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1

A comparative study of some BTP and BTBP class ligands  

SciTech Connect

Partitioning and transmutation (P and T) of the long lived nuclides in spent nuclear fuel into short-lived ones is an important step in decreasing the radiotoxicity, volume, and time necessary for storage in a repository. A proper separation of the metals used in the transmutation process is necessary and solvent extraction with different ligands is one of the possibilities. This separation has been extensively tested in Europe using the BTP and BTBP class ligands. In this paper a comparative study of the extraction capabilities of CyMe{sub 4}-BTP and CyMe{sub 4}-BTBP as function of different diluents and kinetics has been made. (authors)

Retegan, T.; Fermvik, A.; Skarnemark, G. [Nuclear Chemistry, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, 412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Ekberg, C. [Industrial Materials Recycling, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, 412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Foreman, M.R. St J. [Nuclear Chemistry, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, 412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Industrial Materials Recycling, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, 412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden)

2008-07-01

2

Separations by supported liquid membrane cascades  

DOEpatents

The invention describes a new separation technique which leads to multi-stage operations by the use of a series (a cascade) of alternated carrier-containing supported-liquid cation exchanger extractant and a liquid anion exchanger extractant (or a neutral extractant) as carrier. The membranes are spaced between alternated aqueous electrolytic solutions of different composition which alternatively provide positively charged extractable species and negatively charged (or zero charged) extractable species, of the chemical species to be separated. The alternated aqueous electrolytic solutions in addition to providing the driving force to the process, simultaneously function as a stripping solution from one type of membrane and as an extraction-promoting solution for the other type of membrane. The aqueous electrolytic solution and the supported liquid membranes are arranged to provide a continuous process.

Danesi, P.R.

1983-09-01

3

Support-free pulsed liquid-liquid chromatography.  

PubMed

A simple technique of support-free liquid-liquid chromatography is suggested that operates without incorporation of a centrifuge. The pulsed chromatography apparatus consists of a stationary coiled tube and a pulsation device to produce reciprocating motion of liquid phases within each individual coil segment. This reciprocating motion generates a centrifugal force field varying in intensity and direction that leads to an improved mixing of the two liquid phases and retains the stationary phase in the coiled tubing. The intensity of the back and forth motion of liquid phases within each coil unit can be varied by varying the frequency and/or the amplitude of the pulsations generated by the pulsation device. As the magnitude of the stationary phase retention is of paramount importance for success of the technique, the retention of the stationary phase in the pulsed coil column was experimentally studied. A few experiments were conducted to test the chromatographic behavior of valeric (n-pentanoic) and caproic (n-hexanoic) acids. The results obtained demonstrate the potential of the new separation method for preparative purposes. PMID:19758594

Kostanyan, Artak E; Voshkin, Andrei A

2009-11-01

4

Synthesis and grafting of a BTP derivative onto a quartz crystal microbalance for lanthanide detection.  

PubMed

The ability of bis-triazinylpyridine (BTP) molecules to complex lanthanides is well-known in solution and can be judiciously utilized to elaborate solid sensing surfaces. This was done by synthesizing a new BTP derivative and covalently anchoring it onto gold surfaces. The BTP grafting, its chemical modification and the resultant lanthanide complexation were evaluated by combining X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Polarization Modulation-Infrared Reflection Absorption Spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS). The detection of neodynium and europium cations was measured by a Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM). Interestingly, when immobilized on gold, BTP appeared to show very distinct sensitivities towards Eu(3+) and Nd(3+). Moreover, these sensitivities could be controlled by varying the pH and/or the nitrate concentration in solution. This novel strategy, consisting of the immobilization of BTP sensing molecules, is thus very promising for sensitive and specific lanthanide detection. PMID:20390153

Mercier, Dimitri; Leconte, Nicolas; Méthivier, Christophe; Suzenet, Franck; Guillaumet, Gérald; Wuillaume, Anne; Pradier, Claire-Marie

2010-06-21

5

Separations by supported liquid membrane cascades  

DOEpatents

The invention describes a new separation technique which leads to multi-stage operations by the use of a series (a cascade) of alternated carrier-containing supported-liquid membranes. The membranes contain alternatively a liquid cation exchanger extractant and a liquid anion exchanger extractant (or a neutral extractant) as carrier. The membranes are spaced between alternated aqueous electrolytic solutions of different composition which alternatively provide positively charged extractable species and negatively charged (or zero charged) extractable species, of the chemical species to be separated. The alternated aqueous electrolytic solutions in addition to providing the driving force to the process, simultaneously function as a stripping solution from one type of membrane and as an extraction-promoting solution for the other type of membrane. The aqueous electrolytic solutions and the supported liquid membranes are arranged in such a way to provide a continuous process which leads to the continuous enrichment of the species which show the highest permeability coefficients. By virtue of the very high number of stages which can be arranged, even chemical species having very similar chemical behavior (and consequently very similar permeability coefficients) can be completely separated. The invention also provide a way to concentrate the separated species.

Danesi, Pier R. (Clarendon Hills, IL)

1986-01-01

6

Supported polymeric liquid membranes for wastewater treatment  

SciTech Connect

The removal or elimination of organic residues from aqueous waste streams represents a major need in the chemical industry. A class of membrane has been developed called supported polymeric liquid membranes capable of removing and concentrating low molecular weight organic compounds from dilute aqueous solutions, especially those that also contain high concentrations of inorganic salts. These membranes are prepared by filling the pores of microfiltration or ultrafiltration membranes with polymeric (oligomeric) liquids having affinity for the organic compounds of interest. With this approach, membrane`s separation characteristics are decoupled from its mechanical stability and depend primarily on the chemical properties of the liquid polymer used. As a result, membranes of diverse separation capabilities can be conveniently prepared using liquid polymers possessing the appropriate functional groups. Physical properties typical of polymeric liquids such as high viscosity, extremely low volatility and insolubility in water contribute to the observed stability of the membranes under broad operating conditions. This membrane process has been successfully applied to several aqueous waste streams. This paper describes the early development activities for treating a waste stream containing a dilute mixture of C2-C6 carboxylic acids. Feasibility testings were initially carried out with flat sheet membranes in a small stirred cell. Scaleup was then conducted using hollow fiber membranes, first with small modules prepared in the laboratory, then with a much larger commercial module. Attractive features of this membrane process include the ability to recover the contaminants in concentrated form for either recycle or more economical disposal, low pressure (ambient) operation, simple scale-up using commercial hollow fiber modules, and ease of in-situ regeneration of the polymeric liquid.

Ho, S.V. [Monsanto Co., St. Louis, MO (United States)

1997-12-31

7

BtpB, a novel Brucella TIR-containing effector protein with immune modulatory functions.  

PubMed

Several bacterial pathogens have TIR domain-containing proteins that contribute to their pathogenesis. We identified a second TIR-containing protein in Brucella spp. that we have designated BtpB. We show it is a potent inhibitor of TLR signaling, probably via MyD88. BtpB is a novel Brucella effector that is translocated into host cells and interferes with activation of dendritic cells. In vivo mouse studies revealed that BtpB is contributing to virulence and control of local inflammatory responses with relevance in the establishment of chronic brucellosis. Together, our results show that BtpB is a novel Brucella effector that plays a major role in the modulation of host innate immune response during infection. PMID:23847770

Salcedo, Suzana P; Marchesini, María I; Degos, Clara; Terwagne, Matthieu; Von Bargen, Kristine; Lepidi, Hubert; Herrmann, Claudia K; Santos Lacerda, Thais L; Imbert, Paul R C; Pierre, Philippe; Alexopoulou, Lena; Letesson, Jean-Jacques; Comerci, Diego J; Gorvel, Jean-Pierre

2013-01-01

8

BtpB, a novel Brucella TIR-containing effector protein with immune modulatory functions  

PubMed Central

Several bacterial pathogens have TIR domain-containing proteins that contribute to their pathogenesis. We identified a second TIR-containing protein in Brucella spp. that we have designated BtpB. We show it is a potent inhibitor of TLR signaling, probably via MyD88. BtpB is a novel Brucella effector that is translocated into host cells and interferes with activation of dendritic cells. In vivo mouse studies revealed that BtpB is contributing to virulence and control of local inflammatory responses with relevance in the establishment of chronic brucellosis. Together, our results show that BtpB is a novel Brucella effector that plays a major role in the modulation of host innate immune response during infection. PMID:23847770

Salcedo, Suzana P.; Marchesini, María I.; Degos, Clara; Terwagne, Matthieu; Von Bargen, Kristine; Lepidi, Hubert; Herrmann, Claudia K.; Santos Lacerda, Thais L.; Imbert, Paul R. C.; Pierre, Philippe; Alexopoulou, Lena; Letesson, Jean-Jacques; Comerci, Diego J.; Gorvel, Jean-Pierre

2013-01-01

9

Supported liquid membrane battery separators. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This study was performed to explore the feasibility of using a supported liquid membrane (SLM) as a separator in the nickel-zinc battery. In particular, SLM separators should prevent zinc dendrite growth from shorting out the cell and might also alleviate capacity loss due to zinc electrode shape changes. A number of ion exchange/solvent modifier systems for incorporation into SLMs were developed under a previous LBL contract. SLMs prepared with these reagents exhibited resistances in the range of 0.4 to 10 ohm cm/sup 2/, selectively transported hydroxyl ions over zincate ions by a factor of 10/sup 6/ to 10/sup 7/, and possessed eletrochemical and chemical stability in alkaline electrolytes. In order to evaluate these SLM separators under conditions closely resembling a commercial Ni-Zn cell, an accelerated cycle life test was devised using commercial electrodes.

Pemsler, J.P.; Dempsey, M.D.

1984-07-01

10

Radiolysis and Ageing of C2-BTP in Cinnamaldehyde/Hexanol Mixtures  

SciTech Connect

The separation of actinides from lanthanides is an important step in the alternative methods for nuclear waste treatment currently under development. Polycyclic molecules containing nitrogen are synthesised and used for solvent extraction. A potential problem in the separation process is the degradation of the molecule due to irradiation or ageing. An addition of nitrobenzene has proved to have an inhibitory effect on degradation when added to a system containing C2-BTP in hexanol before irradiation. In this study, 2,6-di(5,6-diethyl-1,2,4-triazine-3-yl)pyridine (C2-BTP) was dissolved in different mixtures of cinnamaldehyde and hexanol and the effects on extraction after ageing and irradiation were investigated. Similar to nitrobenzene, cinnamaldehyde contains an aromatic ring which generally has a relatively high resistance towards radiolysis. Both C2-BTP in cinnamaldehyde and C2-BTP in hexanol seem to degrade with time. The system with C2-BTP in pure hexanol is relatively stable up to 17 days but then starts slowly to degrade. The solution with pure cinnamaldehyde as diluent started to degrade after only {approx}20 hours. The opposite is true for degradation caused by radiolysis; hexanol systems are more sensitive to radiolysis than cinnamaldehyde systems. Most of the radiolytic degradation took place during the first days of irradiation, up to a dose of 4 kGy. (authors)

Fermvik, Anna; Ekberg, Christian; Retegan, Teodora; Skarnemark, Gunnar [Nuclear Chemistry, Chalmers University of Technology, Kemiv. 4, Gothenburg, SE-412 96 (Sweden)

2007-07-01

11

Development of Practical Supported Ionic Liquid Membranes: A Systematic Approach  

SciTech Connect

Supported liquid membranes (SLMs) are a class of materials that allow the researcher to utilize the wealth of knowledge available on liquid properties to optimize membrane performance. These membranes also have the advantage of liquid phase diffusivities, which are higher than those observed in polymers and grant proportionally greater permeabilities. The primary shortcoming of the supported liquid membranes demonstrated in past research has been the lack of stability caused by volatilization of the transport liquid. Ionic liquids, which may possess high CO2 solubility relative to light gases such as H2, are excellent candidates for this type of membrane since they are stable at elevated temperatures and have negligible vapor pressure. A study has been conducted evaluating the use of a variety of ionic liquids in supported ionic liquid membranes for the capture of CO2 from streams containing H2. In a joint project, researchers at the University of Notre Dame synthesized and characterized ionic liquids, and researchers at the National Energy Technology Laboratory incorporated candidate ionic liquids into supports and evaluated membrane performance for the resulting materials. Several steps have been taken in the development of practical supported ionic liquid membranes. Proof-of-concept was established by showing that ionic liquids could be used as the transport media in SLMs. Results showed that ionic liquids are suitable media for gas transport, but the preferred polymeric supports were not stable at temperatures above 135oC. The use of cross-linked nylon66 supports was found to produce membranes mechanically stable at temperatures exceeding 300oC but CO2/H2 selectivity was poor. An ionic liquid whose selectivity does not decrease with increasing temperature was needed, and a functionalized ionic liquid that complexes with CO2 was used. An increase in CO2/H2 selectivity with increasing temperature over the range of 37 to 85oC was observed and the dominance of a facilitated transport mechanism established. The presentation will detail membrane development, the effect of increasing transmembrane pressure, and preliminary results dealing with other gas pairs and contaminants.

Luebke, D.R.; Ilconich, J.B.; Myers, C.R.; Pennline, H.W.

