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1

Supported liquid membrane electrochemical separators  

DOEpatents

Supported liquid membrane separators improve the flexibility, efficiency and service life of electrochemical cells for a variety of applications. In the field of electrochemical storage, an alkaline secondary battery with improved service life is described in which a supported liquid membrane is interposed between the positive and negative electrodes. The supported liquid membranes of this invention can be used in energy production and storage systems, electrosynthesis systems, and in systems for the electrowinning and electrorefining of metals.

Pemsler, J. Paul (Lexington, MA); Dempsey, Michael D. (Revere, MA)

1986-01-01

2

The Effect of BTP on the Development of Allergic Asthma in Mice  

E-print Network

93 The Effect of BTP on the Development of Allergic Asthma in Mice Alana Curry, McNair Scholar of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences Penn State University Abstract Allergic Asthma is an inflammatory disease determined whether BTP affects the development of symptoms of allergic asthma in a murine model

Omiecinski, Curtis

3

Separations by supported liquid membrane cascades  

DOEpatents

The invention describes a new separation technique which leads to multi-stage operations by the use of a series (a cascade) of alternated carrier-containing supported-liquid cation exchanger extractant and a liquid anion exchanger extractant (or a neutral extractant) as carrier. The membranes are spaced between alternated aqueous electrolytic solutions of different composition which alternatively provide positively charged extractable species and negatively charged (or zero charged) extractable species, of the chemical species to be separated. The alternated aqueous electrolytic solutions in addition to providing the driving force to the process, simultaneously function as a stripping solution from one type of membrane and as an extraction-promoting solution for the other type of membrane. The aqueous electrolytic solution and the supported liquid membranes are arranged to provide a continuous process.

Danesi, P.R.

1983-09-01

4

Support-free pulsed liquid-liquid chromatography.  

PubMed

A simple technique of support-free liquid-liquid chromatography is suggested that operates without incorporation of a centrifuge. The pulsed chromatography apparatus consists of a stationary coiled tube and a pulsation device to produce reciprocating motion of liquid phases within each individual coil segment. This reciprocating motion generates a centrifugal force field varying in intensity and direction that leads to an improved mixing of the two liquid phases and retains the stationary phase in the coiled tubing. The intensity of the back and forth motion of liquid phases within each coil unit can be varied by varying the frequency and/or the amplitude of the pulsations generated by the pulsation device. As the magnitude of the stationary phase retention is of paramount importance for success of the technique, the retention of the stationary phase in the pulsed coil column was experimentally studied. A few experiments were conducted to test the chromatographic behavior of valeric (n-pentanoic) and caproic (n-hexanoic) acids. The results obtained demonstrate the potential of the new separation method for preparative purposes. PMID:19758594

Kostanyan, Artak E; Voshkin, Andrei A

2009-11-01

5

Separations by supported liquid membrane cascades  

DOEpatents

The invention describes a new separation technique which leads to multi-stage operations by the use of a series (a cascade) of alternated carrier-containing supported-liquid membranes. The membranes contain alternatively a liquid cation exchanger extractant and a liquid anion exchanger extractant (or a neutral extractant) as carrier. The membranes are spaced between alternated aqueous electrolytic solutions of different composition which alternatively provide positively charged extractable species and negatively charged (or zero charged) extractable species, of the chemical species to be separated. The alternated aqueous electrolytic solutions in addition to providing the driving force to the process, simultaneously function as a stripping solution from one type of membrane and as an extraction-promoting solution for the other type of membrane. The aqueous electrolytic solutions and the supported liquid membranes are arranged in such a way to provide a continuous process which leads to the continuous enrichment of the species which show the highest permeability coefficients. By virtue of the very high number of stages which can be arranged, even chemical species having very similar chemical behavior (and consequently very similar permeability coefficients) can be completely separated. The invention also provide a way to concentrate the separated species.

Danesi, Pier R. (Clarendon Hills, IL)

1986-01-01

6

Radiolysis and Ageing of C2-BTP in Cinnamaldehyde/Hexanol Mixtures  

SciTech Connect

The separation of actinides from lanthanides is an important step in the alternative methods for nuclear waste treatment currently under development. Polycyclic molecules containing nitrogen are synthesised and used for solvent extraction. A potential problem in the separation process is the degradation of the molecule due to irradiation or ageing. An addition of nitrobenzene has proved to have an inhibitory effect on degradation when added to a system containing C2-BTP in hexanol before irradiation. In this study, 2,6-di(5,6-diethyl-1,2,4-triazine-3-yl)pyridine (C2-BTP) was dissolved in different mixtures of cinnamaldehyde and hexanol and the effects on extraction after ageing and irradiation were investigated. Similar to nitrobenzene, cinnamaldehyde contains an aromatic ring which generally has a relatively high resistance towards radiolysis. Both C2-BTP in cinnamaldehyde and C2-BTP in hexanol seem to degrade with time. The system with C2-BTP in pure hexanol is relatively stable up to 17 days but then starts slowly to degrade. The solution with pure cinnamaldehyde as diluent started to degrade after only {approx}20 hours. The opposite is true for degradation caused by radiolysis; hexanol systems are more sensitive to radiolysis than cinnamaldehyde systems. Most of the radiolytic degradation took place during the first days of irradiation, up to a dose of 4 kGy. (authors)

Fermvik, Anna; Ekberg, Christian; Retegan, Teodora; Skarnemark, Gunnar [Nuclear Chemistry, Chalmers University of Technology, Kemiv. 4, Gothenburg, SE-412 96 (Sweden)

2007-07-01

7

A remarkable enhancement in Am(3+)/Eu(3+)selectivity by an ionic liquid based solvent containing bis-1,2,4-triazinyl pyridine derivatives: DFT validation of experimental results.  

PubMed

Mutual separation of trivalent actinide (An(3+)) and lanthanide (Ln(3+)) using several soft (N) donor ligands (bis(5,6-dialkyl-1,2,4-triazinyl)pyridine (R-BTP)) is attempted for the first time in room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) medium. The results indicate a spectacular enhancement in the selectivity as compared to that in molecular diluents with a separation factor (S.F.) of >3000 for Am(3+) over Eu(3+) using the methyl derivative (Me-BTP) in RTIL medium using [Cnmim]·[NTf2] as the diluents (where n = 2, 3, 4, 6 or 8). Such a high S.F. value has never been reported before with any of the R-BTP derivatives in molecular diluents. An opposite trend in the distribution ratio values of both Am(3+) and Eu(3+) with the increasing size of the alkyl (R) group is observed in RTIL medium when compared with that in molecular diluents. The differences in the extraction behaviour of R-BTPs in RTILs vis-à-vis molecular diluents are explained on the basis of the difference in the nature of complexes extracted in these two distinctly different media as supported by the time resolved fluorescence (TRFS) study. An unusually high extractability and selectivity for Am(3+) over Eu(3+) with Me-BTP was attributed to the formation of a 1?:?4 complex for Am(3+), which was never reported earlier with any of the R-BTP derivatives in molecular diluents. DFT studies indicated higher metal 'd' and 'f' orbital participation (covalence) in the bonding with R-BTP in the case of Am(3+) complexes as compared to that in the case of Eu(3+) complexes, which resulted in the selectivity of these classes of ligands. The observed results may have a great significance in the radioactive waste management involving the partitioning and transmutation strategy. PMID:25736729

Bhattacharyya, Arunasis; Ansari, Seraj A; Gadly, Trilochan; Ghosh, Sunil K; Mohapatra, Manoj; Mohapatra, P K

2015-03-17

8

Supported and liquid phase task specific ionic liquids for base catalysed Knoevenagel reactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of Hünig's base tethered ammonium ionic liquids have been used to catalyse the Knoevenagel condensation of aldehydes\\/ketones with malononitrile and ethyl cyanoacetate. The reactions were performed under homogeneous and under biphasic, liquid–liquid and liquid–silica supported ionic liquid, conditions with the biphasic systems employing cyclohexene as the second phase. By increasing the distance between the ammonium head group and

C. Paun; J. Barklie; P. Goodrich; H. Q. N. Gunaratne; A. McKeown; V. I. Pârvulescu; C. Hardacre

2007-01-01

9

Study of Bacterial Determinants Involved in the Induction of Systemic Resistance in Bean by Pseudomonas putida BTP1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of Pseudomonas putida BTP1 to induce resistance in bean to Botrytis cinerea was demonstrated in soil experiments on plants pre-inoculated at the root level with the bacteria before challenge with the leaf pathogen. As a first step to characterize the molecules from BTP1 responsible for induction of systemic resistance in bean, heat-killed cells and supernatant from culture in

Marc Ongena; Amélie Giger; Philippe Jacques; Jacques Dommes; Philippe Thonart

2002-01-01

10

Countercurrent chromatography: liquid-liquid partition chromatography without solid support.  

PubMed

The liquid-liquid partition chromatographic system reported here involves a long helix of narrow-bore tubing. When the coiled tube is filled with one phase of a two-phase system and fed with the other phase, phase-interchange takes place in each turn of the coil, leaving a segment of the former phase as the stationary phase. Consequently, solutes present in either phase are subjected to a multistep partition process. The column efficiency, estimated on a separation of dinitrophenyl amino acids, is comparable to that of gas chromatography. PMID:5409709

Ito, Y; Bowman, R L

1970-01-16

11

CO 2 separation facilitated by task-specific ionic liquids using a supported liquid membrane  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a supported liquid membrane (SLM) based on a task-specific ionic liquid to achieve the selective and facilitated CO2 transport through the membrane. The prepared SLM facilitated by the amine-terminated ionic liquid showed high selectivity and high stability (more than 260 days) for CO2 separation from the CO2\\/CH4 gas mixture.

Shoji Hanioka; Tatsuo Maruyama; Tomohiro Sotani; Masahiro Teramoto; Hideto Matsuyama; Kazunori Nakashima; Misa Hanaki; Fukiko Kubota; Masahiro Goto

2008-01-01

12

Development of Practical Supported Ionic Liquid Membranes: A Systematic Approach  

SciTech Connect

Supported liquid membranes (SLMs) are a class of materials that allow the researcher to utilize the wealth of knowledge available on liquid properties to optimize membrane performance. These membranes also have the advantage of liquid phase diffusivities, which are higher than those observed in polymers and grant proportionally greater permeabilities. The primary shortcoming of the supported liquid membranes demonstrated in past research has been the lack of stability caused by volatilization of the transport liquid. Ionic liquids, which may possess high CO2 solubility relative to light gases such as H2, are excellent candidates for this type of membrane since they are stable at elevated temperatures and have negligible vapor pressure. A study has been conducted evaluating the use of a variety of ionic liquids in supported ionic liquid membranes for the capture of CO2 from streams containing H2. In a joint project, researchers at the University of Notre Dame synthesized and characterized ionic liquids, and researchers at the National Energy Technology Laboratory incorporated candidate ionic liquids into supports and evaluated membrane performance for the resulting materials. Several steps have been taken in the development of practical supported ionic liquid membranes. Proof-of-concept was established by showing that ionic liquids could be used as the transport media in SLMs. Results showed that ionic liquids are suitable media for gas transport, but the preferred polymeric supports were not stable at temperatures above 135oC. The use of cross-linked nylon66 supports was found to produce membranes mechanically stable at temperatures exceeding 300oC but CO2/H2 selectivity was poor. An ionic liquid whose selectivity does not decrease with increasing temperature was needed, and a functionalized ionic liquid that complexes with CO2 was used. An increase in CO2/H2 selectivity with increasing temperature over the range of 37 to 85oC was observed and the dominance of a facilitated transport mechanism established. The presentation will detail membrane development, the effect of increasing transmembrane pressure, and preliminary results dealing with other gas pairs and contaminants.

Luebke, D.R.; Ilconich, J.B.; Myers, C.R.; Pennline, H.W.

2007-11-01

13

Carbon Dioxide Separation with Supported Ionic Liquid Membranes  

SciTech Connect

Supported liquid membranes are a class of materials that allow the researcher to utilize the wealth of knowledge available on liquid properties as a direct guide in the development of a capture technology. These membranes also have the advantage of liquid phase diffusivities higher than those observed in polymeric membranes which grant proportionally greater permeabilities. The primary shortcoming of the supported liquid membranes demonstrated in past research has been the lack of stability caused by volatilization of the transport liquid. Ionic liquids, which possess high carbon dioxide solubility relative to light gases such as hydrogen, are an excellent candidate for this type of membrane since they have negligible vapor pressure and are not susceptible to evaporation. A study has been conducted evaluating the use of several ionic liquids, including 1-hexyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bis(trifuoromethylsulfonyl)imide, 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium nitrate, and 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium sulfate in supported ionic liquid membranes for the capture of carbon dioxide from streams containing hydrogen. In a joint project, researchers at the University of Notre Dame lent expertise in ionic liquid synthesis and characterization, and researchers at the National Energy Technology Laboratory incorporated candidate ionic liquids into supports and evaluated the resulting materials for membrane performance. Initial results have been very promising with carbon dioxide permeabilities as high as 950 barrers and significant improvements in carbon dioxide/hydrogen selectivity over conventional polymers at 37C and at elevated temperatures. Results include a comparison of the performance of several ionic liquids and a number of supports as well as a discussion of innovative fabrication techniques currently under development.

Luebke, D.R.; Ilconich, J.B.; Myers, C.R.; Pennline, H.W.

2007-04-01

14

Isolation of an N-alkylated benzylamine derivative from Pseudomonas putida BTP1 as elicitor of induced systemic resistance in bean.  

PubMed

Root treatment of Phaseolus vulgaris with the nonpathogenic Pseudomonas putida BTP1 led to significant reduction of the disease caused by the pathogen Botrytis cinerea on leaves. The molecular determinant of P. putida BTP1 mainly responsible for the induced systemic resistance (ISR) was isolated from cell-free culture fluid after growth of the strain in the iron-poor casamino acid medium. Mass spectrometry analyses performed on both the bacterial product and synthetic analogues revealed a polyalkylated benzylamine structure, with the quaternary ammonium substituted by methyl, ethyl, and C13 aliphatic groups responsible for the relative hydrophobicity of the molecule. The specific involvement of the N-alkylated benzylamine derivative (NABD) in ISR elicitation was first evidenced by testing the purified compound that mimicked the protective effect afforded by crude supernatant samples. The evidence was supported by the loss of elicitor activity of mutants impaired in NABD biosynthesis. Our experiments also showed that other iron-regulated metabolites secreted by the strain are not involved in ISR stimulation. Thus, these results indicate a wider variety of Pseudomonas determinants for ISR than reported to date. PMID:15986926

Ongena, Marc; Jourdan, Emmanuel; Schäfer, Mathias; Kech, Cécile; Budzikiewicz, Herbert; Luxen, André; Thonart, Philippe

2005-06-01

15

Prefermentation of liquid dairy manure to support biological nutrient removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

A continuously operated, intermittently fed reactor (fermenter) system with a 2-d solids retention time was proposed for supporting biological nutrient removal from liquid dairy manure. The first objective of this study was to select a material with high fermentation potential to be used as the fermenter feed. Primary sludge, liquid separated dairy manure, and flushed dairy manure were investigated for

Kerem Güngör; Mert B. Müftügil; Jactone Arogo Ogejo; Katharine F. Knowlton; Nancy G. Love

2009-01-01

16

Supporting Information Self-Assembled Liquid Crystal Gels in Emulsion  

E-print Network

Supporting Information Self-Assembled Liquid Crystal Gels in Emulsion Xia Tong,1 Jong Won Chung,2 emulsion. Fig. S1. Image a is the photomicrograph (reflection mode) of an emulsion cast on a glass slide. Polarizing photomicrographs showing (a) the droplets of liquid crystal emulsion without gelator and (b

Zhao, Yue

17

26. DETAIL OF CONCRETE PIPE SUPPORTS LEADING TO NEW LIQUID ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

26. DETAIL OF CONCRETE PIPE SUPPORTS LEADING TO NEW LIQUID HYDROGEN TANK FARM; VIEW TO WEST. - Cape Canaveral Air Station, Launch Complex 17, Facility 28402, East end of Lighthouse Road, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

18

Fabrication of fiber supported ionic liquids and methods of use  

DOEpatents

One or more embodiments relates to the production of a fabricated fiber having an asymmetric polymer network and having an immobilized liquid such as an ionic liquid within the pores of the polymer network. The process produces the fabricated fiber in a dry-wet spinning process using a homogenous dope solution, providing significant advantage over current fabrication methods for liquid-supporting polymers. The fabricated fibers may be effectively utilized for the separation of a chemical species from a mixture based on the selection of the polymer, the liquid, and the solvent utilized in the dope.

Luebke, David R; Wickramanayake, Shan

2013-02-26

19

Magnetic nanoparticles supported ionic liquids improve firefly luciferase properties.  

PubMed

Ionic liquids as neoteric solvents, microwave irradiation, and alternative energy source are becoming as a solvent for many enzymatic reactions. We recently showed that the incubation of firefly luciferase from Photinus pyralis with various ionic liquids increased the activity and stability of luciferase. Magnetic nanoparticles supported ionic liquids have been obtained by covalent bonding of ionic liquids-silane on magnetic silica nanoparticles. In the present study, the effects of [?-Fe2O3@SiO2][BMImCl] and [?-Fe2O3@SiO2][BMImI] were investigated on the structural properties and function of luciferase using circular dichroism, fluorescence spectroscopy, and bioluminescence assay. Enzyme activity and structural stability increased in the presence of magnetic nanoparticles supported ionic liquids. Furthermore, the effect of ingredients which were used was not considerable on K(m) value of luciferase for adenosine-5'-triphosphate and also K(m) value for luciferin. PMID:24492953

Noori, Ali Reza; Hosseinkhani, Saman; Ghiasi, Parisa; Akbari, Jafar; Heydari, Akbar

2014-03-01

20

Rejuvenation of Spent Media via Supported Emulsion Liquid Membranes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The overall goal of this project was to maximize the reuseability of spent fermentation media. Supported emulsion liquid membrane separation, a highly efficient extraction technique, was used to remove inhibitory byproducts during fermentation; thus, improve the yield while reducing the need for fresh water. The key objectives of this study were: (1) Develop an emulsion liquid membrane system targeting low molecular weight organic acids which has minimal toxicity on a variety of microbial systems. (2) Conduct mass transfer studies to allow proper modeling and design of a supported emulsion liquid membrane system. (3) Investigate the effect of gravity on emulsion coalescence within the membrane unit. (4) Access the effect of water re-use on fermentation yields in a model microbial system. and (5) Develop a perfusion-type fermentor utilizing a supported emulsion liquid membrane system to control inhibitory fermentation byproducts (not completed due to lack of funds)

Wiencek, John M.

2002-01-01

21

A TRLFS study on the complexation of novel BTP type ligands with Cm(III).  

PubMed

Two BTP-type N-donor ligands with different numbers of aromatic nitrogen atoms (2,6-bis(4-ethyl-pyridazin-1-yl)pyridine, Et-BDP and 2,6-bis(4-(n)propyl-2,3,5,6-tetrazine-1-yl)pyridine, (n)Pr-Tetrazine) have been synthesized and characterized by NMR and MS techniques. The complexation with Cm(III) in 2-propanol-water (1?:?1, vol.) is studied for both ligands using time resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) and the complexation properties are compared to (n)Pr-BTP. With increasing the ligand concentration three different species, the 1?:?1-, 1?:?2- and 1?:?3-complex, were found. Log ?3 values of 7.6 for the formation of Cm(Et-BDP)3 and 9.2 for the formation of Cm((n)Pr-Tetrazine)3 are determined. The complexation with (n)Pr-Tetrazine shows slow kinetics. Thermodynamic data of the complexation reactions are determined in a temperature range of 25 °C-60 °C. The complexation with Et-BDP is exothermic (?H = -16.3 ± 1.2 kJ mol(-1)) and exergonic (?G = -43.8 ± 2.6 kJ mol(-1)) whereas the complexation with (n)Pr-Tetrazine is endothermic (?H = 43.9 ± 3.1 kJ mol(-1)) and exergonic (?G = -51.7 ± 2.2 kJ mol(-1)). In the case of the latter the complexation is driven by a highly positive reaction entropy change (?S = 320.6 ± 15.4 J mol(-1) K(-1)). In comparison to (n)Pr-BTP, less negative ?G values were found for the complexation of Cm(III) with both ligands. PMID:23552476

Beele, Björn B; Rüdiger, Elias; Schwörer, Felicitas; Müllich, Udo; Geist, Andreas; Panak, Petra J

2013-09-14

22

Alkaline ionic liquids applied in supported ionic liquid catalyst for selective hydrogenation of citral to citronellal  

PubMed Central

The challenge in preparation of ionic liquids containing a strong alkaline anion is to identify a suitable cation which can tolerate the harsh conditions induced by the anion. In this study, a commercial quaternary ammonium compound (quat) benzalkonium [ADBA] (alkyldimethylbenzylammonium) was used as a cation in the synthesis of different alkaline ionic liquids. In fact, the precursor, benzalkonium chloride, is a mixture of alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chlorides of various alkyl chain lengths and is commonly used in the formulation of various antiseptic products. The prepared ionic liquids were utilized as Supported Ionic Liquid Catalysts (SILCAs). Typically, a SILCA contains metal nanoparticles, enzymes, or metal complexes in an ionic liquid layer which is immobilized on a solid carrier material such as an active carbon cloth (ACC). The catalysts were applied in the selective hydrogenation of citral to citronellal which is an important perfumery chemical. Interestingly, 70% molar yield toward citronellal was achieved over a catalyst containing the alkaline ionic liquid benzalkonium methoxide. PMID:24790972

Salminen, Eero; Virtanen, Pasi; Mikkola, Jyri-Pekka

2014-01-01

23

Alkaline ionic liquids applied in supported ionic liquid catalyst for selective hydrogenation of citral to citronellal.  

PubMed

The challenge in preparation of ionic liquids containing a strong alkaline anion is to identify a suitable cation which can tolerate the harsh conditions induced by the anion. In this study, a commercial quaternary ammonium compound (quat) benzalkonium [ADBA] (alkyldimethylbenzylammonium) was used as a cation in the synthesis of different alkaline ionic liquids. In fact, the precursor, benzalkonium chloride, is a mixture of alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chlorides of various alkyl chain lengths and is commonly used in the formulation of various antiseptic products. The prepared ionic liquids were utilized as Supported Ionic Liquid Catalysts (SILCAs). Typically, a SILCA contains metal nanoparticles, enzymes, or metal complexes in an ionic liquid layer which is immobilized on a solid carrier material such as an active carbon cloth (ACC). The catalysts were applied in the selective hydrogenation of citral to citronellal which is an important perfumery chemical. Interestingly, 70% molar yield toward citronellal was achieved over a catalyst containing the alkaline ionic liquid benzalkonium methoxide. PMID:24790972

Salminen, Eero; Virtanen, Pasi; Mikkola, Jyri-Pekka

2014-01-01

24

Alkaline ionic liquids applied in supported ionic liquid catalyst for selective hydrogenation of citral to citronellal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The challenge in preparation of ionic liquids containing a strong alkaline anion is to identify a suitable cation which can tolerate the harsh conditions induced by the anion. In this study, a commercial quaternary ammonium compound (quat) benzalkonium [ADBA] (alkyldimethylbenzylammonium) was used as a cation in the synthesis of different alkaline ionic liquids. In fact, the precursor, benzalkonium chloride, is a mixture of alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chlorides of various alkyl chain lengths and is commonly used in the formulation of various antiseptic products. The prepared ionic liquids were utilized as Supported Ionic Liquid Catalysts (SILCAs). Typically, a SILCA contains metal nanoparticles, enzymes or metal complexes in an ionic liquid layer which is immobilized on a solid carrier material such as an active carbon cloth (ACC). The catalysts were applied in the selective hydrogenation of citral to citronellal which is an important perfumery chemical. Interestingly, 70 % molar yield towards citronellal was achieved over a catalyst containing the alkaline ionic liquid benzalkonium methoxide.

Salminen, Eero; Virtanen, Pasi; Mikkola, Jyri-Pekka

2014-02-01

25

Rejuvenation of Spent Media via Supported Emulsion Liquid Membranes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The overall goal of this project is to maximize the reuseability of spent fermentation media. Supported emulsion liquid membrane separation, a highly efficient extraction technique, is used to remove inhibitory byproducts during fermentation; thus, improving the yield while reducing the need for fresh water. The key objectives of this study are: Develop an emulsion liquid membrane system targeting low molecular weight organic acids which has minimal toxicity on a variety of microbial systems; Conduct mass transfer studies to allow proper modeling and design of a supported emulsion liquid membrane system; Investigate the effect of gravity on emulsion coalescence within the membrane unit; Access the effect of water re-use on fermentation yields in a model microbial system; Develop a perfusion-type fermentor utilizing a supported emulsion liquid membrane system to control inhibitory fermentation byproducts; Work for the coming year will focus on the determination of toxicity of various solvents, selection of the emulsifying agents, as well as characterizing the mass transfer of hollow-fiber contactors.

Wiencek, John M.

2002-01-01

26

Feasibility of Surfactant-Free Supported Emulsion Liquid Membrane Extraction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Supported emulsion liquid membrane (SELM) is an effective means to conduct liquid-liquid extraction. SELM extraction is particularly attractive for separation tasks in the microgravity environment where density difference between the solvent and the internal phase of the emulsion is inconsequential and a stable dispersion can be maintained without surfactant. In this research, dispersed two-phase flow in SELM extraction is modeled using the Lagrangian method. The results show that SELM extraction process in the microgravity environment can be simulated on earth by matching the density of the solvent and the stripping phase. Feasibility of surfactant-free SELM (SFSELM) extraction is assessed by studying the coalescence behavior of the internal phase in the absence of the surfactant. Although the contacting area between the solvent and the internal phase in SFSELM extraction is significantly less than the area provided by regular emulsion due to drop coalescence, it is comparable to the area provided by a typical hollow-fiber membrane. Thus, the stripping process is highly unlikely to become the rate-limiting step in SFSELM extraction. SFSELM remains an effective way to achieve simultaneous extraction and stripping and is able to eliminate the equilibrium limitation in the typical solvent extraction processes. The SFSELM design is similar to the supported liquid membrane design in some aspects.

Hu, Shih-Yao B.; Li, Jin; Wiencek, John M.

2001-01-01

27

Ionic liquids in refinery desulfurization: comparison between biphasic and supported ionic liquid phase suspension processes.  

PubMed

The desulfurization of fuel compounds in the presence of ionic liquids is reported. For this purpose, the desulfurization efficiency of a variety of imidazolium phosphate ionic liquids has been tested. Dibenzothiophene/dodecane and butylmercaptan/decane mixtures were used as model systems. Single-stage extractions reduced the sulfur content from 500 ppm to 200 ppm. In multistage extractions the sulfur content could be lowered to less than 10 ppm within seven stages. Regeneration of the ionic liquid was achieved by distillation or re-extraction procedures. Supported ionic liquid phase (SILP) materials, obtained by dispersing the ionic liquid as a thin film on highly porous silica, exhibited a significantly higher extraction performance owing to their larger surface areas, reducing the sulfur content to less than 100 ppm in one stage. Multistage extraction with these SILP materials reduced the sulfur level to 50 ppm in the second stage. The SILP technology offers very efficient utilization of ionic liquids and circumvents mass transport limitations because of the small film thickness and large surface area, and allows application of the simple packed-bed column extraction technique. PMID:19798713

Kuhlmann, Esther; Haumann, Marco; Jess, Andreas; Seeberger, Andreas; Wasserscheid, Peter

2009-01-01

28

Supported liquid membranes in 1986: new technology or scientific curiosity  

SciTech Connect

Thin layers of organic solutions of solvent extraction reagents (membrane carriers), immobilized on microporous inert supports and interposed between two aqueous solutions (feed and strip), were first proposed more than two decades ago as a new and promising technique for separating and concentrating metal species. Such immobilized layers, representing supported liquid membranes (SLM), have been extensively studies by our group during the last six years mainly for their ability to separate and concentrate metal ions of critical and strategic importance and of relevance to the nuclear industry. In this presentation the major results obtained by our group up to 1986 in the field of SLM's are summarized. A brief indication of the major problems to be addressed to implement SLM's as a new separation technology is also given. 5 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Danesi, P.R.

1986-01-01

29

Buildings R&D Breakthroughs: Technologies and Products Supported by the Building Technologies Program  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the project described in this report is to identify and characterize commercially available products and emerging (near-commercial) technologies that benefited from the support of the Building Technologies Program (BTP) within the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The investigation specifically focused on technology-oriented research and development (R&D) projects funded by BTP’s Emerging Technologies subprogram from 2005-2011.

Weakley, Steven A.

2012-04-15

30

Enzyme-facilitated enantioselective transport of (S)-ibuprofen through a supported liquid membrane based on ionic liquids.  

PubMed

Coupling lipase reactions with a supported liquid membrane (SLM) based on ionic liquids showed facilitative and selective permeation of (S)-ibuprofen through the SLM, indicating successful optical resolution of a racemic mixture using the enzyme-facilitative SLM. PMID:14680244

Miyako, Eijiro; Maruyama, Tatsuo; Kamiya, Noriho; Goto, Masahiro

2003-12-01

31

The effect of porous support composition and operating parameters on the performance of supported liquid membranes  

SciTech Connect

Factors, such as porous support composition and operating parameters, that influence the performance of supported liquid membranes (SLMs) were investigated. SLMs of varying porous support compositions and structures were studied for the transport of metal ions. A microporous polybenzimidazole support was synthesized and prepared in the form of an SLM. This SLM containing the selective extractant di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid was evaluated for the transport of copper and neodymium. Dramatically improved performance over that of commercially available membranes was found in tests for removing the metal ions from solution. Metal ion transport reaches near completion in less than 3 hours, whereas Celgard-polypropylene and Nuclepore-polycarbonate reaches only 50% completion even after 15 hours. The transport driving force for acidic extractants is a pH gradient between the feed and strip solutions. Polybenzimidazole, an acid- and radiation-resistant polymer, has two protonatable tertiary nitrogens per repeat unit that may help sustain the pH driving force. Another factor may be the ability of the polybenzimidazole to hydrogen bond with the extractant. Transport through the flat-sheet SLMs were tested using a unique cell design. Countercurrent flow of the feed and strip solutions was established through machined channels in half-cell faceplates that are in a spiral, mirror-image pattern with respect to each other, with the flat-sheet SLM interposed between the two channeled solutions. 7 refs., 14 figs.

Takigawa, D.Y.

1991-02-01

32

Imidazolium-based ionic liquids immobilized on solid supports: effect on the structure and thermostability.  

PubMed

[BMI][PF(6)] has been supported on silica and alumina in order to study the effect of these classical oxide supports on the structure of the ionic liquid. A widespread characterization by TGA, DSC, XRD and solid NMR of thin films of [BMI][PF(6)] immobilized on these amorphous supports has evidenced a dramatic effect on the ionic liquid structure depending on the nature of the support. For the alumina composite, a loss of the supramolecular arrangement of the ionic liquid occurs, while for the analogous silica composite, ions interact strongly with the support, leading to a [BMI][PF(6)] thermostability decrease. PMID:20617270

Rodríguez-Pérez, Laura; Coppel, Yannick; Favier, Isabelle; Teuma, Emmanuelle; Serp, Philippe; Gómez, Montserrat

2010-08-28

33

Structured fiber supports for ionic liquid-phase catalysis used in gas-phase continuous hydrogenation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structured supported ionic liquid-phase (SSILP) catalysis is a new concept with the advantages of ionic liquids (ILs) used as solvents for homogeneous catalyst and the further benefits of structured heterogeneous catalysts. This is achieved by confining the IL with the transition metal complex to the surface of a structured support consisting of sintered metal fibers (SMFs). In an attempt to

Marina Ruta; Igor Yuranov; Paul J. Dyson; Gabor Laurenczy; Lioubov Kiwi-Minsker

2007-01-01

34

Novel ionic liquid supported synthesis of platinum-based electrocatalysts on multiwalled carbon nanotubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Novel ionic liquids (ILs) were used to prepare carbon nanotube (CNT) supported platinum catalysts for the first time. The CNTs were pretreated in acid to get functional groups to promote the adherence of Pt nanoparticles. Ionic liquids added to the reaction system are suggested to contribute to the formation of homogeneous small Pt nanoparticles and to suppress the agglomeration of

Z. W. Zhao; Z. P. Guo; J. Ding; D. Wexler; Z. F. Ma; D. Y. Zhang; H. K. Liu

2006-01-01

35

Hyperhydricity and flavonoid content of Scutellaria species in vitro on polyester-supported liquid culture systems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Three Scutellaria species (Scutellaria lateriflora, S. costaricana and S. baicalensis) were grown in different in vitro physical environments: agar, liquid culture, and liquid culture with fiber-supported paper (with initial media volumes of 20 mL and 30 mL). During an eight-week time course, tiss...

36

Supporting Information: Absorption spectra and photolysis of methyl peroxide in liquid and frozen water  

E-print Network

Supporting Information: Absorption spectra and photolysis of methyl peroxide in liquid and frozen of an absorption temperature dependence. Fig. S3 A) liquid aqueous CH3OOH solution. B) Frozen CH3OOH solution. #12;Fig. S4 Predicted concentration of a dilute aqueous CH3OOH solution as a function of reaction time

Nizkorodov, Sergey

37

Nanopore stochastic detection of a liquid explosive component and sensitizers using boromycin and an ionic liquid supporting electrolyte.  

PubMed

We report a rapid and sensitive stochastic nanopore sensing method for the detection of monovalent cations and liquid explosive components and their sensitizers. The sensing element is a wild-type alpha-hemolysin protein pore with boromycin as a molecular adaptor, while a solution containing an ionic liquid was used as the background electrolyte. The analyte-boromycin complexes showed significantly different signatures. Specifically, their event mean dwell times and amplitudes were sufficiently distinct to permit the convenient differentiation and even simultaneous detection of liquid explosive components in aqueous environments. In addition, the results also demonstrate that the usage of specific ionic liquid salt solutions instead of NaCl or KCl solution as supporting electrolyte provides a useful means to greatly enhance the sensitivity of the nanopore for some analytes in stochastic sensing. PMID:19055422

Jayawardhana, Dilani A; Crank, Jeffrey A; Zhao, Qitao; Armstrong, Daniel W; Guan, Xiyun

2009-01-01

38

A novel seven-helix transmembrane protein BTP1 of Botrytis cinerea controls the expression of GST-encoding genes, but is not essential for pathogenicity.  

PubMed

SUMMARY To gain new insights into the signalling mechanisms of the grey mould Botrytis cinerea, which causes several pre- and post-harvest diseases on a variety of host plants, we cloned, sequenced and functionally characterized a gene, btp1, encoding a novel 391-amino acid transmembrane protein. The protein BTP1 shows similarity to the transmembrane protein pth11, which is essential for appressorium formation and successful colonization of plant tissue in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea. Analyses of the deduced amino acid sequence of btp1 predicted a seven alpha-helical transmembrane topology, which is known to be typical for G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and therefore the protein is thought to play a role in mediation of extracellular signals to intracellular effectors. The gene is located next to the gene bcgstII encoding a new putative glutathione S-transferase, and both genes are transcribed in opposite directions from the same promoter. BcGSTII shows similarity to the glutathione S-transferase GSTII of Schizosaccharomyces pombe, a protein thought to be involved in detoxification of several antifungal drugs. From the sequence similarity of BTP1 to GPCRs, and its expression in planta, we suggested that it might play a role in mediation of plant signals and therefore in pathogenicity. However, targeted gene replacement of btp1 did not result in a phenotype markedly affecting either pathogenicity or sensitivity to chemical stress when compared with the wild-type strain; however, the ten-fold dilution of conidial suspension used for the pathogenicity assay resulted in slight reduction of virulence. Visible symptom development of the mutants on bean plants was also different from the wild-type. The brownish ring, which appears at the margin of secondary lesions in wild-type infections, was brighter and almost absent in Deltabtp1 mutants. Interestingly, deletion of btp1 not only affected the expression of the physically linked bcgstII gene, but in addition the expression of the other two GST-encoding genes in B. cinerea for bcgstI was down-regulated, bcgstII was slightly up-regulated and bcgstIII was strongly up-regulated in the mutant. PMID:20565654

Gronover, Christian Schulze; Schumacher, Julia; Hantsch, Phillip; Tudzynski, Bettina

2005-05-01

39

Optofluidic FRET microlasers based on surface-supported liquid microdroplets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate optofluidic microlasers using highly efficient non-radiative Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) for pumping of gain medium placed within liquid microdroplets situated on a superhydrophobic surface. Microdroplets generated from a mixture of ethylene glycol, glycerol, and water and stained with the FRET donor–acceptor dye pair Rhodamine 6G-Rhodamine 700 serve as active optical resonant cavities hosting high-quality whispering gallery modes. Upon direct optical pumping of the donor with a pulsed laser, lasing is observed in the emission band of the acceptor as a result of efficient FRET coupling between the acceptor and donor molecules. FRET lasing is characterized for different acceptor and donor concentrations, and threshold pump fluences of acceptor lasing as low as 6.3 mJ cm?2 are demonstrated. We also verify the dominance of the non-radiative FRET over cavity-assisted radiative energy transfer for the range of parameters studied in the experiments.

Özelci, E.; Aas, M.; Jonáš, A.; Kiraz, A.

2014-04-01

40

SEPARATION OF ACTINIDES AND LANTHANIDES FROM ACIDIC NUCLEAR WASTES BY SUPPORTED LIQUID MEMBRANES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supported liquid membranes, SLM, consisting of a solution of 0.25 M octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) and 0.75 ? tributylphosphate (TBP) in decalin absorbed on thin micropocous polypropylene supports, have been studied for their ability to perform selective separations and concentrations of actinide and lanthanide ions from synthetic acidic nuclear wastes. The permeability coefficients of selected actinides (Am, Pu, U, Np) and

P. R. Danesi; R. Chiarizia; P. Rickert; E. P. Horwitz

1985-01-01

41

Chemical pumping of rhodium by a supported liquid membrane containing Aliquat 336 as carrier  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mass transfer of Rh(III) from aqueous feed chloride solutions containing SCN? through a solid-supported liquid membrane (SSLM) consisting of Aliquat 336 dissolved in dodecane has been studied. The influence of hydrodynamic conditions as well as the chemical composition of the system on the permeation rate was investigated. Among the reagents tested as carriers, quaternary amines have been shown to

C. Fontàs; E. Anticó; V. Salvadó; M. Valiente; M. Hidalgo

1997-01-01

42

Liquid phase methanol LaPorte process development unit: Modification, operation, and support studies  

SciTech Connect

This report consists of Detailed Data Acquisition Sheets for Runs E-6 and E-7 for Task 2.2 of the Modification, Operation, and Support Studies of the Liquid Phase Methanol Laporte Process Development Unit. (Task 2.2: Alternate Catalyst Run E-6 and Catalyst Activity Maintenance Run E-7).

Not Available

1991-02-02

43

Mechanism of ion transfer in supported liquid membrane systems: electrochemical control over membrane distribution.  

PubMed

A polarization study carried out on a thin supported liquid membrane separating two aqueous compartments is presented. Transfer of both the ionized and uncharged form of an organic tracer dye, rhodamine B ([9-(2-carboxyphenyl)-6-diethylamino-3-xanthenylidene]-diethylammonium chloride), across supported liquid membranes composed of one of 1-octanol (octan-1-ol), 1,9-decadiene (deca-1,9-diene), 1,2-dichlorobenzene, or nitrophenyl octyl ether (1-(2-nitrophenoxy)octane) was studied using cyclic voltammetry and UV-vis absorption spectrophotometry. Concentration analysis indicates that the high membrane concentration of rhodamine B determines the ionic transfer observed via voltammetry, which is consistent with the low aqueous ionic concentration and large membrane/aqueous distribution of the molecule. The observed double-transfer voltammogram, although it has been largely neglected in previous literature, is a logical consequence of the presence of two liquid-liquid interfaces and is rationalized in terms of ion transfer across the two interfaces on either side of the membrane and supported by voltammograms obtained for a series of ions of varied lipophilicity. The bipolar nature of the voltammetric response offers an effective way of mass transport control via changing polarity of the applied voltage and finds immediate use in extraction, purification, and separation applications. PMID:24299270

Velický, Mat?j; Tam, Kin Y; Dryfe, Robert A W

2014-01-01

44

Supported absorption of CO2 by tetrabutylphosphonium amino acid ionic liquids.  

PubMed

A new type of "task specific ionic liquid", tetrabutylphosphonium amino acid [P(C4)4][AA], was synthesized by the reaction of tetrabutylphosphonium hydroxide [P(C4)4][OH] with amino acids, including glycine, L-alanine, L-beta-alanine, L-serine, and L-lysine. The liquids produced were characterized by NMR, IR spectroscopies, and elemental analysis, and their thermal decomposition temperature, glass transition temperature, electrical conductivity, density, and viscosity were recorded in detail. The [P(C4)4][AA] supported on porous silica gel effected fast and reversible CO2 absorption when compared with bubbling CO2 into the bulk of the ionic liquid. No changes in absorption capacity and kinetics were found after four cycles of absorption/desorption. The CO2 absorption capacity at equilibrium was 50 mol % of the ionic liquids. In the presence of water (1 wt %), the ionic liquids could absorb equimolar amounts of CO2. The CO2 absorption mechanisms of the ionic liquids with and without water were different. PMID:16528787

Zhang, Jianmin; Zhang, Suojiang; Dong, Kun; Zhang, Yanqiang; Shen, Youqing; Lv, Xingmei

2006-05-15

45

Highly enantioselective separation using a supported liquid membrane encapsulating surfactant-enzyme complex.  

PubMed

We developed a highly enantioselective separation system for the optically active compounds, (S)-ibuprofen and l-phenylalanine, from their racemic mixtures by employing a supported liquid membrane (SLM) encapsulating a surfactant-lipase complex (or a surfactant-alpha-chymotrypsin complex). In the present system, enzymes encapsulated in the liquid-membrane phase effectively drove the enantioselective transport of optically active compounds through the SLM. This novel SLM allowed high enantioselectivity (ee over 91%) in the optical resolution of racemic ibuprofen and phenylalanine. PMID:15250693

Miyako, Eijiro; Maruyama, Tatsuo; Kamiya, Noriho; Goto, Masahiro

2004-07-21

46

Carbon Dioxide Selective Supported Ionic Liquid Membranes: The Effect of Contaminants  

SciTech Connect

The integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) is widely viewed as a promising technology for the large scale production of energy in a carbon constrained world. These cycles, which include gasification, contaminant removal, water-gas shift, CO2 capture and compression, and combustion of the reduced-carbon fuel gas in a turbine, often have significant efficiency advantages over conventional combustion technologies. A CO2 selective membrane capable of maintaining performance at conditions approaching those of low temperature water-gas shift (260oC) could facilitate the production of carbon-neutral energy by simultaneously driving the shift reaction to completion and concentrating CO2 for sequestration. Supported ionic liquid membranes (SILMs) have been previously evaluated for this application and determined to be physically and chemically stable to temperatures in excess of 300oC. These membranes were based on ionic liquids which interacted physically with CO2 and diminished considerably in selectivity at higher temperatures. To alleviate this problem, the original ionic liquids were replaced with ionic liquids able to form chemical complexes with CO2. These complexing ionic liquid membranes have a local maximum in selectivity which is observed at increasing temperatures for more stable complexes. Efforts are currently underway to develop ionic liquids with selectivity maxima at temperatures greater than 75oC, the best result to date, but other practical concerns must also be addressed if the membrane is to be realistically expected to function under water-gas shift conditions. A CO2 selective membrane must function not only at high temperature, but also in the presence of all the reactants and contaminants likely to be present in coal-derived fuel gas, including water, CO, and H2S. A study has been undertaken which examines the effects of each of these gases on both complexing and physically interacting supported liquid membranes. In a joint project, researchers at the University of Notre Dame synthesized and characterized ionic liquids, and researchers at the National Energy Technology Laboratory incorporated candidate ionic liquids into supports and evaluated the resulting materials for membrane performance.

Luebke, D.R.; Ilconich, J.B.; Myers, C.R.; Pennline, H.W.

2008-04-01

47

Development of a Supported Emulsion Liquid Membrane System for Propionic Acid Separation in a Microgravity Environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Perstractive fermentation is a good way to increase the productivity of bioreactors. Using Propionibacteria as the model system, the feasibility of using supported emulsion liquid membrane (SELM) for perstractive fermentation is assessed in this study. Five industrial solvents were considered as the solvent for preparing the SELM. The more polar a solvent is, the higher the partition coefficient. However, toxicity of a solvent also increases with its polarity. CO-1055 (industrial decanol/octanol blend) has the highest partition coefficient toward propionic acid among the solvents that has no molecular toxicity toward Propionibacteria. A preliminary extraction study was conducted using tetradecane as solvent in a hydrophobic hollow fiber contactor. The result confirmed that SELM eliminates the equilibrium limitation of conventional liquid-liquid extraction, and allows the use of a non-toxic solvent with low partition coefficient.

Li, Jin; Hu, Shih-Yao B.; Wiencek, John M.

2001-01-01

48

Determination of phthalate ester plasticizers in the aquatic environment using hollow fibre supported liquid membranes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phthalates are known to be carcinogenic, teratogenic as well as endocrine disruptors. The potential risk to human and animals health generated from them has drawn great attention all over the world. Hollow fibre supported liquid membrane (HFSLM) online with high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to determine benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and Diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) in wastewater. Toluene, di-n-hexyl ether and undecane were used as liquid barriers separating both donor (sample) and acceptor phase. Toluene performed much better than undecane and was used in sample preparation. The presence of toluene showed the potential for the enrichment and removal of phthalates to the concentrations ranges from 0 to 1.7 mg L-1.

Mtibe, A.; Msagati, Titus A. M.; Mishra, Ajay K.; Mamba, Bhekie B.

49

Ignition Capsules with Aerogel-Supported Liquid DT Fuel For The National Ignition Facility  

SciTech Connect

For high repetition-rate fusion power plant applications, capsules with aerogel-supported liquid DT fuel can have much reduced fill time compared to {beta}-layering a solid DT fuel layer. The melting point of liquid DT can be lowered once liquid DT is embedded in an aerogel matrix, and the DT vapor density is consequently closer to the desired density for optimal capsule design requirement. We present design for NIF-scale aerogel-filled capsules based on 1-D and 2-D simulations. An optimal configuration is obtained when the outer radius is increased until the clean fuel fraction is within 65-75% at peak velocity. A scan (in ablator and fuel thickness parameter space) is used to optimize the capsule configurations. The optimized aerogel-filled capsule has good low-mode robustness and acceptable high-mode mix.

Ho, D D; Salmonson, J D; Clark, D S; Lindl, J D; Haan, S W; Amendt, P; Wu, K J

2011-10-25

50

Supported Room Temperature Ionic Liquid Membranes for CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} Separation  

SciTech Connect

Room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) are organic salts which are liquid at or around room temperature. These compounds exhibit many outstanding physical properties such as great thermal stability and no measurable vapor pressure. In this work supported ionic liquid membranes (SILMs) were prepared by impregnating pores of ?-alumina inorganic supports with various ionic liquids. In addition to membranes prepared with pure RTILs we were able to synthesize membranes with RTIL mixtures using 1-aminopyridinium iodide dissolved in 1-butyl-4-methylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate or methyltrioctylammonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide. This combination of an RTIL with an organic salt containing an amine group dramatically improved the membrane separation properties. The SILMs displayed CO{sub 2} permeance on the order of 5 × 10{sup ?10} to 5 × 10{sup ?9} mol m{sup ?2} s{sup ?1} Pa{sup ?1} combined with CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} selectivity of 5–30. Although these values are comparable with the current systems for CO{sub 2} purification, CO{sub 2} permeance is still rather low for these compounds.

Iarikov, D. D.; Hacarlioglu, P.; Oyama, S. T.

2011-01-01

51

Transport of Mo(VI) Ions through Tri-n-octylamine-Xylene Based Supported Liquid Membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of Mo(VI) ions transport through tri-n-octylamine (TOA)-xylene liquid membranes supported in polypropylene hydrophobic microporous film has been performed with varying concentrations of HC1, TOA, and NaOH in the feed membrane, strip solution, and temperature. Maximum flux of the order of 1.62 × 10 mol · m · s and permeability of 2.51 × 10 m\\/s at 1.35 mol\\/dm

M. Ashraf Chaudry; M. Tayyib Malik; Azmat Ali

1990-01-01

52

Nuclear waste treatment by means of supported liquid membranes containing calixcrown compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Permeability variation with repeated caesium transport experiments has been chosen to measure the leaching of the supported liquid membrane by the contacting aqueous solutions. This allowed us to characterize the SLM stability. Whereas classical crown ethers such as the widely used 21C7 derivatives were revealed to be poorly efficient and poorly stable in SLMs, crown-6-calix[4]arene compounds in the so-called1,3-alternate configuration

C. Hill; J.-F. Dozol; V. Lamare; H. Rouquette; S. Eymard; B. Tournois; J. Vicens; Z. Asfari; C. Bressot; R. Ungaro; A. Casnati

1994-01-01

53

Optical properties of Nd3+ doped ionic liquid immobilized on mesoporous silica support.  

