Science.gov

Sample records for btp supported liquid

  1. Selective recovery of minor trivalent actinides from high level liquid waste by R-BTP/SiO2-P adsorbents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, Yuichi; Surugaya, Naoki; Yamamoto, Masahiko

    2010-03-01

    Concerning the selective recovery of minor trivalent actinides (MA(III) = Am(III) and Cm(III)) from high level liquid waste (HLLW) by extraction chromatography, adsorption and elution behaviours of MA(III) and fission products (FP) in a nitric acid media were studied using iHex-BTP/SiO2-P adsorbents, which is expected to show high adsorption affinity for MA(III) even in concentrated HNO3 solution, such as HLLW. In the batch experiments, Pd showed strong adsorption on iHex-BTP/SiO2-P adsorbents under any concentration of HNO3. The MA(III) and heavy Ln(III) (Sm(III), Eu(III) and Gd(III)) were also adsorbed at the condition of high HNO3 concentration, but they showed no adsorption under low HNO3concentration. The separation factor for MA(III)/heavy Ln(III) took the maximum value (over 100) at around 1mol/dm3 HNO3. It was difficult to elute MA(III) or heavy Ln(III) selectively by HNO3 from the iHex-BTP/SiO2-P adsorbents degradated by γ-ray irradiation. The chromatographic separation of real HLLW by an iHex-BTP/SiO2-P column showed that MA(III) could be recovered selectively by adjusting the acidity of the feed solution, i.e. HLLW, to 1mol/dm3 and using H2O as eluant. The adsorption of Pd(II) can be decreased by the addition of appropriate complexing reagents, e.g. DTPA, into HLLW without any effects on the MA(III) adsorption.

  2. Supported liquid membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Danesi, P.R.

    1984-01-01

    The possibility of utilizing thin layers of organic solutions of solvent extraction reagents, immobilized on microporous inert supports interposed between two aqueous solutions, for selectively removing metal ions from a mixture represents an attractive alternative to liquid-liquid extraction. A detailed knowledge of the liquid-liquid extraction equilibria and mass transfer kinetics is required to understand and to describe quantitatively the rate laws which control the permeation of metal species through Supported Liquid Membranes (SLM) and to exploit them for separation processes. This paper attempts to understand the mechanism of transport through SLM.

  3. Role of the deposition temperature on the self-assembly of the non-planar molecule benzene-1,3,5-triphosphonic acid (BTP) at the liquid-solid interface.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Doan Chau Yen; Smykalla, Lars; Nguyen, Thi Ngoc Ha; Mehring, Michael; Hietschold, Michael

    2016-09-21

    Benzene-1,3,5-triphosphonic acid (BTP) contains three non-planar phosphonic acid groups which enable three-dimensional hydrogen bonding. Because of these versatile 3D functional groups, BTP is an interesting intermediate to design both 2D and 3D supramolecular hydrogen-bonded architectures and organic-inorganic hybrid frameworks. However, the adsorption of BTP has surprisingly not been the subject of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) investigations so far. Here a STM study of the adsorption pattern of BTP as obtained from deposition out of a solution in undecanol on an interface to highly-oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) is presented. Furthermore, the influence of the substrate temperature during the deposition from solution on the self-assembly is investigated. High-resolution STM images reveal that the BTB molecules usually form various structures by co-adsorption with undecanol and that the BTP molecules as parts of self-assembled aggregates adsorb with their benzene ring planes tilted with respect to the substrate plane. The specific supramolecular pattern and the 2D packing density of BTP can be precisely tuned by adjusting the initial substrate temperature during deposition. The experimental results are compared to corresponding model structures obtained from semi-empirical simulations and explained by the influence of temperature on the concentration at the solution-solid interface and the kinetics of the self-assembly process. Based on these results, the control of the deposition substrate temperature has been proven to be a versatile tool to control the polymorphism of molecular patterns deposited out of solutions. PMID:27530556

  4. Supported liquid membrane electrochemical separators

    SciTech Connect

    Pemsler, J. Paul; Dempsey, Michael D.

    1986-01-01

    Supported liquid membrane separators improve the flexibility, efficiency and service life of electrochemical cells for a variety of applications. In the field of electrochemical storage, an alkaline secondary battery with improved service life is described in which a supported liquid membrane is interposed between the positive and negative electrodes. The supported liquid membranes of this invention can be used in energy production and storage systems, electrosynthesis systems, and in systems for the electrowinning and electrorefining of metals.

  5. Method of fabrication of supported liquid membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Luebke, David R.; Hong, Lei; Myers, Christina R.

    2015-11-17

    Method for the fabrication of a supported liquid membrane having a dense layer in contact with a porous layer, and a membrane liquid layer within the interconnected pores of the porous layer. The dense layer is comprised of a solidified material having an average pore size less than or equal to about 0.1 nanometer, while the porous layer is comprised of a plurality of interconnected pores and has an average pore size greater than 10 nanometers. The supported liquid membrane is fabricated through the preparation of a casting solution of a membrane liquid and a volatile solvent. A pressure difference is established across the dense layer and porous layer, the casting solution is applied to the porous layer, and the low viscosity casting solution is drawn toward the dense layer. The volatile solvent is evaporated and the membrane liquid precipitates, generating a membrane liquid layer in close proximity to the dense layer.

  6. Phenol removal by supported liquid membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Zha, F.F.; Fane, A.G.; Fell, C.J.D.

    1994-11-01

    This paper examines the application of the supported liquid membrane (SLM) to phenol removal. n-Decanol was proven to be a suitable membrane liquid. The phenol transfer kinetics through the SLMs is quantitatively estimated according to models based on the resistance-in-series concept. The models can be modified to describe the performance of decayed SLMs and thereby provide insight into the effect of membrane liquid loss and penetration of aqueous solutions on the phenol flux. An experimental method is described for the measurement of mass transfer coefficients in the bulk phases using the well-characterized Anopore membrane.

  7. Separation of metals by supported liquid membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Takigawa, D.Y.

    1990-12-31

    A supported liquid membrane system for the separation of a preselected chemical species within a feedstream, preferably an aqueous feedstream, includes a feed compartment containing a feed solution having at least one preselected chemical species therein, a stripping compartment containing a stripping solution therein, and a microporous polybenzimidazole membrane situated between the compartments, the microporous polybenzimidazole membrane containing an extractant mixture selective for the preselected chemical species within the membrane pores is disclosed along with a method of separating preselected chemical species from a feedstream with such a system, and a supported liquid membrane for use in such a system.

  8. Separation of metals by supported liquid membrane

    DOEpatents

    Takigawa, Doreen Y.

    1992-01-01

    A supported liquid membrane system for the separation of a preselected chemical species within a feedstream, preferably an aqueous feedstream, includes a feed compartment containing a feed solution having at least one preselected chemical species therein, a stripping compartment containing a stripping solution therein, and a microporous polybenzimidazole membrane situated between the compartments, the microporous polybenzimidazole membrane containing an extractant mixture selective for the preselected chemical species within the membrane pores is disclosed along with a method of separating preselected chemical species from a feedstream with such a system, and a supported liquid membrane for use in such a system.

  9. Flexible Support Liquid Argon Heat Intercept

    SciTech Connect

    Rudland, D.L.; /Fermilab

    1987-05-18

    A device in the flexible support system for the Central Calorimeter is the Liquid Argon Heat Intercept. The purpose of this apparatus is to intercept heat outside the inner vessel so that bubbles do not form inside. If bubbles did happen to form inside the vessel, they would cause an electric arc between the read-out board and the absorption plates, thus destroying the pre-amplifier. Since this heat intercept is located in the center of the flexible support, it must also support the load of the Central Caloimeter. Figure 1 shows how the intercept works. The subcooled liquid argon is driven through a 1/4-inch x 0.049-inch w tube by hydrostatic pressure. the ambient heat boils the subcooled argon. The gaseous argon flows through the tube and is condensed at the top of the vessel by a 100 kW cooling coil. This process is rpesent in all four flexible support systems.

  10. Separations by supported liquid membrane cascades

    DOEpatents

    Danesi, Pier R.

    1986-01-01

    The invention describes a new separation technique which leads to multi-stage operations by the use of a series (a cascade) of alternated carrier-containing supported-liquid membranes. The membranes contain alternatively a liquid cation exchanger extractant and a liquid anion exchanger extractant (or a neutral extractant) as carrier. The membranes are spaced between alternated aqueous electrolytic solutions of different composition which alternatively provide positively charged extractable species and negatively charged (or zero charged) extractable species, of the chemical species to be separated. The alternated aqueous electrolytic solutions in addition to providing the driving force to the process, simultaneously function as a stripping solution from one type of membrane and as an extraction-promoting solution for the other type of membrane. The aqueous electrolytic solutions and the supported liquid membranes are arranged in such a way to provide a continuous process which leads to the continuous enrichment of the species which show the highest permeability coefficients. By virtue of the very high number of stages which can be arranged, even chemical species having very similar chemical behavior (and consequently very similar permeability coefficients) can be completely separated. The invention also provide a way to concentrate the separated species.

  11. A remarkable enhancement in Am³⁺/Eu³⁺ selectivity by an ionic liquid based solvent containing bis-1,2,4-triazinyl pyridine derivatives: DFT validation of experimental results.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Arunasis; Ansari, Seraj A; Gadly, Trilochan; Ghosh, Sunil K; Mohapatra, Manoj; Mohapatra, P K

    2015-04-01

    Mutual separation of trivalent actinide (An(3+)) and lanthanide (Ln(3+)) using several soft (N) donor ligands (bis(5,6-dialkyl-1,2,4-triazinyl)pyridine (R-BTP)) is attempted for the first time in room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) medium. The results indicate a spectacular enhancement in the selectivity as compared to that in molecular diluents with a separation factor (S.F.) of >3000 for Am(3+) over Eu(3+) using the methyl derivative (Me-BTP) in RTIL medium using [C(n)mim]·[NTf2] as the diluents (where n = 2, 3, 4, 6 or 8). Such a high S.F. value has never been reported before with any of the R-BTP derivatives in molecular diluents. An opposite trend in the distribution ratio values of both Am(3+) and Eu(3+) with the increasing size of the alkyl (R) group is observed in RTIL medium when compared with that in molecular diluents. The differences in the extraction behaviour of R-BTPs in RTILs vis-à-vis molecular diluents are explained on the basis of the difference in the nature of complexes extracted in these two distinctly different media as supported by the time resolved fluorescence (TRFS) study. An unusually high extractability and selectivity for Am(3+) over Eu(3+) with Me-BTP was attributed to the formation of a 1 : 4 complex for Am(3+), which was never reported earlier with any of the R-BTP derivatives in molecular diluents. DFT studies indicated higher metal 'd' and 'f' orbital participation (covalence) in the bonding with R-BTP in the case of Am(3+) complexes as compared to that in the case of Eu(3+) complexes, which resulted in the selectivity of these classes of ligands. The observed results may have a great significance in the radioactive waste management involving the partitioning and transmutation strategy. PMID:25736729

  12. Radiolysis and Ageing of C2-BTP in Cinnamaldehyde/Hexanol Mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Fermvik, Anna; Ekberg, Christian; Retegan, Teodora; Skarnemark, Gunnar

    2007-07-01

    The separation of actinides from lanthanides is an important step in the alternative methods for nuclear waste treatment currently under development. Polycyclic molecules containing nitrogen are synthesised and used for solvent extraction. A potential problem in the separation process is the degradation of the molecule due to irradiation or ageing. An addition of nitrobenzene has proved to have an inhibitory effect on degradation when added to a system containing C2-BTP in hexanol before irradiation. In this study, 2,6-di(5,6-diethyl-1,2,4-triazine-3-yl)pyridine (C2-BTP) was dissolved in different mixtures of cinnamaldehyde and hexanol and the effects on extraction after ageing and irradiation were investigated. Similar to nitrobenzene, cinnamaldehyde contains an aromatic ring which generally has a relatively high resistance towards radiolysis. Both C2-BTP in cinnamaldehyde and C2-BTP in hexanol seem to degrade with time. The system with C2-BTP in pure hexanol is relatively stable up to 17 days but then starts slowly to degrade. The solution with pure cinnamaldehyde as diluent started to degrade after only {approx}20 hours. The opposite is true for degradation caused by radiolysis; hexanol systems are more sensitive to radiolysis than cinnamaldehyde systems. Most of the radiolytic degradation took place during the first days of irradiation, up to a dose of 4 kGy. (authors)

  13. Supported liquid membrane battery separators. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pemsler, J.P.; Dempsey, M.D.

    1984-07-01

    This study was performed to explore the feasibility of using a supported liquid membrane (SLM) as a separator in the nickel-zinc battery. In particular, SLM separators should prevent zinc dendrite growth from shorting out the cell and might also alleviate capacity loss due to zinc electrode shape changes. A number of ion exchange/solvent modifier systems for incorporation into SLMs were developed under a previous LBL contract. SLMs prepared with these reagents exhibited resistances in the range of 0.4 to 10 ohm cm/sup 2/, selectively transported hydroxyl ions over zincate ions by a factor of 10/sup 6/ to 10/sup 7/, and possessed eletrochemical and chemical stability in alkaline electrolytes. In order to evaluate these SLM separators under conditions closely resembling a commercial Ni-Zn cell, an accelerated cycle life test was devised using commercial electrodes.

  14. Immunologic trapping in supported liquid membrane extraction

    PubMed

    Thordarson; Jonsson; Emneus

    2000-11-01

    To obtain a high degree of selectivity in sample preparation, supported liquid membrane (SLM) extraction was combined with immunologic recognition. The SLM employs a hydrophobic polymer for supporting the immobilization of an organic solvent, thus forming a nonporous membrane. Said membrane separates the aqueous sample on one side (donor) from a receiving aqueous phase on the other (acceptor). The extraction involves the partitioning of neutral compounds between the sample solution, continuously pumped alongside the membrane, and the membrane. From the membrane, reextraction takes place into a second aqueous phase containing antibodies specific for the target compound(s). Hence, there is a formation of an antibody-antigen complex at the heart of the sample preparation (ImmunoSLM). When the immunocomplex forms, the antigen can no longer redissolve in the organic membrane, thus being trapped in the acceptor. Consequently, the concentration gradient of free antigen over the membrane is ideally unaffected, this being the driving force for the process. With a surplus of antibody, the concentration of analyte in the receiving phase will easily exceed the initial sample concentration. In this work, the so formed immunocomplex was quantified on-line, using a fluorescein flow immunoassay in a sequential injection analysis (SIA) setup. The outlined ImmunoSLM-SIA scheme was successfully applied for the extraction of 4-nitrophenol from spiked water solutions as well as from a spiked wastewater sample, indicating that the immunoextraction can be suitable when dealing with difficult matrixes. PMID:11080876

  15. Development of Practical Supported Ionic Liquid Membranes: A Systematic Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Luebke, D.R.; Ilconich, J.B.; Myers, C.R.; Pennline, H.W.

    2007-11-01

    Supported liquid membranes (SLMs) are a class of materials that allow the researcher to utilize the wealth of knowledge available on liquid properties to optimize membrane performance. These membranes also have the advantage of liquid phase diffusivities, which are higher than those observed in polymers and grant proportionally greater permeabilities. The primary shortcoming of the supported liquid membranes demonstrated in past research has been the lack of stability caused by volatilization of the transport liquid. Ionic liquids, which may possess high CO2 solubility relative to light gases such as H2, are excellent candidates for this type of membrane since they are stable at elevated temperatures and have negligible vapor pressure. A study has been conducted evaluating the use of a variety of ionic liquids in supported ionic liquid membranes for the capture of CO2 from streams containing H2. In a joint project, researchers at the University of Notre Dame synthesized and characterized ionic liquids, and researchers at the National Energy Technology Laboratory incorporated candidate ionic liquids into supports and evaluated membrane performance for the resulting materials. Several steps have been taken in the development of practical supported ionic liquid membranes. Proof-of-concept was established by showing that ionic liquids could be used as the transport media in SLMs. Results showed that ionic liquids are suitable media for gas transport, but the preferred polymeric supports were not stable at temperatures above 135oC. The use of cross-linked nylon66 supports was found to produce membranes mechanically stable at temperatures exceeding 300oC but CO2/H2 selectivity was poor. An ionic liquid whose selectivity does not decrease with increasing temperature was needed, and a functionalized ionic liquid that complexes with CO2 was used. An increase in CO2/H2 selectivity with increasing temperature over the range of 37 to 85oC was observed and the dominance of a

  16. Carbon Dioxide Separation with Supported Ionic Liquid Membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Luebke, D.R.; Ilconich, J.B.; Myers, C.R.; Pennline, H.W.

    2007-04-01

    Supported liquid membranes are a class of materials that allow the researcher to utilize the wealth of knowledge available on liquid properties as a direct guide in the development of a capture technology. These membranes also have the advantage of liquid phase diffusivities higher than those observed in polymeric membranes which grant proportionally greater permeabilities. The primary shortcoming of the supported liquid membranes demonstrated in past research has been the lack of stability caused by volatilization of the transport liquid. Ionic liquids, which possess high carbon dioxide solubility relative to light gases such as hydrogen, are an excellent candidate for this type of membrane since they have negligible vapor pressure and are not susceptible to evaporation. A study has been conducted evaluating the use of several ionic liquids, including 1-hexyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bis(trifuoromethylsulfonyl)imide, 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium nitrate, and 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium sulfate in supported ionic liquid membranes for the capture of carbon dioxide from streams containing hydrogen. In a joint project, researchers at the University of Notre Dame lent expertise in ionic liquid synthesis and characterization, and researchers at the National Energy Technology Laboratory incorporated candidate ionic liquids into supports and evaluated the resulting materials for membrane performance. Initial results have been very promising with carbon dioxide permeabilities as high as 950 barrers and significant improvements in carbon dioxide/hydrogen selectivity over conventional polymers at 37C and at elevated temperatures. Results include a comparison of the performance of several ionic liquids and a number of supports as well as a discussion of innovative fabrication techniques currently under development.

  17. 26. DETAIL OF CONCRETE PIPE SUPPORTS LEADING TO NEW LIQUID ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. DETAIL OF CONCRETE PIPE SUPPORTS LEADING TO NEW LIQUID HYDROGEN TANK FARM; VIEW TO WEST. - Cape Canaveral Air Station, Launch Complex 17, Facility 28402, East end of Lighthouse Road, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  18. Fabrication of fiber supported ionic liquids and methods of use

    SciTech Connect

    Luebke, David R; Wickramanayake, Shan

    2013-02-26

    One or more embodiments relates to the production of a fabricated fiber having an asymmetric polymer network and having an immobilized liquid such as an ionic liquid within the pores of the polymer network. The process produces the fabricated fiber in a dry-wet spinning process using a homogenous dope solution, providing significant advantage over current fabrication methods for liquid-supporting polymers. The fabricated fibers may be effectively utilized for the separation of a chemical species from a mixture based on the selection of the polymer, the liquid, and the solvent utilized in the dope.

  19. Rejuvenation of Spent Media via Supported Emulsion Liquid Membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiencek, John M.

    2002-01-01

    The overall goal of this project was to maximize the reuseability of spent fermentation media. Supported emulsion liquid membrane separation, a highly efficient extraction technique, was used to remove inhibitory byproducts during fermentation; thus, improve the yield while reducing the need for fresh water. The key objectives of this study were: (1) Develop an emulsion liquid membrane system targeting low molecular weight organic acids which has minimal toxicity on a variety of microbial systems. (2) Conduct mass transfer studies to allow proper modeling and design of a supported emulsion liquid membrane system. (3) Investigate the effect of gravity on emulsion coalescence within the membrane unit. (4) Access the effect of water re-use on fermentation yields in a model microbial system. and (5) Develop a perfusion-type fermentor utilizing a supported emulsion liquid membrane system to control inhibitory fermentation byproducts (not completed due to lack of funds)

  20. Failure Mechanisms of Hollow Fiber Supported Ionic Liquid Membranes.

    PubMed

    Zeh, Matthew; Wickramanayake, Shan; Hopkinson, David

    2016-01-01

    Hollow fiber supported ionic liquid membranes (SILMs) were tested using the bubble point method to investigate potential failure modes, including the maximum transmembrane pressure before loss of the ionic liquid from the support. Porous hollow fiber supports were fabricated with different pore morphologies using Matrimid(®) and Torlon(®) as the polymeric material and 1-hexyl-3-methylimidalzolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([C₆mim][Tf₂N]) as the ionic liquid (IL) component. Hollow fiber SILMs were tested for their maximum pressure before failure, with pressure applied either from the bore side or shell side. It was found that the membranes exhibited one or more of three different modes of failure when pressurized: liquid loss (occurring at the bubble point), rupture, and collapse. PMID:27023620

  1. Failure Mechanisms of Hollow Fiber Supported Ionic Liquid Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Zeh, Matthew; Wickramanayake, Shan; Hopkinson, David

    2016-01-01

    Hollow fiber supported ionic liquid membranes (SILMs) were tested using the bubble point method to investigate potential failure modes, including the maximum transmembrane pressure before loss of the ionic liquid from the support. Porous hollow fiber supports were fabricated with different pore morphologies using Matrimid® and Torlon® as the polymeric material and 1-hexyl-3-methylimidalzolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([C6mim][Tf2N]) as the ionic liquid (IL) component. Hollow fiber SILMs were tested for their maximum pressure before failure, with pressure applied either from the bore side or shell side. It was found that the membranes exhibited one or more of three different modes of failure when pressurized: liquid loss (occurring at the bubble point), rupture, and collapse. PMID:27023620

  2. A BTP1 prophage gene present in invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella determines composition and length of the O-antigen of the lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Kintz, Erica; Davies, Mark R; Hammarlöf, Disa L; Canals, Rocío; Hinton, Jay C D; van der Woude, Marjan W

    2015-04-01

    Salmonella Typhimurium isolate D23580 represents a recently identified ST313 lineage of invasive non-typhoidal Salmonellae (iNTS). One of the differences between this lineage and other non-iNTS S. Typhimurium isolates is the presence of prophage BTP1. This prophage encodes a gtrC gene, implicated in O-antigen modification. GtrC(BTP) (1) is essential for maintaining O-antigen length in isolate D23580, since a gtr(BTP) (1) mutant yields a short O-antigen. This phenotype can be complemented by gtrC(BTP) (1) or very closely related gtrC genes. The short O-antigen of the gtr(BTP) (1) mutant was also compensated by deletion of the BTP1 phage tailspike gene in the D23580 chromosome. This tailspike protein has a putative endorhamnosidase domain and thus may mediate O-antigen cleavage. Expression of the gtrC(BTP) (1) gene is, in contrast to expression of many other gtr operons, not subject to phase variation and transcriptional analysis suggests that gtrC is produced under a variety of conditions. Additionally, GtrC(BTP) (1) expression is necessary and sufficient to provide protection against BTP1 phage infection of an otherwise susceptible strain. These data are consistent with a model in which GtrC(BTP) (1) mediates modification of the BTP1 phage O-antigen receptor in lysogenic D23580, and thereby prevents superinfection by itself and other phage that uses the same O-antigen co-receptor. PMID:25586744

  3. Alkaline ionic liquids applied in supported ionic liquid catalyst for selective hydrogenation of citral to citronellal

    PubMed Central

    Salminen, Eero; Virtanen, Pasi; Mikkola, Jyri-Pekka

    2014-01-01

    The challenge in preparation of ionic liquids containing a strong alkaline anion is to identify a suitable cation which can tolerate the harsh conditions induced by the anion. In this study, a commercial quaternary ammonium compound (quat) benzalkonium [ADBA] (alkyldimethylbenzylammonium) was used as a cation in the synthesis of different alkaline ionic liquids. In fact, the precursor, benzalkonium chloride, is a mixture of alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chlorides of various alkyl chain lengths and is commonly used in the formulation of various antiseptic products. The prepared ionic liquids were utilized as Supported Ionic Liquid Catalysts (SILCAs). Typically, a SILCA contains metal nanoparticles, enzymes, or metal complexes in an ionic liquid layer which is immobilized on a solid carrier material such as an active carbon cloth (ACC). The catalysts were applied in the selective hydrogenation of citral to citronellal which is an important perfumery chemical. Interestingly, 70% molar yield toward citronellal was achieved over a catalyst containing the alkaline ionic liquid benzalkonium methoxide. PMID:24790972

  4. Alkaline ionic liquids applied in supported ionic liquid catalyst for selective hydrogenation of citral to citronellal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salminen, Eero; Virtanen, Pasi; Mikkola, Jyri-Pekka

    2014-02-01

    The challenge in preparation of ionic liquids containing a strong alkaline anion is to identify a suitable cation which can tolerate the harsh conditions induced by the anion. In this study, a commercial quaternary ammonium compound (quat) benzalkonium [ADBA] (alkyldimethylbenzylammonium) was used as a cation in the synthesis of different alkaline ionic liquids. In fact, the precursor, benzalkonium chloride, is a mixture of alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chlorides of various alkyl chain lengths and is commonly used in the formulation of various antiseptic products. The prepared ionic liquids were utilized as Supported Ionic Liquid Catalysts (SILCAs). Typically, a SILCA contains metal nanoparticles, enzymes or metal complexes in an ionic liquid layer which is immobilized on a solid carrier material such as an active carbon cloth (ACC). The catalysts were applied in the selective hydrogenation of citral to citronellal which is an important perfumery chemical. Interestingly, 70 % molar yield towards citronellal was achieved over a catalyst containing the alkaline ionic liquid benzalkonium methoxide.

  5. Alkaline ionic liquids applied in supported ionic liquid catalyst for selective hydrogenation of citral to citronellal.

    PubMed

    Salminen, Eero; Virtanen, Pasi; Mikkola, Jyri-Pekka

    2014-01-01

    The challenge in preparation of ionic liquids containing a strong alkaline anion is to identify a suitable cation which can tolerate the harsh conditions induced by the anion. In this study, a commercial quaternary ammonium compound (quat) benzalkonium [ADBA] (alkyldimethylbenzylammonium) was used as a cation in the synthesis of different alkaline ionic liquids. In fact, the precursor, benzalkonium chloride, is a mixture of alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chlorides of various alkyl chain lengths and is commonly used in the formulation of various antiseptic products. The prepared ionic liquids were utilized as Supported Ionic Liquid Catalysts (SILCAs). Typically, a SILCA contains metal nanoparticles, enzymes, or metal complexes in an ionic liquid layer which is immobilized on a solid carrier material such as an active carbon cloth (ACC). The catalysts were applied in the selective hydrogenation of citral to citronellal which is an important perfumery chemical. Interestingly, 70% molar yield toward citronellal was achieved over a catalyst containing the alkaline ionic liquid benzalkonium methoxide. PMID:24790972

  6. Rejuvenation of Spent Media via Supported Emulsion Liquid Membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiencek, John M.

    2002-01-01

    The overall goal of this project is to maximize the reuseability of spent fermentation media. Supported emulsion liquid membrane separation, a highly efficient extraction technique, is used to remove inhibitory byproducts during fermentation; thus, improving the yield while reducing the need for fresh water. The key objectives of this study are: Develop an emulsion liquid membrane system targeting low molecular weight organic acids which has minimal toxicity on a variety of microbial systems; Conduct mass transfer studies to allow proper modeling and design of a supported emulsion liquid membrane system; Investigate the effect of gravity on emulsion coalescence within the membrane unit; Access the effect of water re-use on fermentation yields in a model microbial system; Develop a perfusion-type fermentor utilizing a supported emulsion liquid membrane system to control inhibitory fermentation byproducts; Work for the coming year will focus on the determination of toxicity of various solvents, selection of the emulsifying agents, as well as characterizing the mass transfer of hollow-fiber contactors.

  7. Liquid-Mercury-Supported Langmuir Films of Ionic Liquids: Isotherms, Structure, and Time Evolution.

    PubMed

    Elfassy, Eitan; Mastai, Yitzhak; Pontoni, Diego; Deutsch, Moshe

    2016-04-01

    Ionic liquids have been intensively developed for the last few decades and are now used in a wide range of applications, from electrochemistry to catalysis and nanotechnology. Many of these applications involve ionic liquid interfaces with other liquids and solids, the subnanometric experimental study of which is highly demanding, and has been little studied to date. We present here a study of mercury-supported Langmuir films of imidazolium-based ionic liquids by surface tensiometry and X-ray reflectivity. The charge-delocalized ionic liquids studied here exhibit no 2D lateral order but show diffuse surface-normal electron density profiles exhibiting gradual mercury penetration into the ionic liquid film, and surface-normal structure evolution over a period of hours. The effect of increasing the nonpolar alkyl chain length was also investigated. The results obtained provide insights into the interactions between these ionic liquids and liquid mercury and about the time evolution of the structure and composition of their interface. PMID:26963651

  8. Supported liquid inorganic membranes for nuclear waste separation

    SciTech Connect

    Bhave, Ramesh R; DeBusk, Melanie M; DelCul, Guillermo D; Delmau, Laetitia H; Narula, Chaitanya K

    2015-04-07

    A system and method for the extraction of americium from radioactive waste solutions. The method includes the transfer of highly oxidized americium from an acidic aqueous feed solution through an immobilized liquid membrane to an organic receiving solvent, for example tributyl phosphate. The immobilized liquid membrane includes porous support and separating layers loaded with tributyl phosphate. The extracted solution is subsequently stripped of americium and recycled at the immobilized liquid membrane as neat tributyl phosphate for the continuous extraction of americium. The sequestered americium can be used as a nuclear fuel, a nuclear fuel component or a radiation source, and the remaining constituent elements in the aqueous feed solution can be stored in glassified waste forms substantially free of americium.

  9. A TRLFS study on the complexation of novel BTP type ligands with Cm(III).

    PubMed

    Beele, Björn B; Rüdiger, Elias; Schwörer, Felicitas; Müllich, Udo; Geist, Andreas; Panak, Petra J

    2013-09-14

    Two BTP-type N-donor ligands with different numbers of aromatic nitrogen atoms (2,6-bis(4-ethyl-pyridazin-1-yl)pyridine, Et-BDP and 2,6-bis(4-(n)propyl-2,3,5,6-tetrazine-1-yl)pyridine, (n)Pr-Tetrazine) have been synthesized and characterized by NMR and MS techniques. The complexation with Cm(III) in 2-propanol-water (1 : 1, vol.) is studied for both ligands using time resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) and the complexation properties are compared to (n)Pr-BTP. With increasing the ligand concentration three different species, the 1 : 1-, 1 : 2- and 1 : 3-complex, were found. Log β3 values of 7.6 for the formation of Cm(Et-BDP)3 and 9.2 for the formation of Cm((n)Pr-Tetrazine)3 are determined. The complexation with (n)Pr-Tetrazine shows slow kinetics. Thermodynamic data of the complexation reactions are determined in a temperature range of 25 °C-60 °C. The complexation with Et-BDP is exothermic (ΔH = -16.3 ± 1.2 kJ mol(-1)) and exergonic (ΔG = -43.8 ± 2.6 kJ mol(-1)) whereas the complexation with (n)Pr-Tetrazine is endothermic (ΔH = 43.9 ± 3.1 kJ mol(-1)) and exergonic (ΔG = -51.7 ± 2.2 kJ mol(-1)). In the case of the latter the complexation is driven by a highly positive reaction entropy change (ΔS = 320.6 ± 15.4 J mol(-1) K(-1)). In comparison to (n)Pr-BTP, less negative ΔG values were found for the complexation of Cm(III) with both ligands. PMID:23552476

  10. Feasibility of Surfactant-Free Supported Emulsion Liquid Membrane Extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Shih-Yao B.; Li, Jin; Wiencek, John M.

    2001-01-01

    Supported emulsion liquid membrane (SELM) is an effective means to conduct liquid-liquid extraction. SELM extraction is particularly attractive for separation tasks in the microgravity environment where density difference between the solvent and the internal phase of the emulsion is inconsequential and a stable dispersion can be maintained without surfactant. In this research, dispersed two-phase flow in SELM extraction is modeled using the Lagrangian method. The results show that SELM extraction process in the microgravity environment can be simulated on earth by matching the density of the solvent and the stripping phase. Feasibility of surfactant-free SELM (SFSELM) extraction is assessed by studying the coalescence behavior of the internal phase in the absence of the surfactant. Although the contacting area between the solvent and the internal phase in SFSELM extraction is significantly less than the area provided by regular emulsion due to drop coalescence, it is comparable to the area provided by a typical hollow-fiber membrane. Thus, the stripping process is highly unlikely to become the rate-limiting step in SFSELM extraction. SFSELM remains an effective way to achieve simultaneous extraction and stripping and is able to eliminate the equilibrium limitation in the typical solvent extraction processes. The SFSELM design is similar to the supported liquid membrane design in some aspects.

  11. Wind and seismic analysis for liquid-level gauge support

    SciTech Connect

    Ziada, A.H.

    1994-12-07

    A wind and seismic analysis was performed for the liquid-level gauge installation support stand. The analysis includes the stand and footing only. All of these supports are classified as safety class 3. The analysis was based on safety class 2 requirements for conservatism. Conventional hand calculations were performed to evaluate the stresses and overturning of the structure. The results and recommendations appear in Section 2.0. The configuration and loadings are discussed in Section 3.0; the analysis and evaluation appears in Section 4.0; and the detailed analysis is documented in Appendix A.

  12. Cooling tower with concrete support structure, fiberglass panels, and a fan supported by the liquid distribution system

    SciTech Connect

    Bardo, C. J.; Clark Jr., J. L.; Dylewski, A. J.; Seawell, J. Q.

    1985-09-24

    A liquid cooling tower includes precast concrete support legs and cross beams and fiberglass reinforced polyester resin side and top panels. A liquid distribution system is supplied with liquid by a vertically extending main pipe, and a fan and fan motor are supported by the main pipe.

  13. Ionic liquids in refinery desulfurization: comparison between biphasic and supported ionic liquid phase suspension processes.

    PubMed

    Kuhlmann, Esther; Haumann, Marco; Jess, Andreas; Seeberger, Andreas; Wasserscheid, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The desulfurization of fuel compounds in the presence of ionic liquids is reported. For this purpose, the desulfurization efficiency of a variety of imidazolium phosphate ionic liquids has been tested. Dibenzothiophene/dodecane and butylmercaptan/decane mixtures were used as model systems. Single-stage extractions reduced the sulfur content from 500 ppm to 200 ppm. In multistage extractions the sulfur content could be lowered to less than 10 ppm within seven stages. Regeneration of the ionic liquid was achieved by distillation or re-extraction procedures. Supported ionic liquid phase (SILP) materials, obtained by dispersing the ionic liquid as a thin film on highly porous silica, exhibited a significantly higher extraction performance owing to their larger surface areas, reducing the sulfur content to less than 100 ppm in one stage. Multistage extraction with these SILP materials reduced the sulfur level to 50 ppm in the second stage. The SILP technology offers very efficient utilization of ionic liquids and circumvents mass transport limitations because of the small film thickness and large surface area, and allows application of the simple packed-bed column extraction technique. PMID:19798713

  14. A functional link between store-operated and TRPC channels revealed by the 3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)pyrazole derivative, BTP2.

    PubMed

    He, Li-Ping; Hewavitharana, Thamara; Soboloff, Jonathan; Spassova, Maria A; Gill, Donald L

    2005-03-25

    The coupling between receptor-mediated Ca2+ store release and the activation of "store-operated" Ca2+ entry channels is an important but so far poorly understood mechanism. The transient receptor potential (TRP) superfamily of channels contains several members that may serve the function of store-operated channels (SOCs). The 3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)pyrazole derivative, BTP2, is a recently described inhibitor of SOC activity in T-lymphocytes. We compared its action on SOC activation in a number of cell types and evaluated its modification of three specific TRP channels, canonical transient receptor potential 3 (TRPC3), TRPC5, and TRPV6, to throw light on any link between SOC and TRP channel function. Using HEK293 cells, DT40 B cells, and A7r5 smooth muscle cells, BTP2 blocked store-operated Ca2+ entry within 10 min with an IC50 of 0.1-0.3 microM. Store-operated Ca2+ entry induced by Ca2+ pump blockade or in response to muscarinic or B cell receptor activation was similarly sensitive to BTP2. Using the T3-65 clonal HEK293 cell line stably expressing TRPC3 channels, TRPC3-mediated Sr2+ entry activated by muscarinic receptors was also blocked by BTP2 with an IC50 of <0.3 microM. Importantly, direct activation of TRPC3 channels by diacylglycerol was also blocked by BTP2 (IC50 approximately 0.3 microM). BTP2 still blocked TRPC3 in medium with N-methyl-D-glucamine-chloride replacing Na+, indicating BTP2 did not block divalent cation entry by depolarization induced by activating monovalent cation entry channels. Whereas whole-cell carbachol-induced TRPC3 current was blocked by 3 microM BTP2, single TRPC3 channel recordings revealed persistent short openings suggesting BTP2 reduces the open probability of the channel rather than its pore properties. TRPC5 channels transiently expressed in HEK293 cells were blocked by BTP2 in the same range as TRPC3. However, function of the highly Ca(2+)-selective TRPV6 channel, with many channel properties akin to SOCs, was entirely

  15. Systemic resistance and lipoxygenase-related defence response induced in tomato by Pseudomonas putida strain BTP1

    PubMed Central

    Akram, Adam; Ongena, Marc; Duby, Francéline; Dommes, Jacques; Thonart, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    Background Previous studies showed the ability of Pseudomonas putida strain BTP1 to promote induced systemic resistance (ISR) in different host plants. Since ISR is long-lasting and not conducive for development of resistance of the targeted pathogen, this phenomenon can take part of disease control strategies. However, in spite of the numerous examples of ISR induced by PGPR in plants, only a few biochemical studies have associated the protective effect with specific host metabolic changes. Results In this study, we showed the protective effect of this bacterium in tomato against Botrytis cinerea. Following treatment by P. putida BTP1, analyses of acid-hydrolyzed leaf extracts showed an accumulation of antifungal material after pathogen infection. The fungitoxic compounds thus mainly accumulate as conjugates from which active aglycones may be liberated through the activity of hydrolytic enzymes. These results suggest that strain BTP1 can elicit systemic phytoalexin accumulation in tomato as one defence mechanism. On another hand, we have shown that key enzymes of the lipoxygenase pathway are stimulated in plants treated with the bacteria as compared with control plants. Interestingly, this stimulation is observed only after pathogen challenge in agreement with the priming concept almost invariably associated with the ISR phenomenon. Conclusion Through the demonstration of phytoalexin accumulation and LOX pathway stimulation in tomato, this work provides new insights into the diversity of defence mechanisms that are inducible by non-pathogenic bacteria in the context of ISR. PMID:19000301

  16. Separation of metal species by supported liquid membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Danesi, P.R.

    1985-01-01

    The work performed in the Separation Chemistry Group of the Chemistry Division of Argonne National Laboratory on the transport and separation properties of supported liquid membranes (SLM) are reviewed. The models and equations which describe the permeation through SLMs of metal species are described. These models have been tested with various carriers absorbed on flat-sheet and hollow-fiber SLMs by measuring the permeation of several metal species of hydrometallurgical and nuclear interest. An equation for the separation factor of metal species in SLM processes and examples of separations of metal ions are reported. The possibility of bypassing the single stage character of SLM separations by using multilayer composite SLMs, arranged in series, is also analyzed. Finally, the factors which control the stability of SLMs are briefly discussed. 28 references, 27 figures, 6 tables.

  17. Separation of metal species by supported liquid membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Danesi, P.R.

    1984-01-01

    The works performed on the transport and separation properties of supported liquid membranes (SLM) are reviewed. The models and equations which describe the permeation through SLMs of metal species are described. These models have been tested with various carriers absorbed on flat-sheet and hollow-fiber SLMs by measuring the permeation of several metal species of hydrometallurgical and nuclear interest. An equation for the separation factor of metal species in SLM processes and examples of separations of metal ions are reported. The possibility of bypassing the single stage character of SLM separations by using multilayer composite SLMs, arranged in series, is also analyzed. Finally, the factors which control the stability of SLMs are briefly discussed.

  18. Properties required by extractants and diluents for the decontamination of liquid wastes using supported liquid membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Dozol, J.F.; Rouquette, H.; Eymard, S.; Tournois, B.

    1993-12-31

    Macrocyclic extractants are now being studied more and more often for the decontamination of radioactive liquid wastes: coronands (crown ethers, azacrown...) and cryptands. As these very sophisticated compounds are expensive, the best technique is supported liquid membranes which need a very low extractant inventory. This paper deals with the properties required by the extractant and the diluent in order to be used in an SLM device and to ensure a stable and efficient SLM: solubility of the extractant in organic compounds and in aqueous solutions; size of crown ether cavities; influence of the substituent groups on the selectivity of the crown ether; and influence of the properties of the diluent (polarity, transport of acidity) on the efficiency of the process and on the stability of the membrane (interfacial tension between the organic and aqueous phases, solubility in the aqueous phase). The influence of these parameters is illustrated by experiments performed in order to remove strontium and cesium from high sodium content liquid waste. The studies described in this paper are focused on the decategorization of evaporator concentrates arising from the reprocessing of spent fuel.

  19. Ionic liquid based hollow fiber supported liquid phase microextraction of ultraviolet filters.

    PubMed

    Ge, Dandan; Lee, Hian Kee

    2012-03-16

    Hollow fiber protected liquid phase microextraction using an ionic liquid as supported phase and acceptor phase (IL-HF-LPME) is proposed for the determination of four ultraviolet (UV) filters (benzophenone, 3-(4-methylbenzylidene)-camphor, 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone and 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone) in water samples for the first time. In the present study, four different ILs 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate) [HMIM][FAP], 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate [BMPL][FAP], 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium phosphate ([BMIM][PO(4)]) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([BMIM][PF(6)]) were evaluated as extraction solvent. Only [HMIM][FAP] showed high chemical affinity to the analytes which permits a selective isolation of the UV filters from the sample matrix, allowing also their preconcentration. IL-HF-LPME and high performance liquid chromatography provides repeatability from 1.1% to 8.2% and limits of detection between 0.3 and 0.5 ng/ml. Real water samples spiked with the analytes extracted were analyzed, and yielded relative recoveries ranging from 82.6% to 105.9%. PMID:22307149

  20. The effect of porous support composition and operating parameters on the performance of supported liquid membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Takigawa, D.Y. )

    1992-03-01

    Supported liquid membranes (SLMs) of varying porous support compositions and structures were studied for the transport of metal ions. A microporous polybenzimidazole support was synthesized and prepared in the form of an SLM. This SLM, containing the selective extractant di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid, was evaluated for the transport of copper and neodymium. Metal ion transport reaches near completion in less than 3 h, whereas Celgard-polypropylene and Nucleopore-polycarbonate reaches only 50% completion even after 15 h. The transport driving force for acidic extractants is a pH gradient between the feed and strip solutions. Polybenzimidazole, an acid-and radiation-resistant polymer, has two protonatable tertiary nitrogens per repeat unit that may help sustain the pH driving force. Another factor may be the ability of the polybenzimidazole to hydrogen bond with the extractant. Transport through the flat-sheet SLMs was tested by using a unique cell design. Countercurrent flow of the feed and strip solutions was established through machined channels in half-cell face plates that are in a spiral, mirror-image pattern with respect to each other, with the flat-sheet SLM interposed between the two channeled solutions. Advantages comprised in the design of the two clamped half-cells (tangential entry, zero primary pressure, zero pressure differential, controlled flow regimes, no sharp turns, and channeled flow) give operating parameters that will not physically dislodge the liquid membrane from the porous support; consequently, the lifetime of the support is increased. Permeability coefficients remained unchanged after a month of daily use versus 20 to 100% declines for membranes in other cell configurations.

  1. The effect of porous support composition and operating parameters on the performance of supported liquid membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Takigawa, D.Y.

    1991-02-01

    Factors, such as porous support composition and operating parameters, that influence the performance of supported liquid membranes (SLMs) were investigated. SLMs of varying porous support compositions and structures were studied for the transport of metal ions. A microporous polybenzimidazole support was synthesized and prepared in the form of an SLM. This SLM containing the selective extractant di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid was evaluated for the transport of copper and neodymium. Dramatically improved performance over that of commercially available membranes was found in tests for removing the metal ions from solution. Metal ion transport reaches near completion in less than 3 hours, whereas Celgard-polypropylene and Nuclepore-polycarbonate reaches only 50% completion even after 15 hours. The transport driving force for acidic extractants is a pH gradient between the feed and strip solutions. Polybenzimidazole, an acid- and radiation-resistant polymer, has two protonatable tertiary nitrogens per repeat unit that may help sustain the pH driving force. Another factor may be the ability of the polybenzimidazole to hydrogen bond with the extractant. Transport through the flat-sheet SLMs were tested using a unique cell design. Countercurrent flow of the feed and strip solutions was established through machined channels in half-cell faceplates that are in a spiral, mirror-image pattern with respect to each other, with the flat-sheet SLM interposed between the two channeled solutions. 7 refs., 14 figs.

  2. Advanced Supported Liquid Membranes for Carbon Dioxide Control in Extravehicular Activity Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickham, David T. (Inventor); Gleason, Kevin J. (Inventor); Cowley, Scott W. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    There is disclosed a portable life support system with a component for removal of at least one selected gas. In an embodiment, the system includes a supported liquid membrane having a first side and a second side in opposition to one another, the first side configured for disposition toward an astronaut and the second side configured for disposition toward a vacuum atmosphere. The system further includes an ionic liquid disposed between the first side and the second side of the supported liquid membrane, the ionic liquid configured for removal of at least one selected gas from a region housing the astronaut adjacent the first side of the supported liquid membrane to the vacuum atmosphere adjacent the second side of the supported liquid membrane. Other embodiments are also disclosed.

  3. A BTP1 prophage gene present in invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella determines composition and length of the O-antigen of the lipopolysaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Kintz, Erica; Davies, Mark R; Hammarlöf, Disa L; Canals, Rocío; Hinton, Jay C D; van der Woude, Marjan W

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella Typhimurium isolate D23580 represents a recently identified ST313 lineage of invasive non-typhoidal Salmonellae (iNTS). One of the differences between this lineage and other non-iNTS S. Typhimurium isolates is the presence of prophage BTP1. This prophage encodes a gtrC gene, implicated in O-antigen modification. GtrCBTP1 is essential for maintaining O-antigen length in isolate D23580, since a gtrBTP1 mutant yields a short O-antigen. This phenotype can be complemented by gtrCBTP1 or very closely related gtrC genes. The short O-antigen of the gtrBTP1 mutant was also compensated by deletion of the BTP1 phage tailspike gene in the D23580 chromosome. This tailspike protein has a putative endorhamnosidase domain and thus may mediate O-antigen cleavage. Expression of the gtrCBTP1 gene is, in contrast to expression of many other gtr operons, not subject to phase variation and transcriptional analysis suggests that gtrC is produced under a variety of conditions. Additionally, GtrCBTP1 expression is necessary and sufficient to provide protection against BTP1 phage infection of an otherwise susceptible strain. These data are consistent with a model in which GtrCBTP1 mediates modification of the BTP1 phage O-antigen receptor in lysogenic D23580, and thereby prevents superinfection by itself and other phage that uses the same O-antigen co-receptor. PMID:25586744

  4. Assessing covalency in equatorial U-N bonds: density based measures of bonding in BTP and isoamethyrin complexes of uranyl.

    PubMed

    Di Pietro, Poppy; Kerridge, Andrew

    2016-06-22

    Calculations performed at the density functional level of theory have been used to investigate complexes of uranyl with the expanded porphyrin isoamethyrin and the bis-triazinyl-pyridine (BTP) ligands, the latter of which is well-known to be effective in the separation of trivalent lanthanides and actinides. Analysis has been performed using a range of density-based techniques, including the Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules (QTAIM), the Electron Localisation Function (ELF) and the reduced density gradient (RDG). The effects of peripheral alkyl substituents on UO2-isoamethyrin, known to be vital for proper replication of the experimental geometry, are considered. Evidence for comparable amounts of covalent character has been found in the largely ionic U-N bonds of UO2-isoamethyrin and [UO2(BTP)2](2+) and examination of the variation in the electronic characteristics of the uranyl unit upon complexation in both of these cases reveal striking similarities in the nature of the U-N bonding and the effect of this bonding on the U-Oyl interaction, as well as evidence of donation into the U-N bonding region from the uranyl unit itself. PMID:27279271

  5. Early Transcriptional Responses of Bovine Chorioallantoic Membrane Explants to Wild Type, ΔvirB2 or ΔbtpB Brucella abortus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Mol, Juliana P. S.; Costa, Erica A.; Carvalho, Alex F.; Sun, Yao-Hui; Tsolis, Reneé M.; Paixão, Tatiane A.; Santos, Renato L.

    2014-01-01

    The pathogenesis of the Brucella-induced inflammatory response in the bovine placenta is not completely understood. In this study we evaluated the role of the B. abortus Type IV secretion system and the anti-inflammatory factor BtpB in early interactions with bovine placental tissues. Transcription profiles of chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) explants inoculated with wild type (strain 2308), ΔvirB2 or ΔbtpB Brucella abortus were compared by microarray analysis at 4 hours post infection. Transcripts with significant variation (>2 fold change; P<0.05) were functionally classified, and transcripts related to defense and inflammation were assessed by quantitative real time RT-PCR. Infection with wild type B. abortus resulted in slightly more genes with decreased than increased transcription levels. Conversely, infection of trophoblastic cells with the ΔvirB2 or the ΔbtpB mutant strains, that lack a functional T4SS or that has impaired inhibition of TLR signaling, respectively, induced more upregulated than downregulated genes. Wild type Brucella abortus impaired transcription of host genes related to immune response when compared to ΔvirB and ΔbtpB mutants. Our findings suggest that proinflammatory genes are negatively modulated in bovine trophoblastic cells at early stages of infection. The virB operon and btpB are directly or indirectly related to modulation of these host genes. These results shed light on the early interactions between B. abortus and placental tissue that ultimately culminate in inflammatory pathology and abortion. PMID:25259715

  6. Hyperhydricity and flavonoid content of Scutellaria species in vitro on polyester-supported liquid culture systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three Scutellaria species (Scutellaria lateriflora, S. costaricana and S. baicalensis) were grown in different in vitro physical environments: agar, liquid culture, and liquid culture with fiber-supported paper (with initial media volumes of 20 mL and 30 mL). During an eight-week time course, tiss...

  7. SEPARATION PROPERTIES OF SURFACE MODIFIED SILICA SUPPORTED LIQUID MEMBRANES FOR DIVALENT METAL REMOVAL/RECOVERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The synthesis and separation properties of a mesoporous silica supported liquid membrane (SLM) were studied. The membranes consisted of a silica layer, from dip-coated colloidal silica, on a a-alumina support, modified with DCDMS (dichlorodimethyl silane) to add surface methyl g...

  8. Removal and recovery of heavy metals from wastewaters by supported liquid membranes.

    PubMed

    Yang, X J; Fane, A G; MacNaughton, S

    2001-01-01

    The removal and recovery of Cu, Cr and Zn from plating rinse wastewater using supported liquid membranes (SLM) are investigated. SLMs with specific organic extractants as the liquid membrane carriers in series are able to remove and concentrate heavy metals with very high purity, which is very promising for recycling of heavy metals in the electroplating industry. A technical comparison between the membrane process and the conventional chemical precipitation process was made. PMID:11380200

  9. Modeling of the mass transfer rates of metal ions across supported liquid membranes. 1: Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Elhassadi, A.A.; Do, D.D.

    1999-01-01

    This paper deals with the modeling of the transport and separation of metal ions across supported liquid membranes. The mass transfer resistance at the liquid-membrane interfaces and the interfacial chemical reactions at both the extracting side and the stripping side are taken into account in the model equations. Simple analysis of the time scale of the system shows the influence of various important parameters and their interactions on the overall transport rate. Parametric studies are also dealt with in this paper.

  10. A Monolithic Hybrid Cellulose-2.5-Acetate/Polymer Bioreactor for Biocatalysis under Continuous Liquid-Liquid Conditions Using a Supported Ionic Liquid Phase.

    PubMed

    Sandig, Bernhard; Michalek, Lukas; Vlahovic, Sandra; Antonovici, Mihaela; Hauer, Bernhard; Buchmeiser, Michael R

    2015-10-26

    Mesoporous monolithic hybrid cellulose-2.5-acetate (CA)/polymer supports were prepared under solvent-induced phase separation conditions using cellulose-2.5-acetate microbeads 8-14 μm in diameter, 1,1,1-tris(hydroxymethyl)propane and 4,4'-methylenebis(phenylisocyanate) as monomers as well as THF and n-heptane as porogenic solvents. 4-(Dimethylamino)pyridine and dibutyltin dilaurate (DBTDL), respectively, were used as catalysts. Monolithic hybrid supports were used in transesterification reactions of vinyl butyrate with 1-butanol under continuous, supported ionic liquid-liquid conditions with Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB) and octylmethylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([OMIM(+) ][BF4 (-) ]) immobilized within the CA beads inside the polymeric monolithic framework and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) as the continuous phase. The new hybrid bioreactors were successfully used in dimensions up to 2×30 cm (V=94 mL). Under continuous biphasic liquid-liquid conditions a constant conversion up to 96 % was achieved over a period of 18 days, resulting in a productivity of 58 μmol mg(-1) (CALB) min(-1) . This translates into an unprecedented turnover number (TON) of 3.9×10(7) within two weeks, which is much higher than the one obtained under standard biphasic conditions using [OMIM(+) ][BF4 (-) ]/MTBE (TON=2.7×10(6) ). The continuous liquid-liquid setup based on a hybrid reactor presented here is strongly believed to be applicable to many other enzyme-catalyzed reactions. PMID:26493884

  11. Extraction of aluminum from a pickling bath with supported liquid membrane extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Berends, A.M.; Witkamp, G.J.; Rosmalen, G.M. van

    1999-04-01

    Large amounts of waste are produced yearly in the galvanic and chemical surface treatment industry. Bath liquids used in the various processes lose their function due to contamination. The spent bath liquids have to be replaced and treated prior to disposal, leading to high costs and a high environmental burden. In this paper, a proposed solution to the problem is investigated: the selective removal of the contaminant with supported liquid membrane extraction. The extraction of aluminum, a contaminant at high concentrations, from a pickling bath liquid with hydrofluoric acid and phosphoric acid as its main components has been carried out with the basic extractants Alamine 308 and Alamine 336 in a flat sheet-supported liquid membrane setup. Aluminum transport rates were obtained in the order of 10{sup {minus}6}--10{sup {minus}5} mol/(m{sup 2} {center_dot} s), which are normal values for this technique. The extraction was not completely selective as dissolved phosphorus was coextracted. In all experiments, precipitation took place on the surface of the liquid membrane and in the bulk of the strip phase. Increasing the stripping alkalinity from pH = 8 to pH = 13 reduced the amount of precipitation in the bulk of the strip phase but caused a substantial decrease in the aluminum flux. The precipitation prevents industrial application of the systems investigated.

  12. High Temperature Separation of Carbon Dioxide/Hydrogen Mixtures Using Facilitated Supported Ionic Liquid Membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, C.R.; Pennline, H.W.; Luebke, D.R.; Ilconich, J.B.; Dixon, J.K.; Maginn, E.J.; Brennecke, J.F.

    2008-09-01

    Efficiently separating CO2 from H2 is one of the key steps in the environmentally responsible uses of fossil fuel for energy production. A wide variety of resources, including petroleum coke, coal, and even biomass, can be gasified to produce syngas (a mixture of COand H2). This gas stream can be further reacted with water to produce CO2 and more H2. Once separated, the CO2 can be stored in a variety of geological formations or sequestered by other means. The H2 can be combusted to operate a turbine, producing electricity, or used to power hydrogen fuel cells. In both cases, onlywater is produced as waste. An amine functionalized ionic liquid encapsulated in a supported ionic liquid membrane (SILM) can separate CO2 from H2 with a higher permeability and selectivity than any known membrane system. This separation is accomplished at elevated temperatures using facilitated transport supported ionic liquid membranes.

  13. The Effect of Microporous Polymeric Support Modification on Surface and Gas Transport Properties of Supported Ionic Liquid Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Akhmetshina, Alsu A.; Davletbaeva, Ilsiya M.; Grebenschikova, Ekaterina S.; Sazanova, Tatyana S.; Petukhov, Anton N.; Atlaskin, Artem A.; Razov, Evgeny N.; Zaripov, Ilnaz I.; Martins, Carla F.; Neves, Luísa A.; Vorotyntsev, Ilya V.

    2015-01-01

    Microporous polymers based on anionic macroinitiator and toluene 2,4-diisocyanate were used as a support for 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([bmim][PF6]) and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([emim][Tf2N]) immobilization. The polymeric support was modified by using silica particles associated in oligomeric media, and the influence of the modifier used on the polymeric structure was studied. The supported ionic liquid membranes (SILMs) were tested for He, N2, NH3, H2S, and CO2 gas separation and ideal selectivities were calculated. The high values of ideal selectivity for ammonia-based systems with permanent gases were observed on polymer matrixes immobilized with [bmim][PF6] and [emim][Tf2N]. The modification of SILMs by nanosize silica particles leads to an increase of NH3 separation relatively to CO2 or H2S. PMID:26729177

  14. Liquid phase methanol LaPorte process development unit: Modification, operation, and support studies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-02-02

    This report consists of Detailed Data Acquisition Sheets for Runs E-6 and E-7 for Task 2.2 of the Modification, Operation, and Support Studies of the Liquid Phase Methanol Laporte Process Development Unit. (Task 2.2: Alternate Catalyst Run E-6 and Catalyst Activity Maintenance Run E-7).