2007-11-01

12

Carbon Dioxide Separation with Supported Ionic Liquid Membranes  

SciTech Connect

Supported liquid membranes are a class of materials that allow the researcher to utilize the wealth of knowledge available on liquid properties as a direct guide in the development of a capture technology. These membranes also have the advantage of liquid phase diffusivities higher than those observed in polymeric membranes which grant proportionally greater permeabilities. The primary shortcoming of the supported liquid membranes demonstrated in past research has been the lack of stability caused by volatilization of the transport liquid. Ionic liquids, which possess high carbon dioxide solubility relative to light gases such as hydrogen, are an excellent candidate for this type of membrane since they have negligible vapor pressure and are not susceptible to evaporation. A study has been conducted evaluating the use of several ionic liquids, including 1-hexyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bis(trifuoromethylsulfonyl)imide, 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium nitrate, and 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium sulfate in supported ionic liquid membranes for the capture of carbon dioxide from streams containing hydrogen. In a joint project, researchers at the University of Notre Dame lent expertise in ionic liquid synthesis and characterization, and researchers at the National Energy Technology Laboratory incorporated candidate ionic liquids into supports and evaluated the resulting materials for membrane performance. Initial results have been very promising with carbon dioxide permeabilities as high as 950 barrers and significant improvements in carbon dioxide/hydrogen selectivity over conventional polymers at 37C and at elevated temperatures. Results include a comparison of the performance of several ionic liquids and a number of supports as well as a discussion of innovative fabrication techniques currently under development.

Luebke, D.R.; Ilconich, J.B.; Myers, C.R.; Pennline, H.W.

2007-04-01

13

26. DETAIL OF CONCRETE PIPE SUPPORTS LEADING TO NEW LIQUID ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

26. DETAIL OF CONCRETE PIPE SUPPORTS LEADING TO NEW LIQUID HYDROGEN TANK FARM; VIEW TO WEST. - Cape Canaveral Air Station, Launch Complex 17, Facility 28402, East end of Lighthouse Road, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

14

Extraction and fractionation of lignosulfonate by a supported liquid membrane  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a summary of our results of the supported liquid membrane extraction of a polydisperse polyelectrolyte,\\u000a lignosulfonate. Trilaurylamine dissolved in decanol was found to be a suitable liquid membrane. The smallest molecules are\\u000a transported first. A simple model for the transport of lignosulfonate is outlined and the results of the experiments are presented.

A.-K. Kontturi; K. Kontturi; P. Niinikoski; G. Sundholm

15

Fabrication of fiber supported ionic liquids and methods of use  

DOEpatents

One or more embodiments relates to the production of a fabricated fiber having an asymmetric polymer network and having an immobilized liquid such as an ionic liquid within the pores of the polymer network. The process produces the fabricated fiber in a dry-wet spinning process using a homogenous dope solution, providing significant advantage over current fabrication methods for liquid-supporting polymers. The fabricated fibers may be effectively utilized for the separation of a chemical species from a mixture based on the selection of the polymer, the liquid, and the solvent utilized in the dope.

Luebke, David R; Wickramanayake, Shan

2013-02-26

16

Magnetic nanoparticles supported ionic liquids improve firefly luciferase properties.  

PubMed

Ionic liquids as neoteric solvents, microwave irradiation, and alternative energy source are becoming as a solvent for many enzymatic reactions. We recently showed that the incubation of firefly luciferase from Photinus pyralis with various ionic liquids increased the activity and stability of luciferase. Magnetic nanoparticles supported ionic liquids have been obtained by covalent bonding of ionic liquids-silane on magnetic silica nanoparticles. In the present study, the effects of [?-Fe2O3@SiO2][BMImCl] and [?-Fe2O3@SiO2][BMImI] were investigated on the structural properties and function of luciferase using circular dichroism, fluorescence spectroscopy, and bioluminescence assay. Enzyme activity and structural stability increased in the presence of magnetic nanoparticles supported ionic liquids. Furthermore, the effect of ingredients which were used was not considerable on K(m) value of luciferase for adenosine-5'-triphosphate and also K(m) value for luciferin. PMID:24492953

Noori, Ali Reza; Hosseinkhani, Saman; Ghiasi, Parisa; Akbari, Jafar; Heydari, Akbar

2014-03-01

17

Rejuvenation of Spent Media via Supported Emulsion Liquid Membranes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The overall goal of this project was to maximize the reuseability of spent fermentation media. Supported emulsion liquid membrane separation, a highly efficient extraction technique, was used to remove inhibitory byproducts during fermentation; thus, improve the yield while reducing the need for fresh water. The key objectives of this study were: (1) Develop an emulsion liquid membrane system targeting low molecular weight organic acids which has minimal toxicity on a variety of microbial systems. (2) Conduct mass transfer studies to allow proper modeling and design of a supported emulsion liquid membrane system. (3) Investigate the effect of gravity on emulsion coalescence within the membrane unit. (4) Access the effect of water re-use on fermentation yields in a model microbial system. and (5) Develop a perfusion-type fermentor utilizing a supported emulsion liquid membrane system to control inhibitory fermentation byproducts (not completed due to lack of funds)

Wiencek, John M.

2002-01-01

18

Carbon Dioxide Separation with Supported Ionic Liquid Membranes  

SciTech Connect

A practical form of CO2 capture at water-gas shift conditions in the IGCC process could serve the dual function of producing a pure CO2 stream for sequestration and forcing the equilibrium-limited shift reaction to completion enriching the stream in H2. The shift temperatures, ranging from the low temperature shift condition of 260°C to the gasification condition of 900°C, limit capture options by diminishing associative interactions which favor removal of CO2 from the gas stream. Certain sorption interactions, such as carbonate formation, remain available but generally involve exceptionally high sorbent regeneration energies that contribute heavily to parasitic power losses. Carbon dioxide selective membranes need only establish an equilibrium between the gas phase and sorption states in order to transport CO2, giving them a potential energetic advantage over other technologies. Supported liquid membranes take advantage of high, liquid phase diffusivities and a solution diffusion mechanism similar to that observed in polymeric membranes to achieve superior permeabilities and selectivites. The primary shortcoming of the supported liquid membranes demonstrated in past research has been the lack of stability caused by volatilization of the transport liquid. Ionic liquids, which possess high CO2 solubility relative to light gases such as H2, are excellent candidates for this type of membrane since they have negligible vapor pressure and are not susceptible to evaporation. A study has been conducted evaluating the use of ionic liquids including 1-hexyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bis(trifuoromethylsulfonyl)imide in supported ionic liquid membranes for the capture of CO2 from streams containing H2. In a joint project, researchers at the University of Notre Dame synthesized and characterized ionic liquids, and researchers at the National Energy Technology Laboratory incorporated candidate ionic liquids into supports and evaluated the resulting materials for membrane performance. Improvements to the ionic liquid and support have allowed testing of these supported ionic liquid membranes at temperatures up to 300°C without loss of support mechanical stability or degradation of the ionic liquid. Substantial improvements in selectivity have also been observed at elevated temperature with the best membrane currently achieving optimum performance at 75°C.

Luebke, D.R.; Ilconich, J.B.; Pennline, H.W.; Myers, C.R.

2007-05-01

19

Study on gas separation by supported liquid membranes applying novel ionic liquids  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, the permeability of H2, N2 and CO2 was investigated through supported liquid membranes prepared by using four types of novel ionic liquids (VACEM 42, VACEM 44, VACEM 47, VACEM 58) under various gas phase pressures (2.2 bar, 1.8 bar, 1.4 bar) and temperatures (30°C, 40°C, 50°C). VACEM type ionic liquids, which are built up of a

P. Cserjési; N. Nemestóthy; A. Vass; Zs. Csanádi; K. Bélafi-Bakó

2009-01-01

20

The use of supported acidic ionic liquids in organic synthesis.  

PubMed

Catalysts obtained by the immobilisation of acidic ionic liquids (ILs) on solid supports offer several advantages compared to the use of catalytically active ILs themselves. Immobilisation may result in an increase in the number of accessible active sites of the catalyst and a reduction of the amount of the IL required. The ionic liquid films on the carrier surfaces provide a homogeneous environment for catalytic reactions but the catalyst appears macroscopically as a dry solid, so it can simply be separated from the reaction mixture. As another advantage, it can easily be applied in a continuous fixed bed reactor. In the present review the main synthetic strategies towards the preparation of supported Lewis acidic and Brønsted acidic ILs are summarised. The most important characterisation methods and structural features of the supported ionic liquids are presented. Their efficiency in catalytic reactions is discussed with special emphasis on their recyclability. PMID:24972271

Skoda-Földes, Rita

2014-01-01

21

Alkaline ionic liquids applied in supported ionic liquid catalyst for selective hydrogenation of citral to citronellal  

PubMed Central

The challenge in preparation of ionic liquids containing a strong alkaline anion is to identify a suitable cation which can tolerate the harsh conditions induced by the anion. In this study, a commercial quaternary ammonium compound (quat) benzalkonium [ADBA] (alkyldimethylbenzylammonium) was used as a cation in the synthesis of different alkaline ionic liquids. In fact, the precursor, benzalkonium chloride, is a mixture of alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chlorides of various alkyl chain lengths and is commonly used in the formulation of various antiseptic products. The prepared ionic liquids were utilized as Supported Ionic Liquid Catalysts (SILCAs). Typically, a SILCA contains metal nanoparticles, enzymes, or metal complexes in an ionic liquid layer which is immobilized on a solid carrier material such as an active carbon cloth (ACC). The catalysts were applied in the selective hydrogenation of citral to citronellal which is an important perfumery chemical. Interestingly, 70% molar yield toward citronellal was achieved over a catalyst containing the alkaline ionic liquid benzalkonium methoxide. PMID:24790972

Salminen, Eero; Virtanen, Pasi; Mikkola, Jyri-Pekka

2014-01-01

22

Alkaline ionic liquids applied in supported ionic liquid catalyst for selective hydrogenation of citral to citronellal.  

PubMed

The challenge in preparation of ionic liquids containing a strong alkaline anion is to identify a suitable cation which can tolerate the harsh conditions induced by the anion. In this study, a commercial quaternary ammonium compound (quat) benzalkonium [ADBA] (alkyldimethylbenzylammonium) was used as a cation in the synthesis of different alkaline ionic liquids. In fact, the precursor, benzalkonium chloride, is a mixture of alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chlorides of various alkyl chain lengths and is commonly used in the formulation of various antiseptic products. The prepared ionic liquids were utilized as Supported Ionic Liquid Catalysts (SILCAs). Typically, a SILCA contains metal nanoparticles, enzymes, or metal complexes in an ionic liquid layer which is immobilized on a solid carrier material such as an active carbon cloth (ACC). The catalysts were applied in the selective hydrogenation of citral to citronellal which is an important perfumery chemical. Interestingly, 70% molar yield toward citronellal was achieved over a catalyst containing the alkaline ionic liquid benzalkonium methoxide. PMID:24790972

Salminen, Eero; Virtanen, Pasi; Mikkola, Jyri-Pekka

2014-01-01

23

Rejuvenation of Spent Media via Supported Emulsion Liquid Membranes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The overall goal of this project is to maximize the reuseability of spent fermentation media. Supported emulsion liquid membrane separation, a highly efficient extraction technique, is used to remove inhibitory byproducts during fermentation; thus, improving the yield while reducing the need for fresh water. The key objectives of this study are: Develop an emulsion liquid membrane system targeting low molecular weight organic acids which has minimal toxicity on a variety of microbial systems; Conduct mass transfer studies to allow proper modeling and design of a supported emulsion liquid membrane system; Investigate the effect of gravity on emulsion coalescence within the membrane unit; Access the effect of water re-use on fermentation yields in a model microbial system; Develop a perfusion-type fermentor utilizing a supported emulsion liquid membrane system to control inhibitory fermentation byproducts; Work for the coming year will focus on the determination of toxicity of various solvents, selection of the emulsifying agents, as well as characterizing the mass transfer of hollow-fiber contactors.

Wiencek, John M.

2002-01-01

24

Feasibility of Surfactant-Free Supported Emulsion Liquid Membrane Extraction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Supported emulsion liquid membrane (SELM) is an effective means to conduct liquid-liquid extraction. SELM extraction is particularly attractive for separation tasks in the microgravity environment where density difference between the solvent and the internal phase of the emulsion is inconsequential and a stable dispersion can be maintained without surfactant. In this research, dispersed two-phase flow in SELM extraction is modeled using the Lagrangian method. The results show that SELM extraction process in the microgravity environment can be simulated on earth by matching the density of the solvent and the stripping phase. Feasibility of surfactant-free SELM (SFSELM) extraction is assessed by studying the coalescence behavior of the internal phase in the absence of the surfactant. Although the contacting area between the solvent and the internal phase in SFSELM extraction is significantly less than the area provided by regular emulsion due to drop coalescence, it is comparable to the area provided by a typical hollow-fiber membrane. Thus, the stripping process is highly unlikely to become the rate-limiting step in SFSELM extraction. SFSELM remains an effective way to achieve simultaneous extraction and stripping and is able to eliminate the equilibrium limitation in the typical solvent extraction processes. The SFSELM design is similar to the supported liquid membrane design in some aspects.

Hu, Shih-Yao B.; Li, Jin; Wiencek, John M.

2001-01-01

25

Selective Liquid-Phase Hydrogenation of Citral over Supported Palladium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citral in the liquid phase was reduced in a low-pressure hydrogenator by using catalysts consisting of palladium supported on (a) a mixed 80:20 SiO2\\/AlPO4system and (b) sepiolite from Vallecas (Madrid, Spain). A kinetic study provided the reaction orders in the substrate concentration and hydrogen pressure. Experimental variables such as temperature, hydrogen pressure and the type of solvent were adjusted in

M. A. Aramend??a; V. Borau; C. Jiménez; J. M. Marinas; A. Porras; F. J. Urbano

1997-01-01

26

A TRLFS study on the complexation of novel BTP type ligands with Cm(III).  

