfluidic applications, and also permit the study of a drop in a non-wetting situation-an issue of renewed interest following the recent achievement of super-hydrophobic substrates. PMID:11418851

Aussillous, P; Quéré, D

2001-06-21

257

Decision support tools for policy and planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

A decision support system (DSS) is being developed at the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The DSS will be used to evaluate alternatives for improving LANL`s existing central radioactive waste water treatment plant and to evaluate new site-wide liquid waste treatment schemes that are required in order to handle the diverse waste streams produced at

P. Jacyk; D. Schultz; L. Spangenberg

1995-01-01

258

Macromolecular liquids  

SciTech Connect

Liquids include a broad range of material systems which are of high scientific and technological interest. Generally speaking, these are partially ordered or disordered phases where the individual molecular species have organized themselves on length scales which are larger than simple fluids, typically between 10 Angstroms and several microns. The specific systems reported on in this book include membranes, microemulsions, micelles, liquid crystals, colloidal suspensions, and polymers. They have a major impact on a broad spectrum of technological industries such as displays, plastics, soap and detergents, chemicals and petroleum, and pharmaceuticals.

Safinya, C.R.; Safran, S.A. (Exxon Research and Engineering Co., Annandale, NJ (US)); Pincus, P.A. (Univ. of California at Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA (US))

1990-01-01

259

Pipe support  

DOEpatents

A pipe support for high temperature, thin-walled piping runs such as those used in nuclear systems. A section of the pipe to be supported is encircled by a tubular inner member comprised of two walls with an annular space therebetween. Compacted load-bearing thermal insulation is encapsulated within the annular space, and the inner member is clamped to the pipe by a constant clamping force split-ring clamp. The clamp may be connected to pipe hangers which provide desired support for the pipe.

Pollono, Louis P. (Hempfield Township, Hempfield County, PA)

1979-01-01

260

Antenna Support.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The support is for a large antenna used for distant tracking. The structure includes three tripod assemblies. Each of the assemblies include three extendable and retractable legs having discrete rotatable base portions and top ends rotatable in a framewor...

M. Suliteanu W. R. LaValley

1966-01-01

261

Layered Liquids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity involves an exploration of density. Why does oil float on water? How does drain cleaner sink down into the clogged pipe right through standing water? These questions will be answered as students make a layered "parfait" of colored liquids ba

Eichinger, John

2009-05-30

262

Liquid Ammonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a review of the use of liquid ammonia as a solvent for chemical processes. Among the subjects covered are the physical properties of the solvent that defines it as “water like.” The physical and chemical processes associated with the formation of solutions and the properties of those solutions are also convered. Included is a discussion of metal?ammonia solutions,

J. J. Lagowski

2007-01-01

263

Liquid Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

In terms of both geography and application the liquid filtration market is ubiquitous. Economic upheaval, such as presently experienced in Asia, has less effect on sales than is the case for most products and services. Nevertheless a long and substantial economic crisis in the region will noticeably impact the sales of both equipment and media.

Robert W. Mcllvaine

1998-01-01

264

Partial liquid ventilation.  

PubMed

Mortality from the adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and the infant respiratory distress syndrome remains high despite numerous interventions and modalities. Perfluorocarbons (PFC) are inert liquids that can dissolve large amounts of oxygen and carbon dioxide and can be used as respiratory media. Partial liquid ventilation uses PFC to partially fill the lungs of patients with ARDS to improve gas exchange and support them. Studies in animals and humans (mostly neonates) using perflubron, which is currently the only PFC approved for clinical use, have shown that they are safe and effective in improving oxygenation. In this article the rationale of the technique, its historical background, and animal and clinical data to date are reviewed. PMID:16088730

Hadjiliadis, D

2000-01-01

265

Liquid filtration simulation  

SciTech Connect

We have a developed a computer code that simulates 3-D filtration of suspended particles in fluids in realistic filter structures. This code, being the most advanced filtration simulation package developed to date, provides LLNL and DOE with new capabilities to address problems in cleaning liquid wastes, medical fluid cleaning, and recycling liquids. The code is an integrated system of commercially available and LLNL-developed software; the most critical are the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solver and the particle transport program. For the CFD solver, we used a commercial package based on Navier-Stokes equations and a LLNL-developed package based on Boltzman-lattice gas equations. For the particle transport program, we developed a cod based on the 3-D Langevin equation of motion and the DLVO theory of electrical interactions. A number of additional supporting packages were purchased or developed to integrate the simulation tasks and to provide visualization output.

Corey, I.; Bergman, W.

1996-06-01

266

Rotating liquid nitrogen cooled substrate holder  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus comprising a rotating substrate holder is provided. The rotating substrate holder is hollow and adapted to receive liquid gas such as nitrogen to cool the substrate to cryogenic temperatures. The novel substrate holder is supported inside of a vacuum chamber by a thin wall tube which is sealed with a liquid rotating seal at the point where it

R. M. Josephs; R. A. Flowers; P. L. Young

1984-01-01

267

Fed chair explains Fed's recent liquidity measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Federal Reserve Chairman Ben Bernanke recently discussed central bank actions to support market liquidity and the reasoning behind the Fed's actions to soothe recent strains in short-term funding markets.

anonymous

2008-01-01

268

Carbon supports from natural organic materials and carbon-supported palladium catalysts  

SciTech Connect

Experimental data are presented concerning the influence of preparation conditions on the pore structure of carbon supports obtained from different types of plant biomass, thermally expanded graphites, and chemically modified anthracites, on the distribution and particle size of supported palladium, and on the activity of the supported catalyst in the liquid-phase hydrogenation of hex-1-ene and cyclohexene.

Kuznetsov, B.N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

2007-07-15

269

Transverse excitations in liquid metals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The transverse acoustic excitation modes were detected by inelastic x-ray scattering in liquid Ga, Cu and Fe in the Q range around 10 nm-1 using a third-generation synchrotron radiation facility, SPring-8, although these liquid metals are mostly described by a simple hard-sphere liquid. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations clearly support this finding for liquid Ga. From the detailed analyses for the S(Q,?) spectra with good statistic qualities, the lifetime of less than 1 ps and the propagating length of less than 1 nm can be estimated for the transverse acoustic phonon modes, which correspond to the lifetime and size of cages formed instantaneously in these liquid metals. The microscopic Poisson's ratio estimated from the dynamic velocities of sound is 0.42 for liquid Ga and about -0.2 for liquid transition metals, indicating a rubber-like soft and extremely hard elastic properties of the cage clusters, respectively. The origin of these microscopic elastic properties is discussed in detail.

Hosokawa, S.; Munejiri, S.; Inui, M.; Kajihara, Y.; Pilgrim, W.-C.; Baron, A. Q. R.; Shimojo, F.; Hoshino, K.

2013-02-01

270

Liquid filtration  

SciTech Connect

Liquid filtration is a fundamental unit operation practiced extensively throughout the chemical process, petroleum, and allied industries. This book is a state-of-the-art review of this operation. The text reviews specific design and selection criteria, both theoretical and practical. There are many actual industrial problems given as a means of further elucidating the principles of filtration that are presented. All of the options and methods for equipment and component functions, as well as engineering design routes, are examined in detail, and optimum systems and functions are specified. Major Sections: Hydrodynamics of Flows Through Porous Media; Introduction to Filtration; Governing Laws of Cake Filtration; Governing Laws of Filter-Medium Filtration; Application of Filter Aids; Filter Media; Cake Washing; Cake Dewatering; Design Equations for Optimum Filtration; Summary of Graphical Analysis Techniques; Liquid Filtration Equipment; Ultrafiltration; Microporous Membrane Filtration; Industrial Applications of Reverse Osmosis Selection and Sizing of Prefilter/Final Filter Systems; Filtration Design Examples; Index.

Cheremisinoff, N.P.; Azbel, D.S.

1983-01-01

271

In support  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subject of this address is a history of psychology in support of personnel management. The setting is the Canadian armed forces and the period is 1939 to the present. The main theme is the contribution of psychology to the effective use of available manpower, while assisting to preserve individual recognition. The subject is far from closed. Indeed, military psychology

W. R. N. Blair

1966-01-01

272

Supporting Sport  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hillary Commission is the public funding agency that encourages New Zealanders to participate and achieve in sport, fitness and leisure. We support around 100 national sport organisations and the 17 regional sports trusts, encourage more people to be more active more often, help athletes compete at top levels, and improve the way sport and physical activity services are delivered.

Colleen Dryden

273

Supporting Structures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity about living things and gravity (page 5 of PDF), learners design and build an exoskeleton or an endoskeleton for an animal of their own invention. Learners consider their animal's habitat and body shape when designing its support structure. This guide includes background information, extensions, and a data sheet.

Chang, Kimberly; Moreno, Nancy P.; Tharp, Barbara Z.; Institute, National S.

2000-01-01

274

Supported Employment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This "feature issue" reports on major shifts in attitudes, practices, and policies that have led to the growth of supported employment programs for people with disabilities, with special focus on the situation in Minnesota. It contains the following articles: "To the Year 2000 and Beyond: Jobs Won't Be the Problem" (David R. Johnson); "The End of…

Erickson, Ron, Ed.; And Others

1989-01-01

275

Supporting Diversity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This newsletter feature issue focuses on services for persons with developmental disabilities that support the whole person by acknowledging, respecting, and incorporating aspects of identity such as race, ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation, gender, age, and class. Articles include: (1) "Serving the Whole Person: The Journey to Embracing…

Horton, Betty, Ed.; And Others

1996-01-01

276

Bearing for liquid metal pump  

DOEpatents

A liquid metal pump bearing support comprises a series of tangentially oriented spokes that connect the bearing cylinder to the pump internals structure. The spokes may be arranged in a plurality of planes extending from the bearing cylinder to the pump internals with the spokes in one plane being arranged alternately with those in the next plane. The bearing support structure provides the pump with sufficient lateral support for the bearing structure together with the capability of accommodating differential thermal expansion without adversely affecting pump performance.

Dickinson, Robert J. (Shaler Township, Allegheny County, PA); Wasko, John (Plum Borough, PA); Pennell, William E. (Unity Township, Allegheny County, PA)

1984-01-01

277

Perturbing effects of chiral stationary phase on enantiomerization second-order rate constants determined by enantioselective dynamic high-performance liquid chromatography: a practical tool to quantify the accessible acid and basic catalytic sites bonded on chromatographic supports.  

PubMed

Second-order rate constants of the diethylamine-promoted enantiomerization of 2-[2-(1-methyl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl)-2-oxo-1-phenylethyl]-isoindole-1,3-dione, a chiral alpha-substituted ketone endowed with high anti-MAO activity type-A, were measured by dynamic high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC), stopped-flow high-performance liquid chromatography (sf-HPLC), and a classical method based on enantioselective HPLC as the monitoring tool. The chiral column used in all determinations was the commercial Chiralpak AD. By comparison of the obtained data, perturbing effects of the stationary phase on the DHPLC and sf-HPLC determinations were highlighted and distinguished in indirect (SP(IPC)) and direct (SP(DPC)) type. It was evidenced that SP(DPC) noise effects may be completely erased by simple mathematical treatment of data obtained at different concentrations of the basic catalyst. Perturbations of type SP(IPC) may instead only be partially kept down by modulating the concentration of the basic catalyst. An estimation of the density distribution of catalytic sites covalently bonded to the stationary phase (SP) of the Chiralpak AD was performed exploiting the quantified SP(DPC) effects. Such an approach might be of general application, supplying a useful way to characterize the attitude of SPs to speed acid- or base-catalyzed equilibria possibly active during chromatographic separations. PMID:19323498

Cirilli, Roberto; Costi, Roberta; Di Santo, Roberto; La Torre, Francesco; Pierini, Marco; Siani, Gabriella

2009-05-01

278

LETTER TO THE EDITOR: The structure of supercooled elemental liquids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent measurements of the atomic structure of supercooled liquid B, Ni, Si and Zr show a short-range structure similar to that of the nucleating crystalline phases. As the liquids are supercooled, the coordination numbers and interatomic distances increase, decrease or remain essentially constant to approach the values characteristic of the crystals that nucleate from the liquid. Further support for the

Shankar Krishnan; Stuart Ansell

1999-01-01

279

The Liquidity Risk of Liquid Hedge Funds  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates hedge funds that grant favorable redemption terms to investors. Within this group of purportedly liquid funds, high net inflow funds subsequently outperform low net inflow funds by 4.79 percent per year after adjusting for risk. The return impact of fund flows is stronger when funds embrace liquidity risk, when market liquidity is low, and when funding liquidity,

Melvyn Teo

2010-01-01

280

The liquidity risk of liquid hedge funds  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates hedge funds that grant favorable redemption terms to investors. Within this group of purportedly liquid funds, high net inflow funds subsequently outperform low net inflow funds by 4.79% per year after adjusting for risk. The return impact of fund flows is stronger when funds embrace liquidity risk, when market liquidity is low, and when funding liquidity, as

Melvyn Teo

2011-01-01

281

How Liquid are Liquid Hedge Funds?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many hedge funds impose minimal share restrictions and allow investors to redeem on a monthly basis or better. We find that there is significant variation in the liquidity risk exposure of these “liquid” funds. Within this group of funds, those that embrace liquidity risk outperform those that eschew liquidity risk by 4.86 percent per year. As a consequence of the

BNP Paribas Hedge Fund Centre; Melvyn Teo

2009-01-01

282

The Liquidity Risk of Liquid Hedge Funds  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates hedge funds that grant favorable redemption terms to investors. Within this group of purportedly liquid funds, high net inflow funds subsequently outperform low net inflow funds by 4.79% per year after adjusting for risk. The return impact of fund flows is stronger when funds embrace liquidity risk, when market liquidity is low, and when funding liquidity, as

Song Wee Melvyn TEO

2011-01-01

283

Liquid electrode  

DOEpatents

A dropping electrolyte electrode is described for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions. 2 figures.

Ekechukwu, A.A.

1994-07-05

284

ULTRA HIGH RATE, WIDE AREA, PLASMA POLYMERIZED FILMS FROM HIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT\\/LOW VAPOR PRESSURE LIQUID OR LIQUID\\/SOLID SUSPENSION MONOMER PRECURSORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new process has been developed for the high rate vacuum deposition of solid films from high molecular weight\\/low vapor pressure liquid, or even liquid\\/solid suspension, monomer precursors. The gas resulting from the flash evaporation of a liquid monomer mixture, or from a suspension of insoluble solid particles in liquid monomer, is used as the support medium for a glow

J. D. Affinito; M. E. Gross; P. A. Mounier; M-K Shi; G. L. Graff

1999-01-01

285

High-Temperature-Turbine Technology Program: Phase II. Technology test and support studies. Update of overall plant-design description combined-cycle electric-power plant operating on coal-derived liquid fuel  

SciTech Connect

Changes made to the preliminary design of a commercial combined cycle electric powerplant operating on coal-derived liquid fuel are described. Major elements changed are: the gas turbine configuration; and steam system operating parameters. The net power output of this baseload station was increased from 665 MW to 806 MW, principally as a result of increasing the size of the four gas turbines. The gas turbine configuration was changed from a 2-spool, annular burner arrangement to a single shaft engine with can-type combustors. Firing temperature was revised from 3000 tp 2750/sup 0/F. The free power turbine arrangement of the original powerplant concept which permits double-ending the electrical generators was retained. The steam system configuration was changed from an 1800/1000 single level system to a 2400/1000/1000 single reheat configuration which utilizes heat extraction from the hot flue gas down to 280/sup 0/F. The steam system produces 347 MW of electrical power. The coal-derived liquid fuel used in this study is the same as that originally selected, a distilled fuel product derived from the H-coal process with a higher heating value estimated to be 17,800 Btu/lb. The modular arrangement of the original powerplant design was retained. The gas turbine concept with free power turbines and double-ended alternator permits the powerplant to operate over a wide range of output at optimum component efficiency. The overall powerplant efficiency is 47.4%. This figure is conservatively based on demonstrated performance of commercial or near-commercial components utilized in the design, including the 2750/sup 0/F transpiration air-cooled turbine concept which was successfully tested at conditions simulating the combustion of coal-derived fuel.