PubMed

The synthesis of a new material based on Nd3+ ions doped into an imidazolium-type ionic liquid with further immobilization on a mesoporous silica support is reported. The material was investigated by DR-UV/VIS, FT-IR, thermogravimetric analysis, N2 adsorption measurements and time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy. The intensity of the near-infrared emission of Nd3+ was weak and the lifetime measured at about 910 nm was 7 micros. PMID:20355525

Tiseanu, Carmen; Parvulescu, V I; Paun, C; Dobroiu, S

2010-04-01

54

Supported liquid membrane-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of cyanobacterial toxins in fresh water systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are increasingly becoming of great concern to water resources worldwide due to indiscriminate waste disposal habits resulting in water pollution and eutrophication. When cyanobacterial cells lyse (burst) they release toxins called microcystins (MCs) that are well known for their hepatotoxicity (causing liver damage) and have been found in eutrophic lakes, rivers, wastewater ponds and other water reservoirs. Prolonged exposure to low concentrated MCs are equally of health importance as they are known to be bioaccumulative and even at such low concentration do exhibit toxic effects to aquatic animals, wildlife and human liver cells. The application of common treatment processes for drinking water sourced from HABs infested reservoirs have the potential to cause algal cell lyses releasing low to higher amounts of MCs in finished water. Trace microcystins in water/tissue can be analyzed and quantified using Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) following solid-phase extraction (SPE) sample clean-up procedures. However, extracting MCs from algal samples which are rich in chlorophyll pigments and other organic matrices the SPE method suffers a number of drawbacks, including cartridge clogging, long procedural steps and use of larger volumes of extraction solvents. We applied a supported liquid membrane (SLM) based technique as an alternative sample clean-up method for LC-ESI-MS analysis of MCs from both water and algal cells. Four (4) MC variants (MC-RR, -YR, -LR and -WR) from lyophilized cells of Microcystis aeruginosa and water collected from a wastewater pond were identified) and quantified using LC-ESI-MS following a SLM extraction and liquid partitioning step, however, MC-WR was not detected from water extracts. Within 45 min of SLM extraction all studied MCs were extracted and pre-concentrated in approximately 15 ?L of an acceptor phase at an optimal pH 2.02 of the donor phase (sample). The highest total quantifiable intracellular and extracellular MCs were 37.039 ± 0.087 ?g/g DW and 5.123 ± 0.018 ?g/L, respectively. The concentrations of MC-RR were the highest from all samples studied recording maximum values of 21.579 ± 0.066 ?g/g DW and 3.199 ± 0.012 ?g/L for intracellular and extracellular quantities, respectively.

Mbukwa, Elbert A.; Msagati, Titus A. M.; Mamba, Bhekie B.

55

An Efficient and Recyclable Ionic Liquid-Supported Proline Catalyzed Knoevenagel Condensation  

PubMed Central

The Knoevenagel condensation reaction of aldehydes with malononitrile was described in this study, which was catalyzed by an efficient and recyclable ionic liquid-supported proline. The method represented an attractive alternative to the classical synthesis strategies and exhibited the advantage of performing homogeneous chemistry on a large scale additionally avoided large excesses of reagents. The products were obtained in good yields and reasonable purities without the need for further chromatographic purification. Moreover, the catalyst could be reused for at least four times. PMID:24052829

Zhuo, Chen; Xian, Dong; Jian-wei, Wu; Hui, Xie

2011-01-01

56

Multiresidue determination of sulfonamides in a variety of biological matrices by supported liquid membrane with high pressure liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to a mass spectrometer (MS) was used for a simultaneous determination of 16 sulfonamide compounds spiked in water, urine, milk, and bovine liver and kidney tissues. Supported liquid membrane (SLM) made up of 5% tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) dissolved in hexyl amine was used as a sample clean-up and\\/or enrichment technique. The sulfonamides mixture

Titus A. M Msagati; Mathew Muzi Nindi

2004-01-01

57

Membrane-supported liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction combined with anion-selective exhaustive injection capillary electrophoresis-ultraviolet detection for sensitive analysis of phytohormones.  

PubMed

A novel method based on off-line membrane-supported liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction (MS-LLLME) combined with on-column anion-selective exhaustive injection (ASEI) capillary electrophoresis-ultraviolet (CE-UV) detection was established for the analysis of seven phytohormones (abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid (JA), 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 1-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), salicylic acid (SA) and gibberellic acid (GA)). In MS-LLLME, the target phytohormones were extracted from the acid donor phase to the alkaline acceptor phase, and the acceptor solutions were directly analyzed by ASEI-CE-UV. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the analytical performance of the method was evaluated. The limits of detection (LODs) of ABA, JA, 2,4-D, NAA, IAA, SA and GA were determined to be 1.00, 2.21, 0.33, 0.17, 0.67, 0.05 and 16.5ng/mL, respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSDs, n=7) ranged from 4.7% to 12.9%, and the enrichment factors were in the range of 307 to 20,160. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of multiple phytohormones in banana, cabbage and cucumber extracts, and ABA, IAA and SA were detected in these samples. The recoveries for the spiked samples were in the range of 79.0 to 116.4%. The proposed method was demonstrated to be suitable for the simultaneous quantification of multiple phytohormones with high sensitivity and good sample cleanup ability. PMID:24720904

Huang, Linfang; He, Man; Chen, Beibei; Hu, Bin

2014-05-23

58

Supported Phospholipid Bilayer Defects Created by a Cation or Anion of a Room-Temperature Ionic Liquid  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In this work, the independent effects on a supported phospholipid bilayer (SPB) caused by a cation and anion of a room-temperature ionic liquid (RT-IL) were studied via atomic force microscopy (AFM). The supported phospholipid bilayer was composed only of 1,2-dielaidoylphosphatidylcholine (DEPC) an...

59

Augmenting Microbial Fuel Cell power by coupling with Supported Liquid Membrane permeation for zinc recovery.  

PubMed

Simultaneous removal of organic and zinc contamination in parallel effluent streams using a Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC) would deliver a means of reducing environmental pollution whilst also recovering energy. A Microbial Fuel Cell system has been integrated with Supported Liquid Membrane (SLM) technology to simultaneously treat organic- and heavy metal containing wastewaters. The MFC anode was fed with synthetic wastewater containing 10 mM acetate, the MFC cathode chambers were fed with 400 mg L(-1) Zn(2+) and this then acted as a feed phase for SLM extraction. The MFC/SLM combination produces a synergistic effect which enhances the power performance of the MFC significantly; 0.233 mW compared to 0.094 mW in the control. It is shown that the 165 ± 7 mV difference between the MFC/SLM system and the MFC control is attributable to the lower cathode pH in the integrated system experiment, the consequent lower activation overpotential and higher oxygen reduction potential. The change in the substrate removal efficiency and Coulombic Efficiency (CE) compared to controls is small. Apart from the electrolyte conductivity, the conductivities of the bipolar and liquid membrane were also found to increase during operation. The diffusion coefficient of Zn(2+) through the liquid membrane in the MFC/SLM (4.26*10(-10) m(2) s(-1)) is comparable to the SLM control (5.41*10(-10) m(2) s(-1)). The system demonstrates that within 72 h, 93  ±  4% of the zinc ions are removed from the feed phase, hence the Zn(2+) removal rate is not significantly affected and is comparable to the SLM control (96  ±  1%), while MFC power output is significantly increased. PMID:24602866

Fradler, Katrin R; Michie, Iain; Dinsdale, Richard M; Guwy, Alan J; Premier, Giuliano C

2014-05-15

60

Photo-uncaging of Ceramides Promotes Reorganization of Liquid-Ordered Domains in Supported Lipid Bilayers  

PubMed Central

6-Bromo-7-hydroxycoumarin (Bhc)-caged ceramide (Cer) analogs were incorporated into supported lipid bilayers containing a mixture of coexisting liquid-ordered (Lo) and liquid-disordered (Ld) phases. The release of N-palmitoyl and N-butanoyl-D-erythro-sphingosine (C16- and C4-Cer) by photolysis of the caged Cers using long wavelength UV light was studied using a combination of atomic force microscopy and fluorescence microscopy. This approach demonstrated the ability to generate Cer with spatial and temporal control, providing an alternative method to the enzymatic generation of Cer. The generation of C16-Cer from Bhc-C16-Cer disrupted the Lo domains, with the incorporation of small fluid phase regions and the disappearance of some smaller domains. Cer-rich gel-phase domains were not observed, in contrast to results reported by either direct Cer incorporation or enzymatic Cer generation. Photorelease of C4-Cer from Bhc-C4-Cer resulted in qualitatively similar changes in bilayer morphology, with disappearance of some Lo domains and no evidence for Cer-rich gel domains, but with a smaller height difference between the ordered and disordered phases. PMID:23402522

Carter Ramirez, Daniel M.; Pitre, Spencer P.; Kim, Young Ah; Bittman, Robert; Johnston, Linda J.

2013-01-01

61

Supported liquid membrane-protected molecularly imprinted fibre for solid-phase microextraction of thiabendazole.  

PubMed

In this work, molecularly imprinted polymer fibres (MIP-fibre) have been prepared and evaluated for solid-phase microextraction (SPME), using thiabendazole (TBZ) as template. Inherent limitations of molecular imprinted polymers, such as target recognition in aqueous media, have been solved with the use of organic supported liquid membrane (SLM) protecting the MI-SPME process. MIP-fibres were located inside a polypropylene hollow capillary and protected by an organic solvent immobilized as a thin SLM in the pores of the capillary wall. The extraction procedure involved two simultaneous processes: liquid phase microextraction using polypropylene hollow fibres (HF-LPME) of the analytes from the sample to an organic acceptor solution through a SLM; and SPME of the analytes from the organic acceptor solution to a MIP-fibre inside the polypropylene capillary. The developed methodology was optimized and applied to the extraction of TBZ form spiked orange juices. Calibration curves showed good linearity in the concentration range under study (0.01-5.00 mg L(-1)) and a regression coefficient better than 0.995 was obtained. The detection limit was 4 ?g L(-1), low enough to permit the satisfactory analysis of TBZ in real samples, according to European regulation. Relative standard deviations ranged below 10%, indicating good repeatability. By this manner, the advantages of inherent selectivity of MIP SPME fibres and the enrichment and sample cleanup capability of the HF-LPME have been successfully combined into a single device. PMID:21565306

Barahona, Francisco; Turiel, Esther; Martín-Esteban, Antonio

2011-05-23

62

Some methods of human liquid and solid wastes utilization in bioregenerative life support systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possibility of stepwise utilization of human liquid and solid wastes with the purpose of an increase of a closure degree of bioregenerative life support systems BLSS and sodium chloride inclusion in the organic matter turnover was investigated On the first stage urine and faeces were subjected to oxidation by Yu A Kudenko physicochemical method On the next stage the products of human liquid and solid wastes oxidation were used for roots nutrition of wheat grown by substrate culture method Soil-like substrate the technology of which was described earlier was used as a substrate After the wheat cultivation the irrigational solution and the solution obtained in the result of substrate washing containing mineral elements not absorbed by the plants were used for cultivation of salt-tolerant Salicornia europaea plants The above-ground biomass of these vegetables can be used as a food and roots washed from dissoluble mineral elements can be added to the soil-like substrate Four consecutive wheat and Salicornia europaea vegetations were cultivated In the result of this complex technology of wheat and Salicornia europaea cultivation the soil-like substrate salinization by NaCl introduced into the irrigational solution together with the products of urine oxidation has considerably decreased

Tikhomirova, N. A.; Ushakova, S. Á.; Tikhomirov, A. Á.; Zolotukhin, I. G.; Gribovskaya, I. V.; Gros, J. B.

63

Hollow-fiber supported liquid membrane (HFSLM) for the separation of lanthanides and actinides  

SciTech Connect

The transport behavior of Nd(III) was investigated using hollow-fiber supported liquid membranes (HFSLM) from an acidic feed solution using N,N,N',N'-tetraoctyl-diglycolamide (TODGA) in normal paraffinic hydrocarbon (NPH) as the carrier. Near quantitative transport (>99%) of Nd(III) from 500 mL of feed containing 1 g/L Nd in 3.5 M HNO{sub 3} was possible in about 45 minutes. Quantitative transport time increased when the volume or Nd(III ) concentration in the feed was increased. The liquid membrane had excellent stability as indicated by eight consecutive runs that gave consistent transport rates. The HFSLM data using Cyanex- 301 in n-dodecane as carrier extractant for the lanthanide-actinide separation with the feed solution 1 M NaNO{sub 3} at pH 3.5 and stripping solution 0.01 M EDTA at a pH 3.5 were promising. (authors)

Mohapatra, P.K.; Ansari, S.A.; Bhattacharyya, A.; Manchanda, V.K. [Radiochemistry Division, B.A.R.C., Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India); Patil, C.B. [PREFRE Lab, N.R.G., B.A.R. C., Tarapur, Maharashtra-401502 (India)

2008-07-01

64

Supported liquid membrane as a novel tool for driving the equilibrium of ?-transaminase catalyzed asymmetric synthesis.  

PubMed

An attractive option to produce chiral amines of industrial importance is through asymmetric synthesis using ?-transaminase. However, reaching high yields often requires a strategy for shifting the equilibrium position. This paper describes a novel strategy for handling this problem. It involves the use of a supported liquid membrane (SLM) together with a packed bed reactor. The reactor contains Escherichia coli cells with ?-transaminase from Arthrobacter citreus, immobilized by flocculation with chitosan. The SLM consists of a hollow fibre membrane contactor in which the pores contain undecane. The system enables continuous extraction of the amine product and was used to successfully shift the equilibrium in asymmetric synthesis of (S)-?-methylbenzylamine (MBA). A conversion of 98% was reached, compared to 50% without product extraction. Moreover, a selective extraction of the produced MBA was realized. A high product concentration of 55g/l was reached after 80h, and the system showed promising potential for continuous operation. PMID:24675224

Rehn, Gustav; Adlercreutz, Patrick; Grey, Carl

2014-06-10

65

Computational Fluid Dynamics in Support of the SNS Liquid Mercury Thermal-Hydraulic Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Experimental and computational thermal-hydraulic research is underway to support the liquid mercury target design for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) facility. The SNS target will be subjected to internal nuclear heat generation that results from pulsed proton beam collisions with the mercury nuclei. Recirculation and stagnation zones within the target are of particular concern because of the likelihood that they will result in local hot spots and diminished heat removal from the target structure. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models are being used as a part of this research. Recent improvements to the 3D target model include the addition of the flow adapter which joins the inlet/outlet coolant pipes to the target body and an updated heat load distribution at the new baseline proton beam power level of 2 MW. Two thermal-hydraulic experiments are planned to validate the CFD model.

Siman-Tov, M.; Wendel, M.W.; Yoder, G.L.

1999-11-14

66

Tri-n-octylamine-xylene-based supported liquid membranes and transport of Ce(IV) ions  

SciTech Connect

An extraction and stripping study of Ce(IV) ions by using supported liquid membranes has been performed. Tri-n-octylamine has been used as a carrier diluted in xylene. Sodium carbonate, ascorbic acid (AA), and mandelic acid (MA) have been used in the stripping phase. AA and MA reduce the Ce(IV) ions and sulfuric acid. Transport of cerium ions has been observed with sodium carbonate as the strippant. The flux of these ions increases with an increase in the system operating temperature. Optimal conditions for the transport of cerium ions have been found to be 0.4 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} in the feed and 0.2 M TOA in the membrane.

Chaudry, M.A. [Pakistan Inst. of Nuclear Science and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan); Amin, S.; Malik, M.T. [Baha-UD-Din Zakaria Univ., Multan (Pakistan)

1996-05-01

67

Attraction of mesoscale objects on the surface of a thin elastic film supported on a liquid.  

PubMed

We study the interaction of two parallel rigid cylinders on the surface of a thin elastic film supported on a pool of liquid. The excess energy of the surface due to the curvature of the stretched film induces attraction of the cylinders that can be quantified by the variation of their gravitational potential energies as they descend into the liquid while still floating on the film. Although the experimental results follow the trend predicted from the balance of the gravitational and elastic energies of the system, they are somewhat underestimated. The origin of this discrepancy is the hysteresis of adhesion between the cylinder and the elastic film that does not allow the conversion of the total available energy into gravitational potential energy, as some part of it is recovered in stretching the film behind the cylinders while they approach each other. A modification of the model accounting for the effects of adhesion hysteresis improves the agreement between theoretical and experimental results. The contribution of the adhesion hysteresis can be reduced considerably by introducing a thin hydrogel layer atop the elastic film that enhances the range of attraction of the cylinders (as well as rigid spheres) in a dramatic way. Morphological instabilities in the gel project corrugated paths to the motion of small spheres, thus leading to a large numbers of particles to aggregate along their defects. These observations suggest that a thin hydrogel layer supported on a deformable elastic film affords an effective model system to study elasticity and defects mediated interaction of particles on its surface. PMID:25069091

Chakrabarti, Aditi; Chaudhury, Manoj K

2015-02-17

68

Application of supported liquid membranes for removal of uranium from groundwater  

SciTech Connect

The separation of uranium from Hanford site groundwater as studied by hollow-fiber supported liquid membranes, SLM. The carrier bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)phosphinic acid, H(DTMPep), contained in the commercial extractant Cyanex{trademark} 272 was used as a membrane carrier, because of its selectivity for U over calcium and magnesium. The water soluble complexing agent, 1-hydroxyethane-1,1-diphosphonic acid, HEDPA, was used as stripping agent. Polypropylene hollow-fibers and n-dodecane were used as polymeric support and diluent, respectively. Laboratory scale hollow-fiber modules were employed in a recycling mode, using as feed synthetic groundwater at pH 2, to confirm the capability of the proposed SLM system to separate and concentrate U(VI) in the strip solution. Information was obtained on the U(VI) concentration factor and on the long-term performance of the SLMs. Encouraging results were obtained both with a conventional module and with a module containing a carrier solution reservoir. Industrial scale modules were used at Hanford to test the SLM separation of U(VI) from real contaminated groundwater. The uranium concentration was reduced from approximately 3500 ppB to about 1 ppB in a few hours. 9 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

Chiarizia, R.; Horwitz, E.P.; Rickert, P.G.; Hodgson, K.M. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA); Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (USA))

1989-01-01

69

Effect of liquid property on adsorption and catalytic reduction of nitrate over hydrotalcite-supported Pd-Cu catalyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focused on investigating the effect of liquid property on adsorption and catalytic reduction of nitrate over hydrotalcite-supported Pd-Cu catalyst. Batch experiments were conducted under specific operating conditions. It was found that nitrate ions were adsorbed apparently by hydrotalcite-supported Pd-Cu catalyst at different reaction temperature (10, 25 and 35°C). Adsorption isotherms for NO3? were described by Langmuir's equation. Higher

Ying Wang; Jiuhui Qu; Huijuan Liu

2007-01-01

70

Hollow fiber supported ionic liquid membrane microextraction for determination of sulfonamides in environmental water samples by high-performance liquid chromatography.  

PubMed

By using ionic liquid as membrane liquid and tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) as additive, hollow fiber supported liquid phase microextraction (HF-LPME) was developed for the determination of five sulfonamides in environmental water samples by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection The extraction solvent and the parameters affecting the extraction enrichment factor such as the type and amount of carrier, pH and volume ratio of donor phase and acceptor phase, extraction time, salt-out effect and matrix effect were optimized. Under the optimal extraction conditions (organic liquid membrane phase: [C(8)MIM][PF(6)] with 14% TOPO (w/v); donor phase: 4mL, pH 4.5 KH(2)PO(4) with 2M Na(2)SO(4); acceptor phase: 25microL, pH 13 NaOH; extraction time: 8 h), low detection limits (0.1-0.4microg/L, RSDor=0.999) were obtained for all the analytes. The presence of humic acid (0-25mg/L dissolved organic carbon) and bovine serum albumin (0-100microg/mL) had no significant effect on the extraction efficiency. Good spike recoveries over the range of 82.2-103.2% were obtained when applying the proposed method on five real environmental water samples. These results indicated that this present method was very sensitive and reliable with good repeatabilities and excellent clean-up in water samples. The proposed method confirmed hollow fiber supported ionic liquid membrane based LPME to be robust to monitoring trace levels of sulfadiazine, sulfamerazine, sulfamethazine, sulfadimethoxine and sulfamethoxazole in aqueous samples. PMID:19632683

Tao, Yong; Liu, Jing-Fu; Hu, Xia-Lin; Li, Hong-Cheng; Wang, Thanh; Jiang, Gui-Bin

2009-08-28

71

Synergistic separation of yttrium ions in lanthanide series from rare earths mixture via hollow fiber supported liquid membrane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Separation of yttrium ions from the mixture of rare earths in lanthanide series has been examined by a microporous hydrophobic hollow fiber supported liquid membrane. Cyanex 272 and TBP in kerosene are used separately as an extractant. Nitric acid solution is used as a stripping solution. Increasing the concentration of Cyanex 272 increases the percentages of extraction and stripping of

Prakorn Ramakul; Tossaporn Supajaroon; Tatchanok Prapasawat; Ura Pancharoen; Anchaleeporn W. Lothongkum

2009-01-01

72

A concept of supported amino acid ionic liquids and their application in metal scavenging and heterogeneous catalysis.  

PubMed

Novel supported task-specific ionic liquids have been developed for the first time via the ionic-pair coupling of imidazolium cation of the modified polystyrene support with L-proline. The materials have shown an efficient metal scavenging ability (e.g., CuI, Pd(OAc)2, Pd0, and IrCl3) without the aid of a nonimmobilized ionic liquid, which relies on the highly synergistic effect of the coordination with the nitrogen atom and the COO- group of the L-proline moiety, electrostatic forces, and steric protection. The resulting metal-soaked supported ionic liquids can be used as efficient heterogeneous catalysts. These materials have been investigated in the CuI-catalyzed N-arylation of nitrogen-containing heterocycles and exhibit much higher catalytic activity and a more extensive structural range of aryl and heteroaryl halides than those exhibited by free L-proline in combination with CuI both in the ionic liquid ([BMIM][BF4]) and in the corresponding homogeneous reaction conditions. The CuI-soaked catalyst 4a-2 can be recycled for nine runs at least without any considerable loss of activity. To the best of our knowledge, our catalytic process is among the most efficient approaches to the N-arylation of imidazoles with aryl halides so far reported. Furthermore, the Pd-soaked material 4a-2 also shows higher catalytic activity in the solvent-free hydrogenation of styrene to ethylbenzene. This new concept is generally applicable and may easily be extended to other supported task-specific ionic liquids. PMID:17941636

Chen, Wen; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Zhu, Liangbo; Lan, Jingbo; Xie, Rugang; You, Jingsong

2007-11-14

73

Ovarian cancer detection from metabolomic liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry data by support vector machines  

PubMed Central

Background The majority of ovarian cancer biomarker discovery efforts focus on the identification of proteins that can improve the predictive power of presently available diagnostic tests. We here show that metabolomics, the study of metabolic changes in biological systems, can also provide characteristic small molecule fingerprints related to this disease. Results In this work, new approaches to automatic classification of metabolomic data produced from sera of ovarian cancer patients and benign controls are investigated. The performance of support vector machines (SVM) for the classification of liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/TOF MS) metabolomic data focusing on recognizing combinations or "panels" of potential metabolic diagnostic biomarkers was evaluated. Utilizing LC/TOF MS, sera from 37 ovarian cancer patients and 35 benign controls were studied. Optimum panels of spectral features observed in positive or/and negative ion mode electrospray (ESI) MS with the ability to distinguish between control and ovarian cancer samples were selected using state-of-the-art feature selection methods such as recursive feature elimination and L1-norm SVM. Conclusion Three evaluation processes (leave-one-out-cross-validation, 12-fold-cross-validation, 52-20-split-validation) were used to examine the SVM models based on the selected panels in terms of their ability for differentiating control vs. disease serum samples. The statistical significance for these feature selection results were comprehensively investigated. Classification of the serum sample test set was over 90% accurate indicating promise that the above approach may lead to the development of an accurate and reliable metabolomic-based approach for detecting ovarian cancer. PMID:19698113

Guan, Wei; Zhou, Manshui; Hampton, Christina Y; Benigno, Benedict B; Walker, L DeEtte; Gray, Alexander; McDonald, John F; Fernández, Facundo M

2009-01-01

74

Synthesis and characterization of heteropolytungstate-ionic liquid supported on the surface of silica coated magnetite nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silica coated magnetic nanoparticles supported ionic liquid, IL-SCMNPs, was prepared by covalent attachment of chloropropyl silyl groups and reacted with 1-methyl imidazole on the surface of the silica coated magnetic nanoparticles. Then, reaction of IL-SCMNPs with H3PW12O40 resulted in the preparation of heteropolytungstate-ionic liquid supported on the surface of silica coated magnetite nanoparticles, PW-IL-SCMNPs. The PW-IL-SCMNPs were characterized with different physicochemical methods such as Fourier transform Infrared and atomic absorption spectroscopies, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), and thermogravimetric analyses. VSM analysis showed superparamagnetic properties of the materials and TEM and SEM analyses indicated the relatively uniform spherical nanoparticles with 20 nm average size. Finally, catalytic activity of the prepared PW-IL-SCMNPs was examined in the epoxidation of olefins with H2O2.

Bagheri, M.; Masteri-Farahani, M.; Ghorbani, M.

2013-02-01

75

Hollow fiber supported liquid membrane: a novel technique for separation and recovery of plutonium from aqueous acidic wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low plutonium content acidic waste is generated in nuclear chemical facilities. Study was initiated to develop hollow fiber supported liquid membrane (HFSLM) technique for quantitative separation and recovery of plutonium (Pu) from such wastes using tri-n-butyle phosphate (TBP) in dodecane as carrier. Hollow fiber test module was fabricated using 20 lumens of 33.91cm2 surface area and 9cm length. After satisfactory

N. S Rathore; J. V Sonawane; Anil Kumar; A. K Venugopalan; R. K Singh; D. D Bajpai; J. P Shukla

2001-01-01

76

Redox properties of supported copper catalysts studied in liquid and gas phase by in situ ATR-IR and XAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The redox behavior of copper-based catalysts plays a prominent role in several important chemical processes. So far relatively little is known about how this behavior is affected by the medium (liquid or gas phase) in which the copper particles are immersed. In this study, we have investigated the redox properties of copper nanoparticles supported on Al2O3, TiO2 and SiO2 in

Cecilia Mondelli; Davide Ferri; Jan-Dierk Grunwaldt; Nicoletta Ravasio; Alfons Baiker

77

Polymeric ionic liquid and carbon black composite as a reusable supporting electrolyte: modification of the electrode surface.  

PubMed

One of the major impediments to using electroorganic synthesis is the need for large amounts of a supporting electrolyte to ensure the passage of charge. Frequently this causes separation and waste problems. To address these issues, a polymeric ionic liquid-Super?P carbon black composite has been formulated. The system enables electrolyses to be performed without adding an additional supporting electrolyte, and its efficient recovery and reuse. In addition, the ability of the composite to modify the electrode surface in?situ leads to improved kinetics. A practical consequence is that one can decrease catalyst loading without sacrificing efficiency. PMID:25619992

Yoo, Seung Joon; Li, Long-Ji; Zeng, Cheng-Chu; Little, R Daniel

2015-03-16

78

Liquid phase methanol LaPorte Process Development Unit: Modification, operation, and support studies  

SciTech Connect

The LPMEOH process was conceived and patented by Chem Systems Inc. in 1975. Initial research and studies on the process focused on two distinct modes of operation. The first was a liquid fluidized mode with relatively large catalyst pellets suspended in a fluidizing liquid, and the second was an entrained (slurry) mode with fine catalyst particles slurried in an inert liquid. The development of both operating modes progressed in parallel from bench scale reactors, through an intermediate scale lab PDU, and then to the LaPorte PDU in 1984. The slurry mode of operation was ultimately chosen as the operating mode of choice due to its superior performance.

Not Available

1991-02-28

79

High-performance supported catalysts with an ionic liquid layer for the selective hydrogenation of acetylene.  

PubMed

Pd-Ag shell catalysts impregnated with two different ionic liquids show considerable improvements both in ethylene selectivity and reduced ethane formation in the selective hydrogenation of acetylene under tail-end conditions. PMID:22008709

Herrmann, Tanja; Rössmann, Laura; Lucas, Martin; Claus, Peter

2011-12-01

80

Multiresidue determination of sulfonamides in a variety of biological matrices by supported liquid membrane with high pressure liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry detection.  

PubMed

A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to a mass spectrometer (MS) was used for a simultaneous determination of 16 sulfonamide compounds spiked in water, urine, milk, and bovine liver and kidney tissues. Supported liquid membrane (SLM) made up of 5% tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) dissolved in hexyl amine was used as a sample clean-up and/or enrichment technique. The sulfonamides mixture was made up of 5-sulfaminouracil, sulfaguanidine, sulfamethoxazole, sulfamerazine, sulfamethizole, sulfamethazine (sulfadimidine), sulfacetamide, sulfapyridine, sulfabenzamide, sulfamethoxypyridazine, sulfamonomethoxine, sulfadimethoxine sulfasalazine, sulfaquinoxaline, sulfadiazine, and sulfathiazole. Some of these compounds, such as, sulfaquinoxaline, sulfadiazine, sulfabenzamide, sulfathiazole and sulfapyridine failed to be trapped efficiently by the same liquid membrane (5% TOPO in hexylamine). The detection limits (DL) obtained were 1.8ppb for sulfaguanidine and sulfamerazine and between 3.3 and 10ppb in bovine liver and kidney tissues for the other sulfonamides that were successfully enriched with SLM; 2.1ppb for sulfaguanidine and sulfamerazine and between 7.5 and 15ppb in cow's urine, whereas the DL values in milk were 12.4ppb for sulfaguanidine and sulfamerazine and between 16.8 and 24.3 for the other compounds that were successfully enriched by the membrane. Several factors affecting the extraction efficiency during SLM enrichment, such as donor pH, acceptor pH, enrichment time and the membrane solvent were studied. PMID:18969572

Msagati, Titus A M; Nindi, Mathew Muzi

2004-09-01

81

Determination of benzodiazepines in ante-mortem and post-mortem whole blood by solid-supported liquid-liquid extraction and UPLC-MS/MS.  

PubMed

A solid-supported liquid-liquid extraction ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the determination of benzodiazepines commonly found in Norway, for use in cases with suspected driving impairment and autopsy cases by analysis of human whole blood samples. The following compounds were included: alprazolam, bromazepam, clonazepam, diazepam, flunitrazepam, lorazepam, midazolam, nitrazepam, nordiazepam (metabolite of diazepam), oxazepam and phenazepam. Aliquots of 500 ?L whole blood were added 500 ?L of borate buffer pH 11 and extracted by solid-supported liquid-liquid extraction on ChemElut(®) columns using three times 2.5 mL of methyl tert-butyl ether. Deuterated analogues were used as internal standards (IS) for all analytes, except for midazolam, phenazepam and bromazepam which had no commercially available deuterated analogues at the time the method was developed, and therefore used diazepam-d(5), flunitrazepam-d(7) and nitrazepam-d(5), respectively. The analytes were separated using UPLC with a 2.1×100 mm BEH C(18)-column, 1.7 ?m particle size, and quantified by MS/MS using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) in positive mode. Two transitions were used for the analytes and one transition for the IS. The run time of the method was 8 min including equilibration time. The concentrations of the benzodiazepines in the method span a broad range varying from the lowest concentration of 0.005 ?M for flunitrazepam to the highest of 20 ?M for oxazepam. The calibration curves of extracted whole blood standards were fitted by second-order calibration curves weighted 1/x, with R(2) values ranging from 0.9981 to 0.9998. The intermediate precision had a CV (%) ranging between 2 and 19%. Recoveries of the analytes were from 71 to 96%. The LLOQs for the analytes varied from 0.0006 to 0.075 ?M and the LODs from 0.005 to 3.0 nM. Matrix effects were studied by post extraction addition and found to be between 95 and 104% when calculated against an internal standard. A comparison with two other LC-MS methods was performed during method validation. Good correlation was seen for all analytes. The method has been running on a routine basis for several years, and has proven to be very robust and reliable with good results for external quality samples. The method also meets the requirements of the legislative limits for driving under the influence of non-alcohol drugs to be introduced in the Norwegian legislative system from 2012. PMID:22119506

Sauve, E N; Langødegård, M; Ekeberg, D; Øiestad, A M L

2012-02-01

82

On the importance of the nature of the ionic liquids in the selective simultaneous separation of the substrates and products of a transesterification reaction through supported ionic liquid membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previously, we reported the selective simultaneous separation of the substrates and products of a transesterification reaction (vinyl butyrate, 1-butanol, butyl butyrate, and butyric acid) through supported liquid membranes (SLMs) based on two ionic liquids (ILs): 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, [bmim+][PF6?], and 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, [omim+][PF6?]. The significant differences observed in the selectivity values, attributed to the different nature of the ionic liquid phase

Antonia P. de los Ríos; Francisco J. Hernández-Fernández; Francisca Tomás-Alonso; Manuel Rubio; Demetrio Gómez; Gloria Víllora

2008-01-01

83

Monitoring of N-methyl carbamate pesticide residues in water using hollow fibre supported liquid membrane and solid phase extraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this work was to develop a method for the determination of N-methyl carbamates in water involving hollow fibre supported liquid membrane (HFSLM) and solid phase extraction (SPE) as sample preparation methods. Four N-methyl carbamate pesticides, aldicarb, carbaryl, carbofuran and methiocarb sulfoxide, were simultaneously extracted and analysed by a liquid chromatograph with a diode array detector (LC-UV/DAD) and a liquid chromatograph coupled to a ion trap quadrupole mass spectrometer (LC-ESI-MS). The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation of carabamate extracts was performed on a C18 column with water-acetonitrile as the mobile phase. The mass spectrometry analyses were carried out in the positive mode, operating under both the selected ion monitoring (SIM) and full scan modes. The solid phase recoveries of the extracts ranged between 8% and 98%, with aldicarb having the highest recoveries, followed by carbaryl, carbofuran and methiocarb had the lowest recovery. The HFSLM recovery ranged between 8% and 58% and the order of recovery was similar to the SPE trend. Factors controlling the efficiency of the HFSLM extraction such as sample pH, stripping phase pH, enrichment time, stirring speed as well as organic solvent used for entrapment of analytes, were optimised to achieve the highest enrichment factors.

Msagati, Titus A. M.; Mamba, Bhekie B.

84

Effects of Silica Nanoparticle Supported Ionic Liquid as Additive on Thermal Reversibility of Human Carbonic Anhydrase II  

PubMed Central

Silica nanoparticle supported imidazolium ionic liquid [SNImIL] was synthesized and utilized as a biocompatible additive for studying the thermal reversibility of human carbonic anhydrase II (HCA II). For this purpose, we prepared additive by modification of nanoparticles through the grafting of ionic liquids on the surface of nanoparticles (SNImIL). The SNImIL were fully characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and thermo gravimetric analysis. The characterization of HCA II was investigated by various techniques including UV–Vis and ANS fluorescence spectrophotometry, differential scanning calorimetry, and docking study. SNImIL induced disaggregation, enhanced protein stability and increased thermal reversibility of HCA II by up to 42% at pH 7.75. PMID:22829053

Fallahbagheri, Azadeh; Saboury, Ali Akbar; Ma'mani, Leila; Taghizadeh, Mohammad; Khodarahmi, Reza; Ranjbar, Samira; Bohlooli, Mousa; Shafiee, Abbas; Foroumadi, Alireza; Sheibani, Nader; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar

2013-01-01

85

Determination of heterocyclic aromatic amines in human urine by using hollow-fibre supported liquid membrane extraction and liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection system.  

PubMed

A hollow-fibre supported liquid membrane (HF-SLM) extraction method has been developed for determination of 11 heterocyclic aromatic amines (HCAs) in human urine samples by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipped with an ultraviolet (UV) absorbance detector. These compounds were extracted from an alkaline urine sample (donor phase) into the organic solvent residing in the pores of a polypropylene hollow fibre and then back extracted into an acidic solution (acceptor phase) inside the lumen of the hollow fibre. After extraction, HCAs were analyzed by injecting the analyte enriched acceptor phase into the HPLC. The analyte enrichment factors ranged between 241 and 339 obtained in a 90 min extraction time, and method detection limits (MDL) ranged between 0.1 and 0.5 microg L(-1) with relative standard deviation (RSD) values between 3.4% and 11%. The extraction technique employed in this work is easy to use and rapid as it involves only a few minutes manipulation of each sample. It is the most economical sample preparation/preconcentration technique to our knowledge as compared to other microextraction techniques. PMID:18599369

Shah, Faiz Ullah; Barri, Thaer; Jönsson, Jan Ake; Skog, Kerstin

2008-07-15

86

Aerobic oxidation of alcohols in carbon dioxide with silica-supported ionic liquids doped with perruthenate.  

PubMed

The replacement of toxic Cr(VI) for O2 and of chlorinated solvents for supercritical carbon dioxide (or ionic liquids) in the oxidation of alcohols remains hindered by the low selectivity and activity of the current heterogeneous catalysts. Using an integrated approach that combines sol-gel entrapped perruthenate as aerobic catalyst, an encapsulated ionic liquid as solubility promoter, and scCO2 as the reaction solvent, we have developed a system capable of rapidly converting different alcohols into carbonyl compounds with complete selectivity, including substrates which are otherwise difficult to oxidise. The methodology is generally applicable and may easily be extended to other waste-free, catalytic syntheses of fine chemicals. PMID:16622885

Ciriminna, Rosaria; Hesemann, Peter; Moreau, Joël J E; Carraro, Massimo; Campestrini, Sandro; Pagliaro, Mario

2006-07-01

87

Liquid perfluorochemical-supported hybrid cell culture system for proliferation of chondrocytes on fibrous polylactide scaffolds.  

PubMed

CP5 bovine chondrocytes were cultured on biodegradable electrospun fibrous polylactide (PLA) scaffolds placed on a flexible interface formed between two immiscible liquid phases: (1) hydrophobic perfluorochemical (PFC) and (2) aqueous culture medium, as a new way of cartilage implant development. Robust and intensive growth of CP5 cells was achieved in our hybrid liquid-solid-liquid culture system consisting of the fibrous PLA scaffolds in contrast to limited growth of the CP5 cells in traditional culture system with PLA scaffold placed on solid surface. The multicellular aggregates of CP5 cells covered the surface of PLA scaffolds and the chondrocytes migrated through and overgrew internal fibers of the scaffolds. Our hybrid culture system simultaneously allows the adhesion of adherent CP5 cells to fibers of PLA scaffolds as well as, due to use of phase of PFC, enhances the mass transfer in the case of supplying/removing of respiratory gases, i.e., O2 and CO2. Our flexible (independent of vessel shape) system is simple, ready-to-use and may utilize a variety of polymer-based scaffolds traditionally proposed for implant development. PMID:24532258

Pilarek, Maciej; Grabowska, Iwona; Senderek, Ilona; Wojasi?ski, Micha?; Janicka, Justyna; Janczyk-Ilach, Katarzyna; Ciach, Tomasz

2014-09-01

88

Fabrication of supported Si 3N 4 membranes using the pyrolysis of liquid polysilazane precursor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fabrication process is described of supported microporous Si3N4 membranes, prepared by pyrolytically decomposing organo-substituted polysilazane precursor. The membrane had a composite asymmetric structure consisting of a mechanically strong porous Si3N4 support which had 42vol% pores between 0.4 and 0.52?m, coated with an intermediate and one or two thin active top layers. The individual layers were fabricated by the conventional

Hidetoshi Mori; Shigekazu Mase; Noriyuki Yoshimura; Tadashi Hotta; Kohichi Ayama; Jun Ichiro Tsubaki

1998-01-01

89

Electrochemical gas sensors based on paper-supported room-temperature ionic liquids for improved analysis of acid vapours.  

PubMed

A prototype of a fast-response task-specific amperometric gas sensor based on paper-supported room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) is proposed here for improved analysis of volatile acid species. It consists of a small filter paper foil soaked with a RTIL mixture containing an ionic liquid whose anion (acetate) displays a basic character, upon which three electrodes are screen printed by carbon ink profiting from a suitable mask. It takes advantage of the high electrical conductivity and negligible vapour pressure of RTILs and of their easy immobilization into a porous and inexpensive supporting material such as paper. The performance of this device, used as a wall-jet amperometric detector for flow injection analyses of headspace samples in equilibrium with aqueous solutions at controlled concentrations, was evaluated for phenol and 1-butanethiol vapours which were adopted as model acid gaseous analytes. The results obtained showed that the quite high potentials required for the detection of these analytes are lowered significantly, thanks to the addition of the basic acetate RTIL. In such a way, overlap with the medium discharge is avoided, and the possible adverse effect of interfering species is minimised. The sensor performance was quite satisfactory (detection limits, ca. 0.3 ?M; dynamic range, ca. 1-200 ?M, both referred to solution concentrations; correlation coefficients in the range 0.993-0.997; repeatability, ± 6% RSD; long-term stability, 9%); thus suggesting the possible use of this device for manifold applications. PMID:23232956

Toniolo, Rosanna; Dossi, Nicolò; Pizzariello, Andrea; Casagrande, Alice; Bontempelli, Gino

2013-04-01

90

Development of one-step hollow fiber supported liquid phase sampling technique for occupational workplace air analysis using high performance liquid chromatography with ultra-violet detector.  

PubMed

In this study, a simple and novel one-step hollow-fiber supported liquid-phase sampling (HF-LPS) technique was developed for enriched sampling of gaseous toxic species prior to chemical analysis for workplace air monitoring. A lab-made apparatus designed with a gaseous sample generator and a microdialysis sampling cavity (for HF-LPS) was utilized and evaluated to simulate gaseous contaminant air for occupational workplace analysis. Gaseous phenol was selected as the model toxic species. A polyethersulfone hollow fiber dialysis module filled with ethylene glycol in the shell-side was applied as the absorption solvent to collect phenol from a gas flow through the tube-side, based on the concentration distribution of phenol between the absorption solvent and the gas flow. After sampling, 20 ?L of the extractant was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV). Factors that influence the generation of gaseous standards and the HF-LPS were studied thoroughly. Results indicated that at 25 °C the phenol (2000 ?g/mL) standard solution injected at 15-?L/min can be vaporized into sampling cavity under nitrogen flow at 780 mL/min, to generate gaseous phenol with concentration approximate to twice the permissible exposure limit. Sampling at 37.3 mL/min for 30 min can meet the requirement of the workplace air monitoring. The phenol in air ranged between 0.7 and 10 cm³/m³ (shows excellent linearity) with recovery between 98.1 and 104.1%. The proposed method was identified as a one-step sampling for workplace monitoring with advantages of convenience, rapidity, sensitivity, and usage of less-toxic solvent. PMID:22673811

Yan, Cheing-Tong; Chien, Hai-Ying

2012-07-13

91

Diffusion coefficient of an inclusion in a liquid membrane supported by a solvent of arbitrary thickness  

E-print Network

The diffusion coefficient of a circular shaped inclusion in a liquid membrane is investigated by taking into account the interaction between membranes and bulk solvents of arbitrary thickness. As illustrative examples, the diffusion coefficients of two types of inclusions - a circular domain composed of fluid with the same viscosity as the host membrane and that of a polymer chain embedded in the membrane are studied.The diffusion coefficients are expressed in terms of the hydrodynamic screening lengths which vary according to the solvent thickness. When the membrane fluid is dragged by the solvent of finite thickness, via stick boundary conditions, multiple hydrodynamic screening lengths together with the weight factors to the diffusion coefficients are obtained from the dispersion relation. The condition for which the diffusion coefficients can be approximated by the expression including only a single hydrodynamic screening length are also shown.

Kazuhiko Seki; Sanoop Ramachandran; Shigeyuki Komura

2011-07-22

92

Hollow fiber supported liquid-phase microextraction using ionic liquid as extractant for preconcentration of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes from water sample with gas chromatography-hydrogen flame ionization detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel method has been developed for the analysis of benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and o-, m- and p-xylenes (BTEXs) in water using hollow fiber supported liquid-phase microextraction (HF-LPME) followed by gas chromatography-hydrogen flame ionization detection. Ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methy-limidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([BMIM][PF6]) was acted as the extractant for extraction and preconcentration of BTEXs from aqueous samples, and a porous-walled polypropylene hollow fiber

Xiaoguo Ma; Minghua Huang; Zhihua Li; Jianmei Wu

2011-01-01

93

Performance of hydrous titanium oxide-supported catalysts in coal-liquids upgrading  

SciTech Connect

Experimental tests were performed in a continuous-flow hydrotreating unit at Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center to evaluate the performance of hydrous titanium oxide-supported (HTO) catalysts as hydrotreating catalysts for use in two-stage coal liquefaction. Catalysts containing either a combination of Co, Ni, and MO as the active metal components or Pd as the active metal component were tested with representative hydrotreater feed stocks from the Wilsonville Advanced Coal Liquefaction Resarch and Development Facility. Catalyst performance evaluation was based on desulfurization and denitrogenation activity, the conversion of cyclohexane-insoluble material, and hydrogenation activity during 100-hour reactor runs. Results indicated that the HTO catalysts were comparable to a commercial Ni/Mo-alumina supported catalyst in the areas evaluated.

Cillo, D.L.; Smith, D.N.; Ruether, J.A. (U.S. Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, P.O. Box 10940, Pittsburgh, PA (US)); Stephens, H.P.; Dosch, R.G. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (US))

1988-06-01

94

Performance of hydrous titanium oxide-supported catalysts in coal-liquids upgrading  

SciTech Connect

Experimental tests were performed in a continuous-flow hydrotreating unit at Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center to evaluate the performance of hydrous titanium-oxide supported (HTO) catalysts as hydrotreating catalysts for use in two-stage coal liquiefaction. Catalysts containing either a combination of CO, Ni, and Mo as the active metal components or Pd as the active metal componet were tested with representative hydrotreater feed stocks from the Wilsonville Advanced Coal Liquefaction Research and Development Facility. Catalyst performance evaluation was based on desulfurization and denitrogenation activity, the conversion of cyclohexane-insolbule material, and hydrogenation activity during 100-hour reactor runs. Results indicated that the HTO catalysts were comparable to a commercial Ni/Mo-alumina supported catalyst in the areas evaluated. 11 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

Cillo, D.L.; Smith, D.N.; Ruether, J.A.; Stephens, H.P.; Dosch, R.G.

1988-01-01

95

Performance of hydrous titanium oxide-supported catalysts in coal-liquids upgrading  

SciTech Connect

Experimental tests were performed in a continuous-flow hydrotreating unit at Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center to evaluate the performance of hydrous titanium oxide-supported (HTO) catalysts as hydrotreating catalysts for use in two-stage coal liquefaction. Catalysts containing either a combination of Co, Ni, and Mo as the active metal components or Pd as the active metal component were tested with representative hydrotreater feed stocks from the Wilsonville Advanced Coal Liquefaction Research and Development Facility. Catalyst performance evaluation was based on desulfurization and denitrogenation activity, the conversion of cyclohexane-insoluble material, and hydrogenation activity, during 100-hour reactor runs. Results indicated that the HTO catalysts were comparable to a commercial Ni/Mo-alumina supported catalyst in the areas evaluated.

Cillo, D.L.; Smith, D.N.; Ruether, J.A.; Stephens, H.P.; Dosch, R.G. (Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (USA))

1988-01-01

96

The effective recovery of praseodymium from mixed rare earths via a hollow fiber supported liquid membrane and its mass transfer related  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recovery of praseodymium from mixed rare earths via a hollow fiber supported liquid membrane (HFSLM) was examined. Bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) phosphinic acid – known as Cyanex 272 – was used as an extractant carrier. The stripping solution was hydrochloric acid solution. The experiments examined in functions of the concentrations of the carrier in liquid membrane, the (initial) pH's of initial feed

Pharannalak Wannachod; Srestha Chaturabul; Ura Pancharoen; Anchaleeporn W. Lothongkum; Weerawat Patthaveekongka

2011-01-01

97

Passive extraction and clean-up of phenoxy acid herbicides in samples from a groundwater plume using hollow fiber supported liquid membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hollow fiber supported liquid membranes were applied for the passive extraction of phenoxy acid herbicides from water samples. Polypropylene hollow fiber membranes (240?m i.d., 30?m wall thickness, 0.05?m pore size, 30cm length) were impregnated with 2.0% tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) in di-n-hexyl ether in the pores of the fiber wall to form a liquid membrane. They were then filled with basic

Jing-Fu Liu; Lars Toräng; Philipp Mayer; Jan Åke Jönsson

2007-01-01

98

A review of the supply of liquid propellants and other fluids in support of the Space Shuttle Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this study, over twenty significant liquid propellants and other fluids were reviewed as to their supply in support of the Space Shuttle Program (SSP), primarily at KSC. The uniqueness of most of the products, either by their application or production characteristics, present a variety of supply issues to contend with. Each, however, is critical to the success of the SSP. It becomes necessary to formulate, and maintain, a logistic approach to assure a continued availability of each product. For convenience, two categories were established. One, labeled limited-availability, represents those products wherein they are single sourced, have production restrictions and/or there has been a history of supply problems. The other, labeled universally-available, is characteristic of those having several sources and/or having little, if any, historical supply problems. This last category was not examined in depth. Through concepts of establishing stockpile inventories, multiple supply contracts, or other arrangements, the supply of liquid propellants and other fluids can be assured.