  15. Production of fungal antibiotics using polymeric solid supports in solid-state and liquid fermentation.

    PubMed

    Bigelis, Ramunas; He, Haiyin; Yang, Hui Y; Chang, Li-Ping; Greenstein, Michael

    2006-10-01

    The use of inert absorbent polymeric supports for cellular attachment in solid-state fungal fermentation influenced growth, morphology, and production of bioactive secondary metabolites. Two filamentous fungi exemplified the utility of this approach to facilitate the discovery of new antimicrobial compounds. Cylindrocarpon sp. LL-Cyan426 produced pyrrocidines A and B and Acremonium sp. LL-Cyan416 produced acremonidins A-E when grown on agar bearing moist polyester-cellulose paper and generated distinctly different metabolite profiles than the conventional shaken or stationary liquid fermentations. Differences were also apparent when tenfold concentrated methanol extracts from these fermentations were tested against antibiotic-susceptible and antibiotic-resistant Gram-positive bacteria, and zones of inhibition were compared. Shaken broth cultures of Acremonium sp. or Cylindrocarpon sp. showed complex HPLC patterns, lower levels of target compounds, and high levels of unwanted compounds and medium components, while agar/solid support cultures showed significantly increased yields of pyrrocidines A and B and acremonidins A-E, respectively. This method, mixed-phase fermentation (fermentation with an inert solid support bearing liquid medium), exploited the increase in surface area available for fungal growth on the supports and the tendency of some microorganisms to adhere to solid surfaces, possibly mimicking their natural growth habits. The production of dimeric anthraquinones by Penicillium sp. LL-WF159 was investigated in liquid fermentation using various inert polymeric immobilization supports composed of polypropylene, polypropylene cellulose, polyester-cellulose, or polyurethane. This culture produced rugulosin, skyrin, flavomannin, and a new bisanthracene, WF159-A, after fermentation in the presence and absence of polymeric supports for mycelial attachment. The physical nature of the different support systems influenced culture morphology and relative

  16. Supported ionic liquid membranes for removal of dioxins from high-temperature vapor streams.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Prashant S; Neves, Luisa A; Coelhoso, Isabel M; Afonso, Carlos A M; Crespo, João G

    2012-01-01

    Dioxins and dioxin-like chemicals are predominantly produced by thermal processes such as incineration and combustion at concentrations in the range of 10-100 ng of I-TEQ/kg (I-TEQ = international toxic equivalents). In this work, a new approach for the removal of dioxins from high-temperature vapor streams using facilitated supported ionic liquid membranes (SILMs) is proposed. The use of ceramic membranes containing specific ionic liquids, with extremely low volatility, for dioxin removal from incineration sources is proposed owing to their stability at very high temperatures. Supported liquid membranes were prepared by successfully immobilizing the ionic liquids tri-C(8)-C(10)-alkylmethylammonium dicyanamide ([Aliquat][DCA]) and 1-n-octyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide ([Omim][DCA]) inside the porous structure of ceramic membranes. The porous inorganic membranes tested were made of titanium oxide (TiO(2)), with a nominal pore size of 30 nm, and aluminum oxide (Al(2)O(3)), with a nominal pore size of 100 nm. The ionic liquids were characterized, and the membrane performance was assessed for the removal of dioxins. Different materials (membrane pore size, type of ionic liquid, and dioxin) and different operating conditions (temperature and flow rate) were tested to evaluate the efficiency of SILMs for dioxin removal. All membranes prepared were stable at temperatures up to 200 °C. Experiments with model incineration gas were also carried out, and the results obtained validate the potential of using ceramic membranes with immobilized ionic liquids for the removal of dioxins from high-temperature vapor sources. PMID:22087544

  17. Supported absorption of CO2 by tetrabutylphosphonium amino acid ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianmin; Zhang, Suojiang; Dong, Kun; Zhang, Yanqiang; Shen, Youqing; Lv, Xingmei

    2006-05-15

    A new type of "task specific ionic liquid", tetrabutylphosphonium amino acid [P(C4)4][AA], was synthesized by the reaction of tetrabutylphosphonium hydroxide [P(C4)4][OH] with amino acids, including glycine, L-alanine, L-beta-alanine, L-serine, and L-lysine. The liquids produced were characterized by NMR, IR spectroscopies, and elemental analysis, and their thermal decomposition temperature, glass transition temperature, electrical conductivity, density, and viscosity were recorded in detail. The [P(C4)4][AA] supported on porous silica gel effected fast and reversible CO2 absorption when compared with bubbling CO2 into the bulk of the ionic liquid. No changes in absorption capacity and kinetics were found after four cycles of absorption/desorption. The CO2 absorption capacity at equilibrium was 50 mol % of the ionic liquids. In the presence of water (1 wt %), the ionic liquids could absorb equimolar amounts of CO2. The CO2 absorption mechanisms of the ionic liquids with and without water were different. PMID:16528787

  18. Carbon Dioxide Selective Supported Ionic Liquid Membranes: The Effect of Contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Luebke, D.R.; Ilconich, J.B.; Myers, C.R.; Pennline, H.W.

    2008-04-01

    The integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) is widely viewed as a promising technology for the large scale production of energy in a carbon constrained world. These cycles, which include gasification, contaminant removal, water-gas shift, CO2 capture and compression, and combustion of the reduced-carbon fuel gas in a turbine, often have significant efficiency advantages over conventional combustion technologies. A CO2 selective membrane capable of maintaining performance at conditions approaching those of low temperature water-gas shift (260oC) could facilitate the production of carbon-neutral energy by simultaneously driving the shift reaction to completion and concentrating CO2 for sequestration. Supported ionic liquid membranes (SILMs) have been previously evaluated for this application and determined to be physically and chemically stable to temperatures in excess of 300oC. These membranes were based on ionic liquids which interacted physically with CO2 and diminished considerably in selectivity at higher temperatures. To alleviate this problem, the original ionic liquids were replaced with ionic liquids able to form chemical complexes with CO2. These complexing ionic liquid membranes have a local maximum in selectivity which is observed at increasing temperatures for more stable complexes. Efforts are currently underway to develop ionic liquids with selectivity maxima at temperatures greater than 75oC, the best result to date, but other practical concerns must also be addressed if the membrane is to be realistically expected to function under water-gas shift conditions. A CO2 selective membrane must function not only at high temperature, but also in the presence of all the reactants and contaminants likely to be present in coal-derived fuel gas, including water, CO, and H2S. A study has been undertaken which examines the effects of each of these gases on both complexing and physically interacting supported liquid membranes. In a joint project

  19. Ultra-hydrophobic ionic liquid 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate supported hollow-fiber membrane liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction of chlorophenols.

    PubMed

    Ge, Dandan; Lee, Hian Kee

    2015-01-01

    An ultra-hydrophobic ionic liquid, 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate ([HMIM][FAP]) was immobilized in the pores of a polypropylene hollow fiber for liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction (HF-LLLME) of chlorophenols (CPs) (4-chloro-3-methylphenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol). The analytes were first extracted from 10 ml of water sample into the ionic liquid membrane, and then were extracted back into 5 μl of sodium hydroxide aqueous solution in the hollow fiber channel. After extraction, the acceptor solution was directly injected into a high-performance liquid chromatographic system for analysis. Extraction parameters such as extraction time, salt concentration in the sample, the pH of the sample and acceptor phase, and stirring rate during extraction were investigated. The relative standard deviations of the analytes varied from 4 to 6%. Limits of detection of <0.5 ng/ml were obtained for the three analytes. The squared regression coefficients relating to the calibration curve were ≥0.9941. The proposed method was applied to the analysis of CPs in canal water. PMID:25476289

  20. Determination of phthalate ester plasticizers in the aquatic environment using hollow fibre supported liquid membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mtibe, A.; Msagati, Titus A. M.; Mishra, Ajay K.; Mamba, Bhekie B.

    Phthalates are known to be carcinogenic, teratogenic as well as endocrine disruptors. The potential risk to human and animals health generated from them has drawn great attention all over the world. Hollow fibre supported liquid membrane (HFSLM) online with high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to determine benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and Diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) in wastewater. Toluene, di-n-hexyl ether and undecane were used as liquid barriers separating both donor (sample) and acceptor phase. Toluene performed much better than undecane and was used in sample preparation. The presence of toluene showed the potential for the enrichment and removal of phthalates to the concentrations ranges from 0 to 1.7 mg L-1.

  1. Development of a Supported Emulsion Liquid Membrane System for Propionic Acid Separation in a Microgravity Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jin; Hu, Shih-Yao B.; Wiencek, John M.

    2001-01-01

    Perstractive fermentation is a good way to increase the productivity of bioreactors. Using Propionibacteria as the model system, the feasibility of using supported emulsion liquid membrane (SELM) for perstractive fermentation is assessed in this study. Five industrial solvents were considered as the solvent for preparing the SELM. The more polar a solvent is, the higher the partition coefficient. However, toxicity of a solvent also increases with its polarity. CO-1055 (industrial decanol/octanol blend) has the highest partition coefficient toward propionic acid among the solvents that has no molecular toxicity toward Propionibacteria. A preliminary extraction study was conducted using tetradecane as solvent in a hydrophobic hollow fiber contactor. The result confirmed that SELM eliminates the equilibrium limitation of conventional liquid-liquid extraction, and allows the use of a non-toxic solvent with low partition coefficient.

  2. Ignition Capsules with Aerogel-Supported Liquid DT Fuel For The National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, D D; Salmonson, J D; Clark, D S; Lindl, J D; Haan, S W; Amendt, P; Wu, K J

    2011-10-25

    For high repetition-rate fusion power plant applications, capsules with aerogel-supported liquid DT fuel can have much reduced fill time compared to {beta}-layering a solid DT fuel layer. The melting point of liquid DT can be lowered once liquid DT is embedded in an aerogel matrix, and the DT vapor density is consequently closer to the desired density for optimal capsule design requirement. We present design for NIF-scale aerogel-filled capsules based on 1-D and 2-D simulations. An optimal configuration is obtained when the outer radius is increased until the clean fuel fraction is within 65-75% at peak velocity. A scan (in ablator and fuel thickness parameter space) is used to optimize the capsule configurations. The optimized aerogel-filled capsule has good low-mode robustness and acceptable high-mode mix.

  3. Supported Room Temperature Ionic Liquid Membranes for CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} Separation

    SciTech Connect

    Iarikov, D. D.; Hacarlioglu, P.; Oyama, S. T.

    2011-01-01

    Room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) are organic salts which are liquid at or around room temperature. These compounds exhibit many outstanding physical properties such as great thermal stability and no measurable vapor pressure. In this work supported ionic liquid membranes (SILMs) were prepared by impregnating pores of α-alumina inorganic supports with various ionic liquids. In addition to membranes prepared with pure RTILs we were able to synthesize membranes with RTIL mixtures using 1-aminopyridinium iodide dissolved in 1-butyl-4-methylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate or methyltrioctylammonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide. This combination of an RTIL with an organic salt containing an amine group dramatically improved the membrane separation properties. The SILMs displayed CO{sub 2} permeance on the order of 5 × 10{sup −10} to 5 × 10{sup −9} mol m{sup −2} s{sup −1} Pa{sup −1} combined with CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} selectivity of 5–30. Although these values are comparable with the current systems for CO{sub 2} purification, CO{sub 2} permeance is still rather low for these compounds.

  4. Separation of penicillin G from phenylacetic acid in a supported liquid membrane system.

    PubMed

    Lee, C J; Yeh, H J; Yang, W Y; Kan, C R

    1994-02-20

    The separation of penicillin G (Pen G) from phenylacetic acid (PAA) by use of a supported liquid membrane (SLM) system with Amberlite LA-2 dissolved in 1-decanol, supported on a microporous polypropylene membrane, was studied. The results show that the individual permeability of each component in mixture was lower than that in a single compartment system and, it suggests a strong transport competition between Pen G and PAA. The SLM system in this study proved to be a promising process for the selective separation of Pen G from PAA. The maximum separation factor was found to be 1.8 under a liquid membrane resistance controlled mechanism. (c) 1994 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:18615694

  5. Chiroptical Probing of Lanthanide-Directed Self-Assembly Formation Using btp Ligands Formed in One-Pot Diazo-Transfer/Deprotection Click Reaction from Chiral Amines.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Joseph P; Martínez-Calvo, Miguel; Peacock, Robert D; Gunnlaugsson, Thorfinnur

    2016-01-11

    A series of enantiomeric 2,6-bis(1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)pyridines (btp)-containing ligands was synthesized by a one-pot two-step copper-catalyzed amine/alkyne click reaction. The Eu(III) - and Tb(III) -directed self-assembly formation of these ligands was studied in CH3 CN by monitoring their various photophysical properties, including their emerging circular dichroism and circularly polarized luminescence. The global analysis of the former enabled the determination of both the stoichiometry and the stability constants of the various chiral supramolecular species in solution. PMID:26555573

  6. Towards liquid fuels from biosyngas: effect of zeolite structure in hierarchical-zeolite-supported cobalt catalysts.

    PubMed

    Sartipi, Sina; Alberts, Margje; Meijerink, Mark J; Keller, Tobias C; Pérez-Ramírez, Javier; Gascon, Jorge; Kapteijn, Freek

    2013-09-01

    Wax on, wax off: Bifunctional cobalt-based catalysts on zeolite supports are applied for the valorization of biosyngas through Fischer-Tropsch chemistry. By using these catalysts, waxes can be hydrocracked to shorter-chain hydrocarbons, increasing the selectivity towards the C5 -C11 (gasoline) fraction. The zeolite topology and the amount and strength of acid sites are key parameters to maximize the performance of these bifunctional catalysts, steering Fischer-Tropsch product selectivity towards liquid hydrocarbons. PMID:23765635

  7. Computing UV/vis spectra using a combined molecular dynamics and quantum chemistry approach: bis-triazin-pyridine (BTP) ligands studied in solution.

    PubMed

    Höfener, Sebastian; Trumm, Michael; Koke, Carsten; Heuser, Johannes; Ekström, Ulf; Skerencak-Frech, Andrej; Schimmelpfennig, Bernd; Panak, Petra J

    2016-03-21

    We report a combined computational and experimental study to investigate the UV/vis spectra of 2,6-bis(5,6-dialkyl-1,2,4-triazin-3-yl)pyridine (BTP) ligands in solution. In order to study molecules in solution using theoretical methods, force-field parameters for the ligand-water interaction are adjusted to ab initio quantum chemical calculations. Based on these parameters, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are carried out from which snapshots are extracted as input to quantum chemical excitation-energy calculations to obtain UV/vis spectra of BTP ligands in solution using time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) employing the Tamm-Dancoff approximation (TDA). The range-separated CAM-B3LYP functional is used to avoid large errors for charge-transfer states occurring in the electronic spectra. In order to study environment effects with theoretical methods, the frozen-density embedding scheme is applied. This computational procedure allows to obtain electronic spectra calculated at the (range-separated) DFT level of theory in solution, revealing solvatochromic shifts upon solvation of up to about 0.6 eV. Comparison to experimental data shows a significantly improved agreement compared to vacuum calculations and enables the analysis of relevant excitations for the line shape in solution. PMID:26907588

  8. Supported liquid membrane stability in chiral resolution by chemically and physically modified membranes.

    PubMed

    Molinari, R; Argurio, P

    2001-01-01

    In the present work some stability studies on Supported Liquid Membranes (SLMs) to be used for chiral separations were realized. In particular, primary aim was to determine how a modification of the support surface influences the SLM stability. First, the procedure for support modification was optimised, making a screening of various compounds (sulphuric acid, nitric acid, chromic acid, sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), glycerol, oleic alcohol, propylene glycol (PPG), bovine serum albumin (BSA)) and testing their performance by means of contact angle measurements. Next, a second screening was realized by permeation tests in a stirred cell. Finally, to compare the stability of modified with unmodified support in a process of interest for chemical and/or biochemical industries, some permeation tests for resolution of DNB-DL-Leucine were realized in a re-circulation system. Results showed a better surface hydrophilization of chemically modified support and better stability of the sulphonated support. However, in operating conditions a little high stability of the unmodified support was obtained. PMID:11381544

  9. Supported liquid membrane-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of cyanobacterial toxins in fresh water systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mbukwa, Elbert A.; Msagati, Titus A. M.; Mamba, Bhekie B.

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are increasingly becoming of great concern to water resources worldwide due to indiscriminate waste disposal habits resulting in water pollution and eutrophication. When cyanobacterial cells lyse (burst) they release toxins called microcystins (MCs) that are well known for their hepatotoxicity (causing liver damage) and have been found in eutrophic lakes, rivers, wastewater ponds and other water reservoirs. Prolonged exposure to low concentrated MCs are equally of health importance as they are known to be bioaccumulative and even at such low concentration do exhibit toxic effects to aquatic animals, wildlife and human liver cells. The application of common treatment processes for drinking water sourced from HABs infested reservoirs have the potential to cause algal cell lyses releasing low to higher amounts of MCs in finished water. Trace microcystins in water/tissue can be analyzed and quantified using Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) following solid-phase extraction (SPE) sample clean-up procedures. However, extracting MCs from algal samples which are rich in chlorophyll pigments and other organic matrices the SPE method suffers a number of drawbacks, including cartridge clogging, long procedural steps and use of larger volumes of extraction solvents. We applied a supported liquid membrane (SLM) based technique as an alternative sample clean-up method for LC-ESI-MS analysis of MCs from both water and algal cells. Four (4) MC variants (MC-RR, -YR, -LR and -WR) from lyophilized cells of Microcystis aeruginosa and water collected from a wastewater pond were identified) and quantified using LC-ESI-MS following a SLM extraction and liquid partitioning step, however, MC-WR was not detected from water extracts. Within 45 min of SLM extraction all studied MCs were extracted and pre-concentrated in approximately 15 μL of an acceptor phase at an optimal pH 2.02 of the donor phase (sample). The highest

  10. Molecular recognition of carbohydrates by a resorcinarene. Selective transport of alditols through a supported liquid membrane.

    PubMed

    Tbeur, N; Rhlalou, T; Hlaïbi, M; Langevin, D; Métayer, M; Verchère, J F

    2000-11-01

    A supported liquid membrane (SLM) containing a resorcinarene carrier has been used for the selective transport of erythritol, threitol, ribitol and xylitol from concentrated (1.0-0.01 M) aqueous solutions. The membrane is made of a microporous polytetrafluoroethylene film impregnated with a 0.01 M solution of the carrier in CCl4. The permeabilities of the SLM for all alditols were calculated. On the basis of the flux dependence on the initial concentrations of carrier and alditol, the rate-determining step in the transport mechanism is shown to be the migration of the 1:1 carrier-carbohydrate complex in the immobilized organic phase. The flux of sugar is related to the initial concentration of alditol in the feed phase by a saturation law, which allowed the determination of the apparent diffusion coefficients and the stability constants of the resorcinarene complexes of alditols formed in the liquid membrane. PMID:11117324

  11. SUPPORTED LIX-84 LIQUID MEMBRANES FOR METAL ION SEPARATION: A STUDY ON METAL ION SORPTION EQUILIBRIUM AND KINETICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Supported 2-hydroxy-5-nonyl-acetophenone oxime (LIX-84) liquid membranes have potential applications for the removal (or recovery) of copper ions from waste streams. But, the stability of such a liquid membrane remains the major hurdle for its practical applications. Inorganic su...

  12. Supported liquid membranes in radioactive waste treatment processes: Recent experience and perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Nechaev, A.F.; Projaev, V.V.; Kapranchik, V.P.

    1995-12-31

    Recent experience in practical application of Supported Liquid Membranes (SLM or SUPLIM) both in the hydrometallurgy and nuclear technology has been analyzed. The results obtained allow one to consider SUPLIM as a promising technology for radioactive waste treatment. This statement is based on the evaluation of integrated socioeconomic effects, including quantity of additional chemicals, the volume of secondary technological streams and secondary wastes, simplicity and the low costs of equipment used, potential possibility to organize in situ process, and the level of the harmful impact on personnel. 35 refs.

  13. SUPPORTED LIQUID CATALYSTS FOR REMOVAL OF HIGH TEMPERATURE FUEL CELL CONTAMINANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Alan W. Weimer; Peter Czerpak; Patrick Hilbert

    2000-01-01

    A novel catalytic synthesis gas oxidation process using molten carbonate salts supported on compatible fluidized iron oxide particles (supported-liquid-phase-catalyst (SLPC) fluidized bed process) was investigated. This process combines the advantages of large scale fluidized bed processing with molten salt bath oxidation. Molten salt catalysts can be supported within porous fluidized particles in order to improve mass transfer rates between the liquid catalysts and the reactant gases. Synthesis gas can be oxidized at reduced temperatures resulting in low NO{sub x} formation while trace sulfides and halides are captured in-situ. Hence, catalytic oxidation of synthesis gas can be carried out simultaneously with hot gas cleanup. Such SLPC fluidized bed processes are affected by inter-particle liquid capillary forces that may lead to agglomeration and de-fluidization of the bed. An understanding of the origin and strength of these forces is needed so that they can be overcome in practice. Process design is based on thermodynamic free energy minimization calculations that indicate the suitability of eutectic Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}/K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} mixtures for capturing trace impurities in-situ (< 1 ppm SO{sub x} released) while minimizing the formation of NO{sub x}(< 10 ppm). Iron oxide has been identified as a preferred support material since it is non-reactive with sodium, is inexpensive, has high density (i.e. inertia), and can be obtained in various particle sizes and porosities. Force balance modeling has been used to design a surrogate ambient temperature system that is hydrodynamically similar to the real system, thus allowing complementary investigation of the governing fluidization hydrodynamics. The primary objective of this research was to understand the origin of and to quantify the liquid capillary interparticle forces affecting the molten carbonate SLPC fluidized bed process. Substantial theoretical and experimental exploratory results indicate process

  14. Summary of Liquid Propulsion System Needs in Support of the Constellation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorier, Terry; Sumrall, Phil; Baine, Michael

    2008-01-01

    In January 2004, the President of the United States established the Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) to complete the International Space Station, retire the Space Shuttle and develop its replacement, and expand the human presence on the Moon as a stepping stone to human exploration of Mars and worlds beyond. In response, NASA developed the Constellation Program, consisting of the components shown in Figure 1. This paper will summarize the manned spaceflight liquid propulsion system needs in support of the Constellation Program over the next 10 years. It will address all liquid engine needs to support human exploration from low Earth orbit (LEO) to the lunar surface, including an overview of engines currently under contract, those baselined but not yet under contract, and those propulsion needs that have yet to be initiated. There may be additional engine needs for early demonstrators, but those will not be addressed as part of this paper. Also, other portions of the VSE architecture, including the planned Orion abort test boosters and the Lunar Precursor Robotic Program, are not addressed here as they either use solid motors or are focused on unmanned elements of returning humans to the Moon.

  15. New support for high-performance liquid chromatography based on silica coated with alumina particles.

    PubMed

    Silveira, José Leandro R; Dib, Samia R; Faria, Anizio M

    2014-01-01

    A new material based on silica coated with alumina nanoparticles was proposed for use as a chromatographic support for reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Alumina nanoparticles were synthesized by a sol-gel process in reversed micelles composed of sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate, and the support material was formed by the self-assembly of alumina layers on silica spheres. Spectroscopic and (29)Si nuclear magnetic resonance results showed evidence of chemical bonds between the alumina nanoparticles and the silica spheres, while morphological characterizations showed that the aluminized silica maintained the morphological properties of silica desired for chromatographic purposes after alumina incorporation. Stability studies indicated that bare silica showed high dissolution (~83%), while the aluminized silica remained practically unchanged (99%) after passing one liter of the alkaline mobile phase, indicating high stability under alkaline conditions. The C18 bonded aluminized silica phase showed great potential for use in high-performance liquid chromatography to separate basic molecules in the reversed-phase mode. PMID:24521917

  16. Liquid phase catalytic hydrodebromination of tetrabromobisphenol A on supported Pd catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ke; Zheng, Mengjia; Han, Yuxiang; Xu, Zhaoyi; Zheng, Shourong

    2016-07-01

    Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is a widely used brominated flame retardant and reductive debromination is an effective method for the abatement of TBBPA pollution. In this study, Pd catalysts supported on TiO2, CeO2, Al2O3 and SiO2 were prepared by the impregnation (the resulting catalyst denoted as im-Pd/support), deposition-precipitation (the resulting catalyst denoted as dp-Pd/support), and photo-deposition (the resulting catalyst denoted as pd-Pd/support) methods. The catalysts were characterized by N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, measurement of zeta potential, CO chemisorption, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results showed that at an identical Pd loading amount (2.0 wt.%) Pd particle size in dp-Pd/TiO2 was much smaller than those in im-Pd/TiO2 and pd-Pd/TiO2. Pd particle size of the dp-Pd/TiO2 catalyst increased with Pd loading amount. Additionally, Pd particles in the dp-Pd/TiO2 catalysts were positively charged due to the strong metal-support interaction, whereas the cationization effect was gradually attenuated with the increase of Pd loading amount. For the liquid phase catalytic hydrodebromination (HDB) of TBBPA, tri-bromobisphenol A (tri-BBPA), di-bromobisphenol A (di-BBPA), and mono-bromobisphenol A (mono-BBPA) were identified as the intermediate products, indicative of a stepwise debromination process. The catalytic HDB of TBBPA followed the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model, reflecting an adsorption enhanced catalysis mechanism. At an identical Pd loading amount, the Pd catalyst supported on TiO2 exhibited a much higher catalytic activity than those on other supports. Furthermore, dp-Pd/TiO2 was found to be more active than im-Pd/TiO2 and pd-Pd/TiO2.

  17. Advanced Supported Liquid Membranes for Carbon Dioxide Control in Cabin Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickham, David T.; Gleason, Kevin J.; Engel, Jeffrey R.; Chullen, Cinda

    2016-01-01

    The development of new, robust, life support systems is critical to NASA's continued progress in space exploration. One vital function is maintaining the carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in the cabin at levels that do not impair the health or performance of the crew. The CO2 removal assembly (CDRA) is the current CO2 control technology on-board the International Space Station (ISS). Although the CDRA has met the needs of the ISS to date, the repeated cycling of the molecular sieve sorbent causes it to break down into small particles that clog filters or generate dust in the cabin. This reduces reliability and increases maintenance requirements. Another approach that has potential advantages over the current system is a membrane that separates CO2 from air. In this approach, cabin air contacts one side of the membrane while other side of the membrane is maintained at low pressure to create a driving force for CO2 transport across the membrane. In this application, the primary power requirement is for the pump that creates the low pressure and then pumps the CO2 to the oxygen recovery system. For such a membrane to be practical, it must have high CO2 permeation rate and excellent selectivity for CO2 over air. Unfortunately, conventional gas separation membranes do not have adequate CO2 permeability and selectivity to meet the needs of this application. However, the required performance could be obtained with a supported liquid membrane (SLM), which consists of a microporous material filled with a liquid that selectively reacts with CO2 over air. In a recently completed Phase II SBIR project, Reaction Systems, Inc. fabricated an SLM that is very close to meeting permeability and selectivity objectives for use in the advanced space suit portable life support system. This paper describes work carried out to evaluate its potential for use in spacecraft cabin application.

  18. The application of supported liquid extraction in the analysis of benzodiazepines using surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Doctor, Erika L; McCord, Bruce

    2015-11-01

    Benzodiazepines are among the most frequently prescribed medicines for anxiety disorders and are present in many toxicological screens. These drugs are often administered in the commission of drug facilitated sexual assaults due their effects on the central nervous system. Due to the potency of the drugs, only small amounts are usually given to victims; therefore, the target detection limit for these compounds in biological samples has been set at 50 ng/mL. Currently the standard screening method for detection of this class of drug is the immunoassay; however, screening methods that are more sensitive and selective than immunoassays are needed to encompass the wide range of structural variants of this class of compounds. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) can be highly sensitive and has been shown to permit analysis of various benzodiazepines with limits of detection as low as 6 ng/mL. This technique permits analytical results in less than 2 min when used on pure drug samples. For biological samples, a key issue for analysis by SERS is removal of exogenous salts and matrix components. In this paper we examine supported liquid extraction as a useful preparation technique for SERS detection. Supported liquid extraction has many of the benefits of liquid-liquid extraction along with the ability to be automated. This technique provides a fast and clean extraction for benzodiazepines from urine at a pH of 5.0, and does not produce large quantities of solvent waste. To validate this procedure we have determined figures of merit and examined simulated urine samples prepared with commonly appearing interferences. It was shown that at a pH 5.0 many drugs that are prevalent in urine samples can be removed, permitting a selective detection of the benzodiazepine of interest. This technique has been shown to provide rapid (less than 20 min), sensitive, and specific detection of benzodiazepines with limits of detection between 32 and 600 ng/mL and dynamic range of 32

  19. Supported Phospholipid Bilayer Defects Created by a Cation or Anion of a Room-Temperature Ionic Liquid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this work, the independent effects on a supported phospholipid bilayer (SPB) caused by a cation and anion of a room-temperature ionic liquid (RT-IL) were studied via atomic force microscopy (AFM). The supported phospholipid bilayer was composed only of 1,2-dielaidoylphosphatidylcholine (DEPC) an...

  20. Supported liquid membrane-protected molecularly imprinted fibre for solid-phase microextraction of thiabendazole.

    PubMed

    Barahona, Francisco; Turiel, Esther; Martín-Esteban, Antonio

    2011-05-23

    In this work, molecularly imprinted polymer fibres (MIP-fibre) have been prepared and evaluated for solid-phase microextraction (SPME), using thiabendazole (TBZ) as template. Inherent limitations of molecular imprinted polymers, such as target recognition in aqueous media, have been solved with the use of organic supported liquid membrane (SLM) protecting the MI-SPME process. MIP-fibres were located inside a polypropylene hollow capillary and protected by an organic solvent immobilized as a thin SLM in the pores of the capillary wall. The extraction procedure involved two simultaneous processes: liquid phase microextraction using polypropylene hollow fibres (HF-LPME) of the analytes from the sample to an organic acceptor solution through a SLM; and SPME of the analytes from the organic acceptor solution to a MIP-fibre inside the polypropylene capillary. The developed methodology was optimized and applied to the extraction of TBZ form spiked orange juices. Calibration curves showed good linearity in the concentration range under study (0.01-5.00 mg L(-1)) and a regression coefficient better than 0.995 was obtained. The detection limit was 4 μg L(-1), low enough to permit the satisfactory analysis of TBZ in real samples, according to European regulation. Relative standard deviations ranged below 10%, indicating good repeatability. By this manner, the advantages of inherent selectivity of MIP SPME fibres and the enrichment and sample cleanup capability of the HF-LPME have been successfully combined into a single device. PMID:21565306

  1. Some methods of human liquid and solid wastes utilization in bioregenerative life support systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikhomirova, N. A.; Ushakova, S. Á.; Tikhomirov, A. Á.; Zolotukhin, I. G.; Gribovskaya, I. V.; Gros, J. B.

    The possibility of stepwise utilization of human liquid and solid wastes with the purpose of an increase of a closure degree of bioregenerative life support systems BLSS and sodium chloride inclusion in the organic matter turnover was investigated On the first stage urine and faeces were subjected to oxidation by Yu A Kudenko physicochemical method On the next stage the products of human liquid and solid wastes oxidation were used for roots nutrition of wheat grown by substrate culture method Soil-like substrate the technology of which was described earlier was used as a substrate After the wheat cultivation the irrigational solution and the solution obtained in the result of substrate washing containing mineral elements not absorbed by the plants were used for cultivation of salt-tolerant Salicornia europaea plants The above-ground biomass of these vegetables can be used as a food and roots washed from dissoluble mineral elements can be added to the soil-like substrate Four consecutive wheat and Salicornia europaea vegetations were cultivated In the result of this complex technology of wheat and Salicornia europaea cultivation the soil-like substrate salinization by NaCl introduced into the irrigational solution together with the products of urine oxidation has considerably decreased

  2. Life Support Catalyst Regeneration Using Ionic Liquids and In Situ Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abney, Morgan B.; Karr, Laurel J.; Paley, Mark S.; Donovan, David N.; Kramer, Teersa J.

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen recovery from metabolic carbon dioxide is an enabling capability for long-duration manned space flight. Complete recovery of oxygen (100%) involves the production of solid carbon. Catalytic approaches for this purpose, such as Bosch technology, have been limited in trade analyses due in part to the mass penalty for high catalyst resupply caused by carbon fouling of the iron or nickel catalyst. In an effort to mitigate this challenge, several technology approaches have been proposed. These approaches have included methods to prolong the life of the catalysts by increasing the total carbon mass loading per mass catalyst, methods for simplified catalyst introduction and removal to limit the resupply container mass, methods of using in situ resources, and methods to regenerate catalyst material. Research and development into these methods is ongoing, but only use of in situ resources and/or complete regeneration of catalyst material has the potential to entirely eliminate the need for resupply. The use of ionic liquids provides an opportunity to combine these methods in a technology approach designed to eliminate the need for resupply of oxygen recovery catalyst. Here we describe the results of an initial feasibility study using ionic liquids and in situ resources for life support catalyst regeneration, we discuss the key challenges with the approach, and we propose future efforts to advance the technology.

  3. Size stabilization of surface-supported liquid aerosols using tapered optical fiber coupling.

    PubMed

    Karadag, Yasin; Jonáš, Alexandr; Kucukkara, Ibrahim; Kiraz, Alper

    2013-03-01

    We demonstrate long-term size stabilization of surface-supported liquid aerosols of salt-water. Single tapered optical fibers were used to couple the light from independent heating and probe lasers into individual microdroplets that were kept on a superhydrophobic surface in a high-humidity chamber. Size stabilization of microdroplets resulted from competition between resonant absorption of the infrared heating laser by a microdroplet whispering gallery mode and water condensation in the sample chamber. Microdroplet size was continuously monitored using the tunable red probe laser. Thanks to the narrow linewidth of the heating laser, stabilization of the 110 μm radius of a microdroplet with a precision down to 0.54 nm was achieved for a period of 410 s. PMID:23455301

  4. Transport of europium through supported liquid membrane containing dihexyl-N,N-diethyl-carbamoyl-methyl-phosphonate

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, Shigeto; Akiba, Kenichi )

    1989-12-01

    The transport of europium has been studied through a supported liquid membrane (SLM) impregnated with dihexyl-N,N-diethyl-carbamoyl-methyl-phosphonate (CMP). Europium was effectively extracted from the perchlorate solution into SLM, but was insufficiently stripped to a dilute acid solution. The addition of 1-decanol improved the stripping process, and quantitative transport of europium was achieved. By the combination of two SLM systems consisting of diisodecylphosphoric acid and CMP, europium was transported from the feed solution (0.1 M HNO{sub 3}) through the intermediate solution (1 M HClO{sub 4} + 4 M NaClO{sub 4}) to the product solution (0.1 M HNO{sub 3}) and effectively concentrated by a factor of about 20.

  5. Transport of silver(I) ion through a supported liquid membrane using bathocuproine as a carrier

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Takashi

    1998-04-01

    The active transport of silver ions through a supported liquid membrane (SLM) containing bathocuproine (4,7-diphenyl-2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline) as a carrier was investigated under various experimental conditions. The magnitude of the permeation velocity of metallic ions through the SLM was in the order Ag{sup +} > Cd{sup 2+} {much_gt} Zn{sup 2+} > Cu{sup 2+} when nitrite ion was used as the pairing ion species that is cotransported with metallic ion. The permeation velocity of silver(I) ions through an SLM was dependent on the concentrations of the silver ion, bathocuproine, and nitrite ion. An equation for the transport of silver ions, consisting of three important factors, i.e., the concentrations of metallic ion, carrier, and pairing ion species, was derived.

  6. Transport of cadmium(II) ion through a supported liquid membrane containing a bathocuproine

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Takashi )

    1991-12-01

    The active transport of cadmium ions across a supported liquid membrane (SLM) containing a ligand based on a driving force supplied by the concentration gradient of the chloride ion is described. The SLM used is a microporous polypropylene membrane impregnated with a bathocuproine (4,7-diphenyl-2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline) solution in dibenzyl ether as a carrier. The characteristics of the cadmium ion transport system are examined under various experimental conditions. The active transport of cadmium ions through an SLM is dependent on the concentrations of the cadmium ion, ligand, and chloride ion. An equation for the permeation velocity of cadmium ions, consisting of three important factors for this transport system, is proposed.

  7. Computational Fluid Dynamics in Support of the SNS Liquid Mercury Thermal-Hydraulic Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Siman-Tov, M.; Wendel, M.W.; Yoder, G.L.

    1999-11-14

    Experimental and computational thermal-hydraulic research is underway to support the liquid mercury target design for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) facility. The SNS target will be subjected to internal nuclear heat generation that results from pulsed proton beam collisions with the mercury nuclei. Recirculation and stagnation zones within the target are of particular concern because of the likelihood that they will result in local hot spots and diminished heat removal from the target structure. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models are being used as a part of this research. Recent improvements to the 3D target model include the addition of the flow adapter which joins the inlet/outlet coolant pipes to the target body and an updated heat load distribution at the new baseline proton beam power level of 2 MW. Two thermal-hydraulic experiments are planned to validate the CFD model.

  8. Continuous flow hydroformylation using supported ionic liquid phase catalysts with carbon dioxide as a carrier.

    PubMed

    Hintermair, Ulrich; Gong, Zenxing; Serbanovic, Ana; Muldoon, Mark J; Santini, Catherine C; Cole-Hamilton, David J

    2010-09-28

    A supported ionic liquid phase (SILP) catalyst prepared from [PrMIM][Ph(2)P(3-C(6)H(4)SO(3))] (PrMIM = 1-propyl-3-methylimidazolium), [Rh(CO)(2)(acac)] (acacH = 2,4-pentanedione) [OctMIM]NTf(2) (OctMIM = 1-n-octyl-3-methylimidazolium, Tf = CF(3)SO(2)) and microporous silica has been used for the continuous flow hydroformylation of 1-octene in the presence of compressed CO(2). Statistical experimental design was used to show that the reaction rate is neither much affected by the film thickness (IL loading) nor by the syngas:substrate ratio. However, a factor-dependent interaction between the syngas:substrate ratio and film thickness on the reaction rate was revealed. Increasing the substrate flow led to increased reaction rates but lower overall yields. One of the most important parameters proved to be the phase behaviour of the mobile phase, which was studied by varying the reaction pressure. At low CO(2) pressures or when N(2) was used instead of CO(2) rates were low because of poor gas diffusion to the catalytic sites in the SILP. Furthermore, leaching of IL and Rh was high because the substrate is liquid and the IL had been designed to dissolve in it. As the CO(2) pressure was increased, the reaction rate increased and the IL and Rh leaching were reduced, because an expanded liquid phase developed. Due to its lower viscosity the expanded liquid allows better transport of gases to the catalyst and is a poorer solvent for the IL and the catalyst because of its reduced polarity. Above 100 bar (close to the transition to a single phase at 106 bar), the rate of reaction dropped again with increasing pressure because the flowing phase becomes a better and better solvent for the alkene, reducing its partitioning into the IL film. Under optimised conditions, the catalyst was shown to be stable over at least 40 h of continuous catalysis with a steady state turnover frequency (TOF, mol product (mol Rh)(-1)) of 500 h(-1) at low Rh leaching (0.2 ppm). The selectivity of the

  9. Application of supported liquid membranes for removal of uranium from groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Chiarizia, R.; Horwitz, E.P.; Rickert, P.G.; Hodgson, K.M.; Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA )

    1989-01-01

    The separation of uranium from Hanford site groundwater as studied by hollow-fiber supported liquid membranes, SLM. The carrier bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)phosphinic acid, H(DTMPep), contained in the commercial extractant Cyanex{trademark} 272 was used as a membrane carrier, because of its selectivity for U over calcium and magnesium. The water soluble complexing agent, 1-hydroxyethane-1,1-diphosphonic acid, HEDPA, was used as stripping agent. Polypropylene hollow-fibers and n-dodecane were used as polymeric support and diluent, respectively. Laboratory scale hollow-fiber modules were employed in a recycling mode, using as feed synthetic groundwater at pH 2, to confirm the capability of the proposed SLM system to separate and concentrate U(VI) in the strip solution. Information was obtained on the U(VI) concentration factor and on the long-term performance of the SLMs. Encouraging results were obtained both with a conventional module and with a module containing a carrier solution reservoir. Industrial scale modules were used at Hanford to test the SLM separation of U(VI) from real contaminated groundwater. The uranium concentration was reduced from approximately 3500 ppB to about 1 ppB in a few hours. 9 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Some methods for human liquid and solid waste utilization in bioregenerative life-support systems.

    PubMed

    Ushakova, S A; Zolotukhin, I G; Tikhomirov, A A; Tikhomirova, N A; Kudenko, Yu A; Gribovskaya, I V; Balnokin, Yu; Gros, J B

    2008-12-01

    Bioregenerative life-support systems (BLSS) are studied for developing the technology for a future biological life-support system for long-term manned space missions. Ways to utilize human liquid and solid wastes to increase the closure degree of BLSS were investigated. First, urine and faeces underwent oxidation by Kudenko's physicochemical method. The products were then used for root nutrition of wheat grown by the soil-like substrate culture method. Two means of eliminating sodium chloride, introduced into the irrigation solution together with the products of urine oxidation, were investigated. The first was based on routine electrodialysis of irrigation water at the end of wheat vegetation. Dialysis eliminated about 50% of Na from the solution. This desalinization was performed for nine vegetations. The second method was new: after wheat cultivation, the irrigation solution and the solution obtained by washing the substrate containing mineral elements not absorbed by the plants were used to grow salt-tolerant Salicornia europaea L. plants (saltwort). The above-ground biomass of this plant can be used as a food, and roots can be added to the soil-like substrate. Four consecutive wheat and Salicornia vegetations were cultivated. As a result of this wheat and Salicornia cultivation process, the soil-like substrate salinization by NaCl were considerably decreased. PMID:18581263

  11. Silica-particle-supported zwitterionic polymer monolith for microcolumn liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    An, Ran; Weng, Qianfeng; Li, Jinxiang

    2014-10-01

    A silica-particle-supported zwitterionic polymeric monolithic column, shortened as supported column (S-column), was prepared by the in situ polymerization of methacrylic acid, ethylene dimethacrylate, and 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate in the presence of a ternary porogenic solvent containing water, methanol, and cyclohexanol in a 250 μm id fused-silica capillary prepacked with 5 μm bare silica particles. In the S-column, a thin layer of the polymers was formed around the silica particles in the form of nanoglobules, leaving the interstitial spaces between the particles free for liquid flow. The effects of the preparation conditions on the morphology of the monolith were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and backpressure measurements. The selected volumetric ratio of porogens, monomer concentration, polymerization time, and temperature are 1:1:8 (water/methanol/cyclohexanol), 25% v/v, 5 h, and 60°C, respectively. The S-column was evaluated by comparison with its conventional organic counterpart in terms of morphology, mechanical stability, permeability, swelling-shrinking behavior, capacity, and efficiency. The results demonstrate that the S-column is superior to its counterpart in all the terms with the exception of permeability. The above merits and zwitterionic property of the S-column were further confirmed by separate separations of four inorganic anions and three organic cations. PMID:25044794

  12. Glycine enhanced separation of Co(II) and Ni(II) with bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)phosphinic acid (Cyanex 272) by liquid-liquid extraction and supported liquid membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Reichley-Yinger, L.; Danesi, P.R.

    1985-01-01

    The extraction behavior of Co and Ni ions from aqueous nitrate solution containing glycine, and their separation by liquid-liquid extraction and supported liquid membranes (SLMs) has been studied. The separation factor between the two metals is greatly enhanced by the presence of glycine. The enhancement is due to the preferential complexation of the Ni ions by glycine. The conditional equilibrium constants of the extraction reactions and the SLM permeability coefficients have been measured. The results indicate that metal glycinate complexes are not extracted and that in presence of glycine very clean Co-Ni separation can be obtained in a single SLM pass.

  13. Direct determination of chlorophenols present in liquid samples by using a supported liquid membrane coupled in-line with capillary electrophoresis equipment.

    PubMed

    Almeda, S; Nozal, L; Arce, L; Valcárcel, M

    2007-03-21

    Actually there is a great trend on the development of effective analytical methods for monitoring trace levels of various phenols which can indicate, among others compounds, the water quality. A simple, inexpensive supported liquid membrane (SLM) device was used in combination with commercially available capillary electrophoresis (CE) equipment for the direct determination of chlorophenols in surface water samples. The manifold was used simultaneously to extract and preconcentrate the analytes from liquid samples. In the extraction set-up, the donor phase (4 mL) was placed in the CE vial, where a micro-membrane extraction unit (MMEU) accommodating the acceptor phase (100 microL) in its lumen was immersed. The supported liquid membrane was constructed by impregnating a porous Fluoropore Teflon (PTFE) membrane with a water-immiscible organic solvent (dihexyl ether). The extraction process was optimized with regard to the pH of the donor and acceptor phases, membrane liquid, extraction time and voltage applied to the inlet or outlet vial during extraction. The chlorinated phenols pentachlorophenol (PCP), 2,3,6 trichlorophenol (TCP) and 2,6 dichlorophenol (DCP) were thus efficiently separated by CE, using tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (Tris) and an NaH(2)PO(4) solution containing 1% (v/v) methanol at pH 10.5 as running buffer. PMID:17386759

  14. An electrochemical gas sensor based on paper supported room temperature ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Dossi, Nicolò; Toniolo, Rosanna; Pizzariello, Andrea; Carrilho, Emanuel; Piccin, Evandro; Battiston, Simone; Bontempelli, Gino

    2012-01-01

    A sensitive and fast-responding membrane-free amperometric gas sensor is described, consisting of a small filter paper foil soaked with a room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL), upon which three electrodes are screen printed with carbon ink, using a suitable mask. It takes advantage of the high electrical conductivity and negligible vapour pressure of RTILs as well as their easy immobilization into a porous and inexpensive supporting material such as paper. Moreover, thanks to a careful control of the preparation procedure, a very close contact between the RTIL and electrode material can be achieved so as to allow gaseous analytes to undergo charge transfer just as soon as they reach the three-phase sites where the electrode material, paper supported RTIL and gas phase meet. Thus, the adverse effect on recorded currents of slow steps such as analyte diffusion and dissolution in a solvent is avoided. To evaluate the performance of this device, it was used as a wall-jet amperometric detector for flow injection analysis of 1-butanethiol vapours, adopted as the model gaseous analyte, present in headspace samples in equilibrium with aqueous solutions at controlled concentrations. With this purpose, the RTIL soaked paper electrochemical detector (RTIL-PED) was assembled by using 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide as the wicking RTIL and printing the working electrode with carbon ink doped with cobalt(II) phthalocyanine, to profit from its ability to electrocatalyze thiol oxidation. The results obtained were quite satisfactory (detection limit: 0.5 μM; dynamic range: 2-200 μM, both referring to solution concentrations; correlation coefficient: 0.998; repeatability: ±7% RSD; long-term stability: 9%), thus suggesting the possible use of this device for manifold applications. PMID:22076475

  15. Extraction of phenol using sulfuric acid salts of trioctylamine in a supported liquid membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, M.L.; Hu, K.H. )

    1994-04-01

    The extraction of phenol by trioctylamine sulfate salts in a supported-liquid membrane (SLM) process was investigated. In the extraction process, a transport model, which included the film diffusion of phenol in the aqueous phase, the membrane diffusion within the SLM, and the interfacial chemical reaction, was built. The experimental parameters, such as the cell constant ([beta]), the diffusivity of (TOA)[sub 2]H[sub 2]SO[sub 4][center dot]PhOH in the SLM (D[sub c,b]), and the mass-transfer coefficient of phenol in the aqueous solution (K[sub L]), were determined from experiments. On the basis of the experimental data and the results obtained from the transport model, the rate-controlling step of the extraction of phenol by an SLM during permeation is discussed. The effects of the operating variables and parameters, such as the initial concentration of phenol in the aqueous phase, sulfuric acid, sodium hydroxide, and trioctylamine sulfate salts, on the extraction of phenol were examined.

  16. Supported liquid membrane system for Cr(III) separation from Cr(III)/Cr(VI) mixtures.

    PubMed

    Religa, P; Rajewski, J; Gierycz, P; Swietlik, R

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of analyses of the chromium(III) transport process from mixtures of Cr(III)/Cr(VI) ions using supported liquid membranes (SLM), in which dinonylnaphthalene sulfonic acid (DNNSA) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) were used as carriers. In both cases the membrane worked as a selective barrier for Cr(VI) ions. The increase in both the time of Cr(VI) ions-carrier interaction and the Cr(VI) concentration in the feed phase negatively influenced the Cr(III) separation. The polarizing layer consisting of Cr(VI) ions prevents the access of Cr(III) ions to the inter phase surface and leads to the deactivation of the carrier, which is the result of the strong oxidation properties of Cr(VI) ions. These factors meant that, in the case of the membrane with DNNSA, the membrane could not be used for the effective separation of Cr(III) from the Cr(III)/Cr(VI) mixture. On the other hand, the membrane with D2EHPA can be used for fast and efficient transport of Cr(III) ions, but only for strictly defined process parameters, i.e. where the level of chromium(VI) concentration is below 10(-3)M and with intensive feed phase mixing. PMID:24960010

  17. Troponin T immunosensor based on liquid crystal and silsesquioxane-supported gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zapp, Eduardo; da Silva, Paulo Sérgio; Westphal, Eduard; Gallardo, Hugo; Spinelli, Almir; Vieira, Iolanda Cruz

    2014-09-17

    A nanostructured immunosensor based on the liquid crystal (E)-1-decyl-4-[(4-decyloxyphenyl)diazenyl]pyridinium bromide (Br-Py) and gold nanoparticles supported by the water-soluble hybrid material 3-n-propyl-4-picolinium silsesquioxane chloride (AuNP-Si4Pic(+)Cl(-)) was built for the detection of troponin T (cTnT), a cardiac marker for acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The functionalized nanostructured surface was used to bind anti-cTnT monoclonal antibodies through electrostatic interaction. The immunosensor (ab-cTnT/AuNP-Si4Pic(+)Cl(-)/Br-Py/GCE) surface was characterized by microscopy techniques. The electrochemical behavior of the immunosensor was studied by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. A calibration curve was obtained by square-wave voltammetry. The immnunosensor provided a limit of detection of 0.076 ng mL(-1) and a linear range between 0.1 and 0.9 ng mL(-1) (appropriate for AMI diagnosis). PMID:25111622

  18. An Efficient, Versatile, and Safe Access to Supported Metallic Nanoparticles on Porous Silicon with Ionic Liquids.

    PubMed

    Darwich, Walid; Haumesser, Paul-Henri; Santini, Catherine C; Gaillard, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    The metallization of porous silicon (PSi) is generally realized through physical vapor deposition (PVD) or electrochemical processes using aqueous solutions. The former uses a strong vacuum and does not allow for a conformal deposition into the pores. In the latter, the water used as solvent causes oxidation of the silicon during the reduction of the salt precursors. Moreover, as PSi is hydrophobic, the metal penetration into the pores is restricted to the near-surface region. Using a solution of organometallic (OM) precursors in ionic liquid (IL), we have developed an easy and efficient way to fully metallize the pores throughout the several-µm-thick porous Si. This process affords supported metallic nanoparticles characterized by a narrow size distribution. This process is demonstrated for different metals (Pt, Pd, Cu, and Ru) and can probably be extended to other metals. Moreover, as no reducing agent is necessary (the decomposition in an argon atmosphere at 50 °C is fostered by surface silicon hydride groups borne by PSi), the safety and the cost of the process are improved. PMID:27271608

  19. Carbon-supported ionic liquids as innovative adsorbents for CO₂ separation from synthetic flue-gas.

    PubMed

    Erto, Alessandro; Silvestre-Albero, Ana; Silvestre-Albero, Joaquín; Rodríguez-Reinoso, Francisco; Balsamo, Marco; Lancia, Amedeo; Montagnaro, Fabio

    2015-06-15

    Fixed-bed thermodynamic CO2 adsorption tests were performed in model flue-gas onto Filtrasorb 400 and Nuchar RGC30 activated carbons (AC) functionalized with [Hmim][BF4] and [Emim][Gly] ionic liquids (IL). A comparative analysis of the CO2 capture results and N2 porosity characterization data evidenced that the use of [Hmim][BF4], a physical solvent for carbon dioxide, ended up into a worsening of the parent AC capture performance, due to a dominating pore blocking effect at all the operating temperatures. Conversely, the less sterically-hindered and amino acid-based [Emim][Gly] IL was effective in increasing the AC capture capacity at 353 K under milder impregnation conditions, the beneficial effect being attributed to both its chemical affinity towards CO2 and low pore volume reduction. The findings derived in this work outline interesting perspectives for the application of amino acid-based IL supported onto activated carbons for CO2 separation under post-combustion conditions, and future research efforts should be focused on the search for AC characterized by optimal pore size distribution and surface properties for IL functionalization. PMID:25710387

  20. An Efficient, Versatile, and Safe Access to Supported Metallic Nanoparticles on Porous Silicon with Ionic Liquids

    PubMed Central

    Darwich, Walid; Haumesser, Paul-Henri; Santini, Catherine C.; Gaillard, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    The metallization of porous silicon (PSi) is generally realized through physical vapor deposition (PVD) or electrochemical processes using aqueous solutions. The former uses a strong vacuum and does not allow for a conformal deposition into the pores. In the latter, the water used as solvent causes oxidation of the silicon during the reduction of the salt precursors. Moreover, as PSi is hydrophobic, the metal penetration into the pores is restricted to the near-surface region. Using a solution of organometallic (OM) precursors in ionic liquid (IL), we have developed an easy and efficient way to fully metallize the pores throughout the several-µm-thick porous Si. This process affords supported metallic nanoparticles characterized by a narrow size distribution. This process is demonstrated for different metals (Pt, Pd, Cu, and Ru) and can probably be extended to other metals. Moreover, as no reducing agent is necessary (the decomposition in an argon atmosphere at 50 °C is fostered by surface silicon hydride groups borne by PSi), the safety and the cost of the process are improved. PMID:27271608

  1. Compatibility of lyotropic liquid crystals with viruses and mammalian cells that support the replication of viruses.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Li-Lin; Luk, Yan-Yeung; Murphy, Christopher J; Israel, Barbara A; Abbott, Nicholas L

    2005-12-01

    We report a study that investigates the biocompatibility of materials that form lyotropic liquid crystals (LCs) with viruses and mammalian cells that support the replication of viruses. This study is focused on aqueous solutions of tetradecyldimethyl-amineoxide (C(14)AO) and decanol (D), or disodium cromoglycate (DSCG; C(23)H(14)O(11)Na(2)), which can form optically birefringent, liquid crystalline phases. The influence of these materials on the ability of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) to infect human epitheloid cervical carcinoma (HeLa) cells was examined by two approaches. First, VSV was dispersed in aqueous C(14)AO+ D or DSCG, and then HeLa cells were inoculated by contacting the cells with the aqueous C(14)AO + D or DSCG containing VSV. The infectivity of VSV to the HeLa cells was subsequently determined. Second, VSV was incubated in LC phases of either C(14)AO + D or DSCG for 4 h, and the concentration (titer) of infectious virus in the LC was determined by dilution into cell culture medium and subsequent inoculation of HeLa cells. Using these approaches, we found that the LC containing C(14)AO + D caused inactivation of virus as well as cell death. In contrast, we determined that VSV retained its infectivity in the presence of aqueous DSCG, and that greater than 74-82% of the HeLa cells survived contact with aqueous DSCG (depending on concentration of DSCG). Because VSV maintained its function (and we infer structure) in LCs formed from DSCG, we further explored the influence of the virus on the ordering of the LC. Whereas the LC formed from DSCG was uniformly aligned on surfaces prepared from self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of HS(CH(2))(11)(OCH(2)CH(2))(4)OH on obliquely deposited films of gold in the absence of VSV, the introduction of 10(7)-10(8) infectious virus particles per milliliter caused the LC to assume a non-uniform orientation and a colorful appearance that was readily distinguished from the uniformly aligned LCs. Control experiments using

  2. Selective removal and recovery of Black B reactive dye from simulated textile wastewater using the supported liquid membrane process.

    PubMed

    Harruddin, Norlisa; Othman, Norasikin; Ee Sin, Andeline Lim; Raja Sulaiman, Raja Norimie

    2015-01-01

    Effluent containing colour/dyes, especially reactive dyes, becomes a great concern of wastewater treatment because it is toxic to human life and aquatic life. In this study, reactive dye of Black B was separated using the supported liquid membrane process. Commercial polypropylene membrane was used as a support of the kerosene-tridodecylamine liquid membrane. Several parameters were tested and the result showed that almost 100% of 70 ppm Black B was removed and 99% of 70 ppm Black B was recovered at pH 2 of the feed phase containing 0.00001 M Na2SiO3, flow rate of 150 ml/min and 0.2 M NaOH. The membrane support also remained stable for up to 36 hours under an optimum condition. PMID:25514128

  3. Brucella TIR-like protein TcpB/Btp1 specifically targets the host adaptor protein MAL/TIRAP to promote infection.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenna; Ke, Yuehua; Wang, Yufei; Yang, Mingjuan; Gao, Junguang; Zhan, Shaoxia; Xinying, Du; Huang, Liuyu; Li, Wenfeng; Chen, Zeliang; Li, Juan

    2016-08-26

    Brucella spp. are known to avoid host immune recognition and weaken the immune response to infection. Brucella like accomplish this by employing two clever strategies, called the stealth strategy and hijacking strategy. The TIR domain-containing protein (TcpB/Btp1) of Brucella melitensis is thought to be involved in inhibiting host NF-κB activation by binding to adaptors downstream of Toll-like receptors. However, of the five TIR domain-containing adaptors conserved in mammals, whether MyD88 or MAL, even other three adaptors, are specifically targeted by TcpB has not been identified. Here, we confirmed the effect of TcpB on B.melitensis virulence in mice and found that TcpB selectively targets MAL. By using siRNA against MAL, we found that TcpB from B.melitensis is involved in intracellular survival and that MAL affects intracellular replication of B.melitensis. Our results confirm that TcpB specifically targets MAL/TIRAP to disrupt downstream signaling pathways and promote intra-host survival of Brucella spp. PMID:27311859

  4. Modeling of the mass transfer rates of metal ions across supported liquid membranes. 2: Comparison between theory and experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Elhassadi, A.A.; Do, D.D.

    1999-02-01

    The model equations developed in Part 1 were tested using experimental data reported in the literature and produced in this work. It was found that uranium(VI) and thorium(IV) can be selectively separated and concentrated using supported liquid membranes. Depending on the way the liquid membranes are designed, the selectivity toward a specific metal can be predetermined. The effect of the ratio of the effective diffusivity to bulk diffusivity in free solution was found to behave with the same characteristic of systems of preferentially adsorbed solutes.

  5. Interaction of an ionic liquid with a supported phospholipid bilayer is lipid-dependent

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Liquid salts, commonly called ionic liquids, are used as solvents to conduct transformation of vegetable oils into new products. These reactions are often catalyzed via immobilized enzymes. However, some enzymes were found to lose activity and are in need of some protection. Phospholipid bilayers...

  6. Transport of chromium(VI) through a supported liquid membrane containing tri-n-octylphosphine oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, T.C.; Huang, C.C.; Chen, D.H.

    1998-09-01

    In this study the transport of chromium(VI) from aqueous solutions of pH 2--4 through a supported liquid membrane (SLM) with tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) dissolved in kerosene as a mobile carrier was investigated. The transport flux of Cr(VI) increased with an increase in the concentrations of Cr(VI) in the feed phase and of TOPO in the membrane phase, but with a decrease in pH of the feed phase. Considering the equilibria of various Cr(VI) species in the aqueous phase and of the Cr(VI)-TOPO complexes formed in the membrane phase, a permeation model including the aqueous film diffusion of HCrO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} and Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7}{sup 2{minus}} toward the membrane, the interfacial chemical reaction between them and TOPO, and the membrane diffusion of the Cr(VI)-TOPO complexes ({ovr H{sub 2}CrO{sub 4}{center_dot}(TOPO)} and {ovr H{sub 2}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7}{center_dot}(TOPO){sub 3}}) was proposed to describe the transport of Cr(VI) through the SLM. By best fitting the transport flux equations of Cr(VI) with the experimental data using the Rosenbrock method, the apparent mass-transfer coefficients of HCrO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} and Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7}{sup 2{minus}} across the aqueous film, and those of {ovr H{sub 2}CrO{sub 4}{center_dot}(TOPO)} and {ovr H{sub 2}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7}{center_dot}(TOPO){sub 3}} across the membrane phase, were obtained. This work helps to clarify the transport mechanism of Cr(VI) through an SLM.