Not Available

1982-04-01

286

Aromatic nitrations by mixed acid. Fast liquid-liquid reaction regime  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aromatic nitration by mixed acid was selected as a specific case of heterogeneous liquid-liquid reaction. An extensive experimental programme was followed using adiabatic and heat flow calorimetry and pilot reactor experiments, supported by chemical analysis. A series of nitration experiments was carried out to study the influence of different initial and operating conditions, such as temperature, stirring speed, feed rate

J. M. Zaldívar; E. J. Molga; M. A. Alós; H. Hernández; K. R. Westerterp

1996-01-01

287

Aromatic nitrations by mixed acid. Slow liquid-liquid reaction regime  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aromatic nitrations by mixed acid have been selected as a specific case of a heterogeneous liquid-liquid reaction. An extensive experimental programme has been followed using adiabatic and heat-flow calorimetry and pilot reactor experiments, supported by chemical analysis. A series of nitration experiments has been carried out to study the influences of different initial and operating conditions such as temperature, stirring

J. M. Zaldivar; E. J. Molga; M. A. Alós; H. Hernández; K. R. Westerterp

1995-01-01

288

Submerged (under-liquid) floating of light objects.  

PubMed

A counterintuitive submerged floating of objects lighter than the supporting liquid was observed. Polymer plates with dimensions on the order of magnitude of the capillary length were hydrophilized with cold air plasma were floated in an "under-liquid" regime (totally covered by liquid) when immersed in water or glycerol. Profiles of liquid surfaces curved by polymer plates are measured. We propose a model explaining the phenomenon. The floating of Janus plates is reported. PMID:23906242

Bormashenko, Edward; Pogreb, Roman; Grynyov, Roman; Bormashenko, Yelena; Gendelman, Oleg

2013-08-15

289

Carbon cloth supported electrode  

DOEpatents

A flow-by anode is disclosed made by preparing a liquid suspension of about to about 18% by weight solids, the solids comprising about 3.5 to about 8% of a powdered catalyst of platinum, palladium, palladium oxide, or mixtures thereof; about 60 to about 76% carbon powder (support) having a particle size less than about 20 m.mu.m and about 20 to about 33% of an inert binder having a particle size of less than about 500 m.mu.m. A sufficient amount of the suspension is poured over a carbon cloth to form a layer of solids about 0.01 to about 0.05 cm thick on the carbon cloth when the electrode is completed. A vacuum was applied to the opposite side of the carbon cloth to remove the liquid and the catalyst layer/cloth assembly is dried and compressed at about 10 to about 50 MPa's. The binder is then sintered in an inert atmosphere to complete the electrode. The electrode is used for the oxidation of sulfur dioxide in a sulfur based hybrid cycle for the decomposition of water.

Lu, Wen-Tong P. (Upper St. Clair, PA); Ammon, Robert L. (Baldwin both of, PA)

1982-01-01

290

The separation of glycerides by liquid-liquid column partition chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

A liquid-liquid partition chromatography method was developed to separate triglycerides. The solvent was a two phase mixture\\u000a of acetone, heptane, and water supported on silane treated celite. A study was made of the best means for equilibrating the\\u000a solvents and support, packing the column, and introducing the sample. The effect of various operating variables such as flow\\u000a rate, sample size,

B. C. Black; E. G. Hammond

1963-01-01

291

Liquid-liquid-solid transition in viscoelastic liquids  

PubMed Central

Liquid-liquid-solid transitions (LLST) are known to occur in confined liquids, exist in supercooled liquids and emerge in liquids driven from equilibrium. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations claim many successes in forecasting the phenomena. The transitions are also studied in the framework of thermodynamics based methods and minimalistic models. In here, the proposed approach is derived in the framework of continuum and includes spatial and temporal dynamic heterogeneities; the approach is meant to capture the material behavior at small scales. We conjecture that the liquid-like and solid-like behaviors are dissimilar enough for the two to be governed by different constitutive relations. In this way, we gain additional degree of freedom, which is found essential when predicting the transitional phenomena. As a result, we derive the LLST criteria for liquids in equilibrium, during steady flow and at transient conditions. Lastly, we forecast short-lived LLSTs in human blood during cardiac cycle.

Zubelewicz, Aleksander

2013-01-01

292

What Is A Liquid?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The representation is an animation of the molecular motion of liquid and gaseous bromine. The motion of the atoms of liquid argon and the molecular motion of liquid water are shown as well. Descriptive information accompanies the animation.

293

Lacerations - liquid bandage  

MedlinePLUS

... medical attention. If the cut is minor, a liquid bandage (liquid adhesive) can be used on the cut to ... the wound and help stop bleeding. Using a liquid bandage is quick and painless to apply. Skin ...

294

Liquid Crystal Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Liquid Crystal Institute website provides information on the interdisciplinary research and development of liquid crystal optoelectronic materials, technology, and consumer products. It provides basic information on what liquid crystals are as well as how they are made and used.

Institute, Liquid C.

2003-10-10

295

Solids Liquids and Gases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Compare and contrast the three states of matter: solids, liquids and gases. First you will begin by looking at characteristics of each solids, liquids and gasesGases, Liquids and Solids Facts. Then you will look at examples of each stateSolids, Liquids and Gases Video. Demonstrate an understanding of solids, liquids and gases by playing interactive gameSolids, Liquids and Gases Game. Graphic Organizer is here to be filled out as you learn during this lesson. Use the red ...

Salter, Ms.

2009-10-22

296

Survival of Mammals Breathing Organic Liquids Equilibrated with Oxygen at Atmospheric Pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because oxygen and carbon dioxide are very soluble in certain silicone oils and fluorocarbon liquids, these liquids will support respiration of mammals. Mice and cats respiring silicone oil die shortly after return to air breathing, while those breathing fluorocarbon survive for weeks. The respiration of mice is optimally supported by these organic liquids at about 20 degrees C. In cats,

Leland C. Clark Jr.; Frank Gollan

1966-01-01

297

REDISTRIBUTOR FOR LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION COLUMNS  

DOEpatents

An improved baffle plate construction to intimately mix immiscible liquid solvents for solvent extraction processes in a liquid-liquid pulse column is described. To prevent the light and heavy liquids from forming separate continuous homogeneous vertical channels through sections of the column, a baffle having radially placed rectangular louvers with deflection plates opening upon alternate sides of the baffle is placed in the column, normal to the axis. This improvement substantially completely reduces strippiig losses due to poor mixing.

Bradley, J.G.

1957-10-29

298

Liquid supercoiling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Supercoiling is defined as the large-scale secondary coiling of a slender body that is already coiled at a smaller scale (e.g., telephone cords and DNA strands). We demonstrate experimentally a novel fluid-mechanical form of supercoiling that occurs in the context of the familiar ``liquid rope coiling'' instability of a thin thread of viscous fluid falling onto a rigid surface. Under appropriate conditions, the coiling instability generates a tall pile of coils in the form of a hollow cylindrical column, which in turn becomes unstable to a secondary coiling instability with a frequency 10% of the primary one. To place this phenomenon in a broader context, we determine experimentally the phase diagram for the different possible behaviors of the thread (stagnation flow, simple coiling, rotatory folding, periodic column collapse, supercoiling) in the space of the fluid viscosity, the flow rate, and the fall height. We formulate a mathematical model for supercoiling by combining a thin-shell description of the column wall with a slender-thread description of the column as a whole. This leads to a set of coupled ordinary differential equations in one space dimension (the arclength along the axis of the coiling column) that we solve numerically using a continuation method. A comparison of the predicted and observed frequencies of secondary coiling will be shown.

Ribe, Neil; Habibi, Mehdi; Hosseini, Hossein; Hassan Khatami, Mohammad

2011-11-01

299

Look-alike Liquids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners add drops of four liquids (water, alcohol, salt water, and detergent solution) to different surfaces and observe the liquids' behavior. Learners will see that liquids have characteristic properties which can be used for identification. In the related activity, " Developing Tests to Distinguish Between Similar-Looking Liquids" (see related resources), learners identify an unknown based on these properties.

Kessler, James H.; Galvan, Patricia M.

2007-01-01

300

Traveling Through Different Liquids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners observe and record what happens when they manipulate bottles containing a liquid (water or corn syrup) and one or more objects (screw, nail, paper clip). They should observe differences in how quickly the objects fall in the different liquids. This lesson builds on what learners have studied in previous lessons, Exploring Liquids and Exploring How Liquids Behave.

Janulaw, Sharon

2010-01-01

301

Liquidity and Financial Crises  

Microsoft Academic Search

With money liquidity, transaction liquidity, funding liquidity and their interactions, this article analyzes the innovation of the subprime mortgage crisis and its transformation into the financial crisis. The findings show that as in other historical financial crises the overall liquidity meltdown is the direct cause. The default in subprime mortgage is just the fuse. Typically, as the money policy is

Chen Xiaoyan; Wei Yi; Xu Qin

2009-01-01

302

Endogenous Systemic Liquidity Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditionally, aggregate liquidity shocks are modelled as exogenous events. Extending our previous work (Cao & Illing, 2008), this paper analyses the adequate policy response to endogenous systemic liquidity risk. We analyse the feedback between lender of last resort policy and incentives of private banks, determining the aggregate amount of liquidity available. We show that imposing minimum liquidity standards for banks

Jin Cao; Gerhard Illing

2009-01-01

303

Endogenous Systemic Liquidity Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditionally, aggregate liquidity shocks are modelled as exogenous events. Extending our previous work (Cao & Illing, 2007), this paper analyses the adequate policy response to endogenous systemic liquidity risk. We analyse the feedback between lender of last resort policy and incentives of private banks, determining the aggregate amount of liquidity available. We show that imposing minimum liquidity standards for banks

Jin Cao; Gerhard Illing

2008-01-01

304

Liquid Wall Chambers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The key feature of liquid wall chambers is the use of a renewable liquid layer to protect chamber structures from target emissions. Two primary options have been proposed and studied: wetted wall chambers and thick liquid wall (TLW) chambers. With wetted wall designs, a thin layer of liquid shields the structural first wall from short ranged target emissions (x-rays, ions

2011-01-01

305

Liquidity and capital structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the relation between equity market liquidity and capital structure. We find that firms with more liquid equity have lower leverage and prefer equity financing when raising capital. For example, after sorting firms into size quintiles and then into liquidity quintiles, the average debt-to-asset ratio of the most liquid quintiles is about 38% while the average for the least

Marc L. Lipson; Sandra Mortal

2009-01-01

306

Heat exchanger support apparatus in a fluidized bed  

DOEpatents

A heat exchanger is mounted in the upper portion of a fluidized combusting bed for the control of the temperature of the bed. A support, made up of tubes, is extended from the perforated plate of the fluidized bed up to the heat exchanger. The tubular support framework for the heat exchanger has liquid circulated therethrough to prevent deterioration of the support.

Lawton, Carl W. (West Hartford, CT)

1982-01-01

307

Exploring How Liquids Behave  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners apply their knowledge from a previous study to identify different liquids--water, corn syrup, and vegetable oil. They also investigate combinations of liquids, two at a time, to see how they interact. This is meant as a follow-up lesson to the related activity, Exploring Liquids. As an extension, learners can continue their study of these liquids in the lesson, Traveling Through Different Liquids.

Janulaw, Sharon

2010-01-01

308

Liquid heating system  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes the method of creating a complete burn of combustible fuel within a heating system having a firebox at least partially surrounded by a liquid reservoir comprising placing fuel within a firebox having a knee wall extending upwardly from the bottom of the firebox so as to define a primary and secondary chamber on opposite side of the knee wall. The fuel is placed in the primary chamber adjacent the knee wall so as to create an air passage extending generally horizontally below the fuel and upwardly between the knee wall and the fuel. A fire core is created within the fuel. Negative pressure is used to create a streamlined air flow through the air passage, over the top of the knee wall and into the secondary chamber. The air flow moves at a speed where only a portion of the air flow can enter the fire core to support combustion of the fuel and to carry byproducts of the combustion upwardly from the fire core such that the byproducts combine with the streamlined air flow at the top of the knee wall and create a self-supporting after-burn in the secondary chamber whereby a clean burning, virtually pollution-free heating means is provided.

Pope, W.T.

1987-02-10

309

Tool to Prioritize Energy Efficiency Investments  

SciTech Connect

To provide analytic support of the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of the Building Technology Program (BTP), NREL developed a Microsoft Excel-based tool to provide an open and objective comparison of the hundreds of investment opportunities available to BTP. This tool uses established methodologies to evaluate the energy savings and cost of those savings.

Farese, P.; Gelman, R.; Hendron, R.

2012-08-01

310

Liquid cryobrines in the subsurface of Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liquid cryobrines in the subsurface of Mars D. Mühlmann, DLR Institut für Planetenforschung, Berlin (dirk.moehlmann@dlr.de) Thermodynamics shows that undercooled liquid interfacial water must necessarily exist in the upper surface of Mars, at least temporarily. In case of a given presence of soluble salt grains in the soil with attached interfacial water (of atmospheric-or ice-origin) there must evolve liquid brines ("cryobrines"). The eutectic temperature of cryobrines can be far below 0 C and numerous known brines will remain liquid at martian temperatures. Liquid cryobrines are therefore expected to exist at appropriate sites in the subsurface of Mars, at least temporarily but also at present. Properties like eutectic phase diagrams, related water activity and stability of "Mars-relevant" salts and brines under current martian atmospheric conditions are presented and discussed. It is described that the presence of at least temporarily liquid cryobrines in the subsurface soil can be related to rheological phenomena of viscous liquid brines, and that liquid cryobrines are a current challenge in view of their possible support to a habitability of the subsurface of Mars.

Möhlmann, Diedrich

311

Coolant circulation system for a liquid metal nuclear reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a liquid metal circulation system comprising an electromagnetic pump comprised of: (a) an elongated cylindrical pump support housing; (b) a cylindrical pressure dome structure coaxially situated and supported within the pump support housing, having a closed, hemispherical upper end and an open, cylindrical lower end; (c) a cylindrical pump coaxially situated within the pressure dome structure including:

R. A. DeLuca; G. Garabedian

1988-01-01

312

A Liquid Sodium ? ? Dynamo Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Liquid Sodium ? ? Dynamo Experiment; Stirling Colgate, Howard Beckley, Hui Li, Richard Sonnenfeld, Dave Westpfahl, Ian Bentley, Rocky Ginanni, Travis Mckinnly, and Valadimir Pariev, LANL, NMIMT, & Univ. of Rochester. A liquid sodium ? ? dynamo experiment has been constructed at NMIMT to simulate MRI, dynamo gain, and feed back in liquid sodium (r1 = 15 cm,; r2 = 30 cm,; L=30 cm,; f1 = 120 Hz,; f2 = 30 Hz ). It is designed to simulate the generation of large scale magnetic fields in massive black hole accretion disks, galaxies, and stars. The omega gain is due to the shear flow of differential rotation of Couette flow between two differentially rotating co-axial cylinders. Differential rotation in a conducting fluid twists a radial or quadrupole magnetic flux into a greatly enhanced toroidal flux. A large coherent helicity is produced by driven plumes and astrophisically by star-disk collisions, supernova explosions, or large scale plume convection respectively. We have rotated the apparatus with water and hot oil and demonstrated stable Couette flow with only Ekman-flow-induced torque. We will report on the ? gain with liquid sodium. This Work has been supported by NMIMT, EMRTC, NSF, & LDRD of LANL.