Churchwell, Stacy E.; Bain, A. L.

1989-01-01

99

MAGNETIC LIQUID DEFORMABLE MIRRORS FOR ASTRONOMICAL APPLICATIONS: ACTIVE CORRECTION OF OPTICAL ABERRATIONS FROM LOWER-GRADE OPTICS AND SUPPORT SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

Deformable mirrors are increasingly used in astronomy. However, they still are limited in stroke for active correction of high-amplitude optical aberrations. Magnetic liquid deformable mirrors (MLDMs) are a new technology that has the advantages of high-amplitude deformations and low costs. In this paper, we demonstrate extremely high strokes and interactuator strokes achievable by MLDMs which can be used in astronomical instrumentation. In particular, we consider the use of such a mirror to suggest an interesting application for the next generation of large telescopes. We present a prototype 91 actuator deformable mirror made of a magnetic liquid (ferrofluid). This mirror uses a technique that linearizes the response of such mirrors by superimposing a large and uniform magnetic field on the magnetic field produced by an array of small coils. We discuss experimental results that illustrate the performance of MLDMs. A most interesting application of MLDMs comes from the fact they could be used to correct the aberrations of large and lower optical quality primary mirrors held by simple support systems. We estimate basic parameters of the needed MLDMs, obtaining reasonable values.

Borra, E. F., E-mail: borra@phy.ulaval.ca [Departement de Physique, de Genie Physique et d'Optique, Universite Laval, Quebec, QC G1V 0A6 (Canada)

2012-08-01

100

Supported liquid membrane transport of alkali metal cations by monoazacryptand with a partially fluorinated sidearm and the corresponding monoazacrown ethers.  

PubMed

Monoazacryptand [20.18.18] (1), monoaza-15-crown-5 (2a), and monoaza-18-crown-6 (2b) with a partially fluorinated sidearm were newly prepared and their transport abilities were estimated in a supported liquid membrane containing a mixture of 2- (perfluorohexyl) ethyl alcohol and 2- (perfluorooctyl) ethyl alcohol. In competitive passive transport of K+, Na+, and Li+ under neutral conditions, the K+ selectivity increased in the order: ionophore 2a

Nakatsuji, Yohji; Fujimoto, Shingo; Nakamura, Misako; Muraoka, Masahiro

2010-01-01

101

Liquid phase methanol LaPorte process development unit: Modification, operation, and support studies  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this program are to implement and test the process improvements identified through the engineering studies of the current program to demonstrate the capability of long-term catalyst activity maintenance, and to perform process and design engineering work that can be applied to a scaled-up Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH) facility. An optional series of PDU runs is offered to extend the testing of the process improvements. A parallel research program will be performed to enhance the LPMEOH technical data base to improve the likelihood of commercialization of the LPMEOH process. Activities this quarter include: Flow sheet development for La Porte PDU modifications continues. A preliminary P ID review was completed and flow sheet modifications were identified and are being incorporated. A preliminary hazards review was completed on 22 May. Some minor flow sheet modifications resulted and a number of action items were identified. The most significant action item is to develop a materials reactivity and compatibility grid for the different alcohols, ethers, and esters which will be produced at the PDU. Heat and material balances were completed for the maximum production case of the mixed DME/MEOH synthesis campaign. An improved rate expression was developed. 1 fig.

Not Available

1990-10-23

102

Feasible way of Human Solid and Liquid Wastes' Inclusion Into Intersystem Mass Exchange of Biological-Technical Life Support Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The basic objective arising at use of mineralized human solid and liquid wastes serving as the source of mineral elements for plants cultivation in biological-technical life support systems appears to be NaCl presence in them. The given work is aimed at feasibility study of mineralized human metabolites' utilization for nutrient solutions' preparation for their further employment at a long-term cultivation of uneven-aged wheat and Salicornia europaea L. cenosis in a conveyer regime. Human solid and liquid wastes were mineralized by the "wet incineration" method developed by Yu. Kudenko. On their base the solutions were prepared which were used for cultivation of 5-aged wheat conveyer with the time step-interval of 14 days. Wheat was cultivated by hydroponics method on expanded clay aggregate. For partial demineralization of nutrient solution every two weeks after regular wheat harvesting 12 L of solution was withdrawn from the wheat irrigation tank and used for Salicornia europaea cultivation by the water culture method in a conveyer regime. The Salicornia europaea conveyer was represented by 2 ages with the time step-interval of 14 days. Resulting from repeating withdrawal of the solution used for wheat cultivation, sodium concentration in the wheat irrigation solution did not exceed 400 mg/l, and mineral elements contained in the taken solution were used for Salicornia europaea cultivation. The experiment lasted 7 months. Total wheat biomass productivity averaged 30.1 g*m-2*day-1 at harvest index equal to 36.8The work was carried out under support of SB RAS grant 132 and INTAS 05-1000008-8010

Ushakova, Sofya; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Tikhomirova, Natalia; Kudenko, Yurii; Griboskaya, Illiada; Gros, Jean-Bernard; Lasseur, Christophe

103

Evaluation of progesterone content in saliva using magnetic particle-based immuno supported liquid membrane assay (m-ISLMA).  

PubMed

Progesterone in saliva was monitored using a new method called magnetic particle-based immuno supported liquid membrane assay (m-ISLMA) in a sequential injection (SI) setup, allowing automatic sample cleanup, analyte enrichment, and detection in a single analysis unit. Progesterone (Ag) diffuses from a continuous flowing sample - the donor - into a supported organic liquid membrane (SLM), based on analyte partitioning (solubility) between the aqueous donor and the organic phase. The Ag is re-extracted from the SLM into a second stagnant aqueous acceptor, containing antibodies (Ab) immobilized on magnetic beads, held at the bottom of the acceptor by a magnet. Due to the formation of strong Ag-Ab-bead complexes and a large excess of Ab-beads, the Ag is accumulated and selectively enriched in the acceptor. The extracted progesterone was quantified by injecting into the acceptor a horseradish peroxidase (HRP) labeled analyte tracer, the substrate (luminol, H(2)O(2), and p-iodophenol), and finally detection of the generated chemiluminescence by a photomultiplier tube. After optimization of experimental parameters (e.g., sample flow rate, extraction time, type of organic solvent and antibody-bead concentration in the acceptor), a detection limit of 8.50+/-0.17 fgL(-1) and a dynamic range between 35 fgL(-1) and 10 pgL(-1) was reached. The progesterone level of saliva for three subjects (women in different period of ovarian cycle) was investigated, and the corresponding progesterone concentrations detected with m-ISLMA coincided well with the expected values. PMID:16473507

Tudorache, Madalina; Zdrojewska, Izabela Anna; Emnéus, Jenny

2006-08-15

104

Attraction of Meso-Scale Objects on the Surface of a Thin Elastic Film Supported on a Liquid  

E-print Network

We study the interaction of two parallel rigid cylinders on the surface of a thin elastic film supported on a pool of liquid. The excess energy of the surface due to the curvature of the stretched film induces attraction of the cylinders that can be quantified by the variation of their gravitational potential energies as they descend into the liquid while still floating on the film. Although the experimental results follow the trend predicted from the balance of the gravitational and elastic energies of the system, they are somewhat underestimated. The origin of this discrepancy is the hysteresis of adhesion between the cylinder and the elastic film that does not allow the conversion of the total available energy into gravitational potential energy as some part of it is recovered in stretching the film behind the cylinders while they approach each other. A modification of the model accounting for the effects of adhesion hysteresis improves the agreement between theoretical and experimental results. The contribution of the adhesion hysteresis can be reduced considerably by introducing a thin hydrogel layer atop the elastic film that enhances the range of attraction of the cylinders (as well as rigid spheres) in a dramatic way. Morphological instabilities in the gel project corrugated paths to the motion of small spheres, thus leading to a large numbers of particles to aggregate along their defects. These observations suggest that a thin hydrogel layer supported on a deformable elastic film affords an effective model system to study elasticity and defects mediated interaction of particles on its surface.

Aditi Chakrabarti; Manoj K. Chaudhury

2014-08-07

105

Separation and pre-concentration of glucocorticoids in water samples by ionic liquid supported vortex-assisted synergic microextraction and HPLC determination.  

PubMed

We have developed a synergic microextraction procedure based on ionic liquid for the pre-concentration and determination of glucocorticoids in water samples. Using nonionic surfactant Triton X-100 (TX-100) as synergic reagent, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexa-fluorophosphate accomplished extraction rapidly without heating in water bath. One key property of ionic liquids that highlights their potential is their wide liquid temperature range. The improved extraction was named as ionic liquid supported vortex-assisted synergic microextraction. Compared with the traditional liquid-liquid extraction and cloud point extraction, ionic liquid supported vortex-assisted synergic microextraction was accomplished in 8 min with considerably high recovery. The proposed method greatly improved the sensitivity of HPLC for the determination of glucocorticoids. The results obtained indicated a good linearity with the correlation coefficient of 0.997 over the range of 0.6-300 ng/mL and high sensitivity with LODs of 4.11, 9.19, and 7.50 ng/mL for hydrocortisone butyrate, beclomethasone dipropionate, and nandrolone phenylpropionate, respectively. The RSD of the method was 1.57-1.81% (n = 6) with enrichment factor of 99.85, and good recovery (?97.24%). The method was successfully applied to the determination of glucocorticoids in mineral water, water of Dianchi lake, and tap water samples. PMID:23418157

Qin, Hui; Li, Bi; Liu, Mou Sheng; Yang, Ya Ling

2013-04-01

106

Propene and 1-Octene Hydroformylation with Silica-Supported, Ionic Liquid-Phase (SILP) Rh-Phosphine Catalysts in Continuous Fixed-Bed Mode  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supported ionic liquid-phase (SILP) catalysts were made by immobilizing Rh-monophosphine complexes of bis(m-phenylguanidinium)phenylphosphine 1 and NORBOS 2 ligands in 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, [BMIM][PF6], on a silica support. The catalysts were active in continuous gas- and liquid-phase hydroformylation of propene and 1-octene, exhibiting TOFs up to 88 h-1 for SILP Rh-2 catalysts, while only low selectivities up to 74% n-aldehyde (n\\/iso ratio

Anders Riisager; K. Michael Eriksen; Peter Wasserscheid; Rasmus Fehrmann

2003-01-01

107

Simultaneous determination of total fatty acid esters of chloropropanols in edible oils by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with solid-supported liquid-liquid extraction.  

PubMed

This study aimed to establish a novel robust method for the simultaneous determination of total fatty acid esters of 4 chloropropanols including fatty acid esters of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD esters), 2-monochloropropane-1,3-diol (2-MCPD esters), 1,3-dichloropropan-2-ol (1,3-DCP esters) and 2,3-dichloropropan-1-ol (2,3-DCP esters) in edible oils. In this method, sodium methylate in methanol was used as the reagent for the ester cleavage reaction of chloropropanols esters. The reaction products were extracted by a sodium sulfate solution, and then purified by solid-supported liquid-liquid extraction (SLE) using diatomaceous earth (Hydromatrix™) as the sorbent. Finally, the extracts were derivatized with heptafluorobutyrylim idazole (HFBI) and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Quantification was achieved using deuterated chloropropanols as their respective internal standards, including 3-MCPD-d5, 2-MCPD-d5, 1,3-DCP-d5 and 2,3-DCP-d5. A good linear relationship between peak area and concentrations was obtained within the range of 0.025-2.000mgL(-1) with a correlation coefficients not less than 0.999 for all the chloropropanols esters. The limits of detection (LODs) of esters of 3-MCPD, 2-MCPD, 1,3-DCP and 2,3-DCP (calculated as corresponding chloropropanols) were 30, 30, 100 and 30?gkg(-1), respectively. The average recoveries of the 3-MCPD esters and the 4 chloropropanols spiked at 0.1, 0.5 and 2mgkg(-1) into blank oil matrix were typically in a range from 70.7% to 113.3%. The robust method validation data including calibration, LOD/LOQ, accuracy and repeatability and proficiency test results (Z-score: -0.5) of the official Food Analysis Performance Assessment Scheme (FAPAS) indicated that the present quantitative method could be successfully applied to the determination of total chloropropanols esters in various edible oils. PMID:24070627

Liu, Qing; Han, Feng; Xie, Ke; Miao, Hong; Wu, Yongning

2013-11-01

108

Supported Ionic Liquid Membranes and Ion-Jelly® Membranes with [BMIM][DCA]: Comparison of Its Performance for CO2 Separation.  

PubMed

In this work, a supported ionic liquid membrane (SILM) was prepared by impregnating a PVDF membrane with 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide ([BMIM][DCA]) ionic liquid. This membrane was tested for its permeability to pure gases (CO2, N2 and O2) and ideal selectivities were calculated. The SILM performance was also compared to that of Ion-Jelly® membranes, a new type of gelled membranes developed recently. It was found that the PVDF membrane presents permeabilities for pure gases similar or lower to those presented by the Ion-Jelly® membranes, but with increased ideal selectivities. This membrane presents also the highest ideal selectivity (73) for the separation of CO2 from N2 when compared with SILMs using the same PVDF support but with different ionic liquids. PMID:25594165

Couto, Ricardo; Neves, Luísa; Simões, Pedro; Coelhoso, Isabel

2015-01-01

109

Immobilization of Candida rugosa lipase onto an eco-friendly support in the presence of ionic liquid.  

PubMed

Candida rugosa lipase (CRL) was immobilized on an eco-friendly support poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV), by physical adsorption, using different ionic liquids (ILs) as immobilization additives. This was to investigate the influence of cationic core ([C4mpy]Cl, [C4min]Cl), of anions ([C4min]Cl, [C4min]N(CN)2, [C4min]Tf2N), and of cation chain length ([C2min]Tf2N, [C4min]Tf2N) in the immobilization process. The immobilized biocatalysts (IB) were characterized with respect to the morphological, physico-chemical properties, total activity recovery yield (Ya), and biochemical properties of more efficient IB were evaluated. Initially, it was found that the change of cationic core did not influence in Ya compared to the control. With change of anions, it was seen that the best result was obtained for the more hydrophobic anion (Tf2N), and finally increasing the cation chain length increased Ya. IB most efficient with [C4min]Tf2N obtained 78 % of Ya, more than twice the control value (30 %) and a considerable enhancement of operational stability compared with the control. PMID:25391807

Cabrera-Padilla, Rebeca Y; Lisboa, Milena C; Pereira, Matheus M; Figueiredo, Renan T; Franceschi, Elton; Fricks, Alini T; Lima, Álvaro S; Silva, Daniel P; Soares, Cleide M F

2015-05-01

110

Fine-tuning of electromembrane extraction selectivity using 18-crown-6 ethers as supported liquid membrane modifiers.  

PubMed

Selectivity of electromembrane extractions (EMEs) was fine-tuned by modifications of supported liquid membrane (SLM) composition using additions of various 18-crown-6 ethers into 1-ethyl-2-nitrobenzene. Gradually increased transfer of K(+) , the cation that perfectly fits the cavity of 18-crown-6 ethers, was observed for EMEs across SLMs modified with increasing concentrations of 18-crown-6 ethers. A SLM containing 1% w/v of dibenzo-18-crown-6 in 1-ethyl-2-nitrobenzene exhibited excellent selectivity for EMEs of K(+) . The established host-guest interactions between crown ether cavities in the SLM and potassium ions in donor solution ensured their almost exhaustive transfer into acceptor solution (extraction recovery ?92%) within 30 min of EME at 50 V. Other inorganic cations were not transferred across the SLM (Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) ) or were transferred negligibly (NH4 (+) , Na(+) ; extraction recovery < 2%) and had only subtle effect on EMEs of K(+) . The high selectivity of the tailor-made SLM holds a great promise for future applications in EMEs since the range of similar selective modifiers is very broad and may be applied in various fields of analytical chemistry. PMID:25224742

Šlampová, Andrea; Kubá?, Pavel; Bo?ek, Petr

2014-12-01

111

Determination of selected pharmaceutical compounds in biosolids by supported liquid extraction and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

In this work, an analytical method was developed for the determination of pharmaceutical drugs in biosolids. Samples were extracted with an acidic mixture of water and acetone (1:2, v/v) and supported liquid extraction was used for the clean-up of extracts, eluting with ethyl acetate:methanol (90:10, v/v). The compounds were determined by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using matrix-match calibration after silylation to form their t-butyldimethylsilyl derivatives. This method presents various advantages, such as a fairly simple operation for the analysis of complex matrices, the use of inexpensive glassware and low solvent volumes. Satisfactory mean recoveries were obtained with the developed method ranging from 70 to 120% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) ? 13%, and limits of detection between 0.5 and 3.6 ng g(-1). The method was then successfully applied to biosolids samples collected in Madrid and Catalonia (Spain). Eleven of the sixteen target compounds were detected in the studied samples, at levels up to 1.1 ?g g(-1) (salicylic acid). Ibuprofen, caffeine, paracetamol and fenofibrate were detected in all of the samples analyzed. PMID:24582395

Albero, Beatriz; Sánchez-Brunete, Consuelo; Miguel, Esther; Aznar, Ramón; Tadeo, José L

2014-04-01

112

Predicting the ecotoxicity of ionic liquids towards Vibrio fischeri using genetic function approximation and least squares support vector machine.  

PubMed

Ionic liquids (ILs) are widely used in industrial production for their unique physicochemical properties, and they are even regarded as green solvents. However, the recent study showed ILs might pose a potential risk to aquatic ecosystems. In the present work, the quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models, including genetic function approximation (GFA) and least squares support vector machine (LSSVM) were developed for predicting the ecotoxicity of ILs towards the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri based on the descriptors calculated from cations and anions. Five descriptors were selected by GFA and used to develop the linear model. From the discussion of descriptors, the cation structure was the main factor to the toxicity, which mainly depended on the size, lipophilic, and 3D molecular structure of cations. In order to capture the nonlinear nature, the LSSVM model was also built for more accurately predicting the ecotoxicity. The GFA and LSSVM models were performed the rigorous internal and external validation, further verifying these models with excellent robustness and predictive ability. Therefore, both of models can be used for the prediction of the ecotoxicity of newly synthesized and untested ILs, and can provide reference information and theoretical guidance for designing and synthesizing safer and more eco-friendly ILs. PMID:25464300

Ma, Shuying; Lv, Min; Deng, Fangfang; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Zhai, Honglin; Lv, Wenjuan

2015-02-11

113

Carbon-supported ionic liquids as innovative adsorbents for CO2 separation from synthetic flue-gas.  

PubMed

Fixed-bed thermodynamic CO2 adsorption tests were performed in model flue-gas onto Filtrasorb 400 and Nuchar RGC30 activated carbons (AC) functionalized with [Hmim][BF4] and [Emim][Gly] ionic liquids (IL). A comparative analysis of the CO2 capture results and N2 porosity characterization data evidenced that the use of [Hmim][BF4], a physical solvent for carbon dioxide, ended up into a worsening of the parent AC capture performance, due to a dominating pore blocking effect at all the operating temperatures. Conversely, the less sterically-hindered and amino acid-based [Emim][Gly] IL was effective in increasing the AC capture capacity at 353K under milder impregnation conditions, the beneficial effect being attributed to both its chemical affinity towards CO2 and low pore volume reduction. The findings derived in this work outline interesting perspectives for the application of amino acid-based IL supported onto activated carbons for CO2 separation under post-combustion conditions, and future research efforts should be focused on the search for AC characterized by optimal pore size distribution and surface properties for IL functionalization. PMID:25710387

Erto, Alessandro; Silvestre-Albero, Ana; Silvestre-Albero, Joaquín; Rodríguez-Reinoso, Francisco; Balsamo, Marco; Lancia, Amedeo; Montagnaro, Fabio

2015-06-15

114

Utilization of liquid human wastes and introduction into the material cycling in biological life-support systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possibilities of step-by-step utilization of liquid human wastes in biological life-support systems on long-functioning space stations have been considered in this work. Utilization involves "wet" urine incineration with hydrogen peroxide at normal pressure and 90 - 95°C temperature, urease-enzymic decomposition of urine and biological desalination in the higher plant link. The soybean flour was used as a source of urease. Growing soya plants as a component of the higher plant link would give a steady source of urease to the system. To decompose urea (9-15g) contained in 1l of incinerated urine we used 0.5 - 1 g of soy flour. The duration of hydrolysis of daily urea excreted by a human is 70 - 95 hours. It is supposed that ammonia excreted in the reaction of urea decomposition will be processed by nitrifying bacteria. The concentration of total nitrogen in urine after urea hydrolysis and removal of ammonia formed during the reaction constituted 0.6 - 1.2 g/l. Further biological desalination was carried out in the higher plant link, for that the edible salt-accumulating halophytes Salicornia europaea were used. To grow this plant under the aqueous culture conditions, the urine was additionally mineralized at 180 °C after incineration and decomposition of urea. The process of additional mineralization was related to the necessity of removal of organic materials and nitrogen residues, which higher concentration under the aqueous culture conditions has negative effect on plants. The volume of the nutrient solution for growing 6 plants of Salicornia europaea was 1.5 l (daily norm of urine excreted by human), the planting area was 0.032 m2. By the end of vegetation the productivity and mineral composition of Salicornia europaea plants were analyzed. The productivity of plants grown on liquid human wastes (the experiment) practically was not different from the productivity of plants grown on the mineral solution with sodium chloride (checkout). In experimental plants the content of potassium increased on 30% and the sodium content decreased on 30% as compared to the check plants. As a result the NaCl content constituted 23% of dry plant mass. The variant making the additional mineralization of urine at 180 °C avoidable has been considered in this work as well. For this purpose the technology of substrate growing of Salicornia europaea plants and intermittent introduction of urine during vegetation after "wet" incineration and urease-enzymatic decomposition of urea has been introduced.

Kovaleva, N. P.>; Ushakova, S. A.; Gribovskaya, I. V.; Kudenko, U. A.

115

Pumice-supported Pd-Pt bimetallic catalysts: Synthesis, structural characterization, and liquid-phase hydrogenation of 1,3-cyclooctadiene  

SciTech Connect

A series of pumice-supported palladium-platinum bimetallic catalysts were prepared and investigated by X-ray scattering (WAXS and SAXS) and XPS techniques. An alloy Pd-Pt was formed. The less abundant metal was found to segregate to the surface. The catalysts were tested in the liquid-phase hydrogenation of 1,3-cyclooctadiene to cyclooctene, and compared with similarly prepared pumice-supported palladium and platinum catalysts and other supported Pd-Pt catalysts reported in the literature. The addition of platinum reduces the activity and the selectivity of the palladium catalysts. Differences between the activity of these pumice-supported catalysts and the activity of previously described Pd and Pd-Pt catalysts on other supports, are attributed to the presence, in the latter, of diffusional processes. 50 refs., 4 figs. 2 tabs.

Deganello, G.; Duca, D.; Liotta, L.F.; Martorana, A.; Venezia, M. [Istituto di Chimica e Technologia dei Prodotti Naturali del CNR, Palermo (Italy)] [Istituto di Chimica e Technologia dei Prodotti Naturali del CNR, Palermo (Italy); Benedetti, A.; Fagherazz, G. [Universita di Venezia, Venice (Italy)] [Universita di Venezia, Venice (Italy)

1995-01-01

116

Determination of glyphosate and its metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid in fruit juices using supported-liquid membrane preconcentration method with high-performance liquid chromatography and UV detection after derivatization with p-toluenesulphonyl chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of supported-liquid membrane (SLM) technique for effective extraction of N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine (glyphosate) and its primary metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) from juices (orange, grapefruit, apple and blackcurrant) in combination with HPLC-UV detection after derivatization with p-toluenesulphonyl chloride (TsCl) is presented. The influence of various parameters such as the composition of acceptor phase, flow-rate, concentration of analytes, on the performance of

Maxim V. Khrolenko; Piotr P. Wieczorek

2005-01-01

117

Synthesis, structural, photophysical and electrochemical studies of various d-metal complexes of btp [2,6-bis(1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)pyridine] ligands that give rise to the formation of metallo-supramolecular gels.  

PubMed

2,6-Bis(1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)pyridine (btp) is a terdentate binding motif that is synthesised modularly via the CuAAC reaction. Herein, we present the synthesis of ligands 1 and 2 and the investigation of the coordination chemistry, photophysical behaviour and electrochemistry of complexes of these with a number of d-metal ions (e.g. Ru(II), Ir(III), Ni(II) and Pt(II)). The X-ray crystal structures of ligand 1 and the complexes [Ru·2(2)](PF6)Cl, [Ni·1(2)](PF6)Cl and [Ir·1Cl3] are also presented. All of the complexes displayed non-classical triazolyl C-H···Cl(-) hydrogen bonding. All but one complex showed no metal-based luminescence at room temperature, while all of the Pt(ii) complexes displayed luminescence at 77 K. The electrochemistry of the Ru(II) complexes was also studied and these complexes were found to have higher oxidation potentials than analogous compounds. The redox behaviour of [RuL2](2+) complexes with both 1 and 2 was nearly identical, while [Ru·1Cl2(DMSO)] was oxidised at significantly lower potential. We also show that the Ru(II) complex of 2, [Ru·2(2)](PF6)Cl, gave rise to the formation of a metallo-supramolecular gel, the morphology of which was studied using scanning electron and helium ion microscopy. PMID:24149846

Byrne, Joseph P; Kitchen, Jonathan A; Kotova, Oxana; Leigh, Vivienne; Bell, Alan P; Boland, John J; Albrecht, Martin; Gunnlaugsson, Thorfinnur

2014-01-01

118

SEPARATION OF TRIVALENT EUROPIUM, TERBIUM, AMERICIUM AND CURIUM BY A SUPPORTED LIQUID MEMBRANE IMPREGNATED WITH DI(2-ETHYLHEXYL)PHOSPHORIC ACID  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mass transfer of Eu(III) Tb(III),Am(III)and Cm(III)through HDEHP solid supported liquid membranes has been studied. The best experimental conditions to perform Am(III)-Cm(III),Eu(III)-Tb(III)and Eu(III)-Am(III) separation have been found. The coefficients of separation of the above mentioned pairs have been determined to be equal to 5.0, 10.8 and more then 102, respectively.

A. P. Novikov; B. F. Myasoedov

1987-01-01

119

A pronounced catalytic activity of heteropoly compounds supported on dealuminated USY for liquid-phase esterification of acetic acid with n -butanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

12-Phosphotungstic acid and its cesium salts supported on a dealuminated ultra-stable Y zeolite were prepared, and showed the high catalytic activity in the liquid-phase esterification of acetic acid with n-butanol. The supported Cs2.5H0.5PW12O40 catalyst gave a high conversion of n-butanol of 94.6% and a selectivity for n-butyl acetate of 100%, accompanying the high water-tolerance and catalytic reusability without regeneration.

Fu-Min Zhang; Jun Wang; Chao-Shu Yuan; Xiao-Qian Ren

2005-01-01

120

Analysis of the organic liquid produced from catalytic cracking of crude palm oil in the presence of alumina supported catalysts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Catalytic cracking of crude palm oil (CPO) was studied in the presence of alumina, 1% Pt/Al2O3 and 1% Pd/Al2O3 as catalyst. The CPO to catalyst weight ratio used was 1:0.05. The experiment was carried out in a simple liquid-phase batch reactor at atmospheric pressure where the sample was heated to 300-350 ?C. Products formed were organic liquid products (OLP) and gaseous product with the solid residue remains in the reactor. The total conversion of CPO was only between 25 - 31% where the residue is suggested to be mainly of polimerised CPO. The OLP was analysed using a gas chromatography with FID detector. Analyses show that the selectivity to liquid fuel is influence by the catalyst used whereby Al2O3 gives the highest selectivity to gasoline while 1% Pt/Al2O3 has the highest selectivity to diesel. However, 1% Pd/Al2O3 is not a suitable catalyst for catalytic cracking of CPO to liquid fuel where less than 17.5% of OLP produced could be classified as liquid fuel.

Ramli, Anita; Razak, Rozlina Abdul

2012-09-01

121

Device providing anti-seismic support for an apparatus immersed in the bath of liquid alkali metal surrounding a fast neutron nuclear reactor  

SciTech Connect

The present invention relates to a device providing anti-seismic support for an apparatus immersed in the bath of liquid alkali metal surrounding a fast neutron nuclear reactor, and abutting by a flange on a slab traversed by the apparatus and resistant to the load that it constitutes, wherein the flange for supporting the apparatus is connected to a sleeve for elastically taking up the horizontal displacements of its top part, independently of an inner envelope of the apparatus and on which a framework for supporting the apparatus whose bottom part is connected to the inner envelope, is fixed at a level determined as a function of the most dangerous earth tremor frequencies.

Andro, J.; Marjollet, J.

1984-07-17

122

Lanthanide Directed Self-Assembly of Highly Luminescent Supramolecular "Peptide" Bundles from ?-Amino Acid Functionalized 2,6-Bis(1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)pyridine (btp) Ligands.  

PubMed

Ligands containing the [2,6-bis(1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)pyridine] (btp) motif have recently shown promise in coordination chemistry. The motif is synthesized via the Cu(I)-catalyzed "click" reaction and can be conveniently functionalized when compared to other terdentate chelating motifs. Ligand 1 was synthesized and shown to sensitize Eu(III) and Tb(III) excited states effectively. The use of these ions to synthesize self-assembly structures in solution was investigated by carrying out both (1)H NMR and photophysical titrations. The latter were used to determine high binding constants from changes in the absorption, ligand emission (fluorescence), and lanthanide-centered emission. A small library of amino acid derivatives of 1, ligands 3, were prepared upon coupling reactions with Gly, Ala, Phe, and Trp methyl esters, with a view to introducing biologically relevant and chiral moieties into such ligands. All of these derivatives were shown to form stable, emissive Ln(III) self-assemblies, emitting in the millisecond time range, which were studied by means of probing their photophysical properties in organic solutions using lanthanide ion titrations. All the Tb(III) complexes, with the exception of Trp based derivatives, gave rise to highly luminescent and bright complexes, with quantum yields of Tb(III) emission of 46-70% in CH3CN solution. In contrast, the Eu(III) complexes gave rise to more modest quantum yields of 0.3-3%, reflecting better energy match for the Tb(III) complexes, and hence, more efficient sensitization, as demonstrated by using low temperature measurements to determine the triplet state of 1. PMID:25634622

Byrne, Joseph P; Kitchen, Jonathan A; O'Brien, John E; Peacock, Robert D; Gunnlaugsson, Thorfinnur

2015-02-16

123

Comparative Study on the Sulfur Tolerance and Carbon Resistance of Supported Noble Metal Catalysts in Steam Reforming of Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuel  

SciTech Connect

This work was conducted to clarify the influence of the type of metal and support on the sulfur tolerance and carbon resistance of supported noble metal catalysts in steam reforming of liquid hydrocarbons. Al2O3-supported noble metal catalysts (Rh, Ru, Pt, and Pd), Rh catalysts on different supports (Al2O3, CeO2, SiO2, and MgO), and Pt catalyst supported on CeO2 and Al2O3, were examined for steam reforming of a liquid hydrocarbon fuel (Norpar13 from Exxon Mobil) at 800 C for 55 h. The results indicate that (1) Rh/Al2O3 shows higher sulfur tolerance than the Ru, Pt, and Pd catalysts on the same support; (2) both Al2O3 and CeO2 are promising supports for Rh catalyst to process sulfur-containing hydrocarbons; and (3) Pt/CeO2 exhibits better catalytic performance than Pt/Al2O3 in the reaction with sulfur. TEM results demonstrate that the metal particles in Rh/Al2O3 were better dispersed (mostly in 1-3 nm) compared with the other catalysts after reforming the sulfur-containing feed. As revealed by XPS, the binding energy of Rh 3d for Rh/Al2O3 is notably higher than that for Rh/CeO2, implying the formation of electron-deficient Rh particles in the former. The strong sulfur tolerance of Rh/Al2O3 may be related to the formation of well-dispersed electron-deficient Rh particles on the Al2O3 support. Sulfur K-edge XANES illustrates the preferential formation of sulfonate and sulfate on Rh/Al2O3, which is believed to be beneficial for improving its sulfur tolerance as their oxygen-shielded sulfur structure may hinder direct Rh-S interaction. Due to its strong sulfur tolerance, the carbon deposition on Rh/Al2O3 was significantly lower than that on the Al2O3-supported Ru, Pt, and Pd catalysts after the reaction with sulfur. The superior catalytic performance of CeO2-supported Rh and Pt catalysts in the presence of sulfur can be ascribed mainly to the promotion effect of CeO2 on carbon gasification, leading to much lower carbon deposition compared with the Rh/Al2O3, Rh/MgO, Rh/SiO2 and Pt/Al2O3 catalysts.

Xie, Chao; Chen, Yongsheng; Engelhard, Mark H.; Song, Chunshan

2012-04-18

124

Design, testing, fabrication and launch support of a liquid chemical barium release payload (utilizing the liquid fluorine-barium salt/hydrazine system)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A payload was designed which included a cryogenic oxidizer tank, a fuel tank, and burner section. Release of 30 lb of chemicals was planned to occur in 2 seconds at the optimum oxidizer to fuel ratio. The chemicals consisted of 17 lb of liquid fluorine oxidizer and 13 lb of hydrazine-barium salt fuel mixture. The fuel mixture was 17% barium chloride, 16% barium nitrate, and 67% hydrazine, and contained 2.6 lb of available barium. Two significant problem areas were resolved during the program: explosive valve development and burner operation. The release payload was flight tested, from Wallops Island, Virginia. The release took place at an altitude of approximately 260 km. The release produced a luminous cloud which expanded very rapidly, disappearing to the human eye in about 20 seconds. Barium ion concentration slowly increased over a wide area of sky until measurements were discontinued at sunrise (about 30 minutes).

Stokes, C. S.; Smith, E. W.; Murphy, W. J.

1972-01-01

125

Gold nanoparticles in an ionic liquid phase supported in a biopolymeric matrix applied in the development of a rosmarinic acid biosensor.  

PubMed

Gold nanoparticles dispersed in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ionic liquid (Au-BMI·PF(6)) were supported in chitin (CTN) chemically crosslinked with glyoxal and epichlorohydrin to obtain a new supported ionic liquid phase (SILP) catalyst with high catalytic activity, and providing an excellent environment for enzyme immobilization. This modified biopolymer matrix (Au-BMI·PF(6)-CTN) was used as a support for the immobilization of the enzyme peroxidase (PER) from pea (Pisum sativum), and employed to develop a new biosensor for rosmarinic acid (RA) determination in pharmaceutical samples by square-wave voltammetry. In the presence of hydrogen peroxide, the PER catalyzes the oxidation of RA to the corresponding o-quinone, which is electrochemically reduced at a potential of +0.14 V vs. Ag/AgCl. Under optimized conditions, the resulting peak current increased linearly for the RA concentration range of 0.50 to 23.70 ?M with a detection limit of 70.09 nM. The biosensor demonstrated high sensitivity, good repeatability and reproducibility, and long-term stability (15% decrease in response over 120 days). The method was successfully applied to the determination of RA content in pharmaceutical samples, with recovery values being in the range of 98.3 to 106.2%. The efficient analytical performance of the proposed biosensor can be attributed to the effective immobilization of the PER enzyme in the modified CTN matrix, the significant contribution of the high conductivity of the ionic liquid, the facilitation of electron transfer promoted by gold nanoparticles, and the inherent catalytic ability of these materials. PMID:21519593

Brondani, Daniela; Zapp, Eduardo; Vieira, Iolanda Cruz; Dupont, Jairton; Scheeren, Carla Weber

2011-06-21

126

Rare-earth metal-ion separation using a supported liquid membrane mediated by a narrow rim phosphorylated calix[4]arene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transport of rare-earth metal ions through a supported liquid membrane mediated by 5,11,17,23-tetra-tert-butyl-25,26,27,28-tetrakis(diphenylphosphinoylmethoxy)calix[4]arene (1) (cone conformation) in o-nitrophenyl hexyl ether (NPHE) has been investigated. The effect of the initial metal concentration, salting-out agent concentration in the feed phase and temperature as well as the carrier concentration on the flux was studied. The separation ability of ligand 1 was tested

M. R Yaftian; M Burgard; C. B Dieleman; D Matt

1998-01-01

127

Novel supports in chiral stationary phase development for liquid chromatography. Preparation, characterization and application of ordered mesoporous silica particles.  

PubMed

Recent advances in the development of new materials are having a major impact on analytical chemistry. For example, the unique properties of ordered mesoporous silicas (OMSs) have been shown to enhance the analytical performance of many existing techniques or allow new, exciting ones to be developed. Likewise, the introduction of organo-functional groups makes OMSs highly versatile and enables them to perform specialized tasks, such as the separation of chiral compounds. This review provides an overview with the most relevant achievements in the preparation of OMS particles functionalized with chiral selectors. In addition, some examples from the last fifteen years regarding the analytical applications of functionalized OMS for chiral separations by high-performance liquid chromatography, ultra-high pressure high-performance liquid chromatography and capillary electrochromatography have been reviewed. PMID:25015243

Sierra, Isabel; Pérez-Quintanilla, Damián; Morante, Sonia; Gañán, Judith

2014-10-10

128

Catalytic performances of heteropoly compounds supported on dealuminated ultra-stable Y zeolite for liquid-phase esterification  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of catalysts of 12-Phosphotungstic acid (PW) and its cesium salts immobilized on dealuminated ultra-stable Y zeolite\\u000a (DUSY) were prepared. Their specific surface area and acid strength were characterized, and their catalytic activity, selectivity\\u000a and stability were evaluated in the liquid-phase esterification of acetic acid with n-butanol. It was found that the catalytic activity could be improved remarkably by

Fumin Zhang; Jun Wang; Chaoshu Yuan; Xiaoqian Ren

2006-01-01

129

Reusable and efficient polymer-supported task-specific ionic liquid catalyst for cycloaddition of epoxide with CO 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

1-(2-Hydroxyl-ethyl)-imidazolium-based ionic liquids (HEIMX, X=Cl, Br, I), which have both acidic and basic characteristics, were covalently anchored onto a highly cross-linked polystyrene resin. The catalytic activity of these heterogeneous catalysts for the synthesis of cyclic carbonates via cycloaddition reaction of CO2 with epoxides was studied. The effects of parameters, such as anions of the catalysts, reaction temperature, pressure, reaction time,

Jian Sun; Weiguo Cheng; Wei Fan; Yaohong Wang; Zhenying Meng; Suojiang Zhang

2009-01-01

130

MEASUREMENTS TAKEN IN SUPPORT OF QUALIFICATION OF PROCESSING SAVANNAH RIVER SITE LOW-LEVEL LIQUID WASTE INTO SALTSTONE  

SciTech Connect

The Saltstone Facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS) immobilizes low-level liquid waste into Saltstone to be disposed of in the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility, Class Three Landfill. In order to meet the permit conditions and regulatory limits set by the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), both the low-level salt solution and Saltstone samples are analyzed quarterly. Waste acceptance criteria (WAC) are designed to confirm the salt solution sample from the Tank Farm meets specific radioactive and chemical limits. The toxic characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) is used to confirm that the treatment has immobilized the hazardous constituents of the salt solution. This paper discusses the methods used to characterize the salt solution and final Saltstone samples from 2007-2009.

Reigel, M.; Bibler, N.; Diprete, C.; Cozzi, A.; Staub, A.; Ray, J.

2010-01-27

131

Hollow fiber supported liquid-phase microextraction using ionic liquid as extractant for preconcentration of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes from water sample with gas chromatography-hydrogen flame ionization detection.  

PubMed

A novel method has been developed for the analysis of benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and o-, m- and p-xylenes (BTEXs) in water using hollow fiber supported liquid-phase microextraction (HF-LPME) followed by gas chromatography-hydrogen flame ionization detection. Ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methy-limidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([BMIM][PF(6)]) was acted as the extractant for extraction and preconcentration of BTEXs from aqueous samples, and a porous-walled polypropylene hollow fiber was utilized to stabilize and protect [BMIM][PF(6)] during the extraction process. Various parameters that affect extraction efficiency were investigated in detail, and the optimized experimental conditions were as follows: 8 ?L of [BMIM][PF(6)] as extraction solvent for the target analytes in 20 mL of sample solution, 30 min of extraction time, a stirring rate of 1400 rpm and 15% NaCl (w/v) in aqueous sample at 25°C (ambient temperature). The recovery was found to be 90.0-111.5% with RSD (n=5) of 1.3-5.4%, and the detection limits (S/N=3) were in the range of 2.7-4.0 ?g/L. The proposed method was simple, cheap, rapid, sensitive and environmentally benign, and could act as an alternative to techniques for BTEXs analysis with expensive instrumentations. PMID:21871732

Ma, Xiaoguo; Huang, Minghua; Li, Zhihua; Wu, Jianmei

2011-10-30

132

Passive extraction and clean-up of phenoxy acid herbicides in samples from a groundwater plume using hollow fiber supported liquid membranes.  

PubMed

Hollow fiber supported liquid membranes were applied for the passive extraction of phenoxy acid herbicides from water samples. Polypropylene hollow fiber membranes (240 microm i.d., 30 microm wall thickness, 0.05 microm pore size, 30 cm length) were impregnated with 2.0% tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) in di-n-hexyl ether in the pores of the fiber wall to form a liquid membrane. They were then filled with basic solution in the lumen as acceptor and finally placed into the sample (donor). Complete extraction of phenoxy acid herbicides including 2,4-D, MCPA, dichlorprop, and mecoprop from an acidified sample (4 mL, adjusted to pH 1.5 with HCl) into basic acceptor (10 microL of 0.2M NaOH) was achieved after 4 h of shaking (100 rpm) resulting in an enrichment factor of 400 times. The acceptor was then neutralized by addition of HCl and injected into a HPLC system for the determination of the phenoxy acid herbicides. Environmentally relevant salinity (0-3.5% NaCl) and dissolved organic matter (0-25 mg/L of dissolved organic carbon) had no significant effect on the extraction. The method provided extraction efficiencies of more than 91%, detection limits of 0.3-0.6 microg/L, and combined extraction and clean up in one single step. This procedure was applied to determine aqueous concentrations of phenoxy acid herbicides in groundwater samples collected from an old dumping site (Cheminova, Denmark) with detected concentrations up to 5800 microg/L. Although the samples were very dirty with large amounts of suspended particles, non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) and dissolved organic matters, good spike recoveries (80-126%) were obtained for 10 of the 11 samples. PMID:17449052

Liu, Jing-Fu; Toräng, Lars; Mayer, Philipp; Jönsson, Jan Ake

2007-08-10

133

Core-Shell Diamond as a Support for Solid-Phase Extraction and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography  

SciTech Connect

We report the formation of core-shell diamond particles for solid phase extraction (SPE) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) made by layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition. Their synthesis begins with the amine functionalization of microdiamond by its immersion in an aqueous solution of a primary amine-containing polymer (polyallylamine (PAAm)). The amine-terminated microdiamond is then immersed in an aqueous suspension of nanodiamond, which leads to adsorption of the nanodiamond. Alternating (self-limiting) immersions in the solutions of the amine-containing polymer and the suspension of nanodiamond are continued until the desired number of nanodiamond layers is formed around the microdiamond. Finally, the core-shell particles are cross-linked with 1,2,5,6-diepoxycyclooctane or reacted with 1,2-epoxyoctadecane. Layer-by-layer deposition of PAAm and nanodiamond is also studied on planar Si/SiO2 surfaces, which were characterized by SEM, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA). Core-shell particles are characterized by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFT), environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), and Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET) surface area and pore size measurements. Larger (ca. 50 ?m) core-shell diamond particles have much higher surface areas, and analyte loading capacities in SPE than nonporous solid diamond particles. Smaller (ca. 3 ?m), normal and reversed phase, core-shell diamond particles have been used for HPLC, with 36,300 plates per meter for mesitylene in a separation of benzene and alkyl benzenes on a C18 adsorbent, and 54,800 plates per meter for diazinon in a similar separation of two pesticides.

Saini, Gaurav; Jensen, David S.; Wiest, Landon A.; Vail, Michael A.; Dadson, Andrew; Lee, Milton L.; Shutthanandan, V.; Linford, Matthew R.

2010-06-01

134

Core-shell diamond as a support for solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography.  

PubMed

We report the formation of core-shell diamond particles for solid-phase extraction (SPE) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) made by layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition. Their synthesis begins with the amine functionalization of microdiamond by its immersion in an aqueous solution of a primary amine-containing polymer (polyallylamine (PAAm)). The amine-terminated microdiamond is then immersed in an aqueous suspension of nanodiamond, which leads to adsorption of the nanodiamond. Alternating (self-limiting) immersions in the solutions of the amine-containing polymer and the suspension of nanodiamond are continued until the desired number of nanodiamond layers is formed around the microdiamond. Finally, the core-shell particles are cross-linked with 1,2,5,6-diepoxycyclooctane or reacted with 1,2-epoxyoctadecane. Layer-by-layer deposition of PAAm and nanodiamond is also studied on planar Si/SiO(2) surfaces, which were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA). Core-shell particles are characterized by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFT), environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and pore size measurements. Larger (ca. 50 microm) core-shell diamond particles have much higher surface areas and analyte loading capacities in SPE than nonporous solid diamond particles. Smaller (ca. 3 microm), normal and reversed-phase, core-shell diamond particles have been used for HPLC, with 36,300 plates/m for mesitylene in a separation of benzene and alkyl benzenes and 54,800 plates/m for diazinon in a similar separation of two pesticides on a C(18) adsorbent. PMID:20446670

Saini, Gaurav; Jensen, David S; Wiest, Landon A; Vail, Michael A; Dadson, Andrew; Lee, Milton L; Shutthanandan, V; Linford, Matthew R

2010-06-01

135

?-Radiolysis of ionic liquid irradiated with helium ion beam and the influence of radiolytic products on Dy3+ extraction.  

PubMed

Helium ion (He(+)) beam produced by a heavy ion linear accelerator was used to simulate ?-rays for studying the radiation effect on 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquid ([C4mim][NTf2]). The water-soluble radiolytic products of [C4mim][NTf2] under He(+) beam irradiation were analysed, and it was found that they were similar to those by ?-ray irradiation, but their amount was much less than that by ?-ray irradiation, which was attributed to the recombination of [C4mim][NTf2] radical cations in track by high linear energy transfer (LET) radiations of the He(+) beam. The extracting behaviour of Dy(3+) using irradiated [C4mim][NTf2] in combination with alkylated bis-triazinyl-pyridine (CA-BTP) was assessed, and found that the influence of He(+) beam on the extraction was less than that of ?-ray irradiation. In addition, radiolytic products have a different influence on Dy(3+) extraction at different doses; Dy(3+) partitioning decreases at 50 kGy due to the protonation of CA-BTP and the inhibition of cation exchange mechanism by radiation-formed hydrogen ions. The abnormal increase of Dy(3+) partitioning at 100 kGy is mainly attributed to the precipitation formed between Dy(3+) and radiolytic products (F(-) and SO3(2-)). PMID:24549120

Ao, Yinyong; Zhou, Hanyang; Yuan, Weijin; Wang, Shuojue; Peng, Jing; Zhai, Maolin; Wang, Jianyong; Zhao, Ziqiang; Zhao, Long; Wei, Yuezhou

2014-04-14

136

Polymer-supported ionic liquid solid phase extraction for trace inorganic and organic mercury determination in water samples by flow injection-cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry.  

PubMed

A simple and green technique named polymer-supported ionic liquid solid phase extraction (PSIL-SPE) was developed for mercury (Hg) species determination. Inorganic Hg (InHg) species was complexed with chloride ions followed by its introduction into a flow injection on-line system to quantitatively retain the anionic chlorocomplex (HgCl4(2-)) in a column packed with CYPHOS(®) IL 101-impregnated resin. The trapped InHg was then reduced with stannous chloride (SnCl2) and eluted with the same flow of reducing agent followed by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS) detection. Organic mercury species (OrgHg) did not interact with the impregnated resin and were not retained into the column. Total concentration of OrgHg was evaluated by difference between total Hg and InHg concentration. A 95% extraction efficiency was achieved for InHg when the procedure was developed under optimal experimental conditions. The limit of detection obtained for preconcentration of 40 mL of sample was 2.4 ng L(-1) InHg. The relative standard deviation (RSD) was 2.7% (at 1 µg L(-1) InHg and n=10) calculated from the peak height of absorbance signals (Gaussian-shape and reproducible peaks). This work reports the first polymer-supported IL solid phase extraction approach implemented in a flow injection on-line system for determination of Hg species in mineral, tap and river water samples. PMID:24148384

Escudero, Leticia B; Olsina, Roberto A; Wuilloud, Rodolfo G

2013-11-15

137

Microfunnel-supported liquid-phase microextraction: application to extraction and determination of Irgarol 1051 and diuron in the Persian Gulf seawater samples.  