PubMed

Two BTP-type N-donor ligands with different numbers of aromatic nitrogen atoms (2,6-bis(4-ethyl-pyridazin-1-yl)pyridine, Et-BDP and 2,6-bis(4-(n)propyl-2,3,5,6-tetrazine-1-yl)pyridine, (n)Pr-Tetrazine) have been synthesized and characterized by NMR and MS techniques. The complexation with Cm(III) in 2-propanol-water (1?:?1, vol.) is studied for both ligands using time resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) and the complexation properties are compared to (n)Pr-BTP. With increasing the ligand concentration three different species, the 1?:?1-, 1?:?2- and 1?:?3-complex, were found. Log ?3 values of 7.6 for the formation of Cm(Et-BDP)3 and 9.2 for the formation of Cm((n)Pr-Tetrazine)3 are determined. The complexation with (n)Pr-Tetrazine shows slow kinetics. Thermodynamic data of the complexation reactions are determined in a temperature range of 25 °C-60 °C. The complexation with Et-BDP is exothermic (?H = -16.3 ± 1.2 kJ mol(-1)) and exergonic (?G = -43.8 ± 2.6 kJ mol(-1)) whereas the complexation with (n)Pr-Tetrazine is endothermic (?H = 43.9 ± 3.1 kJ mol(-1)) and exergonic (?G = -51.7 ± 2.2 kJ mol(-1)). In the case of the latter the complexation is driven by a highly positive reaction entropy change (?S = 320.6 ± 15.4 J mol(-1) K(-1)). In comparison to (n)Pr-BTP, less negative ?G values were found for the complexation of Cm(III) with both ligands. PMID:23552476

Beele, Björn B; Rüdiger, Elias; Schwörer, Felicitas; Müllich, Udo; Geist, Andreas; Panak, Petra J

2013-09-14

27

Ionic-liquid-supported (ILS) catalysts for asymmetric organic synthesis.  

PubMed

The asymmetric synthesis of compounds that contain new C-C and C-O bonds remains one of the most important types of synthesis in organic chemistry. Over the years, many different types of catalysts have been designed and used effectively to carry out such transformations. Ionic-liquid-supported (ILS) catalysts represent a new and very effective class of catalysts that are used to facilitate the asymmetric synthesis of such compounds. There are many advantages to using ILS catalysts; they are nontoxic, environmentally benign, and, most important, recyclable. An overview of the design, synthesis, mode of action, and effectiveness of this class of catalysts is reported. PMID:20235242

Ni, Bukuo; Headley, Allan D

2010-04-19

28

Facilitated Catecholamine Transport through Bulk and Polymer-Supported Liquid Membranes  

E-print Network

Facilitated Catecholamine Transport through Bulk and Polymer-Supported Liquid Membranes Marie, The Netherlands ReceiVed May 6, 1996X Abstract: A series of crown boronic acids, 1-4, were synthesized and studied as carriers for catecholamine transport through bulk liquid membranes (BLMs) and supported liquid membranes

Smith, Bradley D.

29

Ionic liquid based hollow fiber supported liquid phase microextraction of ultraviolet filters.  

PubMed

Hollow fiber protected liquid phase microextraction using an ionic liquid as supported phase and acceptor phase (IL-HF-LPME) is proposed for the determination of four ultraviolet (UV) filters (benzophenone, 3-(4-methylbenzylidene)-camphor, 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone and 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone) in water samples for the first time. In the present study, four different ILs 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate) [HMIM][FAP], 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate [BMPL][FAP], 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium phosphate ([BMIM][PO(4)]) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([BMIM][PF(6)]) were evaluated as extraction solvent. Only [HMIM][FAP] showed high chemical affinity to the analytes which permits a selective isolation of the UV filters from the sample matrix, allowing also their preconcentration. IL-HF-LPME and high performance liquid chromatography provides repeatability from 1.1% to 8.2% and limits of detection between 0.3 and 0.5 ng/ml. Real water samples spiked with the analytes extracted were analyzed, and yielded relative recoveries ranging from 82.6% to 105.9%. PMID:22307149

Ge, Dandan; Lee, Hian Kee

2012-03-16

30

The effect of porous support composition and operating parameters on the performance of supported liquid membranes  

SciTech Connect

Factors, such as porous support composition and operating parameters, that influence the performance of supported liquid membranes (SLMs) were investigated. SLMs of varying porous support compositions and structures were studied for the transport of metal ions. A microporous polybenzimidazole support was synthesized and prepared in the form of an SLM. This SLM containing the selective extractant di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid was evaluated for the transport of copper and neodymium. Dramatically improved performance over that of commercially available membranes was found in tests for removing the metal ions from solution. Metal ion transport reaches near completion in less than 3 hours, whereas Celgard-polypropylene and Nuclepore-polycarbonate reaches only 50% completion even after 15 hours. The transport driving force for acidic extractants is a pH gradient between the feed and strip solutions. Polybenzimidazole, an acid- and radiation-resistant polymer, has two protonatable tertiary nitrogens per repeat unit that may help sustain the pH driving force. Another factor may be the ability of the polybenzimidazole to hydrogen bond with the extractant. Transport through the flat-sheet SLMs were tested using a unique cell design. Countercurrent flow of the feed and strip solutions was established through machined channels in half-cell faceplates that are in a spiral, mirror-image pattern with respect to each other, with the flat-sheet SLM interposed between the two channeled solutions. 7 refs., 14 figs.

Takigawa, D.Y.

1991-02-01

31

Early transcriptional responses of bovine chorioallantoic membrane explants to wild type, ?virB2 or ?btpB Brucella abortus infection.  

PubMed

The pathogenesis of the Brucella-induced inflammatory response in the bovine placenta is not completely understood. In this study we evaluated the role of the B. abortus Type IV secretion system and the anti-inflammatory factor BtpB in early interactions with bovine placental tissues. Transcription profiles of chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) explants inoculated with wild type (strain 2308), ?virB2 or ?btpB Brucella abortus were compared by microarray analysis at 4 hours post infection. Transcripts with significant variation (>2 fold change; P<0.05) were functionally classified, and transcripts related to defense and inflammation were assessed by quantitative real time RT-PCR. Infection with wild type B. abortus resulted in slightly more genes with decreased than increased transcription levels. Conversely, infection of trophoblastic cells with the ?virB2 or the ?btpB mutant strains, that lack a functional T4SS or that has impaired inhibition of TLR signaling, respectively, induced more upregulated than downregulated genes. Wild type Brucella abortus impaired transcription of host genes related to immune response when compared to ?virB and ?btpB mutants. Our findings suggest that proinflammatory genes are negatively modulated in bovine trophoblastic cells at early stages of infection. The virB operon and btpB are directly or indirectly related to modulation of these host genes. These results shed light on the early interactions between B. abortus and placental tissue that ultimately culminate in inflammatory pathology and abortion. PMID:25259715

Mol, Juliana P S; Costa, Erica A; Carvalho, Alex F; Sun, Yao-Hui; Tsolis, Reneé M; Paixão, Tatiane A; Santos, Renato L

2014-01-01

32

Early Transcriptional Responses of Bovine Chorioallantoic Membrane Explants to Wild Type, ?virB2 or ?btpB Brucella abortus Infection  

PubMed Central

The pathogenesis of the Brucella-induced inflammatory response in the bovine placenta is not completely understood. In this study we evaluated the role of the B. abortus Type IV secretion system and the anti-inflammatory factor BtpB in early interactions with bovine placental tissues. Transcription profiles of chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) explants inoculated with wild type (strain 2308), ?virB2 or ?btpB Brucella abortus were compared by microarray analysis at 4 hours post infection. Transcripts with significant variation (>2 fold change; P<0.05) were functionally classified, and transcripts related to defense and inflammation were assessed by quantitative real time RT-PCR. Infection with wild type B. abortus resulted in slightly more genes with decreased than increased transcription levels. Conversely, infection of trophoblastic cells with the ?virB2 or the ?btpB mutant strains, that lack a functional T4SS or that has impaired inhibition of TLR signaling, respectively, induced more upregulated than downregulated genes. Wild type Brucella abortus impaired transcription of host genes related to immune response when compared to ?virB and ?btpB mutants. Our findings suggest that proinflammatory genes are negatively modulated in bovine trophoblastic cells at early stages of infection. The virB operon and btpB are directly or indirectly related to modulation of these host genes. These results shed light on the early interactions between B. abortus and placental tissue that ultimately culminate in inflammatory pathology and abortion. PMID:25259715

Mol, Juliana P. S.; Costa, Erica A.; Carvalho, Alex F.; Sun, Yao-Hui; Tsolis, Reneé M.; Paixão, Tatiane A.; Santos, Renato L.

2014-01-01

33

Hyperhydricity and flavonoid content of Scutellaria species in vitro on polyester-supported liquid culture systems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Three Scutellaria species (Scutellaria lateriflora, S. costaricana and S. baicalensis) were grown in different in vitro physical environments: agar, liquid culture, and liquid culture with fiber-supported paper (with initial media volumes of 20 mL and 30 mL). During an eight-week time course, tiss...

34

Lithium Extraction from a Multicomponent Mixture Using Supported Liquid Membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing demand for lithium metal is expected to rise above the current production levels. Most lithium production is currently from mining and recovery of pegmatite ores. Recent research has emphasized recovery from brine sources such as geothermal water and seawater. A novel liquid-membrane-extraction process is investigated here for the recovery of lithium metal from these natural resources. Different carriers and

PAUL MA; XIAO DONG CHEN

2000-01-01

35

Management of flabby ridges using liquid supported denture: a case report  

PubMed Central

Flabby ridges commonly occur in edentulous patients. Inadequate retention and stability of a complete denture are the often encountered problems in these patients. A liquid supported denture due to its flexible tissue surface allows better distribution of stress and hence provides an alternate treatment modality in such cases. This case report presents the use of a liquid supported denture in a patient with completely edentulous maxillary arch with flabby tissue in anterior region opposing a partially edentulous mandibular arch. PMID:21503193

Aras, Meena Ajay; Chitre, Vidya

2011-01-01

36

SEPARATION PROPERTIES OF SURFACE MODIFIED SILICA SUPPORTED LIQUID MEMBRANES FOR DIVALENT METAL REMOVAL/RECOVERY  

EPA Science Inventory

The synthesis and separation properties of a mesoporous silica supported liquid membrane (SLM) were studied. The membranes consisted of a silica layer, from dip-coated colloidal silica, on a a-alumina support, modified with DCDMS (dichlorodimethyl silane) to add surface methyl g...

37

Optofluidic FRET microlasers based on surface-supported liquid microdroplets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate optofluidic microlasers using highly efficient non-radiative Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) for pumping of gain medium placed within liquid microdroplets situated on a superhydrophobic surface. Microdroplets generated from a mixture of ethylene glycol, glycerol, and water and stained with the FRET donor–acceptor dye pair Rhodamine 6G-Rhodamine 700 serve as active optical resonant cavities hosting high-quality whispering gallery modes. Upon direct optical pumping of the donor with a pulsed laser, lasing is observed in the emission band of the acceptor as a result of efficient FRET coupling between the acceptor and donor molecules. FRET lasing is characterized for different acceptor and donor concentrations, and threshold pump fluences of acceptor lasing as low as 6.3 mJ cm?2 are demonstrated. We also verify the dominance of the non-radiative FRET over cavity-assisted radiative energy transfer for the range of parameters studied in the experiments.

Özelci, E.; Aas, M.; Jonáš, A.; Kiraz, A.

2014-04-01

38

Effect of water in ionic liquid on the separation performance of supported ionic liquid membrane for CO 2\\/N 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of water content in 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([bmim][BF4]) on CO2\\/N2 separation performance of polyethersulfone supported ionic liquid membrane has been investigated theoretically and experimentally. A small addition of water in [bmim][BF4] obviously improves the performance of the membrane. CO2 permeance increases from 11.5 to 13.8GPU and CO2\\/N2 selectivity increases from 50 to 60, where the water molar fraction increases

Wei Zhao; Gaohong He; Lingling Zhang; Jia Ju; Hong Dou; Fei Nie; Cuina Li; Hongjing Liu

2010-01-01

39

Supporting Information for: Surfactant-Free, Large-Scale, Solution-Liquid-Solid (SLS) Growth  

E-print Network

S1- Supporting Information for: Surfactant-Free, Large-Scale, Solution-Liquid-Solid (SLS) Growth chromatography. Preparation of a stock 0.15 mmol/g TEG-TMSP solution. Squalane was degassed and dried at ~140 C under vacuum for ~ 2 h and stored in a glove box filled with dry N2. The precursor TEG-TMSP solution

Yang, Peidong

40

Novel Chemically Modified Liquid Medium That Will Support the Growth of Seven Bartonella Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacteria of the genus Bartonella, a member of the Alphaproteobacteria, are fastidious, gram-negative, aerobic bacilli that comprise numerous species, subspecies, and subtypes. In human and veterinary medicine, species isolation remains a vital component of the diagnostic and therapeutic management of Bartonella infection. We describe a novel, chemically modified, insect-based liquid culture medium that supports the growth of at least seven

Ricardo G. Maggi; Ashlee W. Duncan; Edward B. Breitschwerdt

2005-01-01

41

Application of magnetic agarose support in liquid magnetically stabilized fluidized bed for protein adsorption.  