Colgate, Stirling; Beckley, Howard; Li, Hui; Sonnenfield, Richard; Westpfahl, Dave; Bentley, Ian; Ginanni, Rocky; McKinnly, Travis; Pariev, Valadimir

2004-11-01

313

Liquid-film electron stripper  

DOEpatents

An improved liquid-film electron stripper particularly for high intensity heavy ion beams which produces constant regenerated, stable, free-standing liquid films having an adjustable thickness between 0.3 to 0.05 microns. The improved electron stripper is basically composed of at least one high speed, rotating disc with a very sharp, precision-like, ground edge on one said of the disc's periphery and with a highly polished, flat, radial surface adjacent the sharp edge. A fine stream of liquid, such as oil, impinges at a 90.degree. angle adjacent the disc's sharp outer edge. Film terminators, located at a selected distance from the disc perimeter are positioned approximately perpendicular to the film. The terminators support, shape, and stretch the film and are arranged to assist in the prevention of liquid droplet formation by directing the collected film to a reservoir below without breaking or interfering with the film. One embodiment utilizes two rotating discs and associated terminators, with the discs rotating so as to form films in opposite directions, and with the second disc being located down beam-line relative to the first disc.

Gavin, Basil F. (Albion, CA)

1986-01-01

314

Nuclear reactor construction with bottom supported reactor vessel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an improved liquid metal nuclear reactor construction comprising: (a) a nuclear reactor core having a bottom platform support structure; (b) a reactor vessel for holding a large pool of low pressure liquid metal coolant and housing the core; (c) a containment structure surrounding the reactor vessel and having a sidewall spaced outwardly from the reactor vessel side

Sharbaugh

1987-01-01

315

[Home oxygen therapy using liquid oxygen system].  

PubMed

Home oxygen therapy (HOT) for patients with chronic respiratory failure has been believed to increase the quality of life and to improve the prognosis of such patients. In Japan, HOT for chronic respiratory failure has been supported by health insurance since March 1985. Since then, patients with HOT have increased progressively, and it has been reported that there are now over 20,000 patients with HOT. The oxygen concentrator which extracts oxygen from atmospheric air has been commonly used as the oxygen delivery system. Recently the liquid oxygen system has provided an attractive, convenient source of oxygen. Since April 1990, HOT using liquid oxygen system has been supported by health insurance, and its use will become widespread in Japan. A major characteristic of this system is that oxygen condensed into a liquid form allows storage of a larger supply. This system consists of two parts: stationary type which stores the liquid oxygen, and a portable type which can easily be refilled with oxygen a larger source. In the present study, we examined the efficacy of portable liquid oxygen in 50 patients with chronic pulmonary diseases including patients with chronic respiratory failure who had PaO2 < 55 mmHg during air breathing. We measured changes of ten minutes walking distance (10 MD) and blood gas analysis with and without portable liquid oxygen. We also performed on estimation of efficacy of liquid oxygen by questionnaires in patients receiving liquid oxygen for HOT. We did not find a significant improvement of 10 MD with portable liquid oxygen, but found a significant improvement of arterial oxygen tension at the end of walking.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1306220

Hida, W; Sakurai, M; Okabe, S; Hajime; Kurosawa; Kikuchi, Y; Takishima, T

1992-12-01

316

Liquid level detector  

DOEpatents

A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which vapor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

Grasso, A.P.

1984-02-21

317

Liquid level detector  

DOEpatents

A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which apor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

Grasso, Albert P. (Vernon, CT)

1986-01-01

318

Semiconductor nanorod liquid crystals  

SciTech Connect

Rodlike molecules form liquid crystalline phases with orientational order and positional disorder. The great majority of materials in which liquid crystalline phases have been observed are comprised of organic molecules or polymers, even though there has been continuing and growing interest in inorganic liquid crystals. Recent advances in the control of the sizes and shapes of inorganic nanocrystals allow for the formation of a broad class of new inorganic liquid crystals. Here we show the formation of liquid crystalline phases of CdSe semiconductor nanorods. These new liquid crystalline phases may have great importance for both application and fundamental study.

Li, Liang-shi; Walda, Joost; Manna, Liberato; Alivisatos, A. Paul

2002-01-28

319

Consolidated incineration facility technical support  

SciTech Connect

In 1996, the Savannah River Site plans to begin operation of the Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) to treat solid and liquid RCRA hazardous and mixed wastes. The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) leads an extensive technical support program designed to obtain incinerator and air pollution control equipment performance data to support facility start-up and operation. Key components of this technical support program include recently completed waste burn tests at both EPA`s Incineration Research Facility and at Energy and Environmental Research Corporation`s Solid Waste Incineration Test Facility. The main objectives for these tests were determining the fate of heavy metals, measuring organics destruction and removal efficiencies, and quantifying incinerator offgas particulate loading and size distribution as a function of waste feed characteristics and incineration conditions. In addition to these waste burning tests, the SRTC has recently completed installations of the Offgas Components Test Facility (OCTF), a 1/10 scale CIF offgas system pilot plant. This pilot facility will be used to demonstrate system operability and maintainability, evaluate and optimize equipment and instrument performance, and provide direct CIF start-up support. Technical support programs of this type are needed to resolve technical issues related with treatment and disposal of combustible hazardous, mixed, and low-level radioactive waste. Implementation of this program will minimize facility start-up problems and help insure compliance with all facility performance requirements.

Burns, D.; Looper, M.G.

1993-12-31

320

Liquid-liquid transitions: Silicon in silico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extensive numerical simulations provide evidence that the thermodynamic behaviour of supercooled silicon is similar to that proposed for supercooled water: a line of liquid-liquid transitions that ends at a critical point. In the case of silicon, however, the critical point occurs at negative pressures.

Sciortino, Francesco

2011-07-01

321

Liquid metal-based plasmonics.  

PubMed

We demonstrate that liquid metals support surface plasmon-polaritons (SPPs) at terahertz (THz) frequencies, and can thus serve as an attractive material system for a wide variety of plasmonic and metamaterial applications. We use eutectic gallium indium (EGaIn) as the liquid metal injected into a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mold fabricated by soft lithography techniques. Using this approach, we observe enhanced THz transmission through a periodic array of subwavelength apertures. Despite of the fact that the DC conductivity of EGaIn is an order of magnitude smaller than many conventional metals, we clearly observe well-defined transmission resonances. This represents a first step in developing reconfigurable and tunable plasmonic devices that build upon well-developed microfluidic capabilities. PMID:22330473

Wang, Jinqi; Liu, Shuchang; Vardeny, Z Valy; Nahata, Ajay

2012-01-30

322

Liquid-metal-cooled nuclear reactor  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor comprising a core, a main vessel comprising a first supporting means, a primary vessel mounted inside said main vessel and coaxial therewith, at least one exchanger outside said vessels. Said primary vessel comprises a core-diagrid and a second supporting means integral with the main vessel lateral wall and with the primary vessel lateral wall. These lateral walls define an annular space in which is formed a horizontal partition.

Robin; Marcel (92310 Sevres, FR)

1981-10-20

323

Helium at elevated pressures: Quantum liquid with non-static shear rigidity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The properties of liquid helium have always been a fascinating subject to scientists. The phonon theory of liquids, taking into account liquid non-static shear rigidity, is employed here for studying internal energy and heat capacity of compressed liquid 4He. We demonstrate the good agreement of calculated and experimental heat capacity of liquid helium at elevated pressures and supercritical temperatures. Unexpectedly, helium remains a quantum liquid at elevated pressures for a wide range of temperature supporting both longitudinal and transverse-like phonon excitations. We have found that in the very wide pressure range of 5 MPa-500 MPa, liquid helium near melting temperature is both solid-like and quantum.

Bolmatov, D.; Brazhkin, V. V.; Trachenko, K.

2013-03-01

324

Literacy Measure B - Liquid  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... Literacy Measure B - Liquid. LIQUID. Frequency. Percent. Valid Percent. Cumulative Percent. Valid, Correct, 887, 98.1, 98.1, 98.1. Incorrect, 8, .9, .9, ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/developmentapprovalprocess/developmentresources

325

Liquid medication administration  

MedlinePLUS

... easily. Oral syringes have some advantages for giving liquid medications. They are accurate. They are easy to ... cups are also a handy way to give liquid medications. However, dosing errors have occurred with them. ...

326

Rock drilling, cooling liquids  

NSF Publications Database

Title : Rock drilling, cooling liquids Type : Antarctic EAM NSF Org: OD / OPP Date : October 23 ... impacts that could accrue from the use of cooling liquids during rock drilling. Our discussion of ...

327

Liquid Crystal Display.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A flexible liquid crystal display is provided wherein an addressable liquid crystal layer is disposed on a single flexible substrate so that the display itself will exhibit flexibility. The substrate is preferably a flexible non-transparent material and m...

A. Green A. A. Khan I. Shiyanovskaya J. W. Doane

2004-01-01

328

Seismic analysis of base-isolated liquid storage tanks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three analytical studies for the seismic response of base-isolated ground supported cylindrical liquid storage tanks under recorded earthquake ground motion are presented. The continuous liquid mass of the tank is modelled as lumped masses referred as sloshing mass, impulsive mass and rigid mass. Firstly, the seismic response of isolated tanks is obtained using the modal superposition technique and compared with

M. K. Shrimali; R. S. Jangid

2004-01-01

329

Tristriazolotriazines: a core for luminescent discotic liquid crystals.  

PubMed

The synthesis and structural, thermal, optical and theoretical characterization of new tris[1,2,4]triazolo[1,3,5]triazines were performed to support their application as liquid crystals and advanced materials. PMID:18956046

Cristiano, Rodrigo; Gallardo, Hugo; Bortoluzzi, Adailton J; Bechtold, Ivan H; Campos, Carlos E M; Longo, Ricardo L

2008-09-03

330

Computational Modeling of Liquid and Gaseous Control Valves.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this paper computational modeling efforts undertaken at NASA Stennis Space Center in support of rocket engine component testing are discussed. Such analyses include structurally complex cryogenic liquid valves and gas valves operating at high pressures...

R. Daines V. Ahuja

2005-01-01

331

Recent Developments in Flow Injection\\/Sequential Injection Liquid-Liquid Extraction for Atomic Spectrometric Determination of Metals and Metalloids  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review aims to provide a critical overview of automated flow injection and sequential injection liquid-liquid extraction for preconcentration and\\/or separation of ultra-trace metal and metalloid species hyphenated with atomic spectrometric detection systems, including some new trends and applications in the subbranches of cloud point extraction (CPE), wetting film extraction (WFE), supported liquid membrane extraction (SLME), extraction chromatography (EChr), and

Aristidis N. Anthemidis; Manuel Miro

2009-01-01

332

Solids, Liquids, and Gases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Objective: Students will be introduced to solids, liquids, and gases. Students will identify key characteristics of the three states of matter. Everything is made of matter. Matter is made of atoms. Matter makes up solids, liquids, and gases. What are some similarities and differences between solids, liquids, and gases? Follow the link below to find out. Characteristics of the States of Matter The previous website gave some general characteristics for solids, liquids, and gases. Now ...

Rohlfing, Mrs.

2010-10-22

333

Liquid lens enabling real-time focus and tilt compensation for optical image stabilization in camera modules  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new generation of liquid lenses based on electrowetting has been developed, using a multi-electrode design, enabling to induce optical tilt and focus corrections in the same component. The basic principle is to rely on a conical shape for supporting the liquid interface, the conical shape insuring a restoring force for the liquid liquid interface to come at the center

Eric Simon; Pierre Craen; Hilario Gaton; Olivier Jacques-Sermet; Frédéric Laune; Julien Legrand; Mathieu Maillard; Nicolas Tallaron; Nicolas Verplanck; Bruno Berge

2010-01-01

334

Liquid detection circuit  

DOEpatents

Herein is a circuit which is capable of detecting the presence of liquids, especially cryogenic liquids, and whose sensor will not overheat in a vacuum. The circuit parameters, however, can be adjusted to work with any liquid over a wide range of temperatures.

Regan, Thomas O. (North Aurora, IL)

1987-01-01

335

Diet - clear liquid  

MedlinePLUS

Clear liquid diet ... A clear liquid diet is made up of only clear fluids and foods that turn to clear fluids when they are ... you need for energy. Eating only a clear liquid diet gives you enough nutrition for 3 to ...

336

Liquid detection circuit  

DOEpatents

Herein is a circuit which is capable of detecting the presence of liquids, especially cryogenic liquids, and whose sensor will not overheat in a vacuum. The circuit parameters, however, can be adjusted to work with any liquid over a wide range of temperatures.

Regan, T.O.

1986-04-01

337

Liquid Propellant Gun.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention relates to bulk loaded liquid propellant guns of a type wherein a liquid propellant is injected into the chamber of the gun between the projectile and the bolt. Method and apparatus is provided for use in liquid propellant guns such as that ...

W. L. Black R. A. Gould S. E. Wood

1978-01-01

338

Mixtures of ionic liquids.  

PubMed

Simple ionic liquids have long been held to be designer solvents, based upon the ability to independently vary their cations and anions. The formation of mixtures of ionic liquids increases this synthetic flexibility. We review the available literature of these ionic liquid mixtures to identify how their properties change and the possibility for their application. PMID:22890419

Niedermeyer, Heiko; Hallett, Jason P; Villar-Garcia, Ignacio J; Hunt, Patricia A; Welton, Tom

2012-12-01

339

Electrically Deformable Liquid Marbles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquid marbles, which are droplets coated with a hydrophobic powder, were exposed to a uniform electric field. It was established that a threshold value of the electric field, 15 cgse, should be surmounted for deformation of liquid marbles. The shape of the marbles was described as a prolate spheroid. The semi-quantitative theory describing deformation of liquid marbles in a uniform

Edward Bormashenko; Roman Pogreb; Tamir Stein; Gene Whyman; Marcelo Schiffer; Doron Aurbach

2011-01-01

340

Liquidity and Hedge Funds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Market liquidity profoundly impacts hedge funds. Funds trading illiquid securities earns significant risk premium, report smoother returns, can better leverage on information asymmetries, and grapple with stronger capacity constraints. Importantly, the funding liquidity of hedge funds, or their ease of obtaining financing, can have a significant effect on the market liquidity of the securities they trade in, creating a downward

BNP Paribas Hedge Fund Centre; Melvyn Teo

2009-01-01

341

Liquid secretion properties of airway submucosal glands  

PubMed Central

The tracheobronchial submucosal glands secrete liquid that is important for hydrating airway surfaces, supporting mucociliary transport, and serving as a fluid matrix for numerous secreted macromolecules including the gel-forming mucins. This review details the essential structural elements of airway glands and summarizes what is currently known regarding the ion transport processes responsible for producing the liquid component of gland secretion. Liquid secretion most likely arises from serous cells and is principally under neural control with muscarinic agonists, substance P, and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) functioning as effective secretogogues. Liquid secretion is driven by the active transepithelial secretion of both Cl? and HCO3? and at least a portion of this process is mediated by the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), which is highly expressed in glands. The potential role of submucosal glands in cystic fibrosis lung disease is discussed.

Ballard, Stephen T; Inglis, Sarah K

2004-01-01

342

Liquid Crystals: From Discovery to Products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liquid crystals, constituting a new phase of matter, were discovered in 1888. They remained a scientific curiousity until the late 1960s, when liquid crystal displays were invented by Heilmeier at RCA and Fergason at Kent State University. Today, LCDs dominate the flat panel display industry, with production primarily in the Far East. In this talk, I will briefly review the history of liquid crystals and LC devices, discuss emerging LC technologies and speculate on their commercial potential. I will outline new directions in liquid crystal research and describe some of the remarkable new products that may result. I will conclude by considering the connection between support for basic and applied research and successful product commercialization.

Palffy-Muhoray, Peter

2006-03-01

343

Intelligent Detection of SNM in Liquid Containers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detection of special nuclear materials (SNM) in cargo containers is an integral component of homeland security. In this paper a new algorithm is proposed for detecting such materials in containers filled with liquids. Use of imaging, acoustic interrogation and fuzzy logic algorithms support intelligent decision making. The method is tested for a comprehensive scenario of detecting depleted uranium in water.