PubMed

In the present work, microfunnel-supported liquid-phase microextraction method (MF-LPME) based on applying low density organic solvent was developed for the determination of antifoulings (Irgarol 1051, diuron and 3,4-dichloroaniline) from seawater samples. In this method, home-designed MF device was used for facile loading and retrieving of organic solvent during the extraction procedure. The extraction was carried out with introduction of 400 ?L of toluene via syringe into the MF device placed on the surface of sample solution (300 mL) containing analytes. After the extraction, extractant layer was narrowed into the capillary part of MF by pushing the device inside the sample and withdrawn by using a syringe to evaporate by nitrogen purging. The residual redissolved into 50 ?L methanol, diluted to 100 ?L with deionized water and injected into the high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection (HPLC-UV). Several factors influencing the extraction such as the type and volume of extraction solvent, sample pH, extraction time and ionic strength were investigated and optimized. Under the optimized conditions, the limits of detection in seawater were 1.4, 4.8 and 1.0 ng L(-1) for 3,4-dichloroaniline (DCA), diuron and Irgarol 1051, respectively. Enrichment factors were obtained 333, 150 and 373 for DCA, diuron and Irgarol 1051, respectively. The precision of the technique was evaluated in terms of repeatability which was less than 12.0% (n=5). The applicability of the proposed method was evaluated by the extraction and determination of antifoulings from seawater samples collected from harbors of Bushehr located in northern Persian Gulf coast. PMID:25016323

Saleh, Abolfazl; Sheijooni Fumani, Neda; Molaei, Saeideh

2014-08-22

138

Nanoporous array anodic titanium-supported co-polymeric ionic liquids as high performance solid-phase microextraction sorbents for hydrogen bonding compounds.  

PubMed

A nanoporous array anodic titanium-supported co-polymeric ionic liquids (NAAT/PILs) solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber was prepared in situ on the titanium wire. NAAT was selected as the substrate, in view of its high surface-to-volume ratio, easy preparation, mechanical stability, and rich titanol groups on its surface which can anchor silica coupling agent containing vinyl and then introduce ionic liquid copolymers as sorbents. In this work, 1-vinyl-3-nonanol imidazolium bromide ([C9OHVIm]Br) and 1,4-di(3-vinylimidazolium) butane dibromide ([(VIM)2C4]2[Br]) were synthesized and used as monomer and crosslinker, respectively. Extraction properties of the NAAT/PILs fiber for polar alcohols and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) in aqueous matrix were examined using gaseous sampling-SPME (GS-SPME) and headspace SPME (HS-SPME) mode, respectively. Combining the superior properties of NAAT substrate and the strong hydrogen bond interaction of PILs to polar compounds, the NAAT/PILs SPME fiber showed much higher adsorption affinity to aliphatic alcohols than bare NAAT and pure PILs fibers. The detection limits (LOD) of established GS-SPME-GC-FID method are in the range of 0.35-17.30ngL(-1) with a linear range from 0.01 to 500ngmL(-1). Also, it showed high extraction performance toward volatile fatty acids (VFAs) compounds from aqueous matrix. Under the optimized SPME conditions, wide linear ranges were obtained with correlation coefficients (R(2)) greater than 0.99 and limits of detection were in the range of 0.85-8.74ngL(-1). Moreover, real-world samples were analyzed and good results were obtained. PMID:24210297

Jia, Jing; Liang, Xiaojing; Wang, Licheng; Guo, Yong; Liu, Xia; Jiang, Shengxiang

2013-12-13

139

Catalysis of Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes Supported PdxCoy Nanoparticles Prepared by a Pyrolysis Method Using Ionic Liquids as the Solvent toward Ethanol  

E-print Network

Method Using Ionic Liquids as the Solvent toward Ethanol Oxidation Reaction Hongwei Yang,a Yahui Wang temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) of butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (denoted as [BMIM]PF6.5/MWCNTs toward EOR were also discussed. Keywords: PdxCoy nanoparticles; Ionic liquids; Ethanol oxidation

Guo, John Zhanhu

140

Electronic simulation of the supported liquid membrane in electromembrane extraction systems: Improvement of the extraction by precise periodical reversing of the field polarity.  

PubMed

In order to understand the limitations of electromebrane extraction procedure better, a simple equivalent circuit has been proposed for a supported liquid membrane consisting of a resistor and a low leakage capacitor in series. To verify the equivalent circuit, it was subjected to a simulated periodical polarity changing potential and the resulting time variation of the current was compared with that of a real electromembrane extraction system. The results showed a good agreement between the simulated current patterns and those of the real ones. In order to investigate the impact of various limiting factors, the corresponding values of the equivalent circuit were estimated for a real electromembrane extraction system and were attributed to the physical parameters of the extraction system. A dual charge transfer mechanism was proposed for electromembrane extraction by combining general migration equation and fundamental aspects derived from the simulation. Dual mechanism comprises a current dependent contribution of analyte in total current and could support the possibility of an improvement in performance of an electromembrane extraction by application of an asymmetric polarity changing potential. The optimization of frequency and duty cycle of the asymmetric polarity exchanging potential resulted in a higher recovery (2.17 times greater) in comparison with the conventional electromebrane extraction. The simulation also provided more quantitative approaches toward the investigation of the mechanism of extraction and contribution of different limiting factors in electromembrane extraction. Results showed that the buildup of the double layer is the main limiting factor and the Joule heating has lesser impact on the performance of an electromebrane extraction system. PMID:25109858

Moazami, Hamid Reza; Nojavan, Saeed; Zahedi, Pegah; Davarani, Saied Saeed Hosseiny

2014-09-01

141

Influence of Sulfur on the Carbon Deposition in Liquid Hydrocarbon Steam Reforming over CeO2-Al2O3 supported Ni and Rh Catalysts  

SciTech Connect

This study was performed to elucidate the influence of sulfur on the carbon deposition in steam reforming of liquid hydrocarbons over CeO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} supported Ni and Rh catalysts at 800 C. The characteristics of the carbon deposits on the used catalysts after the reactions without and with sulfur were investigated by temperature-programmed oxidation (TPO), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM), temperature-programmed hydrogenation (TPH), X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Though abundant carbon deposits can accumulate on the pure CeO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} support due to fuel thermal cracking, the addition of Ni or Rh metal greatly reduced the carbon deposition in the sulfur-free reaction. The presence of sulfur increased the carbon deposition on both catalysts, which has a much more significant impact for the Ni catalyst. Carbon XANES study on the used catalysts revealed that graphitic carbon was dominant in the presence of sulfur, while oxidized carbon species (quinone-like carbon, carboxyl and carbonate) prevailed without sulfur. Meanwhile, the formation of carboxyl and carbonate more dramatically dropped on the Ni catalyst than that on the Rh catalyst. Our results strongly suggest that (I) the presence of sulfur can suppress carbon gasification and promote the formation of graphitic carbon on reforming catalysts due mainly to its poisoning effect on metals, and (II) Rh catalyst possesses stronger capability to maintain carbon gasification activity than Ni catalyst in the presence of sulfur.

C Xie; Y Chen; Y Li; X Wang; C Song

2011-12-31

142

A simple sample pretreatment device with supported liquid membrane for direct injection of untreated body fluids and in-line coupling to a commercial CE instrument.  

PubMed

A simple sample pretreatment device was developed employing extractions across supported liquid membranes (SLMs) and in-line coupling to a commercial CE instrument. The device consisted of two polypropylene conical units interspaced with a polypropylene planar SLM, which were impregnated with 1-ethyl-2-nitrobenzene. The two units and the SLM were pressed against each other, donor unit was filled with 40 ?L of an untreated body fluid and acceptor unit with 40 ?L of DI water. The device was then placed into conventional CE vial fitted with a soft spring, which was depressed during injection into CE capillary and ensured that the SLM was not ruptured. Position of separation capillary injection end and high-voltage electrode in the CE instrument was optimized in order to ensure efficient injection of pretreated body fluids. The device can be easily assembled/disassembled and SLMs can be replaced after each extraction thus minimizing sample carry-over, avoiding tedious SLM regeneration, and reducing total pretreatment time and costs. The pretreatment device was examined by direct injection of human urine and serum spiked with nortriptyline, haloperidol, and loperamide. The basic drugs were diffusionaly transported across the SLM within 10 min and were injected into the separation capillary directly from the SLM surface in the acceptor unit, whereas matrix components were retained by the SLM. The in-line SLM-CE method showed good repeatability of peak areas (3.8-11.0%) and migration times (below 1.4%), linear relationship (r(2) = 0.990-0.999), and low LODs (12-100 ?g/L). PMID:23161384

Pant??ková, Pavla; Kubá?, Pavel; Bo?ek, Petr

2013-01-01

143

Analysis of 7 synthetic musks in cream by supported liquid extraction and solid phase extraction followed by GC-MS/MS.  

PubMed

A new method for the simultaneous determination of 7 synthetic musks (musk amberette, musk tibetene, musk moskene, musk ketone, musk xylene, phantolide, and tonalide) in cream by means of supporting liquid extraction (SLE) coupled with LC-Alumina-N SPE, then followed by GC-MS/MS has been established. In this study, 7 synthetic musks are extracted and pre-purified by a mixture solution of water and isopropanol from cream, and separated and purified by tandem columns containing SLE column and LC-Alumina-N SPE column, which were seldom reported before. Ultrasonic and mechanical shaking were applied to improve the extraction efficiency. Different experiment conditions, such as the type of extraction solution, extraction time of ultrasonic and mechanical shaking, the type of SLE and SPE column, and matrix effects were optimized and the recoveries of 7 synthetic musks for each part were above 86.61%. In addition, the use of isotope internal standards was systemically discussed. The method showed satisfactory linearity over the range assayed (5-1000 ng g(-1)), and the limits of detections (LODs) ranged from 0.15 to 4.86 ng g(-1), and the limits of quantifications (LOQs) were ranging from 0.49 to 16.21 ng g(-1). The recoveries using this method at three spiked concentration levels (10, 100, and 1000 ng g(-1)) range from 85.6% to 109%. The relative standard deviation was lower than 9.8% in all case. The proposed analytical method has been successfully applied for the analysis of 7 synthetic musks in commercial cream. PMID:24468366

Dong, Haifeng; Tang, Hua; Chen, Dazhou; Xu, Ting; Li, Lei

2014-03-01

144

Sensitivity enhancement in direct coupling of supported liquid membrane extractions to capillary electrophoresis by means of transient isotachophoresis and large electrokinetic injections.  

PubMed

Enhanced sensitivity for determination of basic drugs in body fluids was achieved by in-line coupling of extraction across supported liquid membrane (SLM) to large electrokinetic injection and transient isotachophoresis-capillary zone electrophoresis (tITP-CZE) in commercial CZE instrument. Twelve cm long tITP plug of 300mM ammonium acetate was formed in the separation capillary just before the electrokinetic injection of acceptor solution containing nortriptyline, haloperidol and loperamide extracted across the SLM. The tITP plug ensured efficient stacking and preconcentration of the injected basic drugs due to the tITP action of ammonium and the drugs were then separated by CZE using 5.2M acetic acid as background electrolyte. No interferences were observed from highly-abundant body fluid species (NaCl and human serum albumin) due to the excellent clean-up properties of SLMs and analytical sensitivity increased up to 340 times compared to SLM extractions coupled in-line to CZE with standard hydrodynamic injections. The SLM-tITP-CZE method was characterized by good repeatability (RSDs of peak areas below 7.8%), linearity over two orders of magnitude (r(2) better than 0.994) and limits of detection (defined as 3×S/N) between 3 and 45?g/L. Interfacing of SLM extractions to CZE instrumentation was achieved by low-cost, disposable micro-extraction devices, which can be routinely prepared in every analytical laboratory. These devices eliminated sample carry-over, minimized the need for manual sample handling and ensured fully automated determination (including extraction, injection, preconcentration and separation) of the three basic drugs in 20?L of untreated body fluids. PMID:25747667

Pant??ková, Pavla; Kubá?, Pavel; Bo?ek, Petr

2015-04-10

145

In silico and in vitro metabolism studies support identification of designer drugs in human urine by liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Human phase I metabolism of four designer drugs, 2-desoxypipradrol (2-DPMP), 3,4-dimethylmethcathinone (3,4-DMMC), ?-pyrrolidinovalerophenone (?-PVP), and methiopropamine (MPA), was studied using in silico and in vitro metabolite prediction. The metabolites were identified in drug abusers’ urine samples using liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/Q-TOF/MS). The aim of the study was to evaluate the ability of the in silico and in vitro methods to generate the main urinary metabolites found in vivo. Meteor 14.0.0 software (Lhasa Limited) was used for in silico metabolite prediction, and in vitro metabolites were produced in human liver microsomes (HLMs). 2-DPMP was metabolized by hydroxylation, dehydrogenation, and oxidation, resulting in six phase I metabolites. Six metabolites were identified for 3,4-DMMC formed via N-demethylation, reduction, hydroxylation, and oxidation reactions. ?-PVP was found to undergo reduction, hydroxylation, dehydrogenation, and oxidation reactions, as well as degradation of the pyrrolidine ring, and seven phase I metabolites were identified. For MPA, the nor-MPA metabolite was detected. Meteor software predicted the main human urinary phase I metabolites of 3,4-DMMC, ?-PVP, and MPA and two of the four main metabolites of 2-DPMP. It assisted in the identification of the previously unreported metabolic reactions for ?-PVP. Eight of the 12 most abundant in vivo phase I metabolites were detected in the in vitro HLM experiments. In vitro tests serve as material for exploitation of in silico data when an authentic urine sample is not available. In silico and in vitro designer drug metabolism studies with LC/Q-TOF/MS produced sufficient metabolic information to support identification of the parent compound in vivo. PMID:23797910

Tyrkkö, Elli; Pelander, Anna; Ketola, Raimo A; Ojanperä, Ilkka

2013-08-01

146

Liquid-Liquid Extraction Processes  

E-print Network

Liquid-liquid extraction is the separation of one or more components of a liquid solution by contact with a second immiscible liquid called the solvent. If the components in the original liquid solution distribute themselves differently between...

Fair, J. R.; Humphrey, J. L.

1983-01-01

147

High-Surface-Area CO2 Sponge: High Performance CO2 Scrubbing Based on Hollow Fiber-Supported Designer Ionic Liquid Sponges  

SciTech Connect

IMPACCT Project: The team from ORNL and Georgia Tech is developing a new technology that will act like a sponge, integrating a new, alcohol-based ionic liquid into hollow fibers (magnified image, right) to capture CO2 from the exhaust produced by coal-fired power plants. Ionic liquids, or salts that exist in liquid form, are promising materials for carbon capture and storage, but their tendency to thicken when combined with CO2 limits their efficiency and poses a challenge for their development as a cost-effective alternative to current-generation solutions. Adding alcohol to the mix limits this tendency to thicken in the presence of CO2 but can also make the liquid more likely to evaporate, which would add significantly to the cost of CO2 capture. To solve this problem, ORNL is developing new classes of ionic liquids with high capacity for absorbing CO2. ORNL’s sponge would reduce the cost associated with the energy that would need to be diverted from power plants to capture CO2 and release it for storage.

None

2010-09-01

148

Conveyor Cultivation of the Halophytic Plant Salicornia europaea for the Recycling of NaCl from Human Liquid Waste in a Biological Life Support System.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One problem in designing bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS) is developing technolo-gies to include human liquid and solid waste in intrasystem recycling. A specific task is recycling of NaCl excreted in urine by humans. We showed recently that this could be achieved through inclusion of the salt accumulating halophyte Salicornia europaea in the autotrophic compart-ment of the BLSS (Balnokin et al., ASR, 2010, in press). A model of NaCl circulation in BLSS with inclusion of S. europaea was based on the NaCl turnover in the human -urine -nutrient solution -S. europaea -human cycle. Mineralized urine was used as a basis for preparation of a nutrient solution for the halophyte cultivation. The shoots of the halophyte cultivated in the mineralized urine and containing NaCl could to be used by the BLSS inhabitants in their diets. In this report we describe cultivation of S. europaea which allows turnover of NaCl and produces daily shoot biomass containing Na+ and Cl- in quantities approximately equal to those excreted in daily human urine. The plants were grown in water culture in a climatic chamber under controlled conditions. A solution simulating mineralized urine (SSMU) was used as a basis for preparation of a nutri-ent solution for S. europaea cultivation. For continuous biomass production, seedlings of S. europaea, germinated preliminary in moist sand, were being transferred to the nutrient solu-tion at regular intervals (every two days). Duration of the conveyor operation was 112 days. During the first 56 days, the seedlings were being planted in SSMU diluted by a factor of 1.5 (2/3 SSMU). The same solution was introduced into the growth vessels as volumes of growth medium decreased due to plant transpiration. Starting from the 56th day as conveyor operation was initiated, the plants were being harvested every two days; the solutions from the discharged vessels were mixed with the fresh SSMU and the mixture was introduced into all other growth vessels of the conveyor. Thus, during the first 56-d period, the plants grew only in the fresh nutrient solution, whereas during the second 56-d period, the worked out nutrient solutions were being returned into the cycle having been added to the growth vessels along with the fresh SSMU. Growth characteristics, water and ionic relations of S. europaea plants, balance of nutrients between organs and growth media for the first and second 56-d periods of the conveyor operation are presented. There was no significant difference in the rates of shoot biomass production during the first and the second periods. The plants were producing shoot biomass with the rates close to those observed under optimal conditions. However, substantial increase in root biomass production (by 50% on the dry mass basis) was observed in the second period as compared with the first one. Decrease in organ water contents on the dry mass basis (by 13% and 30% for shoots and roots, respectively) and transpiration rates (by 25%) occurred also in the second period as compared with the first one. Measurements of Na+ , Cl- and nutrient contents in the growth media and plant organs and calculation of their balances showed that the plants did not suffer from a deficiency of nutrients during the 112 days of the conveyor operation while accumulating required NaCl amounts. Observed root proliferation and deterioration of water relations in the second 56-d period of the conveyor operation may be caused by toxic plant metabolites exuded by roots into the growth medium.

Balnokin, Yurii; Myasoedov, Nikolay; Popova, Larissa; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Ushakova, Sofya; Tikhomirova, Natalia; Lasseur, Christophe; Gros, Jean-Bernard

149

Validated assay for the determination of celiprolol in plasma using high-performance liquid chromatography and a silanol deactivated reversed-phase support  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previously reported methods for the determination of celiprolol in plasma could not be satisfactorily employed due to interference from plasma components. Thus, an improved, convenient and efficient method for the determination of the plasma concentration of celiprolol was developed using a simple solvent extraction step followed by high-performance liquid chromatography on a silanol deactivated C18 column with fluorescence detection. The

F. C. K. Chiu; K. Raymond

1996-01-01

150

Separation and preconcentration of actinides by extraction chromatography using a supported liquid anion exchanger: application to the characterization of high-level nuclear waste solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel extraction chromatographic resin comprised of a quaternary amine-based liquid anion exchanger sorbed on an inert polymeric substrate for the sorption of actinides from nitric and hydrochloric acids is described. The resin is shown to exhibit preferential retention of tetravalent actinides over a wide range of acidities. The application of this material to the separation and preconcentration of selected

E. Philip Horwitz; Mark L. Dietz; Renato Chiarizia; Herbert Diamond; Sherrod L. Maxwell; Matthew R. Nelson

1995-01-01

151

The liquid-glass and liquid-liquid transitions of TPP at elevated pressure.  

PubMed

We studied the polyamorphism of the liquid triphenyl phosphite by means of broadband dielectric spectroscopy at ambient and elevated (p=500 MPa) pressures. The effect of pressure on fragility, liquid-liquid phase transition, and its kinetics is discussed in relation to the two-order-parameter model proposed by Tanaka. The experimental evidence in support of this model is presented. PMID:18671360

Mierzwa, Micha?; Paluch, Marian; Rzoska, Sylwester J; Zio?o, Jerzy

2008-08-28

152

Critical Phenomena in Liquid-Liquid Mixtures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Critical phenomena provide intriguing and essential insight into many issues in condensed matter physics because of the many length scales involved. Large density or concentration fluctuations near a system's critical point effectively mask the identity of the system and produce universal phenomena that have been well studied in simple liquid-vapor and liquid-liquid systems. Such systems have provided useful model systems to test theoretical predictions which can then be extended to more complicated systems. Along various thermodynamic paths, several quantities exhibit a simple power-law dependence close to the critical point. The critical exponents describing these relationships are universal and should depend only on a universality class determined by the order-parameter and spatial dimensionality of the system. Liquid gas, binary fluid mixtures, uniaxial ferromagnetism, polymer-solvent, and protein solutions all belong to the same (Ising model) universality class. The diversity of critical systems that can be described by universal relations indicates that experimental measurements on one system should yield the same information as on another. Our experimental investigations have tested existing theory and also extended universal behavior into new areas. By measuring the coexistence curve, heat capacity, thermal expansion and static light scattering (turbidity) in various liquid-liquid and polymer-solvent systems, we have determined critical exponents and amplitudes that have sometimes confirmed and other times challenged current theory. Recent experiments investigating the heat capacity and light scattering in a liquid-liquid mixture very close to the critical point will be discussed. This research is currently supported by The Petroleum Research Fund and by NASA grant NAG8-1433 with some student support from NSF-DMR 9619406.

Jacobs, D. T.

2000-04-01

153

SUPPORTED PHOSPHOLIPID MEMBRANE INTERACTIONS WITH 1-BUTYL-3-METHYL IMIDAZOLIUM CHLORIDE, A ROOM-TEMPERATURE IONIC LIQUID, ON SURFACES--A QUARTZ CRYSTAL MICROBALANCE WITH DISSIPATION STUDY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The use of the quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation has made it relatively easy and straight-forward to monitor and study surface-supported phospholipid membranes as they interact with other molecules such as proteins and DNA on different surfaces. Here at the National Center of Agricultura...

154

HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) THERMAL & SEISMIC PROJECT SEISMIC ANALYSIS IN SUPPORT OF INCREASED LIQUID LEVEL IN 241-AP TANK FARMS  

SciTech Connect

The overall scope of the project is to complete an up-to-date comprehensive analysis of record of the DST System at Hanford. The "Double-Shell Tank (DST) Integrity Project - DST Thermal and Seismic Project" is in support of Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-48-14.

MACKEY TC; ABBOTT FG; CARPENTER BG; RINKER MW

2007-02-16

155

Mothers' "liquid gold": a quality improvement initiative to support early colostrum delivery via oral immune therapy (OIT) to premature and critically ill newborns.  

PubMed

Early breast milk, known as colostrum ("liquid gold") provides immune benefits to infants, offering potential risk reduction for nosocomial infection (NI) and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), a serious gastrointestinal emergency. Provision of colostrum is recognized as oral immune therapy (OIT) and is valuable to all NICU infants unable to feed orally. A quality improvement project was initiated by the multidisciplinary NICU Quality Care Council at London Health Sciences Centres-Victoria (LHSC-VH) to obtain mothers' colostrum for early OIT. The initiative was driven by the Canadian EPIQ (Evidence-based Practice for Improving Quality) group as a means of reducing the rates of NEC and NI, two major morbidities in the NICU. The overall aim was to facilitate the availability of OIT to preterm and critically ill neonates as soon as possible after birth. PMID:24860950

Pletsch, Donna; Ulrich, Cindy; Angelini, Michelle; Fernandes, Gail; Lee, David S C

2013-01-01

156

Effect of content of chiral selector and pore size of core-shell type silica support on the performance of amylose tris(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate)-based chiral stationary phases in nano-liquid chromatography and capillary electrochromatography.  

PubMed

In this study the separation performance of various chiral stationary phases (CSPs) made of polysaccharide-based chiral selectors coated onto superficially porous (core-shell or fused-core) silica supports were evaluated. The CSPs obtained by coating of various amounts of chiral selector (1-5%) onto supports of various pore size (100 and 300 ?) were studied. Their evaluation was pursued in both chiral nano-liquid chromatography (nano-LC) and chiral capillary electrochromatography (CEC). Among the goals of this study was to re-examine our previous unexpected finding of better performance of superficially porous CSP under CEC conditions compared to nano-LC conditions for a new set of chiral compounds, as well as to study the effect of varying the chiral selector content and nominal pore size of supporting silica on the performance of core-shell silica-based polysaccharide-type CSPs. Based on the results of this study it can be seen that CSPs based on superficially porous silica can successfully be used for the separation of enantiomers in both nano-LC and CEC mode. Only a slight advantage of CEC over nano-LC mode was observed in this study from the viewpoint of plate numbers, especially at higher mobile phase flow rates. It must also be noted that the optimal theoretical plate height is still too high and further optimization of superficially porous CSPs is necessary for both nano-LC and CEC applications. PMID:24908153

Rocchi, Silvia; Fanali, Salvatore; Farkas, Tivadar; Chankvetadze, Bezhan

2014-10-10

157

Comparison of methods of liquid medium culture for banana micropropagation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five different liquid medium culture methods for meristem propagation of bananas were investigated and compared with solid medium culture. Treatments studied were: gelled culture medium (treatment 1); liquid medium with immersion of the plants (treatment 2); liquid medium with cellulose culture support (treatment 3); liquid medium with partial immersion of the plants (treatment 4); liquid medium aerated by bubbling (treatment

D. Alvard; F. Cote; C. Teisson

1993-01-01

158

High-performance liquid chromatography of amino acids, peptides and proteins. CXXIX. Ceramic-based particles as chemically stable chromatographic supports.  

PubMed

Porous zirconia based particles have been modified using different derivatisation procedures. The modified particles were characterised in terms of their accessible surface areas and degree of surface coverage of the bounded or physicoated phases utilising the strong and specific adsorption of phosphate ions to the zirconia surface. The hydroxyl group density was determined by a 1H NMR technique. The particles were modified by immobilising different silanes to introduce either hydrophobic ligands or reactive groups onto the zirconia surface. In the latter case, various ligands were then covalently attached to the activated supports. Using this type of modification, n-octadecyl- (C18), carbohydrate- and Cibacron Blue F3GA-modified zirconia particles were produced. Furthermore, polymeric coated particles were prepared either by using polybutadiene or by cross-linking the carbohydrate modified sorbents. The pH stability of the different sorbents were determined in batch experiments and under chromatographic conditions. The leakage of ligands was monitored by UV absorption and by employing radioactively labelled ligands. The performance of the C18 reversed-phase modified zirconia in packed columns was also used as an indicator of changes in the surface chemistry following pH stability tests. The experimental results indicate that the Cibacron Blue F3GA dye-modified sorbent was stable up to pH 10.5, the C18 reversed-phase packing up to pH 13 and the carbohydrate-bonded phase up to pH 12. These investigations substantiate the favourable chemical and physical characteristics anticipated for surface modified zirconias for potential use as chromatographic adsorbents. PMID:8408421

Wirth, H J; Eriksson, K O; Holt, P; Aguilar, M; Hearn, M T

1993-08-27

159

Tube support  

DOEpatents

A tube support for supporting horizontal tubes from an inclined vertical support tube passing between the horizontal tubes. A support button is welded to the vertical support tube. Two clamping bars or plates, the lower edges of one bearing on the support button, are removably bolted to the inclined vertical tube. The clamping bars provide upper and lower surface support for the horizontal tubes.

Mullinax, Jerry L. (Green Township, Summit County, OH)

1988-01-01

160

Market Liquidity and Funding Liquidity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We provide a model that links an asset's market liquidity (i.e., the ease with which it is traded) and traders' funding liquidity (i.e., the ease with which they can obtain funding). Traders provide market liquidity, and their ability to do so depends on their availability of funding. Conversely, traders' funding, i.e., their capital and margin requirements, depends on the assets'

Markus K. Brunnermeier; Lasse Heje Pedersen

2009-01-01

161

Mystery Liquids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this math lesson, learners analyze the density of liquids in order to explore linear functions. Learners gather mass and volume data for two mystery liquids, oil and water, and then use the data to explore linear functions. Learners discuss the physical meaning of the slopes and y-intercepts of the various lines they create from scatterplots.

PBS

2012-01-01

162

Liquid pearls  

E-print Network

This fluid dynamics video reports how to form liquid core capsules having a thin hydrogel elastic membrane named liquid pearls. These fish-egg like structures are initially made of a millimetric liquid drop, aqueous or not, coated with an aqueous liquid film containing sodium alginate that gels once the double drop enters a calcium chloride bath. The creation of such pearls with micrometer thick membrane requires to suppress mixing until gelling takes place. Here, we show that superimposing a two dimensional surfactant precipitation at the interface confers a transient rigidity that can damp the shear induced instability at impact. Based on this, pearls containing almost any type of liquids can be created. The video focuses on the dynamics of the entry of the compound drop into the gelling bath.

Bremond, Nicolas; Bibette, Jérôme

2010-01-01

163

Room temperature ionic liquids and their mixtures—a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Room temperature ionic liquids are salts that are liquid at room temperature and their use as catalysts and catalytic support has been studied extensively. They are also being considered as “green solvents” for various separation processes. Recent measurements reported on the properties of pure ionic liquids and their mixtures, including gas and liquid solubility in common organic solvents will be

K. N Marsh; J. A Boxall; R Lichtenthaler

2004-01-01

164

Sulfur poisoning of CeO[subscript 2]-Al[subscript 2]O[subscript 3]-supported mono- and bi-metallic Ni and Rh catalysts in steam reforming of liquid hydrocarbons at low and high temperatures  

SciTech Connect

In order to develop a better understanding on sulfur poisoning of reforming catalysts in fuel processing for hydrogen production, steam reforming of liquid hydrocarbons was performed over CeO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} supported monometallic Ni and Rh and bimetallic Rh-Ni catalysts at 550 and 800 C. XANES was used to identify the sulfur species in the used catalysts and to study their impacts on the metal surface properties probed by XPS. It was found that both monometallic catalysts rapidly deactivated at 550 C, and showed poor sulfur tolerance. Although ineffective for the Ni catalyst, increasing the temperature to 800 C dramatically improved the sulfur tolerance of the Rh catalyst. XANES revealed that metal sulfide and organic sulfide are the dominant sulfur species on the used Ni catalyst, while sulfonate and sulfate predominate on the used Rh catalyst. The presence of sulfur induced severe carbon deposition on the Ni catalyst at 800 C. The superior sulfur tolerance of the Rh catalyst at 800 C may be associated with its capability in sulfur oxidation. It is likely that the formation of the oxygen-shielded sulfur structure of sulfonate and sulfate can suppress the poisoning impact of sulfur on Rh by inhibiting direct rhodium-sulfur interaction. Moreover, XPS indicated that the metal surface properties of the Rh catalysts after the reaction without and with sulfur at 800 C are similar, suggesting that sulfur poisoning on Rh was mitigated under the high-temperature condition. Although the Rh-Ni catalyst exhibited better sulfur tolerance than the monometallic catalysts at 550 C, its catalytic performance was inferior compared with the Rh catalyst in the sulfur-containing reaction at 800 C probably due to the severe carbon deposition on the bimetallic catalyst.

Xie, Chao; Chen, Yongsheng; Li, Yan; Wang, Xiaoxing; Song, Chunshan (Penn)

2010-12-01

165

Steam generator support system  

DOEpatents

A support system for connection to an outer surface of a J-shaped steam generator for use with a nuclear reactor or other liquid metal cooled power source. The J-shaped steam generator is mounted with the bent portion at the bottom. An arrangement of elongated rod members provides both horizontal and vertical support for the steam generator. The rod members are interconnected to the steam generator assembly and a support structure in a manner which provides for thermal distortion of the steam generator without the transfer of bending moments to the support structure and in a like manner substantially minimizes forces being transferred between the support structure and the steam generator as a result of seismic disturbances.

Moldenhauer, James E. (Simi Valley, CA)

1987-01-01

166

Use of the big liquid argon spectrometer BARS for neutrino and cosmic-ray studies 1 1 The research described in the publication is partially supported by RFBR (grant No 96-02-16857)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of the fine grained 300t liquid argon calorimeter BARS is described. The BARS electronics include about 30K channels of low noise amplifiers and ADCs. The DAQ system makes it possible to select channels with signals above the chosen threshold. 48 scintillation hodoscopes placed inside the liquid argon are used to form the first level trigger. The total number

V. B. Anikeev; S. V. Belikov; S. N. Gurzhiev; A. G. Denisov; S. P. Denisov; N. N. Fedjakin; V. I. Kochetkov; V. M. Korablev; V. I. Koreshev; V. V. Lipaev; S. V. Los; V. N. Mikhailin; A. M. Rybin; A. N. Sytin; A. G. Bogdanov; T. M. Kirina; R. P. Kokoulin; M. A. Reznikov; A. A. Petrukhin; E. E. Yanson; E. N. Alexeyev; A. B. Chernyaev; V. B. Petkov; D. V. Smirnov; A. L. Tsyabuk; A. V. Voevodsky; G. Gennaro; F. Sergiampietri; G. Spandre; M. Lanfranchi; A. Marchionni; G. Conforto; F. Martelli

1998-01-01

167

[bmim]Cl\\/[FeCl 3] Ionic Liquid as Catalyst for Alkylation of Benzene with 1-Octadecene 1 1 Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No.20276038) and Beijing Natural Science Foundation (No.2052010)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study on the catalysis of ionic liquids for alkylation of benzene with 1-octadecene to synthesize LAB (linear alkylbenzenes) was performed. The results showed that the most important factor that governed the conversion of olefin and selectivity of LAB was reaction temperature. Moreover, the effects of different ionic liquids and molar ratio of benzene to 1-octadecene on the conversion and

Xuewen SUN; Suoqi ZHAO

2006-01-01

168

Method for treating liquid wastes  

DOEpatents

The method of treating liquid waste in a media is accomplished by exposing the media to phosphinimines and sequestering .sup.99 Tc from the media by the phosphinimine (PN) functionalities. The system for treating the liquid waste in the media includes extraction of .sup.99 TcO.sub.4.sup.- from aqueous solutions into organic solvents or mixed organic/polar media, extraction of .sup.99 Tc from solutions on a solid matrix by using a container containing PN functionalities on solid matrices including an inlet and outlet for allowing flow of media through an immobilized phosphinimine ligand system contained within the container. Also, insoluble suspensions of phosphinimine functionalities on solid matrices in liquid solutions or present on supported liquid membranes (SLM) can be used to sequester .sup.99 Tc from those liquids.

Katti, Kattesh V. (Columbia, MO); Volkert, Wynn A. (Columbia, MO); Singh, Prahlad (Columbia, MO); Ketring, Alan R. (Columbia, MO)

1995-01-01

169

Exploring Liquids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Young learners investigate and observe the properties of three liquids -- water, vegetable oil, and corn syrup. They use their senses to collect data and ask and answer questions. This lesson for young learners introduces the scientific process.

Sharon Janulaw

2010-01-01

170

Liquid-liquid transition in a strong bulk metallic glass-forming liquid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polymorphic phase transitions are common in crystalline solids. Recent studies suggest that phase transitions may also exist between two liquid forms with different entropy and structure. Such a liquid-liquid transition has been investigated in various substances including water, Al2O3-Y2O3 and network glass formers. However, the nature of liquid-liquid transition is debated due to experimental difficulties in avoiding crystallization and/or measuring at high temperatures/pressures. Here we report the thermodynamic and structural evidence of a temperature-induced weak first-order liquid-liquid transition in a bulk metallic glass-forming system Zr41.2Ti13.8Cu12.5Ni10Be22.5 characterized by non- (or weak) directional bonds. Our experimental results suggest that the local structural changes during the transition induce the drastic viscosity changes without a detectable density anomaly. These changes are correlated with a heat capacity maximum in the liquid. Our findings support the hypothesis that the ‘strong’ kinetics (low fragility) of a liquid may arise from an underlying lambda transition above its glass transition.

Wei, Shuai; Yang, Fan; Bednarcik, Jozef; Kaban, Ivan; Shuleshova, Olga; Meyer, Andreas; Busch, Ralf

2013-07-01

171

Liquid-liquid transition in a strong bulk metallic glass-forming liquid.  

PubMed

Polymorphic phase transitions are common in crystalline solids. Recent studies suggest that phase transitions may also exist between two liquid forms with different entropy and structure. Such a liquid-liquid transition has been investigated in various substances including water, Al2O3-Y2O3 and network glass formers. However, the nature of liquid-liquid transition is debated due to experimental difficulties in avoiding crystallization and/or measuring at high temperatures/pressures. Here we report the thermodynamic and structural evidence of a temperature-induced weak first-order liquid-liquid transition in a bulk metallic glass-forming system Zr(41.2)Ti(13.8)Cu(12.5)Ni10Be(22.5) characterized by non- (or weak) directional bonds. Our experimental results suggest that the local structural changes during the transition induce the drastic viscosity changes without a detectable density anomaly. These changes are correlated with a heat capacity maximum in the liquid. Our findings support the hypothesis that the 'strong' kinetics (low fragility) of a liquid may arise from an underlying lambda transition above its glass transition. PMID:23817404

Wei, Shuai; Yang, Fan; Bednarcik, Jozef; Kaban, Ivan; Shuleshova, Olga; Meyer, Andreas; Busch, Ralf

2013-01-01

172

Line liquids  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review the long wavelength description of three-dimensional liquids of entangled lines with an average orientation along the z-axis. Originally developed for polymer nematics, a closely related approach is applicable to the vortex liquid state of high temperature superconductors, and to ferro- and electrorheological fluids. The theory predicts unusual behavior of the three-dimensional structure function near the origin of reciprocal

David R. Nelson

1991-01-01

173

Ionic Liquids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ionic liquids are receiving an upsurge of interest as green solvents; primarily as replacements for conventional media in\\u000a chemical processes. This review presents an overview of the chemistry that has been developed utilising ionic liquids as either\\u000a catalyst and\\/or solvent, with particular emphasis on processes that have been taken beyond the pre-competetive laboratory\\u000a stage and represent clean industrial technology with

J. D. Holbrey; K. R. Seddon

1999-01-01

174

Method of forming supported doped palladium containing oxidation catalysts  

DOEpatents

A method of forming a supported oxidation catalyst includes providing a support comprising a metal oxide or a metal salt, and depositing first palladium compound particles and second precious metal group (PMG) metal particles on the support while in a liquid phase including at least one solvent to form mixed metal comprising particles on the support. The PMG metal is not palladium. The mixed metal particles on the support are separated from the liquid phase to provide the supported oxidation catalyst.

Mohajeri, Nahid

2014-04-22

175

Micropump based on liquid marbles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A micropump based on a pair of liquid marbles coated with various powders and connected with a capillary tube is presented. The idea of the micropump is based on the difference of the Laplace pressures in the marbles. The initial stream was supported by the pressure instability developed under water overflow. The reported experiments validate the concept of the effective surface tension of liquid marbles. The micropump could be used for precise delivery of small quantities of liquids, the design of microreactors and microfluidics applications.

Bormashenko, Edward; Balter, Revital; Aurbach, Doron

2010-08-01

176

Liquid phase methanol LaPorte Process Development Unit: Modification, operation, and support studies. Task 2.2: Process variable Scan Run E-8 and in-situ activation with syngas Run E-9  

SciTech Connect

The LPMEOH process was conceived and patented by Chem Systems Inc. in 1975. Initial research and studies on the process focused on two distinct modes of operation. The first was a liquid fluidized mode with relatively large catalyst pellets suspended in a fluidizing liquid, and the second was an entrained (slurry) mode with fine catalyst particles slurried in an inert liquid. The development of both operating modes progressed in parallel from bench scale reactors, through an intermediate scale lab PDU, and then to the LaPorte PDU in 1984. The slurry mode of operation was ultimately chosen as the operating mode of choice due to its superior performance.

Not Available

1991-02-28

177

Liquid Crystals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermochromic liquid crystals, or TLCs, are a type of liquid crystals that react to changes in temperature by changing color. The Hallcrest/NASA collaboration involved development of a new way to visualize boundary layer transition in flight and in wind tunnel testing of aircraft wing and body surfaces. TLCs offered a new and potentially better method of visualizing the boundary layer transition in flight. Hallcrest provided a liquid crystal formulation technique that afforded great control over the sensitivity of the liquid crystals to varying conditions. Method is of great use to industry, government and universities for aerodynamic and hydrodynamic testing. Company's principal line is temperature indicating devices for industrial use, such as non-destructive testing and flaw detection in electric/electronic systems, medical application, such as diagnostic systems, for retail sale, such as room, refrigerator, baby bath and aquarium thermometers, and for advertising and promotion specials. Additionally, Hallcrest manufactures TLC mixtures for cosmetic applications, and liquid crystal battery tester for Duracell batteries.

1990-01-01

178

Liquid marbles.  

PubMed

The transport of a small amount of liquid on a solid is not a simple process, owing to the nature of the contact between the two phases. Setting a liquid droplet in motion requires non-negligible forces (because the contact-angle hysteresis generates a force opposing the motion), and often results in the deposition of liquid behind the drop. Different methods of levitation-electrostatic, electromagnetic, acoustic, or even simpler aerodynamic techniques-have been proposed to avoid this wetting problem, but all have proved to be rather cumbersome. Here we propose a simple alternative, which consists of encapsulating an aqueous liquid droplet with a hydrophobic powder. The resulting 'liquid marbles' are found to behave like a soft solid, and show dramatically reduced adhesion to a solid surface. As a result, motion can be generated using gravitational, electrical and magnetic fields. Moreover, because the viscous friction associated with motion is very small, we can achieve quick displacements of the droplets without any leaks. All of these features are of potential benefit in microfluidic applications, and also permit the study of a drop in a non-wetting situation-an issue of renewed interest following the recent achievement of super-hydrophobic substrates. PMID:11418851

Aussillous, P; Quéré, D

2001-06-21

179

Rotating electric machine with fluid supported parts  

DOEpatents

A rotating electric machine in which the armature winding thereof and other parts are supported by a liquid to withstand the mechanical stresses applied during transient overloads and the like. In particular, a narrow gap is provided between the armature winding and the stator which supports it and this gap is filled with an externally pressurized viscous liquid. The liquid is externally pressurized sufficiently to balance the static loads on the armature winding. Transient mechanical loads which deform the armature winding alter the gap dimensions and thereby additionally pressurize the viscous liquid to oppose the armature winding deformation and more nearly uniformly to distribute the resulting mechanical stresses.

Smith, Jr., Joseph L. (Concord, MA); Kirtley, Jr., James L. (Brookline, MA)

1981-01-01

180

Liquid-liquid critical point in supercooled silicon  

E-print Network

A novel liquid-liquid phase transition has been proposed and investigated in a wide variety of pure substances recently, including water, silica and silicon. From computer simulations using the Stillinger-Weber classical empirical potential, Sastry and Angell [1] demonstrated a first order liquid-liquid transition in supercooled silicon, subsequently supported by experimental and simulation studies. Here, we report evidence for a liquid-liquid critical end point at negative pressures, from computer simulations using the SW potential. Compressibilities exhibit a growing maximum upon lowering temperature below 1500 K and isotherms exhibit density discontinuities below 1120 K, at negative pressure. Below 1120 K, isotherms obtained from constant volume-temperature simulations exhibit non-monotonic, van der Waals-like behavior signaling a first order transition. We identify Tc ~ 1120 +/- 12 K, Pc -0.60 +/- 0.15 GPa as the critical temperature and pressure for the liquid-liquid critical point. The structure of the liquid changes dramatically upon decreasing the temperature and pressure. Diffusivities vary over 4 orders of magnitude, and exhibit anomalous pressure dependence near the critical point. A strong relationship between local geometry quantified by the coordination number, and diffusivity, is seen, suggesting that atomic mobility in both low and high density liquids can usefully be analyzed in terms of defects in the tetrahedral network structure. We have constructed the phase diagram of supercooled silicon. We identify the lines of compressibility, density extrema (maxima and minima) and the spinodal which reveal the interconnection between thermodynamic anomalies and the phase behaviour of the system as suggested in previous works [2-9

Vishwas V Vasisht; Shibu Saw; Srikanth Sastry

2011-03-25

181

Formation of liquid and solid products from liquid phase pyrolysis.  

PubMed

The aim of the present work was to improve the C:O ratio in biomass by preserving the lignin macrostructure of lignocellulosic feed. The intention of liquid phase pyrolysis is to liquefy biomass and prepare biomass for further upgrading steps like hydrogenation and deoxygenation. Pyrolysis was carried out in a non-aqueous liquid phase heat carrier. The process was carried out in a semi-batch reaction vessel under isothermal conditions at T=350°C, supported by a quench to stop reactions instantaneously in order to observe formation of solid intermediates. This pyrolysis system enables the observation of liquid and solid product formation. Transformation of biomass into biochar was analyzed by infrared spectroscopy and elemental analysis. Stable lignin structure throughout the whole transformation was confirmed. It was shown that the lignin frame in wood remains without substantial loss, while the major amount of carbohydrates is pyrolyzed during liquid phase pyrolysis at T=350°C. PMID:22989638

Schwaiger, N; Witek, V; Feiner, R; Pucher, H; Zahel, K; Pieber, A; Pucher, P; Ahn, E; Chernev, B; Schroettner, H; Wilhelm, P; Siebenhofer, M

2012-11-01

182

Liquid Ammonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a review of the use of liquid ammonia as a solvent for chemical processes. Among the subjects covered are the physical properties of the solvent that defines it as “water like.” The physical and chemical processes associated with the formation of solutions and the properties of those solutions are also convered. Included is a discussion of metal?ammonia solutions,

J. J. Lagowski

2007-01-01

183

Layered Liquids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity involves an exploration of density. Why does oil float on water? How does drain cleaner sink down into the clogged pipe right through standing water? These questions will be answered as students make a layered "parfait" of colored liquids ba

John Eichinger

2009-05-30

184

Liquid ventilation  

PubMed Central

Human have lungs to breathe air and they have no gills to breath liquids like fish. When the surface tension at the air-liquid interface of the lung increases as in acute lung injury, scientists started to think about filling the lung with fluid instead of air to reduce the surface tension and facilitate ventilation. Liquid ventilation (LV) is a technique of mechanical ventilation in which the lungs are insufflated with an oxygenated perfluorochemical liquid rather than an oxygen-containing gas mixture. The use of perfluorochemicals, rather than nitrogen as the inert carrier of oxygen and carbon dioxide offers a number of advantages for the treatment of acute lung injury. In addition, there are non-respiratory applications with expanding potential including pulmonary drug delivery and radiographic imaging. It is well-known that respiratory diseases are one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in intensive care unit. During the past few years several new modalities of treatment have been introduced. One of them and probably the most fascinating, is of LV. Partial LV, on which much of the existing research has concentrated, requires partial filling of lungs with perfluorocarbons (PFC's) and ventilation with gas tidal volumes using conventional mechanical ventilators. Various physico-chemical properties of PFC's make them the ideal media. It results in a dramatic improvement in lung compliance and oxygenation and decline in mean airway pressure and oxygen requirements. No long-term side-effect reported.

Sarkar, Suman; Paswan, Anil; Prakas, S.

2014-01-01

185

Liquid Spreading under Nanoscale Confinement Antonio Checco*  

E-print Network

supported the above predictions without providing a conclusive picture. Early ellipsometry measurements for emerging technologies aiming at the formation and manipulation of smaller and smaller amounts of liquid [7

Ocko, Ben

186

Liquid tank leakage detection system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a system for use in detecting leakage within a liquid tank having a filler pipe. It comprises: a standpipe; coupling means; a float; a sensing beam; a beam support means; temperature means; strain measuring means; and float coupling means.

J. M. Harrison; H. L. Marshburn

1991-01-01

187

Liquid electrode  

DOEpatents

A dropping electrolyte electrode for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions.

Ekechukwu, Amy A. (Augusta, GA)

1994-01-01

188

Bearing for liquid metal pump  

DOEpatents

A liquid metal pump bearing support comprises a series of tangentially oriented spokes that connect the bearing cylinder to the pump internals structure. The spokes may be arranged in a plurality of planes extending from the bearing cylinder to the pump internals with the spokes in one plane being arranged alternately with those in the next plane. The bearing support structure provides the pump with sufficient lateral support for the bearing structure together with the capability of accommodating differential thermal expansion without adversely affecting pump performance.

Dickinson, Robert J. (Shaler Township, Allegheny County, PA); Wasko, John (Plum Borough, PA); Pennell, William E. (Unity Township, Allegheny County, PA)

1984-01-01

189

Supporting computer supported cooperative work  

E-print Network

Supporting computer supported cooperative work A case study from telemedicine Margunn Johansena study of a video-based telemedicine project - the DIMedS project (Development of Interactive Medical. Keywords: telemedicine, network, multimedia, support Keywords: HB20, CA10, CA14 Introduction Multimedia

Sahay, Sundeep

190

Viscoelastic cushion for patient support  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flexible container, filled with liquid, provides supportive device which conforms to patient's anatomy. Uniform cushion pressure prevents formation of decubitus ulcers, while the porous sponge substructure damps fluid movement through cushion response so that patient is not dumped when his weight shifts.

Sauers, D. G.