PubMed

A novel magnetic agarose support (MAS) was fabricated for application in a liquid magnetically stabilized fluidized bed (MSFB). It was produced by water-in-oil emulsification method using a mixture of agarose solution and nanometer-sized superparamagnetic Fe(3)O(4) particles as the aqueous phase. The MAS showed good superparamagnetic responsiveness in a magnetic field. A reactive triazine dye, Cibacron blue 3GA (CB), was coupled to the gel to prepare a CB-modified magnetic agarose support (CB-MAS) for protein adsorption. Lysozyme was used as a model protein to test the adsorption equilibrium and kinetic behavior of the CB-MAS. The dependence of bed expansion in the MSFB with a transverse magnetic field on liquid velocity and magnetic field intensity was investigated. Liquid-phase dispersion behavior in the MSFB was examined by measurements of residence time distributions and compared with that obtained in packed and expanded beds. Dynamic lysozyme adsorption in the MSFB was also compared with those in packed and expanded beds. The dynamic binding capacity at 10% breakthrough was estimated at 55.8 mg/mL in the MSFB, higher than that in the expanded bed (31.1 mg/mL) at a liquid velocity of 45 cm/h. The results indicate that the CB-MAS is promising for use in liquid MSFB for protein adsorption. PMID:14656147

Tong, Xiao-Dong; Sun, Yan

2003-01-01

42

Determination of phthalate ester plasticizers in the aquatic environment using hollow fibre supported liquid membranes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phthalates are known to be carcinogenic, teratogenic as well as endocrine disruptors. The potential risk to human and animals health generated from them has drawn great attention all over the world. Hollow fibre supported liquid membrane (HFSLM) online with high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to determine benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and Diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) in wastewater. Toluene, di-n-hexyl ether and undecane were used as liquid barriers separating both donor (sample) and acceptor phase. Toluene performed much better than undecane and was used in sample preparation. The presence of toluene showed the potential for the enrichment and removal of phthalates to the concentrations ranges from 0 to 1.7 mg L-1.

Mtibe, A.; Msagati, Titus A. M.; Mishra, Ajay K.; Mamba, Bhekie B.

43

Phase transfer membrane supported liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction combined with large volume sample injection capillary electrophoresis-ultraviolet detection for the speciation of inorganic and organic mercury.  

PubMed

In this paper, a novel sample pretreatment technique termed phase transfer based liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction (PT-LLLME) was proposed for the simultaneous extraction of inorganic and organic mercury species. In PT-LLLME, an intermediate solvent (acetonitrile) was added into the donor phase to improve the contacting between target mercury species and complexing reagent. Meanwhile, a membrane supported (MS)-LLLME unit was designed to realize the PT-LLLME procedure. By using nylon membrane as supporting carrier, larger than 50 ?L of acceptor solution could be hung up. Following PT/MS-LLLME, the acceptor solutions were directly analyzed by large volume sample stacking capillary electrophoresis/ultraviolet detection (LVSS-CE/UV). Accordingly, a new method of PT/MS-LLLME combined with LVSS-CE/UV was developed for the simultaneous speciation of inorganic and organic mercury species. Parameters affecting the extraction efficiency of PT/MS-LLLME were investigated in details. Under the optimized conditions, enrichment factors (EFs) ranging from 160- to 478-fold were obtained for the extraction of target mercury species by PT/MS-LLLME. By combining PT/MS-LLLME with LVSS-CE/UV, EFs were magnified up to 12,138-fold and the limits of detection (at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3) were at sub ppb level. The established approach of PT/MS-LLLME-LVSS-CE/UV was successfully applied to simultaneous determination of inorganic and organic mercury species in biological samples and environmental water samples. PMID:22098933

Li, Pingjing; Zhang, Xing; Hu, Bin

2011-12-30

44

Liquid-Phase Citral Hydrogenation over SiO 2-Supported Group VIII Metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquid-phase citral hydrogenation over SiO2-supported Group VIII metals at 300 K and 1 atm was studied in the absence of all transport limitations as verified by the Madon–Boudart test and the Weisz–Prater criterion. The initial TOF (turnover frequency) for citral hydrogenation varied by three orders of magnitude and exhibited the following trend: Pd>Pt>Ir>Os>Ru>Rh>Ni>Co?Fe (no activity was detected over Fe\\/SiO2). When

Utpal K Singh; M. Albert Vannice

2001-01-01

45

Constructing CO2-facilitated transport highway in supported ionic liquid membranes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Carbon dioxide-facilitated transport highway (CO2-FTH) on the microporous surface of a membrane matrix was designed using the amino carrier 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES). Owing to the reversible reaction between CO2 molecules and fixed-site carriers, this supported ionic liquid membrane was able to selectively transfer CO2 more quickly. This concept may inspire means of fabricating a highly permeable and selective membrane to break through Robeson's upper bound.

Sun, Xiang Jun; Luo, Ju Jie; Zhang, Meng; Li, Jin Ping

2014-01-01

46

Extraction of cadmium with trilaurylamine–kerosine through a flat-sheet-supported liquid membrane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cadmium has been extracted as a chloride complex through a flat-sheet-supported liquid membrane (SLM), using the tertiary amine Alamine 304-1 (mainly trilaurylamine or TLA) in kerosine.The typical permeability of the membrane was 1.1×10?6ms?1. The rate limiting step is diffusion through the membrane. The cadmium loading of the extractant at the feed–membrane interface is high. Trilaurylammonium chloride crystallizes at the surface

G. R. M. Breembroek; G. J. Witkamp; G. M. van Rosmalen

1998-01-01

47

Supported liquid membranes in hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction (LPME)--practical considerations in the three-phase mode.  

PubMed

In this work, three-phase liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) based on a supported liquid membrane (SLM) sustained in the wall of a hollow fiber was investigated with special focus on optimization of the experimental procedures in terms of recovery and repeatability. Recovery data for doxepin, amitriptyline, clomipramine, and mianserin were in the range of 67.8-79.8%. Within-day repeatability data for the four basic drugs were in the range of 4.1-7.7%. No single factor was found to be responsible for these variations, and the variability was caused by several factors related to the LPME extractions as well as to the final HPLC determination. Although the volume of the SLM varied within 0.4-3.1% RSD depending on the preparation procedure, and the volume of the acceptor solution varied within 4.8% RSD, both recoveries and repeatability were found to be relative insensitive to these variations. Thus, the handling of microliters of liquid in LPME was not a very critical factor, and the preparation of the SLM was accomplished in several different ways with comparable performance. Reuse of hollow fibers was found to suffer from matrix effects due to built-up of analytes in the SLM, whereas washing of the hollow fibers in acetone was beneficial in terms of recovery, especially for the extraction of the most hydrophobic substances. Several of the organic solvents used in the literature as SLM suffered from poor long-term stability, but silicone oil AR 20 (polyphenylmethylsiloxane), 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE), and dodecyl acetate (DDA) all extracted with unaltered performance even after 60 days of storage at room temperature. PMID:17623480

Bårdstu, Kari Folde; Ho, Tung Si; Rasmussen, Knut Einar; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig; Jönsson, Jan Ake

2007-06-01

48

Ultra-hydrophobic ionic liquid 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate supported hollow-fiber membrane liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction of chlorophenols.  

PubMed

An ultra-hydrophobic ionic liquid, 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate ([HMIM][FAP]) was immobilized in the pores of a polypropylene hollow fiber for liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction (HF-LLLME) of chlorophenols (CPs) (4-chloro-3-methylphenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol). The analytes were first extracted from 10ml of water sample into the ionic liquid membrane, and then were extracted back into 5?l of sodium hydroxide aqueous solution in the hollow fiber channel. After extraction, the acceptor solution was directly injected into a high-performance liquid chromatographic system for analysis. Extraction parameters such as extraction time, salt concentration in the sample, the pH of the sample and acceptor phase, and stirring rate during extraction were investigated. The relative standard deviations of the analytes varied from 4 to 6%. Limits of detection of <0.5ng/ml were obtained for the three analytes. The squared regression coefficients relating to the calibration curve were ?0.9941. The proposed method was applied to the analysis of CPs in canal water. PMID:25476289

Ge, Dandan; Lee, Hian Kee

2015-01-15

49

The simultaneous stripping of arsenic and selenium from wastewaters using hollow-fibre supported liquid membranes.  

PubMed

The extraction of total arsenic and selenium using hollow-fibre supported liquid membranes (HFSLMs), with specific interest in the optimal conditions for the extraction in wastewater, is reported. The extraction time, type of liquid membrane, sample and donor pH and stirring rate were optimised, and thereafter, the developed method was tested in real wastewater samples. The optimal HFSLMs adopted, after optimisation tests, comprised of Aliquat 336, 0.8 M NaOH, 200 rpm and 80 min as the extractant, stripping phase, stirring rate and reaction time, respectively. The developed method had reasonable-to-high extraction efficiencies in real wastewater samples with the final effluent recording as high as 73 and 78 % removal efficiencies for Se and As, respectively. Considering the initial concentrations found in the samples, use of this developed method could bring down the concentrations to levels admissible by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US-EPA) and World Health Organisation (WHO). PMID:25252794

Mafu, Lihle D; Msagati, Titus A M; Mamba, Bhekie B

2014-12-01

50

A supported polymeric liquid membrane process for removal of carboxylic acids from a waste stream  

SciTech Connect

The removal or elimination of organic residues from aqueous waste streams represents a major need in the chemical industry. The authors have developed a new class of membrane called supported polymeric liquid membranes that are capable of removing and concentrating low molecular weight organic compounds from dilute aqueous solutions, especially those that also contain high concentrations of inorganic salts. Attractive features of this membrane process include the ability to recover the contaminants in concentrated form for either recycle or more economical disposal, low pressure (ambient) operation, simple scale-up using commercial hollow fiber modules, and ease of in-situ regeneration of the polymeric liquid. The process has shown treatment feasibility for several types of aqueous waste streams. This paper describes the laboratory development activities for treating a waste stream containing a dilute mixture of C2-C6 carboxylic acids and nitric acid.

Ho, S.V.

1999-12-31

51

An application of supported liquid membranes for removal of inorganic contaminants from groundwater  

SciTech Connect

This review paper summarizes the results of an investigation on teh use of supported liquid membranes for the removal of uranium (VI) and some anionic contaminants (technetium(VII), chromium(VI) and nitrates) from the Hanford site groundwater. As a membrane carrier for U(VI), bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)phosphinic acid was selected because of its high selectivity over calcium and magnesium. The water soluble complexing agent 1-hydroxyethane-1,1-diphosphonic acid was used as stripping agent. For the anionic contaminants the long-chain aliphatic amines Primene JM-T (primary)., Amberlite LA-1 (secondary) and trilaurylamine (tertiary) were investigated as membrane carriers. Among these amines, Amberlite LA-2 proved to be the most effective carrier for the simultaneous removal of the investigated anion contaminants. A good long-term stability (at least one month) of the liquid membranes was obtained, especially in the uranium(VI) removal. 8 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

Chiarizia, R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Horwitz, E.P. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Hodgson, K.M. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1991-12-31

52

An application of supported liquid membranes for removal of inorganic contaminants from groundwater  

SciTech Connect

This review paper summarizes the results of an investigation on teh use of supported liquid membranes for the removal of uranium (VI) and some anionic contaminants (technetium(VII), chromium(VI) and nitrates) from the Hanford site groundwater. As a membrane carrier for U(VI), bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)phosphinic acid was selected because of its high selectivity over calcium and magnesium. The water soluble complexing agent 1-hydroxyethane-1,1-diphosphonic acid was used as stripping agent. For the anionic contaminants the long-chain aliphatic amines Primene JM-T (primary)., Amberlite LA-1 (secondary) and trilaurylamine (tertiary) were investigated as membrane carriers. Among these amines, Amberlite LA-2 proved to be the most effective carrier for the simultaneous removal of the investigated anion contaminants. A good long-term stability (at least one month) of the liquid membranes was obtained, especially in the uranium(VI) removal. 8 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

Chiarizia, R. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States) Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)); Horwitz, E.P. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Hodgson, K.M. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States))

1991-01-01

53

SUPPORTED LIX-84 LIQUID MEMBRANES FOR METAL ION SEPARATION: A STUDY ON METAL ION SORPTION EQUILIBRIUM AND KINETICS  

EPA Science Inventory

Supported 2-hydroxy-5-nonyl-acetophenone oxime (LIX-84) liquid membranes have potential applications for the removal (or recovery) of copper ions from waste streams. But, the stability of such a liquid membrane remains the major hurdle for its practical applications. Inorganic su...

54

Rate and mechanism of facilitated americium(III) transport through a supported liquid membrane containing a bifunctional organophosphorus mobile carrier  

Microsoft Academic Search

The facilitated transport of Am(III) from aqueous nitrate solutions to formic acid aqueous solutions through a supported liquid membrane (SLM) is described. The supported liquid membrane consists of a solution of a new (carbamoylmethyl)phosphine oxide in diethylbenzene (DEB) absorbed into a 48 ..mu..m thick microporous polypropylene film. The transport mechanism consists of a diffusion process through an aqueous diffusion film,

P. R. Danesi; E. P. Horwitz; P. G. Rickert

1983-01-01

55

A dicationic ruthenium alkylidene complex for continuous biphasic metathesis using monolith-supported ionic liquids.  