M. Alamaniotis; R. Gao; L. H. Tsoukalas; T. Jevremovic

2009-01-01

344

Liquid effluent study: Ground water characterization data  

SciTech Connect

This report is a support document to the Liquid Effluent Study Final Project Report (WHC 1990c). The focus is on sampling and analysis rationale, quality assurance (QA), data validation, and sampling conditions for the groundwater quality assessment. Interpretation of the groundwater data is provided in the final project report. 20 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Not Available

1990-08-01

345

Linear lateral vibration of axisymmetric liquid briges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A liquid bridge is a mass of liquid sustained by the action of the surface tension force between two parallel supporting disks Apart from their basic scientific interest a liquid bridge can be considered as the simplest idealization of the configuration appearing in the floating zone technique used for crystal growth and purification of high melting point materials footnote Messeguer et al emph Crystal Growth Res bf 5 27 1999 This has conferred considerable interest on the study of liquid bridges not only in fluid mechanics but also in the field of material engineering The axisymmetric dynamics of an isothermal liquid bridge has been frequently analysed over the past years The studies have considered different phenomena such as free oscillations footnote Montanero emph E J Mech B Fluids bf 22 169 2003 footnote Acero and Montanero emph Phys Fluids bf 17 078105 2005 forced vibrations footnote Perales and Messeguer emph Phys Fluids A bf 4 1110 1992 g-jitter effects footnote Messeguer and Perales emph Phys Fluids A bf 3 2332 1991 extensional deformation footnote Zhang et al emph J Fluid Mech bf 329 207 1996 and breakup process footnote Espino et al emph Phys Fluids bf 14 3710 2002 among others Works considering the nonaxisymmetric dynamical behaviour of a liquid bridge has been far less common footnote Sanz and Diez emph J Fluid Mech bf 205 503 1989 In the present study the linear vibration of an axisymmetric liquid

Ferrera, C.; Montanero, J. M.; Cabezas, M. G.

346

Alt.support: modeling social support online  

Microsoft Academic Search

While there is mounting evidence that people use the Internet to expand their social net- works and receive social support, little is known about how they do so and with what effect the Internet has on overall levels of social support. Based on a survey of 213 online support seekers, this study explored social cognitive mechanism such as self-efficacy and

Matthew S. Eastin; Robert LaRose

2005-01-01

347

Viscosity measurements on clear liquids  

SciTech Connect

During the ITP cold chemical testing program, the efficiency of the benzene strippers will be measured and evaluated. Since the stripping efficiency is partially dependent upon the dynamic viscosity of the liquid phase, this property must be measured on samples taken during the test program. A procedure to measure the dynamic viscosity of salt solutions was developed from standard American Society of Testing and materials (ASTM) methods. The SRS procedure differs from the ASTM procedure and, therefore, a test program was initiated to determine its accuracy and precision. The results of these statistically designed tests are reported elsewhere, but supporting information on the experimental procedures, standards, and equipment are given in this report.

Walker, D.D.

1993-02-09

348

Propagation of a liquid-liquid explosion  

SciTech Connect

Direct contact between two liquids, one cold and the other hot, may be precluded by the presence of a vapor film. Bridging of this film by one or both fluids results in rapid local boiling, which may initiate a propagating liquid-liquid explosion. A mechanism is discussed for the propagation that involves implosion of the film, rapid mixing of the fluids, heat exchange to warm the cold fluid above the temperature for spontaneous nucleation, and the explosive generation of vapor, which in turn continues to sustain the film implosion. Plausibility for the model is demonstrated by means of numerical studies by high-speed computer.

Harlow, F.H.; Ruppel, H.M.

1981-08-01

349

Radiation monitor for liquids  

DOEpatents

A radiation monitor for use with liquids that utilizes air ions created by alpha radiation emitted by the liquids as its detectable element. A signal plane, held at an electrical potential with respect to ground, collects these air ions. A guard plane or guard rings is used to limit leakage currents. In one embodiment, the monitor is used for monitoring liquids retained in a tank. Other embodiments monitor liquids flowing through a tank, and bodies of liquids, such as ponds, lakes, rivers and oceans.

Koster, James E. (Los Alamos, NM); Bolton, Richard D. (Los Alamos, NM)

1999-01-01

350

Radiation monitor for liquids  

DOEpatents

A radiation monitor for use with liquids that utilizes air ions created by alpha radiation emitted by the liquids as its detectable element. A signal plane, held at an electrical potential with respect to ground, collects these air ions. A guard plane or guard rings is used to limit leakage currents. In one embodiment, the monitor is used for monitoring liquids retained in a tank. Other embodiments monitor liquids flowing through a tank, and bodies of liquids, such as ponds, lakes, rivers and oceans. 4 figs.

Koster, J.E.; Bolton, R.D.

1999-03-02

351

Science Shorts: Comparing Liquids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Children experience the physical properties of liquids as they watch raindrops run down a window, observe how insects can walk on water, and notice how the "shape" of a liquid matches the container in which it is held. Thinking about similarities and differences among liquids helps to build foundational ideas of matter and molecular structure. In the following lesson, students explore the cohesiveness and surface tension of two liquids. Through observations and interactions, students develop an understanding about how liquids are similar and different.

Adams, Barbara

2008-12-01

352

Nonvolatile functional molecular liquids.  

PubMed

The realisation of technologically high potential molecular materials as an innovative replacement for currently used materials requires sensible molecular design and subtle implementation. One such research concept "liquid chemistry" has recently been introduced as a third-generation of liquid materials after the first and second generations of solvent liquids and ionic liquids, respectively. The outstanding features of novel organic molecular liquid matter are solvent-free neat phase at room-temperature, nonvolatile, tunable optic and/or electronic functions, processability, etc. The availability of a paintable/printable liquid phase which can accommodate various dopants to generate functional composites is the main attraction of these molecular liquids. As promising candidates, emitting and semiconducting liquid materials have already been practically demonstrated and which may replace inorganic or self-assembled organic semiconductors in performance and processability. Compared to ionic liquid materials obtained by lowering the glass transition temperature through ionic interactions, covalently functionalised organic liquid matter is conceptually unique and exhibits several advantages. In this feature article, the recent developments in the emerging research field of functional molecular liquid materials are discussed. PMID:23977670

Santhosh Babu, Sukumaran; Nakanishi, Takashi

2013-10-21

353

Liquid Wall Chambers  

SciTech Connect

The key feature of liquid wall chambers is the use of a renewable liquid layer to protect chamber structures from target emissions. Two primary options have been proposed and studied: wetted wall chambers and thick liquid wall (TLW) chambers. With wetted wall designs, a thin layer of liquid shields the structural first wall from short ranged target emissions (x-rays, ions and debris) but not neutrons. Various schemes have been proposed to establish and renew the liquid layer between shots including flow-guiding porous fabrics (e.g., Osiris, HIBALL), porous rigid structures (Prometheus) and thin film flows (KOYO). The thin liquid layer can be the tritium breeding material (e.g., flibe, PbLi, or Li) or another liquid metal such as Pb. TLWs use liquid jets injected by stationary or oscillating nozzles to form a neutronically thick layer (typically with an effective thickness of {approx}50 cm) of liquid between the target and first structural wall. In addition to absorbing short ranged emissions, the thick liquid layer degrades the neutron flux and energy reaching the first wall, typically by {approx}10 x x, so that steel walls can survive for the life of the plant ({approx}30-60 yrs). The thick liquid serves as the primary coolant and tritium breeding material (most recent designs use flibe, but the earliest concepts used Li). In essence, the TLW places the fusion blanket inside the first wall instead of behind the first wall.

Meier, W R

2011-02-24

354

Duality of liquids  

PubMed Central

Liquids flow, and in this sense are close to gases. At the same time, interactions in liquids are strong as in solids. The combination of these two properties is believed to be the ultimate obstacle to constructing a general theory of liquids. Here, we adopt a new approach: instead of focusing on the problem of strong interactions, we zero in on the relative contributions of vibrational and diffusional motion. We show that liquid energy and specific heat are given, to a very good approximation, by their vibrational contributions as in solids over almost entire range of relaxation time in which liquids exist as such, and demonstrate that this result is consistent with liquid entropy exceeding solid entropy. Our analysis therefore reveals an interesting duality of liquids not hitherto known: they are close to solids from the thermodynamic perspective and to flowing gases. We discuss several implications of this result.

Trachenko, K.; Brazhkin, V. V.

2013-01-01

355

Support effects in hydrogenation of cinnamaldehyde over carbon nanofiber-supported platinum catalysts: Kinetic modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon nanofiber-supported platinum catalysts with a narrow and stable platinum particle size distribution (1–2nm) were prepared, one with a considerable amount of oxygen support surface groups (PtCNF, 2.8 acidic O atoms\\/nm2) and one with a much smaller amount (PtCNF973, 0.06 acidic O atoms\\/nm2). Their catalytic performance was compared in a series of liquid-phase cinnamaldehyde hydrogenation experiments at 383K using hydrogen

Marjolein L. Toebes; T. Alexander Nijhuis; Jan Hájek; Johannes H. Bitter; A. Jos van Dillen; Dmitry Yu. Murzin; Krijn P. de Jong

2005-01-01

356

Free vibration analysis of partially filled liquid storage tanks  

SciTech Connect

A study on the free vibration analysis of partially filled liquid storage tanks is presented. The tanks considered are the upright circular cylindrical tanks that are rigidly supported at the base. The top of the tanks are either free or constrained. Two types of constraints are considered, namely, hinged and roller support. The governing differential equations for the tank-liquid system are obtained by application of the Rayleigh-Ritz procedure in combination with Lagrange`s equation. The response functions examined include the frequency of the fundamental mode of vibration of the tank-liquid system and the associated modal pressure.

Tang, Yu; Chang, Y.W.

1993-05-01

357

Liquid polyamorphism: Possible relation to the anomalous behaviour of water  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  We present evidence from experiments and computer\\u000a simulations supporting the hypothesis that water displays\\u000a polyamorphism, i.e., water separates into two distinct liquid\\u000a phases. This concept of a new liquid-liquid phase transition is\\u000a finding application to other liquids as well as water, such as\\u000a silicon and silica. Specifically, we investigate, the relation\\u000a between changes in dynamic and thermodynamic anomalies arising from

H. E. Stanley; P. Kumar; G. Franzese; L. Xu; Z. Yan; M. G. Mazza; S. V. Buldyrev; S.-H. Chen; F. Mallamace

2008-01-01

358

Separation of dilute aqueous butanol and acetone solutions by prevaporation through liquid membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simultaneous extraction-stripping process is proposed for separating volatile products from fermentation broths. It is based on prevaporation through a liquid membrane supported with a hydrophobic porous membrane. The liquid membrane prepared with oleyl alcohol was selected as the most suitable for separating volatile products resulting from acetone-butanol fermentation. The separation performance and stability of the oleyl alcohol liquid membrane

Masatoshi Matsumura; Hiroshi Kataoka

1987-01-01

359

Electro-optical Properties of Liquid Crystal Mixtures Containing Fluoroisothiocyanated Compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To support the requirement for faster switching times, newly developed liquid crystal (LC) mixtures were designed using fluoro-isothiocyanated phenyl liquid crystals. In this study, in order to improve switching time, important reductions in the viscoelastic coefficient, ?1/Keff, are demonstrated and a numerical evaluation of switching properties vs various switching parameters in the fluoro-isothiocyanated phenyl liquid crystals was performed.

Huh, Il-Kook; Kim, Yong-Bae

2002-11-01

360

Liquid Effluents Program mission analysis  

SciTech Connect

Systems engineering is being used to identify work to cleanup the Hanford Site. The systems engineering process transforms an identified mission need into a set of performance parameters and a preferred system configuration. Mission analysis is the first step in the process. Mission analysis supports early decision-making by clearly defining the program objectives, and evaluating the feasibility and risks associated with achieving those objectives. The results of the mission analysis provide a consistent basis for subsequent systems engineering work. A mission analysis was performed earlier for the overall Hanford Site. This work was continued by a ``capstone`` team which developed a top-level functional analysis. Continuing in a top-down manner, systems engineering is now being applied at the program and project levels. A mission analysis was conducted for the Liquid Effluents Program. The results are described herein. This report identifies the initial conditions and acceptable final conditions, defines the programmatic and physical interfaces and sources of constraints, estimates the resources to carry out the mission, and establishes measures of success. The mission analysis reflects current program planning for the Liquid Effluents Program as described in Liquid Effluents FY 1995 Multi-Year Program Plan.

Lowe, S.S.

1994-09-27

361

Bent core liquid crystal elastomers  

SciTech Connect

Liquid crystal (LC) elastomers with bent-core side-groups incorporate the properties of bent-core liquid crystals in a flexible and self-supporting polymer network. Bent-core liquid crystal elastomers (BCEs) with uniform alignment were prepared by attaching a reactive bent-core LC to poly(hydrogenmethylsiloxane) and crosslinking with a divinyl crosslinker. Phase behavior studies indicate a nematic phase over a wide temperature range that approaches room temperature, and thermoelastic measurements show that these BCEs can reversibly change their length by more than a factor of two upon heating and cooling. Small-angle X-ray scattering studies reveal multiple, broad low-angle peaks consistent with short-range smectic C order of the bent-core side groups. A comparison of these patterns with predictions of a Landau model for short-range smectic C order shows that the length scale for smectic ordering in BCEs is similar to that seen in pure bent-core LCs. The combination of rubber elasticity and smectic ordering of the bent-core side groups suggests that BCEs may be promising materials for sensing, actuating, and other advanced applications.

Verduzco, R.; DiMasi, E.; Luchette, P.; Ho Hong, S.; Harden, J.; Palffy-Muhoray, P.; Kilbey II, S.M.; Sprunt, S.; Gleeson, G.T. Jakli, A.

2010-07-28

362

Huntsville Operations Support Center.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Information is given in viewgraph form on the Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC). The HOSC is a multi-mission control and support facility designed to provide simultaneous support to several diverse missions, using a common set of processing equi...

D. G. Bailey

1991-01-01

363

Heat exchanger support apparatus in a fluidized bed  

Microsoft Academic Search

A heat exchanger is mounted in the upper portion of a fluidized combusting bed for the control of the temperature of the bed. A support, made up of tubes, is extended from the perforated plate of the fluidized bed up to the heat exchanger. The tubular support framework for the heat exchanger has liquid circulated there through to prevent deterioration

Lawton

1982-01-01

364

Heat exchanger support apparatus in a fluidized bed  

Microsoft Academic Search

A heat exchanger is mounted in the upper portion of a fluidized combusting bed for the control of the temperature of the bed. A support, made up of tubes, is extended from the perforated plate of the fluidized bed up to the heat exchanger. The tubular support framework for the heat exchanger has liquid circulated therethrough to prevent deterioration of

Lawton; Carl W

1982-01-01

365

Preparation of Pt catalysts supported on activated carbon felts (ACF)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activated carbon felts (ACFs) have been used as supports for Pt catalysts. The preparation was carried out by the impregnation method using chloroplatinic acid as metal precursor. The effect of impregnation time and surface chemistry of the support on the catalytic properties and the characteristics of the metallic phase have been investigated. Nitrobenzene (Nbz) hydrogenation in liquid phase at 25°C

S. R. de Miguel; J. I. Vilella; E. L. Jablonski; O. A. Scelza; C. Salinas-Martinez de Lecea; A. Linares-Solano

2002-01-01

366

Support Guidelines.com  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource, created by Laura Wish Morgan, a prominent family law and child support attorney, is offered primarily as an aid to other attorneys "who wish to research the law of child support in general and child support guidelines in particular." The site features links to child support guidelines for each state and the District of Columbia, weekly overviews of current notable child support cases, monthly articles on current legal issues concerning child support, and a collection of related links.