  7. Microextraction of mebendazole across supported liquid membrane forced by pH gradient and electrical field.

    PubMed

    Eskandari, Mahboube; Yamini, Yadollah; Fotouhi, Lida; Seidi, Shahram

    2011-04-01

    In the present study, extraction of mebendazole across a supported-liquid membrane (SLM) was performed based on two different driving forces: (1) pH gradient over the SLM, and (2) electrical field sustained over the SLM. The extracted drug concentration was studied using reversed-phase HPLC-UV. At passive extraction conditions, mebendazole was extracted from alkaline samples (0.01 mmol L(-1) NaOH) into 1-undecanol immobilized in the pores of a porous hollow fiber of polypropylene (SLM), and then transported into 25 μL of 100mM HCl as the acceptor solution. Under electrokinetic migration conditions, mebendazole transported under applied voltage from acidic solutions (100 mmol L(-1) HCl) through 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE) immobilized in the pores of hollow fiber, into 25 μL of 100 mmol L(-1) HCl as the acceptor solution. The effects of several factors including the nature of organic solvent, pH of donor and acceptor solutions, extraction time and stirring speed on the extraction efficiency of the drug were investigated and optimized. Under optimal conditions, preconcentration factors (PF) of 211 and 190 were obtained for the drug based on passive transport and electromembrane extraction (EME), respectively. Also, linear range of 0.5-1000 μg L(-1) with estimation of coefficient higher than 0.994 was obtained for both of the proposed methods. The results showed that EME has higher speed in comparison with simple passive transport. The methods were successfully applied to extract mebendazole from plasma and urine samples and satisfactory results were obtained. PMID:21211924

  8. The behaviour of peptides on reverse-phase supports during high-pressure liquid chromatography.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, K J; Honegger, A; Stötzel, R P; Hughes, G J

    1981-01-01

    High-pressure ('performance') liquid chromatography has been used to investigate the reverse-phase chromatographic behaviour of peptides, ranging in length from 2 to 65 amino acid residues, which have originated from primary-sequence determinations or solution/solid-phase syntheses. By using a pyridine/formate-pyridine/acetate/propan-1-ol buffer system, as previously described [Hughes, Winterhalter & Wilson (1979) FEBS Lett. 108, 81-86], the influence of various experimental parameters were examined. (a) Peptide retention was observed to be temperature-independent between 25 and 55 degrees C. (b) The dependence of chromatographic retention on pH decreases with increasing peptide hydrophobicity. (c) Chromatographic results from C8- and C18-chain-length, as well as from 5 micrometers- and 10 micrometers-particle-size, supports were comparable. (d) The hydrophobic strength of the organic solvent in the mobile phase was observed to decrease: propan-1-ol approximately equal to propan-2-ol greater than acetonitrile much greater than methanol. (e) When gradient rates (% of buffer B/unit time) were systematically decreased, peptide retention decreased in a hyperbolic manner. Comparisons of the peptides chromatographed with respect to their measured retention properties and calculated hydrophobicities were performed by computer analysis. Deviation of peptide chromatographic behaviour was observed to be essentially independent of hydrophobicity, chain length and charge. On the basis of the measured retention properties of the chromatographed peptides, hydrophobic constants for the various amino acid side chains were determined and compared with similar constants available from the literature. PMID:7337711

  9. Liquid phase methanol LaPorte Process Development Unit: Modification, operation, and support studies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-02-28

    The LPMEOH process was conceived and patented by Chem Systems Inc. in 1975. Initial research and studies on the process focused on two distinct modes of operation. The first was a liquid fluidized mode with relatively large catalyst pellets suspended in a fluidizing liquid, and the second was an entrained (slurry) mode with fine catalyst particles slurried in an inert liquid. The development of both operating modes progressed in parallel from bench scale reactors, through an intermediate scale lab PDU, and then to the LaPorte PDU in 1984. The slurry mode of operation was ultimately chosen as the operating mode of choice due to its superior performance.

  10. Permeation rate of metal species through supported liquid membranes: diffusional and chemical resistances with cationic and anionic carriers

    SciTech Connect

    Danesi, P.R.; Horwitz, E.P.; Rickert, P.G.

    1983-01-01

    Facilitated transport by means of a mobile carrier in an organic diluent and adsorbed on a polymeric film, through supported liquid membranes (SLM), is a new method for the separation and recovery of metal ions. A permeability coefficient equation for this transport was tested. The facilitated transport of Cu/sup 2 +/ and Fe/sup 3 +/ ions through a SLM was characterized with respect to the membrane resistance. Transport of Am/sup 3 +/ through a SLM was also characterized. (DLC)

  11. Poly(ionic liquid) complex with spontaneous micro-/mesoporosity: template-free synthesis and application as catalyst support.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qiang; Zhang, Pengfei; Antonietti, Markus; Yuan, Jiayin

    2012-07-25

    A facile, template-free synthetic route is reported toward poly(ionic liquid) complexes (PILCs) which for the first time exhibit stable micro-/mesoporous structure. This is accomplished via in situ ionic complexation between imidazolium-based PILs and poly(acrylic acid) in various alkaline organic solvents. The PILC can be highly loaded with copper salts and can be used as a catalytic support for effective aerobic oxidation of activated hydrocarbons under mild conditions. PMID:22780888

  12. Multiresidue determination of sulfonamides in a variety of biological matrices by supported liquid membrane with high pressure liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry detection.

    PubMed

    Msagati, Titus A M; Nindi, Mathew Muzi

    2004-09-01

    A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to a mass spectrometer (MS) was used for a simultaneous determination of 16 sulfonamide compounds spiked in water, urine, milk, and bovine liver and kidney tissues. Supported liquid membrane (SLM) made up of 5% tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) dissolved in hexyl amine was used as a sample clean-up and/or enrichment technique. The sulfonamides mixture was made up of 5-sulfaminouracil, sulfaguanidine, sulfamethoxazole, sulfamerazine, sulfamethizole, sulfamethazine (sulfadimidine), sulfacetamide, sulfapyridine, sulfabenzamide, sulfamethoxypyridazine, sulfamonomethoxine, sulfadimethoxine sulfasalazine, sulfaquinoxaline, sulfadiazine, and sulfathiazole. Some of these compounds, such as, sulfaquinoxaline, sulfadiazine, sulfabenzamide, sulfathiazole and sulfapyridine failed to be trapped efficiently by the same liquid membrane (5% TOPO in hexylamine). The detection limits (DL) obtained were 1.8ppb for sulfaguanidine and sulfamerazine and between 3.3 and 10ppb in bovine liver and kidney tissues for the other sulfonamides that were successfully enriched with SLM; 2.1ppb for sulfaguanidine and sulfamerazine and between 7.5 and 15ppb in cow's urine, whereas the DL values in milk were 12.4ppb for sulfaguanidine and sulfamerazine and between 16.8 and 24.3 for the other compounds that were successfully enriched by the membrane. Several factors affecting the extraction efficiency during SLM enrichment, such as donor pH, acceptor pH, enrichment time and the membrane solvent were studied. PMID:18969572

  13. Polymeric ionic liquid and carbon black composite as a reusable supporting electrolyte: modification of the electrode surface.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Seung Joon; Li, Long-Ji; Zeng, Cheng-Chu; Little, R Daniel

    2015-03-16

    One of the major impediments to using electroorganic synthesis is the need for large amounts of a supporting electrolyte to ensure the passage of charge. Frequently this causes separation and waste problems. To address these issues, a polymeric ionic liquid-Super P carbon black composite has been formulated. The system enables electrolyses to be performed without adding an additional supporting electrolyte, and its efficient recovery and reuse. In addition, the ability of the composite to modify the electrode surface in situ leads to improved kinetics. A practical consequence is that one can decrease catalyst loading without sacrificing efficiency. PMID:25619992

  14. Urine sample preparation of tricyclic antidepressants by means of a supported liquid membrane technique for high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis.

    PubMed

    Trocewicz, J

    2004-03-01

    Supported liquid membrane (SLM) technique for sample work-up and enrichment was used for determination of tricyclic antidepressant drugs in urine by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV detection. The studied antidepressant drugs were amitriptyline, opipramol, noxiptyline and additionally diethazine was used as possible internal standard. Alkaline phosphoric buffer with urine sample, as the donor solution, was passed over the liquid membrane into which investigated substances were extracted. On the other side of the membrane, analyzed compounds were trapped due to creating non-extractable form in acidic acceptor solution. Enriched and cleaned up drugs were then injected into a HPLC system with ultraviolet detection to analyze of their concentration in acceptor solution. Optimum extraction efficiency was determined by changing acceptor and donor solutions pH, application of different flow rates of donor solution and by using different solvents in the membrane. Also, donor solution volume, extraction time and concentration of analytes were varied to check the linearity of extraction process. The highest extraction efficiency: 43% for opipramol, 56% for noxiptyline, 43% for amitriptyline and 42% for diethazine (R.S.D. values were <6% and n=3) was achieved when 0.05 M phosphate buffer pH 4.0 and 9.5 were used as donor and acceptor solutions, respectively, n-undecane with 5% tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) was used as liquid membrane. Limit of quantification (LOQ) for tricyclic antidepressants after enrichment of 100ml of urine sample was about 1 ng/ml. PMID:14751789

  15. Interaction of a microsphere with a solid-supported liquid film.

    PubMed

    Ally, Javed; Vittorias, Ewa; Amirfazli, A; Kappl, Michael; Bonaccurso, Elmar; McNamee, Cathy E; Butt, Hans-Jürgen

    2010-07-20

    The interaction between particles with thin liquid films on solid surfaces was studied by sintering polystyrene microspheres of 4 to 5 microm diameter to the end of atomic force microscope cantilevers. Films of three silicone oils (viscosity 4.6, 9.2, and 9700 mPa s) and water of thickness 0.2-1.8 microm were formed on glass. The interaction between a particle and the film was measured at different particle approach/retraction velocities. The interaction is dominated by capillary and hydrodynamic forces. It depends on the surface tension and the viscosity of the liquid. The film thickness can be determined from the force curves. In addition, the meniscus formation of a film wetting a particle was demonstrated experimentally by solidifying a liquid polystyrene film as it wetted glass particles. PMID:20568819

  16. A promising method of liquid separation in orbital station's life support systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapitsa Anna, A.

    2012-11-01

    A combined method of liquid separation from a gas-liquid flow is presented based on an analysis of existing methods of separation and experience gained from the Russian space stations Salut, Mir and the International Space Station. This method combines the advantages of both water-holding materials and semi-permeable membranes. The paper describes an actual device as well as laboratory test results for materials and the separator. The separator described has successfully been in experimental operation on the ISS since the 1st of September 2009.

  17. Piping support system for liquid-metal fast-breeder reactor

    DOEpatents

    Brussalis, Jr., William G.

    1984-01-01

    A pipe support consisting of a rigid link pivotally attached to a pipe and an anchor, adapted to generate stress or strain in the link and pipe due to pipe thermal movement, which stress or strain can oppose further pipe movement and generally provides pipe support. The pipe support can be used in multiple combinations with other pipe supports to form a support system. This support system is most useful in applications in which the pipe is normally operated at a constant elevated or depressed temperature such that desired stress or strain can be planned in advance of pipe and support installation. The support system is therefore especially useful in steam stations and in refrigeration equipment.

  18. Monitoring of N-methyl carbamate pesticide residues in water using hollow fibre supported liquid membrane and solid phase extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Msagati, Titus A. M.; Mamba, Bhekie B.

    The aim of this work was to develop a method for the determination of N-methyl carbamates in water involving hollow fibre supported liquid membrane (HFSLM) and solid phase extraction (SPE) as sample preparation methods. Four N-methyl carbamate pesticides, aldicarb, carbaryl, carbofuran and methiocarb sulfoxide, were simultaneously extracted and analysed by a liquid chromatograph with a diode array detector (LC-UV/DAD) and a liquid chromatograph coupled to a ion trap quadrupole mass spectrometer (LC-ESI-MS). The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation of carabamate extracts was performed on a C18 column with water-acetonitrile as the mobile phase. The mass spectrometry analyses were carried out in the positive mode, operating under both the selected ion monitoring (SIM) and full scan modes. The solid phase recoveries of the extracts ranged between 8% and 98%, with aldicarb having the highest recoveries, followed by carbaryl, carbofuran and methiocarb had the lowest recovery. The HFSLM recovery ranged between 8% and 58% and the order of recovery was similar to the SPE trend. Factors controlling the efficiency of the HFSLM extraction such as sample pH, stripping phase pH, enrichment time, stirring speed as well as organic solvent used for entrapment of analytes, were optimised to achieve the highest enrichment factors.

  19. Buildings R&D Breakthroughs: Technologies and Products Supported by the Building Technologies Program

    SciTech Connect

    Weakley, Steven A.

    2012-04-15

    The purpose of the project described in this report is to identify and characterize commercially available products and emerging (near-commercial) technologies that benefited from the support of the Building Technologies Program (BTP) within the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The investigation specifically focused on technology-oriented research and development (R&D) projects funded by BTP’s Emerging Technologies subprogram from 2005-2011.

  20. Buildings R&D Breakthroughs. Technologies and Products Supported by the Building Technologies Program

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2012-04-01

    This report identifies and characterizes commercially available products and emerging (near-commercial) technologies that benefited from the support of the Building Technologies Program (BTP) within the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The investigation specifically focused on technology-oriented research and development (R&D) projects sponsored by BTP’s Emerging Technologies subprogram from 2005-2009.

  1. Effects of Silica Nanoparticle Supported Ionic Liquid as Additive on Thermal Reversibility of Human Carbonic Anhydrase II

    PubMed Central

    Fallahbagheri, Azadeh; Saboury, Ali Akbar; Ma'mani, Leila; Taghizadeh, Mohammad; Khodarahmi, Reza; Ranjbar, Samira; Bohlooli, Mousa; Shafiee, Abbas; Foroumadi, Alireza; Sheibani, Nader; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar

    2013-01-01

    Silica nanoparticle supported imidazolium ionic liquid [SNImIL] was synthesized and utilized as a biocompatible additive for studying the thermal reversibility of human carbonic anhydrase II (HCA II). For this purpose, we prepared additive by modification of nanoparticles through the grafting of ionic liquids on the surface of nanoparticles (SNImIL). The SNImIL were fully characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and thermo gravimetric analysis. The characterization of HCA II was investigated by various techniques including UV–Vis and ANS fluorescence spectrophotometry, differential scanning calorimetry, and docking study. SNImIL induced disaggregation, enhanced protein stability and increased thermal reversibility of HCA II by up to 42% at pH 7.75. PMID:22829053

  2. Hollow fiber-supported designer ionic liquid sponges for post-combustion CO2 scrubbing

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, JS; Hillesheim, PC; Huang, DK; Lively, RP; Oh, KH; Dai, S; Koros, WJ

    2012-11-30

    A proof of concept study for a new type of carbon capture system is considered for post-combustion CO2 capture based on porous hollow fiber sorbents with ionic liquids sorbed in the cell walls of the fiber. This study proves that delicate morphological features in the open-celled porous wall can be maintained during the infusion process. Mixtures of task specific ionic liquid (i.e. [BMIM][Tf2N]) and superbase (i.e. DBU) were loaded into polyamide-imide (PAI) fibers by a so-called two-step non-solvent infusion protocol. In the protocol, methanol carries ionic liquids into the pore cell walls of hollow fibers and then hexane carries superbase to create an efficient CO2 sorbent. Our ionic liquid/superbase impregnation technique overcomes a serious increase in mass transfer resistance upon reaction with CO2, thereby allowing its large scale utilization for post-combustion CO2 capture. The investigation on the effect of different pore former additives (different molecular weights of polyvinylpyrrolidone, lithium nitrate, and their mixtures) suggested that a large molecular weight of PVP (M-w; 1300k) including dope composition produces highly interconnected open cell pore structures of PAI hollow fibers. Lastly, a lumen side barrier layer was successfully formed on the bore side of neat PAI fibers by using a mixture of Neoprene (R) with crosslinking agents (TSR-633) via a post-treatment process. The lumen layer will enable heat removal from the fiber sorbents during their application in rapid thermal swing cycling processes. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Determination of chemotherapeutic drugs in human urine by capillary electrophoresis with UV and fluorimetric detection using solid-supported liquid-liquid extraction for sample clean-up.

    PubMed

    Hurtado-Sánchez, María del Carmen; Acedo-Valenzuela, María Isabel; Durán-Merás, Isabel; Rodríguez-Cáceres, María Isabel

    2015-06-01

    Capillary electrophoresis was used for the rapid determination of three chemotherapeutic drugs employed to treat colorectal cancer: irinotecan, tegafur, and leucovorin, and their main metabolites (7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin and 5-fluorouracil), in human urine samples. A phosphate buffer (pH 11.34; 20 mM) was selected as the background electrolyte. A hydrodynamic injection (9 s, 30 mbar) was applied and the separation was carried out using a separation temperature and voltage of 25°C and 25 kV, respectively. A capillary with two detection windows for serial online UV and fluorescence detection was satisfactorily employed. A solid-supported liquid-liquid extraction procedure was optimized for the clean-up of the urine samples and the extraction of the analytes. Matrix effects were assessed and signal suppression was observed for three of the analytes, thus, matrix-matched calibration was used for compensating residual matrix effects on these analytes. The proposed method allows the separation and quantification of the chemotherapeutics in less than 6 min. Detection limits range between 0.01 and 0.30 mg/L. The method was satisfactorily applied to the determination of the target compounds in human urine samples, with recoveries of 92.4-107.7%. PMID:25820908

  4. Simultaneous determination of polycyclic musks in blood and urine by solid supported liquid-liquid extraction and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongtao; Huang, Liping; Chen, Yuxin; Guo, Liman; Li, Limin; Zhou, Haiyun; Luan, Tiangang

    2015-06-15

    A rapid, precise and accurate method for the simultaneous determination of 5 polycyclic musks (PCMs) in biological fluids was developed by solid supported liquid-liquid extraction (SLE) coupled with gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). All parameters influencing SLE-GC-MS performance, including electron energy of electron-impact ionization source, collision energy for tandem mass spectrometer when operated in selected-reaction monitoring (SRM) mode, type and volume of elution reagent, nitrogen evaporation time, pH and salinity of sample have been carefully optimized. Eight milliliter of n-hexane was finally chosen as elution reagent. Blood and urine sample could be loaded into SLE cartridge without adjusting pH and salinity. Deuterated tonalide (AHTN-d3) was chosen as internal standard. The correlation coefficient (r(2)) of the calibration curves of target compounds ranged from 0.9996 to 0.9998. The dynamic range spanned over two orders of magnitude. The limit of detection (LOD) of target compounds in blood and urine ranged from 0.008 to 0.105μgL(-1) and 0.005 to 0.075μgL(-1), respectively. The developed procedure was successfully applied to the analysis of PCMs in human blood and urine obtaining satisfying recoveries on low, medium and high levels. The method was compared with SLE-GC-MS and shown one to two orders of magnitude improvement in sensitivity. PMID:25965876

  5. Determination of ketamine, norketamine and dehydronorketamine in urine by hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction using an essential oil as supported liquid membrane.

    PubMed

    Bairros, André Valle de; Lanaro, Rafael; Almeida, Rafael Menck de; Yonamine, Mauricio

    2014-10-01

    Here, we present a method for the determination of ketamine (KT) and its main metabolites, norketamine (NK) and dehydronorketamine (DHNK) in urine samples by using hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction (HF-LPME) in the three-phase mode. The fiber pores were filled with eucalyptus essential oil and a solution of 1.0mol/L of HCl was introduced into the lumen of the fiber (acceptor phase). The fiber was submersed in the alkalinized urine containing 10% NaCl, and the system was submitted to lateral shaking (2400rpm) during 30min. Acceptor phase was withdrawn from the fiber, dried and the residue was then derivatized with trifluoroacetic anhydride (TFAA) for further determination by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The calibration curves were linear over the specified range and limits of detection (LoDs) obtained for KT, NK and DHNK were below the cut-off value (1.0ng/mL) recommended by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). A totally "green chemistry" approach of the sample extraction was obtained by using essential oil as a supported liquid membrane in HF-LPME. The developed method was successfully validated and applied to urine samples collected from two clinical cases in which KT was suspected to be involved. PMID:24810678

  6. Thermo-mechanical simulation of liquid-supported stretch blow molding

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmer, J.; Stommel, M.

    2015-05-22

    Stretch blow molding is the well-established plastics forming method to produce Polyehtylene therephtalate (PET) bottles. An injection molded preform is heated up above the PET glass transition temperature (Tg∼85°C) and subsequently inflated by pressurized air into a closed cavity. In the follow-up filling process, the resulting bottle is filled with the final product. A recently developed modification of the process combines the blowing and filling stages by directly using the final liquid product to inflate the preform. In a previously published paper, a mechanical simulation and successful evaluation of this liquid-driven stretch blow molding process was presented. In this way, a realistic process parameter dependent simulation of the preform deformation throughout the forming process was enabled, whereas the preform temperature evolution during forming was neglected. However, the formability of the preform is highly reduced when the temperature sinks below Tg during forming. Experimental investigations show temperature-induced failure cases due to the fast heat transfer between hot preform and cold liquid. Therefore, in this paper, a process dependent simulation of the temperature evolution during processing to avoid preform failure is presented. For this purpose, the previously developed mechanical model is used to extract the time dependent thickness evolution. This information serves as input for the heat transfer simulation. The required material parameters are calibrated from preform cooling experiments recorded with an infrared-camera. Furthermore, the high deformation ratios during processing lead to strain induced crystallization. This exothermal reaction is included into the simulation by extracting data from preform measurements at different stages of deformation via Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). Finally, the thermal simulation model is evaluated by free forming experiments, recorded by a high-speed infrared camera.

  7. Thermo-mechanical simulation of liquid-supported stretch blow molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmer, J.; Stommel, M.

    2015-05-01

    Stretch blow molding is the well-established plastics forming method to produce Polyehtylene therephtalate (PET) bottles. An injection molded preform is heated up above the PET glass transition temperature (Tg˜85°C) and subsequently inflated by pressurized air into a closed cavity. In the follow-up filling process, the resulting bottle is filled with the final product. A recently developed modification of the process combines the blowing and filling stages by directly using the final liquid product to inflate the preform. In a previously published paper, a mechanical simulation and successful evaluation of this liquid-driven stretch blow molding process was presented. In this way, a realistic process parameter dependent simulation of the preform deformation throughout the forming process was enabled, whereas the preform temperature evolution during forming was neglected. However, the formability of the preform is highly reduced when the temperature sinks below Tg during forming. Experimental investigations show temperature-induced failure cases due to the fast heat transfer between hot preform and cold liquid. Therefore, in this paper, a process dependent simulation of the temperature evolution during processing to avoid preform failure is presented. For this purpose, the previously developed mechanical model is used to extract the time dependent thickness evolution. This information serves as input for the heat transfer simulation. The required material parameters are calibrated from preform cooling experiments recorded with an infrared-camera. Furthermore, the high deformation ratios during processing lead to strain induced crystallization. This exothermal reaction is included into the simulation by extracting data from preform measurements at different stages of deformation via Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). Finally, the thermal simulation model is evaluated by free forming experiments, recorded by a high-speed infrared camera.

  8. Liquid phase methanol LaPorte process development unit: Modification, operation, and support studies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-02

    Liquid-entrained operations at the LaPorte Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH) Process Development Unit (PDU) continued during June and July 1988 under Tasks 2.1 and 2.2 of Contract No. DE-AC22-87PC90005 for the US Department of Energy. The primary focus of this PDU operating program was to prepare for a confident move to the next scale of operation with an optimized and simplified process. Several new design options had been identified and thoroughly evaluated in a detailed process engineering study completed under the LPMEOH Part-2 contract (DE-AC22-85PC80007), which then became the basis for the current PDU modification/operating program. The focus of the Process Engineering Design was to optimize and simplifications focused on the slurry loop, which consists of the reactor, vapor/liquid separator, slurry heat exchanger, and slurry circulation pump. Two-Phase Gas Holdup tests began at LaPorte in June 1988 with nitrogen/oil and CO- rich gas/oil systems. The purpose of these tests was to study the hydrodynamics of the reactor, detect metal carbonyl catalyst poisons, and train operating personnel. Any effect of the new gas sparger and the internal heat exchanger would be revealed by comparing the hydrodynamic data with previous PDU hydrodynamic data. The Equipment Evaluation'' Run E-5 was conducted at the LaPorte LPMEOH PDU in July 1988. The objective of Run E-5 was to systematically evaluate each new piece of equipment (sparger, internal heat exchanger, V/L disengagement zone, demister, and cyclone) which had been added to the system, and attempt to run the reactor in an internal-only mode. In addition, a successful catalyst activation with a concentrated (45 wt % oxide) slurry was sought. 9 refs., 26 figs., 15 tabs.

  9. A rope-net support system for the liquid scintillator detector for the SNO+ experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bialek, A.; Chen, M.; Cleveland, B.; Gorel, P.; Hallin, A.; Harvey, P. J.; Heise, J.; Kraus, C.; Krauss, C. B.; Lawson, I.; Ng, C. J.; Pinkney, B.; Rogowsky, D. M.; Sibley, L.; Soluk, R.; Soukup, J.; Vázquez-Jáuregui, E.

    2016-08-01

    The detector for the SNO+ experiment consists of 780 000 kg of liquid scintillator contained in an acrylic vessel that is surrounded by water. A mechanical system has been installed to counteract the 1.25 MN of buoyant force on the acrylic and prevent the vessel from moving. The system is a rope net, designed using a Finite Element Analysis to calculate the amount of stress on the acrylic induced by the ropes, hydrostatic pressures and gravity. A dedicated test was performed to measure strains in the acrylic arising from the complex geometry of the knots in the rope system. The ratio between measured and FEA calculated strains was 1.3.

  10. Status of development and licensing support for advanced liquid metal reactors in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Pedersen, D.R. ); Gyorey, G. )

    1991-01-01

    The cornerstones of the United States Advanced Liquid Metal Cooled Reactor (ALMR) program sponsored by the Department of Energy are: the ALMR plant design program at General Electric based on the PRISM (Power Reactor Innovative Small Module) concept, and the Integral Fast Reactor program (IFR) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The goal of the US program is to produce a standard, commercial ALMR, including the associated fuel cycle. The paper addresses the status of the IFR program, the ALMR program and the interaction of the ALMR program with the regulatory environment.

  11. Status of development and licensing support for advanced liquid metal reactors in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Pedersen, D.R.; Gyorey, G.

    1991-12-01

    The cornerstones of the United States Advanced Liquid Metal Cooled Reactor (ALMR) program sponsored by the Department of Energy are: the ALMR plant design program at General Electric based on the PRISM (Power Reactor Innovative Small Module) concept, and the Integral Fast Reactor program (IFR) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The goal of the US program is to produce a standard, commercial ALMR, including the associated fuel cycle. The paper addresses the status of the IFR program, the ALMR program and the interaction of the ALMR program with the regulatory environment.

  12. Homeotropic alignment and director structures in thin films of triphenylamine-based discotic liquid crystals controlled by supporting nanostructured substrates and surface confinement.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Trirup Dutta; Rao, Nandiraju V S; Tenent, Robert; Blackburn, Jeffrey; Gregg, Brian; Smalyukh, Ivan I

    2011-02-01

    We explore the effects of nanoscale morphology of supporting solid substrates on alignment, defects, and director structures exhibited by thin films of triphenylamine-based discotic liquid crystals. Fluorescence confocal polarizing microscopy and intrinsic polarized fluorescence properties of studied molecules are used to visualize three-dimensional director fields in the liquid crystal films. We demonstrate that, by controlling surface anchoring on supporting or confining solid substrates such as those of carbon nanotube electrodes on glass plates, both uniform homeotropic and in-plane (edge-on) alignment and nonuniform structures with developable domains can be achieved for the same discotic liquid crystal material. PMID:21214228

  13. Apparatus for supporting contactors used in extracting nuclear materials from liquids

    DOEpatents

    Leonard, Ralph A.; Frank, Robert C.

    1991-01-01

    Apparatus is provided for supporting one or more contactor stages used to remove radioactive materials from aqueous solutions. The contactor stages include a housing having an internal rotor, a motor secured to the top of the housing for rotating the rotor, and a drain in the bottom of the housing. The support apparatus includes two or more vertical members each secured to a ground support that is horizontal and perpendicular to the frame member, and a horizontally disposed frame member. The frame member may be any suitable shape, but is preferably a rectangular tube having substantially flat, spaced top and bottom surfaces separated by substantially vertical side surfaces. The top and bottom surfaces each have an opening through which the contactor housing is secured so that the motor is above the frame and the drain is below the frame during use.

  14. HELP (high efficiency liquid phase) new oligonucleotide synthesis on soluble polymeric support.

    PubMed

    Bonora, G M; Scremin, C L; Colonna, F P; Garbesi, A

    1990-06-11

    A simple, rapid and high-yielding method for the synthesis of oligonucleotides by the phosphotriesters approach is described. The use of polyethylene glycol (PEG) as soluble polymeric support preserves some convenient features of the solid-phase synthesis with new interesting advantages. Short oligonucleotides in hundred milligrams scale can be obtained from few grams of functionalized PEG. PMID:2356115

  15. HELP (high efficiency liquid phase) new oligonucleotide synthesis on soluble polymeric support.

    PubMed Central

    Bonora, G M; Scremin, C L; Colonna, F P; Garbesi, A

    1990-01-01

    A simple, rapid and high-yielding method for the synthesis of oligonucleotides by the phosphotriesters approach is described. The use of polyethylene glycol (PEG) as soluble polymeric support preserves some convenient features of the solid-phase synthesis with new interesting advantages. Short oligonucleotides in hundred milligrams scale can be obtained from few grams of functionalized PEG. PMID:2356115

  16. Dynamic study of nanodroplet nucleation and growth on self-supported nanothick liquid films.

    PubMed

    Barkay, Z

    2010-12-01

    The dynamics of water condensation on self-supported thin films was studied at the nanoscale using transmitted electrons in an environmental scanning electron microscope. The initial stages of nucleation and growth over nanothick water films have been investigated. Irregularities at the water-film boundaries constituted nucleation sites for asymmetric dropwise and filmwise condensation. Nanodroplet growth was associated with center of mass movement, and the dynamic growth power law dependence was explored for the nanoscale. PMID:21073155

  17. Designing Supported Ionic Liquids (ILs) within Inorganic Nanosheets for CO₂ Capture Applications.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yingjie; Liu, Jingjing; Xiao, Min; Meng, Yuezhong; Sun, Luyi

    2016-03-01

    A new methodology was developed for the immobilization of ionic liquids (ILs) on α-zirconium phosphate (ZrP) and montmorillonite (MMT) single-layer nanosheets via a facile coassembly process. The coassembled inorganic nanosheet/1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMIMCl) hybrids were systematically characterized. The results showed that the ILs were successfully assembled with ZrP or MMT single-layer nanosheets to form an intercalated structure. The inorganic nanosheet/IL hybrids can serve as efficient CO2 absorbents. The CO2 sorption of BMIMCl could be made up to 21 times more efficient because of the high exposure of the functional groups of BMIMCl in the coassembled hybrids. CO2 was physically absorbed by the hybrids with a slow equilibrium time at lower temperatures, whereas higher temperatures allowed for faster diffusion and chemical absorption of CO2. The best CO2 capture capacities of the hybrids were 0.73 mmol/g at 60 °C for ZrP/BMIMCl and 0.42 mmol/g at 70 °C for MMT/BMIMCl. PMID:26840623

  18. Liquid phase methanol LaPorte process development unit: Modification, operation, and support studies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-23

    The objectives of this program are to implement and test the process improvements identified through the engineering studies of the current program to demonstrate the capability of long-term catalyst activity maintenance, and to perform process and design engineering work that can be applied to a scaled-up Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH) facility. An optional series of PDU runs is offered to extend the testing of the process improvements. A parallel research program will be performed to enhance the LPMEOH technical data base to improve the likelihood of commercialization of the LPMEOH process. Activities this quarter include: Flow sheet development for La Porte PDU modifications continues. A preliminary P ID review was completed and flow sheet modifications were identified and are being incorporated. A preliminary hazards review was completed on 22 May. Some minor flow sheet modifications resulted and a number of action items were identified. The most significant action item is to develop a materials reactivity and compatibility grid for the different alcohols, ethers, and esters which will be produced at the PDU. Heat and material balances were completed for the maximum production case of the mixed DME/MEOH synthesis campaign. An improved rate expression was developed. 1 fig.

  19. Liquid phase methanol LaPorte process development unit: Modification operation, and support studies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-28

    In April 1987, Air Products started the third and final contract with the US Department of Energy to develop the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH) process. One of the objectives was to identify alternative commercial catalyst(s) for the process. This objective was strategically important as we want to demonstrate that the LPMEOH process is flexible and not catalyst selection limited. Among three commercially available catalysts evaluated in the lab, the catalyst with a designation of F21/0E75-43 was the most promising candidate. The initial judging criteria included not only the intrinsic catalyst activity but also the ability to be used effectively in a slurry reactor. The catalyst was then advanced for a 40-day life test in a laboratory 300 cc autoclave. The life test result also revealed superior stability when compared with that of a standard catalyst. Consequently, the new catalyst was recommended for demonstration in the Process Development Unit (PDU) at LaPorte, Texas. This report details the methodology of testing and selecting the catalyst.

  20. Highly dispersed ruthenium hydroxide supported on titanium oxide effective for liquid-phase hydrogen-transfer reactions.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Kazuya; Koike, Takeshi; Kim, Jung Won; Ogasawara, Yoshiyuki; Mizuno, Noritaka

    2008-01-01

    Supported ruthenium hydroxide catalysts (Ru(OH)(x)/support) were prepared with three different TiO(2) supports (anatase TiO(2) (TiO(2)(A), BET surface area: 316 m(2) g(-1)), anatase TiO(2) (TiO(2)(B), 73 m(2) g(-1)), and rutile TiO(2) (TiO(2)(C), 3.2 m(2) g(-1))), as well as an Al(2)O(3) support (160 m(2) g(-1)). Characterizations with X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), electron spin resonance (ESR), and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) showed the presence of monomeric ruthenium(III) hydroxide and polymeric ruthenium(III) hydroxide species. Judging from the coordination numbers of the nearest-neighbor Ru atoms and the intensities of the ESR signals, the amount of monomeric hydroxide species increased in the order of Ru(OH)(x)supported ruthenium hydroxide catalysts, especially Ru(OH)(x)/TiO(2)(A), showed high catalytic activities and selectivities for liquid-phase hydrogen-transfer reactions, such as racemization of chiral secondary alcohols and the reduction of carbonyl compounds and allylic alcohols. The catalytic activities of Ru(OH)(x)/TiO(2)(A) for these hydrogen-transfer reactions were at least one order of magnitude higher than those of previously reported heterogeneous catalysts, such as Ru(OH)(x)/Al(2)O(3). These catalyses were truly heterogeneous, and the catalysts recovered after the reactions could be reused several times without loss of catalytic performance. The reaction rates monotonically increased with an increase in the amount of monomeric ruthenium hydroxide species, which suggests that the monomeric species are effective for these hydrogen-transfer reactions. PMID:19021181

  1. Liquid Phase Methanol LaPorte Process Development Unit: Modification, operation, and support studies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-31

    A gas phase and a slurry phase radioactive tracer study was performed on the 12 ton/day Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH) Process Development Unit (PDU) in LaPorte, Texas. To study the gas phase mixing characteristics, a radioactive argon tracer was injected into the feed gas and residence time distribution was generated by measuring the response at the reactor outlet. Radioactive manganese oxide powder was independently injected into the reactor to measure the slurry phase mixing characteristics. A tanks-in-series model and an axial dispersion model were applied to the data to characterize the mixing in the reactor. From the axial dispersion model, a translation to the number of CSTR's (continuous stirred tank reactors) was made for comparison purposes with the first analysis. Dispersion correlations currently available in the literature were also compared. The tanks-in-series analysis is a simpler model whose results are easily interpreted. However, it does have a few drawbacks; among them, the lack of a reliable method for scaleup of a reactor and no direct correlation between mixing in the slurry and gas phases. The dispersion model allows the mixing in the gas and slurry phases to be characterized separately while including the effects of phase transfer. This analysis offers a means for combining the gas and slurry phase dispersion models into an effective dispersion coefficient, which, in turn, can be related to an equivalent number of tanks-in-series. The dispersion methods reported are recommended for scaleup of a reactor system. 24 refs., 18 figs., 8 tabs.

  2. Simultaneous Determination of Amitraz and its Metabolites in Blood by Support Liquid Extraction Using UPHLC-QTOF.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xue; Guo, Hao; Zhang, Wen-Wen; Gu, Chaokang

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes the use of UPHLC-QTOF for the analysis of pesticide amitraz and its metabolites in human blood. UPHLC-QTOF working in full scan mode simultaneously with a single MS/MS scan at 10 eV was employed to analyze in solid-support liquid-liquid extracts (SLE) of the human blood. Detection and quantification were carried out using full scan data (protonated molecules [M+H]+) while MS/MS data were used for fragment identification only. MS/MS scans were not found to have any negative influence on quantitation under the applied conditions. Verification studies were accomplished at low concentrations (1 ng/mL), and accuracy errors lower than 5 ppm were achieved. The human blood extracts spiked at LOQ and three QC fortification levels produced average recoveries in the range of 79.3-92.5% with relative standard deviations smaller than 10% for all analytes. Limits of detection (LODs) were between 0.1 and 0.5 ng/mL. Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied to a case of human poisoning. PMID:27339482

  3. CMOS VLSI pilot and support chip for a liquid crystal on silicon 8x8 optical cross connect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lelah, Alan; Vinouze, Bruno; Martel, Gilbert; Perez-Segovia, Tomas; Geoffroy, Philippe; Laval, Jean-Paul; Jayet, Philippe; Senn, Patrice; Gravey, Philippe; Wolffer, Nicole; Lever, Roger; Tan, Antione

    2001-12-01

    With the explosion of Internet and multi-service traffic, telecommunication transport networks today are turning to Wavelength Division Multiplexing. Optical cross-connects (OXCs) allow flexible rerouting of wavelength channels. It has been shown that 2-D free-space beam deflection by nematic liquid crystal gratings provide a good solution for the realization of optical switches in OXCs. Operating in the telecom 1.5 micrometers wavelength region they serve as an active holographic element. Liquid Crystal on Silicon (LCOS) combined with VLSI technologies allow the fabrication of large capacity, low cost and low consumption compact free-space switches. An N X N optical switch can be built by cascading two LCOS-based spatial light modulators (SLMs). The first part of the paper describes a circuit that provides the physical support as well as piloting circuitry for such SLMs. It is capable of piloting beams from a linear array of 8 incoming fibers towards a similar array of 8 outgoing fibers. The electrode command voltages are analog while the external interface as well as on-chip memory is digital. The chip has been implemented in a CMOS 0.5 (mu) process with 600,000 transistors while die size is 320 mm2 (80 mm2 active area).

  4. Unlocking the potential of supported liquid phase catalysts with supercritical fluids: low temperature continuous flow catalysis with integrated product separation

    PubMed Central

    Franciò, Giancarlo; Hintermair, Ulrich; Leitner, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Solution-phase catalysis using molecular transition metal complexes is an extremely powerful tool for chemical synthesis and a key technology for sustainable manufacturing. However, as the reaction complexity and thermal sensitivity of the catalytic system increase, engineering challenges associated with product separation and catalyst recovery can override the value of the product. This persistent downstream issue often renders industrial exploitation of homogeneous catalysis uneconomical despite impressive batch performance of the catalyst. In this regard, continuous-flow systems that allow steady-state homogeneous turnover in a stationary liquid phase while at the same time effecting integrated product separation at mild process temperatures represent a particularly attractive scenario. While continuous-flow processing is a standard procedure for large volume manufacturing, capitalizing on its potential in the realm of the molecular complexity of organic synthesis is still an emerging area that requires innovative solutions. Here we highlight some recent developments which have succeeded in realizing such systems by the combination of near- and supercritical fluids with homogeneous catalysts in supported liquid phases. The cases discussed exemplify how all three levels of continuous-flow homogeneous catalysis (catalyst system, separation strategy, process scheme) must be matched to locate viable process conditions. PMID:26574523

  5. A review of the supply of liquid propellants and other fluids in support of the Space Shuttle Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Churchwell, Stacy E.; Bain, A. L.

    1989-01-01

    In this study, over twenty significant liquid propellants and other fluids were reviewed as to their supply in support of the Space Shuttle Program (SSP), primarily at KSC. The uniqueness of most of the products, either by their application or production characteristics, present a variety of supply issues to contend with. Each, however, is critical to the success of the SSP. It becomes necessary to formulate, and maintain, a logistic approach to assure a continued availability of each product. For convenience, two categories were established. One, labeled limited-availability, represents those products wherein they are single sourced, have production restrictions and/or there has been a history of supply problems. The other, labeled universally-available, is characteristic of those having several sources and/or having little, if any, historical supply problems. This last category was not examined in depth. Through concepts of establishing stockpile inventories, multiple supply contracts, or other arrangements, the supply of liquid propellants and other fluids can be assured.

  6. MAGNETIC LIQUID DEFORMABLE MIRRORS FOR ASTRONOMICAL APPLICATIONS: ACTIVE CORRECTION OF OPTICAL ABERRATIONS FROM LOWER-GRADE OPTICS AND SUPPORT SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Borra, E. F.

    2012-08-01

    Deformable mirrors are increasingly used in astronomy. However, they still are limited in stroke for active correction of high-amplitude optical aberrations. Magnetic liquid deformable mirrors (MLDMs) are a new technology that has the advantages of high-amplitude deformations and low costs. In this paper, we demonstrate extremely high strokes and interactuator strokes achievable by MLDMs which can be used in astronomical instrumentation. In particular, we consider the use of such a mirror to suggest an interesting application for the next generation of large telescopes. We present a prototype 91 actuator deformable mirror made of a magnetic liquid (ferrofluid). This mirror uses a technique that linearizes the response of such mirrors by superimposing a large and uniform magnetic field on the magnetic field produced by an array of small coils. We discuss experimental results that illustrate the performance of MLDMs. A most interesting application of MLDMs comes from the fact they could be used to correct the aberrations of large and lower optical quality primary mirrors held by simple support systems. We estimate basic parameters of the needed MLDMs, obtaining reasonable values.

  7. Unlocking the potential of supported liquid phase catalysts with supercritical fluids: low temperature continuous flow catalysis with integrated product separation.

    PubMed

    Franciò, Giancarlo; Hintermair, Ulrich; Leitner, Walter

    2015-12-28

    Solution-phase catalysis using molecular transition metal complexes is an extremely powerful tool for chemical synthesis and a key technology for sustainable manufacturing. However, as the reaction complexity and thermal sensitivity of the catalytic system increase, engineering challenges associated with product separation and catalyst recovery can override the value of the product. This persistent downstream issue often renders industrial exploitation of homogeneous catalysis uneconomical despite impressive batch performance of the catalyst. In this regard, continuous-flow systems that allow steady-state homogeneous turnover in a stationary liquid phase while at the same time effecting integrated product separation at mild process temperatures represent a particularly attractive scenario. While continuous-flow processing is a standard procedure for large volume manufacturing, capitalizing on its potential in the realm of the molecular complexity of organic synthesis is still an emerging area that requires innovative solutions. Here we highlight some recent developments which have succeeded in realizing such systems by the combination of near- and supercritical fluids with homogeneous catalysts in supported liquid phases. The cases discussed exemplify how all three levels of continuous-flow homogeneous catalysis (catalyst system, separation strategy, process scheme) must be matched to locate viable process conditions. PMID:26574523

  8. Permeation of iridium(IV) and metal impurity chlorocomplexes through a supported liquid membrane designed for rhodium separation

    SciTech Connect

    Ashrafizadeh, S.N.; Demopoulos, G.P.; Rovira, M.; Sastre, A.M.

    1998-06-01

    A supported liquid membrane (SLM) system previously designed for Rh separation has been examined for its capability to reject the metal impurities which are commonly encountered in industrial Rh chloride solutions. Special attention was paid to Ir(IV) chlorocomplexes and their extraction/transport behavior against both conventional solvent extraction and supported liquid membrane systems of Kelex 100. A lab-scale SLM cell with an effective membrane area of 44 cm{sup 2} was used to conduct the SLM permeation tests. The SLM was composed of a Gore-Tex polymer substrate impregnated with an organic solution of Kelex 100, tridecanol, and kerosene. The impurities tested [in addition to Ir(IV)] were AG(I), As(V), Bi(III), Cd(II), Co(II), Cu(II), Fe(III), Ni(II), Pb(II), Pd(II), Pt(IV), Se(IV), Te(IV), and Zn(II). These impurities, based on their response against the SLM, were classified into three groups, i.e., those permeated through [Zn(II), Pb(II), Cd(II), Bi(III), Te(IV), and Ir(IV)], those nonpermeated at all [Ni(II), Co(II), As(V), Se(IV), Cu(II), and Fe(III)], and those blocking the membrane [Pt(IV), Pd(II), Ag(I), Pb(II), and Bi(III)]. The SLM was not capable of discriminating between Rh(III) and Ir(IV) transport at the optimum operating conditions. Complementary upstream and downstream processes are required to separate the impurities from the feed and the product solutions, respectively. Overall, this work revealed the great limitations of SLMs as effective and potentially useful separation media for the extraction of metals from industrial-like multicomponent aqueous feed solutions.

  9. Feasible way of Human Solid and Liquid Wastes' Inclusion Into Intersystem Mass Exchange of Biological-Technical Life Support Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushakova, Sofya; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Tikhomirova, Natalia; Kudenko, Yurii; Griboskaya, Illiada; Gros, Jean-Bernard; Lasseur, Christophe

    The basic objective arising at use of mineralized human solid and liquid wastes serving as the source of mineral elements for plants cultivation in biological-technical life support systems appears to be NaCl presence in them. The given work is aimed at feasibility study of mineralized human metabolites' utilization for nutrient solutions' preparation for their further employment at a long-term cultivation of uneven-aged wheat and Salicornia europaea L. cenosis in a conveyer regime. Human solid and liquid wastes were mineralized by the "wet incineration" method developed by Yu. Kudenko. On their base the solutions were prepared which were used for cultivation of 5-aged wheat conveyer with the time step-interval of 14 days. Wheat was cultivated by hydroponics method on expanded clay aggregate. For partial demineralization of nutrient solution every two weeks after regular wheat harvesting 12 L of solution was withdrawn from the wheat irrigation tank and used for Salicornia europaea cultivation by the water culture method in a conveyer regime. The Salicornia europaea conveyer was represented by 2 ages with the time step-interval of 14 days. Resulting from repeating withdrawal of the solution used for wheat cultivation, sodium concentration in the wheat irrigation solution did not exceed 400 mg/l, and mineral elements contained in the taken solution were used for Salicornia europaea cultivation. The experiment lasted 7 months. Total wheat biomass productivity averaged 30.1 g*m-2*day-1 at harvest index equal to 36.8The work was carried out under support of SB RAS grant 132 and INTAS 05-1000008-8010

  10. Dynamic supported liquid membrane tip extraction of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid followed by capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection.

    PubMed

    See, Hong Heng; Hauser, Peter C; Sanagi, M Marsin; Ibrahim, Wan Aini Wan

    2010-09-10

    A dynamic supported liquid membrane tip extraction (SLMTE) procedure for the effective extraction and preconcentration of glyphosate (GLYP) and its metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in water has been investigated. The SLMTE procedure was performed in a semi-automated dynamic mode and demonstrated a greater performance against a static extraction. Several important extraction parameters such as donor phase pH, cationic carrier concentration, type of membrane solvent, type of acceptor stripping phase, agitation and extraction time were comprehensively optimized. A solution of Aliquat-336, a cationic carrier, in dihexyl ether was selected as the supported liquid incorporated into the membrane phase. Quantification of GLYP and AMPA was carried out using capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection. An electrolyte solution consisting of 12 mM histidine (His), 8 mM 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid (MES), 75 microM cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), 3% methanol, pH 6.3, was used as running buffer. Under the optimum extraction conditions, the method showed good linearity in the range of 0.01-200 microg/L (GLYP) and 0.1-400 microg/L (AMPA), acceptable reproducibility (RSD 5-7%, n=5), low limits of detection of 0.005 microg/L for GLYP and 0.06 microg/L for AMPA, and satisfactory relative recoveries (90-94%). Due to the low cost, the SLMTE device was disposed after each run which additionally eliminated the possibility of carry-over between runs. The validated method was tested for the analysis of both analytes in spiked tap water and river water with good success. PMID:20696433

  11. Evaluation of progesterone content in saliva using magnetic particle-based immuno supported liquid membrane assay (m-ISLMA).

    PubMed

    Tudorache, Madalina; Zdrojewska, Izabela Anna; Emnéus, Jenny

    2006-08-15

    Progesterone in saliva was monitored using a new method called magnetic particle-based immuno supported liquid membrane assay (m-ISLMA) in a sequential injection (SI) setup, allowing automatic sample cleanup, analyte enrichment, and detection in a single analysis unit. Progesterone (Ag) diffuses from a continuous flowing sample - the donor - into a supported organic liquid membrane (SLM), based on analyte partitioning (solubility) between the aqueous donor and the organic phase. The Ag is re-extracted from the SLM into a second stagnant aqueous acceptor, containing antibodies (Ab) immobilized on magnetic beads, held at the bottom of the acceptor by a magnet. Due to the formation of strong Ag-Ab-bead complexes and a large excess of Ab-beads, the Ag is accumulated and selectively enriched in the acceptor. The extracted progesterone was quantified by injecting into the acceptor a horseradish peroxidase (HRP) labeled analyte tracer, the substrate (luminol, H(2)O(2), and p-iodophenol), and finally detection of the generated chemiluminescence by a photomultiplier tube. After optimization of experimental parameters (e.g., sample flow rate, extraction time, type of organic solvent and antibody-bead concentration in the acceptor), a detection limit of 8.50+/-0.17 fgL(-1) and a dynamic range between 35 fgL(-1) and 10 pgL(-1) was reached. The progesterone level of saliva for three subjects (women in different period of ovarian cycle) was investigated, and the corresponding progesterone concentrations detected with m-ISLMA coincided well with the expected values. PMID:16473507

  12. Simultaneous determination of total fatty acid esters of chloropropanols in edible oils by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with solid-supported liquid-liquid extraction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qing; Han, Feng; Xie, Ke; Miao, Hong; Wu, Yongning

    2013-11-01

    This study aimed to establish a novel robust method for the simultaneous determination of total fatty acid esters of 4 chloropropanols including fatty acid esters of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD esters), 2-monochloropropane-1,3-diol (2-MCPD esters), 1,3-dichloropropan-2-ol (1,3-DCP esters) and 2,3-dichloropropan-1-ol (2,3-DCP esters) in edible oils. In this method, sodium methylate in methanol was used as the reagent for the ester cleavage reaction of chloropropanols esters. The reaction products were extracted by a sodium sulfate solution, and then purified by solid-supported liquid-liquid extraction (SLE) using diatomaceous earth (Hydromatrix™) as the sorbent. Finally, the extracts were derivatized with heptafluorobutyrylim idazole (HFBI) and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Quantification was achieved using deuterated chloropropanols as their respective internal standards, including 3-MCPD-d5, 2-MCPD-d5, 1,3-DCP-d5 and 2,3-DCP-d5. A good linear relationship between peak area and concentrations was obtained within the range of 0.025-2.000mgL(-1) with a correlation coefficients not less than 0.999 for all the chloropropanols esters. The limits of detection (LODs) of esters of 3-MCPD, 2-MCPD, 1,3-DCP and 2,3-DCP (calculated as corresponding chloropropanols) were 30, 30, 100 and 30μgkg(-1), respectively. The average recoveries of the 3-MCPD esters and the 4 chloropropanols spiked at 0.1, 0.5 and 2mgkg(-1) into blank oil matrix were typically in a range from 70.7% to 113.3%. The robust method validation data including calibration, LOD/LOQ, accuracy and repeatability and proficiency test results (Z-score: -0.5) of the official Food Analysis Performance Assessment Scheme (FAPAS) indicated that the present quantitative method could be successfully applied to the determination of total chloropropanols esters in various edible oils. PMID:24070627

  13. Separation and pre-concentration of glucocorticoids in water samples by ionic liquid supported vortex-assisted synergic microextraction and HPLC determination.

    PubMed

    Qin, Hui; Li, Bi; Liu, Mou Sheng; Yang, Ya Ling

    2013-04-01

    We have developed a synergic microextraction procedure based on ionic liquid for the pre-concentration and determination of glucocorticoids in water samples. Using nonionic surfactant Triton X-100 (TX-100) as synergic reagent, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexa-fluorophosphate accomplished extraction rapidly without heating in water bath. One key property of ionic liquids that highlights their potential is their wide liquid temperature range. The improved extraction was named as ionic liquid supported vortex-assisted synergic microextraction. Compared with the traditional liquid-liquid extraction and cloud point extraction, ionic liquid supported vortex-assisted synergic microextraction was accomplished in 8 min with considerably high recovery. The proposed method greatly improved the sensitivity of HPLC for the determination of glucocorticoids. The results obtained indicated a good linearity with the correlation coefficient of 0.997 over the range of 0.6-300 ng/mL and high sensitivity with LODs of 4.11, 9.19, and 7.50 ng/mL for hydrocortisone butyrate, beclomethasone dipropionate, and nandrolone phenylpropionate, respectively. The RSD of the method was 1.57-1.81% (n = 6) with enrichment factor of 99.85, and good recovery (≥97.24%). The method was successfully applied to the determination of glucocorticoids in mineral water, water of Dianchi lake, and tap water samples. PMID:23418157

  14. Use of halophytic plants for recycling NaCl in human liquid waste in a bioregenerative life support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balnokin, Yurii; Nikolai, Myasoedov; Larisa, Popova; Alexander, Tikhomirov; Sofya, Ushakova; Christophe, Lasseur; Jean-Bernard, Gros

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop technology for recycling NaCl containing in human liquid waste as intrasystem matter in a bioregenerative life support system (BLSS). The circulation of Na + and Cl - excreted in urine is achieved by inclusion of halophytes, i.e. plants that naturally inhabit salt-rich soils and accumulate NaCl in their organs. A model of Na + and Cl - recycling in a BLSS was designed, based on the NaCl turnover in the human-urine-nutrient solution-halophytic plant-human cycle. The study consisted of (i) selecting a halophyte suitable for inclusion in a BLSS, and (ii) determining growth conditions supporting maximal Na + and Cl - accumulation in the shoots of the halophyte growing in a nutrient solution simulating mineralized urine. For the selected halophytic plant, Salicornia europaea, growth rate under optimal conditions, biomass production and quantities of Na + and Cl - absorbed were determined. Characteristics of a plant production conveyor consisting of S.europaea at various ages, and allowing continuity of Na + and Cl - turnover, were estimated. It was shown that closure of the NaCl cycle in a BLSS can be attained if the daily ration of fresh Salicornia biomass for a BLSS inhabitant is approximately 360 g.

  15. Total Liquid Ventilation Provides Superior Respiratory Support to Conventional Mechanical Ventilation in a Large Animal Model of Severe Respiratory Failure

    PubMed Central

    Pohlmann, Joshua R; Brant, David O; Daul, Morgan A; Reoma, Junewai L; Kim, Anne C; Osterholzer, Kathryn R; Johnson, Kent J; Bartlett, Robert H; Cook, Keith E; Hirschl, Ronald B

    2011-01-01

    Total liquid ventilation (TLV) has the potential to provide respiratory support superior to conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) in the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, laboratory studies are limited to trials in small animals for no longer than 4 hours. The objective of this study was to compare TLV and CMV in a large animal model of ARDS for 24 hours. Ten sheep weighing 53 ± 4 (SD) kg were anesthetized and ventilated with 100% oxygen. Oleic acid was injected into the pulmonary circulation until PaO2:FiO2 ≥ 60 mmHg, followed by transition to a protective CMV protocol (n=5) or TLV (n=5) for 24 hours. Pathophysiology was recorded and the lungs were harvested for histological analysis. Animals treated with CMV became progressively hypoxic and hypercarbic despite maximum ventilatory support. Sheep treated with TLV maintained normal blood gases with statistically greater PO2 (p<10−9) and lower PCO2 (p < 10−3) than the CMV group. Survival at 24 hours in the TLV and CMV groups were 100% and 40% respectively (p< 0.05). Thus, TLV provided gas exchange superior to CMV in this laboratory model of severe ARDS. PMID:21084968

  16. Controlled synthesis and electrocatalytic characteristics of Pt nanoparticles-supported nanographene synthesized by in-liquid plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, Hiroki; Amano, Tomoki; Ishikawa, Kenji; Sekine, Makoto; Hori, Masaru; Hiramatsu, Mineo; Meijo University Collaboration; Nagoya University Team

    2014-10-01

    We investigated a high-speed synthesis of high-crystallinity nanographenes over 1 micro-gram/min using in-liquid plasma. In this study, nanographene materials with different crystallinity were synthesized using ethanol and 1-butanol. Pt nanoparticles were supported on their surfaces reducing 8 wt%-H2PtCl6 in H2O. G-band and D-band peaks in Raman spectra indicated nanographene materials. Nanographene materials synthesized using ethanol have higher crystallinity than those synthesized using 1-butanol. According to X-ray diffraction patterns, sizes of Pt nanoparticles are almost similar regardless of alcohol types. In cyclic voltammetry characteristics, peaks related to adsorption and desorption of hydrogen were clearly found in the both cases. The platinum effective areas were estimated to be 208.5 and 147.63 m2/g for the cases using ethanol and 1-butanol, respectively. In addition, after potential cycling tests, nanographene materials synthesized using ethanol show almost no degradation, while those using 1-butanol show a drastic degradation. These results indicate that the higher-density Pt nanoparticles can be supported on the higher-crystallinity nanographene material and they show higher durability.

  17. Membrane supported liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction combined with field-amplified sample injection CE-UV for high-sensitivity analysis of six cardiovascular drugs in human urine sample.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaoqing; He, Man; Chen, Beibei; Yang, Qing; Hu, Bin

    2016-05-01

    An effective dual preconcentration method involving off-line membrane supported liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction (MS-LLLME) and on-line field-amplified sample injection (FASI) was proposed for the extraction of six cardiovascular drugs, including mexiletine, xylocaine, propafenone, propranolol, metoprolol, and carvedilol from aqueous solution prior to CE-UV. In MS-LLLME, the analytes were extracted from 9 mL sample solution into toluene, and then back extracted into a drop of acceptor phase of 10 μL 20 mmol/L acetic acid. After that, the acceptor phase was directly introduced into CE for FASI without any modification. In FASI process, water plug was hydrodynamically injected (50 mbar, 3 s) into the capillary prior to sample injection (+6 kV, 18 s). Six target analytes were separated in less than 10 min at 25°C with a BGE consisting of 70 mmol/L Tris-H3 PO4 (pH 2.2) containing 10% v/v methanol. Under the optimized conditions, LODs obtained by the proposed MS-LLLME-FASI-CE-UV method were in the range of 0.02-0.82 μg/L (based on S/N = 3) with enrichment factors of 546- to 7300-fold for the target analytes. The RSDs of the developed method were in the range of 6.7-12.9% (n = 7). Good linearity (R(2) = 0.9928-0.9997) was obtained in concentration range of 0.1-100 μg/L for mexiletine and propranolol, 0.2-100 μg/L for xylocaine and metoprolol, 0.5-100 μg/L for propafenone and 2.0-100 μg/L for carvedilol, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied for real-time determination of metoprolol in human urine samples within 26 h after uptake. PMID:26763094

  18. Novel analytical procedure using a combination of hollow fiber supported liquid membrane and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for the determination of aflatoxins in soybean juice by high performance liquid chromatography - Fluorescence detector.