PubMed

A dicationic ruthenium-alkylidene complex [Ru(dmf)(3)(IMesH(2))(=CH-2-(2-PrO)-C(6)H(4))][(BF(4))(2)] (1; IMesH(2) =1,3-dimesitylimidazolin-2-ylidene) has been prepared and used in continuous metathesis reactions by exploiting supported ionic-liquid phase (SILP) technology. For these purposes, ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP)-derived monoliths were prepared from norborn-2-ene, tris(norborn-5-ene-2-ylmethyloxy)methylsilane, and [RuCl(2)(PCy(3))(2)(CHPh)] (Cy=cyclohexyl) in the presence of 2-propanol and toluene and surface grafted with norborn-5-en-2-ylmethyl-N,N,N-trimethylammonium tetrafluoroborate ([NBE-CH(2)-NMe(3)][BF(4)]). Subsequent immobilization of the ionic liquid (IL), 1-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BDMIM][BF(4)]), containing ionic catalyst 1 created the SILP catalyst. The use of a second liquid transport phase, which contained the substrate and was immiscible with the IL, allowed continuous metathesis reactions to be realized. High turnover numbers (TONs) of up to 3700 obtained in organic solvents for the ring-closing metathesis (RCM) of, for example, N,N-diallyltrifluoroacetamide, diethyl diallylmalonate, diethyl di(methallyl)malonate, tert-butyl-N,N-diallylcarbamate, N,N-diallylacetamide, diphenyldiallylsilane, and 1,7-octadiene, as well as in the self-metathesis of methyl oleate, could be further increased by using biphasic conditions with [BDMIM][BF(4)]/heptane. Under continuous SILP conditions, TONs up to 900 were observed. Due to the ionic character of the initiator, catalyst leaching into the transport phase was very low (<0.1 %). Finally, the IL can, together with decomposed catalyst, be removed from the monolithic support by flushing with methanol. Upon reloading with [BDMIM][BF(4)]/1, the recycled support material again qualified for utilization in continuous metathesis reactions. PMID:22996838

Autenrieth, Benjamin; Frey, Wolfgang; Buchmeiser, Michael R

2012-10-29

56

Supported liquid membrane-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of cyanobacterial toxins in fresh water systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are increasingly becoming of great concern to water resources worldwide due to indiscriminate waste disposal habits resulting in water pollution and eutrophication. When cyanobacterial cells lyse (burst) they release toxins called microcystins (MCs) that are well known for their hepatotoxicity (causing liver damage) and have been found in eutrophic lakes, rivers, wastewater ponds and other water reservoirs. Prolonged exposure to low concentrated MCs are equally of health importance as they are known to be bioaccumulative and even at such low concentration do exhibit toxic effects to aquatic animals, wildlife and human liver cells. The application of common treatment processes for drinking water sourced from HABs infested reservoirs have the potential to cause algal cell lyses releasing low to higher amounts of MCs in finished water. Trace microcystins in water/tissue can be analyzed and quantified using Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) following solid-phase extraction (SPE) sample clean-up procedures. However, extracting MCs from algal samples which are rich in chlorophyll pigments and other organic matrices the SPE method suffers a number of drawbacks, including cartridge clogging, long procedural steps and use of larger volumes of extraction solvents. We applied a supported liquid membrane (SLM) based technique as an alternative sample clean-up method for LC-ESI-MS analysis of MCs from both water and algal cells. Four (4) MC variants (MC-RR, -YR, -LR and -WR) from lyophilized cells of Microcystis aeruginosa and water collected from a wastewater pond were identified) and quantified using LC-ESI-MS following a SLM extraction and liquid partitioning step, however, MC-WR was not detected from water extracts. Within 45 min of SLM extraction all studied MCs were extracted and pre-concentrated in approximately 15 ?L of an acceptor phase at an optimal pH 2.02 of the donor phase (sample). The highest total quantifiable intracellular and extracellular MCs were 37.039 ± 0.087 ?g/g DW and 5.123 ± 0.018 ?g/L, respectively. The concentrations of MC-RR were the highest from all samples studied recording maximum values of 21.579 ± 0.066 ?g/g DW and 3.199 ± 0.012 ?g/L for intracellular and extracellular quantities, respectively.

Mbukwa, Elbert A.; Msagati, Titus A. M.; Mamba, Bhekie B.

57

Direct coupling of supported liquid membranes to capillary electrophoresis for analysis of complex samples: a tutorial.  

PubMed

This tutorial provides an overview of direct coupling of extraction techniques based on supported liquid membranes (SLMs) to capillary electrophoresis (CE) for treatment and subsequent analysis of complex samples. Pros and cons of using each of the described instrumental arrangement are addressed and where relevant, comments with personal experience of the authors are presented. Solid porous membrane based extraction techniques coupled directly to CE are also presented in this tutorial and a comprehensive discussion is included on their instrumental set-ups and their possible adaptation for use with SLMs. PMID:23830417

Kubá?, Pavel; Bo?ek, Petr

2013-07-17

58

Ionic liquid-supported synthesis of piperazine derivatives as potential insecticides.  

PubMed

With the purpose of extending our efforts on the search and synthesis of new insecticides with novel acting modes, a series of novel 4-(2-(4-(pyridin-2-yl)piperazin-1-yl)ethoxy)aniline derivatives were designed based on classical serotonin receptor ligands and synthesized through the rapid ionic liquid-supported parallel synthesis with yields up to 88 %. These products were purified through the convenient washing with appropriate solvents and isolated in good yield. In addition, 27 amide or urea derivatives of anilines were also prepared. Bioassay data showed that some of the synthesized compounds displayed selective insecticidal bioactivities against tested pests. PMID:24281924

Shen, Yan; Wang, Jia-Yi; Song, Gong-Hua

2014-02-01

59

High performance liquid chromatographic studies on lanthanides, uranium and thorium on amide modified reversed phase supports.  

PubMed

The retention behavior of uranium, thorium and lanthanides has been investigated with amide modified reversed phase C(18) supports using alpha-hydroxy isobutyric acid (alpha-HIBA) as the mobile phase. Four structurally different amide moieties namely, 4-hydroxy-N,N-dihexyl butyramide (4HHBA), 4-hydroxy-N,N-di-2-ethylhexylhexanamide (4HEHHA), bis(N,N,N',N'-2-ethylhexyl)malonamide (B2EHM) and N-methyl-tris(dihexylcarbamoyl-3-methoxy)pivolamide (MTDCMPA) have been synthesized and studied. Among the various amide coated columns, the supports modified with 4HHBA, B2EHM and MTDCMPA exhibit an interesting retention for uranium and thorium, which is different from 4HEHHA modified support. The retention time for uranium and thorium increases with increasing amide concentration for 4HHBA, B2EHM and MTDCMPA supports, while the same decreases with increasing 4HEHHA content. However, the separation factor for uranium and thorium is greater on a 4HEHHA support, compared to an unmodified C(18) column, reflecting the amide's preferential complexation of uranium over thorium. Columns modified with 4HHBA, B2EHM and MTDCMPA exhibit relatively higher retentions for lanthanides. However, MTDCMPA modified support shows a different elution profile for lanthanides compared to 4HHBA, and B2EHM modified columns. Individual separations of heavier lanthanides, i.e., from gadolinium to lutetium also have been achieved using 4HHBA and B2EHM modified supports. The influence of modifier content, mobile phase concentration and its pH on the retention of metal ions has also been studied. Based on these investigations, an efficient high performance liquid chromatographic method (HPLC) has been developed for the rapid separation of uranium from thorium as well as for the individual separation of heavier lanthanides. PMID:19071679

Akhila Maheswari, M; Prabhakaran, D; Subramanian, M S; Sivaraman, N; Srinivasan, T G; Vasudeva Rao, P R

2007-04-30

60

Membrane-supported liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction combined with anion-selective exhaustive injection capillary electrophoresis-ultraviolet detection for sensitive analysis of phytohormones.  

PubMed

A novel method based on off-line membrane-supported liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction (MS-LLLME) combined with on-column anion-selective exhaustive injection (ASEI) capillary electrophoresis-ultraviolet (CE-UV) detection was established for the analysis of seven phytohormones (abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid (JA), 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 1-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), salicylic acid (SA) and gibberellic acid (GA)). In MS-LLLME, the target phytohormones were extracted from the acid donor phase to the alkaline acceptor phase, and the acceptor solutions were directly analyzed by ASEI-CE-UV. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the analytical performance of the method was evaluated. The limits of detection (LODs) of ABA, JA, 2,4-D, NAA, IAA, SA and GA were determined to be 1.00, 2.21, 0.33, 0.17, 0.67, 0.05 and 16.5ng/mL, respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSDs, n=7) ranged from 4.7% to 12.9%, and the enrichment factors were in the range of 307 to 20,160. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of multiple phytohormones in banana, cabbage and cucumber extracts, and ABA, IAA and SA were detected in these samples. The recoveries for the spiked samples were in the range of 79.0 to 116.4%. The proposed method was demonstrated to be suitable for the simultaneous quantification of multiple phytohormones with high sensitivity and good sample cleanup ability. PMID:24720904

Huang, Linfang; He, Man; Chen, Beibei; Hu, Bin

2014-05-23

61

Summary of Liquid Propulsion System Needs in Support of the Constellation Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In January 2004, the President of the United States established the Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) to complete the International Space Station, retire the Space Shuttle and develop its replacement, and expand the human presence on the Moon as a stepping stone to human exploration of Mars and worlds beyond. In response, NASA developed the Constellation Program, consisting of the components shown in Figure 1. This paper will summarize the manned spaceflight liquid propulsion system needs in support of the Constellation Program over the next 10 years. It will address all liquid engine needs to support human exploration from low Earth orbit (LEO) to the lunar surface, including an overview of engines currently under contract, those baselined but not yet under contract, and those propulsion needs that have yet to be initiated. There may be additional engine needs for early demonstrators, but those will not be addressed as part of this paper. Also, other portions of the VSE architecture, including the planned Orion abort test boosters and the Lunar Precursor Robotic Program, are not addressed here as they either use solid motors or are focused on unmanned elements of returning humans to the Moon.

Lorier, Terry; Sumrall, Phil; Baine, Michael

2008-01-01

62

Effect of supporting membrane on removal of cadmium by the hybrid liquid membrane process.  

PubMed

A hybrid liquid membrane process was used to remove cadmium cation from a solution using bis-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid as the carrier for the first time. Different polyethersulphone supporting membranes were prepared by a phase inversion technique. The prepared membrane could be efficiently used as the supporting membranes for the proposed process. The effects of porosity and pore size of the supporting membrane on removal efficiency were investigated. In addition, the effects of various operating parameters such as carrier concentration in organic phase, pH of feed phase, acid concentration, and temperature on the performance of the process were also investigated. It was found that the maximum flux of cadmium is obtained using the supporting membrane with 84.5% porosity and the pore size of 132?nm. The optimum carrier concentration is 0.2?M, the optimum pH of the feed phase is 6, and the optimum concentration of acid in the stripping phase is 0.6?M. PMID:25337970

Garmsiri, M; Mortaheb, H R; Amini, M H

2015-02-01

63

Augmenting Microbial Fuel Cell power by coupling with Supported Liquid Membrane permeation for zinc recovery.  

PubMed

Simultaneous removal of organic and zinc contamination in parallel effluent streams using a Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC) would deliver a means of reducing environmental pollution whilst also recovering energy. A Microbial Fuel Cell system has been integrated with Supported Liquid Membrane (SLM) technology to simultaneously treat organic- and heavy metal containing wastewaters. The MFC anode was fed with synthetic wastewater containing 10 mM acetate, the MFC cathode chambers were fed with 400 mg L(-1) Zn(2+) and this then acted as a feed phase for SLM extraction. The MFC/SLM combination produces a synergistic effect which enhances the power performance of the MFC significantly; 0.233 mW compared to 0.094 mW in the control. It is shown that the 165 ± 7 mV difference between the MFC/SLM system and the MFC control is attributable to the lower cathode pH in the integrated system experiment, the consequent lower activation overpotential and higher oxygen reduction potential. The change in the substrate removal efficiency and Coulombic Efficiency (CE) compared to controls is small. Apart from the electrolyte conductivity, the conductivities of the bipolar and liquid membrane were also found to increase during operation. The diffusion coefficient of Zn(2+) through the liquid membrane in the MFC/SLM (4.26*10(-10) m(2) s(-1)) is comparable to the SLM control (5.41*10(-10) m(2) s(-1)). The system demonstrates that within 72 h, 93  ±  4% of the zinc ions are removed from the feed phase, hence the Zn(2+) removal rate is not significantly affected and is comparable to the SLM control (96  ±  1%), while MFC power output is significantly increased. PMID:24602866

Fradler, Katrin R; Michie, Iain; Dinsdale, Richard M; Guwy, Alan J; Premier, Giuliano C

2014-05-15

64

Photo-uncaging of Ceramides Promotes Reorganization of Liquid-Ordered Domains in Supported Lipid Bilayers  

PubMed Central

6-Bromo-7-hydroxycoumarin (Bhc)-caged ceramide (Cer) analogs were incorporated into supported lipid bilayers containing a mixture of coexisting liquid-ordered (Lo) and liquid-disordered (Ld) phases. The release of N-palmitoyl and N-butanoyl-D-erythro-sphingosine (C16- and C4-Cer) by photolysis of the caged Cers using long wavelength UV light was studied using a combination of atomic force microscopy and fluorescence microscopy. This approach demonstrated the ability to generate Cer with spatial and temporal control, providing an alternative method to the enzymatic generation of Cer. The generation of C16-Cer from Bhc-C16-Cer disrupted the Lo domains, with the incorporation of small fluid phase regions and the disappearance of some smaller domains. Cer-rich gel-phase domains were not observed, in contrast to results reported by either direct Cer incorporation or enzymatic Cer generation. Photorelease of C4-Cer from Bhc-C4-Cer resulted in qualitatively similar changes in bilayer morphology, with disappearance of some Lo domains and no evidence for Cer-rich gel domains, but with a smaller height difference between the ordered and disordered phases. PMID:23402522

Carter Ramirez, Daniel M.; Pitre, Spencer P.; Kim, Young Ah; Bittman, Robert; Johnston, Linda J.

2013-01-01

65

Some methods of human liquid and solid wastes utilization in bioregenerative life support systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possibility of stepwise utilization of human liquid and solid wastes with the purpose of an increase of a closure degree of bioregenerative life support systems BLSS and sodium chloride inclusion in the organic matter turnover was investigated On the first stage urine and faeces were subjected to oxidation by Yu A Kudenko physicochemical method On the next stage the products of human liquid and solid wastes oxidation were used for roots nutrition of wheat grown by substrate culture method Soil-like substrate the technology of which was described earlier was used as a substrate After the wheat cultivation the irrigational solution and the solution obtained in the result of substrate washing containing mineral elements not absorbed by the plants were used for cultivation of salt-tolerant Salicornia europaea plants The above-ground biomass of these vegetables can be used as a food and roots washed from dissoluble mineral elements can be added to the soil-like substrate Four consecutive wheat and Salicornia europaea vegetations were cultivated In the result of this complex technology of wheat and Salicornia europaea cultivation the soil-like substrate salinization by NaCl introduced into the irrigational solution together with the products of urine oxidation has considerably decreased

Tikhomirova, N. A.; Ushakova, S. Á.; Tikhomirov, A. Á.; Zolotukhin, I. G.; Gribovskaya, I. V.; Gros, J. B.