367

Pulsating-gliding transition in the dynamics of levitating liquid nitorgen droplets.  

SciTech Connect

Hot surfaces can cause levitation of small liquid droplets if the temperature is kept above the Leidenfrost point (220 C for water) due to the pressure formed because of rapid evaporation. Here, we demonstrate a new class of pulsating-gliding dynamic transitions in a special setting of the Leidenfrost effect at room temperatures and above a viscous fluid for droplets of liquid nitrogen. A whole range of highly dynamic patterns unfolds when droplets of liquid nitrogen are poured on the surface of another, more viscous liquid at room temperature. We also discovered that the levitating droplets induce vortex motion in the supporting viscous liquid. Depending on the viscosity of the supporting liquid, the nitrogen droplets either adopt an oscillating (pulsating) star-like shape with different azimuthal symmetries (from 2-9 petals) or glide on the surface with random trajectories. Thus, by varying the viscosity of the supporting liquid, we achieve controlled morphology and dynamics of Leidenfrost droplets.

Snezhko, A.; Jacob, E. B.; Aranson, I. S.; Materials Science Division; Tel-Aviv Univ.

2008-04-21

368

LIQUID CYCLONE CONTACTOR  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to liquid-liquid extraction systems. The invention, an improved hydroclone system, comprises a series of serially connected, axially aligned hydroclones, each of which is provided with an axially aligned overflow chamber. The chambers are so arranged that rotational motion of a fluid being passed through the system is not lost in passing from chamber to chamber; consequently, this system is highly efficient in contacting and separating two immiscible liquids. (AEC)

Whatley, M.E.; Woods, W.M.

1962-09-01

369

Polyamorphism in aluminate liquids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supercooled liquids in the Y2O3–Al2O3 system undergo a liquid–liquid phase transition between a high-temperature, high-density amorphous polymorph (HDA form), and one with lower density that is stable at lower temperature (LDA form). The two amorphous polymorphs have the same chemical composition, but they differ in their density (?4% density difference), and in their heat content (enthalpy) and entropy determined by

Paul F McMillan; Mark Wilson; Martin C Wilding

2003-01-01

370

Polyamorphism in aluminate liquids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supercooled liquids in the Y2O3-Al2O3 system undergo a liquid-liquid phase transition between a high-temperature, high-density amorphous polymorph (HDA form), and one with lower density that is stable at lower temperature (LDA form). The two amorphous polymorphs have the same chemical composition, but they differ in their density (~4% density difference), and in their heat content (enthalpy) and entropy determined by

Paul F. McMillan; Mark Wilson; Martin C. Wilding

2003-01-01

371

Air entrainment by a liquid jet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe experimental work on air entrainment by a liquid jet impacting a bath of the same viscous liquid. We show that the entrainment velocity is shifted due to the widening out of the jet before its impact. The apparent entrainment threshold is determined quantitatively. The thickness of the entrained air film is measured and described by a Landau and Levich model. We also study the impact of a fibre coated with oil on a bath of the same oil. This modified setup allows a simpler analysis of the results and is a good experimental support to the jet problem.

Reyssat, Etienne; Quere, David

2007-11-01

372

Enhanced enantioselectivity of chiral hydrogenation catalysts after immobilisation in thin films of ionic liquid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chiral organometallic complexes were immobilized in silica supported thin films of ionic liquid. The heterogenized catalysts were tested in the hydrogenation of acetophenone, which was chosen as test reaction for the enantioselective reduction of prochiral ketones. High enantioselectivities (up to 74% ee) were achieved in supported ionic liquids using a catalyst\\/substrate pair, which showed no enantioselectivity in methanol. This is

Kam Loon Fow; Stephan Jaenicke; Thomas E. Müller; Carsten Sievers

2008-01-01

373

Liquid crystal optofluidics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By employing anisotropic fluids and namely liquid crystals, fluid flow becomes an additional degree of freedom in designing optofluidic devices. In this paper, we demonstrate optofluidic liquid crystal devices based on the direct flow of nematic liquid crystals in microfluidic channels. Contrary to previous reports, in the present embodiment we employ the effective phase delay acquired by light travelling through flowing liquid crystal, without analysing the polarisation state of the transmitted light. With this method, we demonstrate the variation in the diffraction pattern of an array of microfluidic channels acting as a grating. We also discuss our recent activities in integrating mechanical oscillators for on-chip peristaltic pumping.

Vasdekis, A. E.; Cuennet, J. G.; Psaltis, D.

2012-10-01

374

Liquid level detector  

DOEpatents

A liquid level sensor having a pair of upright conductors spaced by an insulator defining a first high resistance path between the conductors. An electrically conductive path is interposed between the upright conductors at a discrete location at which liquid level is to be measured. It includes a liquid accessible gap of a dimension such that the electrical resistance across the conductor when the gap is filled with the liquid is detectably less than when the gap is emptied. The conductor might also be physically altered by temperature changes to serve also as an indicator of elevated temperature.

Tokarz, Richard D. (West Richland, WA)

1982-01-01

375

Liquid Crystal Optofluidics  

SciTech Connect

By employing anisotropic fluids and namely liquid crystals, fluid flow becomes an additional degree of freedom in designing optofluidic devices. In this paper, we demonstrate optofluidic liquid crystal devices based on the direct flow of nematic liquid crystals in microfluidic channels. Contrary to previous reports, in the present embodiment we employ the effective phase delay acquired by light travelling through flowing liquid crystal, without analysing the polarisation state of the transmitted light. With this method, we demonstrate the variation in the diffraction pattern of an array of microfluidic channels acting as a grating. We also discuss our recent activities in integrating mechanical oscillators for on-chip peristaltic pumping.

Vasdekis, Andreas E.; Cuennet, J. G.; Psaltis, D.

2012-10-11

376

Ultrasonic liquid level detector  

DOEpatents

An ultrasonic liquid level detector for use within a shielded container, the detector being tubular in shape with a chamber at its lower end into which liquid from in the container may enter and exit, the chamber having an ultrasonic transmitter and receiver in its top wall and a reflector plate or target as its bottom wall whereby when liquid fills the chamber a complete medium is then present through which an ultrasonic wave may be transmitted and reflected from the target thus signaling that the liquid is at chamber level.

Kotz, Dennis M. (North Augusta, SC); Hinz, William R. (Augusta, GA)

2010-09-28

377

Liquid cryobrines and habitability in the subsurface of Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Undercooled liquid interfacial water is shown to necessarily exist in the upper surface of Mars, at least temporarily with diurnal and seasonal variations. Thus, there must in case of a given local presence of soluble salt grains in the soil also evolve liquid brines ("cryobrines"). These liquid aqueous salty solutions can have their eutectic temperature far below 0 C and will remain liquid above that temperature. Liquid cryobrines are therefore expected to, also at present, exist at appropriate sites in the subsurface of Mars. Phase diagrams, water activity and stability of "Mars-relevant" salts and related cryobrines in the subsurface of Mars are presented and discussed. The presence of at least temporarily liquid cryobrines in the subsurface soil may, in analogy to terrestrial halophilic bacteria, give conditions, which could support life processes on present Mars. Related "habitability-aspects" and resulting current challenges to "cryobrine-microbiology" are discussed.

Möhlmann, Diedrich

378

Child Support Report, 1998.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document is comprised of the 12 monthly issues of the 1998 "Child Support Report," which explores problems related to child support enforcement, reports on federal and state government child support enforcement initiatives, and summarizes research related to child support. Editorials and information on events and conferences of interest and…

Sharman, Phil, Ed.

1998-01-01

379

Child Support Report, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document comprises the 12 issues for 2001 of the "Child Support Report," which explores problems related to child support enforcement, reports on federal and state government child support enforcement initiatives, and summarizes research related to child support. Featured regularly are editorials and information on events of interest and…

Sharman, Phil, Ed.

2001-01-01

380

Child Support Report, 1998.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is comprised of the 12 monthly issues of the 1998 "Child Support Report," which explores problems related to child support enforcement, reports on federal and state government child support enforcement initiatives, and summarizes research related to child support. Editorials and information on events and conferences of interest and…

Sharman, Phil, Ed.

1998-01-01

381

Child Support Report, 1999.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document comprises the 12 issues for 1999 of the "Child Support Report," which explores problems related to child support enforcement, reports on federal and state government child support enforcement initiatives, and summarizes research related to child support. Editorials and information on events and conferences of interest and funding…

Sharman, Phil, Ed.

1999-01-01

382

Child Support Report, 2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document comprises the 12 issues for 2000 of the "Child Support Report," which explores problems related to child support enforcement, reports on federal and state government child support enforcement initiatives, and summarizes research related to child support. Featured regularly are editorials and information on events of interest and…

Sharman, Phil, Ed.

2000-01-01

383

Breech block hanger support  

SciTech Connect

A breech block hanger support member for a subsea wellhead assembly for wells having a working pressure up to approximately 15,000 psi. The assembly includes a wellhead, the support member, a packoff for sealing the support member, and one or more other casing hangers supported by the support member. The support member is connected to the wellhead for itself suspending casing, for supporting at least one other casing hanger and casing, and for containing the working pressure. Breech block teeth are provided on the wellhead and support member to permit the support member to be stabbed into the wellhead and rotated less than 360/sup 0/ for completing the connection therebetween. The teeth include groupings of spaced-apart no-lead teeth having slots therebetween. The slots provide a flow way for passing well fluids. The support member further includes an upper annular flange for arresting its downward movement within the wellhead. This flange includes flutes aligned with the slots for passing well fluids. The support member includes threads for connecting to the top of a casing string. The upper surface of the flange provides a bearing surface for supporting another casing hanger. The bearing surface of the support member will support all of the casing and tubing load and contain the working pressure. The bearing surface between the breech block teeth is greater than that provided by the support member for the other casing hangers. The packoff seals the support member with the wellhead and other casing hangers.

Baugh, B. F.; Ahlstone, A.; Fowler, J. H.; Henderson, H. O. Jr.

1984-12-18

384

Child Support Report, 1997.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document consists of the twelve issues of "Child Support Report" newsletter published during 1997. Monthly issues typically explore problems related to child support enforcement, report on federal and state government child support enforcement initiatives, and summarize research related to child support. Editorials and information on events…

Sharman, Phil, Ed.

1997-01-01

385

Synthesis and investigation of PEG-supported amino dendrimers  

Microsoft Academic Search

PEG-supported dendrimers with high-loading capacity, excellent solubility and thermal stability have been synthesized using poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) as soluble polymeric support, 2,4,6-trichloro-1,3,5-triazine (TCT) as dendrons and ethylenediamine as linkers with divergent method, yield 53.4%. Comparing with conventional liquid synthesis methods of dendrimers, the PEG-supported intermediates were easily isolated and purified by simple precipitating, filtering, washing with Et2O to remove

Cui-Fen Lu; Cheng Xie; Zu-Xing Chen; Gui-Chun Yang

2006-01-01

386

Electrodilatometry of Liquids, Binary Liquids, and Surfactants  

Microsoft Academic Search

When a liquid is subjected to high electric field, its volume change (?V) can be increased or decreased depending upon the\\u000a liquid under investigation. A new technique has been developed from our laboratory to measure the relative volume change per E2 and is known as “Electrodilatometry (ED)” which may be expressed as: \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a\\u000a\\u000a\\u000a\\u000a\\u000aR = \\\\fracV -<\\/font\\u000a> V0 V0 \\\\frac1E2

Manit Rappon; Richard M. Johns; Shih-Wei Lin

387

Liquid crystal inorganic hybrid photorefractives  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on the photorefractive properties of liquid crystals sandwiched between windows of cerium doped strontium barium niobate (Ce:SBN). This adaptable design has been used to create devices using pure nematic liquid crystals, ferroelectric nanoparticle doped liquid crystals, and cholesteric liquid crystals. In all these systems, modulation of the liquid crystal molecules is driven by the surface space-charge field from

G. Cook; A. V. Glushchenko; V. Yu. Reshetnyak; E. R. Beckel; M. A. Saleh; D. R. Evans

2008-01-01

388

Models of liquid metal corrosion  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, models for liquid metal corrosion are reviewed and their applications in nuclear reactor engineering are discussed. The paper presents mathematical analysis of liquid metal corrosion, including species transport in solid steels, in flowing liquid metals, and mass exchange at liquid\\/solid interface. The survey illustrates the mechanisms of the liquid metal corrosion and sets up a system

J. Zhang; P. Hosemann; S. Maloy

2010-01-01

389

Liquid Chromatography in 1982.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews trends in liquid chromatography including apparatus, factors affecting efficient separation of a mixture (peak sharpness and speed), simplified problem-solving, adsorption, bonded phase chromatography, ion selectivity, and size exclusion. The current trend is to control chemical selectivity by the liquid phase. (Author/JN)|

Freeman, David H.

1982-01-01

390

Synthesis of ionic liquids  

DOEpatents

Ionic compounds which are liquids at room temperature are formed by the method of mixing a neutral organic liqand with the salt of a metal cation and its conjugate anion. The liquids are hydrophobic, conductive and stable and have uses as solvents and in electrochemical devices.

Dai, Sheng [Knoxville, TN; Luo, Huimin [Knoxville, TN

2008-09-09

391

Synthesis of ionic liquids  

DOEpatents

Ionic compounds which are liquids at room temperature are formed by the method of mixing a neutral organic ligand with the salt of a metal cation and its conjugate anion. The liquids are hydrophobic, conductive and stable and have uses as solvents and in electrochemical devices.

Dai, Sheng (Knoxville, TN); Luo, Huimin (Knoxville, TN)

2011-11-01

392

Burner for liquid fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disclosed is a burner for liquid fuels which includes a combustion tube havng an inner surface defining a cocombustion chamber, an end bell which mounts a nozzle for introducing the liquid fuel into the combustion chamber in th form of a fine spray, and an auxiliary air introduction means, also mounted to the end bell, which produces an auxiliary vortex

1978-01-01

393

Stamping of Liquid Metals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is a pamphlet devoted to a new advanced technological process - stamping of parts from liquid metals; in it is expounded the experience of a number of enterprises in the stamping of liquid nonferrous metals and steel, and also the results of in...

M. A. Baranovskii E. I. Verbitskii

1968-01-01

394

INEEL Liquid Effluent Inventory  

SciTech Connect

The INEEL contractors and their associated facilities are required to identify all liquid effluent discharges that may impact the environment at the INEEL. This liquid effluent information is then placed in the Liquid Effluent Inventory (LEI) database, which is maintained by the INEEL prime contractor. The purpose of the LEI is to identify and maintain a current listing of all liquid effluent discharge points and to identify which discharges are subject to federal, state, or local permitting or reporting requirements and DOE order requirements. Initial characterization, which represents most of the INEEL liquid effluents, has been performed, and additional characterization may be required in the future to meet regulations. LEI information is made available to persons responsible for or concerned with INEEL compliance with liquid effluent permitting or reporting requirements, such as the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System, Wastewater Land Application, Storm Water Pollution Prevention, Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasures, and Industrial Wastewater Pretreatment. The State of Idaho Environmental Oversight and Monitoring Program also needs the information for tracking liquid effluent discharges at the INEEL. The information provides a baseline from which future liquid discharges can be identified, characterized, and regulated, if appropriate. The review covered new and removed buildings/structures, buildings/structures which most likely had new, relocated, or removed LEI discharge points, and at least 10% of the remaining discharge points.

Major, C.A.

1997-06-01

395

Precision liquid level sensor  

DOEpatents

A precision liquid level sensor utilizes a balanced R. F. bridge, each arm including an air dielectric line. Changes in liquid level along one air dielectric line imbalance the bridge and create a voltage which is directly measurable across the bridge. 2 figs.

Field, M.E.; Sullivan, W.H.