    PubMed

    Simão, Vanessa; Merib, Josias; Dias, Adriana N; Carasek, Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    This study describes a combination between hollow fiber membrane and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for determination of aflatoxins in soybean juice by HPLC. The main advantage of this approach is the use of non-chlorinated solvent and small amounts of organic solvents. The optimum extraction conditions were 1-octanol as immobilized solvent; toluene and acetone at 1:5 ratio as extraction and disperser solvents (100 μL), NaCl at 2% of the sample volume and extraction time of 60 min. The optimal condition for the liquid desorption was 150 μL acetonitrile:water (50:50 v/v) and desorption time of 20 min. The linear range varied from 0.03 to 21 μg L(-1), with R(2) coefficients ranging from 0.9940 to 0.9995. The limits of detection and quantification ranged from 0.01 μg L(-1) to 0.03 μg L(-1) and from 0.03 μg L(-1) to 0.1 μg L(-1), respectively. Recovery tests ranged from 72% to 117% and accuracy between 12% and 18%. PMID:26593494

  19. Ultrasensitive determination of cadmium in seawater by hollow fiber supported liquid membrane extraction coupled with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Jin-feng; Liu, Rui; Liu, Jing-fu; He, Bin; Hu, Xia-lin; Jiang, Gui-bin

    2007-05-01

    A new procedure, based on hollow fiber supported liquid membrane preconcentration coupled with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) detection, was developed for the determination of trace Cd in seawater samples. With 1-octanol that contained a mixture of dithizone (carrier) and oleic acid immobilized in the pores of the polypropylene hollow fiber as a liquid membrane, Cd was selectively extracted from water samples into 0.05 M HNO 3 that filled the lumen of the hollow fiber as a stripping solution. The main extraction related parameters were optimized, and the effects of salinity and some coexisting interferants were also evaluated. Under the optimum extraction conditions, an enrichment factor of 387 was obtained for a 100-mL sample solution. In combination with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, a very low detection limit (0.8 ng L - 1 ) and a relative standard deviation (2.5% at 50 ng L - 1 level) were achieved. Five seawater samples were analyzed by the proposed method without dilution, with detected Cd concentration in the range of 56.4-264.8 ng L - 1 and the relative spiked recoveries over 89%. For comparison, these samples were also analyzed by the Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) method after a 10-fold dilution for matrix effect elimination. Statistical analysis with a one-way ANOVA shows no significant differences (at 0.05 level) between the results obtained by the proposed and ICP-MS methods. Additionally, analysis of certified reference materials (GBW (E) 080040) shows good agreement with the certified value. These results indicate that this present method is very sensitive and reliable, and can effectively eliminate complex matrix interferences in seawater samples.

  20. Electromembrane extraction of polar basic drugs from plasma with pure bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphite as supported liquid membrane.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chuixiu; Seip, Knut Fredrik; Gjelstad, Astrid; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig

    2016-08-31

    Electromembrane extraction (EME) of polar basic drugs from human plasma was investigated for the first time using pure bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphite (DEHPi) as the supported liquid membrane (SLM). The polar basic drugs metaraminol, benzamidine, sotalol, phenylpropanolamine, ephedrine, and trimethoprim were selected as model analytes, and were extracted from 300 μL of human plasma, through 10 μL of DEHPi as SLM, and into 100 μL of 10 mM formic acid as acceptor solution. The extraction potential across the SLM was 100 V, and extractions were performed for 20 min. After EME, the acceptor solutions were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV). In contrast to other SLMs reported for polar basic drugs in the literature, the SLM of DEHPi was highly stable in contact with plasma, and the system-current across the SLM was easily kept below 50 μA. Thus, electrolysis in the sample and acceptor solution was kept at an acceptable level with no detrimental consequences. For the polar model analytes, representing a log P range from -0.40 to 1.32, recoveries in the range 25-91% were obtained from human plasma. Strong hydrogen bonding and dipole interactions were probably responsible for efficient transfer of the model analytes into the SLM, and this is the first report on efficient EME of highly polar analytes without using any ionic carrier in the SLM. PMID:27506347

  1. Determination of organochlorine pesticides in water using solvent cooling assisted dynamic hollow-fiber-supported headspace liquid-phase microextraction.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shih-Pin; Huang, Shang-Da

    2007-12-28

    The organic solvent film formed within a hollow fiber was used as an extraction interface in the headspace liquid-phase microextraction (HS-LPME) of organochlorine pesticides. Some common organic solvents with different vapor pressures (9.33-12,918.9 Pa) were studied as extractants. The results indicated that even the solvent with the highest vapor pressure (cyclohexane) can be used to carry out the extraction successfully. However, those compounds (analytes) with low vapor pressures could not be extracted successfully. In general, the large surface area of the hollow fiber can hasten the extraction speed, but it can increase the risk of solvent loss. Lowering the temperature of the extraction solvent could not only reduce solvent loss (by lowering its vapor pressure) but also extend the feasible extraction time to improve extraction efficiency. In this work, a solvent cooling assisted dynamic hollow-fiber-supported headspace liquid-phase microextraction (SC-DHF-HS-LPME) approach was developed. By lowering the temperature of the solvent, the evaporation can be decreased, the extraction time can be lengthened, and, on the contrary, the equilibrium constant between headspace phase and extraction solvent can be increased. In dynamic LPME, the extracting solvent is held within a hollow fiber, affixed to a syringe needle and placed in the headspace of the sample container. The extracting solvent within the fiber is moved to-and-fro by using a programmable syringe pump. The movement facilitates mass transfer of analyte(s) from the sample to the solvent. Analysis of the extract was carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The effects of identity of extraction solvent, extraction temperature, sample agitation, extraction time, and salt concentration on extraction performance were also investigated. Good enrichments were achieved (65-211-fold) with this method. Good repeatabilities of extraction were obtained, with RSD values below 15.2%. Detection

  2. Supported Ionic Liquid Membranes and Ion-Jelly® Membranes with [BMIM][DCA]: Comparison of Its Performance for CO2 Separation

    PubMed Central

    Couto, Ricardo; Neves, Luísa; Simões, Pedro; Coelhoso, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    In this work, a supported ionic liquid membrane (SILM) was prepared by impregnating a PVDF membrane with 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide ([BMIM][DCA]) ionic liquid. This membrane was tested for its permeability to pure gases (CO2, N2 and O2) and ideal selectivities were calculated. The SILM performance was also compared to that of Ion-Jelly® membranes, a new type of gelled membranes developed recently. It was found that the PVDF membrane presents permeabilities for pure gases similar or lower to those presented by the Ion-Jelly® membranes, but with increased ideal selectivities. This membrane presents also the highest ideal selectivity (73) for the separation of CO2 from N2 when compared with SILMs using the same PVDF support but with different ionic liquids. PMID:25594165

  3. Experimental investigation of the permeability and selectivity of supported ionic liquid membranes for CO2/He separation at temperatures up to 125° C

    SciTech Connect

    Ilconich, J.B.; Myers, C.R.; Pennline, H.W.; Luebke, D.R.

    2007-07-01

    Supported liquid membranes have been prepared by impregnation of commercial porous polymer films with the ionic liquid 1-n-hexyl-3- methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide. The ionic liquid has been characterized, and the membranes have been tested to determine performance in the selective separation of CO2 from He. Experiments were conducted in a constant pressure system, and pure gas permeability/selectivity data are reported. Membranes prepared with polysulfone supports have been found to be stable to 125 °C. The CO2 permeability of the membranes increases from 744 to 1200 barrer as the temperature increases from 37 to 125 °C. The CO2/He selectivity decreased from 8.7 to 3.1 over the same temperature range.

  4. Highly cis-selective and lead-free hydrogenation of 2-hexyne by a supported Pd catalyst with an ionic-liquid layer.

    PubMed

    Schwab, Frederick; Weidler, Natascha; Lucas, Martin; Claus, Peter

    2014-09-18

    A simple Pd/SiO2 catalyst which was modified with the ionic liquid [BMPL][DCA] gave an excellent yield of 88% towards cis-2-hexene in the stereoselective hydrogenation of 2-hexyne. The catalyst outperforms, even at full conversion, the commonly used lead-poisoned, toxic Lindlar catalyst and supported colloidal-based Pd as well. PMID:25069061

  5. Supported phospholipid bilayer interaction with components found in typical room-temperature ionic liquids - a QCM-D and AFM study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring and atomic force microscopy were combined to evaluate the defects created by room-temperature ionic liquid anion and cation in a supported phospholipid bilayer composed of Zwitterionic lipids on a silica surface. The cation 1-octyl-3-methyl im...

  6. Determination of free copper concentrations in natural waters by using supported liquid membrane extraction under equilibrium conditions.

    PubMed

    Romero, Roberto; Jönsson, Jan Ake

    2005-04-01

    A method is described for measurement of freely dissolved copper concentrations in natural water samples using supported liquid membrane (SLM) extraction under equilibrium conditions, a technique denoted "equilibrium sampling through membranes" (ESTM). For this purpose, 1,10-dibenzyl-1,10-diaza-18-crown-6 as neutral carrier and oleic acid were used in the membrane phase. The main variables optimised were the carrier used to form the metal complexes, the organic solvent used in the membrane, the countercation, pH, the ligand used in the acceptor phase, the extraction time, and the flow rate of the donor phase. After the optimisation process an enrichment factor of 18.5 was obtained. Equilibrium conditions were reached after extraction for 60 min if a flow rate of 1.0 mL min(-1) or greater was used. When different ligands such as humic acids, phthalic acid, and EDTA were added to the sample solution, and sample pH ranged from 6 to 8, the results obtained for freely dissolved copper concentrations were in a good agreement with results from speciation calculations performed with Visual Minteq V 2.30, Cheaqs V L20.1, and WinHumic V. The developed technique was applied to analysis of stream and leachate water. PMID:15759138

  7. Determination of selected pharmaceutical compounds in biosolids by supported liquid extraction and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Albero, Beatriz; Sánchez-Brunete, Consuelo; Miguel, Esther; Aznar, Ramón; Tadeo, José L

    2014-04-01

    In this work, an analytical method was developed for the determination of pharmaceutical drugs in biosolids. Samples were extracted with an acidic mixture of water and acetone (1:2, v/v) and supported liquid extraction was used for the clean-up of extracts, eluting with ethyl acetate:methanol (90:10, v/v). The compounds were determined by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using matrix-match calibration after silylation to form their t-butyldimethylsilyl derivatives. This method presents various advantages, such as a fairly simple operation for the analysis of complex matrices, the use of inexpensive glassware and low solvent volumes. Satisfactory mean recoveries were obtained with the developed method ranging from 70 to 120% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) ≤ 13%, and limits of detection between 0.5 and 3.6 ng g(-1). The method was then successfully applied to biosolids samples collected in Madrid and Catalonia (Spain). Eleven of the sixteen target compounds were detected in the studied samples, at levels up to 1.1 μg g(-1) (salicylic acid). Ibuprofen, caffeine, paracetamol and fenofibrate were detected in all of the samples analyzed. PMID:24582395

  8. Hydrogenation of Liquid Styrene by Alumina Supported Nickel Catalysts: Comparison between Classical and Non-Classical Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Y. C.; Abu Bakar, N. H. H.; Tan, W. L.; Abu Bakar, M.

    2016-06-01

    Almina supported Ni catalysts (Ni/Al2O3) with different Ni weight percentages (wt%) were prepared via classical and non-classical methods. All samples were prepared via impregnation technique. The samples prepared via non-classical methods were reduced using KBH4 as the reducing agent. The catalysts were tested for the hydrogenation of styrene in liquid phase. Optimum activation conditions for the hydrogenation reaction were found to be 633 K for 2 hours. Comparison of the catalytic reactivity for all catalysts at these activation conditions showed that catalysts prepared via classical methods exhibited better activity. Furthermore the 7.6wt% Ni-Al2O3/C showed enhanced activity when compared to the 5.9wt% and 13.8wt% Ni-Al2O3/C catalyst. This phenomenon is mainly attributed to the type of Ni active sites available on the catalyst. The surface properties of the catalysts investigated via H2- temperature programmed reduction (H2-TPR), H2-chemisorption and H2-temperature programmed desorption (H2-TPD) confirm this.

  9. Utilization of liquid human wastes and introduction into the material cycling in biological life-support systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovaleva, N. P.>; Ushakova, S. A.; Gribovskaya, I. V.; Kudenko, U. A.

    The possibilities of step-by-step utilization of liquid human wastes in biological life-support systems on long-functioning space stations have been considered in this work. Utilization involves "wet" urine incineration with hydrogen peroxide at normal pressure and 90 - 95°C temperature, urease-enzymic decomposition of urine and biological desalination in the higher plant link. The soybean flour was used as a source of urease. Growing soya plants as a component of the higher plant link would give a steady source of urease to the system. To decompose urea (9-15g) contained in 1l of incinerated urine we used 0.5 - 1 g of soy flour. The duration of hydrolysis of daily urea excreted by a human is 70 - 95 hours. It is supposed that ammonia excreted in the reaction of urea decomposition will be processed by nitrifying bacteria. The concentration of total nitrogen in urine after urea hydrolysis and removal of ammonia formed during the reaction constituted 0.6 - 1.2 g/l. Further biological desalination was carried out in the higher plant link, for that the edible salt-accumulating halophytes Salicornia europaea were used. To grow this plant under the aqueous culture conditions, the urine was additionally mineralized at 180 °C after incineration and decomposition of urea. The process of additional mineralization was related to the necessity of removal of organic materials and nitrogen residues, which higher concentration under the aqueous culture conditions has negative effect on plants. The volume of the nutrient solution for growing 6 plants of Salicornia europaea was 1.5 l (daily norm of urine excreted by human), the planting area was 0.032 m2. By the end of vegetation the productivity and mineral composition of Salicornia europaea plants were analyzed. The productivity of plants grown on liquid human wastes (the experiment) practically was not different from the productivity of plants grown on the mineral solution with sodium chloride (checkout). In experimental

  10. Pumice-supported Pd-Pt bimetallic catalysts: Synthesis, structural characterization, and liquid-phase hydrogenation of 1,3-cyclooctadiene

    SciTech Connect

    Deganello, G.; Duca, D.; Liotta, L.F.; Martorana, A.; Venezia, M.; Benedetti, A.; Fagherazz, G.

    1995-01-01

    A series of pumice-supported palladium-platinum bimetallic catalysts were prepared and investigated by X-ray scattering (WAXS and SAXS) and XPS techniques. An alloy Pd-Pt was formed. The less abundant metal was found to segregate to the surface. The catalysts were tested in the liquid-phase hydrogenation of 1,3-cyclooctadiene to cyclooctene, and compared with similarly prepared pumice-supported palladium and platinum catalysts and other supported Pd-Pt catalysts reported in the literature. The addition of platinum reduces the activity and the selectivity of the palladium catalysts. Differences between the activity of these pumice-supported catalysts and the activity of previously described Pd and Pd-Pt catalysts on other supports, are attributed to the presence, in the latter, of diffusional processes. 50 refs., 4 figs. 2 tabs.

  11. Liquid phase methanol process development unit: installation, operation, and support studies, draft annual report. Technical progress report No. 8, October 1, 1982-September 30, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-10-20

    Engineering of the 5 TPD LPMeOH PDU was completed, and significant progress was made at the LaPorte, TX site. The LaPorte installation work will be totally complete in mid-November 1983, and shakedown will begin as scheduled. Significant new data and results were achieved in the laboratory support programs at Fairfield and Allentown (APCI). Gas phase screening (0.5 inch tubular reactors) of new catalysts for liquid-entrained (slurry) operation was completed in Allentown. Investigation of some 25 new catalyst preparations led to the advancement of 3 catalyst candidates for liquid phase screening at Fairfield. The catalyst activity with both feed gases was stable, with long, slow deactivation observed (similar to Fairfield), an encouraging result. Laboratory progress at CSI, Fairfield was significant. Liquid phase screening of outside slurry catalyst candidates in the 2-liter stirred autoclave reactors was completed. Several outside catalyst powders achieved good performance in the liquid phase, and one commercial powder was recommended for advancement to LaPorte. In the fundamental modeling effort, the chemical equilibrium description for the methanol synthesis reaction was improved. Intrinsic kinetics were derived from the data from the stirred autoclave reactors. These kinetics were incorporated along with the gas holdup data into the three-phase backflow model of the liquid-entrained reactor. The model was subsequently used to make predictions of LaPorte performance, and to predict the data of the first Lab PDU slurry run. The early results are quite encouraging.

  12. Supported liquid membrane based removal of lead(II) and cadmium(II) from mixed feed: Conversion to solid waste by precipitation.

    PubMed

    Bhatluri, Kamal Kumar; Manna, Mriganka Sekhar; Ghoshal, Aloke Kumar; Saha, Prabirkumar

    2015-12-15

    Simultaneous removal of two heavy metals, lead(II) and cadmium(II), from mixed feed using supported liquid membrane (SLM) based technique is investigated in this work. The carrier-solvent combination of "sodium salt of Di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid (D2EHPA) (4% w/w) in environmentally benign coconut oil" was immobilized into the pores of solid polymeric polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) support. Sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) was used as the stripping agent. Carbonate salts of lead(II) and cadmium(II) were formed in the stripping side interface and they were insoluble in water leading to precipitation inside the stripping solution. The transportation of solute is positively affected due to the precipitation. Lead(II) removal was found to be preferential due to its favorable electronic configuration. The conversion of the liquid waste to the solid one was added advantage for the final removal of hazardous heavy metals. PMID:26252994

  13. Analysis of the organic liquid produced from catalytic cracking of crude palm oil in the presence of alumina supported catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramli, Anita; Razak, Rozlina Abdul

    2012-09-01

    Catalytic cracking of crude palm oil (CPO) was studied in the presence of alumina, 1% Pt/Al2O3 and 1% Pd/Al2O3 as catalyst. The CPO to catalyst weight ratio used was 1:0.05. The experiment was carried out in a simple liquid-phase batch reactor at atmospheric pressure where the sample was heated to 300-350 δC. Products formed were organic liquid products (OLP) and gaseous product with the solid residue remains in the reactor. The total conversion of CPO was only between 25 - 31% where the residue is suggested to be mainly of polimerised CPO. The OLP was analysed using a gas chromatography with FID detector. Analyses show that the selectivity to liquid fuel is influence by the catalyst used whereby Al2O3 gives the highest selectivity to gasoline while 1% Pt/Al2O3 has the highest selectivity to diesel. However, 1% Pd/Al2O3 is not a suitable catalyst for catalytic cracking of CPO to liquid fuel where less than 17.5% of OLP produced could be classified as liquid fuel.

  14. Design, testing, fabrication and launch support of a liquid chemical barium release payload (utilizing the liquid fluorine-barium salt/hydrazine system)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stokes, C. S.; Smith, E. W.; Murphy, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    A payload was designed which included a cryogenic oxidizer tank, a fuel tank, and burner section. Release of 30 lb of chemicals was planned to occur in 2 seconds at the optimum oxidizer to fuel ratio. The chemicals consisted of 17 lb of liquid fluorine oxidizer and 13 lb of hydrazine-barium salt fuel mixture. The fuel mixture was 17% barium chloride, 16% barium nitrate, and 67% hydrazine, and contained 2.6 lb of available barium. Two significant problem areas were resolved during the program: explosive valve development and burner operation. The release payload was flight tested, from Wallops Island, Virginia. The release took place at an altitude of approximately 260 km. The release produced a luminous cloud which expanded very rapidly, disappearing to the human eye in about 20 seconds. Barium ion concentration slowly increased over a wide area of sky until measurements were discontinued at sunrise (about 30 minutes).

  15. Rapid and simple pretreatment of human body fluids using electromembrane extraction across supported liquid membrane for capillary electrophoretic determination of lithium.

    PubMed

    Strieglerová, Lenka; Kubáň, Pavel; Boček, Petr

    2011-05-01

    Electromembrane extraction was used for simultaneous sample cleanup and preconcentration of lithium from untreated human body fluids. The sample of a body fluid was diluted 100 times with 0.5 mM Tris solution and lithium was extracted by electromigration through a supported liquid membrane composed of 1-octanol into 100 mM acetic acid acceptor solution. Matrix compounds, such as proteins, red blood cells, and other high-molecular-weight compounds were efficiently retained on the supported liquid membrane. The liquid membrane was anchored in pores of a short segment of a polypropylene hollow fiber, which represented a low cost, single use, disposable extraction unit and was discarded after each use. Acceptor solutions were analyzed using capillary electrophoresis with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (CE-C(4) D) and baseline separation of lithium was achieved in a background electrolyte solution consisting of 18 mM L-histidine and 40 mM acetic acid at pH 4.6. Repeatability of the electromembrane extraction-CE-C(4) D method was evaluated for the determination of lithium in standard solutions and real samples and was better than 0.6 and 8.2% for migration times and peak areas, respectively. The concentration limit of detection of 9 nM was achieved. The developed method was applied to the determination of lithium in urine, blood serum, blood plasma, and whole blood at both endogenous and therapeutic concentration levels. PMID:21500213

  16. One-step synthesis of highly efficient nanocatalysts on the supports with hierarchical pores using porous ionic liquid-water gel.

    PubMed

    Kang, Xinchen; Zhang, Jianling; Shang, Wenting; Wu, Tianbin; Zhang, Peng; Han, Buxing; Wu, Zhonghua; Mo, Guang; Xing, Xueqing

    2014-03-12

    Stable porous ionic liquid-water gel induced by inorganic salts was created for the first time. The porous gel was used to develop a one-step method to synthesize supported metal nanocatalysts. Au/SiO2, Ru/SiO2, Pd/Cu(2-pymo)2 metal-organic framework (Cu-MOF), and Au/polyacrylamide (PAM) were synthesized, in which the supports had hierarchical meso- and macropores, the size of the metal nanocatalysts could be very small (<1 nm), and the size distribution was very narrow even when the metal loading amount was as high as 8 wt %. The catalysts were extremely active, selective, and stable for oxidative esterification of benzyl alcohol to methyl benzoate, benzene hydrogenation to cyclohexane, and oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde because they combined the advantages of the nanocatalysts of small size and hierarchical porosity of the supports. In addition, this method is very simple. PMID:24575937

  17. Data supporting the rat brain sample preparation and validation assays for simultaneous determination of 8 neurotransmitters and their metabolites using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wojnicz, Aneta; Ortiz, José Avendaño; Casas, Ana I; Freitas, Andiara E; López, Manuela G; Ruiz-Nuño, Ana

    2016-06-01

    The data presented in this article supports the rat brain sample preparation procedure previous to its injection into the liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) system to monitor levels of adrenaline, noradrenaline, glutamic acid, γ-aminobutyric acid, dopamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid, and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol. In addition, we describe the method validation assays (such as calibration curve, lower limit of quantification, precision and accuracy intra- and inter-day, selectivity, extraction recovery and matrix effect, stability, and carry-over effect) according to the United States Food and Drug Administration and European Medicine Agency to measure in one step different neurotransmitters and their metabolites. The data supplied in this article is related to the research study entitled: "Simultaneous determination of 8 neurotransmitters and their metabolite levels in rat brain using liquid chromatography in tandem with mass spectrometry: application to the murine Nrf2 model of depression" (Wojnicz et al. 2016) [1]. PMID:27054183

  18. Novel supports in chiral stationary phase development for liquid chromatography. Preparation, characterization and application of ordered mesoporous silica particles.

    PubMed

    Sierra, Isabel; Pérez-Quintanilla, Damián; Morante, Sonia; Gañán, Judith

    2014-10-10

    Recent advances in the development of new materials are having a major impact on analytical chemistry. For example, the unique properties of ordered mesoporous silicas (OMSs) have been shown to enhance the analytical performance of many existing techniques or allow new, exciting ones to be developed. Likewise, the introduction of organo-functional groups makes OMSs highly versatile and enables them to perform specialized tasks, such as the separation of chiral compounds. This review provides an overview with the most relevant achievements in the preparation of OMS particles functionalized with chiral selectors. In addition, some examples from the last fifteen years regarding the analytical applications of functionalized OMS for chiral separations by high-performance liquid chromatography, ultra-high pressure high-performance liquid chromatography and capillary electrochromatography have been reviewed. PMID:25015243

  19. [Informational and analytical system for the support of decision making during liquidation of consequences of a large-scale radiation accident].

    PubMed

    Zlatoustov, N N; Bizin, I A; Bondarenko, I M; Kaganov, V M; Grenkova, G K

    2001-07-01

    The developed information and analytic system (IAS) of decision making support in liquidation medical-and-sanitary consequences of the large-scale radiation accidents permits on the base of computer models to evaluate the size and degree of territorial radioactive pollution, the radiation doses, the number and structure of radiation affection, the forces and means of medical service required for rendering the casualties the first medical aid as well as to compare the available and necessary medical forces and means. IAS is intended for equipping the toxicologist-radiologist's working place. To solve the private problems the IAS computer methods can be used both in complex and autonomously. PMID:11561428

  20. Partitioning of actinides from high level waste of PUREX origin using octylphenyl-N,N{prime}-diisobutylcarbamoylmethyl phosphine oxide (CMPO)-based supported liquid membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Ramanujam, A.; Dhami, P.S.; Gopalakrishnan, V.; Dudwadkar, N.L.; Chitnis, R.R.; Mathur, J.N.

    1999-06-01

    The present studies deal with the application of the supported liquid membrane (SLM) technique for partitioning of actinides from high level waste of PUREX origin. The process uses a solution of octylphenyl-N,N{prime}-diisobutylcarbamoylmethyl phosphine oxide (CMPO) in n-dodecane as a carrier with a polytetrafluoroethylene support and a mixture of citric acid, formic acid, and hydrazine hydrate as the receiving phase. The studies involve the investigation of such parameters as carrier concentration in SLM, acidity of the feed, and the feed composition. The studies indicated good transport of actinides like neptunium, americium, and plutonium across the membrane from nitric acid medium. A high concentration of uranium in the feed retards the transport of americium, suggesting the need for prior removal of uranium from the waste. The separation of actinides from uranium-lean simulated samples as well as actual high level waste has been found to be feasible using the above technique.

  1. Design and synthesis of redox-switched lariat ethers and their application for transport of alkali and alkaline-Earth metal cations across supported liquid membrane.

    PubMed

    Awasthy, Anubhuti; Bhatnagar, Mamta; Tomar, Jyoti; Sharma, Uma

    2006-01-01

    A new class of redox-switched anthraquinone derived lariat ethers 1-(1-anthraquinonyloxy) 3, 6, 9 trioxaundecane 11-ol (M(1)), 1-(1-anthraquinonyloxy) 3, 6 dioxaoctane 9-ol (M(2)), 1-(1-anthraquinonyloxy) 3 oxapentane 5-ol (M(3)), 1-(1-anthraquinonyloxy) 3 oxapentane 5-butane (M(4)), 1-(1-anthraquinonyloxy) 3, 6 dioxaoctane 9-methane (M(5)) and 1-(1-anthraquinonyloxy) 3 oxapentane 5-methane (M(6)) have been synthesized and characterized by spectral analysis. These ionophores were used in liquid membrane carrier facilitated transport of main group metal cations across supported liquid membrane (SLM). Cellulose nitrate membrane was used as membrane support. Effect of various parameters such as variation in concentration of metal as well as ionophore, effect of chain length and end group of ionophore have been studied. The sequence of metal ions transported by ionophore M(1) is Na(+) > Li(+) > K(+) > Ca(2+) > Mg(2+) and the order of metal ions transported by ionophores (M(2)-M(6)) is Li(+) > Na(+) > K(+) > Ca(2+) > Mg(2+). Ionophore M(1) is selective for Na(+), Li(+), and K(+) and ionophores (M(2)-M(6)) are selective for Li(+) and Na(+). PMID:17497021

  2. MEASUREMENTS TAKEN IN SUPPORT OF QUALIFICATION OF PROCESSING SAVANNAH RIVER SITE LOW-LEVEL LIQUID WASTE INTO SALTSTONE

    SciTech Connect

    Reigel, M.; Bibler, N.; Diprete, C.; Cozzi, A.; Staub, A.; Ray, J.

    2010-01-27

    The Saltstone Facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS) immobilizes low-level liquid waste into Saltstone to be disposed of in the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility, Class Three Landfill. In order to meet the permit conditions and regulatory limits set by the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), both the low-level salt solution and Saltstone samples are analyzed quarterly. Waste acceptance criteria (WAC) are designed to confirm the salt solution sample from the Tank Farm meets specific radioactive and chemical limits. The toxic characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) is used to confirm that the treatment has immobilized the hazardous constituents of the salt solution. This paper discusses the methods used to characterize the salt solution and final Saltstone samples from 2007-2009.

  3. LIQUID PHASE SELECTIVE OXIDATION OF ETHYLBENZENE OVER ACTIVATED AL2O3 SUPPORTED V2O5 CATALYST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acetophenone, a very useful industrial chemical for fragrance and flavoring agent and a solvent for plastics and resins, is usually produced as a byproduct of phenol production from cumeme. Aluminia supported vandium oxide catalyst is now explored for the selective oxidation of e...

  4. Density-fluctuation symbolic computation on the (3+1)-dimensional variable-coefficient Kudryashov-Sinelshchikov equation for a bubbly liquid with experimental support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xin-Yi

    2016-06-01

    Liquids with gas bubbles are commonly seen in medical science, natural science, daily life and engineering. Nonlinear-wave symbolic computation on the (3+1)-dimensional variable-coefficient Kudryashov-Sinelshchikov model for a bubbly liquid is hereby performed. An auto-Bäcklund transformation and with some solitonic solutions are obtained. With respect to the density fluctuation of the bubble-liquid mixture, both the auto-Bäcklund transformation and solitonic solutions depend on the bubble-liquid-viscosity, transverse-perturbation, bubble-liquid-nonlinearity and bubble-liquid-dispersion coefficient functions. We note that some shock waves given by our solutions have been observed by the gas-bubble/liquid-mixture experiments. Effects on a bubbly liquid with respect to the bubble-liquid-viscosity, transverse-perturbation, bubble-liquid-nonlinearity and bubble-liquid-dispersion coefficient functions might be detected by the future gas-bubble/liquid-mixture experiments.

  5. Automation of static and dynamic non-dispersive liquid phase microextraction. Part 2: Approaches based on impregnated membranes and porous supports.

    PubMed

    Alexovič, Michal; Horstkotte, Burkhard; Solich, Petr; Sabo, Ján

    2016-02-11

    A critical overview on automation of modern liquid phase microextraction (LPME) approaches based on the liquid impregnation of porous sorbents and membranes is presented. It is the continuation of part 1, in which non-dispersive LPME techniques based on the use of the extraction phase (EP) in the form of drop, plug, film, or microflow have been surveyed. Compared to the approaches described in part 1, porous materials provide an improved support for the EP. Simultaneously they allow to enlarge its contact surface and to reduce the risk of loss by incident flow or by components of surrounding matrix. Solvent-impregnated membranes or hollow fibres are further ideally suited for analyte extraction with simultaneous or subsequent back-extraction. Their use can therefore improve the procedure robustness and reproducibility as well as it "opens the door" to the new operation modes and fields of application. However, additional work and time are required for membrane replacement and renewed impregnation. Automation of porous support-based and membrane-based approaches plays an important role in the achievement of better reliability, rapidness, and reproducibility compared to manual assays. Automated renewal of the extraction solvent and coupling of sample pretreatment with the detection instrumentation can be named as examples. The different LPME methodologies using impregnated membranes and porous supports for the extraction phase and the different strategies of their automation, and their analytical applications are comprehensively described and discussed in this part. Finally, an outlook on future demands and perspectives of LPME techniques from both parts as a promising area in the field of sample pretreatment is given. PMID:26802999

  6. Hollow-fiber-supported liquid-phase microextraction using an ionic liquid as the extractant for the pre-concentration of bisphenol A, 17-β-estradiol, estrone and diethylstilbestrol from water samples with HPLC detection.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yanmin; Zhang, Zhen; Shao, Xiaoling; Chen, Yao; Wu, Xiangyang; Yang, Liuqing; Zhu, Jingjing; Zhang, Dongmei

    2014-01-01

    A new method for the determination of four endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) (bisphenol A, 17-β-estradiol, estrone and diethylstilbestrol) in water samples has been developed using polypropylene hollow-fiber-supported ionic liquid (IL, 1-Octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, [C8MIM][PF6]) microextraction [HF-liquid-phase microextraction (LPME)] combined with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)/UV. This method was used to investigate pollutants in surface water, on the Neijiang River, located at Zhenjiang, Jiangsu Province. Several parameters (sample pH, volume of accepter phase, ionic strength) were investigated. Under the optimum extraction conditions (sample pH, 2.0; volume of extraction solvent, 2.5 μL; ionic strength, 2.57) the proposed method offered: good linearity range, 0.15-100 μg L(-1), with the correlation coefficients (r(2)) of 0.9996, 0.9994, 0.9990 and 0.9984, respectively; low limits of detection, 0.03, 0.05, 0.10, 0.05 μg L(-1) (S/N = 3) for bisphenol A, 17-β-estradiol, estrone and diethylstilbestrol, respectively; good reproducibility (relative standard deviation (RSD), 8.41, 7.61, 9.00, 7.22%, respectively, n = 5); satisfactory recoveries (80.2-107.1%, n = 5); and high enrichment factors, 5,240, 3,693, 2,425 and 2,086, were achieved, for the four chemicals, respectively. Using the proposed HF-LPME, among 15 sampling sites along Neijiang River, bisphenol A, diethylstilbestrol and 17-β-estradiol were detected in some sites, all of which were the near suburban sampling sites. The results indicate that the role of municipal sewage is an important source of EDC contamination. PMID:24622552

  7. Functionalized mesoporous silica supported copper(II) and nickel(II) catalysts for liquid phase oxidation of olefins.

    PubMed

    Nandi, Mahasweta; Roy, Partha; Uyama, Hiroshi; Bhaumik, Asim

    2011-12-14

    Highly ordered 2D-hexagonal mesoporous silica has been functionalized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (3-APTES). This is followed by its condensation with a dialdehyde, 4-methyl-2,6-diformylphenol to produce an immobilized Schiff-base ligand (I). This material is separately treated with methanolic solution of copper(II) chloride and nickel(II) chloride to obtain copper and nickel anchored mesoporous materials, designated as Cu-AMM and Ni-AMM, respectively. The materials have been characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and UV-vis diffuse reflectance (DRS) spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), N(2) adsorption-desorption studies and (13)C CP MAS NMR spectroscopy. The metal-grafted mesoporous materials have been used as catalysts for the efficient and selective epoxidation of alkenes, viz. cyclohexene, trans-stilbene, styrene, α-methyl styrene, cyclooctene and norbornene to their corresponding epoxides in the presence of tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) as the oxidant under mild liquid phase conditions. PMID:21989952

  8. Liquid-Phase Synthesis of 2′-Methyl-RNA on a Homostar Support through Organic-Solvent Nanofiltration

    PubMed Central

    Gaffney, Piers R J; Kim, Jeong F; Valtcheva, Irina B; Williams, Glynn D; Anson, Mike S; Buswell, Andrew M; Livingston, Andrew G

    2015-01-01

    Due to the discovery of RNAi, oligonucleotides (oligos) have re-emerged as a major pharmaceutical target that may soon be required in ton quantities. However, it is questionable whether solid-phase oligo synthesis (SPOS) methods can provide a scalable synthesis. Liquid-phase oligo synthesis (LPOS) is intrinsically scalable and amenable to standard industrial batch synthesis techniques. However, most reported LPOS strategies rely upon at least one precipitation per chain extension cycle to separate the growing oligonucleotide from reaction debris. Precipitation can be difficult to develop and control on an industrial scale and, because many precipitations would be required to prepare a therapeutic oligonucleotide, we contend that this approach is not viable for large-scale industrial preparation. We are developing an LPOS synthetic strategy for 2′-methyl RNA phosphorothioate that is more amenable to standard batch production techniques, using organic solvent nanofiltration (OSN) as the critical scalable separation technology. We report the first LPOS-OSN preparation of a 2′-Me RNA phosphorothioate 9-mer, using commercial phosphoramidite monomers, and monitoring all reactions by HPLC, 31P NMR spectroscopy and MS. PMID:26012874

  9. Passive extraction and clean-up of phenoxy acid herbicides in samples from a groundwater plume using hollow fiber supported liquid membranes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing-Fu; Toräng, Lars; Mayer, Philipp; Jönsson, Jan Ake

    2007-08-10

    Hollow fiber supported liquid membranes were applied for the passive extraction of phenoxy acid herbicides from water samples. Polypropylene hollow fiber membranes (240 microm i.d., 30 microm wall thickness, 0.05 microm pore size, 30 cm length) were impregnated with 2.0% tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) in di-n-hexyl ether in the pores of the fiber wall to form a liquid membrane. They were then filled with basic solution in the lumen as acceptor and finally placed into the sample (donor). Complete extraction of phenoxy acid herbicides including 2,4-D, MCPA, dichlorprop, and mecoprop from an acidified sample (4 mL, adjusted to pH 1.5 with HCl) into basic acceptor (10 microL of 0.2M NaOH) was achieved after 4 h of shaking (100 rpm) resulting in an enrichment factor of 400 times. The acceptor was then neutralized by addition of HCl and injected into a HPLC system for the determination of the phenoxy acid herbicides. Environmentally relevant salinity (0-3.5% NaCl) and dissolved organic matter (0-25 mg/L of dissolved organic carbon) had no significant effect on the extraction. The method provided extraction efficiencies of more than 91%, detection limits of 0.3-0.6 microg/L, and combined extraction and clean up in one single step. This procedure was applied to determine aqueous concentrations of phenoxy acid herbicides in groundwater samples collected from an old dumping site (Cheminova, Denmark) with detected concentrations up to 5800 microg/L. Although the samples were very dirty with large amounts of suspended particles, non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) and dissolved organic matters, good spike recoveries (80-126%) were obtained for 10 of the 11 samples. PMID:17449052

  10. Derivatization of ethylene dibromide with silica-supported silver picrate for improved high-performance liquid chromatographic detection

    SciTech Connect

    Colgan, S.T.; Krull, I.S.; Dorschel, C.; Bidlingmeyer, B.

    1986-10-01

    Silica-supported silver picrate was used as an off-line, precolumn derivatization reagent for ethylene dibromide (EDB). Two products were obtained, the ratio of which, as a function of reaction conditions, is characteristic of EDB. The derivatives were monitored with UV, reductive electrochemical, and photolysis/oxidative electrochemical detection. Sub-parts-per-billion detection limits were obtained. The method was used to quantitate EDB in leaded gasoline, and the results were confirmed with gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC/ECD). The method was further validated with a single blind analysis of spiked EDB in gasoline. This is the first report of an HPLC method for EDB.

  11. Core-Shell Diamond as a Support for Solid-Phase Extraction and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Saini, Gaurav; Jensen, David S.; Wiest, Landon A.; Vail, Michael A.; Dadson, Andrew; Lee, Milton L.; Shutthanandan, V.; Linford, Matthew R.

    2010-06-01

    We report the formation of core-shell diamond particles for solid phase extraction (SPE) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) made by layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition. Their synthesis begins with the amine functionalization of microdiamond by its immersion in an aqueous solution of a primary amine-containing polymer (polyallylamine (PAAm)). The amine-terminated microdiamond is then immersed in an aqueous suspension of nanodiamond, which leads to adsorption of the nanodiamond. Alternating (self-limiting) immersions in the solutions of the amine-containing polymer and the suspension of nanodiamond are continued until the desired number of nanodiamond layers is formed around the microdiamond. Finally, the core-shell particles are cross-linked with 1,2,5,6-diepoxycyclooctane or reacted with 1,2-epoxyoctadecane. Layer-by-layer deposition of PAAm and nanodiamond is also studied on planar Si/SiO2 surfaces, which were characterized by SEM, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA). Core-shell particles are characterized by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFT), environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), and Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET) surface area and pore size measurements. Larger (ca. 50 μm) core-shell diamond particles have much higher surface areas, and analyte loading capacities in SPE than nonporous solid diamond particles. Smaller (ca. 3 μm), normal and reversed phase, core-shell diamond particles have been used for HPLC, with 36,300 plates per meter for mesitylene in a separation of benzene and alkyl benzenes on a C18 adsorbent, and 54,800 plates per meter for diazinon in a similar separation of two pesticides.

  12. Separation of gallium and arsenic in wafer grinding extraction solution using a supported liquid membrane that contains PC88A as a carrier.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chin-Ying; Chen, Yi-Fu; Chen, Wen-Ching; Yang, Fong-Ru; Chen, Jyh-Herng; Lin, Jing-Chie

    2005-01-01

    Wafer grinding extraction solution was passed through a supported liquid membrane (SLM) that contained PC88A (2-ethylhexyl phosphonic acid mono 2-ethylhexyl ester) as a carrier, to separate gallium from arsenic by selective permeation. The SLM separation process was conducted under various conditions. The kind of membrane supporter, the pH of the feed, the feed concentration, and the HCl content in the strip governed the concentration of gallium and arsenic in the strip phase. The conditions determined as optimal in the laboratory test were used to perform the pilot test. Well separation between gallium and arsenic was performed in both laboratory and pilot tests. Hydrophobic membrane polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) with 0.2 microm pores was the best of three membrane supporters. The most efficient separation was obtained using an acidic feed (pH at 1.8) with 1000 ppm gallium. Over a 12-h period of stripping, the striped Ga concentration increased with the HCl concentration from 0.5 to 2.0 M and then leveled off. The recovery rate in the pilot test exceeded that on the laboratory scale because the membrane area was greater. The pilot test yielded a high recovery percentage of gallium (at 91%) and a low recovery of arsenic (merely 1.3 ppm) in the strip over 72 h. PMID:15717789

  13. Cr(VI) transport via a supported ionic liquid membrane containing CYPHOS IL101 as carrier: system analysis and optimization through experimental design strategies.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez de San Miguel, Eduardo; Vital, Xóchitl; de Gyves, Josefina

    2014-05-30

    Chromium(VI) transport through a supported liquid membrane (SLM) system containing the commercial ionic liquid CYPHOS IL101 as carrier was studied. A reducing stripping phase was used as a mean to increase recovery and to simultaneously transform Cr(VI) into a less toxic residue for disposal or reuse. General functions which describe the time-depending evolution of the metal fractions in the cell compartments were defined and used in data evaluation. An experimental design strategy, using factorial and central-composite design matrices, was applied to assess the influence of the extractant, NaOH and citrate concentrations in the different phases, while a desirability function scheme allowed the synchronized optimization of depletion and recovery of the analyte. The mechanism for chromium permeation was analyzed and discussed to contribute to the understanding of the transfer process. The influence of metal concentration was evaluated as well. The presence of different interfering ions (Ca(2+), Al(3+), NO3(-), SO4(2-), and Cl(-)) at several Cr(VI): interfering ion ratios was studied through the use of a Plackett and Burman experimental design matrix. Under optimized conditions 90% of recovery was obtained from a feed solution containing 7mgL(-1) of Cr(VI) in 0.01moldm(-3) HCl medium after 5h of pertraction. PMID:24751491

  14. Miniaturized supported liquid membrane device for selective on-line enrichment of basic drugs in plasma combined with capillary zone electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Pálmarsdóttir, S; Thordarson, E; Edholm, L E; Jönsson, J A; Mathiasson, L

    1997-05-01

    A hollow fiber miniaturized supported liquid membrane (SLM) device for sample preparation is connected on-line with capillary electrophoresis and used for determination of a basic drug, bambuterol, in human plasma. The analyte is extracted from the outside of the hollow fiber (donor) through the liquid membrane (pores of the fiber impregnated with organic solvent) into the acceptor solution in the fiber lumen. The process is driven by differences in pH between the donor and acceptor solution. The whole volume of the acceptor solution can then be injected into the CZE capillary by using the double-stacking procedure for large volume-injection. Very clean extracts of low ionic strength are obtained from the SLM treatment, making this sample pretreatment method compatible with the CZE double-stacking procedure, which in turn makes it possible to inject large volumes of sample onto the separation capillary. Good performance of the whole procedure is demonstrated, and detection limits in the low nanomolar range were obtained in spite of the relatively weak UV absorbance of bambuterol. Extractions through the miniaturized SLM unit can be performed for 5-6 h without regenerating the fiber. The regeneration procedure was tested, and no relevant changes in the performance of the extraction could be found after seven regenerations, allowing the same fiber to be used for a week. PMID:9145027

  15. Hollow-fibre supported liquid membrane extraction for determination of fluoxetine and norfluoxetine concentration at ultra trace level in sewage samples.

    PubMed

    Zorita, Saioa; Mårtensson, Lennart; Mathiasson, Lennart

    2007-10-01

    In this study, a method was developed for determining the concentration of the pharmaceutical fluoxetine and its metabolite, norfluoxetine, in sewage water samples. Sample preparation was performed by hollow-fibre supported liquid membrane (HF-SLM) extraction with final analysis using liquid chromatography with UV detection. Several parameters were studied including type of organic solvent, sample and acceptor pH, and salt and humic acid content. The optimised method allowed determination of the analyte at the ng/L level in sewage water. A linear plot gave a correlation coefficient better than 0.991 for both analytes and resulted in limits of detection in sewage water of 11 and 12 ng/L, for fluoxetine and norfluoxetine, respectively. The enrichment factor was over 1700 for both analytes in sewage water. The repeatability and reproducibility were better than 8% and 17%, respectively. The developed methodology was used to study daily variations of fluoxetine and norfluoxetine in municipal sewage streams. Norfluoxetine has been detected for the first time in sewage water and a preliminary analysis gave average concentrations of 150 and 225 ng/L for norfluoxetine and fluoxetine, respectively. PMID:17763523

  16. Data supporting the rat brain sample preparation and validation assays for simultaneous determination of 8 neurotransmitters and their metabolites using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Wojnicz, Aneta; Ortiz, José Avendaño; Casas, Ana I.; Freitas, Andiara E.; López, Manuela G.; Ruiz-Nuño, Ana

    2016-01-01

    The data presented in this article supports the rat brain sample preparation procedure previous to its injection into the liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) system to monitor levels of adrenaline, noradrenaline, glutamic acid, γ-aminobutyric acid, dopamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid, and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol. In addition, we describe the method validation assays (such as calibration curve, lower limit of quantification, precision and accuracy intra- and inter-day, selectivity, extraction recovery and matrix effect, stability, and carry-over effect) according to the United States Food and Drug Administration and European Medicine Agency to measure in one step different neurotransmitters and their metabolites. The data supplied in this article is related to the research study entitled: “Simultaneous determination of 8 neurotransmitters and their metabolite levels in rat brain using liquid chromatography in tandem with mass spectrometry: application to the murine Nrf2 model of depression” (Wojnicz et al. 2016) [1]. PMID:27054183

  17. Permeation of mixtures of four phenols through a supported liquid membrane in NaCl 1.0 mol/dm{sup 3} medium

    SciTech Connect

    Arana, G.; Borge, G.; Etxebarria, N.; Fernandez, L.A.

    1999-02-01

    The permeation of four phenols (phenol, 2-chlorophenol, 2-nitrophenol, and 2,4-dichlorophenol) through a supported liquid membrane has been studied in NaCl 1.0 mol/dm{sup 3} medium. The flux of each phenol was determined by measuring in real time the change of their concentration in the strip phase by making use of a fiber optic spectrophotometer and a multivariate calibration. The model for the permeation of phenol alone was first developed by making permeation experiments of a phenol, and then permeation studies of the mixture were carried out and the model was extended to those phenols. It was found that the permeation of a phenol is interfered with by the presence of other phenols.

  18. Automatic Supported Liquid Extraction (SLE) Coupled with HILIC-MS/MS: An Application to Method Development and Validation of Erlotinib in Human Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Jiongwei; Jiang, Xiangyu; Chen, Yu-Luan

    2010-01-01

    A novel bioanalytical method was developed and validated for the quantitative determination of erlotinib in human plasma by using the supported liquid extraction (SLE) sample cleanup coupled with hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometric detection (HILIC-MS/MS). The SLE extract could be directly injected into the HILIC-MS/MS system for analysis without the solvent evaporation and reconstitution steps. Therefore, the method is simple and rapid. In the present method, erlotinib-d6 was used as the internal standard. The SLE extraction recovery was 101.3%. The validated linear curve range was 2 to 2,000 ng/mL based on a sample volume of 0.100-mL, with a linear correlation coefficient of > 0.999. The validation results demonstrated that the present method gave a satisfactory precision and accuracy: intra-day CV < 5.9% (<8.4% for the lower limit of quantitation, LLOQ) with n = 6 and the accuracy of 98.0–106.0%; inter-day CV < 3.2% (<1.5% for LLOQ) with n = 18 and the accuracy of 100.0–103.2%. A dilution factor of 10 with blank plasma was validated for partial volume analysis. The stability tests indicated that the erlotinib in human plasma is stable for three freeze-thaw cycles (100.0–104.5% of the nominal values), or 24-h ambient storage (100.0–104.8% of the nominal values), or 227-day frozen storage at both -20 °C (91.5–94.5% of the nominal values) and -70 °C (93.3–93.8% of the nominal values). The results also showed no significant matrix effect (<6.3%) even with direct injection of organic extract into the LC-MS/MS system. The validated method has been successfully applied to support a clinical study.

  19. Polymer-supported ionic liquid solid phase extraction for trace inorganic and organic mercury determination in water samples by flow injection-cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Escudero, Leticia B; Olsina, Roberto A; Wuilloud, Rodolfo G

    2013-11-15

    A simple and green technique named polymer-supported ionic liquid solid phase extraction (PSIL-SPE) was developed for mercury (Hg) species determination. Inorganic Hg (InHg) species was complexed with chloride ions followed by its introduction into a flow injection on-line system to quantitatively retain the anionic chlorocomplex (HgCl4(2-)) in a column packed with CYPHOS(®) IL 101-impregnated resin. The trapped InHg was then reduced with stannous chloride (SnCl2) and eluted with the same flow of reducing agent followed by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS) detection. Organic mercury species (OrgHg) did not interact with the impregnated resin and were not retained into the column. Total concentration of OrgHg was evaluated by difference between total Hg and InHg concentration. A 95% extraction efficiency was achieved for InHg when the procedure was developed under optimal experimental conditions. The limit of detection obtained for preconcentration of 40 mL of sample was 2.4 ng L(-1) InHg. The relative standard deviation (RSD) was 2.7% (at 1 µg L(-1) InHg and n=10) calculated from the peak height of absorbance signals (Gaussian-shape and reproducible peaks). This work reports the first polymer-supported IL solid phase extraction approach implemented in a flow injection on-line system for determination of Hg species in mineral, tap and river water samples. PMID:24148384

  20. An ultrasensitive lysozyme chemiluminescence biosensor based on surface molecular imprinting using ionic liquid modified magnetic graphene oxide/β-cyclodextrin as supporting material.

    PubMed

    Duan, Huimin; Wang, Xiaojiao; Wang, Yanhui; Sun, Yuanling; Li, Jianbo; Luo, Chuannan

    2016-04-28

    In this work, ionic liquid modified Fe3O4@dopamine/graphene oxide/β-cyclodextrin (ILs-Fe3O4@DA/GO/β-CD) was used as supporting material to synthesize surface molecularly imprinted polymer (SMIP) which then was introduced into chemiluminescence (CL) to achieve an ultrasensitive and selective biosensor for determination of lysozyme (Lys). ILs and β-CD was applied to provide multiple binding sites to prepare Lys SMIP and Fe3O4@DA was designed to make the product separate easily and prevent the aggregation of GO which could improve absorption capacity for its large specific surface area. The ILs-Fe3O4@DA/GO/β-CD-SMIP showed high adsorption capacity (Q = 101 mg/g) to Lys in the adsorption isotherm assays. The adsorption equilibrium was reached within 10 min for all the concentrations, attributing to the binding sites situated exclusively at the surface, and the adsorption model followed Langmuir isotherm. Under the suitable CL conditions, the proposed biosensor could response Lys linearly in the range of 1.0 × 10(-9)-8.0 × 10(-8) mg/mL with a detection limit of 3.0 × 10(-10) mg/mL. When used in practical samples in determination of Lys, the efficient biosensor exhibited excellent result with the recoveries ranging from 94% to 112%. PMID:27046214

  1. Selective transport of copper(I, II), cadmium(II), and zinc(II) ions through a supported liquid membrane containing bathocuproine, neocuproine, or bathophenanthroline

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Takashi )

    1994-06-01

    Some selective transport systems for heavy metallic ions through a supported liquid membrane (SLM) containing a 2,2[prime]-dipyridyl derivative ligand, 4,7-diphenyl-2,9-dimethyl-1, 10-phenanthroline (bathocuproine), 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline (neocuproine), or 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (bathophenanthroline), were investigated. The transport of copper(I, II), cadmium(II), zinc(II), lead(II), and cobalt(II) ions was accomplished with a halogen ion such as chloride, bromide, or iodide ion as a pairing ion species for any SLM. The ranking of the permeability of the metallic ions was Cu[sup +,2+], Zn[sup 2+], Cd[sup 2+] [much gt] Pb[sup 2+], Co[sup 2+]. When the oxidation-reduction potential gradient was used as a driving force for metallic ions, the transport of Cu[sup +] ions was higher than those of Cd[sup 2+] and Zn[sup 2+] ions for any SLM containing bathocuproine, neocuproine, or bathophenanthroline. On the other hand, in the transport system which used the concentration gradient of pairing ion species, the permeability of the Cu[sup 2+] ion decreased whereas that of the Cd[sup 2+] ion increased. Moreover, it was found that the different selectivity for the transport of metallic ions is produced by using various pairing ion species. 18 refs., 9 figs.

  2. Conversion of fumaric acid to L-malic by sol-gel immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a supported liquid membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Bressler, Eyal; Pines, Ophry; Goldberg, Israel; Braun, Sergei

    2002-01-01

    Conversion of fumaric acid (FA) to L-malic acid (LMA) was carried out in a bioreactor divided by two supported liquid membranes (SLMs) into three compartments: Feed, Reaction, and Product. The Feed/Reaction SLM, made of tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (vol 10%) in ethyl acetate, was selective toward the substrate, fumaric acid (S(FA/LMA) = 10). The Reaction/Product SLM, made of di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (vol 10%) in dichloromethane, was selective toward the product, L-malic acid (S(LMA/FA) = 680). Immobilized yeast engineered to overproduce the enzyme fumarase [E.C. 4.2.1.2] was placed in the Reaction compartment and served as the catalyst. The yeast was immobilized in small glasslike beads of alginate-silicate sol-gel matrix. The construction of the bioreactor ensured unidirectional flow of the substrate from the Feed to the Reaction and of the product from the Reaction to the Product compartments, with the inorganic counterion traveling in the opposite direction. The conversion of almost 100%, above the equilibrium value of ca. 84% and higher than that for the industrial process, 70%, was achieved. In contrast to the existing industrial biocatalytic process resulting in L-malic acid salts, direct production of the free acid is described. PMID:12052057

  3. Supported liquid membrane extraction coupled in-line to commercial capillary electrophoresis for rapid determination of formate in undiluted blood samples.

    PubMed

    Pantůčková, Pavla; Kubáň, Pavel; Boček, Petr

    2013-07-19

    A cheap, disposable sample pretreatment device with planar supported liquid membrane (SLM) was proposed, assembled and placed into an autosampler carousel of a commercial capillary electrophoresis (CE) instrument for automated pretreatment and analysis of formate in undiluted whole blood and serum samples. All analytical procedures except for filling the pretreatment device with donor and acceptor solutions, i.e., extraction across SLM, injection of the extracted sample and CE-UV determination of formate, were performed fully automatically. The pretreatment device required only μL volumes of blood sample and organic solvent per extraction and was disposed off after each extraction. Good repeatability of peak areas (≤7.7%) and migration times (≤1.5%), linear relationship (r(2)=0.998-0.999) and limits of detection (≤35μM) were achieved. The overall analytical process including blood withdrawal, filling the SLM device with respective solutions, extraction of blood sample, injection into separation capillary and CE separation of formate from other anions took less than 4min. The method was proved useful by direct determination of elevated formate concentrations in undiluted serum samples of a methanol intoxicated patient. Due to its compatibility with currently commercially available CE instrumentation, disposability of extraction devices, minimum sample handling/consumption, and short extraction/analysis times, the developed method might be attractive for rapid diagnosis of methanol poisoning in clinical and toxicological laboratories. PMID:23777836

  4. The impact of recent innovations in the use of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in support of drug metabolism studies: are we all the way there yet?

    PubMed

    Nassar, Alaa-Eldin F; Talaat, Rasmy E; Kamel, Amin M

    2006-01-01

    Absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicology (ADMET) studies are widely used in drug discovery and development to help obtain the optimal balance of properties necessary to convert lead compounds into drugs that are safe and effective for human use. Drug discovery efforts have been aimed at identifying and addressing metabolism issues at the earliest possible stage, by developing and applying innovative liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)-based techniques and instrumentation, which are both faster and more accurate than prior techniques. Such new approaches are demonstrating considerable potential to improve the overall safety profile of drug candidates throughout the drug discovery and development process. These emerging techniques streamline and accelerate the process by eliminating potentially harmful candidates earlier and improving the safety of new drugs. In the area of drug metabolism, for example, revolutionary changes have been achieved by the combination of LC-MS with innovative instrumentation such as triple quadrupoles, ion traps and time-of-flight mass spectrometry. In turn, most ADMET studies have come to rely on LC-MS for the analysis of an ever-increasing workload of potential candidates. This article provides a discussion on the importance of LC-MS in supporting drug metabolism studies, and highlights the relative merits of current applications for LC-MS in drug metabolism testing and analysis. These applications include in vitro and in vivo testing, pharmacokinetic profiling, chiral separations, stable isotope labeling, metabolic activation testing, metabolite characterization and radiolabeled-drug testing. PMID:16445118

  5. Cadmium accumulation by a Citrobacter sp. immobilized on gel and solid supports: applicability to the treatment of liquid wastes containing heavy metal cations

    SciTech Connect

    Macaskie, L.E.; Wates, J.M.; Dean, A.C.R.