1971-01-01

191

Vapor liquid solid-hydride vapor phase epitaxy (VLS-HVPE) growth of ultra-long defect-free GaAs nanowires: Ab initio simulations supporting center nucleation  

SciTech Connect

High aspect ratio, rod-like and single crystal phase GaAs nanowires (NWs) were grown by gold catalyst-assisted hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE). High resolution transmission electron microscopy and micro-Raman spectroscopy revealed polytypism-free zinc blende (ZB) NWs over lengths of several tens of micrometers for a mean diameter of 50 nm. Micro-photoluminescence studies of individual NWs showed linewidths smaller than those reported elsewhere which is consistent with the crystalline quality of the NWs. HVPE makes use of chloride growth precursors GaCl of which high decomposition frequency after adsorption onto the liquid droplet catalysts, favors a direct and rapid introduction of the Ga atoms from the vapor phase into the droplets. High influxes of Ga and As species then yield high axial growth rate of more than 100 ?m/h. The diffusion of the Ga atoms in the liquid droplet towards the interface between the liquid and the solid nanowire was investigated by using density functional theory calculations. The diffusion coefficient of Ga atoms was estimated to be 3 × 10{sup ?9} m{sup 2}/s. The fast diffusion of Ga in the droplet favors nucleation at the liquid-solid line interface at the center of the NW. This is further evidence, provided by an alternative epitaxial method with respect to metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy and molecular beam epitaxy, of the current assumption which states that this type of nucleation should always lead to the formation of the ZB cubic phase.

André, Yamina, E-mail: yamina.andre@univ-bpclermont.fr; Lekhal, Kaddour; Hoggan, Philip; Avit, Geoffrey; Réda Ramdani, M.; Monier, Guillaume; Colas, David; Ajib, Rabih; Castelluci, Dominique; Gil, Evelyne [Clermont Université, Université Blaise Pascal, Institut Pascal, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); CNRS, UMR6602, Institut Pascal, F-63171 Aubière (France); Cadiz, Fabian; Rowe, Alistair; Paget, Daniel [Physique de la matière condensée, Ecole Polytechnique CNRS, Palaiseau (France); Petit, Elodie [Clermont Université, Université Blaise Pascal, Institut de Chimie de Clermont-Ferrand, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); CNRS, UMR 6296, ICCF, F-63171 Aubière (France); Leroux, Christine [Université de Toulon, IM2NP, Bât. R, B.P. 20132, 83957 La Garde Cedex (France); CNRS, UMR 7334, 83957 La Garde Cedex (France); Trassoudaine, Agnès [Clermont Université, Université Blaise Pascal, Institut Pascal, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); CNRS, UMR6602, Institut Pascal, F-63171 Aubière (France); Clermont Université, Université d’Auvergne, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France)

2014-05-21

192

Liquid electrode  

DOEpatents

A dropping electrolyte electrode is described for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions. 2 figures.

Ekechukwu, A.A.

1994-07-05

193

Liquid Rainbow  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this density activity, students determine the relative densities of five liquids and layer them atop one another in a straw. Directions for conducting the activity are included in addition to lists of the science process skills, complex reasoning strategies, and National Science Education Standards that relate to it. A brief explanation of the activity's science content and an assessment idea are also provided. This activity is part of a set called Whelmers that were designed to inspire students to think about science concepts.

Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning (McREL)

2004-01-01

194

Carbon supports from natural organic materials and carbon-supported palladium catalysts  

SciTech Connect

Experimental data are presented concerning the influence of preparation conditions on the pore structure of carbon supports obtained from different types of plant biomass, thermally expanded graphites, and chemically modified anthracites, on the distribution and particle size of supported palladium, and on the activity of the supported catalyst in the liquid-phase hydrogenation of hex-1-ene and cyclohexene.

Kuznetsov, B.N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

2007-07-15

195

Family Support.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This "Feature Issue" of the quarterly journal "Impact" presents 19 brief articles on family support systems in the United States for persons with developmental disabilities and their families. Emphasis is on provisions of Public Law 99-457. Articles include: "Family Support in the United States: Setting a Course for the 1990s" (James Knoll);…

Wieck, Colleen, Ed.; McBride, Marijo, Ed.

1990-01-01

196

Gauging Systems Monitor Cryogenic Liquids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rocket fuel needs to stay cool - super cool, in fact. The ability to store gas propellants like liquid hydrogen and oxygen at cryogenic temperatures (below -243 F) is crucial for space missions in order to reduce their volumes and allow their storage in smaller (and therefore, less costly) tanks. The Agency has used these cryogenic fluids for vehicle propellants, reactants, and life support systems since 1962 with the Centaur upper stage rocket, which was powered with liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. During proposed long-duration missions, super-cooled fluids will also be used in space power systems, spaceports, and lunar habitation systems. In the next generation of launch vehicles, gaseous propellants will be cooled to and stored for extended periods at even colder temperatures than currently employed via a process called densification. Densification sub-cools liquids to temperatures even closer to absolute zero (-459 F), increasing the fluid s density and shrinking its volume beyond common cryogenics. Sub-cooling cryogenic liquid hydrogen, for instance, from 20 K (-423 F) to 15 K (-432.4 F) reduces its mass by 10 percent. These densified liquid gases can provide more cost savings from reduced payload volume. In order to benefit from this cost savings, the Agency is working with private industry to prevent evaporation, leakage, and other inadvertent loss of liquids and gases in payloads - requiring new cryogenic systems to prevent 98 percent (or more) of boil-off loss. Boil-off occurs when cryogenic or densified liquids evaporate, and is a concern during launch pad holds. Accurate sensing of propellants aboard space vehicles is also critical for proper engine shutdown and re-ignition after launch, and zero boil-off fuel systems are also in development for the Altair lunar lander.

2009-01-01

197

Thermal support for scale support  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The thermal design work completed for the Thermal Protection System (TPS) of the Space Shuttle System (TPS) of the space shuttle vehicle was documented. This work was divided into three phases, the first two of which reported in previous documents. About 22 separate tasks were completed in phase III, such as: hot gas facility (HGF) support, guarded tank support, shuttle external tank (ET) thermal design handbook support, etc.

Dean, W. G.

1976-01-01

198

Ionic liquids as electrolytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salts having a low melting point are liquid at room temperature, or even below, and form a new class of liquids usually called room temperature ionic liquids (RTIL). Information about RTILs can be found in the literature with such key words as: room temperature molten salt, low-temperature molten salt, ambient-temperature molten salt, liquid organic salt or simply ionic liquid. Their

Maciej Gali?ski; Andrzej Lewandowski; Izabela St?pniak

2006-01-01

199

Magnetic Liquids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ferrofluidics Corporation's recent innovation is a spindle for rotating computer discs that supports the disc's rotating shaft on a film of magnetic fluid instead of conventional ball bearings. According to its developers, the spindle offers greatly increased rotational stability, meaning substantially reduced vibration and mechanical noise, and non- repeatable runout. This allows disc drives to store two to 10 times more information.

1987-01-01

200

Liquid-liquid-solid transition in viscoelastic liquids  

PubMed Central

Liquid-liquid-solid transitions (LLST) are known to occur in confined liquids, exist in supercooled liquids and emerge in liquids driven from equilibrium. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations claim many successes in forecasting the phenomena. The transitions are also studied in the framework of thermodynamics based methods and minimalistic models. In here, the proposed approach is derived in the framework of continuum and includes spatial and temporal dynamic heterogeneities; the approach is meant to capture the material behavior at small scales. We conjecture that the liquid-like and solid-like behaviors are dissimilar enough for the two to be governed by different constitutive relations. In this way, we gain additional degree of freedom, which is found essential when predicting the transitional phenomena. As a result, we derive the LLST criteria for liquids in equilibrium, during steady flow and at transient conditions. Lastly, we forecast short-lived LLSTs in human blood during cardiac cycle. PMID:23429528

Zubelewicz, Aleksander

2013-01-01

201

Liquid-liquid-solid transition in viscoelastic liquids.  

PubMed

Liquid-liquid-solid transitions (LLST) are known to occur in confined liquids, exist in supercooled liquids and emerge in liquids driven from equilibrium. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations claim many successes in forecasting the phenomena. The transitions are also studied in the framework of thermodynamics based methods and minimalistic models. In here, the proposed approach is derived in the framework of continuum and includes spatial and temporal dynamic heterogeneities; the approach is meant to capture the material behavior at small scales. We conjecture that the liquid-like and solid-like behaviors are dissimilar enough for the two to be governed by different constitutive relations. In this way, we gain additional degree of freedom, which is found essential when predicting the transitional phenomena. As a result, we derive the LLST criteria for liquids in equilibrium, during steady flow and at transient conditions. Lastly, we forecast short-lived LLSTs in human blood during cardiac cycle. PMID:23429528

Zubelewicz, Aleksander

2013-01-01

202

Liquid foams of graphene  

E-print Network

Liquid foams are dispersions of bubbles in a liquid. Bubbles are stabilized by foaming agents that position at the interface between the gas and the liquid. Most foaming agents, such as the commonly used sodium dodecylsulfate, ...

Alcazar Jorba, Daniel

2012-01-01

203

Lacerations - liquid bandage  

MedlinePLUS

Skin adhesives; Tissue adhesive ... the cut is minor, a liquid bandage (liquid adhesive) can be used on the cut to close ... bandage is quick and painless to apply. Skin adhesives, or liquid bandages, seal the cut closed after ...

204

What Is A Liquid?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The representation is an animation of the molecular motion of liquid and gaseous bromine. The motion of the atoms of liquid argon and the molecular motion of liquid water are shown as well. Descriptive information accompanies the animation.

205

Research News: Emulsion Liquid Membrane Extraction in a Hollow-Fiber Contactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This article describes how ELMs (emulsion liquid membranes) can be used for extraction. The article addresses the disadvantages of ELM extraction in a stirred contactor, and the advantages of SELMs (supported emulsion liquid membranes). The introduction of the article provides background information on liquid-liquid solvent extraction and dispersion-free solvent extraction.

Wiencek, John M.; Hu, Shih-Yao

2000-01-01

206

Survival of Mammals Breathing Organic Liquids Equilibrated with Oxygen at Atmospheric Pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because oxygen and carbon dioxide are very soluble in certain silicone oils and fluorocarbon liquids, these liquids will support respiration of mammals. Mice and cats respiring silicone oil die shortly after return to air breathing, while those breathing fluorocarbon survive for weeks. The respiration of mice is optimally supported by these organic liquids at about 20 degrees C. In cats,

Leland C. Clark Jr.; Frank Gollan

1966-01-01

207

Solids Liquids and Gases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Compare and contrast the three states of matter: solids, liquids and gases. First you will begin by looking at characteristics of each solids, liquids and gasesGases, Liquids and Solids Facts. Then you will look at examples of each stateSolids, Liquids and Gases Video. Demonstrate an understanding of solids, liquids and gases by playing interactive gameSolids, Liquids and Gases Game. Graphic Organizer is here to be filled out as you learn during this lesson. Use the red ...

Ms. Salter

2009-10-22

208

Shaped composite liquid marbles.  

PubMed

Shaped "cubic" non-stick droplets are reported. Shaped composite droplets were manufactured via a two-stage process. In the first stage, cubic foamed-polystyrene particles were hydrophilized with cold radiofrequency plasma. Then particles were wetted with water. In the second stage, they were coated with solid, colloidal particles such as lycopodium, Teflon or carbon black. Thus, "liquid marble"-like non-stick shaped droplets were obtained. The shaped "cubic" droplets remained stable when supported by a NaCl water solution. Shaped Janus droplets coated on one side with dielectric Teflon and with semiconductor carbon black on the other side, were prepared. Janus marbles were actuated with an electric field. PMID:24407678

Bormashenko, Edward; Balter, Revital; Aharoni, Hadas; Aurbach, Doron

2014-03-01

209

Minimizing liquid contaminants in natural gas liquids  

SciTech Connect

In processing natural gas liquids, significant contamination occurs with liquid dispersions and emulsions. Natural gas liquids (NGL) and liquid petroleum gas (LPG) streams are treated with caustic to remove residual organic sulfur compounds such as mercaptans and with amines to remove hydrogen sulfide. In both cases a liquid/liquid contactor is used. Significant amounts of the caustic or amine can be carried over into the product stream in process units that are running at rates above design capacity, are treating high sulfur feed stocks, or have other operational problems. The carried over liquid results in off-spec products, excessive loses of caustic or amine, and can cause operating problems in downstream processes. In addition, water is a significant contaminant which can cause LPG and natural gasoline to be off-specification. This paper discusses a new technique for separating very stable liquid dispersions of caustic, amine, or water from natural gas liquids using liquid/liquid cartridge coalescers constructed with specially formulated polymer and fluoropolymer medium with enhanced surface properties. In addition, factors influencing the coalescer mechanism will be discussed including interfacial tension, concentration of surface active compounds, steric repulsion, and electrostatic charge affects. Results from field tests, operating data from commercial installations, and economic benefits will also be presented.

Brown, R.L. [Pall Industrial Process Filtration, East Hills, NY (United States); Wines, T.H. [Pall Scientific and Laboratory Services, Port Washington, NY (United States); Williamson, K.M. [Pall Process Equipment Development, Cortland, NY (United States)

1996-12-31

210

Look-alike Liquids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners add drops of four liquids (water, alcohol, salt water, and detergent solution) to different surfaces and observe the liquids' behavior. Learners will see that liquids have characteristic properties which can be used for identification. In the related activity, " Developing Tests to Distinguish Between Similar-Looking Liquids" (see related resources), learners identify an unknown based on these properties.

James H. Kessler

2007-01-01

211

Liquid/liquid Extraction 62 LIQUID/LIQUID SEPARATION: EXTRACTION OF ACIDS OR BASES FROM NEUTRAL  

E-print Network

Liquid/liquid Extraction 62 LIQUID/LIQUID SEPARATION: EXTRACTION OF ACIDS OR BASES FROM NEUTRAL layer. 2. A neutral/carboxylic acid mixture is shaken with ether and NaOH/water. (Part 1) · The neutral. Isolating a neutral carboxylic acid from the NaOH/water layer: · Acidify/Neutralize HCl is added to acidify

Jasperse, Craig P.

212

Traveling Through Different Liquids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners observe and record what happens when they manipulate bottles containing a liquid (water or corn syrup) and one or more objects (screw, nail, paper clip). They should observe differences in how quickly the objects fall in the different liquids. This lesson builds on what learners have studied in previous lessons, Exploring Liquids and Exploring How Liquids Behave.

Sharon Janulaw

2010-01-01

213

Ionic Liquids Database- (ILThermo)  

National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

SRD 147 Ionic Liquids Database- (ILThermo) (Web, free access)   IUPAC Ionic Liquids Database, ILThermo, is a free web research tool that allows users worldwide to access an up-to-date data collection from the publications on experimental investigations of thermodynamic, and transport properties of ionic liquids as well as binary and ternary mixtures containing ionic liquids.

214

Support Systems  

E-print Network

thesis: SUPORT SYSTEMS Commite: __________________________ Chairperson __________________________ __________________________ Date approved: March 24, 2009 iii Abstract Support... has a double-edged consequence. On one hand it offers anonymity. But the resulting privacy comes at a cost ? it requires emotional distance; that distance is what can make someone fel lonely in a crowded room. A study published in 2006 by American...

Wood, Jody

2009-04-28

215

Differentiated Support  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Supporting teachers begins with designing professional learning that is responsive to their needs. Gone are the days of one-size-fits all professional development. Principals cannot ensure that all teachers are effective in the classroom if they don't create learning opportunities that move all teachers toward expertise with teaching. In this…

Flannagan, Jenny Sue; Kelly, Mike

2009-01-01

216

Supporting Structures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity about living things and gravity (page 5 of PDF), learners design and build an exoskeleton or an endoskeleton for an animal of their own invention. Learners consider their animal's habitat and body shape when designing its support structure. This guide includes background information, extensions, and a data sheet.

2012-07-24

217

Mirror Support  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Disclosed herein is a method of making a mirror support comprising a composite, the composite comprising a plurality of carbon nanotubes, wherein at least two of the plurality of carbon nanotubes are bonded to each other through a bridging moiety bound to each of the two carbon nanotubes, and a laminate comprising the composite.

Baron, Richard L. (Inventor)

2013-01-01

218

Supporting Diversity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This newsletter feature issue focuses on services for persons with developmental disabilities that support the whole person by acknowledging, respecting, and incorporating aspects of identity such as race, ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation, gender, age, and class. Articles include: (1) "Serving the Whole Person: The Journey to Embracing…

Horton, Betty, Ed.; And Others

1996-01-01

219

Liquid crystal polyester thermosets  

SciTech Connect

The present invention relates to the field of curable liquid crystal polyester monomers and to thermoset liquid crystalline polyester compositions prepared therefrom. It is an object of this invention to provide curable liquid crystalline polyester materials. Another object of this invention is to provide a process of preparing curable liquid crystal polyester monomers. Yet another object of this invention is to provide liquid crystalline blends of polyester materials. It is a further object of this invention to provide thermoset liquid crystalline polyester compositions. It is a still further object of this invention to provide thermoset liquid crystalline polyester compositions having a high heat resistance. 1 fig.

Benicewicz, B.C.; Hoyt, A.E.

1990-12-31

220

Liquid crystal polyester thermosets  

SciTech Connect

The present invention relates to the field of curable liquid crystal polyester monomers and to thermoset liquid crystalline polyester compositions prepared therefrom. It is an object of this invention to provide curable liquid crystalline polyester materials. Another object of this invention is to provide a process of preparing curable liquid crystal polyester monomers. Yet another object of this invention is to provide liquid crystalline blends of polyester materials. It is a further object of this invention to provide thermoset liquid crystalline polyester compositions. It is a still further object of this invention to provide thermoset liquid crystalline polyester compositions having a high heat resistance. 1 fig.

Benicewicz, B.C.; Hoyt, A.E.

1990-01-01

221

Supported phospholipid bilayers.  

PubMed Central

Phospholipid bilayers have been formed on glass, quartz, and silicon surfaces by a sequential transfer of two monolayers at a pressure of approximately 40 dyn/cm from the air-water interface to the solid substrates. Lateral diffusion measurements of L-alpha-dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayers supported on oxidized silicon wafers reveal two sharp phase transitions at temperatures similar to those found in multilayer systems with several different techniques. The diffusion measurements obtained using fluorescence recovery after pattern photobleaching provide evidence for the existence of an intermediate (probably P beta' or ripple) phase in single bilayers. While in the intermediate and high temperature (liquid-crystalline L alpha) phase, the diffusion coefficients do not vary very much with temperature, a strong temperature dependence is observed in the low temperature (gel L beta') phase. This is attributed to defect-mediated diffusion. Lipids in silicon supported bilayers made from L-alpha-dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) or L-alpha-dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) diffuse rapidly above their respective chain-melting transition temperatures. Arrhenius plots show straight lines with activation energies of 40.9 and 43.7 kJ/mol, respectively. Supported DPPC bilayers on oxidized silicon form long tubular liposomes when heated through their oxidized silicon form long tubular liposomes when heated through their chain-melting-phase transition, as viewed with epifluorescence microscopy. It is suggested that this is a consequence of the expansion of the lipid on the fixed solid support. Conversely, DOPC bilayers form large void areas on this substrate upon cooling. Large circular membrane defects (holes) are observed under rapid coating conditions. The formation of these defects is modulated by including small amounts of lyso-L-palmitoyl phosphatidylcholine in the DMPC-supported bilayers. A simple model describes the dependence of hole size and hole number on the concentration of lysolecithin. Images FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 PMID:3978184

Tamm, L. K.; McConnell, H. M.

1985-01-01

222

Exploring How Liquids Behave  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners apply their knowledge from a previous study to identify different liquids--water, corn syrup, and vegetable oil. They also investigate combinations of liquids, two at a time, to see how they interact. This is meant as a follow-up lesson to the related activity, Exploring Liquids. As an extension, learners can continue their study of these liquids in the lesson, Traveling Through Different Liquids.

2012-06-26

223

An experimental investigation on the static equilibria and dynamics of liquid bridges  

Microsoft Academic Search

A liquid bridge is a volume of liquid held between two or more solid supports. In the case of small disk supports with a sharp edge, the contact line between the bridge and the support disk will be anchored along the edge of the disk. For these cases the solid presents a geometrical singularity and the contact angle is indeterminate

Andrew Howard Resnick

1997-01-01

224

Liquid heating system  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes the method of creating a complete burn of combustible fuel within a heating system having a firebox at least partially surrounded by a liquid reservoir comprising placing fuel within a firebox having a knee wall extending upwardly from the bottom of the firebox so as to define a primary and secondary chamber on opposite side of the knee wall. The fuel is placed in the primary chamber adjacent the knee wall so as to create an air passage extending generally horizontally below the fuel and upwardly between the knee wall and the fuel. A fire core is created within the fuel. Negative pressure is used to create a streamlined air flow through the air passage, over the top of the knee wall and into the secondary chamber. The air flow moves at a speed where only a portion of the air flow can enter the fire core to support combustion of the fuel and to carry byproducts of the combustion upwardly from the fire core such that the byproducts combine with the streamlined air flow at the top of the knee wall and create a self-supporting after-burn in the secondary chamber whereby a clean burning, virtually pollution-free heating means is provided.

Pope, W.T.

1987-02-10

225

Liquid-liquid phase transition in water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water shows anomalies different from most of other materials. Different sceniaros have been proposed to explain water anomalies, among which the liquid-liquid phase transition (LLPT) is the most discussed one. It attributes water anomalies to the existence of a hypothesized liquid-liquid critical point (LLCP) buried deep in the supercooled region. We briefly review the recent experimental and theoretical progresses on the study of the LLPT in water. These studies include the discussion on the existence of the first order LLPT in supercooled water and the detection of liquid-liquid critical point. Simulational results of different water models for LLPT and the experimental evidence in confined water are also discussed.

Sun, ZhaoRu; Sun, Gang; Chen, YiXuan; Xu, LiMei

2014-05-01

226

Carbon cloth supported electrode  

DOEpatents

A flow-by anode is disclosed made by preparing a liquid suspension of about to about 18% by weight solids, the solids comprising about 3.5 to about 8% of a powdered catalyst of platinum, palladium, palladium oxide, or mixtures thereof; about 60 to about 76% carbon powder (support) having a particle size less than about 20 m.mu.m and about 20 to about 33% of an inert binder having a particle size of less than about 500 m.mu.m. A sufficient amount of the suspension is poured over a carbon cloth to form a layer of solids about 0.01 to about 0.05 cm thick on the carbon cloth when the electrode is completed. A vacuum was applied to the opposite side of the carbon cloth to remove the liquid and the catalyst layer/cloth assembly is dried and compressed at about 10 to about 50 MPa's. The binder is then sintered in an inert atmosphere to complete the electrode. The electrode is used for the oxidation of sulfur dioxide in a sulfur based hybrid cycle for the decomposition of water.

Lu, Wen-Tong P. (Upper St. Clair, PA); Ammon, Robert L. (Baldwin both of, PA)

1982-01-01

227

Liquid-film electron stripper  

DOEpatents

An improved liquid-film electron stripper particularly for high intensity heavy ion beams which produces constant regenerated, stable, free-standing liquid films having an adjustable thickness between 0.3 to 0.05 microns. The improved electron stripper is basically composed of at least one high speed, rotating disc with a very sharp, precision-like, ground edge on one said of the disc's periphery and with a highly polished, flat, radial surface adjacent the sharp edge. A fine stream of liquid, such as oil, impinges at a 90.degree. angle adjacent the disc's sharp outer edge. Film terminators, located at a selected distance from the disc perimeter are positioned approximately perpendicular to the film. The terminators support, shape, and stretch the film and are arranged to assist in the prevention of liquid droplet formation by directing the collected film to a reservoir below without breaking or interfering with the film. One embodiment utilizes two rotating discs and associated terminators, with the discs rotating so as to form films in opposite directions, and with the second disc being located down beam-line relative to the first disc.

Gavin, Basil F. (Albion, CA)

1986-01-01

228

A Liquid Sodium ? ? Dynamo Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Liquid Sodium ? ? Dynamo Experiment; Stirling Colgate, Howard Beckley, Hui Li, Richard Sonnenfeld, Dave Westpfahl, Ian Bentley, Rocky Ginanni, Travis Mckinnly, and Valadimir Pariev, LANL, NMIMT, & Univ. of Rochester. A liquid sodium ? ? dynamo experiment has been constructed at NMIMT to simulate MRI, dynamo gain, and feed back in liquid sodium (r1 = 15 cm,; r2 = 30 cm,; L=30 cm,; f1 = 120 Hz,; f2 = 30 Hz ). It is designed to simulate the generation of large scale magnetic fields in massive black hole accretion disks, galaxies, and stars. The omega gain is due to the shear flow of differential rotation of Couette flow between two differentially rotating co-axial cylinders. Differential rotation in a conducting fluid twists a radial or quadrupole magnetic flux into a greatly enhanced toroidal flux. A large coherent helicity is produced by driven plumes and astrophisically by star-disk collisions, supernova explosions, or large scale plume convection respectively. We have rotated the apparatus with water and hot oil and demonstrated stable Couette flow with only Ekman-flow-induced torque. We will report on the ? gain with liquid sodium. This Work has been supported by NMIMT, EMRTC, NSF, & LDRD of LANL.

Colgate, Stirling; Beckley, Howard; Li, Hui; Sonnenfield, Richard; Westpfahl, Dave; Bentley, Ian; Ginanni, Rocky; McKinnly, Travis; Pariev, Valadimir

2004-11-01

229

Tool to Prioritize Energy Efficiency Investments  

SciTech Connect

To provide analytic support of the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of the Building Technology Program (BTP), NREL developed a Microsoft Excel-based tool to provide an open and objective comparison of the hundreds of investment opportunities available to BTP. This tool uses established methodologies to evaluate the energy savings and cost of those savings.

Farese, P.; Gelman, R.; Hendron, R.

2012-08-01

230

Semiconductor nanorod liquid crystals  

SciTech Connect

Rodlike molecules form liquid crystalline phases with orientational order and positional disorder. The great majority of materials in which liquid crystalline phases have been observed are comprised of organic molecules or polymers, even though there has been continuing and growing interest in inorganic liquid crystals. Recent advances in the control of the sizes and shapes of inorganic nanocrystals allow for the formation of a broad class of new inorganic liquid crystals. Here we show the formation of liquid crystalline phases of CdSe semiconductor nanorods. These new liquid crystalline phases may have great importance for both application and fundamental study.

Li, Liang-shi; Walda, Joost; Manna, Liberato; Alivisatos, A. Paul

2002-01-28

231

Helium at elevated pressures: Quantum liquid with non-static shear rigidity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The properties of liquid helium have always been a fascinating subject to scientists. The phonon theory of liquids, taking into account liquid non-static shear rigidity, is employed here for studying internal energy and heat capacity of compressed liquid 4He. We demonstrate the good agreement of calculated and experimental heat capacity of liquid helium at elevated pressures and supercritical temperatures. Unexpectedly, helium remains a quantum liquid at elevated pressures for a wide range of temperature supporting both longitudinal and transverse-like phonon excitations. We have found that in the very wide pressure range of 5 MPa-500 MPa, liquid helium near melting temperature is both solid-like and quantum.

Bolmatov, D.; Brazhkin, V. V.; Trachenko, K.

2013-03-01

232

Heat exchanger support apparatus in a fluidized bed  

DOEpatents

A heat exchanger is mounted in the upper portion of a fluidized combusting bed for the control of the temperature of the bed. A support, made up of tubes, is extended from the perforated plate of the fluidized bed up to the heat exchanger. The tubular support framework for the heat exchanger has liquid circulated therethrough to prevent deterioration of the support.

Lawton, Carl W. (West Hartford, CT)

1982-01-01

233

Benzotriazol Type Liquid Crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new series of liquid crystals (LCs), benzotriazol ype which have high absorptivities to ultraviolet (UV) light within the wavelength range from 290 to 350 nm were synthesized. Their syntheses and liquid crystalline properties are reported in this paper.

Yinfa Yan; Lijuan Hu

1995-01-01

234

Industry Support  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is responsible for the Advanced Communications for Air Traffic Management (AC/ATM) Project, a sub-element task of the Advanced Air Transportation Technologies (AATT) Project of the NASA Aviation System Capacity Program (ASC). The AC/ATM Project is developing new communications technologies and tools that will improve throughput in the U.S. Air Traffic Control System. The goal of the AC/ATM Project is to enable a communications infrastructure providing the capacity, efficiency, and flexibility necessary to realize benefits of the future mature Free-Flight environment. The capabilities and scope of communications technologies needed to accomplish this goal depend on characteristics of the future Free-Flight environment. There are many operational concepts being proposed for a future ATM system to enable user flexibility and efficiency. GRC s focus is on developing new technologies and techniques to support the digital communication of information involving airborne and ground-based users. However, the technologies and techniques must be integrated with the systems and services that industry and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) are developing. Thus, GRC needs to monitor and provide input to the various industry and FAA organizations and committees that are specifying new systems and services. Adoption of technologies by the FAA is partially dependent on acceptance of the technology by the aviation community. The commercial aviation community in particular would like to adopt technologies that can be used throughout the world. As a result, the adoption of common or at least compatible technologies by European countries is a key factor in getting commitments to those technologies by the US aviation community. GRC desires to keep informed of European activities that relate to aviation communication technologies, particularly those that are being supported by Eurocontrol.

2003-01-01

235

Semiconductor Nanorod Liquid Crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rodlike molecules form liquid crystalline phases with orientational order and positional disorder. The great majority of materials in which liquid crystalline phases have been observed are comprised of organic molecules or polymers, even though there has been continuing and growing interest in inorganic liquid crystals. Recent advances in the control of the sizes and shapes of inorganic nanocrystals allow for

Liang-Shi Li; Joost Walda; Liberato Manna; A. Paul Alivisatos

2002-01-01

236

Volatile liquid storage system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a method of collecting and abating emission from a volatile liquid in an above ground storage tank. It comprises the liquid storage tank having a bottom, a vertical cylindrical circular wall having a lower edge portion joined to the bottom, and an external fixed roof, the tank having an internal floating roof floating on a volatile liquid

R. J. Laverman; P. J. Winters; J. K. Rinehart

1992-01-01

237

Renewable liquid reflection grating  

DOEpatents

A renewable liquid reflection grating. Electrodes are operatively connected to a conducting liquid in an arrangement that produces a reflection grating and driven by a current with a resonance frequency. In another embodiment, the electrodes create the grating by a resonant electrostatic force acting on a dielectric liquid.

Ryutov, Dmitri D.; Toor, Arthur

2003-10-07

238

User Guide: Liquids NMR  

E-print Network

User Guide: Liquids NMR Varian NMR Spectrometer Systems With VNMR 6.1C Software Pub. No. 01-999161-00, Rev. B0801 #12;User Guide: Liquids NMR Varian NMR Spectrometer Systems With VNMR 6.1C Software Pub. No. 01-999161-00, Rev. B0801 #12;User Guide: Liquids NMR Varian NMR Spectrometer Systems With VNMR 6.1C

Zhou, Pei

239

Got Thickened Liquids?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The utilization of new technology combined with an old process in need of updating led to the production of acceptable, affordable, safe and consistent thickened liquids. Due to the limited variety and high cost of pre-packaged thickened liquids. Nutrition and Food Service continued to individually mix thickened liquids by hand. This resulted in variable viscosity and unacceptable products. These inconsistencies

C. Adams; A. M. Barrett; B. Burgess; J. Daniel; M. Elghayesh

1998-01-01

240

Disability Support and Academic Support Support for your Studies  

E-print Network

Support offers advice on study strategies as well as supporting students with dyslexia, dyspraxia and experienced tutors who can provide support if you have, or think you have dyslexia, dyspraxia or other

Aickelin, Uwe

241

Theory of Negative Ions in Liquid Helium  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that Atkins' electrostriction model gives reasonable values for the mobility of positive ions in liquid helium. However, that model cannot account for the observed difference between positive- and negative-ion mobilities. Arguments are advanced in support of the \\

C. G. Kuper

1961-01-01

242

Mechanical models for tanks containing two liquids  

SciTech Connect

The well-known Housner`s mechanical model for laterally excited rigid tanks that contain one liquid is generalized to permit consideration of tanks that contain two liquids under the horizontal and rocking base motions. Two mechanical models are developed herein; one is for rigid tanks and the other for flexible tanks. The model for rigid tanks has a rigidly attached mass and infinite number of elastically supported masses. The rigid attached mass which possesses a mass moment of inertia represents the impulsive component, whereas the elastically supported masses which do not possess mass moment of inertia represent the convective component of the response. These masses and their heights are chosen such that, under the same base motions, the base shear and base moments of the model match those of the original liquid-tank system. The spring stiffness constants for the elastically supported masses in the model are determined from the sloshing frequencies of the liquid-tank system. The model for flexible tanks, however, only represents the impulsive action of the hydrodynamic response. It has an elastically supported mass that does not possess mass moment of inertia and a member that has no mass but possesses a mass moment of inertia. This latter model is proposed for the study of the effect of the soil-structure interaction.

Tang, Y.

1994-06-01

243

Rocking response of tanks containing two liquids  

SciTech Connect

A study on the dynamic response of upright circular cylindrical liquid-storage tanks containing two different liquids under a rocking base motion with an arbitrary temporal variation is presented. Only rigid tanks were studied. The response quantities examined include the hydrodynamic pressure, sloshing wave height and the associated frequencies, base shear and moments. Each of these response quantities is expressed as the sum of the so-called impulsive component and convective component. Unlike the case of tanks containing one liquid, in which the response is controlled by one parameter, height-to-radius ratio, the response of tanks containing two different liquids are controlled by three parameters: height-to-radius ratio, and mass density ratio and height ratio of the two liquids. The interrelationship of the responses of the tank-liquid system to rocking and lateral base excitations is established by examining numerical results extensively. The study shows that some of the response quantities for tank-liquid system under a rocking base motion can be determined from the available data for the response of an identical tank under a horizontal base motion. Base rocking motion can occur in a ground-supported tank or in an elevated tank under earthquake motions.

Tang, Y. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Reactor Engineering Div.

1995-01-01

244

Separating carbon dioxide and ethane by liquid-liquid extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mixture of carbon dioxide and ethane derived from a prior separation stage or recovery process is separated by liquid-liquid extraction. One of the liquids is a liquid azeotrope of carbon dioxide and ethane. The extraction liquid is a liquid hydrocarbon with more carbon atoms than ethane, that is, a hydrocarbon having at least 3 carbon atoms. In the extraction

Styring; R. E. Jr

1982-01-01

245

Propagation of a liquid-liquid explosion  

SciTech Connect

Direct contact between two liquids, one cold and the other hot, may be precluded by the presence of a vapor film. Bridging of this film by one or both fluids results in rapid local boiling, which may initiate a propagating liquid-liquid explosion. A mechanism is discussed for the propagation that involves implosion of the film, rapid mixing of the fluids, heat exchange to warm the cold fluid above the temperature for spontaneous nucleation, and the explosive generation of vapor, which in turn continues to sustain the film implosion. Plausibility for the model is demonstrated by means of numerical studies by high-speed computer.

Harlow, F.H.; Ruppel, H.M.

1981-08-01

246

Radiation monitor for liquids  

DOEpatents

A radiation monitor for use with liquids that utilizes air ions created by alpha radiation emitted by the liquids as its detectable element. A signal plane, held at an electrical potential with respect to ground, collects these air ions. A guard plane or guard rings is used to limit leakage currents. In one embodiment, the monitor is used for monitoring liquids retained in a tank. Other embodiments monitor liquids flowing through a tank, and bodies of liquids, such as ponds, lakes, rivers and oceans.

Koster, James E. (Los Alamos, NM); Bolton, Richard D. (Los Alamos, NM)

1999-01-01

247

Radiation monitor for liquids  

DOEpatents

A radiation monitor for use with liquids that utilizes air ions created by alpha radiation emitted by the liquids as its detectable element. A signal plane, held at an electrical potential with respect to ground, collects these air ions. A guard plane or guard rings is used to limit leakage currents. In one embodiment, the monitor is used for monitoring liquids retained in a tank. Other embodiments monitor liquids flowing through a tank, and bodies of liquids, such as ponds, lakes, rivers and oceans. 4 figs.

Koster, J.E.; Bolton, R.D.

1999-03-02

248

Liquid/Gas Vortex Separator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Liquid/gas separator vents gas from tank of liquid that contains gas randomly distributed in bubbles. Centrifugal force separates liquid and gas, forcing liquid out of vortex tube through venturi tube. Gas vented through exhaust port. When liquid detected in vent tube, exhaust port closed, and liquid/gas mixture in vent tube drawn back into tank through venturi.

Morris, B. G.

1986-01-01

249

Nuclear reactor construction with bottom supported reactor vessel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an improved liquid metal nuclear reactor construction comprising: (a) a nuclear reactor core having a bottom platform support structure; (b) a reactor vessel for holding a large pool of low pressure liquid metal coolant and housing the core; (c) a containment structure surrounding the reactor vessel and having a sidewall spaced outwardly from the reactor vessel side

Sharbaugh

1987-01-01

250

Phase selectively soluble polymer supports to facilitate homogeneous catalysis  

E-print Network

............................................. 11 4 Liquid-liquid separation technique for soluble polymer supports separation ................................................................................................... 14 5 The SHOP production of ?-olefins... ................................................................................................. 61 4 Phase selective solubility of poly(N-octadecylacrylamide-co-N-n-butyl- acrylamide) copolymers ............................................................................. 63 5 Molecular weights, polydispersity indeces, and degrees...

Ortiz-Acosta, Denisse

2009-05-15

251

Liquid Wall Chambers  

SciTech Connect

The key feature of liquid wall chambers is the use of a renewable liquid layer to protect chamber structures from target emissions. Two primary options have been proposed and studied: wetted wall chambers and thick liquid wall (TLW) chambers. With wetted wall designs, a thin layer of liquid shields the structural first wall from short ranged target emissions (x-rays, ions and debris) but not neutrons. Various schemes have been proposed to establish and renew the liquid layer between shots including flow-guiding porous fabrics (e.g., Osiris, HIBALL), porous rigid structures (Prometheus) and thin film flows (KOYO). The thin liquid layer can be the tritium breeding material (e.g., flibe, PbLi, or Li) or another liquid metal such as Pb. TLWs use liquid jets injected by stationary or oscillating nozzles to form a neutronically thick layer (typically with an effective thickness of {approx}50 cm) of liquid between the target and first structural wall. In addition to absorbing short ranged emissions, the thick liquid layer degrades the neutron flux and energy reaching the first wall, typically by {approx}10 x x, so that steel walls can survive for the life of the plant ({approx}30-60 yrs). The thick liquid serves as the primary coolant and tritium breeding material (most recent designs use flibe, but the earliest concepts used Li). In essence, the TLW places the fusion blanket inside the first wall instead of behind the first wall.

Meier, W R

2011-02-24

252

Duality of liquids  

PubMed Central

Liquids flow, and in this sense are close to gases. At the same time, interactions in liquids are strong as in solids. The combination of these two properties is believed to be the ultimate obstacle to constructing a general theory of liquids. Here, we adopt a new approach: instead of focusing on the problem of strong interactions, we zero in on the relative contributions of vibrational and diffusional motion. We show that liquid energy and specific heat are given, to a very good approximation, by their vibrational contributions as in solids over almost entire range of relaxation time in which liquids exist as such, and demonstrate that this result is consistent with liquid entropy exceeding solid entropy. Our analysis therefore reveals an interesting duality of liquids not hitherto known: they are close to solids from the thermodynamic perspective and to flowing gases. We discuss several implications of this result. PMID:23851971

Trachenko, K.; Brazhkin, V. V.

2013-01-01

253

Liquid cooled exhaust flange  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a liquid-cooled exhaust flange for mating a liquid-jacketed exhaust conduit system to a conventional internal combustion engine turbo charger discharge port. It comprises: a generally cylindrical elongated exhaust conduit member adapted to mate in sandwiched relationship between the turbo charger housing and the liquid-jacketed exhaust conduit system; a cooling liquid-jacket housing internally and concentrically connected to the exhaust conduit member adapted to mate in fluidly communicating relationship with a flow of cooling liquid within the liquid-jacketed exhaust conduit system; the liquid-jacket housing covering a substantial portion of the external surface area of the exhaust conduit member so as to reduce the temperature of the external surface of the exhaust flange.

Woods, W.E.

1990-04-24

254

The Liquid Crystal Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The homepage of the Liquid Crystal Institute (LCI) presents gorgeous color images produced from liquid crystal, research overviews, technology invention abstracts, news and conference links, and more. LCI is part of a consortium, selected by the National Science Foundation, based at the Center for Advanced Liquid Crystalline Optical Materials (ALCOM) at Kent State University. The consortium includes Kent State University, Case Western Reserve University, and the University of Akron. ALCOM focuses on interdisciplinary research and development of liquid crystal optoelectronic materials, technology, and consumer products. A few of the liquid crystal studies featured here are fine structure and oily streak defects, magneto-optic response, text display applications, and organic synthesis. One of LCI's projects, the Polymers and Liquid Crystals Textbook, was featured in the December 13, 1996 Scout Report for Science & Engineering The LCI Website is not especially well-organized, but it contains lots of information about liquid crystal technology.

255

Heat transfer in gas-liquid and liquid-liquid two phase plug flow systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquid-gas and liquid-liquid two phase flows are examined. It has been recently documented that gas-liquid segmented flows offer a thermal enhancement advantage over single phase flows, since the plug flow (Taylor flow) regime produces internal circulations which enhance radial transport. Additional strategies in liquid-gas and liquid-liquid cooling are being pursued with liquid cooled heat sinks. Proper heat transfer and pressure

N. Janes; Y. S. Muzychka; B. Guy; E. J. Walsh; P. Walsh

2010-01-01

256

Patient & Family Support Programs  

E-print Network

Patients and supporters welcome. Support Services Room, Level 3, NCCC Pancreatic Cancer Support Group May with Pancreatic Cancer Action Network Support Services Room, Level 3, NCCC PSA at NCCC: Prostate Support Alliance

Myers, Lawrence C.

257

Intensification of Liquid-Liquid Contacting Processes  

E-print Network

different energy sources and were investigated in this dissertation. They include electrostatic liquid spraying based on electric field and a two-disc spinning disc reactor based on high gravity field. Interfacial turbulence plays an important role...

Qiu, Zheyan

2010-09-01

258

Modeling and Dynamic Management of 3D Multicore Systems with Liquid Cooling  

E-print Network

Modeling and Dynamic Management of 3D Multicore Systems with Liquid Cooling Ayse K. Coskun , Jos becomes a limiting factor. Liquid cooling is a solution to overcome the accelerated thermal problems including liquid cooling, supporting both fixed and variable fluid injection rates. Our model has been

Simunic, Tajana

259

LAL/RT 06-04 ATLAS ENDCAP LIQUID ARGON CALORIMETERS  

E-print Network

� � �º¹�º � ÐÐ � #12;LAL/RT 06-04 May 2006 ATLAS ENDCAP LIQUID ARGON CALORIMETERS Description and charge detection in liquid argon. They are therefore all grouped in the same vessel which must basically support and keep in place the heavy plates and the detection electrodes and maintain liquid argon at cold

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

260

Thrust vector control by liquid injection for solid propellant rockets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In liquid injection thrust vector control, a rocket jet is deflected for steering purposed by injecting a liquid into the nozzle exit cone. The liquid is preferably both dense and reactive so that it adds mass and energy and generates shocks in the supersonic exhaust. This behavior increases thrust in the affected part of the jet producing not only a side force for steering but an addition to axial thrust. This paper presents a summary of current liquid injection thrust vector control technology, including procedures for design, development, analysis, testing and evaluation, together with supporting data and references.

Zeamer, R. J.

1975-01-01

261

Liquid Crystal Materials and Liquid Crystal Displays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the early 1970s, three major prerequisites have brought the success of the liquid crystal display (LCD) technology to its key role of today. Namely, the discovery of electro-optical field-effects on which the displays are based, the successful search for liquid crystals (LCs) with material properties that meet the complex requirements of electro-optical effects and render the effects applicable in

Martin Schadt

1997-01-01

262

Modeling Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium of Ionic Liquid Systems with NRTL, Electrolyte-NRTL, and UNIQUAC  

E-print Network

Modeling Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium of Ionic Liquid Systems with NRTL, Electrolyte-NRTL, and UNIQUAC: markst@nd.edu #12;Abstract Characterization of liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) in system containing ionic; Ionic liquids; Octanol-water partition coefficients; Excess Gibbs energy models; Electrolyte models #12

Stadtherr, Mark A.

263

Bent core liquid crystal elastomers  

SciTech Connect

Liquid crystal (LC) elastomers with bent-core side-groups incorporate the properties of bent-core liquid crystals in a flexible and self-supporting polymer network. Bent-core liquid crystal elastomers (BCEs) with uniform alignment were prepared by attaching a reactive bent-core LC to poly(hydrogenmethylsiloxane) and crosslinking with a divinyl crosslinker. Phase behavior studies indicate a nematic phase over a wide temperature range that approaches room temperature, and thermoelastic measurements show that these BCEs can reversibly change their length by more than a factor of two upon heating and cooling. Small-angle X-ray scattering studies reveal multiple, broad low-angle peaks consistent with short-range smectic C order of the bent-core side groups. A comparison of these patterns with predictions of a Landau model for short-range smectic C order shows that the length scale for smectic ordering in BCEs is similar to that seen in pure bent-core LCs. The combination of rubber elasticity and smectic ordering of the bent-core side groups suggests that BCEs may be promising materials for sensing, actuating, and other advanced applications.

Verduzco, R.; DiMasi, E.; Luchette, P.; Ho Hong, S.; Harden, J.; Palffy-Muhoray, P.; Kilbey II, S.M.; Sprunt, S.; Gleeson, G.T. Jakli, A.

2010-07-28

264

Arsenic removal by liquid membranes.  

PubMed

Water contamination with harmful arsenic compounds represents one of the most serious calamities of the last two centuries. Natural occurrence of the toxic metal has been revealed recently for 21 countries worldwide; the risk of arsenic intoxication is particularly high in Bangladesh and India but recently also Europe is facing similar problem. Liquid membranes (LMs) look like a promising alternative to the existing removal processes, showing numerous advantages in terms of energy consumption, efficiency, selectivity, and operational costs. The development of different LM configurations has been a matter of investigation by several researching groups, especially for the removal of As(III) and As(V) from aqueous solutions. Most of these LM systems are based on the use of phosphine oxides as carriers, when the metal removal is from sulfuric acid media. Particularly promising for water treatment is the hollow fiber supported liquid membrane (HFSLM) configuration, which offers high selectivity, easy transport of the targeted metal ions, large surface area, and non-stop flow process. The choice of organic extractant(s) plays an essential role in the efficiency of the arsenic removal. Emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) systems have not been extensively investigated so far, although encouraging results have started to appear in the literature. For such LM configuration, the most relevant step toward efficiency is the choice of the surfactant type and its concentration. PMID:25826756

Marino, Tiziana; Figoli, Alberto

2015-01-01

265

Solid-ionic liquid interfaces: pore filling revisited.  

PubMed

The properties of ionic liquids on ordered and non-ordered mesoporous silicas (silica gel, MCM-41, SBA-15) were studied by nitrogen sorption, mercury intrusion and thermogravimetric analyses, as well as (129)Xe-NMR spectroscopy. The ionic liquids investigated are based on the 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium cation, which was combined with anions of low (bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide; [NTf2](-)), medium (trifluoromethylsulfonate; [CF3SO3](-)) to high (acetate; [OAc](-)) basicity. The surface coverage depends on both the type of ionic liquid and support used. This results not only in layer or droplet formation, but also in different physico-chemical properties of the ionic liquid when compared to the bulk, depending mainly on the strength of interaction at the interface. Furthermore, the mercury intrusion analysis of mesopores is shown not to be suitable for supported ionic liquids. PMID:25300707

Heinze, M T; Zill, J C; Matysik, J; Einicke, W D; Gläser, R; Stark, A

2014-11-28

266

Ionic liquid droplet as e-microreactor.  