66

Poly(dimethylsiloxane)-supported ionogels with a high ionic liquid loading.  

PubMed

The immiscibility of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) and ionic liquids (ILs) was overcome to create PDMS-supported IL gels (ionogels) with IL loadings of up to 80% by mass through a simple sol-gel reaction at room temperature. By stirring a mixture of a functionalized PDMS oligomer, formic acid, and an IL (or lithium-in-IL solution), a resin was formed that could be cast to create a freestanding, flexible ionogel. PDMS-supported ionogels exhibited favorable ionic conductivity (ca. 3?mS?cm(-1)) and excellent mechanical behavior (elastic modulus: ca. 60?kPa; fatigue life: >5000 cycles; mechanically stable at temperatures up to 200?°C). The activation energy of ionic conductivity was shown to be nearly identical for the ionogel and the neat IL, in contrast to ionogel systems wherein the scaffold material is miscible with the IL. This similarity indicates that IL/scaffold chemical interactions are key to the understanding of ionogel electrical performance, especially at elevated temperatures. PMID:25044479

Horowitz, Ariel I; Panzer, Matthew J

2014-09-01

67

Silica-particle-supported zwitterionic polymer monolith for microcolumn liquid chromatography.  

PubMed

A silica-particle-supported zwitterionic polymeric monolithic column, shortened as supported column (S-column), was prepared by the in situ polymerization of methacrylic acid, ethylene dimethacrylate, and 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate in the presence of a ternary porogenic solvent containing water, methanol, and cyclohexanol in a 250 ?m id fused-silica capillary prepacked with 5 ?m bare silica particles. In the S-column, a thin layer of the polymers was formed around the silica particles in the form of nanoglobules, leaving the interstitial spaces between the particles free for liquid flow. The effects of the preparation conditions on the morphology of the monolith were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and backpressure measurements. The selected volumetric ratio of porogens, monomer concentration, polymerization time, and temperature are 1:1:8 (water/methanol/cyclohexanol), 25% v/v, 5 h, and 60°C, respectively. The S-column was evaluated by comparison with its conventional organic counterpart in terms of morphology, mechanical stability, permeability, swelling-shrinking behavior, capacity, and efficiency. The results demonstrate that the S-column is superior to its counterpart in all the terms with the exception of permeability. The above merits and zwitterionic property of the S-column were further confirmed by separate separations of four inorganic anions and three organic cations. PMID:25044794

An, Ran; Weng, Qianfeng; Li, Jinxiang

2014-10-01

68

Metal-organic framework supported ionic liquid membranes for CO2 capture: anion effects.  

PubMed

IRMOF-1 supported ionic liquid (IL) membranes are investigated for CO(2) capture by atomistic simulation. The ILs consist of identical cation 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium [BMIM](+), but four different anions, namely hexafluorophosphate [PF(6)](-), tetrafluoroborate [BF(4)](-), bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide [Tf(2)N](-), and thiocyanate [SCN](-). As compared with the cation, the anion has a stronger interaction with IRMOF-1 and a more ordered structure in IRMOF-1. The small anions [PF(6)](-), [BF(4)](-), and [SCN](-) prefer to locate near to the metal-cluster, particularly the quasi-spherical [PF(6)](-) and [BF(4)](-). In contrast, the bulky and chain-like [BMIM](+) and [Tf(2)N](-) reside near the phenyl ring. Among the four anions, [Tf(2)N](-) has the weakest interaction with IRMOF-1 and thus the strongest interaction with [BMIM](+). With increasing the weight ratio of IL to IRMOF-1 (W(IL/IRMOF-1)), the selectivity of CO(2)/N(2) at infinite dilution is enhanced. At a given W(IL/IRMOF-1), the selectivity increases as [Tf(2)N](-) < [PF(6)](-) < [BF(4)](-) < [SCN](-). This hierarchy is predicted by the COSMO-RS method, and largely follows the order of binding energy between CO(2) and anion estimated by ab initio calculation. In the [BMIM][SCN]/IRMOF-1 membrane with W(IL/IRMOF-1) = 1, [SCN](-) is identified to be the most favorable site for CO(2) adsorption. [BMIM][SCN]/IRMOF-1 outperforms polymer membranes and polymer-supported ILs in CO(2) permeability, and its performance surpasses Robeson's upper bound. This simulation study reveals that the anion has strong effects on the microscopic properties of ILs and suggests that MOF-supported ILs are potentially intriguing for CO(2) capture. PMID:22433933

Gupta, Krishna M; Chen, Yifei; Hu, Zhongqiao; Jiang, Jianwen

2012-04-28

69

Liquid-phase hydrogenation on new AlPO 4 ?SiO 2 supported rhodium catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The liquid-phase catalytic hydrogenation of various organic compounds was carried out using new rhodium catalysts supported on AlPO4?SiO2 (20?80 wt. %) system, in methanol as solvent, under low hydrogen pressure (0.55 MPa) and at 293 K. Neither alkene isomerization nor hydrogenolysis products were detected in any of the cases.

J. M. Campelo; A. Garcia; D. Luna; J. M. Marinas

1982-01-01

70

Influence of temperature on mass transfer in an incomplete trapping single hollow fibre supported liquid membrane extraction of triazole fungicides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of temperature in a single hollow fibre supported liquid membrane extraction of triazole fungicides with a stagnant acceptor phase was investigated. The mass transfer parameters such as diffusion coefficient, flux and apparent viscosity were determined at temperature ranging from 278K to 313K. Increase in temperature led to an increase in diffusion coefficient and flux. The apparent viscosity also

Monika Michel; Luke Chimuka; Ewa Cukrowska; Piotr Wieczorek; Bogus?aw Buszewski

2009-01-01

71

A polymerized ionic liquid-supported B12 catalyst with a ruthenium trisbipyridine photosensitizer for photocatalytic dechlorination in ionic liquids.  

PubMed

By immobilizing a B12 complex and a Ru(ii) trisbipyridine photosensitizer in a polymerized ionic liquid (PIL), a visible light-driven photocatalyst was developed. The synthesized copolymer was characterized by GPC and DLS, and using UV-vis absorption spectra and luminescence spectra. The Ru(ii) trisbipyridine photosensitizer in the copolymer showed an enhanced emission compared to that of the monomer in the ionic liquid, 1-butyl-4-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide ([C4mim][NTf2]). Formation of the Co(i) species of the B12 complex in the copolymer was confirmed by the UV-vis spectral change in [C4mim][NTf2] containing a sacrificial reductant (triethanolamine) under irradiation with visible light. The copolymer showed a high photocatalytic activity in various ionic liquids for 1,1-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane (DDT) dechlorination with ?99% conversion after visible light irradiation for 2 h. Furthermore, both the B12 catalyst and photosensitizer in the polymer were easily recycled for use with the ionic liquid solvent without any loss of catalytic activity. PMID:25118045

Zhang, Wei; Shimakoshi, Hisashi; Houfuku, Noriyuki; Song, Xi-Ming; Hisaeda, Yoshio

2014-10-01

72

An electrochemical gas sensor based on paper supported room temperature ionic liquids.  

PubMed

A sensitive and fast-responding membrane-free amperometric gas sensor is described, consisting of a small filter paper foil soaked with a room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL), upon which three electrodes are screen printed with carbon ink, using a suitable mask. It takes advantage of the high electrical conductivity and negligible vapour pressure of RTILs as well as their easy immobilization into a porous and inexpensive supporting material such as paper. Moreover, thanks to a careful control of the preparation procedure, a very close contact between the RTIL and electrode material can be achieved so as to allow gaseous analytes to undergo charge transfer just as soon as they reach the three-phase sites where the electrode material, paper supported RTIL and gas phase meet. Thus, the adverse effect on recorded currents of slow steps such as analyte diffusion and dissolution in a solvent is avoided. To evaluate the performance of this device, it was used as a wall-jet amperometric detector for flow injection analysis of 1-butanethiol vapours, adopted as the model gaseous analyte, present in headspace samples in equilibrium with aqueous solutions at controlled concentrations. With this purpose, the RTIL soaked paper electrochemical detector (RTIL-PED) was assembled by using 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide as the wicking RTIL and printing the working electrode with carbon ink doped with cobalt(II) phthalocyanine, to profit from its ability to electrocatalyze thiol oxidation. The results obtained were quite satisfactory (detection limit: 0.5 ?M; dynamic range: 2-200 ?M, both referring to solution concentrations; correlation coefficient: 0.998; repeatability: ±7% RSD; long-term stability: 9%), thus suggesting the possible use of this device for manifold applications. PMID:22076475

Dossi, Nicolò; Toniolo, Rosanna; Pizzariello, Andrea; Carrilho, Emanuel; Piccin, Evandro; Battiston, Simone; Bontempelli, Gino

2012-01-01

73

Facilitated transport of carbon dioxide through supported liquid membranes of aqueous amine solutions  

SciTech Connect

A series of experiments on the facilitated transport of CO{sub 2} through supported liquid membranes containing monoethanolamine (MEA) and diethanolamine (DEA) was performed. The feed gas was a mixture of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}, and the CO{sub 2} partial pressure p{sub CO{sub 2},F} was in the range from 0.05 to 0.97 atm. Compared to the MEA membranes, the DEA membranes showed a little higher permeation rate of CO{sub 2} since the equilibrium constant of the reaction between CO{sub 2} and MEA is too large for CO{sub 2} to be released to the receiving phase rapidly. When p{sub CO{sub 2},F} and the MEA concentration were 0.05 atm and 4 mol/dm{sup 3}, respectively, the separation factor {alpha}(CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4}) was about 2,000. It was found that if the membrane thickness multiplied by the square root of the tortuosity factor of the microporous support membrane is used as the effective pore length, the experimentally observed permeation rates of CO{sub 2} can be satisfactorily simulated by the theory of facilitated transport of CO{sub 2} through aqueous amine membranes. A method for estimating the solubilities of CO{sub 2} in the membrane solutions from the permeation rates of CH{sub 4} was also proposed. It was also found that permeation rates of CO{sub 2} through aqueous DEA membranes reported by Guha et al. were quantitatively explained by the proposed theory.

Teramoto, Masaaki; Nakai, Katsuya; Ohnishi, Nobuaki; Huang, Q.; Watari, Takashi; Matsuyama, Hideto [Kyoto Inst. of Tech. (Japan). Dept. of Chemistry and Materials Technology] [Kyoto Inst. of Tech. (Japan). Dept. of Chemistry and Materials Technology

1996-02-01

74

Stability and efficiency of supported liquid membranes in electromembrane extraction--a link to solvent properties.  

PubMed

The current work presents a large systematic screening of 61 possible organic solvents used as supported liquid membranes (SLM) in electromembrane extraction (EME). For each organic solvent, recovery, current across the SLM, and stability considerations have been investigated and correlated to relevant solvent properties through partial least square regression analysis. The five unpolar basic drugs pethidine, haloperidol, methadone, nortriptyline, and loperamide were used as model analytes. Efficient EME solvents were found to have a low water solubility (<0.5 g L(-1)) and belonged to cluster 2 of a Kamlet-and-Taft-based solvent classification system (high dipole moments and proton acceptor properties). These parameters were especially found in nitroaromatic compounds and ketones. Small molecules with low log P value and high water solubility were unsuitable, as they tended to give unstable extractions, caused by a high current across the SLM. This was often combined with substantial solvent-related interferences and the generation of an electroosmotic flow across the SLM, with resulting acceptor solution expansion. Large molecules with a high log P value were classified as inefficient. For these solvents, no current was measured across the SLM and no analytes were extracted. This is the first time systematic knowledge on the SLM in EME has been gathered and investigated, and the presented results could be highly beneficial for future development and optimization of EME. PMID:24136254

Seip, Knut Fredrik; Faizi, Moheba; Vergel, Cristina; Gjelstad, Astrid; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig

2014-03-01

75

Troponin T immunosensor based on liquid crystal and silsesquioxane-supported gold nanoparticles.  

PubMed

A nanostructured immunosensor based on the liquid crystal (E)-1-decyl-4-[(4-decyloxyphenyl)diazenyl]pyridinium bromide (Br-Py) and gold nanoparticles supported by the water-soluble hybrid material 3-n-propyl-4-picolinium silsesquioxane chloride (AuNP-Si4Pic(+)Cl(-)) was built for the detection of troponin T (cTnT), a cardiac marker for acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The functionalized nanostructured surface was used to bind anti-cTnT monoclonal antibodies through electrostatic interaction. The immunosensor (ab-cTnT/AuNP-Si4Pic(+)Cl(-)/Br-Py/GCE) surface was characterized by microscopy techniques. The electrochemical behavior of the immunosensor was studied by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. A calibration curve was obtained by square-wave voltammetry. The immnunosensor provided a limit of detection of 0.076 ng mL(-1) and a linear range between 0.1 and 0.9 ng mL(-1) (appropriate for AMI diagnosis). PMID:25111622

Zapp, Eduardo; da Silva, Paulo Sérgio; Westphal, Eduard; Gallardo, Hugo; Spinelli, Almir; Vieira, Iolanda Cruz

2014-09-17

76

Selective removal and recovery of Black B reactive dye from simulated textile wastewater using the supported liquid membrane process.  