    1987-01-01

    Polyacrylamide gel-immobilized cells of a Citrobacter sp. removed cadmium from flows supplemented with glycerol 2-phosphate, the metal uptake mechanism being mediated by the activity of a cell-bound phosphatase that precipitates liberated inorganic phosphate with heavy metals at the cell surface. The constraints of elevated flow rate and temperature were investigated and the results discussed in terms of the kinetics of immobilized enzymes. Loss in activity with respect to cadmium accumulation but not inorganic phosphate liberation was observed at acid pH and was attributed to the pH-dependent solubility of cadmium phosphate. Similarly high concentrations of chloride ions, and traces of cyanide inhibited cadmium uptake and this was attributed to the ability of these anions to complex heavy metals, especially the ability of CN/sup -/ to form complex anions with Cd/sup 2 +/. The data are discussed in terms of the known chemistry of chloride and cyanide-cadmium complexes and the relevance of these factors in the treatment of metal-containing liquid wastes is discussed. The cells immobilized in polyacrylamide provided a convenient small-scale laboratory model system. It was found that the Citrobacter sp. could be immobilized on glass supports with no chemical treatment or modification necessary. Such cells were also effective in metal accumulation and a prototype system more applicable to the treatment of metal-containing streams on a larger scale is described.

  6. Liquid level sensing device

    DOEpatents

    Tokarz, Richard D.

    1983-01-01

    A liquid level sensing device comprising a load cell supporting a column or stack of segments freely resting on one another. The density of each element is substantially identical to that of the surrounding liquid. The elements are freely guided within a surrounding tube. As each element is exposed above the liquid level, its weight will be impressed through the column to the load cell, thereby providing a signal at the load cell directly proportional to the liquid level elevation.

  7. A biological method of including mineralized human liquid and solid wastes into the mass exchange of bio-technical life support systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushakova, S. A.; Tikhomirov, A. A.; Tikhomirova, N. A.; Kudenko, Yu. A.; Litovka, Yu. A.; Anishchenko, O. V.

    2012-10-01

    The main obstacle to using mineralized human solid and liquid wastes as a source of mineral elements for plants cultivated in bio-technical life support systems (BLSS) is that they contain NaCl. The purpose of this study is to determine whether mineralized human wastes can be used to prepare the nutrient solution for long-duration conveyor cultivation of uneven-aged wheat and Salicornia europaea L. plant community. Human solid and liquid wastes were mineralized by the method of "wet incineration" developed by Yu. Kudenko. They served as a basis for preparing the solutions that were used for conveyor-type cultivation of wheat community represented by 5 age groups, planted with a time interval of 14 days. Wheat was cultivated hydroponically on expanded clay particles. To reduce salt content of the nutrient solution, every two weeks, after wheat was harvested, 12 L of solution was removed from the wheat irrigation tank and used for Salicornia europaea cultivation in water culture in a conveyor mode. The Salicornia community was represented by 2 age groups, planted with a time interval of 14 days. As some portion of the nutrient solution used for wheat cultivation was regularly removed, sodium concentration in the wheat irrigation solution did not exceed 400 mg/L, and mineral elements contained in the removed portion were used for Salicornia cultivation. The experiment lasted 4 months. The total wheat biomass productivity averaged 30.1 g · m-2 · day-1, and the harvest index amounted to 36.8%. The average productivity of Salicornia edible biomass on a dry weight basis was 39.3 g · m-2 · day-1, and its aboveground mass contained at least 20% of NaCl. Thus, the proposed technology of cultivation of wheat and halophyte plant community enables using mineralized human wastes as a basis for preparing nutrient solutions and including NaCl in the mass exchange of the BLSS; moreover, humans are supplied with additional amounts of leafy vegetables.

  8. Speciation Analysis of Labile and Total Silver(I) in Nanosilver Dispersions and Environmental Waters by Hollow Fiber Supported Liquid Membrane Extraction.

    PubMed

    Chao, Jing-Bo; Zhou, Xiao-Xia; Shen, Mo-Hai; Tan, Zhi-Qiang; Liu, Rui; Yu, Su-Juan; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Liu, Jing-Fu

    2015-12-15

    Hollow fiber supported liquid membrane (HFSLM) extraction was coupled with ICP-MS for speciation analysis of labile Ag(I) and total Ag(I) in dispersions of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and environmental waters. Ag(I) in aqueous samples was extracted into the HFSLM of 5%(m/v) tri-n-octylphosphine oxide in n-undecane, and stripped in the acceptor of 10 mM Na2S2O3 and 1 mM Cu(NO3)2 prepared in 5 mM NaH2PO4-Na2HPO4 buffer (pH 7.5). Negligible depletion and exhaustive extraction were conducted under static and 250 rpm shaking to extract the labile Ag(I) and total Ag(I), respectively. The extraction equilibration was reached in 8 h for both extraction modes. The extraction efficiency and detection limit were (2.97 ± 0.25)% and 0.1 μg/L for labile Ag(I), and (82.3 ± 2.0)% and 0.5 μg/L for total Ag(I) detection, respectively. The proposed method was applied to determine labile Ag(I) and total Ag(I) in different sized AgNP dispersions and real environmental waters, with spiked recoveries of total Ag(I) in the range of 74.0-98.1%. With the capability of distinguishing labile and total Ag(I), our method offers a new approach for evaluating the bioavailability and understanding the fate and toxicity of AgNPs in aquatic systems. PMID:26580982

  9. In silico and in vitro metabolism studies support identification of designer drugs in human urine by liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tyrkkö, Elli; Pelander, Anna; Ketola, Raimo A; Ojanperä, Ilkka

    2013-08-01

    Human phase I metabolism of four designer drugs, 2-desoxypipradrol (2-DPMP), 3,4-dimethylmethcathinone (3,4-DMMC), α-pyrrolidinovalerophenone (α-PVP), and methiopropamine (MPA), was studied using in silico and in vitro metabolite prediction. The metabolites were identified in drug abusers’ urine samples using liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/Q-TOF/MS). The aim of the study was to evaluate the ability of the in silico and in vitro methods to generate the main urinary metabolites found in vivo. Meteor 14.0.0 software (Lhasa Limited) was used for in silico metabolite prediction, and in vitro metabolites were produced in human liver microsomes (HLMs). 2-DPMP was metabolized by hydroxylation, dehydrogenation, and oxidation, resulting in six phase I metabolites. Six metabolites were identified for 3,4-DMMC formed via N-demethylation, reduction, hydroxylation, and oxidation reactions. α-PVP was found to undergo reduction, hydroxylation, dehydrogenation, and oxidation reactions, as well as degradation of the pyrrolidine ring, and seven phase I metabolites were identified. For MPA, the nor-MPA metabolite was detected. Meteor software predicted the main human urinary phase I metabolites of 3,4-DMMC, α-PVP, and MPA and two of the four main metabolites of 2-DPMP. It assisted in the identification of the previously unreported metabolic reactions for α-PVP. Eight of the 12 most abundant in vivo phase I metabolites were detected in the in vitro HLM experiments. In vitro tests serve as material for exploitation of in silico data when an authentic urine sample is not available. In silico and in vitro designer drug metabolism studies with LC/Q-TOF/MS produced sufficient metabolic information to support identification of the parent compound in vivo. PMID:23797910

  10. Liquid Phase Methanol Process Development Unit: installation, operation, and support studies. Technical progress report No. 10, 1 January-31 March 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-04-20

    This extremely significant 10th quarter was highlighted by the successful shakedown operation of the LaPorte PDU. Obstacles to start-up, which included exotherms in the unit and the presence of carbonyls, were eliminated. For the successful 10-day PDU shakedown operation, 900 lb of EPJ-19LR catalyst were used. Methanol was produced from both balanced and CO-rich synthesis gas at various operating conditions, and ranged from 1.8 to 8.5 tpd. The highest catalyst productivity achieved during the run was 1.75 lb of methanol/lb catalyst-h, which is significantly higher than can be achieved in gas phase synthesis. Catalyst attrition was significant; the catalyst extrudates in the ebullated-bed reactor rapidly attrited. The catalyst formed an 18 wt % slurry by the end of the run. However, during the transition from ebullated to slurry catalyst, the PDU and catalyst performed very well, and catalyst activity remained high. Support work at CSI continued with autoclave testing of a new catalyst candidate for liquid-entrained operations, and with other miscellaneous tests for hydrodynamic characterization of catalyst powders. At APCI, a 250-h test using an ICI catalyst on balanced gas at a 37 wt % loading was successfully completed in the 300-cc autoclave. The results are very encouraging with respect to maximizing productivity on a reactor volume basis. To complete the data base on catalyst aging, a gas phase activity maintenance run was successfully conducted. The results suggest that CO may be important in catalyst deactivation for gas phase methanol synthesis. 6 references, 32 figures, 28 tables.

  11. Halophytic plants as a component of a bioregenerative life support system for recycling of NaCl contained in human liquid waste.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balnokin, Yurii; Balnokin, Yurii; Myasoedov, Nikolay; Popova, Larissa; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Ushakova, Sofya; Tikhomirova, Natalia; Lasseur, Christophe; Gros, Jean-Bernard

    Currently, the closure of matter turnover is one of the urgent problems of bioregenerative life support system (BLSS) designing. The important aspect of the problem is involving of substances contained in liquid and solid exometabolites of humans inhabiting BLSS into intrasystem matter turnover. Recycling of Na+ and Cl- contained in human liquid exometabolites, i.e. urine is acknowledged to be among the main tasks of the matter turnover in BLSS. The ions excreted with urine may be returned to human organism with food. A way to allow this is including edible halophytic plants into the phototrophic compartment of BLSS. Halophytes are defined as plants which can grow on saline soils and produce high biomass under these conditions. Some halophytes can take up high quantities of Na+ and Cl- and accumulate the ions in the shoots or extrude them to leaf surface by means of salt glands. To allow Na+ and Cl- recycling through halophyte utilization, the following principal steps should be accomplished: (i) mineralization of the exometabolites by physicochemical methods; (ii) oxidation of ammonia formed during the exometabolite mineralization to nitrate by nitrifying bacteria, (iii) growing the halophyte on the nutrient solution prepared on the basis of the mineralized exometabolites, (iv) introducing the halophyte green biomass into human food. The present work is devoted to the following problems: (i) selection of a salt-accumulating/extruding halophytic plant suitable for Na+ and Cl- recycling in BLSS and (ii) parameter evaluation of a plant conveyor containing the halophytic plants at various ages. Halophytic plants selected for BLSS should meet the following criteria: (i) ability to grow under 24-hour-illumination, (ii) high productivity, (iii) ability to accumulate Na+ and Cl- in high quantities in shoots or to excrete salts to leaf surface, (iv) edibility, and (v) high nutritive value of the biomass. Relying on these criteria, salt-accumulating halophyte Salicornia

  12. High-Surface-Area CO2 Sponge: High Performance CO2 Scrubbing Based on Hollow Fiber-Supported Designer Ionic Liquid Sponges

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-01

    IMPACCT Project: The team from ORNL and Georgia Tech is developing a new technology that will act like a sponge, integrating a new, alcohol-based ionic liquid into hollow fibers (magnified image, right) to capture CO2 from the exhaust produced by coal-fired power plants. Ionic liquids, or salts that exist in liquid form, are promising materials for carbon capture and storage, but their tendency to thicken when combined with CO2 limits their efficiency and poses a challenge for their development as a cost-effective alternative to current-generation solutions. Adding alcohol to the mix limits this tendency to thicken in the presence of CO2 but can also make the liquid more likely to evaporate, which would add significantly to the cost of CO2 capture. To solve this problem, ORNL is developing new classes of ionic liquids with high capacity for absorbing CO2. ORNL’s sponge would reduce the cost associated with the energy that would need to be diverted from power plants to capture CO2 and release it for storage.

  13. Conveyor Cultivation of the Halophytic Plant Salicornia europaea for the Recycling of NaCl from Human Liquid Waste in a Biological Life Support System.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balnokin, Yurii; Myasoedov, Nikolay; Popova, Larissa; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Ushakova, Sofya; Tikhomirova, Natalia; Lasseur, Christophe; Gros, Jean-Bernard

    One problem in designing bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS) is developing technolo-gies to include human liquid and solid waste in intrasystem recycling. A specific task is recycling of NaCl excreted in urine by humans. We showed recently that this could be achieved through inclusion of the salt accumulating halophyte Salicornia europaea in the autotrophic compart-ment of the BLSS (Balnokin et al., ASR, 2010, in press). A model of NaCl circulation in BLSS with inclusion of S. europaea was based on the NaCl turnover in the human -urine -nutrient solution -S. europaea -human cycle. Mineralized urine was used as a basis for preparation of a nutrient solution for the halophyte cultivation. The shoots of the halophyte cultivated in the mineralized urine and containing NaCl could to be used by the BLSS inhabitants in their diets. In this report we describe cultivation of S. europaea which allows turnover of NaCl and produces daily shoot biomass containing Na+ and Cl- in quantities approximately equal to those excreted in daily human urine. The plants were grown in water culture in a climatic chamber under controlled conditions. A solution simulating mineralized urine (SSMU) was used as a basis for preparation of a nutri-ent solution for S. europaea cultivation. For continuous biomass production, seedlings of S. europaea, germinated preliminary in moist sand, were being transferred to the nutrient solu-tion at regular intervals (every two days). Duration of the conveyor operation was 112 days. During the first 56 days, the seedlings were being planted in SSMU diluted by a factor of 1.5 (2/3 SSMU). The same solution was introduced into the growth vessels as volumes of growth medium decreased due to plant transpiration. Starting from the 56th day as conveyor operation was initiated, the plants were being harvested every two days; the solutions from the discharged vessels were mixed with the fresh SSMU and the mixture was introduced into all other growth vessels of

  14. Optimization of covalent immobilization of Trichoderma reesei cellulase onto modified ReliZyme HA403 and Sepabeads EC-EP supports for cellulose hydrolysis, in buffer and ionic liquids/buffer media.

    PubMed

    Bilgin, Ramazan; Yalcin, M Serkan; Yildirim, Deniz

    2016-08-01

    The covalent immobilization of Trichoderma reesei cellulase onto modified ReliZyme HA403 and Sepabeads EC-EP supports were carried out. The optimal immobilization conditions were determined using response surface methodology. The hydrolysis of cellulose using the free and immobilized cellulase preparations in ionic liquids (IL) using cosolvents was investigated. The hydrolytic activities in buffer medium containing 25% (v/v) of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate were around 2.6-, 1.6-, and 5.5-fold higher than the activities in buffer medium. The retained initial activities were 32% and 57%, respectively for cellulase preparations immobilized onto Sepabeads EC-EP support and onto modified ReliZyme HA403 support after 5 reuses. PMID:25811997

  15. Application of hollow fiber-supported liquid-phase microextraction coupled with HPLC for the determination of guaifenesin enantiomer-protein binding.

    PubMed

    Hatami, Mehdi; Farhadi, Khalil

    2012-07-01

    A hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction technique coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection was employed for determination and evaluation of the binding characteristics of drugs to bovine serum albumin (BSA). Enantiomers of guaifenesin (an expectorant drug) were investigated as a model system. After optimization of some influencing parameters on microextraction, the proposed method was used for calculation of the target drug distribution coefficient between n-octanol and the buffer solution as well as study of drug-BSA binding in physiological conditions. The developed method shows a new, improved and simple procedure for determination of free drug concentration in biological fluids and the extent of drug-protein binding. PMID:22102436

  16. Liquid-phase methanol process development unit: installation, operation, and support studies. Technical progress report No. 2, January 1-March 31, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Holley, E.P.; Klosek, J.; Spector, I.C.; Mednick, R.L.

    1982-04-20

    Approval was obtained for the unified design concept, advanced schedule for relocation of the LPM pilot plant, and advanced procurement of long lead delivery equipment items. The LaPorte LPMeOH PDU Process Flowsheet was developed further and the Engineering Flowsheet evolved to the Revision OA preliminary issue. Eight cases of point-by-point heat and mass balances were released. Process equipment specifications were issued for 30 of the 32 equipment items. Mechanical specifications were issued for 16 equipment items. Quotations were received for the 2 long lead delivery items, the Feed/Recycle engineeeringompressor and the Slurry Circulation Pumps, technical evaluations of these bids are underway. Semi-final equipment arrangement and plot plan drawings were prepared. The Preliminary Hazards Review was conducted and the subsequent Design Hazards Review was initiated. Progress was made on the specification of the Data Acquisition System. APCI established the priority for compositions of new methanol powder catalysts to be prepared. Construction of the APCI Gas Phase Screening Reactor and Stirred Autoclave Reactor continued on schedule. Progress was made in evaluating the potential modification of the Deckwer liquid phase Fisher-Tropsch model to describe LPMeOH performance. In the CSI laboratories, a 550-hour liquid-fluidized run was completed successfully in the Lab PDU. Preliminary results indicate that the new catalyst tested is more attrition resistant than any prior liquid-fluidized catalyst candidate. Testing of in-situ catalyst reduction procedures continued in the Stirred Autoclave Reactor with successful results which led CSI to file a Record of Invention form for a potential invention covering this process. Specifications and quotations for major equipment items in the CSI liquid-entrained PDU were completed and received.

  17. Liquid-phase methanol process development unit: installation, operation, and support studies. Technical progress report No. 1, 28 September 1981-31 December 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-20

    During this period the Work Breakdown Structure Dictionary was established. Task 1 was completed with submittal of the Project Work Plan and the Quality Assurance Manual. CSI produced basic process design information and a preliminary flowsheet for the LaPorte LPMeOH PDU. APCI developed the flowsheet further and set up the process on APCI's process simulator. The flowsheet development revealed a number of major changes necessary in the existing LPM pilot plant; this has led to pursuit of a unified design concept. Approval was requested for the unified design concept as well as advanced schedule for relocation of the LPM unit and advanced procurement of long delivery equipment items. A number of preliminary heat and material balances were calculated for the LPMeOH PDU and preliminary process specifications were prepared for the equipment items. The final design basis was established. The design pressure was set at 1000 psig. Eight design operating cases were defined for the following range of reactor operating conditions: Pressure - 500 to 900 psig, Temperature - 220 to 270/sup 0/C, Liquid-Fluidized Space Velocity - 1000 to 4000 l/hr-kg catalyst, Liquid-Entrained Space Velocity - 2000 to 10,000 l/hr-kg catalyst, and Liquid-Entrained Catalyst Loading - 0.1 to 0.4 kg catalyst/l oil. The methanol production rate for these cases ranges from 0.2 to 9.7 short tons per day. Preliminary equipment arrangement and site layout drawings were prepared for the PDU. In the laboratories, CSI began autoclave testing of in-situ catalyst reduction procedures. The specification and evaluation of equipment for the CSI laboratory PDU progressed. CSI prepared and issued a Topical Report covering liquid-entrained LPMeOH lab development work accomplished under advance funding. APCI's laboratories progressed with the design of the bench scale slurry reactor.

  18. Liquid Sloshing Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Raouf A.

    2005-06-01

    The problem of liquid sloshing in moving or stationary containers remains of great concern to aerospace, civil, and nuclear engineers; physicists; designers of road tankers and ship tankers; and mathematicians. Beginning with the fundamentals of liquid sloshing theory, this book takes the reader systematically from basic theory to advanced analytical and experimental results in a self-contained and coherent format. The book is divided into four sections. Part I deals with the theory of linear liquid sloshing dynamics; Part II addresses the nonlinear theory of liquid sloshing dynamics, Faraday waves, and sloshing impacts; Part III presents the problem of linear and nonlinear interaction of liquid sloshing dynamics with elastic containers and supported structures; and Part IV considers the fluid dynamics in spinning containers and microgravity sloshing. This book will be invaluable to researchers and graduate students in mechanical and aeronautical engineering, designers of liquid containers, and applied mathematicians.

  19. Liquid-phase-methanol process-development unit: installation, operation, and support studies. Technical progress report No. 5, 1 October 1982-31 December 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-20

    This report covers the fifth period of Contract performance. The overall objective of this program is to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMeOH) process at theProcess Development Unit (PDU) scale of operation. Revision 2 of the LaPorte LPMeOH Process Development Unit (PDU) Engineering Flowsheet was released, incorporating advances made in the engineering design. The APCI Hazards Review team continued assessing risks associated with various process systems, particularly the reactor slurry loop. Process specifications were issued for an iron carbonyl removal system on the basis of a survey of industrial experience and literature related to the subject. The design for a flare system was developed APCI prepared an outline of catalyst reduction procdures, and data was accumulated on properties of circulating oils and slurry. A literature search was completed by CSI for the major topics of interest to the program. In CSI's laboratory, successful testing of in-situ catalyst reduction procedures continued in the CSI Stirred Autoclave Reactors, and two additional commercial catalysts were screened. The Laboratory PDU modifications continue on schedule. Further anlaysis of the 540-hour liquid-fluidized run in the CSI Laboratory PDU was completed. To assist in fundamantal modeling studies, an experimental program to generate bed expansion and gas holdup data in the CSI liquid-fluidized PDU reactor was completed. APCI reviewed chemical equilibrium correlations for the methanol synthesis reaction verified the validity of literature correlations at LPMeOH reaction conditions. The APCI backflow cell reactor computer model, to aid in scale-up of reactor design, was completed and the Continuous stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) analysis and simulation program was used for determination of kinetics for the LPMeOH process.

  20. Clustering effects of GM1 and formation mechanisms of interdigitated liquid disordered domains in GM1/SM/CHOL-supported planar bilayers on mica surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Zhiguo; Mao, Yanli; Tero, Ryugo; Liu, Xinli; Hoshino, Tyuji; Tanaka, Motohiko; Urisu, Tsuneo

    2010-09-01

    We have observed by atomic force microscopy that an interdigitated liquid disordered domain (ILDD) is formed in the ganglioside (GM1)/sphingomyelin (SM)/cholesterol (CHOL) bilayers on a mica surface and accelerates the formation of fibriller Aβ agglomerates. By studies of the mechanisms using molecular dynamics simulations, we conclude that the ILDD structure is formed as a result of the phase separation to SM- and GM1-rich domains on the mica surface induced by the effects of GM1 clustering and the interaction between the GM1 head group and the water layer adsorbed in the ditrigonal cavity on the mica surface.

  1. Liquid-phase methanol process-development unit: installation, operation, and support studies. Technical progress report No. 6, 1 January 1983-31 March 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-04-20

    Experiments confirmed the need for iron carbonyl removal equipment, and bids on these items were evaluated. Equipment procurement for the LaPorte PDU has been completed, with the exception of iron carbonyl removal equipment. On 13 January, several technical redirections were proposed to DOE. In reactor modeling, APCI completed a study of the significance of mass transfer and equilibrium constraints on CSI advance funded data. The results suggest that this data is difficult to use for evaluating kinetics. The backflow reactor model was modified. At CSI, all equipment for the analytical portion of the DEC/AIM data acquisition system for LaPorte has been received. In the CSI autoclave, optimization of catalyst reduction procedures continued. Four liquid-entrained commercial catalysts were evaluated. An attrition test unit was constructed and testing of liquid-fluidized catalyst attrition has begun under methanol synthesis conditions. Modifications of the CSI Lab PDU are about 95% complete. APCI signed a contract with Hydrocarbon Research, Inc. (HRI) for cold-flow studies of the ebullated bed reactor design.

  2. Ionic liquid supported on an electrodeposited polycarbazole film for the headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography determination of aromatic esters.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Faqiong; Zeng, Baizhao

    2015-05-01

    A polycarbazole film was electrodeposited on a stainless-steel wire from a solution of N,N-dimethylformamide/propylene carbonate (1:9 v/v) containing 0.10 M carbazole and 0.10 M tetrabutylammonium perchlorate. The obtained polycarbazole fiber was immersed into an ionic liquid (1-hydroxyethyl-3-methyl imidazolium bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide) solution (in dimethylsulfoxide) for 30 min, followed by drying under an infrared lamp. The resulting polycarbazole/ionic liquid fiber was applied to the headspace solid-phase microextraction and determination of aromatic esters by coupling with gas chromatography and flame ionization detection. Under the optimized conditions, the limits of detection were below 61 ng/L (S/N = 3) and the linear ranges were 0.061-500 μg/L with correlation coefficients above 0.9876. The relative standard deviations were below 4.8% (n = 5) for a single fiber, and below 9.9% for multi-fiber (n = 4). This fiber also exhibited good stability. It could be used for more than 160 times of headspace solid-phase microextraction and could withstand a high temperature up to 350°C. PMID:25676087

  3. An Improved Method for the Separation of Lead-210 from Ra-DEF for Radioactive Equilibrium Experiments: Microscale Liquid-Liquid Extraction Using a Polymer-Supported Crown Ether

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietz, Mark L.; Horwitz, E. Philip

    1996-02-01

    A novel extraction chromatographic material, comprised of a solution of a lead-selective macrocyclic polyether (di-t-butylcyclohexano-18-crown-6) in isodecanol sorbed on an inert polymeric support, is shown to provide a rapid and simple means for the separation of lead-210 from its daughter products for subsequent radiochemical experimentation.

  4. 3D-printed polylactic acid supports for enhanced ionization efficiency in desorption electrospray mass spectrometry analysis of liquid and gel samples.

    PubMed

    Elviri, Lisa; Foresti, Ruben; Bianchera, Annalisa; Silvestri, Marco; Bettini, Ruggero

    2016-08-01

    The potential of 3D printing technology was here exploited to prepare tailored polylactic acid (PLA) supports for desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) experiments. PLA rough solid supports presenting wells of different shape (i.e. cylindrical, cubic and hemispherical cavities) were designed to accommodate samples of different physical state. The potentials of such supports in terms of sample loading capacity, sensitivity, signal stability were tested by analysing a peptide (i.e. insulin) and an aminoglycoside antibiotic (i.e. gentamicin sulphate) from solution and a chitosan-based gel. The results obtained were compared with those obtained by using a traditional polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) support and discussed. By using PLA support on the flat side, signal intensity improved almost twice with respect to PTFE support, whereas with spherical wells a five times improved signal sensitivity and good stability (RSD<6%) were obtained for the analysis of two model molecules. Limits of detection were in the 3-10nM range and linearity was demonstrated for both analytes in the 0.05-0.5μM range for semi-quantitative or quantitative purposes. The use of a well and the set-up of optimal source parameters allowed the analysis of samples in a gel state with good precision (RSD<10%) and accuracy (86±6-102±9%), otherwise difficult to analyse on a flat smooth surface. These findings are of great interest and stimulus to exploit the advantages of 3D printing technology for the development of devices for a DESI source, presenting different shapes or configuration as a function of the sample types. PMID:27216689

  5. Experimental evidence supporting the insensitivity of cloud droplet formation to the mass accommodation coefficient for condensation of water vapor to liquid water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langridge, Justin M.; Richardson, Mathews S.; Lack, Daniel A.; Murphy, Daniel M.

    2016-06-01

    The mass accommodation coefficient for uptake of water vapor to liquid water, αM, has been constrained using photoacoustic measurements of aqueous absorbing aerosol. Measurements performed over a range of relative humidities and pressures were compared to detailed model calculations treating coupled heat and mass transfer occurring during photoacoustic laser heating cycles. The strengths and weaknesses of this technique are very different to those for droplet growth/evaporation experiments that have typically been applied to these measurements, making this a useful complement to existing studies. Our measurements provide robust evidence that αM is greater than 0.1 for all humidities tested and greater than 0.3 for data obtained at relative humidities greater than 88% where the aerosol surface was most like pure water. These values of αM are above the threshold at which kinetic limitations are expected to impact the activation and growth of aerosol particles in warm cloud formation.

  6. Laboratory characterization of non-aqueous phase liquid/tracer interaction in support of a vadose zone partitioning interwell tracer test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deeds, Neil E.; McKinney, Daene C.; Pope, Gary A.

    2000-01-01

    Contaminant characterization is important for successful remediation of non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) in the unsaturated zone. A partitioning interwell tracer test (PITT) can provide a good estimate of average subsurface NAPL saturations. Screening experiments were completed in the laboratory to evaluate several gas tracers for a PITT study to be completed in the vadose zone at Kirtland Air Force Base in Albuquerque, NM. Four perfluorocarbon tracers were found to be suitable for this PITT. Further laboratory column studies were completed using contaminated field soil to measure the partition coefficients between the tracers and the NAPL. The results from the column studies showed that the air/NAPL tracer partition coefficients ranged from 8.8±0.6 to 71±3. This range of partition coefficients is suitable for detection of NAPL saturations in the field of 0.002 to 0.14.

  7. HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) THERMAL & SEISMIC PROJECT SEISMIC ANALYSIS IN SUPPORT OF INCREASED LIQUID LEVEL IN 241-AP TANK FARMS

    SciTech Connect

    MACKEY TC; ABBOTT FG; CARPENTER BG; RINKER MW

    2007-02-16

    The overall scope of the project is to complete an up-to-date comprehensive analysis of record of the DST System at Hanford. The "Double-Shell Tank (DST) Integrity Project - DST Thermal and Seismic Project" is in support of Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-48-14.

  8. Interionic Interactions in Imidazolium-Based Ionic Liquids: The Role of the C2-Position Revealed by Raman Scattering and Supported by IR and NMR Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noack, Kristina; Paape, Natalia; Kiefer, Johannes; Wasserscheid, Peter; Leipertz, Alfred

    2010-08-01

    Intermolecular interactions determine the state of aggregation of a substance at given temperature. Based on that, changes in intermolecular interactions can lead to microscopic reordering which may be observed macroscopically in terms of altered physicochemical properties. Especially, when chemicals are employed in technical processes, it is important to control and regulate their properties to guarantee product quality. A special group of chemical substances increasingly gaining interest in the field of chemical and process engineering are room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs). In general, RTILs are organic salts with melting points "below the boiling point of water". The variety of possible combinations of cations and anions lead to a wide range of chemical and thermo-physical properties. In fact, it is possible to tune their properties by adjusting the ratio of Coulomb and van der Waals interactions. However, because it is hardly possible to investigate a reasonable fraction of the potential cation-anion combinations, a molecular-based understanding of their properties is crucial to make a rational design possible. In this regard vibrational spectroscopy has proven to be very beneficial for structural analysis and the investigation of interionic and intermolecular interactions. Therein, especially Raman spectroscopy shows a significant advantage of being insensitive to water interference and it is widely applied in the field of ionic liquids. Among others the 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium [RMIM] based ILs have been employed as model ILs in structural analysis, and most vibrational studies available in literature have been carried out investigating this kind of ILs. In contrast, spectroscopic data and calculations of C2-methylated 1,2-dialkyl-3-methylimidazolium based ILs, are available to a much lesser extend. The substitution in the C2 position in those ILs disrupts the main hydrogen-bonding interaction between the cation and the anion and is expected to lead

  9. Reaction profiling by ultra high-pressure liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry in support of the synthesis of DNA-encoded libraries.

    PubMed

    Hargiss, Leonard O; Zipp, G Greg; Jessop, Theodore C; Sun, Xuejun; Keyes, Philip; Rawlins, David B; Liang, Zhi; Park, Kum Joo; Gu, Huizhong

    2014-11-15

    An ultra high-pressure liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (UHPLC/MS) separation and analysis method has been devised for open access analysis of synthetic reactions used in the production of DNA-encoded chemical libraries. The aqueous mobile phase is 100mM hexafluoroisopropanol and 8.6mM triethylamine; the organic mobile phase is methanol. The UHPLC separation uses a C18 OST column (50mm×2.1mm×1.7μm) at 60°C, with a flow rate of 0.6mL/min. Gradient concentration is from 10 to 40% B in 1.0min, increasing to 95% B at 1.2min. Cycle time was about 5min. This method provides a detection limit of a 20-mer oligonucleotide by mass spectrometry of better than 1pmol on-column. Linear UV response for 20-mer extends from 2 to 200pmol/μL in concentration, same-day relative average deviations are less than 5% and bias (observed minus expected) is less than 10%. Deconvoluted mass spectra are generated for components in the predicted mass range using a maximum entropy algorithm. Mass accuracy of deconvoluted spectra is typically 20ppm or better for isotopomers of oligonucleotides up to 7000Da. PMID:25282130

  10. Liquid phase methanol LaPorte process development unit: Modification operation, and support studies. Task 3.6/3.7: Alternative catalyst/life run

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-28

    In April 1987, Air Products started the third and final contract with the US Department of Energy to develop the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH) process. One of the objectives was to identify alternative commercial catalyst(s) for the process. This objective was strategically important as we want to demonstrate that the LPMEOH process is flexible and not catalyst selection limited. Among three commercially available catalysts evaluated in the lab, the catalyst with a designation of F21/0E75-43 was the most promising candidate. The initial judging criteria included not only the intrinsic catalyst activity but also the ability to be used effectively in a slurry reactor. The catalyst was then advanced for a 40-day life test in a laboratory 300 cc autoclave. The life test result also revealed superior stability when compared with that of a standard catalyst. Consequently, the new catalyst was recommended for demonstration in the Process Development Unit (PDU) at LaPorte, Texas. This report details the methodology of testing and selecting the catalyst.

  11. Effect of content of chiral selector and pore size of core-shell type silica support on the performance of amylose tris(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate)-based chiral stationary phases in nano-liquid chromatography and capillary electrochromatography.

    PubMed

    Rocchi, Silvia; Fanali, Salvatore; Farkas, Tivadar; Chankvetadze, Bezhan

    2014-10-10

    In this study the separation performance of various chiral stationary phases (CSPs) made of polysaccharide-based chiral selectors coated onto superficially porous (core-shell or fused-core) silica supports were evaluated. The CSPs obtained by coating of various amounts of chiral selector (1-5%) onto supports of various pore size (100 and 300 Å) were studied. Their evaluation was pursued in both chiral nano-liquid chromatography (nano-LC) and chiral capillary electrochromatography (CEC). Among the goals of this study was to re-examine our previous unexpected finding of better performance of superficially porous CSP under CEC conditions compared to nano-LC conditions for a new set of chiral compounds, as well as to study the effect of varying the chiral selector content and nominal pore size of supporting silica on the performance of core-shell silica-based polysaccharide-type CSPs. Based on the results of this study it can be seen that CSPs based on superficially porous silica can successfully be used for the separation of enantiomers in both nano-LC and CEC mode. Only a slight advantage of CEC over nano-LC mode was observed in this study from the viewpoint of plate numbers, especially at higher mobile phase flow rates. It must also be noted that the optimal theoretical plate height is still too high and further optimization of superficially porous CSPs is necessary for both nano-LC and CEC applications. PMID:24908153

  12. Ultrasound-assisted ionic liquid-based microextraction combined with least squares support vector machines regression for the simultaneous determination of aluminum, gallium, and indium in water and coal samples.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi, Jahan B; Zolfonoun, Ehsan

    2012-06-01

    A new simple and rapid ultrasound-assisted ionic liquid-based microextraction method was applied to preconcentrate aluminum(III), gallium(III), and indium(III) ions from water samples as a prior step to their simultaneous spectrophotometric determination using least squares support vector machines regression. In the novel procedure, 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [C(6)MIM][PF(6)] was dispersed into the aqueous sample solution as fine droplets by ultrasonication, and the analytes were extracted into the ionic liquid phase after complexation with 1,2,5,8-tetrahydroxy anthraquinone (quinalizarine). After centrifuging, the fine droplets of extractant phase were settled to the bottom of the conical-bottom glass centrifuge tube. The detection limits for Al(III), Ga(III), and In(III) were 1.70, 2.02, and 2.06 ng mL(-1), respectively. The precision of the method, evaluated as the relative standard deviation obtained by analyzing a series of ten replicates, was below 3.2% for all elements. The method was successfully applied for the determination of Al(III), Ga(III), and In(III) in real samples. PMID:21789531

  13. Liquid membrane extraction of cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Berends, A.M.; Breembroek, G.R.M.; Witkamp, G.J.; Rosmalen, G.M van

    1996-12-31

    Three Liquid Membrane extraction designs are compared by their experimental extraction performance of cadmium ions from an aqueous phase with tri-laurylamine dissolved in an aliphatic kerosene. The compared designs are Emulsion Liquid Membrane (ELM), Flat Sheet Supported Liquid Membrane (FSSLM) and Hollow Fiber Supported Liquid Membrane (HFSLM4) extraction units. The results demonstrated that ELM possesses the best extraction performance per volume of equipment, but that HFSLM is a good alternative because of its less complicated design and greater flexibility. 2 refs., 7 figs.

  14. Liquid film target impingement scrubber

    DOEpatents

    McDowell, William J.; Coleman, Charles F.

    1977-03-15

    An improved liquid film impingement scrubber is provided wherein particulates suspended in a gas are removed by jetting the particle-containing gas onto a relatively small thin liquid layer impingement target surface. The impingement target is in the form of a porous material which allows a suitable contacting liquid from a pressurized chamber to exude therethrough to form a thin liquid film target surface. The gas-supported particles collected by impingement of the gas on the target are continuously removed and flushed from the system by the liquid flow through each of a number of pores in the target.

  15. Evaluation of the measurement of Cu(II) bioavailability in complex aqueous media using a hollow-fiber supported liquid membrane device (HFSLM) and two microalgae species (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and Scenedesmus acutus).

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Morales, Erik A; Rodríguez de San Miguel, Eduardo; de Gyves, Josefina

    2015-11-01

    The environmental bioavailability of copper was determined using a hollow-fiber supported liquid membrane (HFSLM) device as a chemical surrogate and two microalgae species (Scenedesmus acutus and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata). Several experimental conditions were studied: pH, the presence of organic matter, inorganic anions, and concomitant cations. The results indicated a strong relationship between the response given by the HFSLM and the microalgae species with free copper concentrations measured by an ion selective electrode (ISE), in accordance with the free-ion activity model (FIAM). A significant positive correlation was evident when comparing the bioavailability results measured by the HFSLM and the S. acutus microalga species, showing that the synthetic device may emulate biological uptake and, consequently, be used as a chemical test for bioavailability measurements using this alga as a biological reference. PMID:26431807

  16. A supported liquid extraction-LC-MS/MS method for determination of GDC-0980 (Apitolisib), a dual small-molecule inhibitor of class 1A phosphoinositide 3-kinase and mammalian target of rapamycin, in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Ding, X; Li, F; McKnight, J; Schmidt, C; Strooisma, K; Shimizu, H; Faber, K; Ware, J A; Dean, B

    2014-11-01

    A liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the determination of GDC-0980 (Apitolisib) concentrations in human plasma has been developed and validated to support clinical development. Supported liquid extraction (SLE) was used to extract plasma samples (80μL) and the resulting samples were analyzed using reverse-phase chromatography and mass spectrometry coupled with a turbo-ionspray interface. The mass analysis of GDC-0980 was performed using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) transitions in positive ionization mode. The method was validated over the calibration curve range 0.0500-25.0ng/mL using linear regression and 1/x(2) weighting. Within-run relative standard deviation (%RSD) ranged from 0.4 to 3.9%, while the between-run %RSD varied from 1.1 to 1.5% for QCs. The accuracy ranged from 96.1% to 106.7% of nominal for within-run and 96.7-106.7% of nominal for between-run at all concentrations including the LLOQ quality control at 0.0500ng/mL. Extraction recovery of GDC-0980 was between 72.4% and 75.5%. Stability of GDC-0980 was established in human plasma for 547 days at -20°C and -70°C and established in reconstituted sample extracts for 146h when stored at 2-8°C. Stable-labeled internal standard was used to minimize matrix effects. Mean pharmacokinetic parameters determined using this method for the day 1 control group in a phase I trial were: Cmax=11.1ng/mL, AUC0-inf=108ngh/mL, and T1/2=13.1h. PMID:25165011

  17. Supported liquid extraction (SLE) for the analysis of methylamphetamine, methylenedioxymethylamphetamine and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in oral fluid and blood of drivers.

    PubMed

    Rositano, Joanna; Harpas, Peter; Kostakis, Chris; Scott, Timothy

    2016-08-01

    matrix effects were 1.0, 0.97 and 0.78 in DDS buffer and 0.96, 0.96 and 0.62 in blood for MA, MDMA and THC, respectively. Linearity was achieved up to 1250ng/mL for MA and MDMA, and 112ng/mL for THC (r(2)>0.999 for all analytes). The method is designed for easy transfer to an automated liquid handling platform. PMID:26878366

  18. Liquid metal pump

    DOEpatents

    Pennell, William E.

    1982-01-01

    The liquid metal pump comprises floating seal rings and attachment of the pump diffuser to the pump bowl for isolating structural deflections from the pump shaft bearings. The seal rings also eliminate precision machining on large assemblies by eliminating the need for a close tolerance fit between the mounting surfaces of the pump and the seals. The liquid metal pump also comprises a shaft support structure that is isolated from the pump housing for better preservation of alignment of shaft bearings. The shaft support structure also allows for complete removal of pump internals for inspection and repair.

  19. Solar liquid heating system

    SciTech Connect

    Finn, D.J.

    1990-05-08

    This patent describes a solar heater for heating liquids. It comprises: a heatable bag, a support means supporting the heatable bag, a heatable body of liquid in the heatable bag, the heatable bag being disposed in sunlight so as to become heated thereby, a topside gas bag above the heatable bag, the topside gas bag containing a gas for serving as insulation, a topside fluid bag disposed above the topside gas bag and containing a fluid for further insulation. The bags being substantially gasproof and waterproof and also being flexible whereby the gravity pull on the bags and the flexibility thereof causes the upper sides of the bags to seek horizontal levels.

  20. Dynamic ultrasound-assisted extraction coupled on-line with solid support derivatization and high-performance liquid chromatography for the determination of formaldehyde in textiles.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ligang; Jin, Haiyan; Wang, Liguang; Sun, Lei; Xu, Haoyan; Ding, Lan; Yu, Aimin; Zhang, Hanqi

    2008-05-23

    An on-line method was developed for the extraction, derivatization and determination of formaldehyde in textile samples. Formaldehyde was first extracted with water by ultrasound assisted, and directly introduced into a derivatization column which was packed with a moderately sulfonated cation-exchange resin. The resin used as solid support for the derivatization was charged with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) previously. The formaldehyde DNPH derivative was eluted with the chromatographic mobile phase into an analytical column for the separation, and then monitored by UV detector. The maximum extraction yield was achieved when the extraction vessel was located at 10mm from the ultrasonic source and 10mg textile sample was extracted with 5mL pure water at a flow rate of 1.0mLmin(-1) at 50 degrees C. The detection limit of the proposed method was 0.06mgkg(-1). This method was applied to the determination of formaldehyde in different textile samples, and compared with the state standard method (off-line spectrophotometry) used in China. The similar contents of formaldehyde were obtained for most samples by the two methods, but little higher for some samples obtained by the proposed method. The average relative standard deviation (RSD) obtained by the on-line method was 3.2% which is lower than 29.5% obtained by the standard method. PMID:18378258

  1. Assessing the feasibility of involving gaseous products resulting from physicochemical oxidation of human liquid and solid wastes in the cycling of a bio-technical life support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikhomirov, Alexander; Kudenko, Yurii; Trifonov, Sergey; Ushakova, Sofya

    2012-01-01

    The study addresses the possible ways of involving gaseous products produced by "wet" incineration of human wastes mixed with H2O2 in an alternating electric field in the cycling of the physical model of a bio-technical life support system (BTLSS). The resulting gas mixture contains CO2 and O2, which are easily involved in the cycling in the closed ecosystem, and NH3, which is unacceptable in the atmosphere of the BTLSS. NH3 fixation has been proposed, which is followed by nitrification and involvement of the resulting products in the mass exchange of the closed system. Experiments have been performed to show that plants can be grown in the atmosphere resulting from the closing of the gas loop that includes a physicochemical installation and a growth chamber with plants representing the phototrophic compartment of the BTLSS. The results of the study suggest the conclusion that the proposed method of organic waste oxidation can be a useful tool in creating a physical model of a closed-loop integrated BTLSS.

  2. Spreading of miscible liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walls, Daniel J.; Haward, Simon J.; Shen, Amy Q.; Fuller, Gerald G.

    2016-05-01

    Miscible liquids commonly contact one another in natural and technological situations, often in the proximity of a solid substrate. In the scenario where a drop of one liquid finds itself on a solid surface and immersed within a second, miscible liquid, it will spread spontaneously across the surface. We show experimental findings of the spreading of sessile drops in miscible environments that have distinctly different shape evolution and power-law dynamics from sessile drops that spread in immiscible environments, which have been reported previously. We develop a characteristic time to scale radial data of the spreading sessile drops based on a drainage flow due to gravity. This time scale is effective for a homologous subset of the liquids studied. However, it has limitations when applied to significantly chemically different, yet miscible, liquid pairings; we postulate that the surface energies between each liquid and the solid surface becomes important for this other subset of the liquids studied. Initial experiments performed with pendant drops in miscible environments support the drainage flow observed in the sessile drop systems.

  3. LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION COLUMNS

    DOEpatents

    Thornton, J.D.

    1957-12-31

    This patent relates to liquid-liquid extraction columns having a means for pulsing the liquid in the column to give it an oscillatory up and down movement, and consists of a packed column, an inlet pipe for the dispersed liquid phase and an outlet pipe for the continuous liquid phase located in the direct communication with the liquid in the lower part of said column, an inlet pipe for the continuous liquid phase and an outlet pipe for the dispersed liquid phase located in direct communication with the liquid in the upper part of said column, a tube having one end communicating with liquid in the lower part of said column and having its upper end located above the level of said outlet pipe for the dispersed phase, and a piston and cylinder connected to the upper end of said tube for applying a pulsating pneumatic pressure to the surface of the liquid in said tube so that said surface rises and falls in said tube.

  4. EXPERIMENTAL LIQUID METAL FUEL REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Happell, J.J.; Thomas, G.R.; Denise, R.P.; Bunts, J.L. Jr.

    1962-01-23

    A liquid metal fuel nuclear fission reactor is designed in which the fissionable material is dissolved or suspended in a liquid metal moderator and coolant. The liquid suspension flows into a chamber in which a critical amount of fissionable material is obtained. The fluid leaves the chamber and the heat of fission is extracted for power or other utilization. The improvement is in the support arrangement for a segrnented graphite core to permit dif ferential thermal expansion, effective sealing between main and blanket liquid metal flows, and avoidance of excessive stress development in the graphite segments. (AEC)

  5. Efficient transport of Am(III) from nitric acid medium using a new conformationally constrained (N,N,N',N'-tetra-2-ethylhexyl)7-oxabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-2,3-dicarboxamide across a supported liquid membrane.

    PubMed

    Sharma, S; Panja, S; Ghosh, S K; Dhami, P S; Gandhi, P M

    2016-03-15

    Am(III) is one of the most hazardous radionuclide present in nuclear fuel cycle. A new conformationally constrained diamide, (N,N,N',N'-tetra-2-ethylhexyl)7-oxabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-2,3-dicarboxamide (OBDA) was studied for Am(III) transport from HNO3 medium across a Supported Liquid Membrane. Transport rate was observed to be significantly fast with ∼95% transport of Am(III) within 1h using 0.1M OBDA in the presence of 15% isodecyl alcohol (IDA)/n-dodecane as carrier. The mechanism of transport was investigated by studying various parameters like feed HNO3/NaNO3 concentration, OBDA concentration in the membrane, membrane pore size, membrane thickness etc. From these studies, the mechanism of transport was found to be diffusion controlled with diffusion co-efficient value of 5.1×10(-6)cm(2)/s. The membrane was found to be highly selective for tri- and tetra-valent actinides, and trivalent lanthanides. OBDA based membrane was found to be stable for at least for ten consecutive cycles of operation. PMID:26685064

  6. LIQUID TARGET

    DOEpatents

    Martin, M.D.; Salsig, W.W. Jr.

    1959-01-13

    A liquid handling apparatus is presented for a liquid material which is to be irradiated. The apparatus consists essentially of a reservoir for the liquid, a target element, a drain tank and a drain lock chamber. The target is in the form of a looped tube, the upper end of which is adapted to be disposed in a beam of atomic particles. The lower end of the target tube is in communication with the liquid in the reservoir and a means is provided to continuously circulate the liquid material to be irradiated through the target tube. Means to heat the reservoir tank is provided in the event that a metal is to be used as the target material. The apparatus is provided with suitable valves and shielding to provide maximum safety in operation.

  7. A study of liquid propellant autoignition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lester, D. H.; Gibbs, A. G.; Lessor, D. L.

    1975-01-01

    Data and theory pertinent to the autoignition of liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen propellants were reviewed. Physical models of the processes supporting or contributing to autoignition were developed. Emphasis was placed on the description of the physical environment and its relationship to the autoignition phenomenon.

  8. Liquid atomization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayvel, L.; Orzechowski, Z.

    The present text defines the physical processes of liquid atomization, the primary types of atomizers and their design, and ways of measuring spray characteristics; it also presents experimental investigation results on atomizers and illustrative applications for them. Attention is given to the macrostructural and microstructural parameters of atomized liquids; swirl, pneumatic, and rotary atomizers; and optical drop sizing methods, with emphasis on nonintrusive optical methods.

  9. Sulfur poisoning of CeO[subscript 2]-Al[subscript 2]O[subscript 3]-supported mono- and bi-metallic Ni and Rh catalysts in steam reforming of liquid hydrocarbons at low and high temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Chao; Chen, Yongsheng; Li, Yan; Wang, Xiaoxing; Song, Chunshan

    2010-12-01

    In order to develop a better understanding on sulfur poisoning of reforming catalysts in fuel processing for hydrogen production, steam reforming of liquid hydrocarbons was performed over CeO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} supported monometallic Ni and Rh and bimetallic Rh-Ni catalysts at 550 and 800 C. XANES was used to identify the sulfur species in the used catalysts and to study their impacts on the metal surface properties probed by XPS. It was found that both monometallic catalysts rapidly deactivated at 550 C, and showed poor sulfur tolerance. Although ineffective for the Ni catalyst, increasing the temperature to 800 C dramatically improved the sulfur tolerance of the Rh catalyst. XANES revealed that metal sulfide and organic sulfide are the dominant sulfur species on the used Ni catalyst, while sulfonate and sulfate predominate on the used Rh catalyst. The presence of sulfur induced severe carbon deposition on the Ni catalyst at 800 C. The superior sulfur tolerance of the Rh catalyst at 800 C may be associated with its capability in sulfur oxidation. It is likely that the formation of the oxygen-shielded sulfur structure of sulfonate and sulfate can suppress the poisoning impact of sulfur on Rh by inhibiting direct rhodium-sulfur interaction. Moreover, XPS indicated that the metal surface properties of the Rh catalysts after the reaction without and with sulfur at 800 C are similar, suggesting that sulfur poisoning on Rh was mitigated under the high-temperature condition. Although the Rh-Ni catalyst exhibited better sulfur tolerance than the monometallic catalysts at 550 C, its catalytic performance was inferior compared with the Rh catalyst in the sulfur-containing reaction at 800 C probably due to the severe carbon deposition on the bimetallic catalyst.

  10. Characteristics of Liquid Flow Induced by Atmospheric Pressure DC Glow Discharge with Liquid Electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tochikubo, Fumiyoshi; Aoki, Takuya; Shirai, Naoki; Uchida, Satoshi

    2015-09-01

    In the application of atmospheric-pressure discharges in contact with liquid, primary reactions are initiated between radicals and liquid molecules at plasma-liquid interface. Since the diffusion in the liquid is very slow, some convective flow is necessary to exchange the chemicals at the plasma-liquid interface for the efficient reactions. In our previous work, we found the appearance of specific downward flow in the liquid just below the dc glow discharge in contact with liquid. This downflow will be effective for exchanging the chemicals at plasma-liquid interface. In this work, we investigated the characteristics of liquid flow induced by atmospheric-pressure dc glow discharge with liquid electrode in detail; the influence of voltage polarity, current amplitude, liquid conductivity, the electrode arrangement, and so on. The spatiotemporal development of liquid flow was visualized by schlieren method, and the temperature distribution was measured using temperature-sensitive liquid crystal particles dispersed in the liquid. The liquid-flow characteristics was reproduced by a fluid simulation considering a downward driving force at liquid surface from plasma. The candidate of the driving force will be the momentum transfer of charged species at the liquid surface. This work is partly supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 15H03584.

  11. Tube support

    DOEpatents

    Mullinax, Jerry L.

    1988-01-01

    A tube support for supporting horizontal tubes from an inclined vertical support tube passing between the horizontal tubes. A support button is welded to the vertical support tube. Two clamping bars or plates, the lower edges of one bearing on the support button, are removably bolted to the inclined vertical tube. The clamping bars provide upper and lower surface support for the horizontal tubes.

  12. Liquid marbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aussillous, Pascale; Quéré, David

    2001-06-01

    The transport of a small amount of liquid on a solid is not a simple process, owing to the nature of the contact between the two phases. Setting a liquid droplet in motion requires non-negligible forces (because the contact-angle hysteresis generates a force opposing the motion), and often results in the deposition of liquid behind the drop. Different methods of levitation-electrostatic, electromagnetic, acoustic, or even simpler aerodynamic techniques-have been proposed to avoid this wetting problem, but all have proved to be rather cumbersome. Here we propose a simple alternative, which consists of encapsulating an aqueous liquid droplet with a hydrophobic powder. The resulting `liquid marbles' are found to behave like a soft solid, and show dramatically reduced adhesion to a solid surface. As a result, motion can be generated using gravitational, electrical and magnetic fields. Moreover, because the viscous friction associated with motion is very small, we can achieve quick displacements of the droplets without any leaks. All of these features are of potential benefit in microfluidic applications, and also permit the study of a drop in a non-wetting situation-an issue of renewed interest following the recent achievement of super-hydrophobic substrates.

  13. Liquid Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-01-01

    Thermochromic liquid crystals, or TLCs, are a type of liquid crystals that react to changes in temperature by changing color. The Hallcrest/NASA collaboration involved development of a new way to visualize boundary layer transition in flight and in wind tunnel testing of aircraft wing and body surfaces. TLCs offered a new and potentially better method of visualizing the boundary layer transition in flight. Hallcrest provided a liquid crystal formulation technique that afforded great control over the sensitivity of the liquid crystals to varying conditions. Method is of great use to industry, government and universities for aerodynamic and hydrodynamic testing. Company's principal line is temperature indicating devices for industrial use, such as non-destructive testing and flaw detection in electric/electronic systems, medical application, such as diagnostic systems, for retail sale, such as room, refrigerator, baby bath and aquarium thermometers, and for advertising and promotion specials. Additionally, Hallcrest manufactures TLC mixtures for cosmetic applications, and liquid crystal battery tester for Duracell batteries.

  14. Liquid marbles.

    PubMed

    Aussillous, P; Quéré, D

    2001-06-21

    The transport of a small amount of liquid on a solid is not a simple process, owing to the nature of the contact between the two phases. Setting a liquid droplet in motion requires non-negligible forces (because the contact-angle hysteresis generates a force opposing the motion), and often results in the deposition of liquid behind the drop. Different methods of levitation-electrostatic, electromagnetic, acoustic, or even simpler aerodynamic techniques-have been proposed to avoid this wetting problem, but all have proved to be rather cumbersome. Here we propose a simple alternative, which consists of encapsulating an aqueous liquid droplet with a hydrophobic powder. The resulting 'liquid marbles' are found to behave like a soft solid, and show dramatically reduced adhesion to a solid surface. As a result, motion can be generated using gravitational, electrical and magnetic fields. Moreover, because the viscous friction associated with motion is very small, we can achieve quick displacements of the droplets without any leaks. All of these features are of potential benefit in microfluidic applications, and also permit the study of a drop in a non-wetting situation-an issue of renewed interest following the recent achievement of super-hydrophobic substrates. PMID:11418851

  15. Liquid phase methanol LaPorte Process Development Unit: Modification, operation, and support studies. Task 2.2: Process variable Scan Run E-8 and in-situ activation with syngas Run E-9

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-02-28

    The LPMEOH process was conceived and patented by Chem Systems Inc. in 1975. Initial research and studies on the process focused on two distinct modes of operation. The first was a liquid fluidized mode with relatively large catalyst pellets suspended in a fluidizing liquid, and the second was an entrained (slurry) mode with fine catalyst particles slurried in an inert liquid. The development of both operating modes progressed in parallel from bench scale reactors, through an intermediate scale lab PDU, and then to the LaPorte PDU in 1984. The slurry mode of operation was ultimately chosen as the operating mode of choice due to its superior performance.

  16. A New Class of Ionic Liquids: Anion Amphiprotic Ionic Liquids.

    PubMed

    Treskow, Marcel; Pitawala, Jagath; Arenz, Sven; Matic, Aleksandar; Johansson, Patrik

    2012-08-16

    We here present a new class of protic ionic liquids, anion amphiprotic ionic liquids (AAILs). These materials are protonation equilibrium free protic ionic liquids and interesting in their own right by not following the classical Brønsted acid-base neutralization concept. Due to the very simple synthesis route applied and their stable basic chemistry, we believe in a potential use for manifold applications. This is supported by the combination of practical material properties, foremost, a general intrinsic stability versus reversal of the formation reaction toward neutral species, broad liquidus ranges, long-term thermal stabilities, high conductivities, protic characteristics, and a general stability versus water. PMID:26295756

  17. Method for treating liquid wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Katti, Kattesh V.; Volkert, Wynn A.; Singh, Prahlad; Ketring, Alan R.

    1995-01-01

    The method of treating liquid waste in a media is accomplished by exposing the media to phosphinimines and sequestering .sup.99 Tc from the media by the phosphinimine (PN) functionalities. The system for treating the liquid waste in the media includes extraction of .sup.99 TcO.sub.4.sup.- from aqueous solutions into organic solvents or mixed organic/polar media, extraction of .sup.99 Tc from solutions on a solid matrix by using a container containing PN functionalities on solid matrices including an inlet and outlet for allowing flow of media through an immobilized phosphinimine ligand system contained within the container. Also, insoluble suspensions of phosphinimine functionalities on solid matrices in liquid solutions or present on supported liquid membranes (SLM) can be used to sequester .sup.99 Tc from those liquids.

  18. Method for treating liquid wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Katti, K.V.; Volkert, W.A.; Singh, P.; Ketring, A.R.

    1995-12-26

    The method of treating liquid waste in a media is accomplished by exposing the media to phosphinimines and sequestering {sup 99}Tc from the media by the phosphinimine (PN) functionalities. The system for treating the liquid waste in the media includes extraction of {sup 99}TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} from aqueous solutions into organic solvents or mixed organic/polar media, extraction of {sup 99}Tc from solutions on a solid matrix by using a container containing PN functionalities on solid matrices including an inlet and outlet for allowing flow of media through an immobilized phosphinimine ligand system contained within the container. Also, insoluble suspensions of phosphinimine functionalities on solid matrices in liquid solutions or present on supported liquid membranes (SLM) can be used to sequester {sup 99}Tc from those liquids. 6 figs.

  19. Probing liquid surface waves, liquid properties and liquid films with light diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barik, Tarun Kr; Chaudhuri, Partha Roy; Roy, Anushree; Kar, Sayan

    2006-06-01

    Surface waves on liquids act as a dynamical phase grating for incident light. In this paper, we revisit the classical method of probing such waves (wavelengths of the order of mm) as well as inherent properties of liquids and liquid films on liquids, using optical diffraction. A combination of simulation and experiment is proposed to trace out the surface wave profiles in various situations (e.g. for one or more vertical, slightly immersed, electrically driven exciters). Subsequently, the surface tension and the spatial damping coefficient (related to viscosity) of a variety of liquids are measured carefully in order to gauge the efficiency of measuring liquid properties using this optical probe. The final set of results deal with liquid films where dispersion relations, surface and interface modes, interfacial tension and related issues are investigated in some detail, both theoretically and experimentally. On the whole, our observations and analysis seem to support the claim that this simple, low cost apparatus is capable of providing a wealth of information on liquids and liquid surface waves in a non-destructive way.