PubMed

A powerful approach combining a droplet-based, open digital microfluidic lab-on-a-chip using task-specific ionic liquids as soluble supports to perform solution-phase synthesis is reported as a new tool for chemical applications. The negligible volatility of ionic liquids enables their use as stable droplet reactors on a chip surface under air. The concept was validated with different ionic liquids and with a multicomponent reaction. Indeed, we showed that different ionic liquids can be moved by electrowetting on dielectric (EWOD), and their displacement was compared with aqueous solutions. Furthermore, we showed that mixing ionic liquids droplets, each containing a different reagent, in "open" systems is an efficient way of carrying supported organic synthesis. This was applied to Grieco's tetrahydroquinolines synthesis with different reagents. Analysis of the final product was performed off-line and on-line, and the results were compared with those obtained in a conventional reaction flask. This technology opens the way to easy synthesis of minute amounts of compounds ad libitum without the use of complex, expensive, and bulky robots and allows complete automation of the process for embedded chemistry in a portable device. It offers several advantages, including simplicity of use, flexibility, and scalability, and appears to be complementary to conventional microfluidic lab-on-a-chip devices usually based on continuous-flow in microchannels. PMID:16841910

Dubois, Philippe; Marchand, Gilles; Fouillet, Yves; Berthier, Jean; Douki, Thierry; Hassine, Fatima; Gmouh, Said; Vaultier, Michel

2006-07-15

267

PREFACE: 6th Liquid Matter Conference  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This special issue of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter contains the Proceedings of the 6th Liquid Matter Conference held in Utrecht, The Netherlands, 2-6 July 2005. The three-yearly Liquid Matter Conference is organized by the Liquids Section of the Condensed Matter Division of the European Physical Society. This series of meetings began in Lyon in 1990. The most recent meeting was held in 2003 in Konstanz. The aim of the Liquid Matter Conferences is to bring together scientists working on the liquid state of matter. This rapidly growing field includes the physics, chemistry, biology and chemical engineering of liquid matter as well as various applied research areas. In fact, the Utrecht meeting had, for the first time, a special session devoted to Fundamental Challenges in Applied Liquid Physics and Microfluidics. The Utrecht meeting had 760 registered participants from four continents. An important event at this meeting was the award of the First Liquid Matter Prize of the European Physical Society to Professor Jean-Pierre Hansen FRS, of Cambridge University. In addition to a plenary speech by the recipient of the Liquid Matter Prize, the scientific programme consisted of 10 plenary lectures, 117 symposia talks, 25 of which were keynote lectures and some 650 poster contributions. The meeting also hosted a one-day symposium of the Division of Liquids and Interfaces of the Chemical Sciences division of NWO. This special issue of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter contains 61 of the oral communications. Liquid state physics is at the interface of many fields of research. As a consequence, many of the attendants come from adjacent fields and find in the Liquid Matter Conference a forum to meet experts from other areas of research. This aspect of the Liquid Matter Conference makes it an exciting meeting as it not only offers the participants an up-to-date picture of the status of research into the liquid state of matter, but it also allows them to establish new (and often unexpected) trans-disciplinary contacts for joint scientific endeavours. This applies in particular to the area of soft condensed matter such as colloidal suspensions, polymeric systems and biological materials. The conference was held at the Uithof, the campus of the University of Utrecht. The organizers gratefully acknowledge the generosity of the University and City of Utrecht, which enabled us to stage both the scientific part of the conference and several festive and cultural events in some of the most attractive venues of the Netherlands. We were also delighted by the substantial contributions offered by the sponsors of the 6th Liquid Matter Conference. With this support it became possible to support a large number of scientists who would otherwise not have been able to attend. Finally, we owe a great debt of gratitude to the secretarial staff of the conference and the many students, postdocs and other colleagues who helped tirelessly (and very efficiently) to make the conference run smoothly. The Board of the Liquids Section of the European Physical Society decided that the 7th Liquid Matter Conference will be held in Lund (Sweden). The tentative dates are Friday 27 June 2008 to Tuesday 1 July 2008.

Dijkstra, Marjolein; van Roij, René; Vroege, Gert Jan; Lekkerkerker, Henk; Frenkel, Daan

2005-11-01

268

Evidence for Liquid Water on Comets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have reexamined the arguments for the existence of liquid water on comets, and believe that recent cometary flybys along with pre-Giotto data support its presence on short-period comets. Liquid water would affect cometary dynamics, leaving distinct signatures in precession, orbital dynamics, and potential splitting of comets. Liquid water geysers would affect cometary atmosphere, dust evolution, and non-gravitational forces that perturb the orbit. Liquid water would affect the composition of both the interior and exterior of the comet, producing geologic effects consistent with recent flyby photographs. And most importantly, liquid water suppork the growth of lifeforms, which would make a comet a biofriendly incubator for interplanetary transport. The major objection against liquid water is the necessity of a pressure vessel to prevent sublimation into space. We discuss how such a pressure vessel could naturally evolve as a pristine comet makes its first journey inside the orbit of Mars, and suggest that this type of vessel was observed by Giotto, Deep Space I, and Stardust.

Sheldon, Robert; Hoover, Richard

2005-01-01

269

Monogroove liquid heat exchanger  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A liquid supply control is disclosed for a heat transfer system which transports heat by liquid-vapor phase change of a working fluid. An assembly (10) of monogroove heat pipe legs (15) can be operated automatically as either heat acquisition devices or heat discharge sources. The liquid channels (27) of the heat pipe legs (15) are connected to a reservoir (35) which is filled and drained by respective filling and draining valves (30, 32). Information from liquid level sensors (50, 51) on the reservoir (35) is combined (60) with temperature information (55) from the liquid heat exchanger (12) and temperature information (56) from the assembly vapor conduit (42) to regulate filling and draining of the reservoir (35), so that the reservoir (35) in turn serves the liquid supply/drain needs of the heat pipe legs (15), on demand, by passive capillary action (20, 28).

Brown, Richard F. (Inventor); Edelstein, Fred (Inventor)

1990-01-01

270

Liquid level detector  

DOEpatents

A liquid level detector for conductive liquids for vertical installation in a tank, the detector having a probe positioned within a sheath and insulated therefrom by a seal so that the tip of the probe extends proximate to but not below the lower end of the sheath, the lower end terminating in a rim that is provided with notches, said lower end being tapered, the taper and notches preventing debris collection and bubble formation, said lower end when contacting liquid as it rises will form an airtight cavity defined by the liquid, the interior sheath wall, and the seal, the compression of air in the cavity preventing liquid from further entry into the sheath and contact with the seal. As a result, the liquid cannot deposit a film to form an electrical bridge across the seal.

Tshishiku, Eugene M. (Augusta, GA)

2011-08-09

271

Liquid detection trial with x-ray diffraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SALOME (an acronym for Small Angle Lab Operation Measuring Equipment) is a versatile, energy-dispersive x-ray diffraction imaging (XDi) test-bed facility commissioned and supported by the Transportation Security Laboratory, Atlantic City, USA. In work presented here, the Inverse Fan-beam (IFB) topology has been realized on SALOME and used to investigate the liquids identification capability of x-ray diffraction (XRD). Liquids were investigated from four classes of materials of relevance to security screening of aircraft passenger luggage; namely: dilute aqueous liquids; concentrated aqueous liquids; hydrocarbon fuels; and oxidizers. A set of features associated with the Molecular Interference Function (MIF) were used to classify the liquids. Within the limited scope of this investigation, XRD proved to have excellent capability for discriminating liquids from one another; in particular, for isolating the threat materials without raising false alarms from either household or innocuous substances. Consequences for XRD-based screening of air passenger luggage are summarized.

Harding, G.; Fleckenstein, H.; Olesinski, S.; Zienert, G.

2010-08-01

272

Ionic conductivity of imidazole-functionalized liquid crystal mesogens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Imidazole has been investigated as a novel anhydrous proton conducting functional group that could enable higher temperature operation (> 120 ^oC) of polymer electrolyte fuel cells. Its amphoteric behavior can support Grotthuss-like proton transport; however molecular mobility and a high concentration of imidazole groups are needed to achieve high ionic conductivity. Our hypothesis is that liquid crystal ordering, particularly in layered smectic phase, can facilitate formation of 2D proton transport and promote proton conductivity. We have designed and synthesized two imidazole-terminated liquid crystal mesogens, and the ionic conductivities in the liquid crystalline and isotropic states have been measured. Here we report on synthesis and characterization of diacylhydrazine liquid crystals bearing imidazole terminal groups. The proton conductivity of products is compared to pure liquid imidazole and to liquid crystal mesogens without imidazole groups.

Roddecha, Supacharee; Anthamatten, Mitchell

2012-02-01

273

Liquid sheet radiator apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An external flow, liquid sheet radiator apparatus adapted for space applications has as its radiating surface a thin stable liquid sheet formed by fluid flow through a very narrow slit affixed to the sheet generator. As a result of surface tension forces, the sheet has a triangular shape and is collected into a simply designed collector positioned at the apex of the triangle. The specific power for the liquid sheet is virtually the same as the droplet sheet specific power.

Chubb, Donald L. (inventor)

1990-01-01

274

Icosahedral order in liquids  

SciTech Connect

The possibility of icosahedral order in liquids and its role in glass transition is discussed in a broad context of statistical mechanics of liquid. It is pointed out that the structures of glasses and liquids are described both in terms of the topology of atomic bond networks as well as the local distortion of the atomic bonds. While topology plays a dominant role in covalent glasses, local distortion is likely to be more important for metallic glasses.

Egami, Takeshi [ORNL

2007-01-01

275

Consolidated incineration facility technical support  

SciTech Connect

In 1996, the Savannah River Site plans to begin operation of the Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) to treat solid and liquid RCRA hazardous and mixed wastes. The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) leads an extensive technical support program designed to obtain incinerator and air pollution control equipment performance data to support facility start-up and operation. Key components of this technical support program include recently completed waste burn tests at both EPA`s Incineration Research Facility and at Energy and Environmental Research Corporation`s Solid Waste Incineration Test Facility. The main objectives for these tests were determining the fate of heavy metals, measuring organics destruction and removal efficiencies, and quantifying incinerator offgas particulate loading and size distribution as a function of waste feed characteristics and incineration conditions. In addition to these waste burning tests, the SRTC has recently completed installations of the Offgas Components Test Facility (OCTF), a 1/10 scale CIF offgas system pilot plant. This pilot facility will be used to demonstrate system operability and maintainability, evaluate and optimize equipment and instrument performance, and provide direct CIF start-up support. Technical support programs of this type are needed to resolve technical issues related with treatment and disposal of combustible hazardous, mixed, and low-level radioactive waste. Implementation of this program will minimize facility start-up problems and help insure compliance with all facility performance requirements.

Burns, D.; Looper, M.G.

1993-12-31

276

Theoretical Aspects of Liquid Crystals and Liquid Crystalline Polymers  

E-print Network

Theoretical Aspects of Liquid Crystals and Liquid Crystalline Polymers James J. Feng Department and rheology of low-molecular-weight liquid crystals (LCs) and liquid crystalline polymers (LCPs). The latter­solid duality gives rise to much of the ``anomalous'' behavior of liquid crystal- line materials. When

Feng, James J.

277

Ultrasonic liquid level detector  

DOEpatents

An ultrasonic liquid level detector for use within a shielded container, the detector being tubular in shape with a chamber at its lower end into which liquid from in the container may enter and exit, the chamber having an ultrasonic transmitter and receiver in its top wall and a reflector plate or target as its bottom wall whereby when liquid fills the chamber a complete medium is then present through which an ultrasonic wave may be transmitted and reflected from the target thus signaling that the liquid is at chamber level.

Kotz, Dennis M. (North Augusta, SC); Hinz, William R. (Augusta, GA)

2010-09-28

278

Elasticity of liquid marbles.  

PubMed

Liquid marbles are liquid droplets covered densely with small particles. They exhibit hydrophobic properties even on hydrophilic surfaces and this behaviour is closely related to the Cassie wetting state and the phenomenon of superhydrophobicity. Typical liquid marbles are of millimetre size but their properties are analogous to smaller capsules and droplets of Pickering emulsions. We study water marbles covered with an uneven multilayer of polyethylene particles. Their elastic properties were assessed under quasi-static conditions. The liquid marbles are highly elastic and can sustain a reversible deformation of up to 30%. The spring constant is of the same order of magnitude as that for bare water droplets. Therefore the elasticity of the liquid marble is provided mainly by the liquid menisci between the particles. Upon further compression, the spring constant increases up to the point of breakage. This increase may be due to capillary attraction acting across the emerging cracks in the particle coating. The stress-strain curve for liquid marbles is similar to that obtained with liquid-filled microcapsules. A mechanical scaling description proposed for capsules is qualitatively applicable for liquid marbles. The exact mechanical role of the multilayer particle network remains elusive. PMID:25698501

Asare-Asher, Samuel; Connor, Jason N; Sedev, Rossen

2015-07-01

279

Liquid Crystal Optofluidics  

SciTech Connect

By employing anisotropic fluids and namely liquid crystals, fluid flow becomes an additional degree of freedom in designing optofluidic devices. In this paper, we demonstrate optofluidic liquid crystal devices based on the direct flow of nematic liquid crystals in microfluidic channels. Contrary to previous reports, in the present embodiment we employ the effective phase delay acquired by light travelling through flowing liquid crystal, without analysing the polarisation state of the transmitted light. With this method, we demonstrate the variation in the diffraction pattern of an array of microfluidic channels acting as a grating. We also discuss our recent activities in integrating mechanical oscillators for on-chip peristaltic pumping.

Vasdekis, Andreas E.; Cuennet, J. G.; Psaltis, D.

2012-10-11

280

Liquid Metal Transformers  

E-print Network

The room temperature liquid metal is quickly emerging as an important functional material in a variety of areas like chip cooling, 3D printing or printed electronics etc. With diverse capabilities in electrical, thermal and flowing behaviors, such fluid owns many intriguing properties that had never been anticipated before. Here, we show a group of unconventional phenomena occurring on the liquid metal objects. Through applying electrical field on the liquid metals immersed in water, a series of complex transformation behaviors such as self-assembling of a sheet of liquid metal film into a single sphere, quick mergences of separate metal droplets, controlled self-rotation and planar locomotion of liquid metal objects can be realized. Meanwhile, it was also found that two accompanying water vortexes were induced and reliably swirled near the rotating liquid metal sphere. Further, effects of the shape, size, voltage, orientation and geometries of the electrodes to control the liquid metal transformers were clarified. Such events are hard to achieve otherwise on rigid metal or conventional liquid spheres. This finding has both fundamental and practical significances which suggest a generalized way of making smart soft machine, collecting discrete metal fluids, as well as flexibly manipulating liquid metal objects including accompanying devices.

Lei Sheng; Jie Zhang; Jing Liu

2014-01-30

281

Liquid crystal seed nucleates liquid-solid phase change in ceria nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation was used to explore the liquid-solid (crystal) phase change of a ceria nanoparticle. The simulations reveal that the crystalline seed, which spontaneously evolves and nucleates crystallisation, is a liquid rather than a solid. Evidence supporting this concept includes: (a) only 3% of the total latent heat of solidification had been liberated after 25% of the nanoparticle had (visibly) crystallised. (b) Cerium ions, comprising the (liquid) crystal seed had the same mobility as cerium ions comprising the amorphous regions. (c) Cerium ion mobility only started to reduce (indicative of solidification) after 25% of the nanoparticle had crystallised. (d) Calculated radial distribution functions (RDF) revealed no long-range structure when 25% of the nanoparticle had (visibly) crystallised. We present evidence that the concept of a liquid crystal seed is more general phenomenon rather than applicable only to nanoceria. PMID:25578038

Sayle, Thi X T; Sayle, Lewis W L; Sayle, Dean C

2015-01-28

282

Developments in liquid membrane separation of beta-lactam antibiotics.  

PubMed

This paper presents an overview on the developments in liquid membrane separation and purification of commercially important beta-lactam antibiotics. Reactive extraction via liquid-liquid ion exchange or ion-pair extraction mechanism can be exploited to develop liquid membrane processes for separation and concentration of penicillins and cephalosporins. Because of high selectivity and flux, liquid membrane processes can be adopted for direct extraction of beta-lactams from fermentation broth. Other advantages of liquid membrane technologies are low capital and operating costs, compact unit installation in commercial plants, low material inventory, etc. Both emulsion liquid membrane and supported liquid membrane techniques can be effective under the reactive extraction conditions. However, the stability problems of liquid membrane should be resolved before commercial application can be established. Alternately, reactive extraction in non-dispersive mode with hollow fiber membranes can be an attractive and viable strategy for practical application. Applicability of the liquid membrane processes has been discussed from process engineering and design considerations. PMID:8818264

Ghosh, A C; Bora, M M; Dutta, N N

1996-04-01

283

UNH Parents Association Supporting Parents, Supporting Students, Supporting UNH  

E-print Network

UNH Parents Association Supporting Parents, Supporting Students, Supporting UNH www.unh.edu/parents Parents Resource Guide - click on Publications Information on student services / life on campus, transi at www.facebook.com/UNH parents. www.cashcourse.org/ Aimed at helping your student to make better

New Hampshire, University of

284

UNH Parents Association Supporting Parents, Supporting Students, Supporting UNH  

E-print Network

UNH Parents Association Supporting Parents, Supporting Students, Supporting UNH Check out these parent recommeded websites! www.unh.edu/parents Parents Resource Guide - click on Publications, visiting UNH Sign up for the Parents Association secure email list for UNH Updates - on the P. A. home page

New Hampshire, University of

285

Scalability of mass transfer in liquid-liquid flow  

E-print Network

We address liquid–liquid mass transfer between immiscible liquids using the system 1-butanol and water, with succinic acid as the mass transfer component. Using this system we evaluate the influence of two-phase flow ...

Woitalka, A.

286

Chiral separation by enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction.  

PubMed

The literature on enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction (ELLE) spans more than half a century of research. Nonetheless, a comprehensive overview has not appeared during the past few decades. Enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction is a technology of interest for a wide range of chemists and chemical engineers in the fields of fine chemicals, pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, fragrances and foods. In this review the principles and advances of resolution through enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction are discussed, starting with an introduction on the principles of enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction including host-guest chemistry, extraction and phase transfer mechanisms, and multistage liquid-liquid extraction processing. Then the literature on enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction systems is reviewed, structured on extractant classes. The following extractant classes are considered: crown ether based extractants, metal complexes and metalloids, extractants based on tartrates, and a final section with all other types of chiral extractants. PMID:21107491

Schuur, Boelo; Verkuijl, Bastiaan J V; Minnaard, Adriaan J; de Vries, Johannes G; Heeres, Hero J; Feringa, Ben L

2011-01-01

287

Erasing no-man’s land by thermodynamically stabilizing the liquid-liquid transition in tetrahedral particles  

PubMed Central

One of the most controversial hypotheses for explaining the origin of the thermodynamic anomalies characterizing liquid water postulates the presence of a metastable second-order liquid-liquid critical point [1] located in the “no-man’s land” [2]. In this scenario, two liquids with distinct local structure emerge near the critical temperature. Unfortunately, since spontaneous crystallization is rapid in this region, experimental support for this hypothesis relies on significant extrapolations, either from the metastable liquid or from amorphous solid water [3, 4]. Although the liquid-liquid transition is expected to feature in many tetrahedrally coordinated liquids, including silicon [5], carbon [6] and silica, even numerical studies of atomic and molecular models have been unable to conclusively prove the existence of this transition. Here we provide such evidence for a model in which it is possible to continuously tune the softness of the interparticle interaction and the flexibility of the bonds, the key ingredients controlling the existence of the critical point. We show that conditions exist where the full coexistence is thermodynamically stable with respect to crystallization. Our work offers a basis for designing colloidal analogues of water exhibiting liquid-liquid transitions in equilibrium, opening the way for experimental confirmation of the original hypothesis. PMID:25264453

Smallenburg, Frank; Filion, Laura; Sciortino, Francesco

2014-01-01

288

Erasing no-man’s land by thermodynamically stabilizing the liquid-liquid transition in tetrahedral particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most controversial hypotheses for explaining the origin of the thermodynamic anomalies characterizing liquid water postulates the presence of a metastable second-order liquid-liquid critical point located in the `no-man’s land’. In this scenario, two liquids with distinct local structure emerge near the critical temperature. Unfortunately, as spontaneous crystallization is rapid in this region, experimental support for this hypothesis relies on significant extrapolations, either from the metastable liquid or from amorphous solid water. Although the liquid-liquid transition is expected to feature in many tetrahedrally coordinated liquids, including silicon, carbon and silica, even numerical studies of atomic and molecular models have been unable to conclusively prove the existence of this transition. Here we provide such evidence for a model in which it is possible to continuously tune the softness of the interparticle interaction and the flexibility of the bonds, the key ingredients controlling the existence of the critical point. We show that conditions exist where the full coexistence is thermodynamically stable with respect to crystallization. Our work offers a basis for designing colloidal analogues of water exhibiting liquid-liquid transitions in equilibrium, opening the way for experimental confirmation of the original hypothesis.

Smallenburg, Frank; Filion, Laura; Sciortino, Francesco

2014-09-01

289

Ionic Liquid Membranes for Carbon Dioxide Separation  

SciTech Connect

Recent scientific studies are rapidly advancing novel technological improvements and engineering developments that demonstrate the ability to minimize, eliminate, or facilitate the removal of various contaminants and green house gas emissions in power generation. The Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) shows promise for carbon dioxide mitigation not only because of its higher efficiency as compared to conventional coal firing plants, but also due to a higher driving force in the form of high partial pressure. One of the novel technological concepts currently being developed and investigated is membranes for carbon dioxide (CO2) separation, due to simplicity and ease of scaling. A challenge in using membranes for CO2 capture in IGCC is the possibility of failure at elevated temperatures or pressures. Our earlier research studies examined the use of ionic liquids on various supports for CO2 separation over the temperature range, 37°C-300°C. The ionic liquid, 1-hexyl-3methylimidazolium Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, ([hmim][Tf2N]), was chosen for our initial studies with the following supports: polysulfone (PSF), poly(ether sulfone) (PES), and cross-linked nylon. The PSF and PES supports had similar performance at room temperature, but increasing temperature caused the supported membranes to fail. The ionic liquid with the PES support greatly affected the glass transition temperature, while with the PSF, the glass transition temperature was only slightly depressed. The cross-linked nylon support maintained performance without degradation over the temperature range 37-300°C with respect to its permeability and selectivity. However, while the cross-linked nylon support was able to withstand temperatures, the permeability continued to increase and the selectivity decreased with increasing temperature. Our studies indicated that further testing should examine the use of other ionic liquids, including those that form chemical complexes with CO2 based on amine interactions. The hypothesis is that the performance at the elevated temperatures could be improved by allowing a facilitated transport mechanism to become dominant. Several amine-based ionic liquids were tested on the cross-linked nylon support. It was found that using the amine-based ionic liquid did improve selectivity and permeability at higher temperature. The hypothesis was confirmed, and it was determined that the type of amine used also played a role in facilitated transport. Given the appropriate aminated ionic liquid with the cross-linked nylon support, it is possible to have a membrane capable of separating CO2 at IGCC conditions. With this being the case, the research has expanded to include separation of other constituents besides CO2 (CO, H2S, etc.) and if they play a role in membrane poisoning or degradation. This communication will discuss the operation of the recently fabricated ionic liquid membranes and the impact of gaseous components other than CO2 on their performance and stability.

Myers, C.R.; Ilconich, J.B.; Luebke, D.R.; Pennline, H.W.

2008-07-12

290

Guidance Document Cryogenic Liquids  

E-print Network

have boiling points below -73°C (-100°F). The most common cryogenic liquids currently on campus conditions of temperature and pressure. But all have two very important properties in common. First, the liquids and their vapors are extremely cold. The risk of destructive freezing of tissues is always present

291

Advanced proteomic liquid chromatography  

SciTech Connect

Liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry is the predominant platform used to analyze proteomics samples consisting of large numbers of proteins and their proteolytic products (e.g., truncated polypeptides) and spanning a wide range of relative concentrations. This review provides an overview of advanced capillary liquid chromatography techniques and methodologies that greatly improve separation resolving power and proteomics analysis coverage, sensitivity, and throughput.

Xie, Fang; Smith, Richard D.; Shen, Yufeng

2012-10-26

292

Synthesis of ionic liquids  

DOEpatents

Ionic compounds which are liquids at room temperature are formed by the method of mixing a neutral organic ligand with the salt of a metal cation and its conjugate anion. The liquids are hydrophobic, conductive and stable and have uses as solvents and in electrochemical devices.

Dai, Sheng (Knoxville, TN); Luo, Huimin (Knoxville, TN)

2011-11-01

293

Precision liquid level sensor  

DOEpatents

A precision liquid level sensor utilizes a balanced R. F. bridge, each arm including an air dielectric line. Changes in liquid level along one air dielectric line imbalance the bridge and create a voltage which is directly measurable across the bridge.

Field, Michael E. (Albuquerque, NM); Sullivan, William H. (Albuquerque, NM)

1985-01-01

294

Precision liquid level sensor  

DOEpatents

A precision liquid level sensor utilizes a balanced R. F. bridge, each arm including an air dielectric line. Changes in liquid level along one air dielectric line imbalance the bridge and create a voltage which is directly measurable across the bridge. 2 figs.

Field, M.E.; Sullivan, W.H.

1985-01-29

295

Natural-gas liquids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Casinghead gasoline or natural gasoline, now more suitably known as natural-gas liquids (NGL), was a nuisance when first found, but was developed into a major and profitable commodity. This part of the petroleum industry began at about the turn of the century, and more than 60 yr later the petroleum industry recovers approx. one million bbl of natural-gas liquids a

W. B. Blackstock; G. W. McCullough; R. C. McCutchan

1968-01-01

296

Ionic liquids in catalysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current state of the art of the application of ionic liquids in catalysis is reviewed. The review selects examples of the different ways in which ionic liquids have been applied in catalysis, i.e. as the catalyst itself, as a co-catalyst or catalyst activator, as the source of a new ligand for a catalytic metal centre, or just as the

Tom Welton

2004-01-01

297

Liquid heat capacity lasers  

DOEpatents

The heat capacity laser concept is extended to systems in which the heat capacity lasing media is a liquid. The laser active liquid is circulated from a reservoir (where the bulk of the media and hence waste heat resides) through a channel so configured for both optical pumping of the media for gain and for light amplification from the resulting gain.

Comaskey, Brian J. (Walnut Creek, CA); Scheibner, Karl F. (Tracy, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Livermore, CA)

2007-05-01

298

LIGHT NONAQUEOUS PHASE LIQUIDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLS) are hydrocarbons that exist as a separate, immiscible phase when in contact with water and/or air. ifferences in the physical and chemical properties of water and NAPL result in the formation of a physical interface between the liquids which preve...

299

Perfluorocarbon liquids in ophthalmology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perfluorocarbon liquids have been used to facilitate surgery in a wide variety of conditions, including proliferative vitreoretinopathy, giant retinal tears, drainge of suprachoroidal hemorrhages, diabetic traction, retinal detachments with a rhegmatogenous component, dislocated crystalline or intraocular lenses, and retinal detachment associated with choroidal coloboma. The clarity of perfluorocarbon liquids, with a refractive index close to that of water, allows the

Steven G. Kramer; David Hwang; Gholam A. Peyman; Joel A. Schulman; Brian Sullivan

1995-01-01

300

INEEL Liquid Effluent Inventory  

SciTech Connect

The INEEL contractors and their associated facilities are required to identify all liquid effluent discharges that may impact the environment at the INEEL. This liquid effluent information is then placed in the Liquid Effluent Inventory (LEI) database, which is maintained by the INEEL prime contractor. The purpose of the LEI is to identify and maintain a current listing of all liquid effluent discharge points and to identify which discharges are subject to federal, state, or local permitting or reporting requirements and DOE order requirements. Initial characterization, which represents most of the INEEL liquid effluents, has been performed, and additional characterization may be required in the future to meet regulations. LEI information is made available to persons responsible for or concerned with INEEL compliance with liquid effluent permitting or reporting requirements, such as the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System, Wastewater Land Application, Storm Water Pollution Prevention, Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasures, and Industrial Wastewater Pretreatment. The State of Idaho Environmental Oversight and Monitoring Program also needs the information for tracking liquid effluent discharges at the INEEL. The information provides a baseline from which future liquid discharges can be identified, characterized, and regulated, if appropriate. The review covered new and removed buildings/structures, buildings/structures which most likely had new, relocated, or removed LEI discharge points, and at least 10% of the remaining discharge points.

Major, C.A.

1997-06-01

301

Liquid Crystal Thermometers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore liquid crystal thermometers to observe how heat flows by conduction, convection, radiation, and evaporation. This resource includes five mini-explorations in which learners use basic materials and observe color changes on a liquid crystal thermometer card.

Paul Doherty

1999-01-01

302

Synthesis of ionic liquids  

DOEpatents

Ionic compounds which are liquids at room temperature are formed by the method of mixing a neutral organic liqand with the salt of a metal cation and its conjugate anion. The liquids are hydrophobic, conductive and stable and have uses as solvents and in electrochemical devices.

Dai, Sheng [Knoxville, TN; Luo, Huimin [Knoxville, TN

2008-09-09

303

Liquidity in global markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The latest episode of turbulence has been marked by an extended period of illiquidity in a large number of markets –ranging from traditionally highly liquid interbank money markets to the less-liquid structured credit markets. The event began with what was widely perceived as a credit deterioration in the US subprime mortgage market. However, this quickly raised uncertainty about the valuation

J. Caruana; L. Kodres

2008-01-01

304

Liquid-liquid phase transition in a two-dimensional system with anomalous liquid properties.  

PubMed

The phase diagram of the two-dimensional particles interacting through a smooth version of Stell-Hemmer interaction was studied using Monte Carlo computer simulations. By evaluating the pressure-volume isotherms, we observed liquid-liquid, liquid-gas phase transitions and three stable crystal phases. The model shows the liquid-liquid critical point in stable liquid phase and is confirmed by observing properties of other thermodynamic functions such as heat capacity and isothermal compressibility, for example. The liquid-gas and the liquid-liquid critical points were estimated within the thermodynamic limit. PMID:24483440

Urbic, Tomaz

2013-12-01

305

Liquid-liquid phase transition in a two-dimensional system with anomalous liquid properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phase diagram of the two-dimensional particles interacting through a smooth version of Stell-Hemmer interaction was studied using Monte Carlo computer simulations. By evaluating the pressure-volume isotherms, we observed liquid-liquid, liquid-gas phase transitions and three stable crystal phases. The model shows the liquid-liquid critical point in stable liquid phase and is confirmed by observing properties of other thermodynamic functions such as heat capacity and isothermal compressibility, for example. The liquid-gas and the liquid-liquid critical points were estimated within the thermodynamic limit.

Urbic, Tomaz

2013-12-01

306

Encapsulated liquid sorbents for carbon dioxide capture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drawbacks of current carbon dioxide capture methods include corrosivity, evaporative losses and fouling. Separating the capture solvent from infrastructure and effluent gases via microencapsulation provides possible solutions to these issues. Here we report carbon capture materials that may enable low-cost and energy-efficient capture of carbon dioxide from flue gas. Polymer microcapsules composed of liquid carbonate cores and highly permeable silicone shells are produced by microfluidic assembly. This motif couples the capacity and selectivity of liquid sorbents with high surface area to facilitate rapid and controlled carbon dioxide uptake and release over repeated cycles. While mass transport across the capsule shell is slightly lower relative to neat liquid sorbents, the surface area enhancement gained via encapsulation provides an order-of-magnitude increase in carbon dioxide absorption rates for a given sorbent mass. The microcapsules are stable under typical industrial operating conditions and may be used in supported packing and fluidized beds for large-scale carbon capture.

Vericella, John J.; Baker, Sarah E.; Stolaroff, Joshuah K.; Duoss, Eric B.; Hardin, James O.; Lewicki, James; Glogowski, Elizabeth; Floyd, William C.; Valdez, Carlos A.; Smith, William L.; Satcher, Joe H.; Bourcier, William L.; Spadaccini, Christopher M.; Lewis, Jennifer A.; Aines, Roger D.

2015-02-01

307

Encapsulated liquid sorbents for carbon dioxide capture.  

PubMed

Drawbacks of current carbon dioxide capture methods include corrosivity, evaporative losses and fouling. Separating the capture solvent from infrastructure and effluent gases via microencapsulation provides possible solutions to these issues. Here we report carbon capture materials that may enable low-cost and energy-efficient capture of carbon dioxide from flue gas. Polymer microcapsules composed of liquid carbonate cores and highly permeable silicone shells are produced by microfluidic assembly. This motif couples the capacity and selectivity of liquid sorbents with high surface area to facilitate rapid and controlled carbon dioxide uptake and release over repeated cycles. While mass transport across the capsule shell is slightly lower relative to neat liquid sorbents, the surface area enhancement gained via encapsulation provides an order-of-magnitude increase in carbon dioxide absorption rates for a given sorbent mass. The microcapsules are stable under typical industrial operating conditions and may be used in supported packing and fluidized beds for large-scale carbon capture. PMID:25652243

Vericella, John J; Baker, Sarah E; Stolaroff, Joshuah K; Duoss, Eric B; Hardin, James O; Lewicki, James; Glogowski, Elizabeth; Floyd, William C; Valdez, Carlos A; Smith, William L; Satcher, Joe H; Bourcier, William L; Spadaccini, Christopher M; Lewis, Jennifer A; Aines, Roger D

2015-01-01

308

Liquid metal enabled pump  

PubMed Central

Small-scale pumps will be the heartbeat of many future micro/nanoscale platforms. However, the integration of small-scale pumps is presently hampered by limited flow rate with respect to the input power, and their rather complicated fabrication processes. These issues arise as many conventional pumping effects require intricate moving elements. Here, we demonstrate a system that we call the liquid metal enabled pump, for driving a range of liquids without mechanical moving parts, upon the application of modest electric field. This pump incorporates a droplet of liquid metal, which induces liquid flow at high flow rates, yet with exceptionally low power consumption by electrowetting/deelectrowetting at the metal surface. We present theory explaining this pumping mechanism and show that the operation is fundamentally different from other existing pumps. The presented liquid metal enabled pump is both efficient and simple, and thus has the potential to fundamentally advance the field of microfluidics. PMID:24550485

Tang, Shi-Yang; Khoshmanesh, Khashayar; Sivan, Vijay; Petersen, Phred; O’Mullane, Anthony P.; Abbott, Derek; Mitchell, Arnan; Kalantar-zadeh, Kourosh

2014-01-01

309

Mixing liquids in microseconds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An instrument is described in which two solutions can be homogeneously mixed within several microseconds. The liquids flow separately through two coaxial capillaries with conical tips and then simultaneously around a sphere (50-100 ? in diameter) which has been positioned close to the end of the outer tip. The liquids flow with velocities of ˜100 m/s through the small passages (˜5 ? wide) separating the sphere and the wall of the outer capillary and mix in the turbulent liquid flow behind the sphere. The mixed liquids are then ejected as a narrow liquid jet for observation. Design characteristics and construction techniques are presented along with a discussion of the properties of the turbulent flow field and estimates of the expected practically realizable mixing times. The experimentally determined speed of mixing indicates that we have nearly achieved the proposed lower limits of the mixing time.

Regenfuss, Peter; Clegg, Robert M.; Fulwyler, Mack. J.; Barrantes, Francisco J.; Jovin, Thomas M.

1985-02-01

310

Liquid metal enabled pump.  

PubMed

Small-scale pumps will be the heartbeat of many future micro/nanoscale platforms. However, the integration of small-scale pumps is presently hampered by limited flow rate with respect to the input power, and their rather complicated fabrication processes. These issues arise as many conventional pumping effects require intricate moving elements. Here, we demonstrate a system that we call the liquid metal enabled pump, for driving a range of liquids without mechanical moving parts, upon the application of modest electric field. This pump incorporates a droplet of liquid metal, which induces liquid flow at high flow rates, yet with exceptionally low power consumption by electrowetting/deelectrowetting at the metal surface. We present theory explaining this pumping mechanism and show that the operation is fundamentally different from other existing pumps. The presented liquid metal enabled pump is both efficient and simple, and thus has the potential to fundamentally advance the field of microfluidics. PMID:24550485

Tang, Shi-Yang; Khoshmanesh, Khashayar; Sivan, Vijay; Petersen, Phred; O'Mullane, Anthony P; Abbott, Derek; Mitchell, Arnan; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kourosh

2014-03-01

311

Polymers and Liquid Crystals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This newly enhanced site is the result of a cooperative effort between the Department of Physics and the Department of Macromolecular Science and Engineering at Case Western Reserve University in conjunction with the Center for Advanced Liquid Crystalline Optical Materials (ALCOM) at Kent State University. The project aims to demonstrate the potential of the hypertext multimedia medium for instructional use, and is still under development (occasionally users will come across an "under construction" notice). Topics covered include polymers, liquid crystals, polymer liquid crystals, polymer dispersed liquid crystals, polymer stabilized cholesterics, and liquid crystal displays. The previous version, which debuted in January 1996, has been enhanced with more video and audio, frames, and a glossary. Throughout the text, users are invited to enter the Virtual Laboratory, in which browser applets allow control of experiments demonstrating the principles under discussion. A CD-ROM version of the textbook is planned.

312

Renewable liquid reflecting zone plate  

DOEpatents

A renewable liquid reflecting zone plate. Electrodes are operatively connected to a dielectric liquid in a circular or other arrangement to produce a reflecting zone plate. A system for renewing the liquid uses a penetrable substrate.

Toor, Arthur; Ryutov, Dmitri D.

2003-12-09

313

Solid-Liquid Interfacial Premelting  

E-print Network

We report the observation of a premelting transition at chemically sharp solid-liquid interfaces using molecular-dynamics simulations. The transition is observed in the solid-Al—liquid-Pb system and involves the formation of a liquid interfacial...

Yang, Yang; Asta, Mark; Laird, Brian Bostian

2013-02-28

314

Stability of Liquid Rivulets on Liquid Substrate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The human tear-film lipid layer is a thin (100nm) oily film on water. Such films are unstable and dewet into lenses surrounded by a monolayer (Harkins, 1941). Dewetting has four stages: initial rupture, hole growth, hole coalescence, and retraction into lenses. The human lipid layer is shown to behave similarly. Brochard-Wyart has addressed the first two stages (1993); here we focus on the third. As adjacent holes grow into each other, the oil between them takes the shape of a long, thin rivulet with a lens cross-section. Eventually this rivulet undergoes an instability and the holes coalesce. We perform a linear stability analysis on a thin symmetric lens rivulet on a horizontal liquid substrate at low Bond number (Davis, 1980; Schiaffino, 1997), accounting for the first time for the liquid-substrate hydrodynamics. Analytical expressions are derived for the wavelength and breakup times associated with the maximum growth rate of the instability for multiple substrate flow conditions. We show that for negligible thin-film forces, a liquid rivulet on an immiscible liquid substrate is unstable at a critical wavelength disturbance. The instability growth rate varies by orders of magnitude depending on the lens contact angle.

Cerretani, Colin; Takatori, Sho; Radke, Clayton

2011-11-01

315

Application of Ionic Liquids in Liquid Chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interest in ionic liquids (ILs) for their potential application in analytical chemistry continues to grow. Their usefulness can be due to favourable physicochemical properties, like the lack of vapour pressure, good thermal and chemical stability as well as very good dissolution properties regarding both organic and inorganic compounds. A specific feature of ILs is that these compounds provide strong proton

Micha? Piotr Marsza??; Roman Kaliszan

2007-01-01

316

Ferroelectric liquid crystal waveguide modulators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liquid crystals (LCs) possess effective electro-optic coefficients orders of magnitude larger than other materials used in integrated optics such as lithium niobate or poled polymers. In addition, the relatively simple fabrication of huge arrays of LC-based devices has made them the technology of choice in the flat panel display market. When nematic LC displays were introduced in the 1970's, researchers investigated waveguiding in these material, but found they scattered light too strongly to be of practical use. In 1980, the surface stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystal (FLC) display element was introduced, which used the smectic C liquid crystalline state. The smectic state has a higher degree of ordering than the nematic state, and therefore exhibits far less scattering loss. However, in stark contrast to the large volume of nematic waveguiding research performed following the introduction of the nematic based displays, there have been relatively few studies of FLC waveguides. This research described an FLC cladded waveguide as well as an FLC film waveguide. The performance of these two structures was calculated, and it was shown that the switching effect of the FLC film waveguide is greater but more sensitive to FLC defects. Several different modulator configurations are described and their performance is modeled theoretically. These configurations include Mach-Zehnder and directional couplers, a cut-off modulator, a deflection modulator, and a prism/total internal reflection modulator. Coupling light into a liquid crystal waveguide is complicated by the thick substrates and covers required to mechanically support the liquid film. Techniques for coupling light into the waveguide are described including techniques that directly excite the mode in the waveguide, and indirect techniques that first excite a mode in an intermediary waveguide (such as a polymer waveguide or an optical fiber), then transfer power to the FLC film. An experimental FLC waveguide modulator was designed and built. It was found that these devices require virtually defect-free uniform alignments because defects in the FLC cause significant scattering. Finally, the surface mode which propagates at the interface including an anisotropic material (like FLCs) was investigated and possible implications to FLC waveguides was discussed.

Walker, David Brian

317

Enhanced catalyst for converting synthesis gas to liquid motor fuels  

DOEpatents

The conversion of synthesis gas to liquid molar fuels by means of a cobalt Fischer-Tropsch catalyst composition is enhanced by the addition of molybdenum, tungsten or a combination thereof as an additional component of said composition. The presence of the additive component increases the olefinic content of the hydrocarbon products produced. The catalyst composition can advantageously include a support component, such as a molecular sieve, co-catalyst/support component or a combination of such support components.

Coughlin, Peter K. (Yorktown Heights, NY)

1986-01-01

318

Catalyst for converting synthesis gas to liquid motor fuels  

DOEpatents

The addition of an inert metal component, such as gold, silver or copper, to a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst comprising cobalt enables said catalyst to convert synthesis gas to liquid motor fuels at about 240.degree.-370.degree. C. with advantageously reduced selectivity of said cobalt for methane in said conversion. The catalyst composition can advantageously include a support component, such as a molecular sieve, co-catalyst/support component or a combination of such support components.

Coughlin, Peter K. (Yorktown Heights, NY)

1986-01-01

319

Autothermal Processing of Renewable Liquids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vast majority of petrochemicals are synthesized from just six building block molecules, but current feedstocks are an unsustainable resource with negative externalities. Biomass represents a potentially sustainable feedstock, but needs densification, preferably to a liquid form, to be a suitable replacement. Fermentation to butanol and pyrolysis to bio-oil are two promising liquid intermediates. Catalytic partial oxidation (CPO) of the liquid intermediates over noble metal catalysts, which converts the liquids primarily into syngas and light olefins, is a promising technique for processing densified biomass. The study of liquids at high temperatures requires consideration of a range of complex phenomena, including boiling behavior on hot surfaces, reactions of the feed molecules at high temperatures and on catalyst surfaces, and interactions of impurities in the liquid with the catalyst. Chapter 2 deals with the behavior of the transient liquid that forms when cellulose, a major constituent of biomass, is pyrolized. Fast photography experiments and numerical simulations are performed to show that the aerosols formed in the boiling of this liquid are capable of transporting nonvolatile fragments of biomass intact into the gas phase. These nonvolatile fragments have significant implications in the storage and downstream processing of bio-oil. Some of the behavior of bio-oil at high temperature may also be explained by the variety of molecules in the liquid. Many different functional groups are present, each with its own set of chemical reactions in combustion, pyrolysis, and partial oxidation on a metal catalyst. Chapters 3 and 4 investigate these reactions through a survey of two-carbon surrogates of the functional group classes found in bio-oil. Chapter 3 examines reactions occuring in the complete CPO system over Pt and Rh catalysts, and in the complete system absent O 2. The selectivity data from each molecule and the surface science literature of each molecule are used to propose a reaction mechanism over the catalyst surface. Chapter 4 investigates the reactions that may be occurring in the gas phase and over the alpha-Al2O3 foam monolith support. Significant gas-phase chemistry is likely present in the autothermal reactor, although different temperature gradients between the autothermal reactions and the externally heated tube makes quantification of the amount of homogeneous chemistry in the autothermal system impossible. The alpha-Al2O 3 support may serve as a heat transfer medium and radical quencher (due to its foam structure with small-diameter pores), but not likely acid catalysis, as selectivity to dehydration products was similar both with and without the foam support. Because butanol is another promising liquid intermediate in biomass processing, a series of experiments with butanol in an CPO reactor was also carried out. Chapter 5 compares the four butanol isomers in a CPO reactor over Pt, PtCe, Rh, and RhCe catalysts. The reactivity of tert-butanol was as high or higher than the other alcohols, indicating that the lack of a carbonyl decomposition path does not necessarily in uence the reactivity of the molecule. Rather, the reactivity appeared to be more a function of the initial pyrolysis temperature of the alcohol. Thus, much of the initial chemistry of the higher alcohols in a CPO reactor may be homogeneous. The main function of the catalyst may be to decompose the intermediate carbonyls and alkenes to syngas. To that end, the PtCe had significantly lower reforming activity than the other catalysts, evidenced by the lower selectivity to CO and H2 and generally higher temperatures. Selectivity to syngas and light olefins was high and tunable depending on feed ratios, indicating the potential of CPO to provide petrochemical building blocks from butanol. Chapter 6 combines CPO with a water-gas shift (WGS) stage and investigates the addition of steam to isobutanol for the production of a high-purity H2 stream. A RhCe catalyst was used in the CPO stage to convert 100% of the isobutanol feed to primarily

Kruger, Jacob Scott

320

Data Liquidity in Health Information Systems  

PubMed Central

In 2001 the IOM report "Crossing the Quality Chasm" and the NCVHS report "Information for Health" were released and they provided the context for the development of information systems used to support health-supporting processes. Both had as their goals, implicit or explicit, to ensure the right data is provided to the right person at the right time, which is one definition of "Data Liquidity". This concept has had some traction in recent years as a shorthand way to express a system property for Health IT, but there is not a well-defined characterization of what properties of a system or of its components give it better or worse data liquidity. This paper looks at some recent work that help to identify those properties and perhaps can help to ground the concept with metrics that are assessable. PMID:21799328

Courtney, Paul K.

2011-01-01

321

Liquid Oxygen/Liquid Methane Integrated Propulsion System Test Bed  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In support of NASA?s Propulsion and Cryogenic Advanced Development (PCAD) project, a liquid oxygen (LO2)/liquid methane (LCH4) Integrated Propulsion System Test Bed (IPSTB) was designed and advanced to the Critical Design Review (CDR) stage at the Johnson Space Center. The IPSTB?s primary objectives are to study LO2/LCH4 propulsion system steady state and transient performance, operational characteristics and to validate fluid and thermal models of a LO2/LCH4 propulsion system for use in future flight design work. Two phase thermal and dynamic fluid flow models of the IPSTB were built to predict the system performance characteristics under a variety of operating modes and to aid in the overall system design work. While at ambient temperature and simulated altitude conditions at the White Sands Test Facility, the IPSTB and its approximately 600 channels of system instrumentation would be operated to perform a variety of integrated main engine and reaction control engine hot fire tests. The pressure, temperature, and flow rate data collected during this testing would then be used to validate the analytical models of the IPSTB?s thermal and dynamic fluid flow performance. An overview of the IPSTB design and analytical model development will be presented.

Flynn, Howard; Lusby, Brian; Villemarette, Mark

2011-01-01

322

Continuous gas/liquid–liquid/liquid flow synthesis of 4-fluoropyrazole derivatives by selective direct fluorination  

PubMed Central

Summary 4-Fluoropyrazole systems may be prepared by a single, sequential telescoped two-step continuous gas/liquid–liquid/liquid flow process from diketone, fluorine gas and hydrazine starting materials. PMID:21915207

Breen, Jessica R; Yufit, Dmitrii S; Howard, Judith A K; Fray, Jonathan; Patel, Bhairavi

2011-01-01

323

Nanowire liquid pumps.  

PubMed

The ability to form tiny droplets of liquids and control their movements is important in printing or patterning, chemical reactions and biological assays. So far, such nanofluidic capabilities have principally used components such as channels, nozzles or tubes, where a solid encloses the transported liquid. Here, we show that liquids can flow along the outer surface of solid nanowires at a scale of attolitres per second and the process can be directly imaged with in situ transmission electron microscopy. Microscopy videos show that an ionic liquid can be pumped along tin dioxide, silicon or zinc oxide nanowires as a thin precursor film or as beads riding on the precursor film. Theoretical analysis suggests there is a critical film thickness of ?10 nm below which the liquid flows as a flat film and above which it flows as discrete beads. This critical thickness is the result of intermolecular forces between solid and liquid, which compete with liquid surface energy and Rayleigh-Plateau instability. PMID:23542904

Huang, Jian Yu; Lo, Yu-Chieh; Niu, Jun Jie; Kushima, Akihiro; Qian, Xiaofeng; Zhong, Li; Mao, Scott X; Li, Ju

2013-04-01

324

Liquid sampling system  

DOEpatents

A conduit extends from a reservoir through a sampling station and back to the reservoir in a closed loop. A jet ejector in the conduit establishes suction for withdrawing liquid from the reservoir. The conduit has a self-healing septum therein upstream of the jet ejector for receiving one end of a double-ended cannula, the other end of which is received in a serum bottle for sample collection. Gas is introduced into the conduit at a gas bleed between the sample collection bottle and the reservoir. The jet ejector evacuates gas from the conduit and the bottle and aspirates a column of liquid from the reservoir at a high rate. When the withdrawn liquid reaches the jet ejector the rate of flow therethrough reduces substantially and the gas bleed increases the pressure in the conduit for driving liquid into the sample bottle, the gas bleed forming a column of gas behind the withdrawn liquid column and interrupting the withdrawal of liquid from the reservoir. In the case of hazardous and toxic liquids, the sample bottle and the jet ejector may be isolated from the reservoir and may be further isolated from a control station containing remote manipulation means for the sample bottle and control valves for the jet ejector and gas bleed. 5 figs.

Larson, L.L.