PubMed

Effluent containing colour/dyes, especially reactive dyes, becomes a great concern of wastewater treatment because it is toxic to human life and aquatic life. In this study, reactive dye of Black B was separated using the supported liquid membrane process. Commercial polypropylene membrane was used as a support of the kerosene-tridodecylamine liquid membrane. Several parameters were tested and the result showed that almost 100% of 70?ppm Black B was removed and 99% of 70?ppm Black B was recovered at pH 2 of the feed phase containing 0.00001?M Na2SiO3, flow rate of 150?ml/min and 0.2?M NaOH. The membrane support also remained stable for up to 36 hours under an optimum condition. PMID:25514128

Harruddin, Norlisa; Othman, Norasikin; Lim Ee Sin, Andeline; Raja Sulaiman, Raja Norimie

2015-02-01

77

Purification studies on a thermo-active amidase of Geobacillus pallidus BTP-5x MTCC 9225 isolated from thermal springs of Tatapani (Himachal Pradesh).  

PubMed

An intracellular aliphatic amide degrading inducible thermo-active amidase produced by Geobacillus pallidus BTP-5x MTCC 9225 was purified to apparent homogeneity using anion exchange and gel filtration chromatography, giving a yield of 6.7 % and a specific activity of 30.49 units mg(-1). The purified protein migrated as a single band of estimated molecular mass of 158 kDa (homo-tetramer) in 8 % polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and ?38.5 kDa in 12 % sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Optima of pH and temperature varied widely in broad pH range (pH 6-9) and temperature range (45-70 °C). The purified amidase was stable up to 6 h at 50 °C, with a t (1/2) of 7 h at 55 °C. The multimeric nature of the holozyme (tetramer) contributed to protection of the enzyme against thermal denaturation. The enzyme showed resistance to metal chelating agents (EDTA, 8-hydroxyquinoline, and sodium azide), explaining its non-metallic nature, and is strongly inhibited by thiol reagents that means cysteine is involved in catalysis. The amidase of G. pallidus BTP-5x preferentially hydrolyzed only small aliphatic amides and has a narrow substrate spectrum. The K (M) value for acrylamide is 10.54 mM, V (max) 45.19 ?mol(-1)?min(-1)?mg(-1) protein, and k (cat) 4.29 min(-1). The sequence of amino acids of the purified enzyme MRHGDISSSHDTVGI appears similar to thermophilic amidases. Sequence analysis of the amidase gene showed that the enzyme is 347 amino-acid-long with a molecular weight of 38.4 kDa (as observed in SDS-PAGE), theoretical pI 5.38, and show strong similarity to thermostable amidases, possessing unique restriction sites. PMID:23096998

Sharma, Monica; Sharma, Nitya Nand; Bhalla, Tek Chand

2013-01-01

78

Hollow fiber supported liquid membrane: a novel technique for separation and recovery of plutonium from aqueous acidic wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low plutonium content acidic waste is generated in nuclear chemical facilities. Study was initiated to develop hollow fiber supported liquid membrane (HFSLM) technique for quantitative separation and recovery of plutonium (Pu) from such wastes using tri-n-butyle phosphate (TBP) in dodecane as carrier. Hollow fiber test module was fabricated using 20 lumens of 33.91cm2 surface area and 9cm length. After satisfactory

N. S Rathore; J. V Sonawane; Anil Kumar; A. K Venugopalan; R. K Singh; D. D Bajpai; J. P Shukla

2001-01-01

79

Increasing stability and transport efficiency of supported liquid membranes through a novel ultrasound-assisted preparation method. Its application to cobalt(II) removal.  

PubMed

A novel ultrasound assisted method for preparing supported liquid membranes is described in this paper. The stability and efficiency of the supported liquid membrane obtained was tested by removing cobalt(II) from aqueous solutions through a facilitated countertransport mechanism using CYANEX 272 as carrier and protons as counterions. The results are compared with those obtained using supported liquid membranes prepared by soaking the polymeric material in the organic solution of the carrier at atmospheric pressure and under vacuum, both for 24h. Higher transport efficiency (>5%), flux (?18%), permeability (?20%) and stability (>6% in the second run and ?10% in the third run) were obtained by the supported liquid membrane prepared using the ultrasound assisted method. These findings can be explained by the effects of cavitation and acoustical streaming - which result from the ultrasound passing through the organic solution of the extractant - on the porous structure of the polymer support and on the pore filling. PMID:23142280

León, Gerardo; Martínez, Guillermo; Guzmán, María Amelia; Moreno, Juan Ignacio; Miguel, Beatriz; Fernández-López, José Antonio

2013-03-01

80

Comparative Study on the Sulfur Tolerance and Carbon Resistance of Supported Noble Metal Catalysts in Steam Reforming of Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work was conducted to clarify the influence of the type of metal and support on the sulfur tolerance and carbon resistance of supported noble metal catalysts in steam reforming of liquid hydrocarbons. Al2O3-supported noble metal catalysts (Rh, Ru, Pt, and Pd), Rh catalysts on different supports (Al2O3, CeO2, SiO2, and MgO), and Pt catalyst supported on CeO2 and Al2O3,

Chao Xie; Yongsheng Chen; Mark H. Engelhard; Chunshan Song

2012-01-01

81

Multiresidue determination of sulfonamides in a variety of biological matrices by supported liquid membrane with high pressure liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry detection.  

PubMed

A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to a mass spectrometer (MS) was used for a simultaneous determination of 16 sulfonamide compounds spiked in water, urine, milk, and bovine liver and kidney tissues. Supported liquid membrane (SLM) made up of 5% tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) dissolved in hexyl amine was used as a sample clean-up and/or enrichment technique. The sulfonamides mixture was made up of 5-sulfaminouracil, sulfaguanidine, sulfamethoxazole, sulfamerazine, sulfamethizole, sulfamethazine (sulfadimidine), sulfacetamide, sulfapyridine, sulfabenzamide, sulfamethoxypyridazine, sulfamonomethoxine, sulfadimethoxine sulfasalazine, sulfaquinoxaline, sulfadiazine, and sulfathiazole. Some of these compounds, such as, sulfaquinoxaline, sulfadiazine, sulfabenzamide, sulfathiazole and sulfapyridine failed to be trapped efficiently by the same liquid membrane (5% TOPO in hexylamine). The detection limits (DL) obtained were 1.8ppb for sulfaguanidine and sulfamerazine and between 3.3 and 10ppb in bovine liver and kidney tissues for the other sulfonamides that were successfully enriched with SLM; 2.1ppb for sulfaguanidine and sulfamerazine and between 7.5 and 15ppb in cow's urine, whereas the DL values in milk were 12.4ppb for sulfaguanidine and sulfamerazine and between 16.8 and 24.3 for the other compounds that were successfully enriched by the membrane. Several factors affecting the extraction efficiency during SLM enrichment, such as donor pH, acceptor pH, enrichment time and the membrane solvent were studied. PMID:18969572

Msagati, Titus A M; Nindi, Mathew Muzi

2004-09-01

82

Liquid phase nitration of benzene over supported ammonium salt of 12-molybdophosphoric acid catalysts prepared by sol-gel method.  

PubMed

A mild and clean liquid nitration of benzene with 65% nitric acid as nitrating agent over silica supported ammonium salt of 12-molybdophosphoric acid catalysts has been investigated. These catalysts with different loadings were prepared by sol-gel method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and FTIR spectra. The acidity of these catalysts was measured by the potentiometric titration method. The XRD and IR analysis revealed that supported catalysts possess the Keggin structure which is similar to 12-molybdophosphoric acid. And it can be found that the supported catalysts had high nitration reaction catalytic activity and selectivity over nitrobenzene. The effects of various parameters such as nitric acid/benzene volume ratio, temperature and time of reaction have also been systematically studied. PMID:20185228

Gong, Shuwen; Liu, Lijun; Cui, Qingxin; Ding, Junhong

2010-06-15

83

Monitoring of N-methyl carbamate pesticide residues in water using hollow fibre supported liquid membrane and solid phase extraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this work was to develop a method for the determination of N-methyl carbamates in water involving hollow fibre supported liquid membrane (HFSLM) and solid phase extraction (SPE) as sample preparation methods. Four N-methyl carbamate pesticides, aldicarb, carbaryl, carbofuran and methiocarb sulfoxide, were simultaneously extracted and analysed by a liquid chromatograph with a diode array detector (LC-UV/DAD) and a liquid chromatograph coupled to a ion trap quadrupole mass spectrometer (LC-ESI-MS). The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation of carabamate extracts was performed on a C18 column with water-acetonitrile as the mobile phase. The mass spectrometry analyses were carried out in the positive mode, operating under both the selected ion monitoring (SIM) and full scan modes. The solid phase recoveries of the extracts ranged between 8% and 98%, with aldicarb having the highest recoveries, followed by carbaryl, carbofuran and methiocarb had the lowest recovery. The HFSLM recovery ranged between 8% and 58% and the order of recovery was similar to the SPE trend. Factors controlling the efficiency of the HFSLM extraction such as sample pH, stripping phase pH, enrichment time, stirring speed as well as organic solvent used for entrapment of analytes, were optimised to achieve the highest enrichment factors.

Msagati, Titus A. M.; Mamba, Bhekie B.

84

Effects of Silica Nanoparticle Supported Ionic Liquid as Additive on Thermal Reversibility of Human Carbonic Anhydrase II  

PubMed Central

Silica nanoparticle supported imidazolium ionic liquid [SNImIL] was synthesized and utilized as a biocompatible additive for studying the thermal reversibility of human carbonic anhydrase II (HCA II). For this purpose, we prepared additive by modification of nanoparticles through the grafting of ionic liquids on the surface of nanoparticles (SNImIL). The SNImIL were fully characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and thermo gravimetric analysis. The characterization of HCA II was investigated by various techniques including UV–Vis and ANS fluorescence spectrophotometry, differential scanning calorimetry, and docking study. SNImIL induced disaggregation, enhanced protein stability and increased thermal reversibility of HCA II by up to 42% at pH 7.75. PMID:22829053

Fallahbagheri, Azadeh; Saboury, Ali Akbar; Ma'mani, Leila; Taghizadeh, Mohammad; Khodarahmi, Reza; Ranjbar, Samira; Bohlooli, Mousa; Shafiee, Abbas; Foroumadi, Alireza; Sheibani, Nader; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar

2013-01-01

85

Evaluation of liquid culture media to support growth of Mobiluncus species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobiluncus curtisii and M. mulieris are anaerobic, gram-negative, motile curved rods isolated commonly from the vagina of women with bacterial vaginosis. Hitherto, there has been difficulty in isolating and growing these bacteria and little attention has been paid to growth in liquid media. Reasons for establishing the means of attaining optimal growth in such media include production of antigens for

A. W. TAYLOR-ROBINSONand; D. TAYLOR-ROBINSON

86

Liquid Phase Hydrogenation of Benzalacetophenone: Effect of Solvent, Catalyst Support, Catalytic Metal and Reaction Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Innovative catalysts based on a “porous glass” support material were developed and investigated for the reduction of benzalacetophenone. The easy preparation conditions and possibility to use different metals (e.g. Pd, Pt, Rh) for impregnation gave a broad variety of these catalysts. Hydrogenation experiments with these supported catalysts were carried out under different hydrogen pressures and temperatures. Porous glass catalysts with

Achim STOLLE; Christine SCHMÖGER; Bernd ONDRUSCHKA; Werner BONRATH; Thomas F. KELLER; Klaus D. JANDT

2011-01-01

87

Determination of ketamine, norketamine and dehydronorketamine in urine by hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction using an essential oil as supported liquid membrane.  

PubMed

Here, we present a method for the determination of ketamine (KT) and its main metabolites, norketamine (NK) and dehydronorketamine (DHNK) in urine samples by using hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction (HF-LPME) in the three-phase mode. The fiber pores were filled with eucalyptus essential oil and a solution of 1.0mol/L of HCl was introduced into the lumen of the fiber (acceptor phase). The fiber was submersed in the alkalinized urine containing 10% NaCl, and the system was submitted to lateral shaking (2400rpm) during 30min. Acceptor phase was withdrawn from the fiber, dried and the residue was then derivatized with trifluoroacetic anhydride (TFAA) for further determination by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The calibration curves were linear over the specified range and limits of detection (LoDs) obtained for KT, NK and DHNK were below the cut-off value (1.0ng/mL) recommended by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). A totally "green chemistry" approach of the sample extraction was obtained by using essential oil as a supported liquid membrane in HF-LPME. The developed method was successfully validated and applied to urine samples collected from two clinical cases in which KT was suspected to be involved. PMID:24810678

Bairros, André Valle de; Lanaro, Rafael; Almeida, Rafael Menck de; Yonamine, Mauricio

2014-10-01

88

Electrochemical gas sensors based on paper-supported room-temperature ionic liquids for improved analysis of acid vapours.  

PubMed

A prototype of a fast-response task-specific amperometric gas sensor based on paper-supported room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) is proposed here for improved analysis of volatile acid species. It consists of a small filter paper foil soaked with a RTIL mixture containing an ionic liquid whose anion (acetate) displays a basic character, upon which three electrodes are screen printed by carbon ink profiting from a suitable mask. It takes advantage of the high electrical conductivity and negligible vapour pressure of RTILs and of their easy immobilization into a porous and inexpensive supporting material such as paper. The performance of this device, used as a wall-jet amperometric detector for flow injection analyses of headspace samples in equilibrium with aqueous solutions at controlled concentrations, was evaluated for phenol and 1-butanethiol vapours which were adopted as model acid gaseous analytes. The results obtained showed that the quite high potentials required for the detection of these analytes are lowered significantly, thanks to the addition of the basic acetate RTIL. In such a way, overlap with the medium discharge is avoided, and the possible adverse effect of interfering species is minimised. The sensor performance was quite satisfactory (detection limits, ca. 0.3 ?M; dynamic range, ca. 1-200 ?M, both referred to solution concentrations; correlation coefficients in the range 0.993-0.997; repeatability, ± 6% RSD; long-term stability, 9%); thus suggesting the possible use of this device for manifold applications. PMID:23232956

Toniolo, Rosanna; Dossi, Nicolò; Pizzariello, Andrea; Casagrande, Alice; Bontempelli, Gino

2013-04-01

89

Apparatus for supporting contactors used in extracting nuclear materials from liquids  

DOEpatents

Apparatus is provided for supporting one or more contactor stages used to remove radioactive materials from aqueous solutions. The contactor stages include a housing having an internal rotor, a motor secured to the top of the housing for rotating the rotor, and a drain in the bottom of the housing. The support apparatus includes two or more vertical members each secured to a ground support that is horizontal and perpendicular to the frame member, and a horizontally disposed frame member. The frame member may be any suitable shape, but is preferably a rectangular tube having substantially flat, spaced top and bottom surfaces separated by substantially vertical side surfaces. The top and bottom surfaces each have an opening through which the contactor housing is secured so that the motor is above the frame and the drain is below the frame during use.