  20. Liquid-liquid transition in a strong bulk metallic glass-forming liquid.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shuai; Yang, Fan; Bednarcik, Jozef; Kaban, Ivan; Shuleshova, Olga; Meyer, Andreas; Busch, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Polymorphic phase transitions are common in crystalline solids. Recent studies suggest that phase transitions may also exist between two liquid forms with different entropy and structure. Such a liquid-liquid transition has been investigated in various substances including water, Al2O3-Y2O3 and network glass formers. However, the nature of liquid-liquid transition is debated due to experimental difficulties in avoiding crystallization and/or measuring at high temperatures/pressures. Here we report the thermodynamic and structural evidence of a temperature-induced weak first-order liquid-liquid transition in a bulk metallic glass-forming system Zr(41.2)Ti(13.8)Cu(12.5)Ni10Be(22.5) characterized by non- (or weak) directional bonds. Our experimental results suggest that the local structural changes during the transition induce the drastic viscosity changes without a detectable density anomaly. These changes are correlated with a heat capacity maximum in the liquid. Our findings support the hypothesis that the 'strong' kinetics (low fragility) of a liquid may arise from an underlying lambda transition above its glass transition. PMID:23817404

  1. Macromolecular liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Safinya, C.R.; Safran, S.A. ); Pincus, P.A. )

    1990-01-01

    Liquids include a broad range of material systems which are of high scientific and technological interest. Generally speaking, these are partially ordered or disordered phases where the individual molecular species have organized themselves on length scales which are larger than simple fluids, typically between 10 Angstroms and several microns. The specific systems reported on in this book include membranes, microemulsions, micelles, liquid crystals, colloidal suspensions, and polymers. They have a major impact on a broad spectrum of technological industries such as displays, plastics, soap and detergents, chemicals and petroleum, and pharmaceuticals.

  2. Steam generator support system

    DOEpatents

    Moldenhauer, James E.

    1987-01-01

    A support system for connection to an outer surface of a J-shaped steam generator for use with a nuclear reactor or other liquid metal cooled power source. The J-shaped steam generator is mounted with the bent portion at the bottom. An arrangement of elongated rod members provides both horizontal and vertical support for the steam generator. The rod members are interconnected to the steam generator assembly and a support structure in a manner which provides for thermal distortion of the steam generator without the transfer of bending moments to the support structure and in a like manner substantially minimizes forces being transferred between the support structure and the steam generator as a result of seismic disturbances.

  3. Steam generator support system

    DOEpatents

    Moldenhauer, J.E.

    1987-08-25

    A support system for connection to an outer surface of a J-shaped steam generator for use with a nuclear reactor or other liquid metal cooled power source is disclosed. The J-shaped steam generator is mounted with the bent portion at the bottom. An arrangement of elongated rod members provides both horizontal and vertical support for the steam generator. The rod members are interconnected to the steam generator assembly and a support structure in a manner which provides for thermal distortion of the steam generator without the transfer of bending moments to the support structure and in a like manner substantially minimizes forces being transferred between the support structure and the steam generator as a result of seismic disturbances. 4 figs.

  4. Liquid atomization

    SciTech Connect

    Walzel, P. )

    1993-01-01

    A systematic review of different liquid atomizers is presented, accompanied by a discussion of various mechanisms of droplet formation in a gas atmosphere as a function of the liquid flow-regime and the geometry of the atomizer. Equations are presented for the calculation of the mean droplet-diameter. In many applications, details of the droplet size distribution are, also, important, e.g., approximate values of the breadth of the droplet formation are given. The efficiency of utilization of mechanical energy in droplet formation is indicated for the different types of atomizers. Atomization is used, in particular, for the following purposes: (1) atomization of fuels; (2) making granular products; (3) carrying out mass-transfer operations; and (4) coating of surfaces.

  5. Liquid filtration simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Corey, I.; Bergman, W.

    1996-06-01

    We have a developed a computer code that simulates 3-D filtration of suspended particles in fluids in realistic filter structures. This code, being the most advanced filtration simulation package developed to date, provides LLNL and DOE with new capabilities to address problems in cleaning liquid wastes, medical fluid cleaning, and recycling liquids. The code is an integrated system of commercially available and LLNL-developed software; the most critical are the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solver and the particle transport program. For the CFD solver, we used a commercial package based on Navier-Stokes equations and a LLNL-developed package based on Boltzman-lattice gas equations. For the particle transport program, we developed a cod based on the 3-D Langevin equation of motion and the DLVO theory of electrical interactions. A number of additional supporting packages were purchased or developed to integrate the simulation tasks and to provide visualization output.

  6. Liquid electrode

    DOEpatents

    Ekechukwu, Amy A.

    1994-01-01

    A dropping electrolyte electrode for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions.

  7. Microfabricated Liquid Rocket Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epstein, Alan H.; Joppin, C.; Kerrebrock, J. L.; Schneider, Steven J. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Under NASA Glenn Research Center sponsorship, MIT has developed the concept of micromachined, bipropellant, liquid rocket engines. This is potentially a breakthrough technology changing the cost-performance tradeoffs for small propulsion systems, enabling new applications, and redefining the meaning of the term low-cost-access-to-space. With this NASA support, a liquid-cooled, gaseous propellant version of the thrust chamber and nozzle was designed, built, and tested as a first step. DARPA is currently funding MIT to demonstrate turbopumps and controls. The work performed herein was the second year of a proposed three-year effort to develop the technology and demonstrate very high power density, regeneratively cooled, liquid bipropellant rocket engine thrust chamber and nozzles. When combined with the DARPA turbopumps and controls, this work would enable the design and demonstration of a complete rocket propulsion system. The original MIT-NASA concept used liquid oxygen-ethanol propellants. The military applications important to DARPA imply that storable liquid propellants are needed. Thus, MIT examined various storable propellant combinations including N2O4 and hydrazine, and H2O2 and various hydrocarbons. The latter are preferred since they do not have the toxicity of N2O4 and hydrazine. In reflection of the newfound interest in H2O2, it is once again in production and available commercially. A critical issue for the microrocket engine concept is cooling of the walls in a regenerative design. This is even more important at microscale than for large engines due to cube-square scaling considerations. Furthermore, the coolant behavior of rocket propellants has not been characterized at microscale. Therefore, MIT designed and constructed an apparatus expressly for this purpose. The report details measurements of two candidate microrocket fuels, JP-7 and JP-10.

  8. Pump for Saturated Liquids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, D. G.

    1986-01-01

    Boiling liquids pumped by device based on proven components. Expanding saturated liquid in nozzle and diverting its phases along separate paths in liquid/vapor separator raises pressure of liquid. Liquid cooled in process. Pump makes it unnecessary to pressurize cryogenic liquids in order to pump them. Problems of introducing noncondensable pressurizing gas avoided.

  9. Models for Liquid Impact Onboard Sloshsat FLEVO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vreeburg, Jan P. B.; Chato, David J.

    2000-01-01

    Orbital experiments on the behavior of liquid in spacecraft are planned. The Sloshsat free-flyer is described. Preparation of the experiments, and later evaluation, are supported by models of varying complexity. The characteristics of the models are discussed. Particular attention is given to the momentum transfer between the liquid and the spacecraft, in connection with the liquid impact that may occur at the end of a reorientation maneuver of the spacecraft.

  10. Transverse excitations in liquid metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosokawa, S.; Munejiri, S.; Inui, M.; Kajihara, Y.; Pilgrim, W.-C.; Baron, A. Q. R.; Shimojo, F.; Hoshino, K.

    2013-02-01

    The transverse acoustic excitation modes were detected by inelastic x-ray scattering in liquid Ga, Cu and Fe in the Q range around 10 nm-1 using a third-generation synchrotron radiation facility, SPring-8, although these liquid metals are mostly described by a simple hard-sphere liquid. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations clearly support this finding for liquid Ga. From the detailed analyses for the S(Q,ω) spectra with good statistic qualities, the lifetime of less than 1 ps and the propagating length of less than 1 nm can be estimated for the transverse acoustic phonon modes, which correspond to the lifetime and size of cages formed instantaneously in these liquid metals. The microscopic Poisson's ratio estimated from the dynamic velocities of sound is 0.42 for liquid Ga and about -0.2 for liquid transition metals, indicating a rubber-like soft and extremely hard elastic properties of the cage clusters, respectively. The origin of these microscopic elastic properties is discussed in detail.

  11. Supported inorganic membranes

    DOEpatents

    Sehgal, Rakesh; Brinker, Charles Jeffrey

    1998-01-01

    Supported inorganic membranes capable of molecular sieving, and methods for their production, are provided. The subject membranes exhibit high flux and high selectivity. The subject membranes are substantially defect free and less than about 100 nm thick. The pores of the subject membranes have an average critical pore radius of less than about 5 .ANG., and have a narrow pore size distribution. The subject membranes are prepared by coating a porous substrate with a polymeric sol, preferably under conditions of low relative pressure of the liquid constituents of the sol. The coated substrate is dried and calcined to produce the subject supported membrane. Also provided are methods of derivatizing the surface of supported inorganic membranes with metal alkoxides. The subject membranes find use in a variety of applications, such as the separation of constituents of gaseous streams, as catalysts and catalyst supports, and the like.

  12. Rotating electric machine with fluid supported parts

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.L. Jr.; Kirtley, J.L. Jr.

    1981-09-22

    A rotating electric machine is described in which the armature winding thereof and other parts are supported by a liquid to withstand the mechanical stresses applied during transient overloads and the like. In particular, a narrow gap is provided between the armature winding and the stator which supports it and this gap is filled with an externally pressurized viscous liquid. The liquid is externally pressurized sufficiently to balance the static loads on the armature winding. Transient mechanical loads which deform the armature winding alter the gap dimensions and thereby additionally pressurize the viscous liquid to oppose the armature winding deformation and more nearly uniformly to distribute the resulting mechanical stresses. 10 figs.

  13. Rotating electric machine with fluid supported parts

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Joseph L.; Kirtley, Jr., James L.

    1981-01-01

    A rotating electric machine in which the armature winding thereof and other parts are supported by a liquid to withstand the mechanical stresses applied during transient overloads and the like. In particular, a narrow gap is provided between the armature winding and the stator which supports it and this gap is filled with an externally pressurized viscous liquid. The liquid is externally pressurized sufficiently to balance the static loads on the armature winding. Transient mechanical loads which deform the armature winding alter the gap dimensions and thereby additionally pressurize the viscous liquid to oppose the armature winding deformation and more nearly uniformly to distribute the resulting mechanical stresses.

  14. Liquid electrode

    DOEpatents

    Ekechukwu, A.A.

    1994-07-05

    A dropping electrolyte electrode is described for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions. 2 figures.

  15. Method of forming supported doped palladium containing oxidation catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Mohajeri, Nahid

    2014-04-22

    A method of forming a supported oxidation catalyst includes providing a support comprising a metal oxide or a metal salt, and depositing first palladium compound particles and second precious metal group (PMG) metal particles on the support while in a liquid phase including at least one solvent to form mixed metal comprising particles on the support. The PMG metal is not palladium. The mixed metal particles on the support are separated from the liquid phase to provide the supported oxidation catalyst.

  16. Systems and methods for analyzing liquids under vacuum

    DOEpatents

    Yu, Xiao-Ying; Yang, Li; Cowin, James P.; Iedema, Martin J.; Zhu, Zihua

    2013-10-15

    Systems and methods for supporting a liquid against a vacuum pressure in a chamber can enable analysis of the liquid surface using vacuum-based chemical analysis instruments. No electrical or fluid connections are required to pass through the chamber walls. The systems can include a reservoir, a pump, and a liquid flow path. The reservoir contains a liquid-phase sample. The pump drives flow of the sample from the reservoir, through the liquid flow path, and back to the reservoir. The flow of the sample is not substantially driven by a differential between pressures inside and outside of the liquid flow path. An aperture in the liquid flow path exposes a stable portion of the liquid-phase sample to the vacuum pressure within the chamber. The radius, or size, of the aperture is less than or equal to a critical value required to support a meniscus of the liquid-phase sample by surface tension.

  17. Vapor liquid solid-hydride vapor phase epitaxy (VLS-HVPE) growth of ultra-long defect-free GaAs nanowires: Ab initio simulations supporting center nucleation

    SciTech Connect

    André, Yamina Lekhal, Kaddour; Hoggan, Philip; Avit, Geoffrey; Réda Ramdani, M.; Monier, Guillaume; Colas, David; Ajib, Rabih; Castelluci, Dominique; Gil, Evelyne; Cadiz, Fabian; Rowe, Alistair; Paget, Daniel; Petit, Elodie; Leroux, Christine; Trassoudaine, Agnès

    2014-05-21

    High aspect ratio, rod-like and single crystal phase GaAs nanowires (NWs) were grown by gold catalyst-assisted hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE). High resolution transmission electron microscopy and micro-Raman spectroscopy revealed polytypism-free zinc blende (ZB) NWs over lengths of several tens of micrometers for a mean diameter of 50 nm. Micro-photoluminescence studies of individual NWs showed linewidths smaller than those reported elsewhere which is consistent with the crystalline quality of the NWs. HVPE makes use of chloride growth precursors GaCl of which high decomposition frequency after adsorption onto the liquid droplet catalysts, favors a direct and rapid introduction of the Ga atoms from the vapor phase into the droplets. High influxes of Ga and As species then yield high axial growth rate of more than 100 μm/h. The diffusion of the Ga atoms in the liquid droplet towards the interface between the liquid and the solid nanowire was investigated by using density functional theory calculations. The diffusion coefficient of Ga atoms was estimated to be 3 × 10{sup −9} m{sup 2}/s. The fast diffusion of Ga in the droplet favors nucleation at the liquid-solid line interface at the center of the NW. This is further evidence, provided by an alternative epitaxial method with respect to metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy and molecular beam epitaxy, of the current assumption which states that this type of nucleation should always lead to the formation of the ZB cubic phase.

  18. Nutritional Support

    MedlinePlus

    Nutritional support is therapy for people who cannot get enough nourishment by eating or drinking. You may need ... absorb nutrients through your digestive system You receive nutritional support through a needle or catheter placed in your ...

  19. Liquid-liquid critical point in supercooled silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasisht, Vishwas V.; Saw, Shibu; Sastry, Srikanth

    2011-07-01

    A novel liquid-liquid phase transition has been investigated for a wide variety of pure substances, including water, silica and silicon. From computer simulations using the Stillinger-Weber (SW) classical empirical potential, Sastry and Angell demonstrated a first order liquid-liquid transition in supercooled silicon at zero pressure, supported by subsequent experimental and simulation studies. Whether the line of such first order transitions will terminate at a critical point, expected to lie at negative pressures, is presently a matter of debate. Here we report evidence for a liquid-liquid critical point at negative pressures, from computer simulations using the SW potential. We identify Tc~1,120+/-12K, Pc~-0.60+/-0.15GPa as the critical temperature and pressure. We construct the phase diagram of supercooled silicon, which reveals the interconnection between thermodynamic anomalies and the phase behaviour of the system as suggested in previous works. We also observe a strong relationship between local geometry (quantified by the coordination number) and diffusivity, both of which change dramatically with decreasing temperature and pressure.

  20. Changing the Electron Count in Spin Liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Zachary; McQueen, Tyrel

    Materials which possess the resonating valence bond (RVB) ``spin-liquid'' state have been long sought after by scientists due to their predicted exotic properties. Several materials have been identified as potential spin liquid candidates and laboratory studies have only just begun to provide insight into the properties of these materials and their theoretical description. Recently theoretical calculations predict doping of a spin liquid could lead to a rich and unique phase diagram including complex magnetic states, Dirac metal behavior, and superconductivity. We report the results of structural and physical property characterizations of newly synthesized doped candidate spin liquids. This work was supported by a Cottrell Scholar Award.

  1. Bearing for liquid metal pump

    DOEpatents

    Dickinson, Robert J.; Wasko, John; Pennell, William E.

    1984-01-01

    A liquid metal pump bearing support comprises a series of tangentially oriented spokes that connect the bearing cylinder to the pump internals structure. The spokes may be arranged in a plurality of planes extending from the bearing cylinder to the pump internals with the spokes in one plane being arranged alternately with those in the next plane. The bearing support structure provides the pump with sufficient lateral support for the bearing structure together with the capability of accommodating differential thermal expansion without adversely affecting pump performance.

  2. Magnetic Liquids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Ferrofluidics Corporation's recent innovation is a spindle for rotating computer discs that supports the disc's rotating shaft on a film of magnetic fluid instead of conventional ball bearings. According to its developers, the spindle offers greatly increased rotational stability, meaning substantially reduced vibration and mechanical noise, and non- repeatable runout. This allows disc drives to store two to 10 times more information.

  3. Gauging Systems Monitor Cryogenic Liquids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Rocket fuel needs to stay cool - super cool, in fact. The ability to store gas propellants like liquid hydrogen and oxygen at cryogenic temperatures (below -243 F) is crucial for space missions in order to reduce their volumes and allow their storage in smaller (and therefore, less costly) tanks. The Agency has used these cryogenic fluids for vehicle propellants, reactants, and life support systems since 1962 with the Centaur upper stage rocket, which was powered with liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. During proposed long-duration missions, super-cooled fluids will also be used in space power systems, spaceports, and lunar habitation systems. In the next generation of launch vehicles, gaseous propellants will be cooled to and stored for extended periods at even colder temperatures than currently employed via a process called densification. Densification sub-cools liquids to temperatures even closer to absolute zero (-459 F), increasing the fluid s density and shrinking its volume beyond common cryogenics. Sub-cooling cryogenic liquid hydrogen, for instance, from 20 K (-423 F) to 15 K (-432.4 F) reduces its mass by 10 percent. These densified liquid gases can provide more cost savings from reduced payload volume. In order to benefit from this cost savings, the Agency is working with private industry to prevent evaporation, leakage, and other inadvertent loss of liquids and gases in payloads - requiring new cryogenic systems to prevent 98 percent (or more) of boil-off loss. Boil-off occurs when cryogenic or densified liquids evaporate, and is a concern during launch pad holds. Accurate sensing of propellants aboard space vehicles is also critical for proper engine shutdown and re-ignition after launch, and zero boil-off fuel systems are also in development for the Altair lunar lander.

  4. Liquid Crystal Devices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Madeline J.

    1983-01-01

    The nature of liquid crystals and several important liquid crystal devices are described. Ideas for practical experiments to illustrate the properties of liquid crystals and their operation in devices are also described. (Author/JN)

  5. Liquid Crystal Inquiries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marroum, Renata-Maria

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the properties and classification of liquid crystals. Presents a simple experiment that illustrates the structure of liquid crystals and the differences between the various phases liquid crystals can assume. (JRH)

  6. REDISTRIBUTOR FOR LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION COLUMNS

    DOEpatents

    Bradley, J.G.

    1957-10-29

    An improved baffle plate construction to intimately mix immiscible liquid solvents for solvent extraction processes in a liquid-liquid pulse column is described. To prevent the light and heavy liquids from forming separate continuous homogeneous vertical channels through sections of the column, a baffle having radially placed rectangular louvers with deflection plates opening upon alternate sides of the baffle is placed in the column, normal to the axis. This improvement substantially completely reduces strippiig losses due to poor mixing.

  7. Peer Support.

    PubMed

    Forchuk, Cheryl; Solomon, Michelle; Viran, Tazim

    2016-01-01

    The Mental Health Commission of Canada defines peer support as "a supportive relationship between people who have a lived experience in common … in relation to a mental health challenge or illness … related to their own mental health or that of a loved one" (Sunderland et al. 2013: 11). In Ontario, a key resource for peer support is the Ontario Peer Development Initiative (OPDI), which is an umbrella organization of mental health Consumer/Survivor Initiatives (CSIs) and peer support organizations across the province of Ontario. Member organizations are run by and for people with lived experience of a mental health or addiction issue and provide a wide range of services and activities within their communities. The central tenet of member organizations is the common understanding that people can and do recover with the proper supports in place and that peer support is integral to successful recovery. Nationally, Peer Support Accreditation and Certification Canada has recently been established. The relatively new national organization focuses on training and accrediting peer support workers. This paper focuses on a range of diverse peer support groups and CSIs that operate in London and surrounding areas. PMID:26854546

  8. Liquid supercoiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribe, Neil; Habibi, Mehdi; Hosseini, Hossein; Hassan Khatami, Mohammad

    2011-11-01

    Supercoiling is defined as the large-scale secondary coiling of a slender body that is already coiled at a smaller scale (e.g., telephone cords and DNA strands). We demonstrate experimentally a novel fluid-mechanical form of supercoiling that occurs in the context of the familiar ``liquid rope coiling'' instability of a thin thread of viscous fluid falling onto a rigid surface. Under appropriate conditions, the coiling instability generates a tall pile of coils in the form of a hollow cylindrical column, which in turn becomes unstable to a secondary coiling instability with a frequency ~ 10 % of the primary one. To place this phenomenon in a broader context, we determine experimentally the phase diagram for the different possible behaviors of the thread (stagnation flow, simple coiling, rotatory folding, periodic column collapse, supercoiling) in the space of the fluid viscosity, the flow rate, and the fall height. We formulate a mathematical model for supercoiling by combining a thin-shell description of the column wall with a slender-thread description of the column as a whole. This leads to a set of coupled ordinary differential equations in one space dimension (the arclength along the axis of the coiling column) that we solve numerically using a continuation method. A comparison of the predicted and observed frequencies of secondary coiling will be shown.

  9. Liquid annulus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludewig, Hans

    1991-01-01

    It is shown that the specific impulse varies with the square root of the temperature and inversely with the square root of the molecular weight of the propellant. Typical values for specific impulse corresponding to various rocket concepts are shown. The Liquid Annulus core concept consists of a fuel element which will be arranged in a moderator block. The advantages as seen for the system are: high specific impulse; structural material will all run at low temperature; and lower fission product inventory because of evaporation. It is felt that this concept is worth at least a first look because of the promise of very high specific impulse. Because of the low thrust, one would probably need a cluster of engines. This is not necessarily bad because there would be some redundancy, but because of the low thrust one might have to refuel while running. Depending on the fuel vaporization, material can be included in the uranium that is injected as one is running along.

  10. Viscoelastic cushion for patient support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauers, D. G.

    1971-01-01

    Flexible container, filled with liquid, provides supportive device which conforms to patient's anatomy. Uniform cushion pressure prevents formation of decubitus ulcers, while the porous sponge substructure damps fluid movement through cushion response so that patient is not dumped when his weight shifts.

  11. Family Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wieck, Colleen, Ed.; McBride, Marijo, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    This "Feature Issue" of the quarterly journal "Impact" presents 19 brief articles on family support systems in the United States for persons with developmental disabilities and their families. Emphasis is on provisions of Public Law 99-457. Articles include: "Family Support in the United States: Setting a Course for the 1990s" (James Knoll);…

  12. Supporting Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesaux, Nonie K.; Burkhauser, Mary A.; Kelley, Joan G.

    2013-01-01

    Material resources, personalized support, time to collaborate, and strong principal leadership are necessary for making curricular and instructional shifts. The authors of this article share the lessons they learned about supporting implementation of the Common Core State Standards. They draw on interviews with teachers, as well as field notes…

  13. Thermal support for scale support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, W. G.

    1976-01-01

    The thermal design work completed for the Thermal Protection System (TPS) of the Space Shuttle System (TPS) of the space shuttle vehicle was documented. This work was divided into three phases, the first two of which reported in previous documents. About 22 separate tasks were completed in phase III, such as: hot gas facility (HGF) support, guarded tank support, shuttle external tank (ET) thermal design handbook support, etc.

  14. Minimizing liquid contaminants in natural gas liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.L.; Wines, T.H.; Williamson, K.M.

    1996-12-31

    In processing natural gas liquids, significant contamination occurs with liquid dispersions and emulsions. Natural gas liquids (NGL) and liquid petroleum gas (LPG) streams are treated with caustic to remove residual organic sulfur compounds such as mercaptans and with amines to remove hydrogen sulfide. In both cases a liquid/liquid contactor is used. Significant amounts of the caustic or amine can be carried over into the product stream in process units that are running at rates above design capacity, are treating high sulfur feed stocks, or have other operational problems. The carried over liquid results in off-spec products, excessive loses of caustic or amine, and can cause operating problems in downstream processes. In addition, water is a significant contaminant which can cause LPG and natural gasoline to be off-specification. This paper discusses a new technique for separating very stable liquid dispersions of caustic, amine, or water from natural gas liquids using liquid/liquid cartridge coalescers constructed with specially formulated polymer and fluoropolymer medium with enhanced surface properties. In addition, factors influencing the coalescer mechanism will be discussed including interfacial tension, concentration of surface active compounds, steric repulsion, and electrostatic charge affects. Results from field tests, operating data from commercial installations, and economic benefits will also be presented.

  15. Pipe support

    DOEpatents

    Pollono, Louis P.

    1979-01-01

    A pipe support for high temperature, thin-walled piping runs such as those used in nuclear systems. A section of the pipe to be supported is encircled by a tubular inner member comprised of two walls with an annular space therebetween. Compacted load-bearing thermal insulation is encapsulated within the annular space, and the inner member is clamped to the pipe by a constant clamping force split-ring clamp. The clamp may be connected to pipe hangers which provide desired support for the pipe.

  16. Retreating behavior of a charged ionic liquid droplet in a dielectric liquid under electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Myung Mo; Im, Do Jin; Kang, In Seok

    2013-11-01

    Ionic liquids show great promise as excellent solvents or catalysts in energy and biological fields due to their unique chemical and physical properties. The ionic liquid droplets in microfluidic systems can also be used as a potential platform for chemical biological reactions. In order to control electrically the ionic liquid droplets in a microfluidic device, the charging characteristics of ionic liquid droplets need to be understood. In this work, the charging characteristics of various ionic liquids are investigated by using the parallel plate electrodes system. Under normal situation, a charged droplet shows bouncing motion between electrodes continuously. However, for some special ionic liquids, interesting retreating behavior of charged ionic liquid droplet has been observed. This retreating behavior of ionic liquid droplet has been analyzed experimentally by the image analysis and the electrometer signal analysis. Based on the hypothesis of charge leakage of the retreating ionic liquid droplets, FT-IR spectroscopy analysis has also been performed. The retreating behavior of ionic liquid droplet is discussed from the intermolecular point of view according to the species of ionic liquids. This research was supported by grant No. 2013R1A1A2011956 funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning (MSIP) and by grant No. 2013R1A1A2010483 funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (MEST) through the NRF.

  17. Ionic Liquids Database- (ILThermo)

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 147 Ionic Liquids Database- (ILThermo) (Web, free access)   IUPAC Ionic Liquids Database, ILThermo, is a free web research tool that allows users worldwide to access an up-to-date data collection from the publications on experimental investigations of thermodynamic, and transport properties of ionic liquids as well as binary and ternary mixtures containing ionic liquids.

  18. Liquid crystal polyester thermosets

    SciTech Connect

    Benicewicz, B.C.; Hoyt, A.E.

    1990-01-01

    The present invention relates to the field of curable liquid crystal polyester monomers and to thermoset liquid crystalline polyester compositions prepared therefrom. It is an object of this invention to provide curable liquid crystalline polyester materials. Another object of this invention is to provide a process of preparing curable liquid crystal polyester monomers. Yet another object of this invention is to provide liquid crystalline blends of polyester materials. It is a further object of this invention to provide thermoset liquid crystalline polyester compositions. It is a still further object of this invention to provide thermoset liquid crystalline polyester compositions having a high heat resistance. 1 fig.

  19. Liquid crystal polyester thermosets

    SciTech Connect

    Benicewicz, B.C.; Hoyt, A.E.

    1990-12-31

    The present invention relates to the field of curable liquid crystal polyester monomers and to thermoset liquid crystalline polyester compositions prepared therefrom. It is an object of this invention to provide curable liquid crystalline polyester materials. Another object of this invention is to provide a process of preparing curable liquid crystal polyester monomers. Yet another object of this invention is to provide liquid crystalline blends of polyester materials. It is a further object of this invention to provide thermoset liquid crystalline polyester compositions. It is a still further object of this invention to provide thermoset liquid crystalline polyester compositions having a high heat resistance. 1 fig.

  20. Conversion of cellulosic wastes to liquid hydrocarbon fuels: Vol. 2, A kinetic study of the modified Fischer-Tropsch synthesis over an alumina-supported cobalt oxide catalyst: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kuester, J.L.

    1986-11-01

    A modified Fischer-Tropsch reaction with the incorporation of ethylene in the synthesis gas has been studied kinetically. The feed mixture was also comprised of methane and carbon dioxide in a proportion similar to a real pyrolysis gas composition. The feed gas was provided by a manifold of compressed gas cylinders. An alumina-supported cobalt oxide catalyst was prepared by an impregnation method and used in the experimentation.

  1. Research News: Emulsion Liquid Membrane Extraction in a Hollow-Fiber Contactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiencek, John M.; Hu, Shih-Yao

    2000-01-01

    This article describes how ELMs (emulsion liquid membranes) can be used for extraction. The article addresses the disadvantages of ELM extraction in a stirred contactor, and the advantages of SELMs (supported emulsion liquid membranes). The introduction of the article provides background information on liquid-liquid solvent extraction and dispersion-free solvent extraction.

  2. 21 CFR 862.2250 - Gas liquid chromatography system for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gas liquid chromatography system for clinical use... Instruments § 862.2250 Gas liquid chromatography system for clinical use. (a) Identification. A gas liquid... pressure. The device may include accessories such as columns, gases, column supports, and liquid...

  3. Charge transport in confined ionic liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangoro, Joshua; Iacob, Ciprian; Kipnusu, Wycliffe; Kremer, Friedrich

    2011-03-01

    Charge transport and glassy dynamics in neat and polymerized ionic liquids confined in nanoporous silica are investigated in a wide frequency and temperature ranges by a combination of Broadband Dielectric Spectroscopy and Pulsed Field Gradient Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (PFG NMR). By applying the Einstein-Smoluchowski relations to the dielectric spectra, diffusion coefficients are obtained in quantitative agreement with independent PFG NMR. The impact of geometrical confinement as well as the pore wall-ionic liquid interactions on the overall ionic mobility is explored for diverse categories of ionic liquids. The results are discussed within the framework of dynamic glass transition assisted charge transport in ionic liquids. Financial support from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft under the DFG SPP 1191 Priority Program on Ionic Liquids is gratefully acknowledged.

  4. Energy dispersive-EXAFS of Pd nucleation at a liquid/liquid interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, S.-Y.; Booth, S. G.; Uehara, A.; Mosselmans, J. F. W.; Cibin, G.; Pham, V.-T.; Nataf, L.; Dryfe, R. A. W.; Schroeder, S. L. M.

    2016-05-01

    Energy dispersive extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EDE) has been applied to Pd nanoparticle nucleation at a liquid/liquid interface under control over the interfacial potential and thereby the driving force for nucleation. Preliminary analysis focusing on Pd K edge-step height determination shows that under supersaturated conditions the concentration of Pd near the interface fluctuate over a period of several hours, likely due to the continuous formation and dissolution of sub-critical nuclei. Open circuit potential measurements conducted ex-situ in a liquid/liquid electrochemical cell support this view, showing that the fluctuations in Pd concentration are also visible as variations in potential across the liquid/liquid interface. By decreasing the interfacial potential through inclusion of a common ion (tetraethylammonium, TEA+) the Pd nanoparticle growth rate could be slowed down, resulting in a smooth nucleation process. Eventually, when the TEA+ ions reached an equilibrium potential, Pd nucleation and particle growth were inhibited.

  5. Supportive Care.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Pia Riis; Lorenzo, Rosalía

    2016-01-01

    This chapter takes its point of departure in psychosocial aspects of supportive care in adolescent and young adult cancer care. The purpose is to describe some of the challenges that these young people face following a cancer diagnosis and guide healthcare professionals in how to provide care that improves the quality of life. In most hospitals and healthcare systems, adolescents and young adults are cared for and treated in settings for children or adults. Accordingly, healthcare professionals may lack attention to and knowledge about what characterize young peoples' life situation, their special needs and how to meet them. The topics we include in the chapter are the following: the youth friendly environment, social support and social network, parents, information during a psychosocial crisis event, the use of HEADSS, peer support, fertility, body image and self-esteem, after treatment and future challenges and palliative and end of life care. PMID:27595353

  6. Semiconductor nanorod liquid crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Liang-shi; Walda, Joost; Manna, Liberato; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2002-01-28

    Rodlike molecules form liquid crystalline phases with orientational order and positional disorder. The great majority of materials in which liquid crystalline phases have been observed are comprised of organic molecules or polymers, even though there has been continuing and growing interest in inorganic liquid crystals. Recent advances in the control of the sizes and shapes of inorganic nanocrystals allow for the formation of a broad class of new inorganic liquid crystals. Here we show the formation of liquid crystalline phases of CdSe semiconductor nanorods. These new liquid crystalline phases may have great importance for both application and fundamental study.

  7. Liquid level detector

    DOEpatents

    Grasso, A.P.

    1984-02-21

    A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which vapor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

  8. Liquid level detector

    DOEpatents

    Grasso, Albert P.

    1986-01-01

    A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which apor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

  9. Differentiated Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannagan, Jenny Sue; Kelly, Mike

    2009-01-01

    Supporting teachers begins with designing professional learning that is responsive to their needs. Gone are the days of one-size-fits all professional development. Principals cannot ensure that all teachers are effective in the classroom if they don't create learning opportunities that move all teachers toward expertise with teaching. In this…

  10. Administrative Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doran, Dorothy; And Others

    This guide is intended to assist business education teachers in administrative support courses. The materials presented are based on the Arizona validated occupational competencies and tasks for the occupations of receptionist, secretary, and administrative assistant. Word processing skills have been infused into each of the three sections. The…

  11. Supporting Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton, Betty, Ed.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    This newsletter feature issue focuses on services for persons with developmental disabilities that support the whole person by acknowledging, respecting, and incorporating aspects of identity such as race, ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation, gender, age, and class. Articles include: (1) "Serving the Whole Person: The Journey to Embracing…

  12. Mirror Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baron, Richard L. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Disclosed herein is a method of making a mirror support comprising a composite, the composite comprising a plurality of carbon nanotubes, wherein at least two of the plurality of carbon nanotubes are bonded to each other through a bridging moiety bound to each of the two carbon nanotubes, and a laminate comprising the composite.

  13. Survey of the literature: Controlled generation of liquid droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allan, Craig R.; Carlon, Hugh R.; Stuempfle, Arthur K.; Hoffer, Thomas E.; Pitter, Richard L.

    1988-08-01

    Techniques utilized in generating large drops from visco-elastic liquids, which are also referred to as non-Newtonian liquids, are surveyed, reviewed and evaluated. The minimum droplet size of interest was 0.2 mm (200 micrometers). Drop generation techniques considered include the capillary dropper, liquid jets, atomization, the spinning disc, vaporization-condensation, impulse generation, and other techniques. Of these, only three generator configurations were found to meet experimental requirements. These included a drop impulse/ejection system, a capillary device utilizing immiscible liquids, and a microfilm technique whereby presized drops are released into free fall by the sudden removal of the supporting microfilm utilizing a liquid solvent spray technique.

  14. Tool to Prioritize Energy Efficiency Investments

    SciTech Connect

    Farese, P.; Gelman, R.; Hendron, R.

    2012-08-01

    To provide analytic support of the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of the Building Technology Program (BTP), NREL developed a Microsoft Excel-based tool to provide an open and objective comparison of the hundreds of investment opportunities available to BTP. This tool uses established methodologies to evaluate the energy savings and cost of those savings.

  15. Floating liquid bridge charge dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teschke, Omar; Soares, David Mendez; Gomes, Whyllerson Evaristo; Valente Filho, Juracyr Ferraz

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of liquid with electric fields is investigated in a configuration where up to 13 kV are applied between electrodes resulting in a 106 V/m electric field in the capillaries and where there is the formation of a free-standing fluid bridge in the interelectrode gap. The Mott-Gurney equation was fitted to the measured ionization current vs applied voltage curve which indicates that the ionization rate at the high-voltage anode electrode dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) interface and space charging in the interelectrode gap determine the floating liquid bridge current for a given cathode-to-anode voltage. Space charge effects were measured in the cathode becker and also at the liquid bridge since the ionized charges at the anode migrate to the bridge outer surface and decrease the interfacial tension from 43 mJ/m2 to 29 mJ/m2. Two distinct structural regions then form the bridge, a charged plastic (bulk modulus ˜100 MPa) conducting outer layer with a surface conductivity of ˜10-9 Ω-1, which shapes and supports the floating fluid structure, and an inner liquid cylinder, where DMSO molecules flow.

  16. Liquid-film electron stripper

    DOEpatents

    Gavin, Basil F.

    1986-01-01

    An improved liquid-film electron stripper particularly for high intensity heavy ion beams which produces constant regenerated, stable, free-standing liquid films having an adjustable thickness between 0.3 to 0.05 microns. The improved electron stripper is basically composed of at least one high speed, rotating disc with a very sharp, precision-like, ground edge on one said of the disc's periphery and with a highly polished, flat, radial surface adjacent the sharp edge. A fine stream of liquid, such as oil, impinges at a 90.degree. angle adjacent the disc's sharp outer edge. Film terminators, located at a selected distance from the disc perimeter are positioned approximately perpendicular to the film. The terminators support, shape, and stretch the film and are arranged to assist in the prevention of liquid droplet formation by directing the collected film to a reservoir below without breaking or interfering with the film. One embodiment utilizes two rotating discs and associated terminators, with the discs rotating so as to form films in opposite directions, and with the second disc being located down beam-line relative to the first disc.

  17. Precision liquid level sensor

    DOEpatents

    Field, M.E.; Sullivan, W.H.

    A precision liquid level sensor utilizes a balanced bridge, each arm including an air dielectric line. Changes in liquid level along one air dielectric line imbalance the bridge and create a voltage which is directly measurable across the bridge.

  18. Liquid medication administration

    MedlinePlus

    ... easily. Oral syringes have some advantages for giving liquid medicines. They are accurate. They are easy to ... cups are also a handy way to give liquid medicines. However, dosing errors have occurred with them. ...

  19. Zero gravity liquid mixer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booth, F. W.; Bruce, R. A. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An apparatus for mixing liquids under conditions of zero gravity is disclosed. The apparatus is comprised of a closed reservoir for the liquids, with a means for maintaining a positive pressure on the liquids in the reservoir. A valved liquid supply line is connected to the reservoir for supplying the reservoir with the liquids to be mixed in the reservoir. The portion of the reservoir containing the liquids to be mixed is in communication with a pump which alternately causes a portion of the liquids to flow out of the pump and into the reservoir to mix the liquids. The fluids in the reservoir are in communication through a conduit with the pump which alternately causes a portion of the fluids to flow out of the pump and into the sphere. The conduit connecting the pump and sphere may contain a nozzle or other jet-forming structure such as a venturi for further mixing the fluids.

  20. Supporting members

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Life Supporting Members L. Thomas Aldrich Thomas D. Barrow Hugh J . A. Chivers Allan V. Cox Samuel S. Goldich Pembroke J. Hart A. Ivan Johnson Helmut E. Landsberg Paolo Lanzano Murli H. Manghnani L. L. Nettleton Charles B. Officer Hyman Orlin Ned A. Ostenso Erick O. Schonstedt Waldo E. Smith Athelstan Spilhaus A. F. Spilhaus, Jr. John W. Townsend, Jr. James A. Van Allen Leonard W. Weis Charles A. Whitten J. Tuzo Wilson

  1. Renewable liquid reflection grating

    DOEpatents

    Ryutov, Dmitri D.; Toor, Arthur

    2003-10-07

    A renewable liquid reflection grating. Electrodes are operatively connected to a conducting liquid in an arrangement that produces a reflection grating and driven by a current with a resonance frequency. In another embodiment, the electrodes create the grating by a resonant electrostatic force acting on a dielectric liquid.

  2. Liquid detection circuit

    DOEpatents

    Regan, Thomas O.

    1987-01-01

    Herein is a circuit which is capable of detecting the presence of liquids, especially cryogenic liquids, and whose sensor will not overheat in a vacuum. The circuit parameters, however, can be adjusted to work with any liquid over a wide range of temperatures.

  3. Liquid metal cold trap

    DOEpatents

    Hundal, Rolv

    1976-01-01

    A cold trap assembly for removing impurities from a liquid metal being provided with a hole between the incoming impure liquid metal and purified outgoing liquid metal which acts as a continuous bleed means and thus prevents the accumulation of cover gases within the cold trap assembly.

  4. Carbon cloth supported electrode

    DOEpatents

    Lu, Wen-Tong P.; Ammon, Robert L.

    1982-01-01

    A flow-by anode is disclosed made by preparing a liquid suspension of about to about 18% by weight solids, the solids comprising about 3.5 to about 8% of a powdered catalyst of platinum, palladium, palladium oxide, or mixtures thereof; about 60 to about 76% carbon powder (support) having a particle size less than about 20 m.mu.m and about 20 to about 33% of an inert binder having a particle size of less than about 500 m.mu.m. A sufficient amount of the suspension is poured over a carbon cloth to form a layer of solids about 0.01 to about 0.05 cm thick on the carbon cloth when the electrode is completed. A vacuum was applied to the opposite side of the carbon cloth to remove the liquid and the catalyst layer/cloth assembly is dried and compressed at about 10 to about 50 MPa's. The binder is then sintered in an inert atmosphere to complete the electrode. The electrode is used for the oxidation of sulfur dioxide in a sulfur based hybrid cycle for the decomposition of water.

  5. Mo-Fe catalysts supported on activated carbon for synthesis of liquid fuels by the Fischer-Tropsch process: effect of Mo addition on reducibility, activity, and hydrocarbon selectivity

    SciTech Connect

    Wenping Ma; Edwin L. Kugler; James Wright; Dady B. Dadyburjor

    2006-12-15

    The effects of Mo loading (0-12 wt %) on the properties of activated-carbon- (AC-) supported Fe-Cu-K catalysts and their performance for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis are studied. Physicochemical properties studied include particle size, reducibility, and dispersion, and catalytic properties include activity, selectivity, and stability. Catalysts were characterized by N{sub 2} adsorption, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), H{sub 2} temperature-programmed reduction (TPR), and CO chemisorption. Catalyst performance was studied at 310-320{sup o}C, 2.2 MPa, 3 Nl/g-cat/h, and H{sub 2}/CO = 0.9. Reaction results in a fixed-bed reactor show that addition of 6% Mo into the Fe-Cu-K/AC catalyst improves catalyst stability without sacrificing activity, but activity is suppressed dramatically on a 12% Mo-loaded catalyst. Detectable hydrocarbons of C{sub 1} to C{sub 34} are produced on the Fe-Cu-K/AC catalysts with or without Mo. However, the addition of Mo results in the production of more CH{sub 4} and less C{sub 5+} hydrocarbons. The Mo promoter greatly enhances secondary reactions of olefins, leading to a large amount of internal olefins (i.e., other than 1-olefins) in the product. TPR shows that a strong interaction between Fe and Mo oxides is present, and the extent of reduction of Fe is suppressed after addition of Mo to the Fe-Cu-K catalyst. CO-chemisorption and XRD studies show increased iron dispersion and decreased particle size of the iron carbide and iron oxide after the addition of Mo. Segregation of iron active sites, thereby preventing them from agglomerating, and a larger number of active sites on the 6% Mo catalyst are possible reasons for the improved stability and higher activity of Mo-promoted catalysts. 54 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. Supporting steel

    SciTech Connect

    Badra, C.

    1995-10-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) and the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) have just completed a pilot program on the technical and economic viability of direct ironmaking by a process based on bath smelting. In this process, oxygen, prereduced iron ore pellets, coal, and flux are charged into a molten slag bath containing a high percentage of carbon. The carbon removes oxygen from the iron ore and generates carbon monoxide and liquid iron. Oxygen is then injected to burn some of the carbon monoxide gas before it leaves the smelting vessel. The partially combusted gas is sued to preheat and prereduced the ore before it is injected into the bath. There are several competing cokeless ironmaking processes in various stages of development around the world. A brief comparison of these processes provides a useful perspective with which to gauge the progress and objectives of the AISI-DOE research initiative. The principal competing foreign technologies include the Corex process, DIOS, HIsmelt, and Jupiter. The advantages of the direct ironmaking process examined by AISI-DOE were not sufficiently demonstrated to justify commercialization without further research. However, enough knowledge was gained from laboratory and pilot testing to teach researchers how to optimize the direct ironmaking process and to provide the foundation for future research. Researchers now better understand issues such as the dissolution of materials, reduction mechanisms and rates, slag foaming and control, the behavior of sulfur, dust generation, and the entire question of energy efficiency--including post combustion and the role of coal/volatile matter.

  7. Radiation monitor for liquids

    DOEpatents

    Koster, James E.; Bolton, Richard D.

    1999-01-01

    A radiation monitor for use with liquids that utilizes air ions created by alpha radiation emitted by the liquids as its detectable element. A signal plane, held at an electrical potential with respect to ground, collects these air ions. A guard plane or guard rings is used to limit leakage currents. In one embodiment, the monitor is used for monitoring liquids retained in a tank. Other embodiments monitor liquids flowing through a tank, and bodies of liquids, such as ponds, lakes, rivers and oceans.

  8. Radiation monitor for liquids

    DOEpatents

    Koster, J.E.; Bolton, R.D.

    1999-03-02

    A radiation monitor for use with liquids that utilizes air ions created by alpha radiation emitted by the liquids as its detectable element. A signal plane, held at an electrical potential with respect to ground, collects these air ions. A guard plane or guard rings is used to limit leakage currents. In one embodiment, the monitor is used for monitoring liquids retained in a tank. Other embodiments monitor liquids flowing through a tank, and bodies of liquids, such as ponds, lakes, rivers and oceans. 4 figs.

  9. Cosmology with liquid mirror telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogg, David W.; Gibson, Brad K.; Hickson, Paul

    1993-01-01

    Liquid mirrors provide an exciting means to obtain large optical telescopes for substantially lower costs than conventional technologies. The liquid mirror concept has been demonstrated in the lab with the construction of a diffraction limited 1.5 m mirror. The mirror surface, using liquid mercury, forms a perfect parabolic shape when the mirror cell is rotated at a uniform velocity. A liquid mirror must be able to support a heavy mercury load with minimal flexure and have a fundamental resonant frequency that is as high as possible, to suppress the amplitude of surface waves caused by small vibrations transmitted to the mirror. To minimize the transmission of vibrations to the liquid surface, the entire mirror rests on an air bearing. This necessitates the mirror cell being lightweight, due to the limited load capabilities of the air bearing. The mirror components must also have physical characteristics which minimize the effects of thermal expansion with ambient temperature fluctuations in the observatory. In addition, the 2.7 m mirror construction is designed so that the techniques used may be readily extended to the construction of large mirrors. To attain the goals of a lightweight, rigid mirror, a composite laminant construction was used. The mirror consists of a foam core cut to the desired parabolic shape, with an accuracy of a few mm. An aluminum hub serves as an anchor for the foam and skin, and allows precise centering of the mirror on the air bearing and drive system. Several plys of Kevlar, covered in an epoxy matrix, are then applied to the foam. A final layer of pure epoxy is formed by spin casting. This final layer is parabolic to within a fraction of a mm. An aluminum ring bonded to the circumference of the mirror retains the mercury, and incorporates stainless-steel hard-points for the attachment of balance weights.

  10. Liquid Wall Chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W R

    2011-02-24

    The key feature of liquid wall chambers is the use of a renewable liquid layer to protect chamber structures from target emissions. Two primary options have been proposed and studied: wetted wall chambers and thick liquid wall (TLW) chambers. With wetted wall designs, a thin layer of liquid shields the structural first wall from short ranged target emissions (x-rays, ions and debris) but not neutrons. Various schemes have been proposed to establish and renew the liquid layer between shots including flow-guiding porous fabrics (e.g., Osiris, HIBALL), porous rigid structures (Prometheus) and thin film flows (KOYO). The thin liquid layer can be the tritium breeding material (e.g., flibe, PbLi, or Li) or another liquid metal such as Pb. TLWs use liquid jets injected by stationary or oscillating nozzles to form a neutronically thick layer (typically with an effective thickness of {approx}50 cm) of liquid between the target and first structural wall. In addition to absorbing short ranged emissions, the thick liquid layer degrades the neutron flux and energy reaching the first wall, typically by {approx}10 x x, so that steel walls can survive for the life of the plant ({approx}30-60 yrs). The thick liquid serves as the primary coolant and tritium breeding material (most recent designs use flibe, but the earliest concepts used Li). In essence, the TLW places the fusion blanket inside the first wall instead of behind the first wall.

  11. Acidic Ionic Liquids.

    PubMed

    Amarasekara, Ananda S

    2016-05-25

    Ionic liquid with acidic properties is an important branch in the wide ionic liquid field and the aim of this article is to cover all aspects of these acidic ionic liquids, especially focusing on the developments in the last four years. The structural diversity and synthesis of acidic ionic liquids are discussed in the introduction sections of this review. In addition, an unambiguous classification system for various types of acidic ionic liquids is presented in the introduction. The physical properties including acidity, thermo-physical properties, ionic conductivity, spectroscopy, and computational studies on acidic ionic liquids are covered in the next sections. The final section provides a comprehensive review on applications of acidic ionic liquids in a wide array of fields including catalysis, CO2 fixation, ionogel, electrolyte, fuel-cell, membrane, biomass processing, biodiesel synthesis, desulfurization of gasoline/diesel, metal processing, and metal electrodeposition. PMID:27175515

  12. Duality of liquids

    PubMed Central

    Trachenko, K.; Brazhkin, V. V.

    2013-01-01

    Liquids flow, and in this sense are close to gases. At the same time, interactions in liquids are strong as in solids. The combination of these two properties is believed to be the ultimate obstacle to constructing a general theory of liquids. Here, we adopt a new approach: instead of focusing on the problem of strong interactions, we zero in on the relative contributions of vibrational and diffusional motion. We show that liquid energy and specific heat are given, to a very good approximation, by their vibrational contributions as in solids over almost entire range of relaxation time in which liquids exist as such, and demonstrate that this result is consistent with liquid entropy exceeding solid entropy. Our analysis therefore reveals an interesting duality of liquids not hitherto known: they are close to solids from the thermodynamic perspective and to flowing gases. We discuss several implications of this result. PMID:23851971

  13. Nanowire liquid pumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jian Yu; Lo, Yu-Chieh; Niu, Jun Jie; Kushima, Akihiro; Qian, Xiaofeng; Zhong, Li; Mao, Scott X.; Li, Ju

    2013-04-01

    The ability to form tiny droplets of liquids and control their movements is important in printing or patterning, chemical reactions and biological assays. So far, such nanofluidic capabilities have principally used components such as channels, nozzles or tubes, where a solid encloses the transported liquid. Here, we show that liquids can flow along the outer surface of solid nanowires at a scale of attolitres per second and the process can be directly imaged with in situ transmission electron microscopy. Microscopy videos show that an ionic liquid can be pumped along tin dioxide, silicon or zinc oxide nanowires as a thin precursor film or as beads riding on the precursor film. Theoretical analysis suggests there is a critical film thickness of ~10 nm below which the liquid flows as a flat film and above which it flows as discrete beads. This critical thickness is the result of intermolecular forces between solid and liquid, which compete with liquid surface energy and Rayleigh-Plateau instability.

  14. Liquid/Gas Vortex Separator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, B. G.

    1986-01-01

    Liquid/gas separator vents gas from tank of liquid that contains gas randomly distributed in bubbles. Centrifugal force separates liquid and gas, forcing liquid out of vortex tube through venturi tube. Gas vented through exhaust port. When liquid detected in vent tube, exhaust port closed, and liquid/gas mixture in vent tube drawn back into tank through venturi.

  15. Linear lateral vibration of axisymmetric liquid briges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrera, C.; Montanero, J. M.; Cabezas, M. G.

    A liquid bridge is a mass of liquid sustained by the action of the surface tension force between two parallel supporting disks Apart from their basic scientific interest a liquid bridge can be considered as the simplest idealization of the configuration appearing in the floating zone technique used for crystal growth and purification of high melting point materials footnote Messeguer et al emph Crystal Growth Res bf 5 27 1999 This has conferred considerable interest on the study of liquid bridges not only in fluid mechanics but also in the field of material engineering The axisymmetric dynamics of an isothermal liquid bridge has been frequently analysed over the past years The studies have considered different phenomena such as free oscillations footnote Montanero emph E J Mech B Fluids bf 22 169 2003 footnote Acero and Montanero emph Phys Fluids bf 17 078105 2005 forced vibrations footnote Perales and Messeguer emph Phys Fluids A bf 4 1110 1992 g-jitter effects footnote Messeguer and Perales emph Phys Fluids A bf 3 2332 1991 extensional deformation footnote Zhang et al emph J Fluid Mech bf 329 207 1996 and breakup process footnote Espino et al emph Phys Fluids bf 14 3710 2002 among others Works considering the nonaxisymmetric dynamical behaviour of a liquid bridge has been far less common footnote Sanz and Diez emph J Fluid Mech bf 205 503 1989 In the present study the linear vibration of an axisymmetric liquid

  16. Industry Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is responsible for the Advanced Communications for Air Traffic Management (AC/ATM) Project, a sub-element task of the Advanced Air Transportation Technologies (AATT) Project of the NASA Aviation System Capacity Program (ASC). The AC/ATM Project is developing new communications technologies and tools that will improve throughput in the U.S. Air Traffic Control System. The goal of the AC/ATM Project is to enable a communications infrastructure providing the capacity, efficiency, and flexibility necessary to realize benefits of the future mature Free-Flight environment. The capabilities and scope of communications technologies needed to accomplish this goal depend on characteristics of the future Free-Flight environment. There are many operational concepts being proposed for a future ATM system to enable user flexibility and efficiency. GRC s focus is on developing new technologies and techniques to support the digital communication of information involving airborne and ground-based users. However, the technologies and techniques must be integrated with the systems and services that industry and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) are developing. Thus, GRC needs to monitor and provide input to the various industry and FAA organizations and committees that are specifying new systems and services. Adoption of technologies by the FAA is partially dependent on acceptance of the technology by the aviation community. The commercial aviation community in particular would like to adopt technologies that can be used throughout the world. As a result, the adoption of common or at least compatible technologies by European countries is a key factor in getting commitments to those technologies by the US aviation community. GRC desires to keep informed of European activities that relate to aviation communication technologies, particularly those that are being supported by Eurocontrol.

  17. Forced Oscillations of Supported Drops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkes, Edward D.; Basaran, Osman A.

    1996-01-01

    Oscillations of supported liquid drops are the subject of wide scientific interest, with applications in areas as diverse as liquid-liquid extraction, synthesis of ceramic powders, growing of pure crystals in low gravity, and measurement of dynamic surface tension. In this research, axisymmetric forced oscillations of arbitrary amplitude of viscous liquid drops of fixed volume which are pendant from or sessile on a rod with a fixed or moving contact line and surrounded by an inviscid ambient gas are induced by moving the rod in the vertical direction sinusiodally in time. In this paper, a preliminary report is made on the computational analysis of the oscillations of supported drops that have 'clean' interfaces and whose contact lines remain fixed throughout their motions. The relative importance of forcing to damping can be increased by either increasing the amplitude of rod motion A or Reynolds number Re. It is shown that as the ratio of forcing to damping rises, for drops starting from an initial rest state a sharp increase in deformation can occur when they are forced to oscillate in the vicinity of their resonance frequencies, indicating the incipience of hysteresis. However, it is also shown that the existence of a second stable limit cycle and the occurrence of hysteresis can be observed if the drop is subjected to a so-called frequency sweep, where the forcing frequency is first increased and then decreased over a suitable range. Because the change in drop deformation response is abrupt in the vicinity of the forcing frequencies where hysteresis occurs, it should be possible to exploit the phenomenon to accurately measure the viscosity and surface tension of the drop liquid.

  18. Persistence of Covalent Bonding in Liquid Silicon Probed by Inelastic X-Ray Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, J. T.; Sit, P. H.-L.; Watanabe, Y.; Wang, Y. J.; Barbiellini, B.; Ishikawa, T.; Itou, M.; Sakurai, Y.; Bansil, A.; Ishikawa, R.; Hamaishi, M.; Masaki, T.; Paradis, P.-F.; Kimura, K.; Ishikawa, T.; Nanao, S.

    2012-02-01

    Metallic liquid silicon at 1787 K is investigated using x-ray Compton scattering. An excellent agreement is found between the measurements and the corresponding Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulations. Our results show persistence of covalent bonding in liquid silicon and provide support for the occurrence of theoretically predicted liquid-liquid phase transition in supercooled liquid states. The population of covalent bond pairs in liquid silicon is estimated to be 17% via a maximally localized Wannier function analysis. Compton scattering is shown to be a sensitive probe of bonding effects in the liquid state.

  19. Leidenfrost levitated liquid tori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrard, Stéphane; Labousse, Matthieu; Fort, Emmanuel; Bush, John; Couder, Yves; Limat, Laurent

    2012-11-01

    A drop of water deposited on a surface hotter than 150°C can levitate without any contact with a solid container. Indeed the evaporation of the fluid generates a thin vapour film, which supports the drop's weight by lubrication forces (Leidenfrost effect). This effect was until now limited to droplets. We propose here an original substrate geometry, a circular brass through, that allows us to maintain in levitation any quantity of fluid. It could be a good tool to study wave propagation without solid boundary condition and thus very low friction. We report here one possible application, and our most striking observation : when the substrate temperature is high enough, convective motion appears in the liquid torus and its inner side becomes polygonal. This periodic deformation of large amplitude propagates along the azimuthal direction. The geometry, the flow and the shape appear very similar to the polygonal destabilization of an hydraulic jump. We propose here an experimental and theorical characterization of these rotating polygons having from three to twelve sides. Moreover, we have found a model describing the shape for any number of sides. It appears closely related to the Korteweg de Vries equation describing the propagation of solitonic waves in shallow water.

  20. High-activity liquid packaging design criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    In recent studies, it has been acknowledged that there is an emerging need for packaging to transport high-activity liquid off the Hanford Site to support characterization and process development activities of liquid waste stored in underground tanks. These studies have dealt with specimen testing needs primarily at the Hanford Site; however, similar needs appear to be developing at other US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The need to ship single and multiple specimens to offsite laboratories is anticipated because it is predicted that onsite laboratories will be overwhelmed by an increasing number and size (volume) of samples. Potentially, the specimen size could range from 250 mL to greater than 50 L. Presently, no certified Type-B packagings are available for transport of high-activity liquid radioactive specimens in sizes to support Site missions.