1984-09-17

325

Liquid sampling system  

DOEpatents

A conduit extends from a reservoir through a sampling station and back to the reservoir in a closed loop. A jet ejector in the conduit establishes suction for withdrawing liquid from the reservoir. The conduit has a self-healing septum therein upstream of the jet ejector for receiving one end of a double-ended cannula, the other end of which is received in a serum bottle for sample collection. Gas is introduced into the conduit at a gas bleed between the sample collection bottle and the reservoir. The jet ejector evacuates gas from the conduit and the bottle and aspirates a column of liquid from the reservoir at a high rate. When the withdrawn liquid reaches the jet ejector the rate of flow therethrough reduces substantially and the gas bleed increases the pressure in the conduit for driving liquid into the sample bottle, the gas bleed forming a column of gas behind the withdrawn liquid column and interrupting the withdrawal of liquid from the reservoir. In the case of hazardous and toxic liquids, the sample bottle and the jet ejector may be isolated from the reservoir and may be further isolated from a control station containing remote manipulation means for the sample bottle and control valves for the jet ejector and gas bleed.

Larson, Loren L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1987-01-01

326

Liquid metal drop ejection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aim of this project was to demonstrate the possibility of ejecting liquid metals using drop on demand printing technology. The plan was to make transducers for operation in the 100 MHz frequency range and to use these transducers to demonstrate the ability to eject drops of liquid metals such as gallium. Two transducers were made by indium bonding piezoelectric lithium niobate to quartz buffer rods. The lithium niobate plates were thinned by mechanical polishing to a thickness of 37 microns for operation at 100 MHz. Hemispherical lenses were polished in the opposite ends of the buffer rods. The lenses, which focus the sound waves in the liquid metal, had an F-number equals 1. A mechanical housing was made to hold the transducers and to allow precise control over the liquid level above the lens. We started by demonstrating the ability to eject drops of water on demand. The drops of water had a diameter of 15 microns which corresponds to the wavelength of the sound wave in the water. A videotape of this ejection was made. We then used a mixture of Gallium and Indium (used to lower the melting temperature of the Gallium) to demonstrate the ejection of liquid metal drops. This proved to be difficult because of the oxide skin which forms on the surface of the liquid. In some instances, we were able to eject metal drops, however, this was not consistent and reproducible. An experiment was set up at NASA-Lewis to stabilize the process of drop on demand liquid metal ejection. The object was to place the transducer and liquid metal in a vacuum station so that no oxide would form on the surface. We were successful in demonstrating that liquid metals could be ejected on demand and that this technology could be used for making sheet metal in space.

Khuri-Yakub, B. T.

1993-01-01

327

Circular dielectric liquid iris.  

PubMed

We demonstrate a liquid iris diaphragm using dielectric force, enabling its aperture to vary from 4 mm at the resting state to 1.5 mm at 160 V(rms). The liquid iris is a packaged optical component comprised of transparent oil, opaque ink, and a set of driving electrodes on a glass substrate. The iris aperture shrinks with the dielectric force, which is exerted on the interface between the two nonconductive liquids. The transmittance was measured to exceed 85% with no antireflection coatings over the spectrum of visible light. The maximum electric power consumed is measured to be 5.7 mW. PMID:20634871

Tsai, C Gary; Yeh, J Andrew

2010-07-15

328

Liquid metal electric pump  

DOEpatents

An electrical pump for pumping liquid metals to high pressures in high temperature environments without the use of magnets or moving mechanical parts. The pump employs a non-porous solid electrolyte membrane, typically ceramic, specific to the liquid metal to be pumped. A DC voltage is applied across the thickness of the membrane causing ions to form and enter the membrane on the electrically positive surface, with the ions being neutralized on the opposite surface. This action provides pumping of the liquid metal from one side of the non-porous solid electrolyte membrane to the other. 3 figs.

Abbin, J.P.; Andraka, C.E.; Lukens, L.L.; Moreno, J.B.

1992-01-14

329

Exploring Materials: Liquid Crystals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners discover that the way a material behaves on the macroscale is affected by its structure on the nanoscale. Learners investigate the properties of a heat sensitive liquid crystal and make their own liquid crystal sensor to take home. This is a fun and engaging activity, especially since liquid crystals are used in many consumer products, including cell phone displays, laptop computer screens, strip thermometers, and even "mood" rings! SAFETY: learners must be supervised when doing this activity. They must wear safety glasses to protect their eyes. Before doing this activity, read through the Material Safety Data Sheets.

Nanoscale Informal Science Education Network

2010-01-01

330

Liquid-level detector  

DOEpatents

Aliquid level sensor is described which has a pair of upright conductors spaced by an insulator defining a first high resistance path between the conductors. An electrically conductive path is interposed between the upright conductors at a discrete location at which liquid level is to be measured. It includes a liquid accessible gap of a dimension such that the electrical resistance across the conductor when the gap is filled with the liquid is detectably less than when the gap is emptied. The conductor might also be physically altered by temperature changes to serve also as an indicator of elevated temperature.

Not Available

1981-01-29

331

Electrically Deformable Liquid Marbles  

E-print Network

Liquid marbles, which are droplets coated with a hydrophobic powder, were exposed to a uniform electric field. It was established that a threshold value of the electric field, 15 cgse, should be surmounted for deformation of liquid marbles. The shape of the marbles was described as a prolate spheroid. The semi-quantitative theory describing deformation of liquid marbles in a uniform electric field is presented. The scaling law relating the radius of the contact area of the marble to the applied electric field shows a satisfactory agreement with the experimental data.

Edward Bormashenko; Roman Pogreb; Tamir Stein; Gene Whyman; Marcelo Schiffer; Doron Aurbach

2011-02-17

332

Distinct Metallization and Atomization Transitions in Dense Liquid Hydrogen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We perform molecular dynamics simulations driven by accurate quantum Monte Carlo forces on dense liquid hydrogen. There is a recent report of a complete atomization transition between a mixed molecular-atomic liquid and a completely dissociated fluid in an almost unaccessible pressure range [Nat. Commun. 5, 3487 (2014)]. Here, instead, we identify a different transition between the fully molecular liquid and the mixed-atomic fluid at ˜400 GPa , i.e., in a much more interesting pressure range. We provide numerical evidence supporting the metallic behavior of this intermediate phase. Therefore, we predict that the metallization at finite temperature occurs in this partially dissociated molecular fluid, well before the complete atomization of the liquid. At high temperature this first-order transition becomes a crossover, in very good agreement with the experimental observation. Several systematic tests supporting the quality of our large scale calculations are also reported.

Mazzola, Guglielmo; Sorella, Sandro

2015-03-01

333

Distinct metallization and atomization transitions in dense liquid hydrogen.  

PubMed

We perform molecular dynamics simulations driven by accurate quantum Monte Carlo forces on dense liquid hydrogen. There is a recent report of a complete atomization transition between a mixed molecular-atomic liquid and a completely dissociated fluid in an almost unaccessible pressure range [Nat. Commun. 5, 3487 (2014)]. Here, instead, we identify a different transition between the fully molecular liquid and the mixed-atomic fluid at ?400??GPa, i.e., in a much more interesting pressure range. We provide numerical evidence supporting the metallic behavior of this intermediate phase. Therefore, we predict that the metallization at finite temperature occurs in this partially dissociated molecular fluid, well before the complete atomization of the liquid. At high temperature this first-order transition becomes a crossover, in very good agreement with the experimental observation. Several systematic tests supporting the quality of our large scale calculations are also reported. PMID:25815949

Mazzola, Guglielmo; Sorella, Sandro

2015-03-13

334

Lunar liquid oxygen production facilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Production of oxygen beyond Earth's gravity well has been shown to be an economic asset for interplanetary travel using chemical combustion propulsion. Requirements for lunar liquid oxygen (LLOX) are presented that support Earth/Moon - Mars transportation. A phased build up of lunar based infrastructure is presented that utilizes advanced lunar regolith processing technology. A magma electrolysis design concept is described. The phased base layout is presented and the final operations plan is shown. The ISMU zone shown consists of all elements required to process regolith into LLOX including mining, screening, processing, byproduct processing, liquifying and storage. Basing plan elements are described and their delivery requirements are shown. Masses for the concepts are discussed and total deliverables are listed. Power requirements and generation plans are described.

Pulley, John; Goodman, Chava; Tanner, Al

335

Phase Inversion in a Batch Liquid - Liquid Stirred System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phase inversion phenomenon occurs in many industrial processes including liquid- liquid dispersions. Some parameters such as energy input or the presence of mineral compounds in the system affect this phenomenon. The aim of this research is to study the speed of rotation or energy input at a range of 400 to 800 rpm in a batch liquid-liquid system containing toluene

M. Amouei; P. Khadiv-Parsi; M. M. Moosavian; N. Hedayat; A. A. Davoodi

336

114. WEST SIDE OF LIQUID OXYGEN CONTROL ROOM (205). LIQUID ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

114. WEST SIDE OF LIQUID OXYGEN CONTROL ROOM (205). LIQUID NITROGEN (LN2) SUBCOOLER ON LEFT; SKID 8, LIQUID OXYGEN CONTROLLER FOR SWITCHING BETWEEN RAPID-LOAD AND TOPPING ON RIGHT. LIQUID OXYGEN LINE FROM SKID 9A AT RIGHT EDGE OF PHOTO. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

337

Fluid management technology: Liquid slosh dynamics and control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flight experiments were defined for the Cryogenic On-Orbit Liquid Depot Storage, Acquisition and Transfer Satellite (COLD-SAT) test bed satellite and the Shuttle middeck to help establish the influence of the gravitational environment on liquid slosh dynamics and control. Several analytical and experimental studies were also conducted to support the experiments and to help understand the anticipated results. Both FLOW-3D and

Franklin T. Dodge; Steven T. Green; Daniel D. Kana

1991-01-01

338

Modeling of Diffusion in Liquid Ge and Its Alloys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report summarizes progress made on NASA Grant NAG3-1437, Modeling of diffusion in Liquid Ge and Its Alloys, which was in effect from January 15, 1993 through July 10, 1997. It briefly describes the purpose of the grant, and the work accomplished in simulations and other studies of thermophysical properties of liquid semiconductors and related materials. A list of publications completed with the support of the grant is also given.

Stroud, David G.

1998-01-01

339

Communication: Protein dynamical transition vs. liquid-liquid phase transition in protein hydration water.  

PubMed

In this work, we compare experimental data on myoglobin hydrated powders from elastic neutron scattering, broadband dielectric spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. Our aim is to obtain new insights on the connection between the protein dynamical transition, a fundamental phenomenon observed in proteins whose physical origin is highly debated, and the liquid-liquid phase transition (LLPT) possibly occurring in protein hydration water and related to the existence of a low temperature critical point in supercooled water. Our results provide a consistent thermodynamic/dynamic description which gives experimental support to the LLPT hypothesis and further reveals how fundamental properties of water and proteins are tightly related. PMID:24089711

Schirò, Giorgio; Fomina, Margarita; Cupane, Antonio

2013-09-28

340

Communication: Protein dynamical transition vs. liquid-liquid phase transition in protein hydration water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we compare experimental data on myoglobin hydrated powders from elastic neutron scattering, broadband dielectric spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. Our aim is to obtain new insights on the connection between the protein dynamical transition, a fundamental phenomenon observed in proteins whose physical origin is highly debated, and the liquid-liquid phase transition (LLPT) possibly occurring in protein hydration water and related to the existence of a low temperature critical point in supercooled water. Our results provide a consistent thermodynamic/dynamic description which gives experimental support to the LLPT hypothesis and further reveals how fundamental properties of water and proteins are tightly related.

Schirò, Giorgio; Fomina, Margarita; Cupane, Antonio

2013-09-01

341

Extensible automated dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction.  

PubMed

In this study, a convenient and extensible automated ionic liquid-based in situ dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (automated IL-based in situ DLLME) was developed. 1-Octyl-3-methylimidazolium bis[(trifluoromethane)sulfonyl]imide ([C8MIM]NTf2) is formed through the reaction between [C8MIM]Cl and lithium bis[(trifluoromethane)sulfonyl]imide (LiNTf2) to extract the analytes. Using a fully automatic SPE workstation, special SPE columns packed with nonwoven polypropylene (NWPP) fiber, and a modified operation program, the procedures of the IL-based in situ DLLME, including the collection of a water sample, injection of an ion exchange solvent, phase separation of the emulsified solution, elution of the retained extraction phase, and collection of the eluent into vials, can be performed automatically. The developed approach, coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD), was successfully applied to the detection and concentration determination of benzoylurea (BU) insecticides in water samples. Parameters affecting the extraction performance were investigated and optimized. Under the optimized conditions, the proposed method achieved extraction recoveries of 80% to 89% for water samples. The limits of detection (LODs) of the method were in the range of 0.16-0.45ngmL(-1). The intra-column and inter-column relative standard deviations (RSDs) were <8.6%. Good linearity (r>0.9986) was obtained over the calibration range from 2 to 500ngmL(-1). The proposed method opens a new avenue for automated DLLME that not only greatly expands the range of viable extractants, especially functional ILs but also enhances its application for various detection methods. Furthermore, multiple samples can be processed simultaneously, which accelerates the sample preparation and allows the examination of a large number of samples. PMID:25892068

Li, Songqing; Hu, Lu; Chen, Ketao; Gao, Haixiang

2015-05-01

342

Liquid Assets: Wastewater  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video segment from a WPSU documentary Liquid Assets describes the progression of wastewater management from its early days to present day wastewater treatment systems. The development of Boston’s first-ever waste management system is described.

2008-11-20

343

Basic Liquid Chromatography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online textbook offers a variety of information on high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Topics covered include instruments, detectors, theory, column selection, and pH effect. This website also contains links to a glossary, useful links, and manufacturer websites.

Dr. Yuri Kazakevich

344

Diet - full liquid  

MedlinePLUS

... 7 of the foods you can eat for breakfast, lunch, and dinner. Liquid foods do NOT include “ ... Nonfat dry milk added to your drinks Instant breakfast powder added to milk, puddings, custards, and milkshakes ...

345

Liquid cooled garments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Liquid cooled garments employed in several applications in which severe heat is encountered are discussed. In particular, the use of the garments to replace air line cooling units in a variety of industrial processing situations is discussed.

1975-01-01

346

Liquid level system  

SciTech Connect

A liquid level system employs a pair of vertically spaced sensors in a tank such as a boiler. Each sensor includes a pair of bellows. The first bellows is enclosed by a protective enclosure while the second bellows is exposed to the interior of the tank. The first bellows of the two sensors are interconnected and filled with a liquid forming substance, such as an alkali metal, which is in liquid phase at high temperatures, while the second bellows of each sensor and the enclosure for the first bellows are interconnected and filled with a second liquidforming substance, such as a metal alloy, which is essentially inert. A transducer is connected to one of the second bellows which produces an electrical output signal proportional to the difference between the pressures at the locations of the second bellows and, thus, the level of liquid in the tank.

Austin, R.R.; Lawford, V.N.

1983-03-08

347

Liquid Assets: Public Health  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video segment from a WPSU documentary Liquid Assets connects public health to the availability of clean and safe drinking water and elaborates on the threats our bodies face due to increasing kinds and quantities of pollutants.

WPSU

2008-11-19

348

Liquid rocket engine injectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The injector in a liquid rocket engine atomizes and mixes the fuel with the oxidizer to produce efficient and stable combustion that will provide the required thrust without endangering hardware durability. Injectors usually take the form of a perforated disk at the head of the rocket engine combustion chamber, and have varied from a few inches to more than a yard in diameter. This monograph treats specifically bipropellant injectors, emphasis being placed on the liquid/liquid and liquid/gas injectors that have been developed for and used in flight-proven engines. The information provided has limited application to monopropellant injectors and gas/gas propellant systems. Critical problems that may arise during injector development and the approaches that lead to successful design are discussed.

Gill, G. S.; Nurick, W. H.

1976-01-01

349

Liquid-Cooled Garment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A liquid-cooled bra, offshoot of Apollo moon suit technology, aids the cancer-detection technique known as infrared thermography. Water flowing through tubes in the bra cools the skin surface to improve resolution of thermograph image.

1977-01-01

350

Liquidity and Trading Dynamics  

E-print Network

In this paper, we build a model where the presence of liquidity constraints tends to magnify the economy's response to aggregate shocks. We consider a decentralized model of trade, where agents may use money or credit to ...

Guerrieri, Veronica

351

Liquid metal boiling inception  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental study of the inception of boiling in potassium in forced convection is reported. The boiler consisted of a 0.19-inch inside diameter, niobium-1% zirconium boiler tube approximately six feet long. Heating was accomplished by direct electrical tube wall conduction. Experiments were performed with both all-liquid fill and two-phase fill startup sequences and with a range of flow rates, saturation temperatures, inert gas levels, and fill liquid temperatures. Superheat of the liquid above the equilibrium saturation temperature was observed in all the experiments. Incipient boiling liquid superheat ranged from a few degrees to several hundred. Comparisons of these data with other data and with several analytical treatments are presented.

Sabin, C. M.; Poppendiek, H. F.; Mouritzen, G.; Meckel, P. T.; Cloakey, J. E.

1972-01-01

352

Separating carbon dioxide and ethane by liquid-liquid extraction  

SciTech Connect

A mixture of carbon dioxide and ethane derived from a prior separation stage or recovery process is separated by liquid-liquid extraction. One of the liquids is a liquid azeotrope of carbon dioxide and ethane. The extraction liquid is a liquid hydrocarbon with more carbon atoms than ethane, that is, a hydrocarbon having at least 3 carbon atoms. In the extraction unit, ethane follows the extraction hydrocarbon. The liquid-liquid extraction stage may be preceded by a first stage distillation column operated to produce a liquefied azeotrope of carbon dioxide-ethane. The liquid-liquid extraction stage may be followed by distillation of the ethane-heavier hydrocarbon mixture produced by the extraction stage. 4 claims.

Styring, R.E. Jr.

1982-01-19

353

Photochemistry in Ionic Liquids  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The use of ionic liquids in applications such as electrochemistry [1], organic synthesis [2, 3], and separation science [4] is fast becoming a mature area of study, and many data have now been accumulated. In contrast, study of the physical properties\\u000a of ionic liquids has lagged behind the advances made in these more applied areas of chemistry. To this end,

Charles M. Gordon

354

Applications of ionic liquids.  

PubMed

Ionic liquids have recently gained popularity in the scientific community owing to their special properties and characteristics. One of the reasons why ionic liquids have been termed "green solvents" is due to their negligible vapour pressure. Their use in electrochemical, biological and metal extraction applications is discussed. Wide research has been carried out for their use in batteries, solar panels, fuel cells, drug deliveries and biomass pretreatments. This work aims to consolidate the various findings from previous works in these areas. PMID:22711528

Patel, Divia Dinesh; Lee, Jong-Min

2012-06-01

355

Liquid Level Sensing System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A liquid level sensing system includes waveguides disposed in a liquid and distributed along a path with a gap between adjacent waveguides. A source introduces electromagnetic energy into the waveguides at a first end of the path. A portion of the electromagnetic energy exits the waveguides at a second end of the path. A detector measures the portion of the electromagnetic energy exiting the second end of the path.

Korman, Valentin (Inventor); Wiley, John T. (Inventor); Duffell, Amanda G. (Inventor)

2014-01-01

356

Liquid blocking check valve  

DOEpatents

A liquid blocking check valve useful particularly in a pneumatic system utilizing a pressurized liquid fill chamber. The valve includes a floatable ball disposed within a housing defining a chamber. The housing is provided with an inlet aperture disposed in the top of said chamber, and an outlet aperture disposed in the bottom of said chamber in an offset relation to said inlet aperture and in communication with a cutaway side wall section of said housing.

Merrill, John T. (Pleasant Hill, CA)

1984-01-01

357

Superoxide Electrochemistry in an Ionic Liquid Inas M. AlNashef, Matthew L. Leonard, Michael A. Matthews,* and  

E-print Network

Superoxide Electrochemistry in an Ionic Liquid Inas M. AlNashef, Matthew L. Leonard, Michael A) as the supporting electrolyte at elevated pressure and (2) in a room-temperature ionic liquid, 1-n-butyl- 3-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) as substitute solvents in Green chemistry, with the emphasis on organic synthesis

Weidner, John W.

358

For session on "Structure and Properties of Ionic Liquids and Molten Salts" Ionic Liquids, quasi-ionic liquids, and quasi-liquid ionics, all with high  

E-print Network

For session on "Structure and Properties of Ionic Liquids and Molten Salts" Ionic Liquids, quasi-ionic liquids, and quasi-liquid ionics, all with high ionic liquids are prepared by proton transfer from a Bronsted acid

Angell, C. Austen

359

Celiac Support Association  

MedlinePLUS

... adults and children available this summer for non-profit celiac and gluten disorder related support groups, clinics, ... The Celiac Support Association® is the major non-profit supporting those with celiac disease and related discorders. ...

360

Liquid mixing device  

SciTech Connect

A mixing device for mixing at least two liquids to produce a homogenous mixture. The device includes an elongated chamber in which a vertically oriented elongated mixing cavity is located. The cavity is sealed at its lower end and it is open at its upper end and in communication with the interior of the chamber. An elongated conduit extends the length of the cavity and is adapted to receive liquids to be mixed. The conduit includes a plurality of ports located at longitudinally spaced positions therealong and which ports are directed in different directions. The ports create plural streams of liquid which interact and mix with one another within the cavity. The mixed liquids overflow the cavity and out its top end into the chamber 24. The chamber 24 includes an outlet from which the mixed liquids are withdrawn. In accordance with the preferred embodiment gas eductor means are provided in the inlet to the conduit to introduce gas bubbles within the cavity. Gas vent means are also provided in the device to vent any introduced gases from the device so that only the mixed liquids flow out the outlet.

O'Leary, R. P.

1985-08-06

361

Radiography for a Shock-accelerated Liquid Layer  

SciTech Connect

This program supported the experimental study of the itneraction of planar shock waves with both solid structures (a single cylinder or a bank of cylinders) and single and multiple liquid layers. Objectives of the study included: characterization of the shock refraction patterns; measurements of the impulsive loading of the solid structures; observation of the response of the liquid layers to shock acceleration; assessment of the shock-mitigation effects of single and multiple liquid layers. The uploaded paper is intended as a final report for the entire funding period. The poster described in the paper won the Best Poster Award at the 25 International Symposium on Shock Waves.

P. Meekunnasombat

2005-07-01

362

Monogroove heat pipe design: Insulated liquid channel with bridging wick  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A screen mesh artery supported concentrically within the evaporator section of a heat pipe liquid channel retains liquid in the channel. Continued and uniform liquid feed to the heat pipe evaporation section (20) during periods of excessive heat transfer is assured. The overall design provides high evaporation and condensation film coefficients for the working fluid by means of the circumferential grooves in the walls of the vapor channel, while not interfering with the overall heat transport capability of the axial groove. The design has particular utility in zero-g environments.

Alario, J. P.; Brown, R. F.; Kosson, R. L. (inventors)

1985-01-01

363

Liquid crystalline composites containing phyllosilicates  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides phyllosilicate-polymer compositions which are useful as liquid crystalline composites. Phyllosilicate-polymer liquid crystalline compositions of the present invention can contain a high percentage of phyllosilicate while at the same time be transparent. Because of the ordering of the particles liquid crystalline composite, liquid crystalline composites are particularly useful as barriers to gas transport.

Chaiko, David J.

2004-07-13

364

Biocatalytic transformations in ionic liquids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Room temperature ionic liquids are non-volatile, thermally stable and highly polar; they are also moderately hydrophilic solvents. Here, we discuss their use as reaction media for biocatalysis. Enzymes of widely diverging types are catalytically active in ionic liquids or aqueous biphasic ionic liquid systems. Lipases, in particular, maintain their activity in anhydrous ionic liquid media; the (enantio)selectivity and operational stability

Fred van Rantwijk; Rute Madeira Lau; Roger A Sheldon

2003-01-01

365

Transmitting Electromagnetic Energy into Liquids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rough liquid surface enhances coupling. Agitating surface of liquid nitrogen bath with periodic or aperiodic excitation enhances electromagnetic coupling between microwave horn and blackbody temperature standard immersed in liquid. Useful in interfaces between electromagnetic radiation and liquids. Biomedical, radar, and meteorological applications.

Johnston, E. J.

1984-01-01

366

Support Guidelines.com  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource, created by Laura Wish Morgan, a prominent family law and child support attorney, is offered primarily as an aid to other attorneys "who wish to research the law of child support in general and child support guidelines in particular." The site features links to child support guidelines for each state and the District of Columbia, weekly overviews of current notable child support cases, monthly articles on current legal issues concerning child support, and a collection of related links.

367

The liquid-liquid phase transition in silicon revealed by snapshots of valence electrons.  

PubMed

The basis for the anomalies of water is still mysterious. Quite generally tetrahedrally coordinated systems, also silicon, show similar thermodynamic behavior but lack--like water--a thorough explanation. Proposed models--controversially discussed--explain the anomalies as a remainder of a first-order phase transition between high and low density liquid phases, buried deeply in the "no man's land"--a part of the supercooled liquid region where rapid crystallization prohibits any experimental access. Other explanations doubt the existence of the phase transition and its first-order nature. Here, we provide experimental evidence for the first-order-phase transition in silicon. With ultrashort optical pulses of femtosecond duration we instantaneously heat the electronic system of silicon while the atomic structure as defined by the much heavier nuclear system remains initially unchanged. Only on a picosecond time scale the energy is transferred into the atomic lattice providing the energy to drive the phase transitions. With femtosecond X-ray pulses from FLASH, the free-electron laser at Hamburg, we follow the evolution of the valence electronic structure during this process. As the relevant phases are easily distinguishable in their electronic structure, we track how silicon melts into the low-density-liquid phase while a second phase transition into the high-density-liquid phase only occurs after the latent heat for the first-order phase transition has been transferred to the atomic structure. Proving the existence of the liquid-liquid phase transition in silicon, the hypothesized liquid-liquid scenario for water is strongly supported. PMID:20805512

Beye, Martin; Sorgenfrei, Florian; Schlotter, William F; Wurth, Wilfried; Föhlisch, Alexander

2010-09-28

368

Emulsions Containing Perfluorocarbon Support Cell Cultures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Addition of emulsion containing perfluorocarbon liquid to aqueous cell-culture medium increases capacity of medium to support mammalian cells. FC-40 Fluorinert (or equivalent) - increases average density of medium so approximately equal to that of cells. Cells stay suspended in medium without mechanical stirring, which damages them. Increases density enough to prevent cells from setting, and increases viscosity of medium so oxygen bubbled through it and nutrients stirred in with less damage to delicate cells.

Ju, Lu-Kwang; Lee, Jaw Fang; Armiger, William B.

1990-01-01

369

Aerobreakup of Newtonian and Viscoelastic Liquids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this review, we consider and unify all aspects of the dynamics of Newtonian and viscoelastic liquid drops in high-speed gas flows, including shock waves. The path to understanding is opened by novel, laser-induced fluorescence visualizations at spatial resolutions of up to 200 pixels for millimeter and exposure times as low as 5 ns. The central role of the competition between Rayleigh-Taylor and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities is assessed in the frame of rich aerodynamics, from low subsonic to supersonic, and the multitude of characteristic length scales and timescales at play with varying liquid properties. Acceleration and liquid redistribution (drop deformation) early in the evolution set the stage for this competition, and we insist on an interpretation of the drag coefficient that is physically meaningful. Two principal breakup regimes (patterns of bodily loss of coherence) are identified depending on whether the gas finds its way through the liquid mass, causing gross disintegration, or goes around to induce, through shear, a surface-layer peeling-and-ejection action. Corresponding criticalities are quantified in terms of key physics, consistent with experiments. This covers in a unified fashion all liquids, independent of viscosity and elasticity, and the potential role of direct numerical simulations in supporting further advances is forecast. The resulting particle-size distributions (in a final equilibrium cloud) depend crucially on the pattern of breakup, although in this respect the role of elasticity obtains a special significance in terms of the underlying entangled-polymer-chain dynamics. From a more general perspective, we explain the canonical significance of this fundamental problem and summarize the wide range of its practical relevance, including the recently renewed interest in predicting shock-induced fluidization (or high-speed, atmospheric dissemination) of large masses of liquid agents (so-called weapons of mass destruction).

Theofanous, T. G.

2011-01-01

370

Applications of Ionic Liquid Technologies to Nuclear Separations  

SciTech Connect

Room temperature Ionic Liquids (ILs), organic salts that are liquid at, or close to room temperature have great potential application for uses in liquid-liquid separations processes. As a class of liquids, ILs typically have wide liquid ranges, are non-volatile, and have solvent characteristics (hydro- and lipophilicity, hydrogen-bond donor and acceptor ability etc) that can be controlled and modified by suitable changes to either the cation or anionic components of the IL. We have begun the exploration of actinide separations using a variety of technologies based upon the use of ILs including, liquid/liquid extraction using traditional extractants; incorporating an extractant functionality into an IL; immobilizing IL extractant phases on solid supports; and utilization of the solubilizing power of ILs to prepare cellulose-based materials for f-element separations. ILs can thus be considered as a new class of materials for nuclear separations, distinct from molecular solvents a nd from high temperature molten salts, with adjustable solvent characteristics, unique properties, and the potential for enhancing the principles of ''green'' chemistry in various chemical processes.

Rogers, Robin D.; Holbrey, John D.; Spear, Scott K.; Gutowski, Keith E.; Bridges, Nicholas J.; Cocalia, Violina A.; Swatloski, Richard P.

2003-09-10

371

Child Support Report, 1997.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document consists of the twelve issues of "Child Support Report" newsletter published during 1997. Monthly issues typically explore problems related to child support enforcement, report on federal and state government child support enforcement initiatives, and summarize research related to child support. Editorials and information on events…

Sharman, Phil, Ed.

1997-01-01

372

Child Support Report, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document comprises the 12 issues for 2001 of the "Child Support Report," which explores problems related to child support enforcement, reports on federal and state government child support enforcement initiatives, and summarizes research related to child support. Featured regularly are editorials and information on events of interest and…

Sharman, Phil, Ed.

2001-01-01

373

Child Support Report, 1999.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document comprises the 12 issues for 1999 of the "Child Support Report," which explores problems related to child support enforcement, reports on federal and state government child support enforcement initiatives, and summarizes research related to child support. Editorials and information on events and conferences of interest and funding…

Sharman, Phil, Ed.

1999-01-01

374

Child Support Report, 2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document comprises the 12 issues for 2000 of the "Child Support Report," which explores problems related to child support enforcement, reports on federal and state government child support enforcement initiatives, and summarizes research related to child support. Featured regularly are editorials and information on events of interest and…

Sharman, Phil, Ed.

2000-01-01

375

Child Support Report, 2002.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document comprises the 12 issues for 2002 of the Child Support Report, which explores problems related to child support enforcement, reports on federal and state government child support enforcement initiatives, and summarizes research related to child support. Featured regularly are editorials and information on events of interest and…

Sharman, Phil, Ed.

2002-01-01

376

Child Support Report, 1998.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is comprised of the 12 monthly issues of the 1998 "Child Support Report," which explores problems related to child support enforcement, reports on federal and state government child support enforcement initiatives, and summarizes research related to child support. Editorials and information on events and conferences of interest and…

Sharman, Phil, Ed.

1998-01-01

377

Microgravity liquid propellant management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The requirement to settle or to position liquid fluid over the outlet end of a spacecraft propellant tank prior to main engine restart, poses a microgravity fluid behavior problem. Resettlement or reorientation of liquid propellant can be accomplished by providing optimal acceleration to the spacecraft such that the propellant is reoriented over the tank outlet without any vapor entrainment, any excessive geysering, or any other undersirable fluid motion for the space fluid management under microgravity environment. The most efficient technique is studied for propellant resettling through the minimization of propellant usage and weight penalties. Both full scale and subscale liquid propellant tank of Space Transfer Vehicle were used to simulate flow profiles for liquid hydrogen reorientation over the tank outlet. In subscale simulation, both constant and impulsive resettling acceleration were used to simulate the liquid flow reorientation. Comparisons between the constant reverse gravity acceleration and impulsive reverse gravity acceleration to be used for activation of propellant resettlement shows that impulsive reverse gravity thrust is superior to constant reverse gravity thrust.

Hung, R. J.

1990-01-01

378

First-Order Liquid-Liquid Phase Transition in Cerium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the first experimental observation of a liquid-liquid phase transition in the monatomic liquid metal cerium, by means of in situ high-pressure high-temperature x-ray diffraction experiments. At 13 GPa, upon increasing temperature from 1550 to 1900 K high-density liquid transforms to a low-density liquid, with a density difference of 14%. Theoretic models based on ab initio calculations are built to investigate the observed phase behavior of the liquids at various pressures. The results suggest that the transition primarily originates from the delocalization of f electrons and is deemed to be of the first order that terminates at a critical point.

Cadien, A.; Hu, Q. Y.; Meng, Y.; Cheng, Y. Q.; Chen, M. W.; Shu, J. F.; Mao, H. K.; Sheng, H. W.

2013-03-01

379

Redox chemistry at liquid/liquid interfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The interface between two immiscible liquids with immobilized photosynthetic pigments can serve as the simplest model of a biological membrane convenient for the investigation of photoprocesses accompanied by spatial separation of charges. As it follows from thermodynamics, if the resolvation energies of substrates and products are very different, the interface between two immiscible liquids may act as a catalyst. Theoretical aspects of charge transfer reactions at oil/water interfaces are discussed. Conditions under which the free energy of activation of the interfacial reaction of electron transfer decreases are established. The activation energy of electron transfer depends on the charges of the reactants and dielectric permittivity of the non-aqueous phase. This can be useful when choosing a pair of immiscible solvents to decrease the activation energy of the reaction in question or to inhibit an undesired process. Experimental interfacial catalytic systems are discussed. Amphiphilic molecules such as chlorophyll or porphyrins were studied as catalysts of electron transfer reactions at the oil/water interface.

Volkov, A. G.; Deamer, D. W.

1997-01-01

380

Liquid Acquisition Device Design Sensitivity Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In-space propulsion often necessitates the use of a capillary liquid acquisition device (LAD) to assure that gas-free liquid propellant is available to support engine restarts in microgravity. If a capillary screen-channel device is chosen, then the designer must determine the appropriate combination screen mesh and channel geometry. A screen mesh selection which results in the smallest LAD width when compared to any other screen candidate (for a constant length) is desirable; however, no best screen exists for all LAD design requirements. Flow rate, percent fill, and acceleration are the most influential drivers for determining screen widths. Increased flow rates and reduced percent fills increase the through-the-screen flow pressure losses, which drive the LAD to increased widths regardless of screen choice. Similarly, increased acceleration levels and corresponding liquid head pressures drive the screen mesh selection toward a higher bubble point (liquid retention capability). After ruling out some screens on the basis of acceleration requirements alone, candidates can be identified by examining screens with small flow-loss-to-bubble point ratios for a given condition (i.e., comparing screens at certain flow rates and fill levels). Within the same flow rate and fill level, the screen constants inertia resistance coefficient, void fraction, screen pore or opening diameter, and bubble point can become the driving forces in identifying the smaller flow-loss-to-bubble point ratios.

VanDyke, M. K.; Hastings, L. J.

2012-01-01

381

SLD liquid argon calorimeter  

SciTech Connect

The liquid argon calorimeter (LAC) of the SLD detector is a parallel plate -- liquid argon sampling calorimeter, used to measure particle energies in Z[sup 0] decays at the Stanford Linear Collider. The LAC module design is based on a unique projective tower structure, in which lead plates and segmented lead tiles serve both as absorbers and electrodes. The LAC front end electronics incorporates several novel features, including extensive multiplexing and optical fiber readout, which take advantage of the low SLC beam crossing frequency. The operational performance of the LAC during the recently completed SLD physics run (which recorded over 10,000 Z[sup 0] events) is discussed.

Vella, E.

1992-10-01

382

SLD liquid argon calorimeter  

SciTech Connect

The liquid argon calorimeter (LAC) of the SLD detector is a parallel plate -- liquid argon sampling calorimeter, used to measure particle energies in Z{sup 0} decays at the Stanford Linear Collider. The LAC module design is based on a unique projective tower structure, in which lead plates and segmented lead tiles serve both as absorbers and electrodes. The LAC front end electronics incorporates several novel features, including extensive multiplexing and optical fiber readout, which take advantage of the low SLC beam crossing frequency. The operational performance of the LAC during the recently completed SLD physics run (which recorded over 10,000 Z{sup 0} events) is discussed.

Vella, E.; SLD Collaboration

1992-10-01

383

Liquid Scintillator Purification  

SciTech Connect

The KamLAND collaboration has studied background requirements and purification methods needed to observe the 7Be neutrino from the sun. First we will discuss the present background situation in KamLAND where it is found that the main background components are 210Pb and 85Kr. It is then described how to purify the liquid scintillator. The present status and results on how to remove 210Pb from the liquid scintillator are discussed. Specifically, the detailed analysis of the effects of distillation and adsorption techniques are presented.

Kishimoto, Y. [Research Center for Neutrino Science, Tohoku University (Japan)

2005-09-08

384

Liquid xenon excimer laser  

SciTech Connect

The characteristics of the first excimer laser and the history of its creation are presented. The threshold lasing conditions and the modern theory of active media are considered, and the prospects for the development of excimer lasers operating on condensed inert gases are discussed. It is shown that in experiments on pumping liquid xenon, lasing was obtained simultaneously on excimers of several types, including excimers in liquid and gas phases. (special issue devoted to the 80th anniversary of academician n g basov's birth)

Molchanov, Alexander G [P.N. Lebedev Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2003-01-31

385

Engineering adhesion to thermoresponsive substrates: effect of polymer composition on liquid-liquid-solid wetting.  

PubMed

Adhesion control in liquid-liquid-solid systems represents a challenge for applications ranging from self-cleaning to biocompatibility of engineered materials. By using responsive polymer chemistry and molecular self-assembly, adhesion at solid/liquid interfaces can be achieved and modulated by external stimuli. Here, we utilize thermosensitive polymeric materials based on random copolymers of di(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (x = MEO2MA) and oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (y = OEGMA), that is, P(MEO2MAx-co-OEGMAy), to investigate the role of hydrophobicity on the phenomenon of adhesion. The copolymer ratio (x/y) dictates macromolecular changes enabling control of the hydrophilic-to-lipophilic balance (HBL) of the polymer brushes through external triggers such as ionic strength and temperature. We discuss the HBL of the thermobrushes in terms of the surface energy of the substrate by measuring the contact angle at water-decane-P(MEO2MAx-co-OEGMAy) brush contact line as a function of polymer composition and temperature. Solid supported polyelectrolyte layers grafted with P(MEO2MAx-co-OEGMAy) display a transition in the wettability that is related to the lower critical solution temperature of the polymer brushes. Using experimental observation of the hydrophilic to hydrophobic transition by the contact angle, we extract the underlying energetics associated with liquid-liquid-solid adhesion as a function of the copolymer ratio. The change in cellular attachment on P(MEO2MAx-co-OEGMAy) substrates of variable (x/y) composition demonstrates the subtle role of compositional tuning on the ability to control liquid-liquid-solid adhesion in biological applications. PMID:25569588

Gambinossi, Filippo; Sefcik, Lauren S; Wischerhoff, Erik; Laschewsky, Andre; Ferri, James K

2015-02-01

386

Mixed Stationary Liquid Phases for Gas-Liquid Chromatography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a laboratory technique for use in an undergraduate instrumental analysis course that, using the interpretation of window diagrams, prepares a mixed liquid phase column for gas-liquid chromatography. A detailed procedure is provided. (BT)

Koury, Albert M.; Parcher, Jon F.

1979-01-01

387

138. LIQUID NITROGEN INSTRUMENT PANEL ON EAST WALL OF LIQUID ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

138. LIQUID NITROGEN INSTRUMENT PANEL ON EAST WALL OF LIQUID NITROGEN CONTROL ROOM (115), LSB (BLDG. 770) - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

388

Synthesis and Characterization of Thiazolium-Based Room Temperature Ionic Liquids for Gas Separations  

SciTech Connect

A series of novel thiazolium-bis(triflamide) based ionic liquids has been synthesized and characterized. Physicochemical properties of the ionic liquids such as thermal stability, phase transitions, and infrared spectra were analysed and compared to the imidazolium-based congeners. Several unique classes of ancillary substitutions are examined with respect to impacts on overall structure, in addition to their carbon dioxide absorption properties in supported ionic-liquid membranes for gas separation.

Hillesheim, Patrick C [ORNL; Mahurin, Shannon Mark [ORNL; Fulvio, Pasquale F [ORNL; Yeary, Joshua S [ORNL; Oyola, Yatsandra [ORNL; Jiang, Deen [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL

2012-01-01

389

Spontaneous liquid-liquid phase separation of water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a molecular dynamics simulation demonstrating a fast spontaneous liquid-liquid phase separation of water and a subsequent slow crystallization to ice. It is found that supercooled water separates rapidly into low- and high-density domains so as to reduce the surface energy in the rectangular simulation cell at certain thermodynamic states. The liquid-liquid phase separation, which is about two orders of magnitude faster than the crystallization, suggests a possibility to observe this phenomenon experimentally.

Yagasaki, Takuma; Matsumoto, Masakazu; Tanaka, Hideki

2014-02-01

390

Spreading of liquid drops from a liquid source  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spreading of liquid drops over solid substrates with a liquid source in the centre of the drop is considered from both theoretical and experimental points of view. For conditions of complete wetting the spreading is an overlapping of two processes: a spontaneous spreading and a forced flow caused by the liquid source in the centre. Both capillary and gravitational

R. Holdich; V. M. Starov; P. Prokopovich; D. O. Njobuenwu; R. G. Rubio; S. Zhdanov; M. G. Velarde

2006-01-01

391

Vitrification and levitation of a liquid droplet on liquid nitrogen  

E-print Network

Vitrification and levitation of a liquid droplet on liquid nitrogen Young S. Songa , Douglas Adlera Demircia,e,1 a Bio-Acoustic-Microelectromechanical Systems in Medicine Laboratory, Center.e., vitrification) and the levitation of droplets on liquid nitrogen (i.e., Leidenfrost phenomenon) take place

Demirci, Utkan

392

Physics of liquid jets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Jets, i.e. collimated streams of matter, occur from the microscale up to the large-scale structure of the universe. Our focus will be mostly on surface tension effects, which result from the cohesive properties of liquids. Paradoxically, cohesive forces promote the breakup of jets, widely encountered in nature, technology and basic science, for example in nuclear fission, DNA sampling, medical diagnostics, sprays, agricultural irrigation and jet engine technology. Liquid jets thus serve as a paradigm for free-surface motion, hydrodynamic instability and singularity formation leading to drop breakup. In addition to their practical usefulness, jets are an ideal probe for liquid properties, such as surface tension, viscosity or non-Newtonian rheology. They also arise from the last but one topology change of liquid masses bursting into sprays. Jet dynamics are sensitive to the turbulent or thermal excitation of the fluid, as well as to the surrounding gas or fluid medium. The aim of this review is to provide a unified description of the fundamental and the technological aspects of these subjects.

Eggers, Jens; Villermaux, Emmanuel

2008-03-01

393

Liquid Crystal Displays  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the present status and art of liquid crystal displays. It discusses the fabrication and operational principles of dynamic scattering, twisted nematic, guest-host, dye phase change, tunable birefingence, thermally addressed smectic A mode, etc, displays. The potentialities of applications of these displays are examined critically. Twisted nematic mode displays, which capture over 99% of today's LCD market, is

Birendra Bahadur

1984-01-01

394

Transflective liquid crystal displays  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review paper, a detailed overview of the transflective liquid crystal display (LCD) technology is presented. We first introduce the transflector classifications based on their composition and properties. Then, in reviewing the development history, we investigate the mainstream transflective LCDs, including their operating principles, advantages, and disadvantages. Finally, the image quality issues of transflective LCDs, such as color balance,

Xinyu Zhu; Zhibing Ge; Thomas X. Wu; Shin-Tson Wu

2005-01-01

395

Sidechain liquid crystal polymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has continued in the field sidechain liquid crystal polymers over recent years, but it is becoming clearer that this research is being directed away from the traditional technology areas of electro-optic devices and researchers are developing new and exciting applications for this novel state of matter.

Keith M Blackwood; Ian C Sage

1998-01-01

396

Realistic Animation of Liquids  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a comprehensive methodology for realistically animating liquid phenomena. Our ap- proach unifies existing computer graphics techniques for simulating fluids and extends them by incorporating more complex behavior. It is based on the Navier-Stokes equations which couple momentum and mass conservation to completely describe fluid motion. Our starting point is an environment containing an arbitrary distribution of fluid, and

Nick Foster; Dimitris N. Metaxas

1996-01-01

397

Liquid propellant densification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Super cooling the cryogenic liquid propellant in a vehicle propellant tank densities the propellant allowing the vehicle propellant tank to carry more fuel in the same volume tank while lowering the vapor pressure and thus the tank operating pressure. Lowering the tank operating pressure reduces the stress and therefore allows the walls of the tank to be thinner. Both the smaller tank volume and thinner tank wall results in an overall smaller and lighter vehicle with increased payload capability. The cryogenic propellant can be supercooled well below the normal boiling point temperature level by transporting the liquid propellant from the vehicle tanks to a ground based cooling unit which utilizes a combination of heat exchanger and compressor. The compressor lowers the coolant fluid bath pressure resulting in a low temperature boiling liquid which is subsequently used to cool the recirculating liquid. The cooled propellant is then returned to the vehicle propellant tank. In addition to reducing the vehicle size and weight the invention also allows location of the vent valve on the ground, elimination of on-board recirculation pumps or bleed systems, smaller and lighter engine pumps and valves, lighter and more stable ullage gas, and significant reduction in tank fill operation. All of these mentioned attributes provide lower vehicle weight and cost.

Lak, Tibor I. (Inventor); Petrilla, Steve P. (Inventor); Lozano, Martin E. (Inventor)

1997-01-01

398

Cloud Liquid Water Measurements  

E-print Network

#12;Wet Power Term Energy is transferred to heat droplets to to the boiling point and vaporize of Vaporization · cw - Specific Heat of Water · Tv - Boiling Temperature of Water · Ta ­ Ambient Temperature #12 of Vaporization · cw - Specific Heat of Water · Tv ­ Water Boiling Temperature Solve for Liquid Water Content · P

Delene, David J.

399

ELECTRONS IN NONPOLAR LIQUIDS.  

SciTech Connect

Excess electrons can be introduced into liquids by absorption of high energy radiation, by photoionization, or by photoinjection from metal surfaces. The electron's chemical and physical properties can then be measured, but this requires that the electrons remain free. That is, the liquid must be sufficiently free of electron attaching impurities for these studies. The drift mobility as well as other transport properties of the electron are discussed here as well as electron reactions, free-ion yields and energy levels, Ionization processes typically produce electrons with excess kinetic energy. In liquids during thermalization, where this excess energy is lost to bath molecules, the electrons travel some distance from their geminate positive ions. In general the electrons at this point are still within the coulombic field of their geminate ions and a large fraction of the electrons recombine. However, some electrons escape recombination and the yield that escapes to become free electrons and ions is termed G{sub fi}. Reported values of G{sub fi} for molecular liquids range from 0.05 to 1.1 per 100 eV of energy absorbed. The reasons for this 20-fold range of yields are discussed here.

HOLROYD,R.A.

2002-10-22

400

The SNS Liquids Reflectometer  

SciTech Connect

The SNS Liquids Reflectometer [1], installed as one of the first instruments at the Spallation Neutron Source, has now been functional for more than a year. This instrument is designed to view liquid and solid surfaces in specular, off specular, and near-surface small angle scattering geometries. The guide system supplies 2 {angstrom} < {angstrom} < 16.5 {angstrom} neutrons at vertical incident angles ranging from 0{sup o} < {alpha}{sub i} < 5.5{sup o} for free liquid surfaces and up to 45{sup o} for solid surfaces. Three bandwidth choppers, synchronized with the spallation source and operating at 15-60 Hz, provide neutrons in bandwidths ranging from 3.5-14 {angstrom} at a fixed incident angle onto a sample. The sample stage enables all of the motions necessary for positioning liquid and solid surfaces, while the detector arm directs a position-sensitive detector to view the sample at specular or off specular angles up to 90{sup o} and can scan out of the specular plane by up to 30{sup o}.

Ankner, John Francis [ORNL; Tao, Xiaodong [ORNL; Halbert, Candice E [ORNL; Browning, Jim [ORNL; Kilbey, II, S Michael [ORNL; Swader, Onome A [ORNL; Dadmun, Mark D [ORNL; Kharlampieva, Dr. Eugenia [Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, New Jersey; Sukhishvili, Prof. Svetlana A. [Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, New Jersey

2008-01-01

401

Liquid rocket valve components  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A monograph on valves for use with liquid rocket propellant engines is presented. The configurations of the various types of valves are described and illustrated. Design criteria and recommended practices for the various valves are explained. Tables of data are included to show the chief features of valve components in use on operational vehicles.

1973-01-01

402

LIQUID WASTE COMPOSTING  

EPA Science Inventory

This research project was conducted at the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park to examine the feasibility of adapting and using the sludge composting technique to compost liquid waste collected in the National Parks. This study evaluated the composting of two probl...

403

Clean room wiping liquids  

SciTech Connect

A water-based liquid containing isopropyl alcohol, ammonium hydroxide, and surfactants was developed to replace 1,1,2-trichlorotrifluoroethane for the dampening of clean room wiping cloths used to wipe clean benches, clean room equipment, and latex finger cots and gloves.