1985-01-29

396

Theory of Fermion Liquids  

Microsoft Academic Search

I develop a general theory of fermion liquids in spatial dimensions greater than one. Bosonization is the principal method. I first review the case of one spatial dimension where bosonization is most neat and exact and show that a non-Fermi Luttinger liquid fixed point is obtained even with short-range interactions. Generalized bosonization is constructed in higher dimensions and the method

Hyok-Jon Kwon; A. Houghton; J. B. Marston

1995-01-01

397

Liquid heat capacity lasers  

DOEpatents

The heat capacity laser concept is extended to systems in which the heat capacity lasing media is a liquid. The laser active liquid is circulated from a reservoir (where the bulk of the media and hence waste heat resides) through a channel so configured for both optical pumping of the media for gain and for light amplification from the resulting gain.

Comaskey, Brian J. (Walnut Creek, CA); Scheibner, Karl F. (Tracy, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Livermore, CA)

2007-05-01

398

Precision liquid level sensor  

DOEpatents

A precision liquid level sensor utilizes a balanced R. F. bridge, each arm including an air dielectric line. Changes in liquid level along one air dielectric line imbalance the bridge and create a voltage which is directly measurable across the bridge.

Field, Michael E. (Albuquerque, NM); Sullivan, William H. (Albuquerque, NM)

1985-01-01

399

Practical animation of liquids  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a general method for modeling and animating liquids. The system is specifically designed for computer animation and handles viscous liquids as they move in a 3D environment and interact with graphics primitives such as parametric curves and moving polygons. We combine an appropriately modified semi-Lagrangian method with a new approach to calculating fluid flow around objects. This allows

Nick Foster; Ronald Fedkiw

2001-01-01

400

Understanding Credit Card Liquidity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the growth of credit card liquidity in explaining household credit card use. With data from the 2004 Survey of Consumer Finances we identify key predictors of new credit card charges for households. The data suggest credit card spending appears motivated by low-cost access to credit card liquidity. This is consistent with previous research arguing credit card use

Ryan R. Brady

2008-01-01

401

Supercooled Liquids and Glasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selected aspects of recent progress in the study of supercooled liquids and glasses are presented in this review. As an introduction for nonspecialists, several basic features of the dynamics and thermodynamics of supercooled liquids and glasses are described. Among these are nonexponential relaxation functions, non-Arrhenius temperature dependences, and the Kauzmann temperature. Various theoretical models which attempt to explain these basic

M. D. Ediger; C. A. Angell; Sidney R. Nagel

1996-01-01

402

Advanced proteomic liquid chromatography  

PubMed Central

Liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry is the predominant platform used to analyze proteomics samples consisting of large numbers of proteins and their proteolytic products (e.g., truncated polypeptides) and spanning a wide range of relative concentrations. This review provides an overview of advanced capillary liquid chromatography techniques and methodologies that greatly improve separation resolving power and proteomics analysis coverage, sensitivity, and throughput.

Xie, Fang; Smith, Richard D.; Shen, Yufeng

2012-01-01

403

Liquid Chromatography in 1982.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews trends in liquid chromatography including apparatus, factors affecting efficient separation of a mixture (peak sharpness and speed), simplified problem-solving, adsorption, bonded phase chromatography, ion selectivity, and size exclusion. The current trend is to control chemical selectivity by the liquid phase. (Author/JN)

Freeman, David H.

1982-01-01

404

Electrowetting of liquid marbles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrowetting of water drops on structured superhydrophobic surfaces are known to cause an irreversible change from a slippy (Cassie–Baxter) to a sticky (Wenzel) regime. An alternative approach to using a water drop on a superhydrophobic surface to obtain a non-wetting system is to use a liquid marble on a smooth solid substrate. A liquid marble is a droplet coated in

M I Newton; D L Herbertson; S J Elliott; N J Shirtcliffe; G McHale

2007-01-01

405

Electrowetting of liquid marbles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrowetting of water drops on structured superhydrophobic surfaces are known to cause an irreversible change from a slippy (Cassie-Baxter) to a sticky (Wenzel) regime. An alternative approach to using a water drop on a superhydrophobic surface to obtain a non-wetting system is to use a liquid marble on a smooth solid substrate. A liquid marble is a droplet coated in

M. I. Newton; D. L. Herbertson; S. J. Elliott; N. J. Shirtcliffe; G. McHale

2007-01-01

406

Practical Animation of Liquids.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We present a general method for modeling and animating liquids. The system is specifically designed for computer animation and handles viscous liquids as they move in a 3D environment and interact with graphics primitives such as parametric curves and mov...

N. Foster R. Fedkiw

2001-01-01

407

Liquid Crystal Thermometers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore liquid crystal thermometers to observe how heat flows by conduction, convection, radiation, and evaporation. This resource includes five mini-explorations in which learners use basic materials and observe color changes on a liquid crystal thermometer card.

Doherty, Paul

1999-01-01

408

Ionic Liquid Membranes for Carbon Dioxide Separation  

SciTech Connect

Recent scientific studies are rapidly advancing novel technological improvements and engineering developments that demonstrate the ability to minimize, eliminate, or facilitate the removal of various contaminants and green house gas emissions in power generation. The Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) shows promise for carbon dioxide mitigation not only because of its higher efficiency as compared to conventional coal firing plants, but also due to a higher driving force in the form of high partial pressure. One of the novel technological concepts currently being developed and investigated is membranes for carbon dioxide (CO2) separation, due to simplicity and ease of scaling. A challenge in using membranes for CO2 capture in IGCC is the possibility of failure at elevated temperatures or pressures. Our earlier research studies examined the use of ionic liquids on various supports for CO2 separation over the temperature range, 37°C-300°C. The ionic liquid, 1-hexyl-3methylimidazolium Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, ([hmim][Tf2N]), was chosen for our initial studies with the following supports: polysulfone (PSF), poly(ether sulfone) (PES), and cross-linked nylon. The PSF and PES supports had similar performance at room temperature, but increasing temperature caused the supported membranes to fail. The ionic liquid with the PES support greatly affected the glass transition temperature, while with the PSF, the glass transition temperature was only slightly depressed. The cross-linked nylon support maintained performance without degradation over the temperature range 37-300°C with respect to its permeability and selectivity. However, while the cross-linked nylon support was able to withstand temperatures, the permeability continued to increase and the selectivity decreased with increasing temperature. Our studies indicated that further testing should examine the use of other ionic liquids, including those that form chemical complexes with CO2 based on amine interactions. The hypothesis is that the performance at the elevated temperatures could be improved by allowing a facilitated transport mechanism to become dominant. Several amine-based ionic liquids were tested on the cross-linked nylon support. It was found that using the amine-based ionic liquid did improve selectivity and permeability at higher temperature. The hypothesis was confirmed, and it was determined that the type of amine used also played a role in facilitated transport. Given the appropriate aminated ionic liquid with the cross-linked nylon support, it is possible to have a membrane capable of separating CO2 at IGCC conditions. With this being the case, the research has expanded to include separation of other constituents besides CO2 (CO, H2S, etc.) and if they play a role in membrane poisoning or degradation. This communication will discuss the operation of the recently fabricated ionic liquid membranes and the impact of gaseous components other than CO2 on their performance and stability.

Myers, C.R.; Ilconich, J.B.; Luebke, D.R.; Pennline, H.W.

2008-07-12

409

Critical solution surface tension for liquid–liquid extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a strong correlation between the solution surface tension and the liquid–liquid extraction process of minerals. It was found that the liquid–liquid extraction recoveries of celestite, magnesite and dolomite minerals decreased with decreasing solution surface tension, and eventually the liquid–liquid extraction of these minerals did not take place below a particular value of the solution surface tension. The

A. Ozkan; S. Duzyol

2010-01-01

410

Polymers and Liquid Crystals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This newly enhanced site is the result of a cooperative effort between the Department of Physics and the Department of Macromolecular Science and Engineering at Case Western Reserve University in conjunction with the Center for Advanced Liquid Crystalline Optical Materials (ALCOM) at Kent State University. The project aims to demonstrate the potential of the hypertext multimedia medium for instructional use, and is still under development (occasionally users will come across an "under construction" notice). Topics covered include polymers, liquid crystals, polymer liquid crystals, polymer dispersed liquid crystals, polymer stabilized cholesterics, and liquid crystal displays. The previous version, which debuted in January 1996, has been enhanced with more video and audio, frames, and a glossary. Throughout the text, users are invited to enter the Virtual Laboratory, in which browser applets allow control of experiments demonstrating the principles under discussion. A CD-ROM version of the textbook is planned.

1996-01-01

411

Holographic Quantum Liquid  

SciTech Connect

Quantum liquids are characterized by the distinctive properties such as the low-temperature behavior of heat capacity and the spectrum of low-energy quasiparticle excitations. In particular, at low temperature, Fermi liquids exhibit the zero sound, predicted by Landau in 1957 and subsequently observed in liquid He-3. In this Letter, we ask whether such characteristic behavior is present in theories with a holographically dual description. We consider a class of gauge theories with fundamental matter fields whose holographic dual in the appropriate limit is given in terms of the Dirac-Born-Infeld action in anti-de Sitter space. We find that these systems also exhibit a sound mode at zero temperature despite having a non-Fermi-liquid behavior of the specific heat. These properties suggest that holography identifies a new type of quantum liquid which potentially could be experimentally realized in strongly correlated systems.

Karch, A. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-1560 (United States); Son, D. T. [Institute for Nuclear Theory, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-1550 (United States); Starinets, A. O. [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study, Einstein Drive, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

2009-02-06

412

Liquid optical fibers.  

PubMed

A small-diameter jet of a transparent liquid having a refractive index greater than the surrounding medium can entrap a light beam and act as an optical fiber. The liquid stream can be bent through quite large angles and will still retain the light. Electrically controlled bending of the liquid stream, and hence the light beam, has been achieved directly by means of electrostatic forces and indirectly by the use of hydraulic devices and associated transducers. Several ways have been demonstrated for separating the light from the liquid stream. The liquid optical fiber principle can be used for building both analog and digital one-or two-dimensional light deflectors. PMID:20119046

Taylor, G W

1972-04-01

413

Liquid--Liquid Contact in Vapor Explosion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The contact of two liquid materials, one of which is at a temperature substantially above the boiling point of the other, can lead to fast energy conversion and a subsequent shock wave. This well-known phenomenon is called a ''vapor explosion.'' One metho...

A. Segev

1978-01-01

414

Stability of Liquid Rivulets on Liquid Substrate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The human tear-film lipid layer is a thin (100nm) oily film on water. Such films are unstable and dewet into lenses surrounded by a monolayer (Harkins, 1941). Dewetting has four stages: initial rupture, hole growth, hole coalescence, and retraction into lenses. The human lipid layer is shown to behave similarly. Brochard-Wyart has addressed the first two stages (1993); here we focus on the third. As adjacent holes grow into each other, the oil between them takes the shape of a long, thin rivulet with a lens cross-section. Eventually this rivulet undergoes an instability and the holes coalesce. We perform a linear stability analysis on a thin symmetric lens rivulet on a horizontal liquid substrate at low Bond number (Davis, 1980; Schiaffino, 1997), accounting for the first time for the liquid-substrate hydrodynamics. Analytical expressions are derived for the wavelength and breakup times associated with the maximum growth rate of the instability for multiple substrate flow conditions. We show that for negligible thin-film forces, a liquid rivulet on an immiscible liquid substrate is unstable at a critical wavelength disturbance. The instability growth rate varies by orders of magnitude depending on the lens contact angle.

Cerretani, Colin; Takatori, Sho; Radke, Clayton

2011-11-01

415

Reactor vessel support system  

DOEpatents

A reactor vessel support system includes a support ring at the reactor top supported through a box ring on a ledge of the reactor containment. The box ring includes an annular space in the center of its cross-section to reduce heat flow and is keyed to the support ledge to transmit seismic forces from the reactor vessel to the containment structure. A coolant channel is provided at the outside circumference of the support ring to supply coolant gas through the keyways to channels between the reactor vessel and support ledge into the containment space.

Golden, Martin P. (Trafford, PA); Holley, John C. (McKeesport, PA)

1982-01-01

416

WinRho SDF Liquid  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... Immune Globulins. -. WinRho SDF Liquid. ... March 31, 2005 Approval Letter - WinRho SDF Liquid New dosage form: liquid formulation. -. -. ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/bloodbloodproducts/approvedproducts

417

Autothermal Processing of Renewable Liquids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vast majority of petrochemicals are synthesized from just six building block molecules, but current feedstocks are an unsustainable resource with negative externalities. Biomass represents a potentially sustainable feedstock, but needs densification, preferably to a liquid form, to be a suitable replacement. Fermentation to butanol and pyrolysis to bio-oil are two promising liquid intermediates. Catalytic partial oxidation (CPO) of the liquid intermediates over noble metal catalysts, which converts the liquids primarily into syngas and light olefins, is a promising technique for processing densified biomass. The study of liquids at high temperatures requires consideration of a range of complex phenomena, including boiling behavior on hot surfaces, reactions of the feed molecules at high temperatures and on catalyst surfaces, and interactions of impurities in the liquid with the catalyst. Chapter 2 deals with the behavior of the transient liquid that forms when cellulose, a major constituent of biomass, is pyrolized. Fast photography experiments and numerical simulations are performed to show that the aerosols formed in the boiling of this liquid are capable of transporting nonvolatile fragments of biomass intact into the gas phase. These nonvolatile fragments have significant implications in the storage and downstream processing of bio-oil. Some of the behavior of bio-oil at high temperature may also be explained by the variety of molecules in the liquid. Many different functional groups are present, each with its own set of chemical reactions in combustion, pyrolysis, and partial oxidation on a metal catalyst. Chapters 3 and 4 investigate these reactions through a survey of two-carbon surrogates of the functional group classes found in bio-oil. Chapter 3 examines reactions occuring in the complete CPO system over Pt and Rh catalysts, and in the complete system absent O 2. The selectivity data from each molecule and the surface science literature of each molecule are used to propose a reaction mechanism over the catalyst surface. Chapter 4 investigates the reactions that may be occurring in the gas phase and over the alpha-Al2O3 foam monolith support. Significant gas-phase chemistry is likely present in the autothermal reactor, although different temperature gradients between the autothermal reactions and the externally heated tube makes quantification of the amount of homogeneous chemistry in the autothermal system impossible. The alpha-Al2O 3 support may serve as a heat transfer medium and radical quencher (due to its foam structure with small-diameter pores), but not likely acid catalysis, as selectivity to dehydration products was similar both with and without the foam support. Because butanol is another promising liquid intermediate in biomass processing, a series of experiments with butanol in an CPO reactor was also carried out. Chapter 5 compares the four butanol isomers in a CPO reactor over Pt, PtCe, Rh, and RhCe catalysts. The reactivity of tert-butanol was as high or higher than the other alcohols, indicating that the lack of a carbonyl decomposition path does not necessarily in uence the reactivity of the molecule. Rather, the reactivity appeared to be more a function of the initial pyrolysis temperature of the alcohol. Thus, much of the initial chemistry of the higher alcohols in a CPO reactor may be homogeneous. The main function of the catalyst may be to decompose the intermediate carbonyls and alkenes to syngas. To that end, the PtCe had significantly lower reforming activity than the other catalysts, evidenced by the lower selectivity to CO and H2 and generally higher temperatures. Selectivity to syngas and light olefins was high and tunable depending on feed ratios, indicating the potential of CPO to provide petrochemical building blocks from butanol. Chapter 6 combines CPO with a water-gas shift (WGS) stage and investigates the addition of steam to isobutanol for the production of a high-purity H2 stream. A RhCe catalyst was used in the CPO stage to convert 100% of the isobutanol feed to primarily

Kruger, Jacob Scott

418

Catalyst for converting synthesis gas to liquid motor fuels  

DOEpatents

The addition of an inert metal component, such as gold, silver or copper, to a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst comprising cobalt enables said catalyst to convert synthesis gas to liquid motor fuels at about 240.degree.-370.degree. C. with advantageously reduced selectivity of said cobalt for methane in said conversion. The catalyst composition can advantageously include a support component, such as a molecular sieve, co-catalyst/support component or a combination of such support components.