  1. Mobile impurities in ferromagnetic liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kantian, Adrian; Schollwoeck, Ulrich; Giamarchi, Thierry

    2011-03-01

    Recent work has shown that mobile impurities in one dimensional interacting systems may exhibit behaviour that differs strongly from that predicted by standard Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid theory, with the appearance of power-law divergences in the spectral function signifying sublinear diffusion of the impurity. Using time-dependent matrix product states, we investigate a range of cases of mobile impurities in systems beyond the analytically accessible examples to assess the existence of a new universality class of low-energy physics in one-dimensional systems. Correspondence: Adrian.Kantian@unige.ch This work was supported in part by the Swiss SNF under MaNEP and division II.

  2. Importance of liquid fragility for energy applications of ionic liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sippel, Pit; Lunkenheimer, Peter; Krohns, Stephan; Thoms, Erik; Loidl, Alois

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are salts that are liquid at ambient temperatures. The strong electrostatic forces between their molecular ions result, e.g., in low volatility and high stability for many members of this huge material class. For this reason they bear a high potential for new advancements in applications, e.g., as electrolytes in energy-storage devices such as supercapacitors or batteries, where the ionic conductivity is an essential figure of merit. Most ILs show dynamic properties typical for glassy matter, which dominate many of their physical properties. An important method to study these dynamical glass-properties is dielectric spectroscopy that can access relaxation times of dynamic processes and the conductivity in a broad frequency and temperature range. In the present contribution, we present results on a large variety of ionic liquids showing that the conductivity of ILs depends in a systematic way not only on their glass temperature but also on the so-called fragility, characterizing the non-canonical super-Arrhenius temperature dependence of their ionic mobility. This work was supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft via Research Unit FOR1394 and by the BMBF via ENREKON 03EK3015.

  3. Liquid effluent study: Ground water characterization data

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-01

    This report is a support document to the Liquid Effluent Study Final Project Report (WHC 1990c). The focus is on sampling and analysis rationale, quality assurance (QA), data validation, and sampling conditions for the groundwater quality assessment. Interpretation of the groundwater data is provided in the final project report. 20 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Mechanical models for tanks containing two liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Y.

    1994-06-01

    The well-known Housner`s mechanical model for laterally excited rigid tanks that contain one liquid is generalized to permit consideration of tanks that contain two liquids under the horizontal and rocking base motions. Two mechanical models are developed herein; one is for rigid tanks and the other for flexible tanks. The model for rigid tanks has a rigidly attached mass and infinite number of elastically supported masses. The rigid attached mass which possesses a mass moment of inertia represents the impulsive component, whereas the elastically supported masses which do not possess mass moment of inertia represent the convective component of the response. These masses and their heights are chosen such that, under the same base motions, the base shear and base moments of the model match those of the original liquid-tank system. The spring stiffness constants for the elastically supported masses in the model are determined from the sloshing frequencies of the liquid-tank system. The model for flexible tanks, however, only represents the impulsive action of the hydrodynamic response. It has an elastically supported mass that does not possess mass moment of inertia and a member that has no mass but possesses a mass moment of inertia. This latter model is proposed for the study of the effect of the soil-structure interaction.

  5. Monogroove liquid heat exchanger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Richard F. (Inventor); Edelstein, Fred (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A liquid supply control is disclosed for a heat transfer system which transports heat by liquid-vapor phase change of a working fluid. An assembly (10) of monogroove heat pipe legs (15) can be operated automatically as either heat acquisition devices or heat discharge sources. The liquid channels (27) of the heat pipe legs (15) are connected to a reservoir (35) which is filled and drained by respective filling and draining valves (30, 32). Information from liquid level sensors (50, 51) on the reservoir (35) is combined (60) with temperature information (55) from the liquid heat exchanger (12) and temperature information (56) from the assembly vapor conduit (42) to regulate filling and draining of the reservoir (35), so that the reservoir (35) in turn serves the liquid supply/drain needs of the heat pipe legs (15), on demand, by passive capillary action (20, 28).

  6. Liquid level detector

    DOEpatents

    Tshishiku, Eugene M.

    2011-08-09

    A liquid level detector for conductive liquids for vertical installation in a tank, the detector having a probe positioned within a sheath and insulated therefrom by a seal so that the tip of the probe extends proximate to but not below the lower end of the sheath, the lower end terminating in a rim that is provided with notches, said lower end being tapered, the taper and notches preventing debris collection and bubble formation, said lower end when contacting liquid as it rises will form an airtight cavity defined by the liquid, the interior sheath wall, and the seal, the compression of air in the cavity preventing liquid from further entry into the sheath and contact with the seal. As a result, the liquid cannot deposit a film to form an electrical bridge across the seal.

  7. Harvesting contaminants from liquid

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, John T.; Hunter, Scott R.

    2016-05-31

    Disclosed are examples of apparatuses for evaporative purification of a contaminated liquid. In each example, there is a vessel for storing the contaminated fluid. The vessel includes a surface coated with a layer of superhydrophobic material and the surface is at least partially in contact with the contaminated liquid. The contaminants do not adhere to the surface as the purified liquid evaporates, thus allowing the contaminants to be harvested.

  8. LIQUID CYCLONE CONTACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Whatley, M.E.; Woods, W.M.

    1962-09-01

    This invention relates to liquid-liquid extraction systems. The invention, an improved hydroclone system, comprises a series of serially connected, axially aligned hydroclones, each of which is provided with an axially aligned overflow chamber. The chambers are so arranged that rotational motion of a fluid being passed through the system is not lost in passing from chamber to chamber; consequently, this system is highly efficient in contacting and separating two immiscible liquids. (AEC)

  9. Bent core liquid crystal elastomers

    SciTech Connect

    Verduzco, R.; DiMasi, E.; Luchette, P.; Ho Hong, S.; Harden, J.; Palffy-Muhoray, P.; Kilbey II, S.M.; Sprunt, S.; Gleeson, G.T. Jakli, A.

    2010-07-28

    Liquid crystal (LC) elastomers with bent-core side-groups incorporate the properties of bent-core liquid crystals in a flexible and self-supporting polymer network. Bent-core liquid crystal elastomers (BCEs) with uniform alignment were prepared by attaching a reactive bent-core LC to poly(hydrogenmethylsiloxane) and crosslinking with a divinyl crosslinker. Phase behavior studies indicate a nematic phase over a wide temperature range that approaches room temperature, and thermoelastic measurements show that these BCEs can reversibly change their length by more than a factor of two upon heating and cooling. Small-angle X-ray scattering studies reveal multiple, broad low-angle peaks consistent with short-range smectic C order of the bent-core side groups. A comparison of these patterns with predictions of a Landau model for short-range smectic C order shows that the length scale for smectic ordering in BCEs is similar to that seen in pure bent-core LCs. The combination of rubber elasticity and smectic ordering of the bent-core side groups suggests that BCEs may be promising materials for sensing, actuating, and other advanced applications.

  10. Arsenic Removal by Liquid Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Marino, Tiziana; Figoli, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Water contamination with harmful arsenic compounds represents one of the most serious calamities of the last two centuries. Natural occurrence of the toxic metal has been revealed recently for 21 countries worldwide; the risk of arsenic intoxication is particularly high in Bangladesh and India but recently also Europe is facing similar problem. Liquid membranes (LMs) look like a promising alternative to the existing removal processes, showing numerous advantages in terms of energy consumption, efficiency, selectivity, and operational costs. The development of different LM configurations has been a matter of investigation by several researching groups, especially for the removal of As(III) and As(V) from aqueous solutions. Most of these LM systems are based on the use of phosphine oxides as carriers, when the metal removal is from sulfuric acid media. Particularly promising for water treatment is the hollow fiber supported liquid membrane (HFSLM) configuration, which offers high selectivity, easy transport of the targeted metal ions, large surface area, and non-stop flow process. The choice of organic extractant(s) plays an essential role in the efficiency of the arsenic removal. Emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) systems have not been extensively investigated so far, although encouraging results have started to appear in the literature. For such LM configuration, the most relevant step toward efficiency is the choice of the surfactant type and its concentration. PMID:25826756

  11. Swimming bacteria in liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, Andrey; Zhou, Shuang; Aranson, Igor; Lavrentovich, Oleg

    2014-03-01

    Dynamics of swimming bacteria can be very complex due to the interaction between the bacteria and the fluid, especially when the suspending fluid is non-Newtonian. Placement of swimming bacteria in lyotropic liquid crystal produces a new class of active materials by combining features of two seemingly incompatible constituents: self-propelled live bacteria and ordered liquid crystals. Here we present fundamentally new phenomena caused by the coupling between direction of bacterial swimming, bacteria-triggered flows and director orientations. Locomotion of bacteria may locally reduce the degree of order in liquid crystal or even trigger nematic-isotropic phase transition. Microscopic flows generated by bacterial flagella disturb director orientation. Emerged birefringence patterns allow direct optical observation and quantitative characterization of flagella dynamics. At high concentration of bacteria we observed the emergence of self-organized periodic texture caused by bacteria swimming. Our work sheds new light on self-organization in hybrid bio-mechanical systems and can lead to valuable biomedical applications. Was supported by the US DOE, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Science and Engineering, under the Contract No. DE AC02-06CH11357.

  12. PEP liquid level system

    SciTech Connect

    Lauritzen, T.; Sah, R.C.

    1981-03-01

    A liquid level system has been installed in the accelerator housing of the PEP storage ring. This instrument spans the entire 2.2 km circumference of the PEP project, and over one hundred readouts provide reference elevations which are used for the accurate alignment of accelerator components. The liquid level has proven to be extremely precise (+-0.10 mm) and quick to use, and it has contributed to the accurate alignment of PEP before beam turn-on. Since the liquid level readouts are rigidly attached to the accelerator housing, the liquid level has been a convenient means to monitor the settling of the accelerator housing.

  13. Liquid Crystal Optofluidics

    SciTech Connect

    Vasdekis, Andreas E.; Cuennet, J. G.; Psaltis, D.

    2012-10-11

    By employing anisotropic fluids and namely liquid crystals, fluid flow becomes an additional degree of freedom in designing optofluidic devices. In this paper, we demonstrate optofluidic liquid crystal devices based on the direct flow of nematic liquid crystals in microfluidic channels. Contrary to previous reports, in the present embodiment we employ the effective phase delay acquired by light travelling through flowing liquid crystal, without analysing the polarisation state of the transmitted light. With this method, we demonstrate the variation in the diffraction pattern of an array of microfluidic channels acting as a grating. We also discuss our recent activities in integrating mechanical oscillators for on-chip peristaltic pumping.

  14. Liquid explosives detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnett, Lowell J.

    1994-03-01

    A Liquid Explosives Screening System capable of scanning unopened bottles for liquid explosives has been developed. The system can be operated to detect specific explosives directly, or to verify the labeled or bar-coded contents of the container. In this system nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is used to interrogate the liquid. NMR produces an extremely rich data set and many parameters of the NMR response can be determined simultaneously. As a result, multiple NMR signatures may be defined for any given set of liquids, and the signature complexity then selected according to the level of threat.

  15. Liquid level detector

    DOEpatents

    Tokarz, Richard D.

    1982-01-01

    A liquid level sensor having a pair of upright conductors spaced by an insulator defining a first high resistance path between the conductors. An electrically conductive path is interposed between the upright conductors at a discrete location at which liquid level is to be measured. It includes a liquid accessible gap of a dimension such that the electrical resistance across the conductor when the gap is filled with the liquid is detectably less than when the gap is emptied. The conductor might also be physically altered by temperature changes to serve also as an indicator of elevated temperature.

  16. RENEWABLE LIQUID GETTERING PUMP

    DOEpatents

    Batzer, T.H.

    1962-08-21

    A method and structure were developed for pumping gases by simple absorption into a liquid gettering material. The invention comprises means ror continuously pumping a liquid getterrng material from a reservoir to the top of a generally vertical surface disposed in a vacuum pumping chamber to receive gaseous and other particles in the liquid gettering material which continuously flows downward over the vertical suiface. Means are provided for continuous removal, degassing, and return of a portion of the liquid gettering material from the reservoir connected with collectrng means at the base of the generally vertical plate. (AEC)

  17. Ultrasonic liquid level detector

    DOEpatents

    Kotz, Dennis M.; Hinz, William R.

    2010-09-28

    An ultrasonic liquid level detector for use within a shielded container, the detector being tubular in shape with a chamber at its lower end into which liquid from in the container may enter and exit, the chamber having an ultrasonic transmitter and receiver in its top wall and a reflector plate or target as its bottom wall whereby when liquid fills the chamber a complete medium is then present through which an ultrasonic wave may be transmitted and reflected from the target thus signaling that the liquid is at chamber level.

  18. PREFACE: 6th Liquid Matter Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dijkstra, Marjolein; van Roij, René; Vroege, Gert Jan; Lekkerkerker, Henk; Frenkel, Daan

    2005-11-01

    (and often unexpected) trans-disciplinary contacts for joint scientific endeavours. This applies in particular to the area of soft condensed matter such as colloidal suspensions, polymeric systems and biological materials. The conference was held at the Uithof, the campus of the University of Utrecht. The organizers gratefully acknowledge the generosity of the University and City of Utrecht, which enabled us to stage both the scientific part of the conference and several festive and cultural events in some of the most attractive venues of the Netherlands. We were also delighted by the substantial contributions offered by the sponsors of the 6th Liquid Matter Conference. With this support it became possible to support a large number of scientists who would otherwise not have been able to attend. Finally, we owe a great debt of gratitude to the secretarial staff of the conference and the many students, postdocs and other colleagues who helped tirelessly (and very efficiently) to make the conference run smoothly. The Board of the Liquids Section of the European Physical Society decided that the 7th Liquid Matter Conference will be held in Lund (Sweden). The tentative dates are Friday 27 June 2008 to Tuesday 1 July 2008.

  19. Liquid heat capacity lasers

    DOEpatents

    Comaskey, Brian J.; Scheibner, Karl F.; Ault, Earl R.

    2007-05-01

    The heat capacity laser concept is extended to systems in which the heat capacity lasing media is a liquid. The laser active liquid is circulated from a reservoir (where the bulk of the media and hence waste heat resides) through a channel so configured for both optical pumping of the media for gain and for light amplification from the resulting gain.

  20. INEEL Liquid Effluent Inventory

    SciTech Connect

    Major, C.A.

    1997-06-01

    The INEEL contractors and their associated facilities are required to identify all liquid effluent discharges that may impact the environment at the INEEL. This liquid effluent information is then placed in the Liquid Effluent Inventory (LEI) database, which is maintained by the INEEL prime contractor. The purpose of the LEI is to identify and maintain a current listing of all liquid effluent discharge points and to identify which discharges are subject to federal, state, or local permitting or reporting requirements and DOE order requirements. Initial characterization, which represents most of the INEEL liquid effluents, has been performed, and additional characterization may be required in the future to meet regulations. LEI information is made available to persons responsible for or concerned with INEEL compliance with liquid effluent permitting or reporting requirements, such as the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System, Wastewater Land Application, Storm Water Pollution Prevention, Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasures, and Industrial Wastewater Pretreatment. The State of Idaho Environmental Oversight and Monitoring Program also needs the information for tracking liquid effluent discharges at the INEEL. The information provides a baseline from which future liquid discharges can be identified, characterized, and regulated, if appropriate. The review covered new and removed buildings/structures, buildings/structures which most likely had new, relocated, or removed LEI discharge points, and at least 10% of the remaining discharge points.

  1. Precision liquid level sensor

    DOEpatents

    Field, M.E.; Sullivan, W.H.

    1985-01-29

    A precision liquid level sensor utilizes a balanced R. F. bridge, each arm including an air dielectric line. Changes in liquid level along one air dielectric line imbalance the bridge and create a voltage which is directly measurable across the bridge. 2 figs.

  2. Precision liquid level sensor

    DOEpatents

    Field, Michael E.; Sullivan, William H.

    1985-01-01

    A precision liquid level sensor utilizes a balanced R. F. bridge, each arm including an air dielectric line. Changes in liquid level along one air dielectric line imbalance the bridge and create a voltage which is directly measurable across the bridge.

  3. LIGHT NONAQUEOUS PHASE LIQUIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLS) are hydrocarbons that exist as a separate, immiscible phase when in contact with water and/or air. ifferences in the physical and chemical properties of water and NAPL result in the formation of a physical interface between the liquids which preve...

  4. Column Liquid Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majors, Ronald E.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Reviews literature covering developments of column liquid chromatography during 1982-83. Areas considered include: books and reviews; general theory; columns; instrumentation; detectors; automation and data handling; multidimensional chromatographic and column switching techniques; liquid-solid chromatography; normal bonded-phase, reversed-phase,…

  5. Synthesis of ionic liquids

    DOEpatents

    Dai, Sheng; Luo, Huimin

    2011-11-01

    Ionic compounds which are liquids at room temperature are formed by the method of mixing a neutral organic ligand with the salt of a metal cation and its conjugate anion. The liquids are hydrophobic, conductive and stable and have uses as solvents and in electrochemical devices.

  6. Synthesis of ionic liquids

    DOEpatents

    Dai, Sheng [Knoxville, TN; Luo, Huimin [Knoxville, TN

    2008-09-09

    Ionic compounds which are liquids at room temperature are formed by the method of mixing a neutral organic liqand with the salt of a metal cation and its conjugate anion. The liquids are hydrophobic, conductive and stable and have uses as solvents and in electrochemical devices.

  7. Advanced proteomic liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Fang; Smith, Richard D.; Shen, Yufeng

    2012-10-26

    Liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry is the predominant platform used to analyze proteomics samples consisting of large numbers of proteins and their proteolytic products (e.g., truncated polypeptides) and spanning a wide range of relative concentrations. This review provides an overview of advanced capillary liquid chromatography techniques and methodologies that greatly improve separation resolving power and proteomics analysis coverage, sensitivity, and throughput.

  8. Liquid Chromatography in 1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, David H.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews trends in liquid chromatography including apparatus, factors affecting efficient separation of a mixture (peak sharpness and speed), simplified problem-solving, adsorption, bonded phase chromatography, ion selectivity, and size exclusion. The current trend is to control chemical selectivity by the liquid phase. (Author/JN)

  9. Reconfigurable Liquid Whispering Gallery Mode Microlasers

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shancheng; Ta, Van Duong; Wang, Yue; Chen, Rui; He, Tingchao; Demir, Hilmi Volkan; Sun, Handong

    2016-01-01

    Engineering photonic devices from liquid has been emerging as a fascinating research avenue. Reconfigurably tuning liquid optical micro-devices are highly desirable but remain extremely challenging because of the fluidic nature. In this article we demonstrate an all-liquid tunable whispering gallery mode microlaser floating on a liquid surface fabricated by using inkjet print technique. We show that the cavity resonance of such liquid lasers could be reconfigurably manipulated by surface tension alteration originated from the tiny concentration change of the surfactant in the supporting liquid. As such, remarkable sensing of water-soluble organic compounds with a sensitivity of free spectral range as high as 19.85 THz / (mol · mL−1) and the detectivity limit around 5.56 × 10−3 mol · mL−1 is achieved. Our work provides not only a novel approach to effectively tuning a laser resonator but also new insight into potential applications in biological, chemical and environmental sensing. PMID:27256771

  10. Are There Two Forms of Liquid Water?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, H. E.

    We will introduce some of the 73 documented anomalies of the most complex of liquids, water--focusing on recent progress in understanding these anomalies by combining information provided by recent experiments and simulations on water in bulk, nanoconfined and biological environments designed to test the hypothesis that liquid water has behavior consistent with the novel phenomenon of ``liquid polymorphism'' in that water can exist in two distinct phases [1]. We will also discuss very recent work on nanoconfined water anomalies as well as the apparently related, and highly unusual, behavior of water in biological environments. Finally, we will discuss how the general concept of liquid polymorphism is proving useful in understanding anomalies in other liquids, such as silicon, silica, and carbon, as well as metallic glasses, which have in common that they are characterized by two characteristic length scales in their interactions.This work has been supported by the NSF Chemistry Division grant CHE-1213217 and was performed in collaboration with, among others, C. A. Angell, S. V. Buldyrev, S.-H. Chen, D. Corradini, P. G. Debenedetti, G. Franzese, P. Kumar, E. Lascaris, F. Mallamace, O. Mishima, P. H. Poole, S. Sastry, F. Sciortino, and L. Xu. H. E. Stanley, Editor, Liquid Polymorphism, Vol. 152 in Advances in Chemical Physics, S. A. Rice, Series Editor (Wiley, New York, 2013).

  11. Reconfigurable Liquid Whispering Gallery Mode Microlasers.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shancheng; Ta, Van Duong; Wang, Yue; Chen, Rui; He, Tingchao; Demir, Hilmi Volkan; Sun, Handong

    2016-01-01

    Engineering photonic devices from liquid has been emerging as a fascinating research avenue. Reconfigurably tuning liquid optical micro-devices are highly desirable but remain extremely challenging because of the fluidic nature. In this article we demonstrate an all-liquid tunable whispering gallery mode microlaser floating on a liquid surface fabricated by using inkjet print technique. We show that the cavity resonance of such liquid lasers could be reconfigurably manipulated by surface tension alteration originated from the tiny concentration change of the surfactant in the supporting liquid. As such, remarkable sensing of water-soluble organic compounds with a sensitivity of free spectral range as high as 19.85 THz / (mol · mL(-1)) and the detectivity limit around 5.56 × 10(-3) mol · mL(-1) is achieved. Our work provides not only a novel approach to effectively tuning a laser resonator but also new insight into potential applications in biological, chemical and environmental sensing. PMID:27256771

  12. Evidence for Liquid Water on Comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheldon, Robert; Hoover, Richard

    2005-01-01

    We have reexamined the arguments for the existence of liquid water on comets, and believe that recent cometary flybys along with pre-Giotto data support its presence on short-period comets. Liquid water would affect cometary dynamics, leaving distinct signatures in precession, orbital dynamics, and potential splitting of comets. Liquid water geysers would affect cometary atmosphere, dust evolution, and non-gravitational forces that perturb the orbit. Liquid water would affect the composition of both the interior and exterior of the comet, producing geologic effects consistent with recent flyby photographs. And most importantly, liquid water suppork the growth of lifeforms, which would make a comet a biofriendly incubator for interplanetary transport. The major objection against liquid water is the necessity of a pressure vessel to prevent sublimation into space. We discuss how such a pressure vessel could naturally evolve as a pristine comet makes its first journey inside the orbit of Mars, and suggest that this type of vessel was observed by Giotto, Deep Space I, and Stardust.

  13. Reconfigurable Liquid Whispering Gallery Mode Microlasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shancheng; Ta, Van Duong; Wang, Yue; Chen, Rui; He, Tingchao; Demir, Hilmi Volkan; Sun, Handong

    2016-06-01

    Engineering photonic devices from liquid has been emerging as a fascinating research avenue. Reconfigurably tuning liquid optical micro-devices are highly desirable but remain extremely challenging because of the fluidic nature. In this article we demonstrate an all-liquid tunable whispering gallery mode microlaser floating on a liquid surface fabricated by using inkjet print technique. We show that the cavity resonance of such liquid lasers could be reconfigurably manipulated by surface tension alteration originated from the tiny concentration change of the surfactant in the supporting liquid. As such, remarkable sensing of water-soluble organic compounds with a sensitivity of free spectral range as high as 19.85 THz / (mol · mL‑1) and the detectivity limit around 5.56 × 10‑3 mol · mL‑1 is achieved. Our work provides not only a novel approach to effectively tuning a laser resonator but also new insight into potential applications in biological, chemical and environmental sensing.

  14. 49 CFR 195.208 - Welding of supports and braces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Welding of supports and braces. 195.208 Section 195.208 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Construction § 195.208 Welding of supports and braces. Supports or braces...

  15. 49 CFR 195.208 - Welding of supports and braces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Welding of supports and braces. 195.208 Section 195.208 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Construction § 195.208 Welding of supports and braces. Supports or braces...

  16. 49 CFR 195.208 - Welding of supports and braces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Welding of supports and braces. 195.208 Section 195.208 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Construction § 195.208 Welding of supports and braces. Supports or braces...

  17. 49 CFR 195.208 - Welding of supports and braces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Welding of supports and braces. 195.208 Section 195.208 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Construction § 195.208 Welding of supports and braces. Supports or braces...

  18. 49 CFR 195.208 - Welding of supports and braces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Welding of supports and braces. 195.208 Section 195.208 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Construction § 195.208 Welding of supports and braces. Supports or braces...

  19. Heat exchanger support apparatus in a fluidized bed

    DOEpatents

    Lawton, Carl W.

    1982-01-01

    A heat exchanger is mounted in the upper portion of a fluidized combusting bed for the control of the temperature of the bed. A support, made up of tubes, is extended from the perforated plate of the fluidized bed up to the heat exchanger. The tubular support framework for the heat exchanger has liquid circulated therethrough to prevent deterioration of the support.

  20. Free vibration analysis of partially filled liquid storage tanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yu; Chang, Y. W.

    A study on the free vibration analysis of partially filled liquid storage tanks is presented. The tanks considered are the upright circular cylindrical tanks that are rigidly supported at the base. The top of the tanks are either free or constrained. Two types of constraints are considered, namely, hinged and roller support. The governing differential equations for the tank-liquid system are obtained by application of the Rayleigh-Ritz procedure in combination with Lagrange's equation. The response functions examined include the frequency of the fundamental mode of vibration of the tank-liquid system and the associated modal pressure.

  1. Free vibration analysis of partially filled liquid storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Yu; Chang, Y.W.

    1994-06-01

    A study on the free vibration analysis of partially filled liquid storage tanks is presented. The tanks considered are the upright circular cylindrical tanks that are rigidly supported at the base. the top of the tanks are either free or constrained. Two types of constraints are considered, namely, hinged and roller support. The governing differential equations for the tank-liquid system are obtained by application of the Rayleigh-Ritz procedure in combination with Lagrange`s equation. The response functions examined include the frequency of the fundamental mode of vibration of the tank-liquid system and the associated modal pressure.

  2. Tunable liquid crystal lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woltman, Scott J.

    Liquid crystal lasers are dye-doped distributed feedback lasing systems. Fabricated by coupling the periodic structure of a liquid crystal medium with a fluorescent dye, the emission from these systems is tunable by controlling the liquid crystal system---be it through electric or thermal field effects, photochemical reactions, mechanical deformations, etc. The laser action arises from an extended interaction time between the radiation field, the laser emission, and the matter field, the periodic liquid crystal medium, at the edge of the photonic band gap. In this thesis, several tunable liquid crystal laser systems are investigated: cholesteric liquid crystals, holographic-polymer dispersed liquid crystals and liquid crystal polarization gratings. The primary focus has been to fabricate systems that are tunable through electrical means, as applications requiring mechanical or thermal changes are often difficult to control. Cholesteric liquid crystal lasers are helical Bragg reflectors, with a band gap for circularly polarized light of equivalent handedness to their helix. These materials were doped with a laser dye and laser emission was observed. The use of an in-plane electric field tends to unwind the helical pitch of the film and in doing so tunable emission was demonstrated for ˜15 nm. Holographic-polymer dispersed liquid crystals (H-PDLCs) are grating structures consisting of alternating layers of polymer and liquid crystal, with different indices of refraction. The application of an electric field index matches these layers and switches off the grating. Thus, laser emission can be switched on and off through the use of an electric field. Spatially tunable H-PDLC lasers were fabricated by creating chirped gratings, formed by divergent beams. The emission was shown to tune ˜5 nm as the pump beam was translated across a 1 inch film. Liquid crystal polarization gratings use photo-patterned alignment layers, through a polarization holography exposure, to

  3. Liquid metal enabled pump

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Shi-Yang; Khoshmanesh, Khashayar; Sivan, Vijay; Petersen, Phred; O’Mullane, Anthony P.; Abbott, Derek; Mitchell, Arnan; Kalantar-zadeh, Kourosh

    2014-01-01

    Small-scale pumps will be the heartbeat of many future micro/nanoscale platforms. However, the integration of small-scale pumps is presently hampered by limited flow rate with respect to the input power, and their rather complicated fabrication processes. These issues arise as many conventional pumping effects require intricate moving elements. Here, we demonstrate a system that we call the liquid metal enabled pump, for driving a range of liquids without mechanical moving parts, upon the application of modest electric field. This pump incorporates a droplet of liquid metal, which induces liquid flow at high flow rates, yet with exceptionally low power consumption by electrowetting/deelectrowetting at the metal surface. We present theory explaining this pumping mechanism and show that the operation is fundamentally different from other existing pumps. The presented liquid metal enabled pump is both efficient and simple, and thus has the potential to fundamentally advance the field of microfluidics. PMID:24550485

  4. Fluorinated monolayers at liquid-liquid and liquid-vapor interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhongjian

    Microscopic structure of several fluorinated monolayers at water-vapor and water-oil interfaces were examined using x-ray specular reflectivity and grazing incidence diffraction (GID) techniques. Grazing incidence x-ray diffraction measurements of monolayers of perfluoro-n-eicosane (F(CFsb2)sb{20}F) and F(CFsb2)sb{m}(CHsb2)sb{n}H (denoted as Fsb{m}Hsb{n}) supported at the air-water interface demonstrated that even without the conventional polar head group, the surfactant molecules are capable of forming ordered in-plane structures defined by hexagonal close packing of the fluorinated blocks of adsorbed molecules due to the stronger chain-chain interaction between fluorocarbon chains than the corresponding hydrocarbons. The specular reflectivity data reveals a hydrocarbon-down, fluorocarbon-up orientation for Fsb{12}Hsb{18}. In contrast to the conventional expectation that soluble surfactants form disordered monolayers at the liquid-liquid interface, the studies on a fluoroalcohol (F(CFsb2)sb{10}(CHsb2)sb2OH) monolayer at water-hexane interface indicate that the surfactants are in a close packed hexagonal phase, similar to the in-plane structure of other fluorocarbon molecules at water-air interface. Above a transition temperature the monolayer is in a low density gas phase. Preliminary study shows that hysteresis effect occurs around the transition temperature. The first measurements of microscopic structure at common high interfacial tension liquid-liquid interfaces such as a simple oil-water (hexane-water) interface is also reported. Thermal expansion coefficient measurements indicate subtle structural differences in these monolayers.

  5. Rotor-Liquid-Fundament System's Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kydyrbekuly, A.

    The work is devoted to research of oscillation and sustainability of stationary twirl of vertical flexible static dynamically out-of-balance rotor with cavity partly filled with liquid and set on relative frame fundament. The accounting of such factors like oscillation of fundament, liquid oscillation, influence of asymmetry of installation of a rotor on a shaft, anisotropism of shaft support and fundament, static and dynamic out-of-balance of a rotor, an external friction, an internal friction of a shaft, allows to settle an invoice more precisely kinematic and dynamic characteristics of system.

  6. Liquid liquid phase transition in Stillinger Weber silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaucage, Philippe; Mousseau, Normand

    2005-04-01

    It was recently demonstrated that Stillinger-Weber silicon undergoes a liquid-liquid first-order phase transition deep into the supercooled region (Sastry and Angell 2003 Nat. Mater. 2 739). Here we study the effects of perturbations on this phase transition. We show that the order of the liquid-liquid transition changes with negative pressure. We also find that the liquid-liquid transition disappears when the three-body term of the potential is strengthened by as little as 5%. This implies that the details of the potential could affect strongly the nature and even the existence of the liquid-liquid phase.

  7. Slip effect for thin liquid film on a rotating disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagisawa, Masahiro

    1987-02-01

    A flow for thin liquid films on rotating disks has been theoretically and experimentally studied. Liquid depletion behavior during a spin-coating process is calculated by solving the Navier-Stokes equation, taking into account interface slip between liquid and disk. Excellent agreement is seen between the model prediction and experimental data. According to observed depletion behavior on thin liquid films for various spin-coating parameters, half life falls off at the inverse square of rotational speed, and increases when viscosity increases, although the increasing rate falls off. The interface slip, represented as an external friction coefficient, is thermodynamically explained by the different (Δrc) in critical surface tension (rc) values between the liquid and the disk, which will be proportional to the solubility parameter. An infinite external friction coefficient, representing nonslip flow, may be given, when Δrc is zero. Spin-off experiments for liquids of various rc values, prepared by differing surface treatments, support this consideration.

  8. Ionic conductivity of imidazole-functionalized liquid crystal mesogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roddecha, Supacharee; Anthamatten, Mitchell

    2012-02-01

    Imidazole has been investigated as a novel anhydrous proton conducting functional group that could enable higher temperature operation (> 120 ^oC) of polymer electrolyte fuel cells. Its amphoteric behavior can support Grotthuss-like proton transport; however molecular mobility and a high concentration of imidazole groups are needed to achieve high ionic conductivity. Our hypothesis is that liquid crystal ordering, particularly in layered smectic phase, can facilitate formation of 2D proton transport and promote proton conductivity. We have designed and synthesized two imidazole-terminated liquid crystal mesogens, and the ionic conductivities in the liquid crystalline and isotropic states have been measured. Here we report on synthesis and characterization of diacylhydrazine liquid crystals bearing imidazole terminal groups. The proton conductivity of products is compared to pure liquid imidazole and to liquid crystal mesogens without imidazole groups.

  9. Renewable liquid reflecting zone plate

    DOEpatents

    Toor, Arthur; Ryutov, Dmitri D.

    2003-12-09

    A renewable liquid reflecting zone plate. Electrodes are operatively connected to a dielectric liquid in a circular or other arrangement to produce a reflecting zone plate. A system for renewing the liquid uses a penetrable substrate.

  10. Noncavitating Pump For Liquid Helium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasenbein, Robert; Izenson, Michael; Swift, Walter; Sixsmith, Herbert

    1996-01-01

    Immersion pump features high efficiency in cryogenic service. Simple and reliable centrifugal pump transfers liquid helium with mass-transfer efficiency of 99 percent. Liquid helium drawn into pump by helical inducer, which pressurizes helium slightly to prevent cavitation when liquid enters impeller. Impeller then pressurizes liquid. Purpose of pump to transfer liquid helium from supply to receiver vessel, or to provide liquid helium flow for testing and experimentation.

  11. Dynamical and structural heterogeneities close to liquid-liquid phase transitions: The case of gallium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonelli, Alex; Cajahuaringa, Samuel; de Koning, Maurice

    2013-03-01

    Liquid-liquid phase transitions (LLPT) have been proposed in order to explain the thermodynamic anomalies exhibited by some liquids. Recently, it was found, through molecular dynamics simulations, that liquid elemental gallium, described by a modified embedded-atom model, exhibits a LLPT between a high-density liquid (HDL) and a low-density liquid (LDL), about 60 K below the melting temperature. In this work, we studied the dynamics of supercooled liquid gallium close to the LLPT. Our results show a large increase in the plateau of the self-intermediate scattering function (β-relaxation process) and in the non-Gaussian parameter, indicating a pronounced dynamical heterogeneity upon the onset of the LLPT. The dynamical heterogeneity of the LDL is closely correlated to its structural heterogeneity, since the fast diffusing atoms belong to high-density domains of predominantly 9-fold coordinated atoms, whereas the slow diffusing ones are mostly in low-density domains of 8-fold coordinated atoms. The energetics suggests that the reason for the sluggish dynamics of LDL is due to its larger cohesive energy as compared to that of the HDL. Work supported by FAPESP, CNPq, CAPES, and FAEPEX/UNICAMP

  12. Nanowire liquid pumps.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jian Yu; Lo, Yu-Chieh; Niu, Jun Jie; Kushima, Akihiro; Qian, Xiaofeng; Zhong, Li; Mao, Scott X; Li, Ju

    2013-04-01

    The ability to form tiny droplets of liquids and control their movements is important in printing or patterning, chemical reactions and biological assays. So far, such nanofluidic capabilities have principally used components such as channels, nozzles or tubes, where a solid encloses the transported liquid. Here, we show that liquids can flow along the outer surface of solid nanowires at a scale of attolitres per second and the process can be directly imaged with in situ transmission electron microscopy. Microscopy videos show that an ionic liquid can be pumped along tin dioxide, silicon or zinc oxide nanowires as a thin precursor film or as beads riding on the precursor film. Theoretical analysis suggests there is a critical film thickness of ∼10 nm below which the liquid flows as a flat film and above which it flows as discrete beads. This critical thickness is the result of intermolecular forces between solid and liquid, which compete with liquid surface energy and Rayleigh-Plateau instability. PMID:23542904

  13. Liquid sampling system

    DOEpatents

    Larson, Loren L.

    1987-01-01

    A conduit extends from a reservoir through a sampling station and back to the reservoir in a closed loop. A jet ejector in the conduit establishes suction for withdrawing liquid from the reservoir. The conduit has a self-healing septum therein upstream of the jet ejector for receiving one end of a double-ended cannula, the other end of which is received in a serum bottle for sample collection. Gas is introduced into the conduit at a gas bleed between the sample collection bottle and the reservoir. The jet ejector evacuates gas from the conduit and the bottle and aspirates a column of liquid from the reservoir at a high rate. When the withdrawn liquid reaches the jet ejector the rate of flow therethrough reduces substantially and the gas bleed increases the pressure in the conduit for driving liquid into the sample bottle, the gas bleed forming a column of gas behind the withdrawn liquid column and interrupting the withdrawal of liquid from the reservoir. In the case of hazardous and toxic liquids, the sample bottle and the jet ejector may be isolated from the reservoir and may be further isolated from a control station containing remote manipulation means for the sample bottle and control valves for the jet ejector and gas bleed.

  14. Liquid sampling system

    DOEpatents

    Larson, L.L.

    1984-09-17

    A conduit extends from a reservoir through a sampling station and back to the reservoir in a closed loop. A jet ejector in the conduit establishes suction for withdrawing liquid from the reservoir. The conduit has a self-healing septum therein upstream of the jet ejector for receiving one end of a double-ended cannula, the other end of which is received in a serum bottle for sample collection. Gas is introduced into the conduit at a gas bleed between the sample collection bottle and the reservoir. The jet ejector evacuates gas from the conduit and the bottle and aspirates a column of liquid from the reservoir at a high rate. When the withdrawn liquid reaches the jet ejector the rate of flow therethrough reduces substantially and the gas bleed increases the pressure in the conduit for driving liquid into the sample bottle, the gas bleed forming a column of gas behind the withdrawn liquid column and interrupting the withdrawal of liquid from the reservoir. In the case of hazardous and toxic liquids, the sample bottle and the jet ejector may be isolated from the reservoir and may be further isolated from a control station containing remote manipulation means for the sample bottle and control valves for the jet ejector and gas bleed. 5 figs.

  15. Liquid-feeding strategy of the proboscis of butterflies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seung Chul; Lee, Sang Joon; CenterBiofluid; Biomimic Research Team

    2015-11-01

    The liquid-feeding strategy of the proboscis of butterflies was experimentally investigated. Firstly, the liquid uptake from a pool by the proboscis of a nectar-feeding butterfly, cabbage white (Pieris rapae) was tested. Liquid-intake flow phenomenon at the submerged proboscis was visualized by micro-particle image velocimetry. The periodic liquid-feeding flow is induced by the systaltic motion of the cibarial pump. Reynolds number and Womersley number of the liquid-intake flow in the proboscis are low enough to assume quasi-steady laminar flow. Next, the liquid feeding from wet surfaces by the brush-tipped proboscis of a nymphalid butterfly, Asian comma (Polygonia c-aureum) was investigated. The tip of the proboscis was observed especially brush-like sensilla styloconica. The liquid-feeding flow between the proboscis and wet surfaces was also quantitatively visualized. During liquid drinking from the wet surface, the sensilla styloconica enhance liquid uptake rate with accumulation of liquid. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIP) (No. 2008-0061991).

  16. Liquid metal drop ejection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khuri-Yakub, B. T.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this project was to demonstrate the possibility of ejecting liquid metals using drop on demand printing technology. The plan was to make transducers for operation in the 100 MHz frequency range and to use these transducers to demonstrate the ability to eject drops of liquid metals such as gallium. Two transducers were made by indium bonding piezoelectric lithium niobate to quartz buffer rods. The lithium niobate plates were thinned by mechanical polishing to a thickness of 37 microns for operation at 100 MHz. Hemispherical lenses were polished in the opposite ends of the buffer rods. The lenses, which focus the sound waves in the liquid metal, had an F-number equals 1. A mechanical housing was made to hold the transducers and to allow precise control over the liquid level above the lens. We started by demonstrating the ability to eject drops of water on demand. The drops of water had a diameter of 15 microns which corresponds to the wavelength of the sound wave in the water. A videotape of this ejection was made. We then used a mixture of Gallium and Indium (used to lower the melting temperature of the Gallium) to demonstrate the ejection of liquid metal drops. This proved to be difficult because of the oxide skin which forms on the surface of the liquid. In some instances, we were able to eject metal drops, however, this was not consistent and reproducible. An experiment was set up at NASA-Lewis to stabilize the process of drop on demand liquid metal ejection. The object was to place the transducer and liquid metal in a vacuum station so that no oxide would form on the surface. We were successful in demonstrating that liquid metals could be ejected on demand and that this technology could be used for making sheet metal in space.

  17. Exploring the nature of the liquid-liquid transition in silicon: a non-activated transformation.

    PubMed

    Lü, Y J; Zhang, X X; Chen, M; Jiang, Jian-Zhong

    2015-10-28

    In contrast to other glass formers, silicon exhibits a thermodynamic discontinuity between its liquid and amorphous solid states. Some researchers have conjectured that a first-order phase transition occurs between two forms of liquid silicon: the high-density liquid (HDL) and the low-density liquid (LDL). Despite the fact that several computer simulations have supported a liquid-liquid phase transition (LLPT) in silicon, recent work based on surface free energy calculations contradicts its existence and the authors of this work have argued that the proposed LLPT has been mistakenly interpreted [J. Chem. Phys., 2013, 138, 214504]. A similar controversy has also arisen in the case of water because of discrepancies in the calculation of its free energy surface [Nature, 2014, 510, 385; J. Chem. Phys., 2013, 138, 214504]. Current evidence supporting or not supporting the LLPT is mostly derived from the thermodynamic stability of the LDL phase. Provided that the HDL-LDL transition is a first-order transition, the formation of LDL silicon should be an activated process. Following this idea, the nature of the LLPT should be clarified by tracing the kinetic path toward LDL silicon. In this work, we focus on the transformation process from HDL to LDL phases and use the mean first passage time (MFPT) method to examine thermodynamic and dynamic trajectories. The MFPT results show that the presumed HDL-LDL transition is not characterized by a thermodynamic activated process but by a continuous dynamic transformation. LDL silicon is actually a mixture of the high-density liquid and a low-density tetrahedral network. We show that the five-membered Si-Si rings in the LDL network play a critical role in stabilizing the low-density network and suppressing the crystallization. PMID:26415631

  18. Liquid-level detector

    DOEpatents

    Not Available

    1981-01-29

    Aliquid level sensor is described which has a pair of upright conductors spaced by an insulator defining a first high resistance path between the conductors. An electrically conductive path is interposed between the upright conductors at a discrete location at which liquid level is to be measured. It includes a liquid accessible gap of a dimension such that the electrical resistance across the conductor when the gap is filled with the liquid is detectably less than when the gap is emptied. The conductor might also be physically altered by temperature changes to serve also as an indicator of elevated temperature.

  19. Liquid metal electric pump

    DOEpatents

    Abbin, Joseph P.; Andraka, Charles E.; Lukens, Laurance L.; Moreno, James B.

    1992-01-01

    An electrical pump for pumping liquid metals to high pressures in high temperature environments without the use of magnets or moving mechanical parts. The pump employs a non-porous solid electrolyte membrane, typically ceramic, specific to the liquid metal to be pumped. A DC voltage is applied across the thickness of the membrane causing ions to form and enter the membrane on the electrically positive surface, with the ions being neutralized on the opposite surface. This action provides pumping of the liquid metal from one side of the non-porous solid electrolyte membrane to the other.

  20. Liquid thickness gauge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, Leonard M. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A method and apparatus are developed to measure the thickness of a liquid on a surface independent of liquid conductivity. Two pairs of round, corrosion resistant wires are mounted in an insulating material such that the cross-sectional area of each wire is flush with and normal to the surface. The resistance between each pair of wires is measured using two ac resistance measuring circuits, in which the ratio of the outputs of the two resistance measuring circuits is indicative of the thickness of the liquid on the surface.

  1. Pressurized liquid filled tendons

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, G.E.

    1987-05-12

    This patent describes an apparatus for detecting a leak in a tension leg platform tendon, comprising: a fluid-tight tensioned tubular tendon, the tendon connected on its upper end to a buoyant offshore structure and on its lower end to an anchor means. The anchor means is connected to the sea floor; means for supplying liquid to the tendon; means for pressurizing the liquid in excess of the maximum hydrostatic pressure exerted by the sea water on the tendon; and means for monitoring pressure, the means monitoring variations in liquid pressure to the tendon.

  2. Autothermal Processing of Renewable Liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruger, Jacob Scott

    molecule are used to propose a reaction mechanism over the catalyst surface. Chapter 4 investigates the reactions that may be occurring in the gas phase and over the alpha-Al2O3 foam monolith support. Significant gas-phase chemistry is likely present in the autothermal reactor, although different temperature gradients between the autothermal reactions and the externally heated tube makes quantification of the amount of homogeneous chemistry in the autothermal system impossible. The alpha-Al2O 3 support may serve as a heat transfer medium and radical quencher (due to its foam structure with small-diameter pores), but not likely acid catalysis, as selectivity to dehydration products was similar both with and without the foam support. Because butanol is another promising liquid intermediate in biomass processing, a series of experiments with butanol in an CPO reactor was also carried out. Chapter 5 compares the four butanol isomers in a CPO reactor over Pt, PtCe, Rh, and RhCe catalysts. The reactivity of tert-butanol was as high or higher than the other alcohols, indicating that the lack of a carbonyl decomposition path does not necessarily in uence the reactivity of the molecule. Rather, the reactivity appeared to be more a function of the initial pyrolysis temperature of the alcohol. Thus, much of the initial chemistry of the higher alcohols in a CPO reactor may be homogeneous. The main function of the catalyst may be to decompose the intermediate carbonyls and alkenes to syngas. To that end, the PtCe had significantly lower reforming activity than the other catalysts, evidenced by the lower selectivity to CO and H2 and generally higher temperatures. Selectivity to syngas and light olefins was high and tunable depending on feed ratios, indicating the potential of CPO to provide petrochemical building blocks from butanol. Chapter 6 combines CPO with a water-gas shift (WGS) stage and investigates the addition of steam to isobutanol for the production of a high-purity H2

  3. Encapsulated liquid sorbents for carbon dioxide capture.

    PubMed

    Vericella, John J; Baker, Sarah E; Stolaroff, Joshuah K; Duoss, Eric B; Hardin, James O; Lewicki, James; Glogowski, Elizabeth; Floyd, William C; Valdez, Carlos A; Smith, William L; Satcher, Joe H; Bourcier, William L; Spadaccini, Christopher M; Lewis, Jennifer A; Aines, Roger D

    2015-01-01

    Drawbacks of current carbon dioxide capture methods include corrosivity, evaporative losses and fouling. Separating the capture solvent from infrastructure and effluent gases via microencapsulation provides possible solutions to these issues. Here we report carbon capture materials that may enable low-cost and energy-efficient capture of carbon dioxide from flue gas. Polymer microcapsules composed of liquid carbonate cores and highly permeable silicone shells are produced by microfluidic assembly. This motif couples the capacity and selectivity of liquid sorbents with high surface area to facilitate rapid and controlled carbon dioxide uptake and release over repeated cycles. While mass transport across the capsule shell is slightly lower relative to neat liquid sorbents, the surface area enhancement gained via encapsulation provides an order-of-magnitude increase in carbon dioxide absorption rates for a given sorbent mass. The microcapsules are stable under typical industrial operating conditions and may be used in supported packing and fluidized beds for large-scale carbon capture. PMID:25652243

  4. Encapsulated liquid sorbents for carbon dioxide capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vericella, John J.; Baker, Sarah E.; Stolaroff, Joshuah K.; Duoss, Eric B.; Hardin, James O.; Lewicki, James; Glogowski, Elizabeth; Floyd, William C.; Valdez, Carlos A.; Smith, William L.; Satcher, Joe H.; Bourcier, William L.; Spadaccini, Christopher M.; Lewis, Jennifer A.; Aines, Roger D.

    2015-02-01

    Drawbacks of current carbon dioxide capture methods include corrosivity, evaporative losses and fouling. Separating the capture solvent from infrastructure and effluent gases via microencapsulation provides possible solutions to these issues. Here we report carbon capture materials that may enable low-cost and energy-efficient capture of carbon dioxide from flue gas. Polymer microcapsules composed of liquid carbonate cores and highly permeable silicone shells are produced by microfluidic assembly. This motif couples the capacity and selectivity of liquid sorbents with high surface area to facilitate rapid and controlled carbon dioxide uptake and release over repeated cycles. While mass transport across the capsule shell is slightly lower relative to neat liquid sorbents, the surface area enhancement gained via encapsulation provides an order-of-magnitude increase in carbon dioxide absorption rates for a given sorbent mass. The microcapsules are stable under typical industrial operating conditions and may be used in supported packing and fluidized beds for large-scale carbon capture.

  5. Maintenance evaluation for space station liquid systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flugel, Charles

    1987-01-01

    Many of the thermal and environmental control life support subsystems as well as other subsystems of the space station utilize various liquids and contain components which are either expendables or are life-limited in some way. Since the space station has a 20-year minimum orbital lifetime requirement, there will also be random failures occurring within the various liquid-containing subsystems. These factors as well as the planned space station build-up sequence require that maintenance concepts be developed prior to the design phase. This applies to the equipment which needs maintenance as well as the equipment which may be required at a maintenance work station within the space station. This paper presents several maintenance concepts for liquid-containing items and a flight experiment program which would allow for evaluation and improvement of these concepts so they can be incorporated in the space station designs at the outset of its design phase.

  6. Liquid cooled garments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Liquid cooled garments employed in several applications in which severe heat is encountered are discussed. In particular, the use of the garments to replace air line cooling units in a variety of industrial processing situations is discussed.

  7. Wettability by Ionic Liquids.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongliang; Jiang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) have become particularly attractive recently because they have demonstrated themselves to be important construction units in the broad fields of chemistry and materials science, from catalysis and synthesis to analysis and electrochemistry, from functional fluids to clean energy, from nanotechnology to functional materials. One of the greatest issues that determines the performance of ILs is the wettability of correlated surfaces. In this concept article, the key developments and issues in IL wettability are surveyed, including the electrowetting of ILs in gas-liquid-solid systems and liquid-liquid-solid systems, ILs as useful probe fluids, the superwettability of Ils, and future directions in IL wettability. This should generate extensive interest in the field and encourage more scientists to engage in this area to tackle its scientific challenges. PMID:26619157

  8. Liquid metal boiling inception

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabin, C. M.; Poppendiek, H. F.; Mouritzen, G.; Meckel, P. T.; Cloakey, J. E.

    1972-01-01

    An experimental study of the inception of boiling in potassium in forced convection is reported. The boiler consisted of a 0.19-inch inside diameter, niobium-1% zirconium boiler tube approximately six feet long. Heating was accomplished by direct electrical tube wall conduction. Experiments were performed with both all-liquid fill and two-phase fill startup sequences and with a range of flow rates, saturation temperatures, inert gas levels, and fill liquid temperatures. Superheat of the liquid above the equilibrium saturation temperature was observed in all the experiments. Incipient boiling liquid superheat ranged from a few degrees to several hundred. Comparisons of these data with other data and with several analytical treatments are presented.

  9. Liquid level controller

    DOEpatents

    Mangus, J.D.; Redding, A.H.

    1975-07-15

    A system for maintaining two distinct sodium levels within the shell of a heat exchanger having a plurality of J-shaped modular tube bundles each enclosed in a separate shell which extends from a common base portion. A lower liquid level is maintained in the base portion and an upper liquid level is maintained in the shell enwrapping the long stem of the J-shaped tube bundles by utilizing standpipes with a notch at the lower end which decreases in open area the distance from the end of the stand pipe increases and a supply of inert gas fed at a constant rate to produce liquid levels, which will remain generally constant as the flow of liquid through the vessel varies. (auth)

  10. Lacerations - liquid bandage

    MedlinePlus

    ... painless to apply. Skin adhesives, or liquid bandages, seal the cut closed after only one application. There ... scrub the site. Doing so may loosen the seal or even remove the adhesive completely. The seal ...

  11. Diet - full liquid

    MedlinePlus

    ... 7 of the foods you can eat for breakfast, lunch, and dinner. Liquid foods DO NOT include " ... Nonfat dry milk added to your drinks Instant breakfast powder added to milk, puddings, custards, and milkshakes ...

  12. Lacerations - liquid bandage

    MedlinePlus

    ... causes only slight burning when applied. Liquid bandages, seal the cut closed after only 1 application. There ... you can shower or bathe without worry. The seal lasts for 5 to 10 days. It will ...

  13. Safer Liquid Natural Gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    After the disaster of Staten Island in 1973 where 40 people were killed repairing a liquid natural gas storage tank, the New York Fire Commissioner requested NASA's help in drawing up a comprehensive plan to cover the design, construction, and operation of liquid natural gas facilities. Two programs are underway. The first transfers comprehensive risk management techniques and procedures which take the form of an instruction document that includes determining liquid-gas risks through engineering analysis and tests, controlling these risks by setting up redundant fail safe techniques, and establishing criteria calling for decisions that eliminate or accept certain risks. The second program prepares a liquid gas safety manual (the first of its kind).

  14. Liquid piston Stirling engines

    SciTech Connect

    West, C.D.

    1983-01-01

    This book is a presentation on piston stirling engines. Topics covered include: liquid piston engines; basic design and power calculations; more advanced power calculations; design example; and past research work and some present research needs.

  15. Liquid-Cooled Garment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A liquid-cooled bra, offshoot of Apollo moon suit technology, aids the cancer-detection technique known as infrared thermography. Water flowing through tubes in the bra cools the skin surface to improve resolution of thermograph image.

  16. Liquid sample processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahnsen, V. J.; Campen, C. F., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Processor is automatic and includes series of extraction tubes packed with fibrous absorbent material of large surface area. When introduced into these tubes, liquid test samples become completely absorbed by packing material as thin film.

  17. Liquid Oxygen/Liquid Methane Integrated Propulsion System Test Bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, Howard; Lusby, Brian; Villemarette, Mark

    2011-01-01

    In support of NASA?s Propulsion and Cryogenic Advanced Development (PCAD) project, a liquid oxygen (LO2)/liquid methane (LCH4) Integrated Propulsion System Test Bed (IPSTB) was designed and advanced to the Critical Design Review (CDR) stage at the Johnson Space Center. The IPSTB?s primary objectives are to study LO2/LCH4 propulsion system steady state and transient performance, operational characteristics and to validate fluid and thermal models of a LO2/LCH4 propulsion system for use in future flight design work. Two phase thermal and dynamic fluid flow models of the IPSTB were built to predict the system performance characteristics under a variety of operating modes and to aid in the overall system design work. While at ambient temperature and simulated altitude conditions at the White Sands Test Facility, the IPSTB and its approximately 600 channels of system instrumentation would be operated to perform a variety of integrated main engine and reaction control engine hot fire tests. The pressure, temperature, and flow rate data collected during this testing would then be used to validate the analytical models of the IPSTB?s thermal and dynamic fluid flow performance. An overview of the IPSTB design and analytical model development will be presented.

  18. Ionic Liquid Membranes for Carbon Dioxide Separation

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, C.R.; Ilconich, J.B.; Luebke, D.R.; Pennline, H.W.

    2008-07-12

    Recent scientific studies are rapidly advancing novel technological improvements and engineering developments that demonstrate the ability to minimize, eliminate, or facilitate the removal of various contaminants and green house gas emissions in power generation. The Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) shows promise for carbon dioxide mitigation not only because of its higher efficiency as compared to conventional coal firing plants, but also due to a higher driving force in the form of high partial pressure. One of the novel technological concepts currently being developed and investigated is membranes for carbon dioxide (CO2) separation, due to simplicity and ease of scaling. A challenge in using membranes for CO2 capture in IGCC is the possibility of failure at elevated temperatures or pressures. Our earlier research studies examined the use of ionic liquids on various supports for CO2 separation over the temperature range, 37°C-300°C. The ionic liquid, 1-hexyl-3methylimidazolium Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, ([hmim][Tf2N]), was chosen for our initial studies with the following supports: polysulfone (PSF), poly(ether sulfone) (PES), and cross-linked nylon. The PSF and PES supports had similar performance at room temperature, but increasing temperature caused the supported membranes to fail. The ionic liquid with the PES support greatly affected the glass transition temperature, while with the PSF, the glass transition temperature was only slightly depressed. The cross-linked nylon support maintained performance without degradation over the temperature range 37-300°C with respect to its permeability and selectivity. However, while the cross-linked nylon support was able to withstand temperatures, the permeability continued to increase and the selectivity decreased with increasing temperature. Our studies indicated that further testing should examine the use of other ionic liquids, including those that form chemical complexes with CO2 based on

  19. 114. WEST SIDE OF LIQUID OXYGEN CONTROL ROOM (205). LIQUID ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    114. WEST SIDE OF LIQUID OXYGEN CONTROL ROOM (205). LIQUID NITROGEN (LN2) SUBCOOLER ON LEFT; SKID 8, LIQUID OXYGEN CONTROLLER FOR SWITCHING BETWEEN RAPID-LOAD AND TOPPING ON RIGHT. LIQUID OXYGEN LINE FROM SKID 9A AT RIGHT EDGE OF PHOTO. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  20. Applications of ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Patel, Divia Dinesh; Lee, Jong-Min

    2012-06-01

    Ionic liquids have recently gained popularity in the scientific community owing to their special properties and characteristics. One of the reasons why ionic liquids have been termed "green solvents" is due to their negligible vapour pressure. Their use in electrochemical, biological and metal extraction applications is discussed. Wide research has been carried out for their use in batteries, solar panels, fuel cells, drug deliveries and biomass pretreatments. This work aims to consolidate the various findings from previous works in these areas. PMID:22711528

  1. Excitability in liquid crystal.

    PubMed

    Coullet, P.; Frisch, T.; Gilli, J. M.; Rica, S.

    1994-09-01

    The spiral waves observed in a liquid crystal submitted to a vertical electric field and a horizontal rotating magnetic field are explained in the framework of a purely mechanical description of the liquid crystal. The originality of the experiment described in this paper is the presence of the vertical electric field which allows us to analyze the spiral waves in the framework of a weakly nonlinear theory. PMID:12780124

  2. Liquid cooled helmet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elkins, William (Inventor); Williams, Bill A. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    Liquid cooled helmet comprising a cap of flexible material adapted to fit the head of a person, cooling panels mounted inside the cap forming passageways for carrying a liquid coolant, the panels being positioned to engage the cranium and neck of a person wearing the helmet, inlet and outlet lines communicating with the passageways, and releasable straps for securing the helmet about the neck of the wearer.

  3. Compact Liquid Deaerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamauchi, S. T.

    1982-01-01

    Gases are removed from liquids by a new deaerator that takes up only 5 inches (12.7 cm) at top of a medium-sized storage tank. Deaerator has a multiple cascading header that exposes more fluid at lower pressures than typical commercial deaerators. Potential applications are in hydraulic systems for aircraft and heavy machinery, in cooling systems where deaerated liquid is needed to prevent cavitation of pump.