Harding, W.B.

1991-12-01

404

Liquid laser cavities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Liquid laser cavities have plenum chambers at the ends of the capillary cell which are terminated in transparent optical flats. By use of these cavities, several new europium chelates and a terbium chelate can provide laser action in solution at room temperature.

Bjorklund, S.; Filipescu, N.; Kellermeyer, G. L.; Mc Avoy, N.

1969-01-01

405

Liquid rocket valve assemblies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and operating characteristics of valve assemblies used in liquid propellant rocket engines are discussed. The subjects considered are as follows: (1) valve selection parameters, (2) major design aspects, (3) design integration of valve subassemblies, and (4) assembly of components and functional tests. Information is provided on engine, stage, and spacecraft checkout procedures.

1973-01-01

406

Ferroelectric liquid crystal display  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A ferroelectric liquid crystal display device employs capacitance spoiling layers to minimize unneeded capacitances created by crossovers of X and Y address lines and to accurately define desired capacitances. The spoiler layers comprise low dielectric constant layers which space electrodes from the ferroelectric at crossover points where capacitance is not needed for device operation.

York, Paul K. (Inventor)

1977-01-01

407

Properties of Liquid Plutonium  

SciTech Connect

Unalloyed polycrystalline Pu displays extreme thermal expansion behavior, i.e., {alpha} {yields} {beta} {yields} {gamma} {yields} {delta} increases by 25% in volume and {delta} {yields} {var_epsilon} {yields} liquid decreases by 4.5% in volume. Thus, making it difficult to measure density into the liquid state. Dilatometer outfitted with CaF molten metal cell offers a proven capability to measure thermal expansion in molten metals, but has yet to be proven for Pu. Historic data from the liquid nuclear fuels program will prove extremely useful as a guide to future measurements. 3.3at% Ga changes Pu molten metal properties: 50% increase in viscosity and {approx}3% decrease in density. Fe may decrease the density by a small amount assuming an averaging of densities for Pu-Ga and Pu-Fe liquids. More recent Boivineau (2009) work needs some interpretation, but technique is being employed in (U,Pu)O{sub 2} nuclear fuels program (Pu Futures, 2012).

Freibert, Franz J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mitchell, Jeremy N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schwartz, Daniel S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Saleh, Tarik A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Migliori, Albert [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-08-02

408

Viscosity Of Liquids - Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Classroom experiment to illustrate the viscosity of different liquids by measuring how quickly pebbles sink through them. The site describes all of the required material for the experiment and also gives a detailed chart for recording the results of the experiment. Altogether, the site is a great activity for the classroom.

409

Liquid mixing device  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mixing device for mixing at least two liquids to produce a homogenous mixture. The device includes an elongated chamber in which a vertically oriented elongated mixing cavity is located. The cavity is sealed at its lower end and it is open at its upper end and in communication with the interior of the chamber. An elongated conduit extends the

OLeary

1985-01-01

410

Coalescence of Liquid Drops  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When two liquid drops come into contact, a neck forms between them and grows rapidly. We are interested in the very early stage of the coalescence process, which can be characterized by the time dependence of the radius of the neck. The functional dependence of the size of the neck on time depends on the properties of the liquid. Experimentally, we are investigating a liquid in Stokes flow regime where the viscosity provides the principal retarding force to the surface tension. Recently, it has been predicted that the neck radius should change as t ln|t| in this regime. Theoretically, we have studied the situation when the velocity at each point on the surface is proportional to the local curvature and directed normal to the surface. This is the case that should be applicable to superfluid helium at low temperature when the mean free path of the thermal excitations are comparable to the size of liquid drops. For this system, the radius of the neck is found to be proportional to t(sup 1/3). We are able to find a simple expression for the shape of the interface in the vicinity of the neck.

Yao, Wei-Jun

2003-01-01

411

Polymorphism in glassy silicon: Inherited from liquid-liquid phase transition in supercooled liquid  

PubMed Central

Combining molecular dynamics (MD) simulation and Voronoi polyhedral analyses, we discussed the microstructure evolution in liquid and glassy silicon during cooling by focusing on the fraction of various clusters. Liquid-liquid phase transition (LLPT) is detected in supercooled liquid silicon However, freezing the high-density liquid (HDL) to the glassy state is not achieved as the quenching rate goes up to 1014?K/s. The polyamorphism in glassy silicon is found to be mainly associated with low-density liquid (LDL). PMID:25716054

Zhang, Shiliang; Wang, Li-Min; Zhang, Xinyu; Qi, Li; Zhang, Suhong; Ma, Mingzhen; Liu, Riping

2015-01-01

412

Polymorphism in glassy silicon: Inherited from liquid-liquid phase transition in supercooled liquid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Combining molecular dynamics (MD) simulation and Voronoi polyhedral analyses, we discussed the microstructure evolution in liquid and glassy silicon during cooling by focusing on the fraction of various clusters. Liquid-liquid phase transition (LLPT) is detected in supercooled liquid silicon However, freezing the high-density liquid (HDL) to the glassy state is not achieved as the quenching rate goes up to 1014 K/s. The polyamorphism in glassy silicon is found to be mainly associated with low-density liquid (LDL).

Zhang, Shiliang; Wang, Li-Min; Zhang, Xinyu; Qi, Li; Zhang, Suhong; Ma, Mingzhen; Liu, Riping

2015-02-01

413

Linear stability analysis of an insoluble surfactant monolayer spreading on a thin liquid film  

E-print Network

Linear stability analysis of an insoluble surfactant monolayer spreading on a thin liquid film Omar of a coupled set of equations describing the Marangoni spreading of a surfactant monolayer on a thin liquid support. The unperturbed flows, which exhibit simple linear behavior in the film thickness and surfactant

Troian, Sandra M.

414

Liquid Crystals - The Mainstream Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A liquid crystal is a substance that flows like a liquid but maintains some of the ordered structure characteristic of crystals. Play this game to see how the crystal moves around in different patterns.

Nobel Foundation

415

Demonstrating Paramagnetism Using Liquid Nitrogen.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how liquid nitrogen is attracted to the poles of neodymium magnets. Nitrogen is not paramagnetic, so the attraction suggests that the liquid nitrogen contains a small amount of oxygen, which causes the paramagnetism. (MVL)

Simmonds, Ray; And Others

1994-01-01

416

Black Liquid Solar Collector Demonstrator.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the details of constructing, and use of, a solar collector. Uses a black liquid to absorb the energy, the thermosyphon effect to drive the liquid through the collector, and a floodlamp as a surrogate sun. (GA)

Weichman, F. L.; Austen, D. J.

1979-01-01

417

Chemical propulsion using ionic liquids.  

PubMed

Chemical propulsion generates motion by directly converting locally stored chemical energy into mechanical energy. Here, we describe chemically driven autonomous motion generated by using imidazolium-based ionic liquids on a water surface. From measurements of the driving force of a locomotor loaded with an ionic liquid and observations of convection on the water surface originating from the ionic liquid container of the locomotor, the driving mechanism of the motion is found to be due to the Marangoni effect that arises from the anisotropic distribution of ionic liquids on the water surface. The maximum driving force and the force-generation duration are determined by the surface activity of the ionic liquid and the solubility of the ionic liquid in water, respectively. Because of the special properties of ionic liquids, a chemical locomotor driven by ionic liquids is promising for realizing autonomous micromachines and nanomachines that are safe and environmentally friendly. PMID:23398242

Tsuchitani, Shigeki; Takagi, Nobuhiro; Kikuchi, Kunitomo; Miki, Hirobumi

2013-03-01

418

Colloids at liquid crystal interfaces   

E-print Network

This thesis presents a study of colloidal particles dispersed in thermotropic liquid crystals. It has a specific focus on colloids in the presence of an interface between the liquid crystal and an isotropic fluid. Three ...

Pawsey, Anne Claire

2014-06-28

419

3-Methylpiperidinium ionic liquids.  

PubMed

A wide range of room temperature ionic liquids based on the 3-methylpiperdinium cation core were produced from 3-methylpiperidine, which is a derivative of DYTEK® A amine. First, reaction with 1-bromoalkanes or 1-bromoalkoxyalkanes generated the corresponding tertiary amines (Rm?pip, R = alkyl or alkoxyalkyl); further quaternisation reactions with the appropriate methylating agents yielded the quaternary [Rmm?pip]X salts (X(-) = I(-), [CF3CO2](-) or [OTf](-); Tf = -SO2CF3), and [Rmm?pip][NTf2] were prepared by anion metathesis from the corresponding iodides. All [NTf2](-) salts are liquids at room temperature. [Rmm?pip]X (X(-) = I(-), [CF3CO2](-) or [OTf](-)) are low-melting solids when R = alkyl, but room temperature liquids upon introduction of ether functionalities on R. Neither of the 3-methylpiperdinium ionic liquids showed any signs of crystallisation, even well below 0 °C. Some related non-C-substituted piperidinium and pyrrolidinium analogues were prepared and studied for comparison. Crystal structures of 1-hexyl-1,3-dimethylpiperidinium tetraphenylborate, 1-butyl-3-methylpiperidinium bromide, 1-(2-methoxyethyl)-1-methylpiperidinium chloride and 1-(2-methoxyethyl)-1-methylpyrrolidinium bromide are reported. Extensive structural and physical data are collected and compared to literature data, with special emphasis on the systematic study of the cation ring size and/or asymmetry effects on density, viscosity and ionic conductivity, allowing general trends to be outlined. Cyclic voltammetry shows that 3-methylpiperidinium ionic liquids, similarly to azepanium, piperidinium or pyrrolidinium counterparts, are extremely electrochemically stable; the portfolio of useful alternatives for safe and high-performing electrolytes is thus greatly extended. PMID:25669485

Belhocine, Tayeb; Forsyth, Stewart A; Gunaratne, H Q Nimal; Nieuwenhuyzen, Mark; Nockemann, Peter; Puga, Alberto V; Seddon, Kenneth R; Srinivasan, Geetha; Whiston, Keith

2015-04-01

420

Liquid metal thermoacoustic engine  

SciTech Connect

We are studying a liquid metal thermoacoustic engine both theoretically and experimentally. This type of engine promises to produce large quantities of electrical energy from heat at modest efficiency with no moving parts. A sound wave is usually thought of as consisting of pressure oscillations, but always attendant to the pressure oscillation are temperature oscillations. The combination produces a rich variety of ''thermoacoustic'' effects. These effects are usually so small that they are never noticed in everyday life; nevertheless under the right circumstances they can be harnessed to produce powerful heat engines, heat pumps, and refrigerators. In our liquid metal thermoacoustic engine, heat flow from a high temperature source to a low temperature sink generates a high-amplitude standing acoustic wave in liquid sodium. This acoustic power is converted to electric power by a simple magnetohydrodynamic effect at the acoustic oscillation frequency. We have developed a detailed thermoacoustic theory applicable to this engine, and find that a reasonably designed liquid sodium engine operating between 700/sup 0/C and 100/sup 0/C should generate about 60 W/cm/sup 2/ of acoustic power at about 1/3 of Carnot's efficiency. Construction of a 3000 W-thermal laboratory model engine has just been completed, and we have exciting preliminary experimental results as of the time of preparation of this manuscript showing, basically, that the engine works. We have also designed and built a 1 kHz liquid sodium magnetohydrodynamic generator and have extensive measurements on it. It is now very well characterized both experimentally and theoretically. The first generator of its kind, it already converts acoustic power to electric power with 40% efficiency. 16 refs., 5 figs.

Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.; Wheatley, J.C.

1986-01-01

421

Rockets using Liquid Oxygen  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is my task to discuss rocket propulsion using liquid oxygen and my treatment must be highly condensed for the ideas and experiments pertaining to this classic type of rocket are so numerous that one could occupy a whole morning with a detailed presentation. First, with regard to oxygen itself as compared with competing oxygen carriers, it is known that the liquid state of oxygen, in spite of the low boiling point, is more advantageous than the gaseous form of oxygen in pressure tanks, therefore only liquid oxygen need be compared with the oxygen carriers. The advantages of liquid oxygen are absolute purity and unlimited availability at relatively small cost in energy. The disadvantages are those arising from the impossibility of absolute isolation from heat; consequently, allowance must always be made for a certain degree of vaporization and only vented vessels can be used for storage and transportation. This necessity alone eliminates many fields of application, for example, at the front lines. In addition, liquid oxygen has a lower specific weight than other oxygen carriers, therefore many accessories become relatively larger and heavier in the case of an oxygen rocket, for example, the supply tanks and the pumps. The advantages thus become effective only in those cases where definitely scheduled operation and a large ground organization are possible and when the flight requires a great concentration of energy relative to weight. With the aim of brevity, a diagram of an oxygen rocket will be presented and the problem of various component parts that receive particularly thorough investigation in this classic case but which are also often applicable to other rocket types will be referred to.

Busemann, Adolf

1947-01-01

422

Exercise support for therapy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Constant-value weight-relieving apparatus, which moves on rollers on overhead track, supports weight of walking, stooping, squatting, or standing patient with combination of multiple pulleys and spring clusters. Individually preselected support force is constant for all movements.

Long, M. J.; Irick, S. C.

1976-01-01

423

Patient & Family Support Programs  

E-print Network

for people in any stage of melanoma. Pancreatic Cancer Support Group September 17 5:00-6:30 pm Call for support, resources, events, and information Quarterly Meeting with Pancreatic Cancer Action Network

Myers, Lawrence C.

424

Enabling Services Dyslexia Support  

E-print Network

Enabling Services Dyslexia Support information for students website: www.soton.ac.uk/edusupport/dyslexia, George Thomas Building (37), Highfield Campus #12;2 Contents About Dyslexia Support.........................................................11 National and Local Organisations: .....................................12 #12;3 About Dyslexia

Anderson, Jim

425

SUPERFUND TECHNICAL SUPPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

Under this task, technical support is provided to Regional Remedial Project Managers (RPMs)/On-Scene Coordinators (OSCs) at Superfund, RCRA, and Brownfields sites contaminated with hazardous materials by the Technical Support Center (TSC) for Monitoring and Site Characterization....

426

SUPERFUND REMOTE SENSING SUPPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

This task provides remote sensing technical support to the Superfund program. Support includes the collection, processing, and analysis of remote sensing data to characterize hazardous waste disposal sites and their history. Image analysis reports, aerial photographs, and assoc...

427

Liquid crystalline composites containing phyllosilicates  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides barrier films having reduced gas permeability for use in packaging and coating applications. The barrier films comprise an anisotropic liquid crystalline composite layer formed from phyllosilicate-polymer compositions. Phyllosilicate-polymer liquid crystalline compositions of the present invention can contain a high percentage of phyllosilicate while remaining transparent. Because of the ordering of the particles in the liquid crystalline composite, barrier films comprising liquid crystalline composites are particularly useful as barriers to gas transport.

Chaiko; David J. (Naperville, IL)

2007-05-08

428

Task-specific ionic liquids.  

PubMed

In recent years, ionic liquids have attracted the attention of many chemists as a result of their unique properties as solvents for chemical transformations. The focus of this Minireview is on applications of so-called "task-specific" ionic liquids, whereby the role of the ionic liquid goes beyond that of a solvent. Such ionic liquids find application in a wide range of areas, including catalysis, synthesis, gas absorption, and analysis. PMID:20229544

Giernoth, Ralf

2010-04-01

429

Liquid metal thermal electric converter  

DOEpatents

A liquid metal thermal electric converter which converts heat energy to electrical energy. The design of the liquid metal thermal electric converter incorporates a unique configuration which directs the metal fluid pressure to the outside of the tube which results in the structural loads in the tube to be compressive. A liquid metal thermal electric converter refluxing boiler with series connection of tubes and a multiple cell liquid metal thermal electric converter are also provided.

Abbin, Joseph P. (Albuquerque, NM); Andraka, Charles E. (Albuquerque, NM); Lukens, Laurance L. (Albuquerque, NM); Moreno, James B. (Albuquerque, NM)

1989-01-01

430

Temperature-dependent structural heterogeneity in calcium silicate liquids.  

SciTech Connect

X-ray diffraction measurements performed on aerodynamically levitated CaSiO{sub 3} droplets have been interpreted using a structurally heterogeneous liquid-state model. When cooled, the high-temperature liquid shows evidence of the polymerization of edge shared Ca octahedra. Diffraction isosbestic points are used to characterize the polymerization process in the pair-distribution function. This behavior is linear in the high-temperature melt but exhibits rapid growth just above the glass transition temperature around 1.2T{sub g}. The heterogeneous liquid interpretation is supported by molecular-dynamics simulations which show the CaSiO{sub 3} glass has more edge-shared polyhedra and fewer corner shared polyhedra than the liquid model.

Benmore, C. J.; Weber, J. K. R.; Wilding, M. C.; Du, J.; Parise, J. B. (X-Ray Science Division); (Materials Development Inc.); (Aberystwyth Univ.); (State Univ. of New York at Stony Brook); (Univ. of North Texas)

2010-12-07

431

The puzzling unsolved mysteries of liquid water: Some recent progress  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water is perhaps the most ubiquitous, and the most essential, of any molecule on earth. Indeed, it defies the imagination of even the most creative science fiction writer to picture what life would be like without water. Despite decades of research, however, water's puzzling properties are not understood and 63 anomalies that distinguish water from other liquids remain unsolved. We introduce some of these unsolved mysteries, and demonstrate recent progress in solving them. We present evidence from experiments and computer simulations supporting the hypothesis that water displays a special transition point (which is not unlike the “tipping point” immortalized by Malcolm Gladwell). The general idea is that when the liquid is near this “tipping point,” it suddenly separates into two distinct liquid phases. This concept of a new critical point is finding application to other liquids as well as water, such as silicon and silica. We also discuss related puzzles, such as the mysterious behavior of water near a protein.

Stanley, H. E.; Kumar, P.; Xu, L.; Yan, Z.; Mazza, M. G.; Buldyrev, S. V.; Chen, S.-H.; Mallamace, F.

2007-12-01

432

Cavitation pressure in liquid helium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent experiments have suggested that, at low enough temperature, the homogeneous nucleation of bubbles occurs in liquid helium near the calculated spinodal limit. This was done in pure superfluid helium 4 and in pure normal liquid helium 3. However, in such experiments, where the negative pressure is produced by focusing an acoustic wave in the bulk liquid, the local amplitude

Frederic Caupin; Sebastien Balibar

2001-01-01

433

Liquid lubrication for space applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reviewed here is the state of the art of liquid lubrication for space applications. The areas discussed are types of liquid lubrication mechanisms, space environmental effects on lubrication, classification of lubricants, liquid lubricant additives, grease lubrication, mechanism materials, bearing anomalies and failures, lubricant supply techniques, and application types and lubricant needs for those applications.

Fusaro, Robert L.; Khonsari, Michael M.

434

Liquid-Hydrogen Polygeneration System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Polygeneration system uses existing technology in integrated process to produce liquid hydrogen space-vehicle propellant and secondary products as gaseous nitrogen, electrical energy, and thermal energy. Makes commercial launch services economical. Lowers expected cost of liquid hydrogen by utilizing relatively cheap coal feedstocks and by reducing electrical costs associated with producing liquid hydrogen.

Minderman, P.; Gutkowski, G.; Manfredi, L.; King, J.; Howard, F.

1986-01-01

435

Ionic Liquids in Chemical Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Room-temperature ionic liquids are salts with a melting point close to or below room temperature. They form liquids composed in the majority of ions. This gives these materials the potential to behave very differently when they are used as solvents compared to conventional molecular liquids. The search for their application is growing in every area of analytical chemistry—electrochemistry, chromatography, electrophoresis,

Mihkel Koel

2005-01-01

436

Liquid/Gas Flow Mixers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improved devices mix gases and liquids into bubbly or foamy flows. Generates flowing, homogeneous foams or homogeneous dispersions of small, noncoalescing bubbles entrained in flowing liquids. Mixers useful in liquid-metal magnetohydrodynamic electric-power generator, froth flotation in mining industry, wastewater treatment, aerobic digestion, and stripping hydrocarbon contaminants from ground water.

Fabris, Gracio

1994-01-01

437

An Operational Measure of Liquidity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Embedding the process of selling an asset in a search environment enables one to provide an exact definition of liquidity: an asset's liquidity is the expected time until it is sold while pursuing an optimal (in the sense of maximization of expected discounted net proceeds) policy. This analysis reveals that this definition is compatible with most other notions of liquidity

Steven A Lippman; John J McCall

1986-01-01

438

Enzyme catalysis in ionic liquids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ionic liquids offer new possibilities for the application of solvent engineering to biocatalytic reactions. Although in many cases ionic liquids have simply been used to replace organic solvents, they have often led to improved process performance. Unlike conventional organic solvents, ionic liquids possess no vapor pressure, are able to dissolve many compounds, and can be used to form two-phase systems

Udo Kragl; Marrit Eckstein; Nicole Kaftzik

2002-01-01

439

Animation of Bubbles in Liquid  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new fluid animation technique in which liquid and gas interact with each other, using the example of bubbles rising in water. In contrast to previous studies which only focused on one fluid, our system considers both the liquid and the gas simultaneously. In addition to the flowing motion, the interactions between liquid and gas cause buoyancy, surface

Jeong-mo Hong; Chang-hun Kim

2003-01-01

440

Liquid lubrication for space applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reviewed here is the state of the art of liquid lubrication for space applications. The areas discussed are types of liquid lubrication mechanisms, space environmental effects on lubrication, classification of lubricants, liquid lubricant additives, grease lubrication, mechanism materials, bearing anomalies and failures, lubricant supply techniques, and application types and lubricant needs for those applications.

Fusaro, Robert L.; Khonsari, Michael M.

1992-01-01

441

High temperature liquid level sensor  

DOEpatents

A length of metal sheathed metal oxide cable is perforated to permit liquid access to the insulation about a pair of conductors spaced close to one another. Changes in resistance across the conductors will be a function of liquid level, since the wetted insulation will have greater electrical conductivity than that of the dry insulation above the liquid elevation.

Tokarz, Richard D. (West Richland, WA)

1983-01-01

442

Liquid crystal lasers Andrii Varanytsia  

E-print Network

Liquid crystal lasers Andrii Varanytsia Class: LC Optics and Photonics, Spring 2012 Instructor: Professor Peter Palffy-Muhoray 1 #12;Outline · Organic dye lasers and distributed feedback lasers · Liquid crystal laser · Methods of control and tuning liquid crystal laser emission · Methods of emission

Palffy-Muhoray, Peter

443

Support vector domain description  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows the use of a data domain description method, inspired by the support vector machine by Vapnik, called the support vector domain description (SVDD). This data description can be used for novelty or outlier de- tection. A spherically shaped decision boundary around a set of objects is constructed by a set of support vectors describing the sphere boundary.

David M. J. Tax; Robert P. W. Duin

1999-01-01

444

Enabling Services Dyslexia Support  

E-print Network

Enabling Services Dyslexia Support Information for students Support for students with specific learning difficulties such as dyslexia and dyspraxia Email: enable@soton.ac.uk Tel: 023 8059 7726 Student Services Centre Building (37) Highfield Campus #12;2 Contents About Dyslexia Support

Anderson, Jim

445

Overview of supported employment.  

PubMed Central

This article traces the emergence of supported employment as a result of philosophical changes in expectations for persons with disabilities, based on scientific developments that challenged traditional service-delivery models. Supported employment program characteristics also are reviewed, and the influence of applied behavior analysis is outlined. Finally, areas for future research in supported employment are discussed. PMID:2693427

Rusch, F R; Hughes, C

1989-01-01

446

Control of thermocapillary convection in a liquid bridge by vibration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The streaming induced in a short vertical liquid column by the vibration of one of the supporting end walls has been utilized in this novel study. Vibration essentially drives a surface flow in the zone away from the vibrating wall, with the return flow in the bulk towards the wall. Preliminary measurements of the surface streaming velocity show that it

A. V. Anilkumar; R. N. Grugel; X. F. Shen; C. P. Lee; T. G. Wang

1993-01-01

447

Control of thermocapillary convection in a liquid bridge by vibration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The streaming induced in a short vertical liquid column (L\\/R?1, L: length, R: radius) by the vibration of one of the supporting end walls has been utilized in this novel study. Vibration essentially drives a surface flow in the zone away from the vibrating wall, with the return flow in the bulk towards the wall. Preliminary measurements of the surface

A. V. Anilkumar; R. N. Grugel; X. F. Shen; C. P. Lee; T. G. Wang

1993-01-01

448

Enhanced catalyst for converting synthesis gas to liquid motor fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conversion of synthesis gas to liquid molar fuels by means of a cobalt Fischer-Tropsch catalyst composition is enhanced by the addition of molybdenum, tungsten or a combination thereof as an additional component of said composition. The presence of the additive component increases the olefinic content of the hydrocarbon products produced. The catalyst composition can advantageously include a support component,

Coughlin; Peter K

1986-01-01

449

Direct Liquid Cooling for Electronic Henry Coles and Steve Greenberg  

E-print Network

LBNL-6641E Direct Liquid Cooling for Electronic Equipment Henry Coles and Steve Greenberg consulting and modeling to support the energy-efficiency analysis. Thanks to Vali Sorell, V for this project. #12;ii ABSTRACT This report documents a demonstration of an electronic

450

Liquidity constraints and tax policy in small open economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

State-contingent tax policy can generate stabilization gains if an economy is subject to occasionally binding financial constraints. The aim of this paper is to assess whether that claim can be supported in a small open economy real business cycle model with liquidity constraints on the consumer side. In the model, the domestic current account deficit is limited by domestic output

Markus Kirchner

2009-01-01

451

A sliding cell technique for diffusion measurements in liquid metals  

SciTech Connect

The long capillary and shear cell techniques are the usual methods for diffusion measurements in liquid metals. Here we present a new “sliding cell technique” to measure interdiffusion in liquid alloys, which combines the merits of these two methods. Instead of a number of shear cells, as used in the shear cell method, only one sliding cell is designed to separate and join the liquid diffusion samples. Using the sliding cell technique, the influence of the heating process (which affects liquid diffusion measurements in the conventional long capillary method) can be eliminated. Time-dependent diffusion measurements at the same isothermal temperature were carried out in Al-Cu liquids. Compared with the previous results measured by in-situ X-ray radiography, the obtained liquid diffusion coefficient in this work is believed to be influenced by convective flow. The present work further supports the idea that to obtain accurate diffusion constants in liquid metals, the measurement conditions must be well controlled, and there should be no temperature gradients or other disturbances.

Geng, Yongliang; Zhu, Chunao; Zhang, Bo, E-mail: bo.zhang@hfut.edu.cn [School of Material Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China) [School of Material Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Anhui Provincial Key Lab of Advanced Functional Materials and Devices, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China)

2014-03-15

452

Liquid Acquisition Device Testing with Sub-Cooled Liquid Oxygen  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When transferring propellant in space, it is most efficient to transfer single phase liquid from a propellant tank to an engine. In earth s gravity field or under acceleration, propellant transfer is fairly simple. However, in low gravity, withdrawing single-phase fluid becomes a challenge. A variety of propellant management devices (PMD) are used to ensure single-phase flow. One type of PMD, a liquid acquisition device (LAD) takes advantage of capillary flow and surface tension to acquire liquid. Previous experimental test programs conducted at NASA have collected LAD data for a number of cryogenic fluids, including: liquid nitrogen (LN2), liquid oxygen (LOX), liquid hydrogen (LH2), and liquid methane (LCH4). The present work reports on additional testing with sub-cooled LOX as part of NASA s continuing cryogenic LAD development program. Test results extend the range of LOX fluid conditions examined, and provide insight into factors affecting predicting LAD bubble point pressures.

Jurns, John M.; McQuillen, John B.

2008-01-01

453

Supported microporous ceramic membranes  

DOEpatents

A method for the formation of microporous ceramic membranes onto a porous support includes placing a colloidal suspension of metal or metal oxide particles on one side of the porous support and exposing the other side of the porous support to a drying stream of gas or a reactive gas stream so that the particles are deposited on the drying side of the support as a gel. The gel so deposited can be sintered to form a supported ceramic membrane useful for ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, or molecular sieving having mean pore sizes less than 100 Angstroms. 4 figures.

Webster, E.; Anderson, M.

1993-12-14

454

Supported microporous ceramic membranes  

DOEpatents

A method for permformation of microporous ceramic membranes onto a porous support includes placing a colloidal suspension of metal or metal oxide particles on one side of the porous support and exposing the other side of the porous support to a drying stream of gas or a reactive gas stream so that the particles are deposited on the drying side of the support as a gel. The gel so deposited can be sintered to form a supported ceramic membrane useful for ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, or molecular sieving having mean pore sizes less than 100 Angstroms.

Webster, Elizabeth (Madison, WI); Anderson, Marc (Madison, WI)

1993-01-01

455

Identification of support conditions  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, a support and preload system is presented in which the frequencies and damping of the test article are affected by the stiffness and damping of the supporting structure. A dynamic model is derived for the support system that includes the damping as well as the mass and stiffness of the supports. The frequencies, damping, and mode shapes are compared with the experimentally determined parameters. It is shown that for a seemingly simple support system, deriving a predictive model is not a trival task.

Simmermacher, T.; Mayes, R.; Carne, T.G.

1998-12-31

456

Analysis & Simulation of Dynamics in Supercooled Liquids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nature of supercooled liquids and the glass transition has been debated by many scientists. Several theories have been put forth to describe the remarkable properties of this out-of-equilibrium material. Each of these theories makes specific predictions as to how the scaling of various transport properties in supercooled materials should behave. Given access to a large pool of high-quality supercooled liquid data we seek to compare these theories to one another. Moreover, we explore properties of a pair of models which are the basis for one particularly attractive theory---Chandler-Garrahan theory---and discuss the models' behavior in space-time and possible implications to the behavior of experimental supercooled liquids. Here we investigate the nature of dynamics in supercooled liquids using a two pronged approach. First we analyze the transport properties found in experiments and simulations of supercooled liquids. Then, we analyze simulation trajectories for lattice models which reproduce many of the interesting properties of supercooled liquids. In doing so, we illuminate several glass universalities, common properties of a wide variety of glass formers. By analyzing relaxation time and viscosity data for over 50 data sets and 1200 points, we find that relaxation time can be collapsed onto a single, parabolic curve. This collapse supports a theory of universal glass behavior based on facilitated models proposed by David Chandler and Juan Garrahan in 2003. We then show that the parabolic fit parameters for any particular liquid are a material property: they converge fast and are capable of predicting behavior in regions beyond the included data sets. We compare this property to other popular fitting schemes such as the Vogel-Fulcher, double exponential, and fractional exponential forms and conclude that these three forms result in parameters which are non predictive and therefore not material properties. Additionally, we examine the role of attractive forces in liquids by comparing simulations of a Lennard-Jones mixture, which contains both attractions and repulsions, with that of a Weeks-Chandler-Andersen mixture, which only retains repulsive forces. We show that within the framework of the parabolic collapse, these two liquids behave identically. This suggests that attractive forces do not play a key role in glassy dynamics. Rather, repulsive forces---as has been shown in dense liquids---play the largest contributing role in jamming systems into glassy states. We further investigate the predicted fragile-to-strong crossover in glass formers and find no compelling evidence for the crossover in bulk materials at this time. Additionally, we study ensembles of trajectories for a specific class of kinetically constrained models which reproduce the dynamic heterogeneity found in real glass formers. The one dimensional models we consider are the Fredrickson-Andersen (FA) model and the east model. These two models have been shown to behave as supercooled liquids reproducing properties such as the breakdown of the Stokes-Einstein equation relating diffusion constants and relaxation times. We use transition path sampling in the s-ensemble to bias the system into low activity regions. It has been previously shown that the FA model goes through a first-order dynamical phase transition in trajectory space. We extend this to include a slightly softened FA model, which we believe to be more representative of atomistic systems. We have determined that this first order coexistence line ends in a critical point where the surface tension between active and inactive trajectories in space-time disappears. Beyond this region as the softened FA model becomes unconstrained, the transition disappears and no phase transition is detected. Beyond simulations, these results were verified by analytical methods. This verification was achieved by mapping of soft FA model onto a model which undergoes a quantum phase transition. Beyond the FA model, we consider the softened east model. Unlike the FA model, however, the east model relaxes hierar

Elmatad, Yael Sarah

2011-12-01

457

Entropy-driven liquid-liquid transitions in supercooled water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Twenty years ago it was suggested that the anomalous properties of supercooled water may be caused by a critical point that terminates a line of metastable liquid-liquid separation of lower-density and higher-density water. I describe a phenomenological model in which liquid water at low temperatures is viewed as an athermal solution of two hydrogen-bond network structures with different entropies and densities. Alternatively to the lattice-gas/regular solution model, in which fluid phase separation is driven by energy, the phase transition in the athermal two-state water is driven by entropy upon increasing the pressure, while the critical temperature is defined by the reaction equilibrium constant. The order parameter is associated with the entropy, while the ordering field is a combination of temperature and pressure. The model predicts the location of density maxima at the locus of a near-constant fraction of the lower-density structure. Another example of entropy-driven liquid polyamorphism is the transition between the structurally ordered ``Blue Phase III'' and disordered liquid in some chiral materials; this transition is experimentally accessible. I also discuss the application of the two-state model to binary solutions of supercooled water in which liquid-liquid transition may also become accessible to direct observation. Some atomistic ``water-like'' models such as mW, do not show liquid-liquid separation in the metastable liquid domain. However, even without actual liquid-liquid separation, the anomalies observed in MD simulations of mW can be accurately described by the entropy-driven nonideality of two molecular configurations, the same physics that presumably drives the liquid-liquid transition in real water.

Anisimov, Mikhail

2013-03-01

458

DETERMINATION OF SEISMIC DESIGN ENVELOPES OF BOTTOM SUPPORTED TANKS BY DISTINCT F.E.M. ANALYSES  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work details some methodologies applied for analysis of the seismic behaviour of bottom supported storage tanks, under predominantly horizontal seismic actions. Developments on the established finite element method (FEM), permitted to analyse tanks and their liquid contents by two possible approaches: Ritz method coupled with FEM applied to an analytical solution of the tank-liquid system; FEM of the full

R. Carneiro BARROS; Associado Agregado; FEUP Porto

459

Anyonic liquids in nearly saturated spin chains.  

PubMed

Most Heisenberg-like spin chains flow to a universal free-fermion fixed point near the magnetic-field induced saturation point. Here, we show that an exotic fixed point, characterized by two species of low-energy excitations with mutual anyonic statistics, may also emerge in such spin chains if the dispersion relation has two minima. By using bosonization, two-magnon exact calculations, and numerical density-matrix-renormalization-group calculations, we demonstrate the existence of this anyonic-liquid fixed point in an xxz spin chain with up to second-neighbor interactions. We also identify a range of microscopic parameters, which support this phase. PMID:25615377

Rahmani, Armin; Feiguin, Adrian E; Batista, Cristian D

2014-12-31

460

Anyonic Liquids in Nearly Saturated Spin Chains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most Heisenberg-like spin chains flow to a universal free-fermion fixed point near the magnetic-field induced saturation point. Here, we show that an exotic fixed point, characterized by two species of low-energy excitations with mutual anyonic statistics, may also emerge in such spin chains if the dispersion relation has two minima. By using bosonization, two-magnon exact calculations, and numerical density-matrix-renormalization-group calculations, we demonstrate the existence of this anyonic-liquid fixed point in an xxz spin chain with up to second-neighbor interactions. We also identify a range of microscopic parameters, which support this phase.

Rahmani, Armin; Feiguin, Adrian E.; Batista, Cristian D.

2014-12-01

461

Solid-Liquid and Liquid-Liquid Mixing Laboratory for Chemical Engineering Undergraduates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Solid-liquid and liquid-liquid mixing experiments have been developed to provide students with a practical experience on suspension and emulsification processes. The laboratory focuses on the characterization of the process efficiency, specifically the influence of the main operating parameters and the effect of the impeller type. (Contains 2…

Pour, Sanaz Barar; Norca, Gregory Benoit; Fradette, Louis; Legros, Robert; Tanguy, Philippe A.

2007-01-01

462

Adaptive liquid crystal iris  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report an adaptive iris using a twisted nematic liquid crystal (TNLC) and a hole-patterned electrode. When an external voltage is applied to the TNLC, the directors of the LC near the edge of the hole are unwound first. Increasing the voltage can continuously unwind the LC toward the center. When the TNLC is sandwiched between two polarizers, it exhibits an iris-like character. Either a normal mode or a reverse mode can be obtained depending on the orientations of the transmission axes of the two polarizers. In contrast to liquid irises, the aperture of the LC iris can be closed completely. Moreover, it has the advantages of large variability of the aperture diameter, good stability, and low power consumption. Applications of the device for controlling the laser energy and correcting optical aberration are foreseeable.

Zhou, Zuowei; Ren, Hongwen; Nah, Changwoon

2014-09-01

463

Basic Liquid Chromatography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The online textbook, Basic Liquid Chromatography, is provided by Dr. Yuri Kazakevich and Dr. Harold McNair of Seton Hall University. For those needing review or an introduction to the subject, the well designed and easily read document contains a wealth of information. Sections include an introduction, instrumentation, detectors, theory, adsorbents, reversed phase, gel permeation chromatography, column selection, pH effect, and even an online short course.

Kazakevich, Yuri.

1996-01-01

464

High performance liquid chromatography  

SciTech Connect

A broad-based, general book on high performance liquid chromatography, designed to be a standard in the field. Written by contributors who work at the cutting edge of the science, this text/reference provides chromatographers, and teachers and students of analytical chemistry with comprehensive coverage of the theoretical bases for HPLC. Contributions explain terminology, thermodynamics and kinetics, detectors and derivatization, stationary phases, separations, equipment, error analysis, and advanced techniques, such as supercritical fluid chromatography and field flow fractionation.

Brown, P.; Hartwick, R.A.

1988-01-01

465

The Liquid Rainbow  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners are challenged to discover the relative densities of colored liquids to create a rainbow pattern in a test tube. Five different solutions—3 mixtures of ethyl alcohol, food color and water; red colored water; and pure ethyl alcohol—are used in various combinations. Learners carefully add the solutions to test tubes and observe their relative densities to find the correct order for making a rainbow. Young learners will require adult supervision because of flammable and irritating ingredients.

Sciencenter

2014-08-27

466

Liquid Body Armor  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore how nanotechnology is being used to create new types of protective fabrics. Learners play with samples of “Oobleck," a polymer (a long chain of molecules) made of corn starch, food coloring, and water. Oobleck is a non-Newtonian fluid and therefore acts like both a liquid and a solid. Through this activity, learners discover that scientists and engineers are designing new materials to recreate this phenomenon in flexible fabrics.

Nanoscale Informal Science Education Network

2014-06-18

467

RHIC The Perfect Liquid  

SciTech Connect

Evidence to date suggests that gold-gold collisions the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven are indeed creating a new state of hot, dense matter, but one quite different and even more remarkable than had been predicted. Instead of behaving like a gas of free quarks and gluons, as was expected, the matter created in RHIC's heavy ion collisions appears to be more like a "perfect" liquid.

BNL

2008-08-12

468

Liquid fuel cells  

PubMed Central

Summary The advantages of liquid fuel cells (LFCs) over conventional hydrogen–oxygen fuel cells include a higher theoretical energy density and efficiency, a more convenient handling of the streams, and enhanced safety. This review focuses on the use of different types of organic fuels as an anode material for LFCs. An overview of the current state of the art and recent trends in the development of LFC and the challenges of their practical implementation are presented. PMID:25247123

2014-01-01

469

RHIC The Perfect Liquid  

ScienceCinema

Evidence to date suggests that gold-gold collisions the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven are indeed creating a new state of hot, dense matter, but one quite different and even more remarkable than had been predicted. Instead of behaving like a gas of free quarks and gluons, as was expected, the matter created in RHIC's heavy ion collisions appears to be more like a "perfect" liquid.

BNL

2009-09-01

470

Electrowetting of liquid marbles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrowetting of water drops on structured superhydrophobic surfaces are known to cause an irreversible change from a slippy (Cassie-Baxter) to a sticky (Wenzel) regime. An alternative approach to using a water drop on a superhydrophobic surface to obtain a non-wetting system is to use a liquid marble on a smooth solid substrate. A liquid marble is a droplet coated in hydrophobic grains, which therefore carries its own solid surface structure as a conformal coating. Such droplets can be considered as perfect non-wetting systems having contact angles to smooth solid substrates of close to 180°. In this work we report the electrowetting of liquid marbles made of water coated with hydrophobic lycopodium grains and show that the electrowetting is completely reversible. Marbles are shown to return to their initial contact angle for both ac and dc electrowetting and without requiring a threshold voltage to be exceeded. Furthermore, we provide a proof-of-principle demonstration that controlled motion of marbles on a finger electrode structure is possible.

Newton, M. I.; Herbertson, D. L.; Elliott, S. J.; Shirtcliffe, N. J.; McHale, G.

2007-01-01

471

Liquid Hydrogen: Target, Detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1952 D. Glaser demonstrated that a radioactive source's radiation could boil 135°C superheated-diethyl ether in a 3-mm Ø glass vessel and recorded bubble track growth on high-speed film in a 2-cm3 chamber. This Bubble Chamber (BC) promised improved particle track time and spatial resolution and cycling rate. Hildebrand and Nagle, U of Chicago, reported Liquid Hydrogen minimum ionizing particle boiling in August 1953. John Wood created the 3.7-cm Ø Liquid Hydrogen BC at LBL in January 1954. By 1959 the Lawrence Berkley Laboratory (LBL) Alvarez group's "72-inch" BC had tracks in liquid hydrogen. Within 10 years bubble chamber volumes increased by a factor of a million and spread to every laboratory with a substantial high-energy physics program. The BC, particle accelerators and special separated particle beams created a new era of High Energy Physics (HEP) experimentation. The BC became the largest most complex cryogenic installation at the world's HEP laboratories for decades. The invention and worldwide development, deployment and characteristics of these cryogenic dynamic target/detectors and related hydrogen targets are described.

Mulholland, G. T.; Harigel, G. G.

2004-06-01

472

Liquid Hydrogen: Target, Detector  

SciTech Connect

In 1952 D. Glaser demonstrated that a radioactive source's radiation could boil 135 deg. C superheated-diethyl ether in a 3-mm O glass vessel and recorded bubble track growth on high-speed film in a 2-cm3 chamber. This Bubble Chamber (BC) promised improved particle track time and spatial resolution and cycling rate. Hildebrand and Nagle, U of Chicago, reported Liquid Hydrogen minimum ionizing particle boiling in August 1953. John Wood created the 3.7-cm O Liquid Hydrogen BC at LBL in January 1954. By 1959 the Lawrence Berkley Laboratory (LBL) Alvarez group's '72-inch' BC had tracks in liquid hydrogen. Within 10 years bubble chamber volumes increased by a factor of a million and spread to every laboratory with a substantial high-energy physics program. The BC, particle accelerators and special separated particle beams created a new era of High Energy Physics (HEP) experimentation. The BC became the largest most complex cryogenic installation at the world's HEP laboratories for decades. The invention and worldwide development, deployment and characteristics of these cryogenic dynamic target/detectors and related hydrogen targets are described.

Mulholland, G.T. [Applied Cryogenics Technology, Ovilla TX 75154 (United States); Harigel, G.G. [CERN, European Organization for Nuclear Research, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

2004-06-23

473

Liquid Crystals in Tribology  

PubMed Central

Two decades ago, the literature dealing with the possible applications of low molar mass liquid crystals, also called monomer liquid crystals (MLCs), only included about 50 references. Today, thousands of papers, conference reports, books or book chapters and patents refer to the study and applications of MLCs as lubricants and lubricant additives and efforts are made to develop new commercial applications. The development of more efficient lubricants is of paramount technological and economic relevance as it is estimated that half the energy consumption is dissipated as friction. MLCs have shown their ability to form ordered boundary layers with good load-carrying capacity and to lower the friction coefficients, wear rates and contact temperature of sliding surfaces, thus contributing to increase the components service life and to save energy. This review includes the use of MLCs in lubrication, and dispersions of MLCs in conventional polymers (PDMLCs). Finally, new lubricating system composed of MLC blends with surfactants, ionic liquids or nanophases are considered. PMID:19865534

Carrión, Francisco-José; Martínez-Nicolás, Ginés; Iglesias, Patricia; Sanes, José; Bermúdez, María-Dolores

2009-01-01

474

Living liquid crystals  

PubMed Central

Collective motion of self-propelled organisms or synthetic particles, often termed “active fluid,” has attracted enormous attention in the broad scientific community because of its fundamentally nonequilibrium nature. Energy input and interactions among the moving units and the medium lead to complex dynamics. Here, we introduce a class of active matter––living liquid crystals (LLCs)––that combines living swimming bacteria with a lyotropic liquid crystal. The physical properties of LLCs can be controlled by the amount of oxygen available to bacteria, by concentration of ingredients, or by temperature. Our studies reveal a wealth of intriguing dynamic phenomena, caused by the coupling between the activity-triggered flow and long-range orientational order of the medium. Among these are (i) nonlinear trajectories of bacterial motion guided by nonuniform director, (ii) local melting of the liquid crystal caused by the bacteria-produced shear flows, (iii) activity-triggered transition from a nonflowing uniform state into a flowing one-dimensional periodic pattern and its evolution into a turbulent array of topological defects, and (iv) birefringence-enabled visualization of microflow generated by the nanometers-thick bacterial flagella. Unlike their isotropic counterpart, the LLCs show collective dynamic effects at very low volume fraction of bacteria, on the order of 0.2%. Our work suggests an unorthodox design concept to control and manipulate the dynamic behavior of soft active matter and opens the door for potential biosensing and biomedical applications. PMID:24474746

Zhou, Shuang; Sokolov, Andrey; Lavrentovich, Oleg D.; Aranson, Igor S.

2014-01-01

475

Liquid belt radiator design study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Liquid Belt Radiator (LBR) is an advanced concept developed to meet the needs of anticipated future space missions. A previous study documented the advantages of this concept as a lightweight, easily deployable alternative to present day space heat rejection systems. The technical efforts associated with this study concentrate on refining the concept of the LBR as well as examining the issues of belt dynamics and potential application of the LBR to intermediate and high temperature heat rejection applications. A low temperature point design developed in previous work is updated assuming the use of diffusion pump oil, Santovac-6, as the heat transfer media. Additional analytical and design effort is directed toward determining the impact of interface heat exchanger, fluid bath sealing, and belt drive mechanism designs on system performance and mass. The updated design supports the earlier result by indicating a significant reduction in system specific system mass as compared to heat pipe or pumped fluid radiator concepts currently under consideration (1.3 kg/sq m versus 5 kg/sq m).

Teagan, W. P.; Fitzgerald, K. F.

1986-01-01

476

Coupled Nucleation Processes in Metallic Liquids and Glasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nucleation processes in condensed systems are often more complicated than expected from classical theory considerations. For example, our recent studies of glasses and deeply supercooled liquids demonstrate that the short- and medium-range order play an important role in the nucleation pathway. High-energy X-ray diffraction data from electrostatically levitated transition metal and alloy liquids demonstrate the frequent development of icosahedral short-range order (ISRO) with supercooling. This ordering has significant consequences for crystallization and vitrification of the liquids. It makes it difficult to nucleate ordered crystal phases, confirming a half-century old hypothesis by Frank. Measurements of the density and surface tension in several supercooled liquids suggest that it may be associated with a liquid/liquid phase transition. Quantitative measurements of the time-dependent nucleation rate in a Zr59Ti3Cu20Ni8Al10 metallic glass and associated structural studies of the supercooled liquid demonstrate that it increases through the glass transition, providing support for a frustration model of the glass transition. In a Ti-Zr-Ni liquid the ISRO lowers the barrier for a metastable icosahedral quasicrystal, blurring the distinction between homogenous and heterogeneous nucleation. Our studies and those of others suggest that the nucleation of the ordered phase can be coupled with liquid phase transitions, including high order transitions. Coupling between other processes is also common for nucleation. For example, the coupling between the stochastic fluxes of interfacial attachment and long-range diffusion in the nucleation step can be critical when the initial and final phases have different chemical compositions. The implications of coupled nucleation processes on phase formation, stability and nanoscale crystallization are discussed.

Kelton, Ken

2009-03-01

477

High CO2 Solubility, Permeability and Selectivity in Ionic Liquids with the Tetracyanoborate Anion  

SciTech Connect

Five different ionic liquids containing the tetracyanoborate anion were synthesized and evaluated for CO2 separation performance. Measured CO2 solubility values were exceptionally high compared to analogous ionic liquids with different anions and ranged from 0.128 mol L-1 atm-1 to 0.148 mol L-1 atm-1. In addition, CO2 permeability and CO2/N2 selectivity values were measured using a supported ionic liquid membrane architecture and the separations performance of the ionic liquid membranes exceeded the Robeson upper bound. These results establish the distinct potential of the tetracyanoborate, [B(CN)4], anion for the separation of CO2.

Mahurin, Shannon Mark [ORNL; Hillesheim, Patrick C [ORNL; Yeary, Joshua S [ORNL; Jiang, Deen [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL

2012-01-01