Coughlin, Peter K. (Yorktown Heights, NY)

1986-01-01

419

Data Liquidity in Health Information Systems  

PubMed Central

In 2001 the IOM report "Crossing the Quality Chasm" and the NCVHS report "Information for Health" were released and they provided the context for the development of information systems used to support health-supporting processes. Both had as their goals, implicit or explicit, to ensure the right data is provided to the right person at the right time, which is one definition of "Data Liquidity". This concept has had some traction in recent years as a shorthand way to express a system property for Health IT, but there is not a well-defined characterization of what properties of a system or of its components give it better or worse data liquidity. This paper looks at some recent work that help to identify those properties and perhaps can help to ground the concept with metrics that are assessable.

Courtney, Paul K.

2011-01-01

420

Liquid metals. Concepts and theory.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A research level comprehensive introduction to the theory and concepts of liquid metals. The book begins with a survey of the basic experimental facts and reviews the concepts needed to understand the properties of liquid metals. The quantitative theory of liquid pair correlation functions, effective ion-ion interactions, thermodynamic properties, and electronic and atomic transport is then developed. The book goes on to discuss inelastic neutron scattering from bulk liquid metals, a discussion of critical behavior, magnetism, and present understanding of the liquid metal surface, binary liquid metal alloys, the two component theory of pure liquid metals, shock wave studies, liquid hydrogen plasmas, and the constitution of giant planets.

March, N. H.

421

Family Support Program  

MedlinePLUS

... Families : Family Support Printer Friendly Send to friend Family Support Program If a child you love has ... launched our scholarship program in 2002 to assist families devastated by the cost of medical care to ...

422

Implant-Supported Denture  

MedlinePLUS

... to implants. A regular denture rests on the gums, and is not supported by implants. An implant- ... supported denture daily to clean the denture and gum area. Just as with regular dentures, you should ...

423

Decision Support Systems: Theory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this project was to research, collect, and evaluate all available information on Decision Support Systems (DSS) Theory. DSS are interactive, conversational computer systems supporting decision makers. DSS rely heavily on human intuition, ju...

J. J. Jarvis

1976-01-01

424

Computer Graphics Support Service.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Computer graphics can be an integral part of a graphics support service. This presentation will discuss several types of computer graphics software and hardware and how computer graphics are integrated into a graphics support service. Various computer gra...

D. O. Dickman

1984-01-01

425

Nanowire liquid pumps.  

PubMed

The ability to form tiny droplets of liquids and control their movements is important in printing or patterning, chemical reactions and biological assays. So far, such nanofluidic capabilities have principally used components such as channels, nozzles or tubes, where a solid encloses the transported liquid. Here, we show that liquids can flow along the outer surface of solid nanowires at a scale of attolitres per second and the process can be directly imaged with in situ transmission electron microscopy. Microscopy videos show that an ionic liquid can be pumped along tin dioxide, silicon or zinc oxide nanowires as a thin precursor film or as beads riding on the precursor film. Theoretical analysis suggests there is a critical film thickness of ?10 nm below which the liquid flows as a flat film and above which it flows as discrete beads. This critical thickness is the result of intermolecular forces between solid and liquid, which compete with liquid surface energy and Rayleigh-Plateau instability. PMID:23542904

Huang, Jian Yu; Lo, Yu-Chieh; Niu, Jun Jie; Kushima, Akihiro; Qian, Xiaofeng; Zhong, Li; Mao, Scott X; Li, Ju

2013-03-31

426

Decision Support Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a ‘Decision support systems (DSS)’ is a well-used term but one that is often used glibly without care for the type of the decision\\u000a supported and the level of support the system offers. We begin by discussing a classification of DSS according to these two\\u000a dimensions, i.e., decision type and the level of support. For the former, we use the Cynefin

Simon French

427

Continuous gas/liquid-liquid/liquid flow synthesis of 4-fluoropyrazole derivatives by selective direct fluorination  

PubMed Central

Summary 4-Fluoropyrazole systems may be prepared by a single, sequential telescoped two-step continuous gas/liquid–liquid/liquid flow process from diketone, fluorine gas and hydrazine starting materials.

Breen, Jessica R; Yufit, Dmitrii S; Howard, Judith A K; Fray, Jonathan; Patel, Bhairavi

2011-01-01

428

Synthesis of supported catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research reports on the synthesis of supported catalysts during the review period (1997-1998) have shown the use of carbon nanotubes and new hetropolyanions as examples of novel supports and of novel precursors of active components, respectively. Studies of absorption and precipitation chemistry reveal new molecular details of the extensive interactions between precursors and supports in an aqueous environment. Progress is

Krijn P. de Jong

1999-01-01

429

Stope support technology development  

Microsoft Academic Search

As gold mines go deeper, stope support system development has become even more important. Elsdurg Packs, pipe-stick props, and rapid-yielding hydraulic supports are some of the systems discussed. The stress distribution and the associated mechanical processes operating around a typical tabular stope opening are illustrated schematically. The need for, and the requirements of support elements for the different areas within

Emere; G. T. G

1984-01-01

430

Adaptive decision support systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of decision support systems (DSS) is enhanced through dynamic adaptation of support to the needs of the decision maker, to the problem, and to the decision context. We define this enhanced DSS as adaptive decision support systems (ADSS) and propose its architecture. In an ADSS, the decision maker controls the decision process. However, the system monitors the process

Bijan Fazlollahi; Mihir A. Parikh; Sameer Verma

1997-01-01

431

Thermodynamic description of liquid-state limits.  

PubMed

A state of random close packing (RCP) of spheres is found to have a thermodynamic status and a fundamental role in the description of liquid-state equilibria. The RCP limiting amorphous ground state, with reproducible density and well-characterized structure, is obtained by well-defined irreversible and reversible processes. The limiting packing fraction y(RCP) = 0.6366 ± 0.0005 (Buffon's constant within the uncertainty), and a residual entropy per sphere ?S((RCP-FCC)) is approximately equal to k(B) (Boltzmann's constant). Since the Mayer virial expansion does not represent dense fluid equations-of-state for densities exceeding the available-volume percolation transition (?(pa)), we infer that a RCP state belongs to the same thermodynamic phase as prepercolation equilibrium dense hard-sphere fluid and likewise for hard-core fluids with attractive forces. Monte Carlo (MC) calculation of the liquid-state coexistence properties of square-well (SW) attractive spheres, together with existing MC results for liquid-vapor coexistence in the SW fluid, support this conclusion. Further findings for liquid-vapor coexistence limits are reported. The extremely weak second-order available-volume percolation transition of the hard-sphere fluid is strengthened by square-well perturbation as temperature is reduced. At the critical temperature, this transition becomes first order, whereupon a liquid at the percolation density coexists in thermodynamic equilibrium with its vapor at a lower density. The critical coexisting vapor density relates to the extended-volume bonded cluster percolation transition ?(pe)(?) defined for given well width (?). Taking experimental liquid argon data as an example, it can be seen that the thermodynamic description of the coexistence limits, found here for square-well fluids, applies to real liquids. PMID:22423622

Woodcock, Leslie V

2012-03-19

432

Solids, Liquids, and Gases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this project you will research solids, liquids, and gases. By the end of this project you will be able to answer the question: Can you tell what is alike and different between solids, liquids, and gases? Read the song about matter. song with music about matter Record your observations on the organizer provided by the teacher. On the diagram write the word solid in one of the circles. Write liquid in one of the circles and write gas in the last circle. As you collect your information write your information under ...

Sibley, Ms.

2009-10-22

433

Liquid metal electric pump  

DOEpatents

An electrical pump for pumping liquid metals to high pressures in high temperature environments without the use of magnets or moving mechanical parts. The pump employs a non-porous solid electrolyte membrane, typically ceramic, specific to the liquid metal to be pumped. A DC voltage is applied across the thickness of the membrane causing ions to form and enter the membrane on the electrically positive surface, with the ions being neutralized on the opposite surface. This action provides pumping of the liquid metal from one side of the non-porous solid electrolyte membrane to the other. 3 figs.

Abbin, J.P.; Andraka, C.E.; Lukens, L.L.; Moreno, J.B.

1990-01-23

434

Liquid-level detector  

DOEpatents

Aliquid level sensor is described which has a pair of upright conductors spaced by an insulator defining a first high resistance path between the conductors. An electrically conductive path is interposed between the upright conductors at a discrete location at which liquid level is to be measured. It includes a liquid accessible gap of a dimension such that the electrical resistance across the conductor when the gap is filled with the liquid is detectably less than when the gap is emptied. The conductor might also be physically altered by temperature changes to serve also as an indicator of elevated temperature.

Not Available

1981-01-29

435

Liquid crystalline bispropargyl thermosets  

SciTech Connect

A series of rigid-rod bispropargyl thermoset monomers have been synthesized. These monomers were examined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and hot stage polarized optical microscopy. Enantiotropic or monotropic nematic liquid crystalline phases were observed for all but two monomers. Partial curing of these reactive liquid crystalline monomers resulted in the formation of stable liquid crystalline phases with broad nematic phase after partial curing. DSC investigations indicated that the onset temperature of thermally induced cross-linking was approximately 260 C and insensitive to the phase type. The rate of cure was insensitive to the phase in which the cure occurred due to the unusual reaction mechanism for the propargyl end group.

Langlois, D.A.; Benicewicz, B.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Polymers and Coatings Group; Douglas, E.P. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

1998-11-01

436

Metal pumps liquid uphill  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The behavior of liquids on a solid surface is determined by the surface wettability. In this work, by structuring metal surfaces with high-intensity femtosecond laser pulses, we engineer a unique surface pattern that dramatically modifies surface wetting properties. In a gravity-defying way, the treated metal surfaces make liquids sprint vertically uphill at an unprecedented speed of 1 cm/s. Furthermore, the surface structures we create here rapidly transport a significant amount of liquid against gravitation to an elevated point above the reservoir level, thus bringing this effect to potential real-life applications.

Vorobyev, A. Y.; Guo, Chunlei

2009-06-01

437

Exploring Materials: Liquid Crystals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners discover that the way a material behaves on the macroscale is affected by its structure on the nanoscale. Learners investigate the properties of a heat sensitive liquid crystal and make their own liquid crystal sensor to take home. This is a fun and engaging activity, especially since liquid crystals are used in many consumer products, including cell phone displays, laptop computer screens, strip thermometers, and even "mood" rings! SAFETY: learners must be supervised when doing this activity. They must wear safety glasses to protect their eyes. Before doing this activity, read through the Material Safety Data Sheets.

Network, Nanoscale I.; Sciencenter

2010-01-01

438

Drag Reduction in Liquid-Liquid Friction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the effect of the addition of long flexible polymers in stratified flows. A two-layer stratification is used, in which the lower layer is brought into motion and drives a two-dimensional turbulent flow in the upper layer through viscous friction. Upon polymer addition in either of the two layers the kinetic energy in the upper layer is reduced by roughly one-half: The polymer reduces the liquid-liquid friction that drives the flow in the upper layer. This drag reduction can be attributed to a change in the nonsteady viscous boundary layer. The main characteristics of the quasi-two-dimensional turbulence that results in the upper layer are found to remain unaffected by the addition of the polymer.

Paireau, Osanne; Bonn, Daniel

1999-12-01

439

Heat exchanger support  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a support structure for in-bed heat exchanger tubes of a fluidzed bed boiler having wall means defining a fluidized bed region and a freeboard region above the fluidized bed region, the wall means including tubular means disposed near a transition zone between the fluidized bed and freeboard regions, the structure comprising support tubes having opposite ends extending respectively through the wall means and over the tubular means for support thereby, each support tube having at least one upright portion disposed in the fluidized bed region, and at least one heat exchanger tube being supportingly secured to the upright portion.

McDonald, D.K.; Weitzel, P.S.

1988-09-13

440

Supported microporous ceramic membranes  

DOEpatents

A method for permformation of microporous ceramic membranes onto a porous support includes placing a colloidal suspension of metal or metal oxide particles on one side of the porous support and exposing the other side of the porous support to a drying stream of gas or a reactive gas stream so that the particles are deposited on the drying side of the support as a gel. The gel so deposited can be sintered to form a supported ceramic membrane useful for ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, or molecular sieving having mean pore sizes less than 100 Angstroms.

Webster, Elizabeth (Madison, WI); Anderson, Marc (Madison, WI)

1993-01-01

441

Supported microporous ceramic membranes  

DOEpatents

A method for the formation of microporous ceramic membranes onto a porous support includes placing a colloidal suspension of metal or metal oxide particles on one side of the porous support and exposing the other side of the porous support to a drying stream of gas or a reactive gas stream so that the particles are deposited on the drying side of the support as a gel. The gel so deposited can be sintered to form a supported ceramic membrane useful for ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, or molecular sieving having mean pore sizes less than 100 Angstroms. 4 figures.

Webster, E.; Anderson, M.

1993-12-14

442

114. WEST SIDE OF LIQUID OXYGEN CONTROL ROOM (205). LIQUID ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

114. WEST SIDE OF LIQUID OXYGEN CONTROL ROOM (205). LIQUID NITROGEN (LN2) SUBCOOLER ON LEFT; SKID 8, LIQUID OXYGEN CONTROLLER FOR SWITCHING BETWEEN RAPID-LOAD AND TOPPING ON RIGHT. LIQUID OXYGEN LINE FROM SKID 9A AT RIGHT EDGE OF PHOTO. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

443

Liquid Cooled Garments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Liquid cooled garments employed in several applications in which severe heat is encountered are discussed. In particular, the use of the garments to replace air line cooling units in a variety of industrial processing situations is discussed. (Author)

1975-01-01

444

Liquid Crystal IR Detector  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a student activity on the detection of a warm object with a liquid crystal sheet. This activity also can be a simulation of the detection of infrared radiation. The "For Further Research" section includes questions for the student.

2012-10-30

445

Liquid level controller  

DOEpatents

A system for maintaining two distinct sodium levels within the shell of a heat exchanger having a plurality of J-shaped modular tube bundles each enclosed in a separate shell which extends from a common base portion. A lower liquid level is maintained in the base portion and an upper liquid level is maintained in the shell enwrapping the long stem of the J-shaped tube bundles by utilizing standpipes with a notch at the lower end which decreases in open area the distance from the end of the stand pipe increases and a supply of inert gas fed at a constant rate to produce liquid levels, which will remain generally constant as the flow of liquid through the vessel varies. (auth)

Mangus, J.D.; Redding, A.H.

1975-07-15

446

Liquid Assets: Wastewater  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video segment from a WPSU documentary Liquid Assets describes the progression of wastewater management from its early days to present day wastewater treatment systems. The development of Boston’s first-ever waste management system is described.

Wpsu

2008-11-20

447

Multifunctions - Liquid Crystal Displays.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Large area liquid crystal displays up to 400 cm square were developed capable of displaying a large quantity of analog and digital information, such as required for car dashboards, communication systems, and data processing, while fulfilling the attendant...

M. Bechteler

1980-01-01

448

Liquid Crystal Sensor  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a classroom activity to explain liquid crystal sensors for middle school students. A list of activity materials and .pdf handouts are included. Objectives: -Understand how liquid crystals (LCs) relate to other phases of matter (liquid, solid, gas) -Observe that liquid crystals reflect many different colors (wavelengths) of light -Learn that thermally sensitive LCs twist and turn (change pitch & orientation) at different temperatures, which changes the particular color of light that they reflect -Learn that just like some LCs can measure temperature, others can 'sense' particular chemicals and biological agents -Explore how LC sensors can be used to detect changes that cannot be seen with the naked eye -Brainstorm particular applications of LC sensors.

2012-08-09

449

Liquid-crystalline terpyridines.  