  4. Liquid Level Sensing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korman, Valentin (Inventor); Wiley, John T. (Inventor); Duffell, Amanda G. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A liquid level sensing system includes waveguides disposed in a liquid and distributed along a path with a gap between adjacent waveguides. A source introduces electromagnetic energy into the waveguides at a first end of the path. A portion of the electromagnetic energy exits the waveguides at a second end of the path. A detector measures the portion of the electromagnetic energy exiting the second end of the path.

  5. Consolidated incineration facility technical support

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, D.; Looper, M.G.

    1993-12-31

    In 1996, the Savannah River Site plans to begin operation of the Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) to treat solid and liquid RCRA hazardous and mixed wastes. The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) leads an extensive technical support program designed to obtain incinerator and air pollution control equipment performance data to support facility start-up and operation. Key components of this technical support program include recently completed waste burn tests at both EPA`s Incineration Research Facility and at Energy and Environmental Research Corporation`s Solid Waste Incineration Test Facility. The main objectives for these tests were determining the fate of heavy metals, measuring organics destruction and removal efficiencies, and quantifying incinerator offgas particulate loading and size distribution as a function of waste feed characteristics and incineration conditions. In addition to these waste burning tests, the SRTC has recently completed installations of the Offgas Components Test Facility (OCTF), a 1/10 scale CIF offgas system pilot plant. This pilot facility will be used to demonstrate system operability and maintainability, evaluate and optimize equipment and instrument performance, and provide direct CIF start-up support. Technical support programs of this type are needed to resolve technical issues related with treatment and disposal of combustible hazardous, mixed, and low-level radioactive waste. Implementation of this program will minimize facility start-up problems and help insure compliance with all facility performance requirements.

  6. Bifunctional organophosphorus liquid-liquid extraction reagents: development and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, W.W.; Navratil, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    American and Russian workers have evidenced great interest in the last decade in the potential application of certain neutral and acidic bifunctional organophosphorus compounds in solvent extraction processes. Triggering this interest is the ability of some carbamoylmethylenephosphorus (CMP) and carbamoylmethylenephosphine oxide (CMPO) compounds to extract trivalent actinides and lanthanides from strong HNO/sub 3/ (>1 M) solutions, a property which distinguishes them from monofunctional organophosphorus reagents. Investigators at several US Department of Energy laboratories have concentrated on synthesis of novel CMP and CMPO reagents and on reactions and mechanisms involved in extraction of metal ions from aqueous nitrate media; application of selected CMP and CMPO reagents in solvent extraction and supported liquid membrane recovery of metal values from nuclear waste solutions have been proposed. This paper, based upon a book now in preparation, provides a brief overview of the current status of the development and application of bifunctional organophosphorus extractants. 44 references, 4 tables.

  7. Bifunctional organophosphorus liquid-liquid extraction reagents: development and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, W.W.; Navratil, J.D.

    1984-03-13

    American and Russian workers have evidenced great interest in the last decade in the potential application of certain neutral and acidic bifunctional organophosphorus compounds in solvent extraction processes. Triggering this interest is the ability of some carbamoylmethylenephosphorus (CMP) and carbamoylmethylenephosphine oxide (CMPO) compounds to extract trivalent actinides and lanthanides from strong HNO/sub 3/ (>1M) solutions, a property which distinguishes them from monofunctional organophosphorus reagents. Investigators at several US Department of Energy laboratories have concentrated on synthesis of novel CMP and CMPO reagents and on reactions and mechanisms involved in extraction of metal ions from aqueous nitrate media; application of selected CMP and CMPO reagents in solvent extraction and supported liquid membrane recovery of metal values from nuclear waste solutions have been proposed. This paper, based upon a book now in preparation, provides a brief overview of the current status of the development and application of bifunctional organophosphorus extractants. 42 references, 4 tables.

  8. Electrically actuated liquid iris.

    PubMed

    Xu, Miao; Ren, Hongwen; Lin, Yi-Hsin

    2015-03-01

    We report an adaptive iris using dielectric liquids and a radial-interdigitated electrode. A black liquid is confined by a circular gasket with a donut shape. The surrounding of the black liquid is filled with an immiscible liquid. In the relaxing state, the black liquid obtains the largest clear aperture. By applying a voltage, the surface of the black liquid is stretched by the generated dielectric force, resulting in a reduction of its aperture. For the demonstrated iris, the diameter of the aperture can be changed from ∼4.7  mm to ∼1.2  mm when the voltage is applied from 0 to 70  V(rms). The aperture ratio is ∼94%. Owing to the radial-interdigitated electrode, the aperture size of the iris can be effectively switched with a reasonably fast response time. The optical switch is polarization-insensitive. The potential applications of our iris are light shutters, optical attenuators, biomimicry, and wearable devices. PMID:25723444

  9. Thermal boundary conductance of hydrophilic and hydrophobic ionic liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyake, Takafumi; Sakata, Masanori; Yada, Susumu; Shiomi, Junichiro

    2015-03-01

    A solid/liquid interface plays a critical role for understanding mechanisms of biological and physical science. Moreover, carrier density of the surface is dramatically enhanced by electric double layer with ionic liquid, salt in the liquid state. Here, we have measured the thermal boundary conductance (TBC) across an interface of gold thin film and ionic liquid by using time-domain thermoreflectance technique. Following the prior researches, we have identified the TBC of two interfaces. One is gold and hydrophilic ionic liquid, N,N-Diethyl-N-methyl-N-(2-methoxyethyl) ammonium tetrafluoroborate (DEME-BF4), which is a hydrophilic ionic liquid, and the other is N,N-Diethyl-N-methyl-N-(2-methoxyethyl) ammonium bis (trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide (DEME-TFSI), which is a hydrophobic ionic liquid. We found that the TBC between gold and DEME-TFIS (19 MWm-2K-1) is surprisingly lower than the interface between gold and DEME-BF4 (45 MWm-2K-1). With these data, the importance of the wetting angle and ion concentration for the thermal transport at the solid/ionic liquid interface is discussed. Part of this work is financially supported by Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) and Japan Science and Technology Agency. The author is financially supported by JSPS Fellowship.

  10. Liquid-liquid critical point: an analytical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daanoun, A.

    2006-09-01

    Theoretical simulations and experimental studies have showed that many systems (like liquid metals) can exhibit two phase transitions: gas-liquid and liquid-liquid. Consequently the fluid phase of these systems presents two critical points, namely the usual gas-liquid (G-L) critical point and the liquid-liquid critical point that results from a phase transition between two liquids of different densities: a low density liquid (LDL) and a high density liquid (HDL). The van der Waals theory for simple fluids [Phys. Rev. E 50, 2913 (1994)] is based on taking a system with purely repulsive forces as a reference, is able to describe two stable first-order phase transitions between fluids of different densities. The particles in our system interact via a total pair potential, which splits into a repulsive VR and a density-dependent attractive VA part.

  11. Cyrogenic Life Support Technology Development Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bush, David R.

    2015-01-01

    KSC has used cryogenic life support (liquid air based) technology successfully for many years to support spaceflight operations. This technology has many benefits unique to cryogenics when compared to traditional compressed gas systems: passive cooling, lighter, longer duration, and lower operating pressure. However, there are also several limiting factors that have prevented the technology from being commercialized. The National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Office of Mine Safety and Health Research (NIOSH-OMSHR) has partnered with NASA to develop a complete liquid air based life support solution for emergency mine escape and rescue. The project will develop and demonstrate various prototype devices and incorporate new technological innovations that have to date prevented commercialization.

  12. Liquid crystalline composites containing phyllosilicates

    DOEpatents

    Chaiko, David J.

    2004-07-13

    The present invention provides phyllosilicate-polymer compositions which are useful as liquid crystalline composites. Phyllosilicate-polymer liquid crystalline compositions of the present invention can contain a high percentage of phyllosilicate while at the same time be transparent. Because of the ordering of the particles liquid crystalline composite, liquid crystalline composites are particularly useful as barriers to gas transport.

  13. Transmitting Electromagnetic Energy into Liquids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, E. J.

    1984-01-01

    Rough liquid surface enhances coupling. Agitating surface of liquid nitrogen bath with periodic or aperiodic excitation enhances electromagnetic coupling between microwave horn and blackbody temperature standard immersed in liquid. Useful in interfaces between electromagnetic radiation and liquids. Biomedical, radar, and meteorological applications.

  14. Data Liquidity in Health Information Systems

    PubMed Central

    Courtney, Paul K.

    2011-01-01

    In 2001 the IOM report "Crossing the Quality Chasm" and the NCVHS report "Information for Health" were released and they provided the context for the development of information systems used to support health-supporting processes. Both had as their goals, implicit or explicit, to ensure the right data is provided to the right person at the right time, which is one definition of "Data Liquidity". This concept has had some traction in recent years as a shorthand way to express a system property for Health IT, but there is not a well-defined characterization of what properties of a system or of its components give it better or worse data liquidity. This paper looks at some recent work that help to identify those properties and perhaps can help to ground the concept with metrics that are assessable. PMID:21799328

  15. Evaluation of a hanging core support concept for LMR application

    SciTech Connect

    Burelbach, J.P.; Cha, B.K.; Huebotter, P.R.; Kann, W.J.; Pan, Y.C.; Saiveau, J.G.; Seidensticker, R.W.; Wu, T.S.

    1985-01-01

    The paper describes an innovative design concept for a liquid metal reactor (LMR) core support structure (CSS). A hanging core support structure is described and analyzed. The design offers inherent safety features, constructability advantages, and potential cost reductions. Some safety considerations are examined which include the in-service inspection (ISI), the backup support system and the structural behavior in a hypothetical case of a broken beam in the core support structure.

  16. Geomorphologic evidence for liquid water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Masson, P.; Carr, M.H.; Costard, F.; Greeley, R.; Hauber, E.; Jaumann, R.

    2001-01-01

    Besides Earth, Mars is the only planet with a record of resurfacing processes and environmental circumstances that indicate the past operation of a hydrologic cycle. However the present-day conditions on Mars are far apart of supporting liquid water on the surface. Although the large-scale morphology of the Martian channels and valleys show remarkable similarities with fluid-eroded features on Earth, there are major differences in their size, small-scale morphology, inner channel structure and source regions indicating that the erosion on Mars has its own characteristic genesis and evolution. The different landforms related to fluvial, glacial and periglacial activities, their relations with volcanism, and the chronology of water-related processes, are presented.

  17. Liquid Phase Miscibility Gap Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelles, S. H.; Markworth, A. J.

    1985-01-01

    The manner in which the microstructural features of liquid-phase miscibility gap alloys develop was determined. This will allow control of the microstructures and the resultant properties of these alloys. The long-duration low gravity afforded by the shuttle will allow experiments supporting this research to be conducted with minimal interference from buoyancy effects and gravitationally driven convection currents. Ground base studies were conducted on Al-In, Cu-Pb, and Te-Tl alloys to determine the effect of cooling rate, composition, and interfacial energies on the phase separation and solidification processes that influence the development of microstructure in these alloys. Isothermal and directional cooling experiments and simulations are conducted. The ground based activities are used as a technological base from which flight experiments formulated and to which these flight experiments are compared.

  18. Beyond dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction.

    PubMed

    Leong, Mei-I; Fuh, Ming-Ren; Huang, Shang-Da

    2014-03-28

    Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) and other dispersion liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) methods have been developed since the first DLLME method was reported in 2006. DLLME is simple, rapid, and affords high enrichment factor, this is due to the large contact surface area of the extraction solvent. DLLME is a method suitable for the extraction in many different water samples, but it requires using chlorinated solvents. In recent years, interest in DLLME or dispersion LPME has been focused on the use of low-toxicity solvents and more conveniently practical procedures. This review examines some of the most interesting developments in the past few years. In the first section, DLLME methods are separated in two categories: DLLME with low-density extraction solvent and DLLME with high-density extraction solvent. Besides these methods, many novel special devices for collecting low-density extraction solvent are also mentioned. In addition, various dispersion techniques with LPME, including manual shaking, air-assisted LPME (aspirating and injecting the extraction mixture by syringe), ultrasound-assisted emulsification, vortex-assisted emulsification, surfactant-assisted emulsification, and microwave-assisted emulsification are described. Besides the above methods, combinations of DLLME with other extraction techniques (solid-phase extraction, stir bar sorptive extraction, molecularly imprinted matrix solid-phase dispersion and supercritical fluid extraction) are introduced. The combination of nanotechnique with DLLME is also introduced. Furthermore, this review illustrates the application of DLLME or dispersion LPME methods to separate and preconcentrate various organic analytes, inorganic analytes, and samples. PMID:24582396

  19. Active colloids at liquid-liquid interfaces: dynamic self-assembly and functionality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snezhko, Alexey; Aranson, Igor

    2012-02-01

    Self-assembled materials must actively consume energy and remain out of equilibrium in order to support structural complexity and functional diversity. Colloids of interacting particles suspended at liquid-liquid interfaces and maintained out of equilibrium by external alternating electromagnetic fields develop nontrivial collective dynamics and self-assembly. We use ferromagnetic colloidal micro-particles (so the magnetic moment is fixed in each particle and interactions between colloids is highly anisotropic and directional) suspended over an interface of two immiscible liquids and energized by vertical alternating magnetic fields to demonstrate novel dynamic and active self-assembled structures (``asters'') which are not accessible through thermodynamic assembly. Structures are attributed to the interplay between surface waves, generated at the liquid/liquid interface by the collective response of magnetic microparticles to the alternating magnetic field, and hydrodynamic fields induced in the boundary layers of both liquids forming the interface. Two types of magnetic order are reported. We demonstrate that asters develop self-propulsion in the presence of a small in-plane dc magnetic field. We show that asters can capture, transport, and position target microparticles.

  20. Operation with three liquid phases in a staged liquid-liquid contactor

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, R.A.; Ziegler, A.A.; Wigeland, R.A.; Bane, R.W.; Steindler, M.J.

    1983-03-01

    Operation with three liquid phases was demonstrated in a staged liquid-liquid contactor. The possibility that three liquid phases could be handled in a liquid-liquid contactor normally used with two liquid phases was initially established using a laboratory batch test. Tht three liquid phases were obtained using a thorium flow sheet having high concentrations of both acid and thorium. To analyze the batch test, the concept of a dimensionless dispersion number for use with two liquid phases was extended so that it could be applied to three liquid phases. Based on the batch tests, continuous flow tests were run in a staged liquid-liquid contactor used for solvent extraction. A critical factor in the success of these tests was determining the position of the liquid-liquid interface in the contactor. Thus, a contactor was used which allows the position of the liquid-liquid interface to be adjusted. Actual three-phase operation was demonstrated using a 4-cm annular centrifugal contactor, albeit with a somewhat greater (3 to 4 vol. %) aqueous-phase contamination of the organic exit stream than normal (< 1 vol. %).

  1. Microgravity liquid propellant management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, R. J.

    1990-01-01

    The requirement to settle or to position liquid fluid over the outlet end of a spacecraft propellant tank prior to main engine restart, poses a microgravity fluid behavior problem. Resettlement or reorientation of liquid propellant can be accomplished by providing optimal acceleration to the spacecraft such that the propellant is reoriented over the tank outlet without any vapor entrainment, any excessive geysering, or any other undersirable fluid motion for the space fluid management under microgravity environment. The most efficient technique is studied for propellant resettling through the minimization of propellant usage and weight penalties. Both full scale and subscale liquid propellant tank of Space Transfer Vehicle were used to simulate flow profiles for liquid hydrogen reorientation over the tank outlet. In subscale simulation, both constant and impulsive resettling acceleration were used to simulate the liquid flow reorientation. Comparisons between the constant reverse gravity acceleration and impulsive reverse gravity acceleration to be used for activation of propellant resettlement shows that impulsive reverse gravity thrust is superior to constant reverse gravity thrust.

  2. Carbenes from ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Hollóczki, Oldamur; Nyulászi, László

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade an explosive development has been observed in the fields of both ionic liquids (ILs) as potential chemically inert solvents with many possible technical applications, and N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) as catalysts with superb performance. Since the cations of many ILs can be deprotonated by strong bases yielding NHCs, this two fields are inherently connected. It has only recently been recognized that some of the commonly used basic anions of the ILs (such as acetate) are able to deprotonate azolium cations. While the resulting NHC could clearly be observed in the vapor phase, in the liquid - where the mutual electrostatic interactions within the ion network stabilize the ion pairs - the neutral NHC cannot be detected by commonly used analytical techniques; however, from these ionic liquids NHCs can be trapped, e.g., by complex formation, or more importantly these ILs can be directly used as catalysts, since the NHC content is sufficiently large for these applications. Apart from imidazole-2-ylidenes, the formation of other highly reactive neutral species ("abnormal carbenes," 2-alkylideneimidazoles, pyridine-ylidenes or pyridinium-ylides) is feasible in highly basic ionic liquids. The cross-fertilizing overlap between the two fields may provide access to a great advance in both areas, and we give an overview here on the results published so far, and also on the remaining possibilities and challenges in the concept of "carbenes from ionic liquids." PMID:23539381

  3. Catalyst for converting synthesis gas to liquid motor fuels

    DOEpatents

    Coughlin, Peter K.

    1986-01-01

    The addition of an inert metal component, such as gold, silver or copper, to a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst comprising cobalt enables said catalyst to convert synthesis gas to liquid motor fuels at about 240.degree.-370.degree. C. with advantageously reduced selectivity of said cobalt for methane in said conversion. The catalyst composition can advantageously include a support component, such as a molecular sieve, co-catalyst/support component or a combination of such support components.

  4. Enhanced catalyst for converting synthesis gas to liquid motor fuels

    DOEpatents

    Coughlin, Peter K.

    1986-01-01

    The conversion of synthesis gas to liquid molar fuels by means of a cobalt Fischer-Tropsch catalyst composition is enhanced by the addition of molybdenum, tungsten or a combination thereof as an additional component of said composition. The presence of the additive component increases the olefinic content of the hydrocarbon products produced. The catalyst composition can advantageously include a support component, such as a molecular sieve, co-catalyst/support component or a combination of such support components.

  5. Compatibility of structural materials with liquid bismuth, lead, and mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Weeks, J.R.

    1996-06-01

    During the 1950s and 1960s, a substantial program existed at Brookhaven National Laboratory as part of the Liquid Metal Fuel reactor program on the compatibility of bismuth, lead, and their alloys with structural materials. Subsequently, compatibility investigations of mercury with structural materials were performed in support of development of Rankine cycle mercury turbines for nuclear applications. The present talk will review present understanding of the corrosion/mass-transfer reactions of structural materials with these liquid metal coolants. Topics to be discussed include the basic solubility relationships of iron, chromium, nickel, and refractory metals in these liquid metals, the results of inhibition studies, the role of oxygen on the corrosion processes, and specialized topics such as cavitation-corrosion and liquid metal embrittlement. Emphasis will be placed on utilizing the understanding gained in this earlier work on the development of heavy liquid metal targets in spallation neutron sources.

  6. A Variational Statistical-Field Theory for Polar Liquid Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Bilin; Wang, Zhen-Gang

    Using a variational field-theoretic approach, we derive a molecularly-based theory for polar liquid mixtures. The resulting theory consists of simple algebraic expressions for the free energy of mixing and the dielectric constant as functions of mixture composition. Using only the dielectric constants and the molar volumes of the pure liquid constituents, the theory evaluates the mixture dielectric constants in good agreement with the experimental values for a wide range of liquid mixtures, without using adjustable parameters. In addition, the theory predicts that liquids with similar dielectric constants and molar volumes dissolve well in each other, while sufficient disparity in these parameters result in phase separation. The calculated miscibility map on the dielectric constant-molar volume axes agrees well with known experimental observations for a large number of liquid pairs. Thus the theory provides a quantification for the well-known empirical ``like-dissolves-like'' rule. Bz acknowledges the A-STAR fellowship for the financial support.

  7. Tracking liquid in drying colloidal fluids with polarized light microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Kun; Park, Jung Soo; Kim, Joon Heon; Weon, Byung Mook

    2014-11-01

    When colloidal fluids dry, tracking liquid surfaces around colloids is difficult with conventional imaging techniques. Here we show that polarized light microscopy (PM) is very useful in tracking liquid surfaces during drying processes of colloidal fluids. In particular, the PM mode is not a new or difficult way but is able to visualize liquid films above colloids in real time. We demonstrate that when liquid films above colloidal particles are broken, the PM patterns appear clearly: this feature is useful to identify the moment of liquid film rupture above colloids in drying colloidal fluids. This result is helpful to improve relevant processes such as inkjet printing, painting, and nanoparticle patterning (K.C. and J.S.P. equally contributed). This work (NRF-2013R1A22A04008115) was supported by Mid-career Researcher Program through NRF grant funded by the MEST.

  8. Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System (LEMIS) System Construction

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, R.T.

    1994-10-11

    The liquid effluent sampling program is part of the effort to minimize adverse environmental impact during the cleanup operation at the Hanford Site. Of the 33 Phase I and Phase II liquid effluents, all streams actively discharged to the soil column will be sampled. The Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System (LEMIS) is being developed as the organized information repository facility in support of the liquid effluent monitoring requirements of the Tri-Party Agreement. It is necessary to provide an automated repository into which the results from liquid effluent sampling will be placed. This repository must provide for effective retention, review, and retrieval of selected sample data by authorized persons and organizations. This System Construction document is the aggregation of the DMR P+ methodology project management deliverables. Together they represent a description of the project and its plan through four Releases, corresponding to the definition and prioritization of requirements defined by the user.

  9. Do Formal Supports Replace Informal Supports?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barer, Barbara M.; And Others

    Health policy researchers have long been interested in the extent to which the provision of formal supports replaces or undermines the informal support system. This study examined the linkages between the formal and informal support system as they are mediated by a health care setting which readily provides patients with access to social services.…

  10. Thermohydraulics in liquid metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kottowski, H. M.

    Heat transfer problems in single-phase and two-phase liquid metal forced convection flow are reviewed. Liquid metal boiling heat transfer in pool flow; and dry out heat fluxes are considered. It is shown that in technological plants working with liquid metals, superheating up to 150 C occurs, and can lead to nonstationary hydraulic transition between the single-phase and established two-phase flows. Boiling phases relative to subcooled boiling and bubble boiling have no importance for technological processes. Piston, slug and annular flow patterns dominate. On the basis of the flow patterns observed during boiling, the separate flow model principle is the only one suitable for calculating the two-phase flow pressure drop. Using this model and total pressure drop measurements, a relationship for the two-phase frictional pressure characteristic, valid for tubular and annular geometry, can be determined.

  11. Liquid lubrication in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaretsky, Erwin V.

    1990-01-01

    The requirement for long-term, reliable operation of aerospace mechanisms has, with a few exceptions, pushed the state of the art in tribology. Space mission life requirements in the early 1960s were generally 6 months to a year. The proposed U.S. space station schedule to be launched in the 1990s must be continuously usable for 10 to 20 years. Liquid lubrication systems are generally used for mission life requirements longer than a year. Although most spacecraft or satellites have reached their required lifetimes without a lubrication-related failure, the application of liquid lubricants in the space environment presents unique challenges. The state of the art of liquid lubrication in space as well as the problems and their solutions are reviewed.

  12. Two new vortex liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Philip W.

    2007-03-01

    In 1967, Reatto and Chester proposed that solid helium-4 might exhibit superfluidity, and in 1970, Leggett suggested what was thought to be a definitive experimental test: to find non-classical rotational inertia in a toroidal sample. More than three decades later, the observation by Kim and Chan of exactly that effect generated great interest and has been repeated and confirmed by a number of groups. However, many attempts to find actual superflow in truly solid samples have failed. Here, I draw an analogy with a second example of anomalous response to vorticity in a dissipative fluid, the vortex liquid phase in the pseudogap region of high-temperature superconductors, and propose that the solid helium experiments have been mischaracterized: what is observed is not supersolidity but an incompressible vortex liquid. This state is distinct from a conventional liquid in that its properties are dominated by conserved supercurrents flowing around a thermally fluctuating tangle of vortices.

  13. Containerless Liquid-Phase Processing of Ceramic Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, J. K. Richard (Principal Investigator); Nordine, Paul C.

    1996-01-01

    The present project builds on the results of research supported under a previous NASA grant to investigate containerless liquid-phase processing of molten ceramic materials. The research used an aero-acoustic levitator in combination with cw CO2 laser beam heating to achieve containerless melting, superheating, undercooling, and solidification of poorly-conducting solids and liquids. Experiments were performed on aluminum oxide, binary aluminum oxide-silicon dioxide materials, and oxide superconductors.

  14. Modeling of Diffusion in Liquid Ge and Its Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stroud, David G.

    1998-01-01

    This report summarizes progress made on NASA Grant NAG3-1437, Modeling of diffusion in Liquid Ge and Its Alloys, which was in effect from January 15, 1993 through July 10, 1997. It briefly describes the purpose of the grant, and the work accomplished in simulations and other studies of thermophysical properties of liquid semiconductors and related materials. A list of publications completed with the support of the grant is also given.

  15. Evaluation of mercury in the liquid waste processing facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Vijay; Shah, Hasmukh; Occhipinti, John E.; Wilmarth, William R.; Edwards, Richard E.

    2015-08-13

    This report provides a summary of Phase I activities conducted to support an Integrated Evaluation of Mercury in Liquid Waste System (LWS) Processing Facilities. Phase I activities included a review and assessment of the liquid waste inventory and chemical processing behavior of mercury using a system by system review methodology approach. Gaps in understanding mercury behavior as well as action items from the structured reviews are being tracked. 64% of the gaps and actions have been resolved.

  16. Liquid air cycle engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosevear, Jerry

    1992-01-01

    Given here is a definition of Liquid Air Cycle Engines (LACE) and existing relevant technologies. Heat exchanger design and fabrication techniques, the handling of liquid hydrogen to achieve the greatest heat sink capabilities, and air decontamination to prevent heat exchanger fouling are discussed. It was concluded that technology needs to be extended in the areas of design and fabrication of heat exchangers to improve reliability along with weight and volume reductions. Catalysts need to be improved so that conversion can be achieved with lower quantities and lower volumes. Packaging studies need to be investigated both analytically and experimentally. Recycling with slush hydrogen needs further evaluation with experimental testing.

  17. Electroplating Using Ionic Liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, Andrew P.; Frisch, Gero; Ryder, Karl S.

    2013-07-01

    Electroplating is a key technology in many large-scale industrial applications such as corrosion-resistant and decorative coatings. Issues with current aqueous processes, such as toxicity of reagents and low current efficiencies, can often be overcome by using ionic liquids, and this approach has turned ionometallurgy into a fast-growing area of research. This review outlines the interactions in ionic liquids that are responsible for the advantageous properties of these solvents in electroplating. It summarizes recent research in which these properties have been analyzed or exploited and highlights fundamental issues in research and technology that need to be addressed.

  18. Improved Capacitive Liquid Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waldman, Francis A.

    1992-01-01

    Improved capacitive sensor used to detect presence and/or measure thickness of layer of liquid. Electrical impedance or admittance of sensor measured at prescribed frequency, and thickness of liquid inferred from predetermined theoretical or experimental relationship between impedance and thickness. Sensor is basically a three-terminal device. Features interdigitated driving and sensing electrodes and peripheral coplanar ground electrode that reduces parasitic effects. Patent-pending because first to utilize ground plane as "shunting" electrode. System less expensive than infrared, microwave, or refractive-index systems. Sensor successfully evaluated in commercial production plants to characterize emulsions, slurries, and solutions.

  19. Monogroove heat pipe design: Insulated liquid channel with bridging wick

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alario, J. P.; Brown, R. F.; Kosson, R. L. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A screen mesh artery supported concentrically within the evaporator section of a heat pipe liquid channel retains liquid in the channel. Continued and uniform liquid feed to the heat pipe evaporation section (20) during periods of excessive heat transfer is assured. The overall design provides high evaporation and condensation film coefficients for the working fluid by means of the circumferential grooves in the walls of the vapor channel, while not interfering with the overall heat transport capability of the axial groove. The design has particular utility in zero-g environments.

  20. Apparatus and method for electrochemical modification of liquids

    SciTech Connect

    James, Patrick I

    2015-04-21

    An apparatus for electrochemical modification of liquid streams employing an electrolytic cell which includes an anode compartment defined by an anode structure where oxidation is effected, containing a liquid electrolyte anolyte, and a cathode compartment defined by a cathode structure where reduction is effected containing a liquid electrolyte catholyte. In addition, the electrolytic cell includes at least one additional compartment arranged at least partially between the anode compartment and the cathode compartment and separated from the anode compartment and the cathode compartment by a separator structure arranged to supports ionic conduction of current between the anode structure and the cathode structure.

  1. Radiography for a Shock-accelerated Liquid Layer

    SciTech Connect

    P. Meekunnasombat J.G. Oakley\\inst M.H. Anderson R. Bonazza

    2005-07-01

    This program supported the experimental study of the itneraction of planar shock waves with both solid structures (a single cylinder or a bank of cylinders) and single and multiple liquid layers. Objectives of the study included: characterization of the shock refraction patterns; measurements of the impulsive loading of the solid structures; observation of the response of the liquid layers to shock acceleration; assessment of the shock-mitigation effects of single and multiple liquid layers. The uploaded paper is intended as a final report for the entire funding period. The poster described in the paper won the Best Poster Award at the 25 International Symposium on Shock Waves.

  2. Aerobreakup of Newtonian and Viscoelastic Liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theofanous, T. G.

    2011-01-01

    In this review, we consider and unify all aspects of the dynamics of Newtonian and viscoelastic liquid drops in high-speed gas flows, including shock waves. The path to understanding is opened by novel, laser-induced fluorescence visualizations at spatial resolutions of up to 200 pixels for millimeter and exposure times as low as 5 ns. The central role of the competition between Rayleigh-Taylor and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities is assessed in the frame of rich aerodynamics, from low subsonic to supersonic, and the multitude of characteristic length scales and timescales at play with varying liquid properties. Acceleration and liquid redistribution (drop deformation) early in the evolution set the stage for this competition, and we insist on an interpretation of the drag coefficient that is physically meaningful. Two principal breakup regimes (patterns of bodily loss of coherence) are identified depending on whether the gas finds its way through the liquid mass, causing gross disintegration, or goes around to induce, through shear, a surface-layer peeling-and-ejection action. Corresponding criticalities are quantified in terms of key physics, consistent with experiments. This covers in a unified fashion all liquids, independent of viscosity and elasticity, and the potential role of direct numerical simulations in supporting further advances is forecast. The resulting particle-size distributions (in a final equilibrium cloud) depend crucially on the pattern of breakup, although in this respect the role of elasticity obtains a special significance in terms of the underlying entangled-polymer-chain dynamics. From a more general perspective, we explain the canonical significance of this fundamental problem and summarize the wide range of its practical relevance, including the recently renewed interest in predicting shock-induced fluidization (or high-speed, atmospheric dissemination) of large masses of liquid agents (so-called weapons of mass destruction).

  3. Turbine meters for liquid measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Wass, D.J.; Allen, C.R.

    1995-12-01

    Liquid turbine meters operate in response to fundamental engineering principles, Operation with a single moving part produces excellent longevity and reliability. Liquid turbine meters display wide rangeability, high accuracy, excellent repeatability, low pressure drop and moderate cost. Liquid turbine meters may be applied to many different fluids with different physical properties and corrosive tendencies. The marriage of liquid turbine meters to electronic instruments allows instantaneous flow calculations and produces the flexibility to display data, store data, transmit data in the most convenient form. Liquid turbine meters should be the first flow measurement instrument considered for liquid measurement applications.

  4. Autothermal Processing of Renewable Liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruger, Jacob Scott

    molecule are used to propose a reaction mechanism over the catalyst surface. Chapter 4 investigates the reactions that may be occurring in the gas phase and over the alpha-Al2O3 foam monolith support. Significant gas-phase chemistry is likely present in the autothermal reactor, although different temperature gradients between the autothermal reactions and the externally heated tube makes quantification of the amount of homogeneous chemistry in the autothermal system impossible. The alpha-Al2O 3 support may serve as a heat transfer medium and radical quencher (due to its foam structure with small-diameter pores), but not likely acid catalysis, as selectivity to dehydration products was similar both with and without the foam support. Because butanol is another promising liquid intermediate in biomass processing, a series of experiments with butanol in an CPO reactor was also carried out. Chapter 5 compares the four butanol isomers in a CPO reactor over Pt, PtCe, Rh, and RhCe catalysts. The reactivity of tert-butanol was as high or higher than the other alcohols, indicating that the lack of a carbonyl decomposition path does not necessarily in uence the reactivity of the molecule. Rather, the reactivity appeared to be more a function of the initial pyrolysis temperature of the alcohol. Thus, much of the initial chemistry of the higher alcohols in a CPO reactor may be homogeneous. The main function of the catalyst may be to decompose the intermediate carbonyls and alkenes to syngas. To that end, the PtCe had significantly lower reforming activity than the other catalysts, evidenced by the lower selectivity to CO and H2 and generally higher temperatures. Selectivity to syngas and light olefins was high and tunable depending on feed ratios, indicating the potential of CPO to provide petrochemical building blocks from butanol. Chapter 6 combines CPO with a water-gas shift (WGS) stage and investigates the addition of steam to isobutanol for the production of a high-purity H2

  5. Mixed Stationary Liquid Phases for Gas-Liquid Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koury, Albert M.; Parcher, Jon F.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a laboratory technique for use in an undergraduate instrumental analysis course that, using the interpretation of window diagrams, prepares a mixed liquid phase column for gas-liquid chromatography. A detailed procedure is provided. (BT)

  6. 138. LIQUID NITROGEN INSTRUMENT PANEL ON EAST WALL OF LIQUID ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    138. LIQUID NITROGEN INSTRUMENT PANEL ON EAST WALL OF LIQUID NITROGEN CONTROL ROOM (115), LSB (BLDG. 770) - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  7. Liquid propellant densification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lak, Tibor I. (Inventor); Petrilla, Steve P. (Inventor); Lozano, Martin E. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    Super cooling the cryogenic liquid propellant in a vehicle propellant tank densities the propellant allowing the vehicle propellant tank to carry more fuel in the same volume tank while lowering the vapor pressure and thus the tank operating pressure. Lowering the tank operating pressure reduces the stress and therefore allows the walls of the tank to be thinner. Both the smaller tank volume and thinner tank wall results in an overall smaller and lighter vehicle with increased payload capability. The cryogenic propellant can be supercooled well below the normal boiling point temperature level by transporting the liquid propellant from the vehicle tanks to a ground based cooling unit which utilizes a combination of heat exchanger and compressor. The compressor lowers the coolant fluid bath pressure resulting in a low temperature boiling liquid which is subsequently used to cool the recirculating liquid. The cooled propellant is then returned to the vehicle propellant tank. In addition to reducing the vehicle size and weight the invention also allows location of the vent valve on the ground, elimination of on-board recirculation pumps or bleed systems, smaller and lighter engine pumps and valves, lighter and more stable ullage gas, and significant reduction in tank fill operation. All of these mentioned attributes provide lower vehicle weight and cost.

  8. Properties of Liquid Plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Freibert, Franz J.; Mitchell, Jeremy N.; Schwartz, Daniel S.; Saleh, Tarik A.; Migliori, Albert

    2012-08-02

    Unalloyed polycrystalline Pu displays extreme thermal expansion behavior, i.e., {alpha} {yields} {beta} {yields} {gamma} {yields} {delta} increases by 25% in volume and {delta} {yields} {var_epsilon} {yields} liquid decreases by 4.5% in volume. Thus, making it difficult to measure density into the liquid state. Dilatometer outfitted with CaF molten metal cell offers a proven capability to measure thermal expansion in molten metals, but has yet to be proven for Pu. Historic data from the liquid nuclear fuels program will prove extremely useful as a guide to future measurements. 3.3at% Ga changes Pu molten metal properties: 50% increase in viscosity and {approx}3% decrease in density. Fe may decrease the density by a small amount assuming an averaging of densities for Pu-Ga and Pu-Fe liquids. More recent Boivineau (2009) work needs some interpretation, but technique is being employed in (U,Pu)O{sub 2} nuclear fuels program (Pu Futures, 2012).

  9. Liquid laser cavities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bjorklund, S.; Filipescu, N.; Kellermeyer, G. L.; Mc Avoy, N.

    1969-01-01

    Liquid laser cavities have plenum chambers at the ends of the capillary cell which are terminated in transparent optical flats. By use of these cavities, several new europium chelates and a terbium chelate can provide laser action in solution at room temperature.

  10. Clean room wiping liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, W.B.

    1991-12-01

    A water-based liquid containing isopropyl alcohol, ammonium hydroxide, and surfactants was developed to replace 1,1,2-trichlorotrifluoroethane for the dampening of clean room wiping cloths used to wipe clean benches, clean room equipment, and latex finger cots and gloves.

  11. ELECTRONS IN NONPOLAR LIQUIDS.

    SciTech Connect

    HOLROYD,R.A.

    2002-10-22

    Excess electrons can be introduced into liquids by absorption of high energy radiation, by photoionization, or by photoinjection from metal surfaces. The electron's chemical and physical properties can then be measured, but this requires that the electrons remain free. That is, the liquid must be sufficiently free of electron attaching impurities for these studies. The drift mobility as well as other transport properties of the electron are discussed here as well as electron reactions, free-ion yields and energy levels, Ionization processes typically produce electrons with excess kinetic energy. In liquids during thermalization, where this excess energy is lost to bath molecules, the electrons travel some distance from their geminate positive ions. In general the electrons at this point are still within the coulombic field of their geminate ions and a large fraction of the electrons recombine. However, some electrons escape recombination and the yield that escapes to become free electrons and ions is termed G{sub fi}. Reported values of G{sub fi} for molecular liquids range from 0.05 to 1.1 per 100 eV of energy absorbed. The reasons for this 20-fold range of yields are discussed here.

  12. Liquid Rocket Engine Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahman, Shamim

    2005-01-01

    Comprehensive Liquid Rocket Engine testing is essential to risk reduction for Space Flight. Test capability represents significant national investments in expertise and infrastructure. Historical experience underpins current test capabilities. Test facilities continually seek proactive alignment with national space development goals and objectives including government and commercial sectors.

  13. Thermoelectricity in liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohd Said, Suhana; Nordin, Abdul Rahman; Abdullah, Norbani; Balamurugan, S.

    2015-09-01

    The thermoelectric effect, also known as the Seebeck effect, describes the conversion of a temperature gradient into electricity. A Figure of Merit (ZT) is used to describe the thermoelectric ability of a material. It is directly dependent on its Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity, and inversely dependent on its thermal conductivity. There is usually a compromise between these parameters, which limit the performance of thermoelectric materials. The current achievement for ZT~2.2 falls short of the expected threshold of ZT=3 to allow its viability in commercial applications. In recent times, advances in organic thermoelectrics been significant, improving by over 3 orders of magnitude over a period of about 10 years. Liquid crystals are newly investigated as candidate thermoelectric materials, given their low thermal conductivity, inherent ordering, and in some cases, reasonable electrical conductivity. In this work the thermoelectric behaviour of a discotic liquid crystal, is discussed. The DLC was filled into cells coated with a charge injector, and an alignment of the columnar axis perpendicular to the substrate was allowed to form. This thermoelectric behavior can be correlated to the order-disorder transition. A reasonable thermoelectric power in the liquid crystal temperature regime was noted. In summary, thermoelectric liquid crystals may have the potential to be utilised in flexible devices, as a standalone power source.

  14. Liquid metal hydrogen barriers

    DOEpatents

    Grover, George M.; Frank, Thurman G.; Keddy, Edward S.

    1976-01-01

    Hydrogen barriers which comprise liquid metals in which the solubility of hydrogen is low and which have good thermal conductivities at operating temperatures of interest. Such barriers are useful in nuclear fuel elements containing a metal hydride moderator which has a substantial hydrogen dissociation pressure at reactor operating temperatures.

  15. Liquid rocket valve components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A monograph on valves for use with liquid rocket propellant engines is presented. The configurations of the various types of valves are described and illustrated. Design criteria and recommended practices for the various valves are explained. Tables of data are included to show the chief features of valve components in use on operational vehicles.

  16. Liquid rocket valve assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The design and operating characteristics of valve assemblies used in liquid propellant rocket engines are discussed. The subjects considered are as follows: (1) valve selection parameters, (2) major design aspects, (3) design integration of valve subassemblies, and (4) assembly of components and functional tests. Information is provided on engine, stage, and spacecraft checkout procedures.

  17. Liquid White Enamel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widmar, Marge

    1985-01-01

    A secondary teacher describes how she has her students use liquid white enamel. With the enameling process, students can create lasting, exciting artwork. They can exercise an understanding of design and color while learning the value of careful, sustained craft skills. (RM)

  18. Liquid Cooled Garments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Astronauts working on the surface of the moon had to wear liquid-cooled garments under their space suits as protection from lunar temperatures which sometimes reach 250 degrees Fahrenheit. In community service projects conducted by NASA's Ames Research Center, the technology developed for astronaut needs has been adapted to portable cooling systems which will permit two youngsters to lead more normal lives.

  19. Unusually stable liquid foams.

    PubMed

    Rio, Emmanuelle; Drenckhan, Wiebke; Salonen, Anniina; Langevin, Dominique

    2014-03-01

    Obtaining stable liquid foams is an important issue in view of their numerous applications. In some of these, the liquid foam in itself is of interest, in others, the liquid foam acts as a precursor for the generation of solid foam. In this short review, we will make a survey of the existing results in the area. This will include foams stabilised by surfactants, proteins and particles. The origin of the stability is related to the slowing down of coarsening, drainage or coalescence, and eventually to their arrest. The three effects are frequently coupled and in many cases, they act simultaneously and enhance one another. Drainage can be arrested if the liquid of the foam either gels or solidifies. Coalescence is slowed down by gelified foam films, and it can be arrested if the films become very thick and/or rigid. These mechanisms are thus qualitatively easy to identify, but they are less easy to model in order to obtain quantitative predictions. The slowing down of coarsening requests either very thick or small films, and its arrest was observed in cases where the surface compression modulus was large. The detail of the mechanisms at play remains unclear. PMID:24342735

  20. Spontaneous liquid-liquid phase separation of water.

    PubMed

    Yagasaki, Takuma; Matsumoto, Masakazu; Tanaka, Hideki

    2014-02-01

    We report a molecular dynamics simulation demonstrating a fast spontaneous liquid-liquid phase separation of water and a subsequent slow crystallization to ice. It is found that supercooled water separates rapidly into low- and high-density domains so as to reduce the surface energy in the rectangular simulation cell at certain thermodynamic states. The liquid-liquid phase separation, which is about two orders of magnitude faster than the crystallization, suggests a possibility to observe this phenomenon experimentally. PMID:25353404

  1. High CO2 solubility, permeability and selectivity in ionic liquids with the tetracyanoborate anion

    SciTech Connect

    Mahurin, SM; Hillesheim, PC; Yeary, JS; Jiang, DE; Dai, S

    2012-01-01

    Five different ionic liquids containing the tetracyanoborate anion were synthesized and evaluated for CO2 separation performance. Measured CO2 solubility values were exceptionally high compared to analogous ionic liquids with different anions and ranged from 0.128 mol L-1 atm(-1) to 0.148 mol L-1 atm(-1). In addition, CO2 permeability and CO2/N-2 selectivity values were measured using a supported ionic liquid membrane architecture and the separations performance of the ionic liquid membranes exceeded the Robeson upper bound. These results establish the distinct potential of ionic liquids with the tetracyanoborate, [B(CN)(4)], anion for the separation of CO2.

  2. 3-Methylpiperidinium ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Belhocine, Tayeb; Forsyth, Stewart A; Gunaratne, H Q Nimal; Nieuwenhuyzen, Mark; Nockemann, Peter; Puga, Alberto V; Seddon, Kenneth R; Srinivasan, Geetha; Whiston, Keith

    2015-04-28

    A wide range of room temperature ionic liquids based on the 3-methylpiperdinium cation core were produced from 3-methylpiperidine, which is a derivative of DYTEK® A amine. First, reaction with 1-bromoalkanes or 1-bromoalkoxyalkanes generated the corresponding tertiary amines (Rmβpip, R = alkyl or alkoxyalkyl); further quaternisation reactions with the appropriate methylating agents yielded the quaternary [Rmmβpip]X salts (X(-) = I(-), [CF3CO2](-) or [OTf](-); Tf = -SO2CF3), and [Rmmβpip][NTf2] were prepared by anion metathesis from the corresponding iodides. All [NTf2](-) salts are liquids at room temperature. [Rmmβpip]X (X(-) = I(-), [CF3CO2](-) or [OTf](-)) are low-melting solids when R = alkyl, but room temperature liquids upon introduction of ether functionalities on R. Neither of the 3-methylpiperdinium ionic liquids showed any signs of crystallisation, even well below 0 °C. Some related non-C-substituted piperidinium and pyrrolidinium analogues were prepared and studied for comparison. Crystal structures of 1-hexyl-1,3-dimethylpiperidinium tetraphenylborate, 1-butyl-3-methylpiperidinium bromide, 1-(2-methoxyethyl)-1-methylpiperidinium chloride and 1-(2-methoxyethyl)-1-methylpyrrolidinium bromide are reported. Extensive structural and physical data are collected and compared to literature data, with special emphasis on the systematic study of the cation ring size and/or asymmetry effects on density, viscosity and ionic conductivity, allowing general trends to be outlined. Cyclic voltammetry shows that 3-methylpiperidinium ionic liquids, similarly to azepanium, piperidinium or pyrrolidinium counterparts, are extremely electrochemically stable; the portfolio of useful alternatives for safe and high-performing electrolytes is thus greatly extended. PMID:25669485

  3. Rockets using Liquid Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busemann, Adolf

    1947-01-01

    It is my task to discuss rocket propulsion using liquid oxygen and my treatment must be highly condensed for the ideas and experiments pertaining to this classic type of rocket are so numerous that one could occupy a whole morning with a detailed presentation. First, with regard to oxygen itself as compared with competing oxygen carriers, it is known that the liquid state of oxygen, in spite of the low boiling point, is more advantageous than the gaseous form of oxygen in pressure tanks, therefore only liquid oxygen need be compared with the oxygen carriers. The advantages of liquid oxygen are absolute purity and unlimited availability at relatively small cost in energy. The disadvantages are those arising from the impossibility of absolute isolation from heat; consequently, allowance must always be made for a certain degree of vaporization and only vented vessels can be used for storage and transportation. This necessity alone eliminates many fields of application, for example, at the front lines. In addition, liquid oxygen has a lower specific weight than other oxygen carriers, therefore many accessories become relatively larger and heavier in the case of an oxygen rocket, for example, the supply tanks and the pumps. The advantages thus become effective only in those cases where definitely scheduled operation and a large ground organization are possible and when the flight requires a great concentration of energy relative to weight. With the aim of brevity, a diagram of an oxygen rocket will be presented and the problem of various component parts that receive particularly thorough investigation in this classic case but which are also often applicable to other rocket types will be referred to.

  4. Liquid metal thermoacoustic engine

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.; Wheatley, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    We are studying a liquid metal thermoacoustic engine both theoretically and experimentally. This type of engine promises to produce large quantities of electrical energy from heat at modest efficiency with no moving parts. A sound wave is usually thought of as consisting of pressure oscillations, but always attendant to the pressure oscillation are temperature oscillations. The combination produces a rich variety of ''thermoacoustic'' effects. These effects are usually so small that they are never noticed in everyday life; nevertheless under the right circumstances they can be harnessed to produce powerful heat engines, heat pumps, and refrigerators. In our liquid metal thermoacoustic engine, heat flow from a high temperature source to a low temperature sink generates a high-amplitude standing acoustic wave in liquid sodium. This acoustic power is converted to electric power by a simple magnetohydrodynamic effect at the acoustic oscillation frequency. We have developed a detailed thermoacoustic theory applicable to this engine, and find that a reasonably designed liquid sodium engine operating between 700/sup 0/C and 100/sup 0/C should generate about 60 W/cm/sup 2/ of acoustic power at about 1/3 of Carnot's efficiency. Construction of a 3000 W-thermal laboratory model engine has just been completed, and we have exciting preliminary experimental results as of the time of preparation of this manuscript showing, basically, that the engine works. We have also designed and built a 1 kHz liquid sodium magnetohydrodynamic generator and have extensive measurements on it. It is now very well characterized both experimentally and theoretically. The first generator of its kind, it already converts acoustic power to electric power with 40% efficiency. 16 refs., 5 figs.

  5. Models for a liquid-liquid phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buldyrev, S. V.; Franzese, G.; Giovambattista, N.; Malescio, G.; Sadr-Lahijany, M. R.; Scala, A.; Skibinsky, A.; Stanley, H. E.

    2002-02-01

    We use molecular dynamics simulations to study two- and three-dimensional models with the isotropic double-step potential which in addition to the hard core has a repulsive soft core of larger radius. Our results indicate that the presence of two characteristic repulsive distances (hard core and soft core) is sufficient to explain liquid anomalies and a liquid-liquid phase transition, but these two phenomena may occur independently. Thus liquid-liquid transitions may exist in systems like liquid metals, regardless of the presence of the density anomaly. For 2D, we propose a model with a specific set of hard core and soft core parameters, that qualitatively reproduces the phase diagram and anomalies of liquid water. We identify two solid phases: a square crystal (high density phase), and a triangular crystal (low density phase) and discuss the relation between the anomalies of liquid and the polymorphism of the solid. Similarly to real water, our 2D system may have the second critical point in the metastable liquid phase beyond the freezing line. In 3D, we find several sets of parameters for which two fluid-fluid phase transition lines exist: the first line between gas and liquid and the second line between high-density liquid (HDL) and low-density liquid (LDL). In all cases, the LDL phase shows no density anomaly in 3D. We relate the absence of the density anomaly with the positive slope of the LDL-HDL phase transition line.

  6. Overview of Supported Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rusch, Frank R.; Hughes, Carolyn

    1989-01-01

    This review defines supported employment, presents a rationale for it, describes four types of placement models, outlines supported employment program components, and analyzes effectiveness and populations served. The contributions of applied behavior analysis to supported employment are examined. (JDD)

  7. Polymorphism in glassy silicon: Inherited from liquid-liquid phase transition in supercooled liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shiliang; Wang, Li-Min; Zhang, Xinyu; Qi, Li; Zhang, Suhong; Ma, Mingzhen; Liu, Riping

    2015-02-01

    Combining molecular dynamics (MD) simulation and Voronoi polyhedral analyses, we discussed the microstructure evolution in liquid and glassy silicon during cooling by focusing on the fraction of various clusters. Liquid-liquid phase transition (LLPT) is detected in supercooled liquid silicon However, freezing the high-density liquid (HDL) to the glassy state is not achieved as the quenching rate goes up to 1014 K/s. The polyamorphism in glassy silicon is found to be mainly associated with low-density liquid (LDL).

  8. Polymorphism in glassy silicon: Inherited from liquid-liquid phase transition in supercooled liquid

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shiliang; Wang, Li-Min; Zhang, Xinyu; Qi, Li; Zhang, Suhong; Ma, Mingzhen; Liu, Riping

    2015-01-01

    Combining molecular dynamics (MD) simulation and Voronoi polyhedral analyses, we discussed the microstructure evolution in liquid and glassy silicon during cooling by focusing on the fraction of various clusters. Liquid-liquid phase transition (LLPT) is detected in supercooled liquid silicon However, freezing the high-density liquid (HDL) to the glassy state is not achieved as the quenching rate goes up to 1014 K/s. The polyamorphism in glassy silicon is found to be mainly associated with low-density liquid (LDL). PMID:25716054

  9. Liquid Acquisition Device Design Sensitivity Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanDyke, M. K.; Hastings, L. J.

    2012-01-01

    In-space propulsion often necessitates the use of a capillary liquid acquisition device (LAD) to assure that gas-free liquid propellant is available to support engine restarts in microgravity. If a capillary screen-channel device is chosen, then the designer must determine the appropriate combination screen mesh and channel geometry. A screen mesh selection which results in the smallest LAD width when compared to any other screen candidate (for a constant length) is desirable; however, no best screen exists for all LAD design requirements. Flow rate, percent fill, and acceleration are the most influential drivers for determining screen widths. Increased flow rates and reduced percent fills increase the through-the-screen flow pressure losses, which drive the LAD to increased widths regardless of screen choice. Similarly, increased acceleration levels and corresponding liquid head pressures drive the screen mesh selection toward a higher bubble point (liquid retention capability). After ruling out some screens on the basis of acceleration requirements alone, candidates can be identified by examining screens with small flow-loss-to-bubble point ratios for a given condition (i.e., comparing screens at certain flow rates and fill levels). Within the same flow rate and fill level, the screen constants inertia resistance coefficient, void fraction, screen pore or opening diameter, and bubble point can become the driving forces in identifying the smaller flow-loss-to-bubble point ratios.

  10. Improved liquid-film electron stripper

    DOEpatents

    Gavin, B.F.

    1984-11-01

    An improved liquid-film electron stripper particularly for high intensity heavy ion beams which produces constant regenerated, stable, free-standing liquid films having an adjustable thickness between 0.3 to 0.05 microns. The improved electron stripper is basically composed of at least one high speed, rotating disc with a very sharp, precision-like, ground edge on one side of the disc's periphery and with highly polished, flat, radial surface adjacent the sharp edge. A fine stream of liquid, such as oil, impinges at a 90/sup 0/ angle adjacent the disc's sharp outer edge. Film terminators, located at a selected distance from the disc perimeter are positioned approximately perpendicular to the film. The terminators support, shape, and stretch the film and are arranged to assist in the prevention of liquid droplet formation by directing the collected film to a reservoir below without breaking or interfering with the film. One embodiment utilizes two rotating discs and associated terminators, with the discs rotating so as to form films in opposite directions, and with the second disc being located down beam-line relative to the first disc.

  11. Black Liquid Solar Collector Demonstrator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weichman, F. L.; Austen, D. J.

    1979-01-01

    Describes the details of constructing, and use of, a solar collector. Uses a black liquid to absorb the energy, the thermosyphon effect to drive the liquid through the collector, and a floodlamp as a surrogate sun. (GA)

  12. Demonstrating Paramagnetism Using Liquid Nitrogen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmonds, Ray; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes how liquid nitrogen is attracted to the poles of neodymium magnets. Nitrogen is not paramagnetic, so the attraction suggests that the liquid nitrogen contains a small amount of oxygen, which causes the paramagnetism. (MVL)

  13. Predicting Polymer/Liquide Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fedors, R. F.

    1985-01-01

    Calculations of liquid absorption by rubber vulcanizates agree with experimental results. Equation allows calculation of swelling of rubber vulcanizates by liquids, based on knowledge of chemical structure of polymer and solvent. Calculated values agree favorably with experimental data.

  14. Quality user support: Supporting quality users

    SciTech Connect

    Woolley, T.C.

    1994-12-31

    During the past decade, fundamental changes have occurred in technical computing in the oil industry. Technical computing systems have moved from local, fragmented quantity, to global, integrated, quality. The compute power available to the average geoscientist at his desktop has grown exponentially. Technical computing applications have increased in integration and complexity. At the same time, there has been a significant change in the work force due to the pressures of restructuring, and the increased focus on international opportunities. The profile of the user of technical computing resources has changed. Users are generally more mature, knowledgeable, and team oriented than their predecessors. In the 1990s, computer literacy is a requirement. This paper describes the steps taken by Oryx Energy Company to address the problems and opportunities created by the explosive growth in computing power and needs, coupled with the contraction of the business. A successful user support strategy will be described. Characteristics of the program include: (1) Client driven support; (2) Empowerment of highly skilled professionals to fill the support role; (3) Routine and ongoing modification to the support plan; (4) Utilization of the support assignment to create highly trained advocates on the line; (5) Integration of the support role to the reservoir management team. Results of the plan include a highly trained work force, stakeholder teams that include support personnel, and global support from a centralized support organization.

  15. Surface Chemistry and Properties of Oxides as Catalyst Supports

    SciTech Connect

    DeBusk, Melanie Moses; Narula, Chaitanya Kumar; Contescu, Cristian I

    2015-01-01

    Heterogeneous catalysis relies on metal-oxides as supports for the catalysts. Catalyst supports are an indispensable component of most heterogeneous catalysts, but the role of the support is often minimized in light of the one played by the catalytically active species it supports. The active species of supported catalysts are located on the surface of the support where their contact with liquid or gas phase reactants will be greatest. Considering that support plays a major role in distribution and stability of active species, the absorption and retention of reactive species, and in some cases in catalytic reaction, the properties and chemistry that can occur at the surface of an oxide support are important for understanding their impact on the activity of a supported catalyst. This chapter examines this rich surface chemistry and properties of oxides used as catalyst supports, and explores the influence of their interaction with the active species.

  16. Pelvic Support Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... correct pelvic support problems? • Glossary What are pelvic support problems? The pelvic organs include the vagina , cervix , uterus , bladder , urethra , small intestines, and rectum . The pelvic ...

  17. Liquid metal thermal electric converter

    DOEpatents

    Abbin, Joseph P.; Andraka, Charles E.; Lukens, Laurance L.; Moreno, James B.

    1989-01-01

    A liquid metal thermal electric converter which converts heat energy to electrical energy. The design of the liquid metal thermal electric converter incorporates a unique configuration which directs the metal fluid pressure to the outside of the tube which results in the structural loads in the tube to be compressive. A liquid metal thermal electric converter refluxing boiler with series connection of tubes and a multiple cell liquid metal thermal electric converter are also provided.

  18. Liquid crystalline composites containing phyllosilicates

    DOEpatents

    Chaiko; David J.

    2007-05-08

    The present invention provides barrier films having reduced gas permeability for use in packaging and coating applications. The barrier films comprise an anisotropic liquid crystalline composite layer formed from phyllosilicate-polymer compositions. Phyllosilicate-polymer liquid crystalline compositions of the present invention can contain a high percentage of phyllosilicate while remaining transparent. Because of the ordering of the particles in the liquid crystalline composite, barrier films comprising liquid crystalline composites are particularly useful as barriers to gas transport.

  19. Emulsions Containing Perfluorocarbon Support Cell Cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ju, Lu-Kwang; Lee, Jaw Fang; Armiger, William B.

    1990-01-01

    Addition of emulsion containing perfluorocarbon liquid to aqueous cell-culture medium increases capacity of medium to support mammalian cells. FC-40 Fluorinert (or equivalent) - increases average density of medium so approximately equal to that of cells. Cells stay suspended in medium without mechanical stirring, which damages them. Increases density enough to prevent cells from setting, and increases viscosity of medium so oxygen bubbled through it and nutrients stirred in with less damage to delicate cells.

  20. High temperature liquid level sensor

    DOEpatents

    Tokarz, Richard D.

    1983-01-01

    A length of metal sheathed metal oxide cable is perforated to permit liquid access to the insulation about a pair of conductors spaced close to one another. Changes in resistance across the conductors will be a function of liquid level, since the wetted insulation will have greater electrical conductivity than that of the dry insulation above the liquid elevation.