PubMed

5,5"-Disubstitution of the terpyridine core leads to the first inherently liquid-crystalline terpyridines. Mesophases characteristic of bent-core and calamitic systems may be obtained depending on the core structure employed. PMID:18217660

Kozhevnikov, Valery N; Whitwood, Adrian C; Bruce, Duncan W

2007-10-01

450

The Liquid Nitrogen Fountain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Details of a demonstration using liquid nitrogen are presented. The demonstration is based on a 500-mL transparent polyethylene soft-drink bottle with a screw-on pop-up drink top. Prior to the demonstration, a balloon is placed over the popped-up spout of the bottle top. The bottle is filled with liquid nitrogen and the top, with the balloon affixed, is quickly put in place and screwed on tightly. As the liquid nitrogen in the bottle boils, the balloon inflates. When the balloon bursts the noise produced is far greater than would ordinarily be expected, and a fountain of liquid nitrogen and condensing water vapor shoots into the air above the bottle.

McRae, Robin; Rahn, Jeffrey A.; Beamer, Timothy W.; Lebret, Norm

2002-10-01

451

Liquid Scintillator Detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper new developments and applications for the use of future liquid scintillator detectors like the proposed 50kt large LENA project are presented. New aspects of the scientific potential of LENA, including long baseline oscillation measurements, are discussed.

Oberauer, L.

2013-02-01

452

Ionic liquid ethanol sensor.  

PubMed

Ionic liquids containing lithium methylsulfonyl group were prepared from the precursors poly(propylene glycol)-block-(ethylene glycol)-block-(propylene glycol)-bis(2-aminopropyl ether) with different molecular weight. These liquids revealed excellent electrical conductivity in the temperature range -25 to 85 degrees C. Also, they exhibited a high boiling temperature and hence a low vapor pressure in ambient condition. Additionally, they showed a high fluidity with their viscosities being comparative with that of water. To determine the sensitivity of an ethanol sensor by using these ionic liquids, these liquids were subjected into a sequential electrochemical tests with nickel electrodes which performed a high sensitivity for the ethanol sensor. It was found that only the derivative with low molecular weight could detect ethanol. Furthermore, a linear relationship between the response current and the concentration of ethanol was constructed. The detection limit was found to be 0.13% (v/v) and its response time was 336 s. PMID:15142574

Lee, Yuan Gee; Chou, Tse-Chuan

2004-07-30

453

Basic Liquid Chromatography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online textbook offers a variety of information on high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Topics covered include instruments, detectors, theory, column selection, and pH effect. This website also contains links to a glossary, useful links, and manufacturer websites.

Kazakevich, Yuri; Mcnair, Harold; Chemistry, Seton H.

454

Liquid Crystalline Polymers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research produced the first quantitative approach to the elucidation of the structure-properties relationship in the field of side chain liquid crystalline polymers via a molecular engineering approach. The elucidation of the mechanisms required for ...

V. Percec

1995-01-01

455

Liquid Gun Diagnostics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A baseline instrumentation configuration suitable for investigating a range of liquid propellant gun phenomena and for visualizing the evolution of the gross features of internal combustion phenomena has been defined. The 25 mm LP ignition test fixture, c...

R. L. Talley

1987-01-01

456

Communication: Protein dynamical transition vs. liquid-liquid phase transition in protein hydration water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we compare experimental data on myoglobin hydrated powders from elastic neutron scattering, broadband dielectric spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. Our aim is to obtain new insights on the connection between the protein dynamical transition, a fundamental phenomenon observed in proteins whose physical origin is highly debated, and the liquid-liquid phase transition (LLPT) possibly occurring in protein hydration water and related to the existence of a low temperature critical point in supercooled water. Our results provide a consistent thermodynamic/dynamic description which gives experimental support to the LLPT hypothesis and further reveals how fundamental properties of water and proteins are tightly related.

Schirò, Giorgio; Fomina, Margarita; Cupane, Antonio

2013-09-01

457

Liquid-liquid critical point: an analytical approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theoretical simulations and experimental studies have showed that many systems (like liquid metals) can exhibit two phase transitions: gas-liquid and liquid-liquid. Consequently the fluid phase of these systems presents two critical points, namely the usual gas-liquid (G-L) critical point and the liquid-liquid critical point that results from a phase transition between two liquids of different densities: a low density liquid (LDL) and a high density liquid (HDL). The van der Waals theory for simple fluids [Phys. Rev. E 50, 2913 (1994)] is based on taking a system with purely repulsive forces as a reference, is able to describe two stable first-order phase transitions between fluids of different densities. The particles in our system interact via a total pair potential, which splits into a repulsive VR and a density-dependent attractive VA part.

Daanoun, A.

2006-09-01

458

Nonconventional Liquid Fuels  

EIA Publications

Higher prices for crude oil and refined petroleum products are opening the door for nonconventional liquids to displace petroleum in the traditional fuel supply mix. Growing world demand for diesel fuel is helping to jump-start the trend toward increasing production of nonconventional liquids, and technological advances are making the nonconventional alternatives more viable commercially. Those trends are reflected in the AEO2006 projections.

Information Center

2006-02-01

459

Applications of ionic liquids.  

PubMed

Ionic liquids have recently gained popularity in the scientific community owing to their special properties and characteristics. One of the reasons why ionic liquids have been termed "green solvents" is due to their negligible vapour pressure. Their use in electrochemical, biological and metal extraction applications is discussed. Wide research has been carried out for their use in batteries, solar panels, fuel cells, drug deliveries and biomass pretreatments. This work aims to consolidate the various findings from previous works in these areas. PMID:22711528

Patel, Divia Dinesh; Lee, Jong-Min

2012-06-18

460

Ionic liquid electrolyte  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The present invention relates to electrolytes comprising tetracyanoborate and an organic cation as components of electrolytes in electrochemical and/or optoelectronic devices, in particular solar cells. This ionic liquid has low viscosity and can be used as electrolyte in the absence of a solvent. Importantly, the ionic liquid remains stable in solar cells even after prolonged thermal stress at 80.degree. C. for 1000 hours. Photovoltaic conversion efficiency remained stable and keeping more than 90% of the initial value.

2012-02-14

461

Amphotropic inositol liquid crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbohydrates are an attractive class of starting materials for organic syntheses since they are highly functionalized and environmentally sound, in this way promoting a sustainable chemistry. As such, we employ inositols (cyclohexane-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexols e.g. 1 i.e. myo- inositol) for syntheses of new amphiphilic liquid crystalline materials (1,2) and surface active agents (3,4). Regarding these topics, lyotropic liquid crystals in some way

D. Blunk; G. Catanoiu; V. Gärtner; C. Stubenrauch

462

Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System (LEMIS) System Construction  

SciTech Connect

The liquid effluent sampling program is part of the effort to minimize adverse environmental impact during the cleanup operation at the Hanford Site. Of the 33 Phase I and Phase II liquid effluents, all streams actively discharged to the soil column will be sampled. The Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System (LEMIS) is being developed as the organized information repository facility in support of the liquid effluent monitoring requirements of the Tri-Party Agreement. It is necessary to provide an automated repository into which the results from liquid effluent sampling will be placed. This repository must provide for effective retention, review, and retrieval of selected sample data by authorized persons and organizations. This System Construction document is the aggregation of the DMR P+ methodology project management deliverables. Together they represent a description of the project and its plan through four Releases, corresponding to the definition and prioritization of requirements defined by the user.

Adams, R.T.

1994-10-11

463

Conformation of Surfactant Monolayers at the Liquid Interfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Infrared-visible sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy is used to study chain conformation of DOAC doubled chained cationic surfactant monolayer, dioctadecyldimethyl amonium (DOAC), adsorbed at various quartz/liquid interfaces. The results show that for non-associative liquids (e.g., CCL4,CHCL3), increase of polarity leads to a significant increase of the number of trans-gauche defects in the alkyl chains. For associative liquids, like H2O and CH3OH, the effect is even more drastic since the chains now appear to be very highly disordered resulting in a hardly detectable SF signal. Because of their ability to form hydrogen-bonding networks, these liquids could hydrate the hydrophobic alkyl chains, which would fold into a compact form in order to reduce their surface area exposed to the liquids. Work supported by DOE under the contract No. DE-AC03--76SF00098.

Pflumio, Valerie; Miranda, P.; Saijo, H.; Shen, Y. R.

1996-03-01

464

Astronomie avec Miroirs Liquides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cette thèse démontre que la technologie des miroirs liquides a atteint une maturité qui permet de l'appliquer à la recherche astronomique. Les télescopes à miroir liquide offrent des images astronomiques de qualité comparable à celle des télescopes conventionels utilisés dans des conditions similaires. La première partie de la thèse présente le premier télescope a miroir liquide dédié à la recherche astronomique: le 2,7 m de University of British Columbia-Université Uval (UBC-UL). Elle donne également les renseignements techniques utiles pour l'exploitation des télescopes à miroir liquide en milieu extérieur. La deuxième partie de la thèse analyse les données de la saison 1996 du télescope à miroir liquide de 3 m du NASA Orbital Debris Observatory (NODO). Une comparaison avec les observations effectuées avec des télescopes conventionels, publiées dans la littérature, démontre la bonne qualité des données du NODO. Une recherche d'objets particuliers, parmi les 20 000 objets répertoriés pendant la saison 1996, démontre le potentiel des miroirs liquides pour les projets d'astronomie demandant de grandes surfaces collectrices sur de longues périodes de temps.

Cabanac, Remi Andre

465

What is a Liquid Beam?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A liquid beam is a continuous laminar flow of a pure liquid or solution into a high vacuum. The advent of liquid beam technologies has created a frontier field of science that is revolutionizing the study of liquid surfaces and opening up new routes of study in the analytical chemistry of biological molecules. Detection and identification of molecules evap- orated

Tamotsu Kondow; Jun-ya Kohno C

2006-01-01

466

Biocatalytic transformations in ionic liquids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Room temperature ionic liquids are non-volatile, thermally stable and highly polar; they are also moderately hydrophilic solvents. Here, we discuss their use as reaction media for biocatalysis. Enzymes of widely diverging types are catalytically active in ionic liquids or aqueous biphasic ionic liquid systems. Lipases, in particular, maintain their activity in anhydrous ionic liquid media; the (enantio)selectivity and operational stability

Fred van Rantwijk; Rute Madeira Lau; Roger A Sheldon

2003-01-01

467

Liquidity, Financial Intermediation and Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze the relationship between the role of banks as liquidity insurance providers and economic growth. We argue that, by developing financial systems that pool liquidity risk, economies can achieve higher growth rates and a higher long run level of wealth and consumption. However, there can exist a trade-off between the provision of liquidity and liquidity insurance, on the one

Alejandro Gaytan; Romain Ranciere

2002-01-01

468

Configurational Contribution to the Compression of Silicate Liquids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Melting of silicates in the deep interior of planets has likely played an important role in their evolution. The segregation of silicate melts is controlled by the density contrast between melts and residual solids. Stolper et al. (1981) hypothesized that melts might be denser than their residues at high pressures due to the much larger compressibility of liquids than that of solids. Although the large compressibility of liquids is supported by ultrasonic measurements and static compression experiments using sink/float method, the compression mechanism of liquids is still not well understood. In general, equation of state of a material can be obtained by taking the volume derivative of the Helmholtz free energy. For a solid, free energy has two contributions, the potential energy of a static lattice, and the vibrational free energy (thermal contribution). Thus bulk modulus (the second derivative of free energy) of a solid at T=0 K is determined by the potential energy, while the vibrational part gives the temperature dependence. However, under compression atoms in a liquid can undergo structural rearrangement in addition to the uniform shortening of interatomic distances. Therefore another term, the configurational contribution, must be included in the liquid free energy. It is this contribution that leads to the different compression mechanism for liquids. In this work, we analyzed elastic properties determined by Brillouin spectroscopy, ultrasonic velocity measurements, and static compression experiments on solids, glasses, super- cooled liquids, and liquids for several silicate compositions including CaMgSi2O6, CaAl2Si2O8, Fe2SiO4, etc. We find that in the bulk modulus-density log-log plot (the slope of this plot is the Grüneisen-Anderson parameter), data for solids, glasses, and super-cooled liquids fall on the same straight line, while data for relaxed liquids fall on a distinctly different line. This means that the compression mechanisms for super-cooled liquids, glasses, and solids are essentially the same. Their differences in bulk modulus are mainly due to the volume difference (or bond length difference). However, unlike super-cooled liquids and glasses, configurational rearrangement plays an important role for the relaxed compression of liquids, which makes the bulk modulus of liquids further smaller. The percentages of configurational contribution to the total compressibility for different silicate liquids are then compared with the configurational entropy of the liquids to shed some light on the theoretical model of liquid compression.

Jing, Z.; Karato, S.

2007-12-01

469

Differentiation and Anaerobiosis in Standing Liquid Cultures of Streptomyces coelicolor  

PubMed Central

Streptomyces coelicolor differentiates on solid agar media by forming aerial hyphae that septate into spores. We here show that differentiation also occurs in standing liquid minimal media. After a period of submerged growth, hyphae migrate to the air interface, where they become fixed by a rigid reflecting film. Colonies that result from these hyphae form sporulating aerial hyphae. In addition, submerged hyphae in the liquid minimal medium may attach to the surface. Liquid standing cultures easily become anoxic only 1 to 2 mm below the surface. Yet, biomass increases, implying the existence of metabolic pathways supporting anaerobic growth.

van Keulen, Geertje; Jonkers, Henk M.; Claessen, Dennis; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert; Wosten, Han A. B.

2003-01-01

470

Cryogenic support system  

DOEpatents

A support system is disclosed for restraining large masses at very low or cryogenic temperatures. The support system employs a tie bar that is pivotally connected at opposite ends to an anchoring support member and a sliding support member. The tie bar extends substantially parallel to the longitudinal axis of the cold mass assembly, and comprises a rod that lengthens when cooled and a pair of end attachments that contract when cooled. The rod and end attachments are sized so that when the tie bar is cooled to cryogenic temperature, the net change in tie bar length is approximately zero. Longitudinal force directed against the cold mass assembly is distributed by the tie bar between the anchoring support member and the sliding support member.

Nicol, Thomas H. (Aurora, IL); Niemann, Ralph C. (Downers Grove, IL); Gonczy, John D. (Oak Lawn, IL)

1988-01-01

471

Social Support in Widowhood  

PubMed Central

Although social support is assumed to be an important factor following loss, the mechanisms by which it influences outcomes are not well understood. This study explored the nature of social support following loss using mixed methods. Widows participated in semistructured interviews 1 and 4 months after loss; a subsample completed 98 days of questionnaires between interviews. Interviews were analyzed using the constant comparative method; themes included the importance of supportive groups and the meaning of support. Social support trajectories were examined using hierarchical linear modeling; perceived social control explained differences in trajectories. Additional interviews were selected by their maximally divergent plots. The findings of these analyses were integrated to contribute a more detailed description of social support in the transition to widowhood.

Scott, Stacey B.; Bergeman, C. S.; Verney, Alissa; Longenbaker, Susannah; Markey, Megan A.; Bisconti, Toni L.

2012-01-01

472

Liquid metal fuel combustion mechanics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The modeling of the droplet formation at the gas\\/liquid boundary interface of a gaseous jet injected into a liquid metal bath and the turbulent mixing of the resultant two-phase (gas\\/liquid) mixture is presented as a preliminary to the analysis of the liquid metal fuel combustion problem. The model is used to predict velocity and liquid droplet fraction distributions across the

Tirumalesa Duvvuri

1990-01-01

473

Social support across cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates subjective perceptions of supervisor emotional support and co-worker instrumental support among 15,606 employees located within five geographic and\\/or social regions of a multinational firm. Beehr and Glazer's (2001. A cultural perspective of social support in relation to occupational stress. In P. Perrewé, D. C. Ganster, & J. Moran (Eds.), Research in occupational stress and well-being (pp. 97–142).

Sharon Glazer

2006-01-01