Leonard, Ralph A. (River Forest, IL); Frank, Robert C. (Crestwood, IL)

1991-01-01

90

The Influence of MSI (Metal-Support Interactions) and the Solvent in Liquid-Phase Reactions  

SciTech Connect

Results were repeatedly obtained that were consistent with a hypothesis proposed at the beginning of this program, i.e., due to Metal-Support Interactions (MSI), unique active sites can be created in the metal-support interfacial region to enhance activity and improve selectivity in certain types of reactions, especially those involving the hydrogenation of carbonyl and unsaturated C=C bonds. Higher turnover frequencies (TOF-molecule/s/site) and increased selectivity for C=O bond versus C=C bond hydrogenation was established in the hydrogenation reactions of: acetone, crotonaldehyde, acetophenone, phenylethanol, acetylcyclohexane, benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol, phenylacetaldehyde and citral over Pt/TiO{sub 2} MSI catalysts. Higher rates of hydrogenation benzene, toluene and xylene could be obtained over certain supported Pt and Pd catalysts. Au/TiO{sub 2} catalysts were developed that were active for CO hydrogenation at subambient temperatures. The influence of support and metal crystallite size were established for the adsorption of H{sub 2}, CO and O{sub 2} on families of Pt and Pd catalysts.

Vannice, M. A.

2003-05-30

91

Liquid Phase hydrogenation of nitrobenzene over an industrial Ni\\/SiO 2 supported catalyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

The catalytic hydrogenation of nitrobenzene using a commercial nickel catalyst supported on silica was studied in a three-phase batch laboratory scale stirred tank reactor. Reaction mixture samples were analyzed by gas chromatography. The aim of the work consists in obtaining a fully functional and practical mathematical model of the reaction kinetics that is easy to implement and able to describe

José Relvas; Rui Andrade; Filipe Gama Freire; Francisco Lemos; Paulo Araújo; Mário Jorge Pinho; Clemente Pedro Nunes; Fernando Ramôa Ribeiro

2008-01-01

92

The Role of the Liquid?Solid Interface in the Preparation of Supported Catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contribution of the Interface Science to the preparation of supported catalysts during the last two decades is presented. It is illustrated how the concepts and the methodologies of the Interface Science could be effectively used for an in?depth understanding of the phenomena involved in the initial preparation step. This, extremely critical step, concerns the deposition of transition metal species

Kyriakos Bourikas; Christos Kordulis; Alexis Lycourghiotis

2006-01-01

93

HELP (high efficiency liquid phase) new oligonucleotide synthesis on soluble polymeric support.  

PubMed Central

A simple, rapid and high-yielding method for the synthesis of oligonucleotides by the phosphotriesters approach is described. The use of polyethylene glycol (PEG) as soluble polymeric support preserves some convenient features of the solid-phase synthesis with new interesting advantages. Short oligonucleotides in hundred milligrams scale can be obtained from few grams of functionalized PEG. PMID:2356115

Bonora, G M; Scremin, C L; Colonna, F P; Garbesi, A

1990-01-01

94

Quantitative analysis of PD 0332991 in xenograft mouse tumor tissue by a 96-well supported liquid extraction format and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Phase II attrition of clinical candidates in the drug development cycle is currently a major issue facing the pharmaceutical industry. To decrease phase II attrition, there is an increased emphasis on validation of mechanism of action, development of efficacy models and measurement of drug levels at the site of action. PD 0332991, a highly specific inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK-4) is currently in clinical development for the treatment of solid tumor. A clinical presurgical study will be required to better understand how PD 0332991 affects signaling pathways and how the intratumoral concentration of PD 0332991 correlates with plasma PK parameters and molecular alterations in breast cancer tissues after PD 0332991 treatment. Before conducting such a clinical study, it is important to evaluate PD 0332991 levels in tumor tissue samples from a xenograft mouse model for the determination of drug exposure at the site of action. Therefore, the objectives of this study were (1) to develop and validate a sensitive LC-MS/MS method to quantify PD 0332991 in mouse tumor tissues from MDA-MB-231-Luc human breast tumor xenografts in SCID-beige mice; (2) to quantify PD 0332991 levels in mouse tumor tissues after oral administration of PD 0332991 at 10 and 100mg/kg using the validated LC-MS/MS method. Both liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and supported liquid extraction (SLE) in a 96-well format were developed and evaluated to achieve optimal extraction recovery with minimal matrix effects. The newly developed SLE method is more efficient (speed and ease) and demonstrates comparable recovery (93.1-100% at three different concentrations) compared to the traditional LLE method. The validated LC-MS/MS for PD 032291 in mouse tumor tissue homogenate method exhibited a linear dynamic range of 0.1-100 ng/mL with inter-day accuracy and precision within 15%. The validated method was successfully applied to measure PD 0332991 levels in tumor tissues in MDA-MB-231-Luc human breast tumor xenografts in SCID beige mice. The mean tumor concentrations at 6h post-oral PD 0332991 administration at 10 and 100mg/kg were 1793 (+/-1008) and 25,163 (+/-3959) ng/g, respectively. PMID:20236782

Nguyen, Leslie; Zhong, Wei-Zhu; Painter, Cory L; Zhang, Cathy; Rahavendran, Sadayappan V; Shen, Zhongzhou

2010-11-01

95

MAGNETIC LIQUID DEFORMABLE MIRRORS FOR ASTRONOMICAL APPLICATIONS: ACTIVE CORRECTION OF OPTICAL ABERRATIONS FROM LOWER-GRADE OPTICS AND SUPPORT SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

Deformable mirrors are increasingly used in astronomy. However, they still are limited in stroke for active correction of high-amplitude optical aberrations. Magnetic liquid deformable mirrors (MLDMs) are a new technology that has the advantages of high-amplitude deformations and low costs. In this paper, we demonstrate extremely high strokes and interactuator strokes achievable by MLDMs which can be used in astronomical instrumentation. In particular, we consider the use of such a mirror to suggest an interesting application for the next generation of large telescopes. We present a prototype 91 actuator deformable mirror made of a magnetic liquid (ferrofluid). This mirror uses a technique that linearizes the response of such mirrors by superimposing a large and uniform magnetic field on the magnetic field produced by an array of small coils. We discuss experimental results that illustrate the performance of MLDMs. A most interesting application of MLDMs comes from the fact they could be used to correct the aberrations of large and lower optical quality primary mirrors held by simple support systems. We estimate basic parameters of the needed MLDMs, obtaining reasonable values.

Borra, E. F., E-mail: borra@phy.ulaval.ca [Departement de Physique, de Genie Physique et d'Optique, Universite Laval, Quebec, QC G1V 0A6 (Canada)

2012-08-01

96

A review of the supply of liquid propellants and other fluids in support of the Space Shuttle Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this study, over twenty significant liquid propellants and other fluids were reviewed as to their supply in support of the Space Shuttle Program (SSP), primarily at KSC. The uniqueness of most of the products, either by their application or production characteristics, present a variety of supply issues to contend with. Each, however, is critical to the success of the SSP. It becomes necessary to formulate, and maintain, a logistic approach to assure a continued availability of each product. For convenience, two categories were established. One, labeled limited-availability, represents those products wherein they are single sourced, have production restrictions and/or there has been a history of supply problems. The other, labeled universally-available, is characteristic of those having several sources and/or having little, if any, historical supply problems. This last category was not examined in depth. Through concepts of establishing stockpile inventories, multiple supply contracts, or other arrangements, the supply of liquid propellants and other fluids can be assured.

Churchwell, Stacy E.; Bain, A. L.

1989-01-01

97

Applications of new liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry technologies for drug development support.  

PubMed

We have evaluated (i) a multiplexed electrospray interface, (ii) serial sample introduction, and (iii) a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer for quantitative bioanalysis in compliance with good laboratory practice. These evaluations were done using a 96-well plate liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the quantitation of loratadine and its metabolite, descarboethoxyloratadine. The assay has a dynamic range of 1-1000 ng/ml with 5.56 pg of each analyte being injected on-column at the limit of quantitation. For the four-channel multiplexed electrospray experiments, one-run validations were performed simultaneously in rat, rabbit, mouse and dog plasma. In the four-stream serial experiments, the total run time of the assay was reduced from 3.5 to 0.35 min, resulting in a net acquisition time of 11 s. Four simulated validation runs with standard and quality control solutions were analyzed. Precision and accuracy for standards and quality control samples met US Food and Drug Administration recommended criteria for both the drug and the metabolite using those two approaches. In addition, a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer was used as a detector in the tandem mass spectrometry mode for the loratadine assay. Our results demonstrated that a dynamic range of three orders of magnitude could be achieved using the quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer, making it useful for quantitation in preclinical toxicology studies. PMID:11554418

Yang, L; Wu, N; Rudewicz, P J

2001-08-10

98

Liquid phase methanol LaPorte process development unit: Modification, operation, and support studies  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this program are to implement and test the process improvements identified through the engineering studies of the current program to demonstrate the capability of long-term catalyst activity maintenance, and to perform process and design engineering work that can be applied to a scaled-up Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH) facility. An optional series of PDU runs is offered to extend the testing of the process improvements. A parallel research program will be performed to enhance the LPMEOH technical data base to improve the likelihood of commercialization of the LPMEOH process. Activities this quarter include: Flow sheet development for La Porte PDU modifications continues. A preliminary P ID review was completed and flow sheet modifications were identified and are being incorporated. A preliminary hazards review was completed on 22 May. Some minor flow sheet modifications resulted and a number of action items were identified. The most significant action item is to develop a materials reactivity and compatibility grid for the different alcohols, ethers, and esters which will be produced at the PDU. Heat and material balances were completed for the maximum production case of the mixed DME/MEOH synthesis campaign. An improved rate expression was developed. 1 fig.

Not Available

1990-10-23

99

Evaluation of progesterone content in saliva using magnetic particle-based immuno supported liquid membrane assay (m-ISLMA).  

PubMed

Progesterone in saliva was monitored using a new method called magnetic particle-based immuno supported liquid membrane assay (m-ISLMA) in a sequential injection (SI) setup, allowing automatic sample cleanup, analyte enrichment, and detection in a single analysis unit. Progesterone (Ag) diffuses from a continuous flowing sample - the donor - into a supported organic liquid membrane (SLM), based on analyte partitioning (solubility) between the aqueous donor and the organic phase. The Ag is re-extracted from the SLM into a second stagnant aqueous acceptor, containing antibodies (Ab) immobilized on magnetic beads, held at the bottom of the acceptor by a magnet. Due to the formation of strong Ag-Ab-bead complexes and a large excess of Ab-beads, the Ag is accumulated and selectively enriched in the acceptor. The extracted progesterone was quantified by injecting into the acceptor a horseradish peroxidase (HRP) labeled analyte tracer, the substrate (luminol, H(2)O(2), and p-iodophenol), and finally detection of the generated chemiluminescence by a photomultiplier tube. After optimization of experimental parameters (e.g., sample flow rate, extraction time, type of organic solvent and antibody-bead concentration in the acceptor), a detection limit of 8.50+/-0.17 fgL(-1) and a dynamic range between 35 fgL(-1) and 10 pgL(-1) was reached. The progesterone level of saliva for three subjects (women in different period of ovarian cycle) was investigated, and the corresponding progesterone concentrations detected with m-ISLMA coincided well with the expected values. PMID:16473507

Tudorache, Madalina; Zdrojewska, Izabela Anna; Emnéus, Jenny

2006-08-15

100

Dynamic supported liquid membrane tip extraction of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid followed by capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection.  

PubMed

A dynamic supported liquid membrane tip extraction (SLMTE) procedure for the effective extraction and preconcentration of glyphosate (GLYP) and its metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in water has been investigated. The SLMTE procedure was performed in a semi-automated dynamic mode and demonstrated a greater performance against a static extraction. Several important extraction parameters such as donor phase pH, cationic carrier concentration, type of membrane solvent, type of acceptor stripping phase, agitation and extraction time were comprehensively optimized. A solution of Aliquat-336, a cationic carrier, in dihexyl ether was selected as the supported liquid incorporated into the membrane phase. Quantification of GLYP and AMPA was carried out using capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection. An electrolyte solution consisting of 12 mM histidine (His), 8 mM 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid (MES), 75 microM cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), 3% methanol, pH 6.3, was used as running buffer. Under the optimum extraction conditions, the method showed good linearity in the range of 0.01-200 microg/L (GLYP) and 0.1-400 microg/L (AMPA), acceptable reproducibility (RSD 5-7%, n=5), low limits of detection of 0.005 microg/L for GLYP and 0.06 microg/L for AMPA, and satisfactory relative recoveries (90-94%). Due to the low cost, the SLMTE device was disposed after each run which additionally eliminated the possibility of carry-over between runs. The validated method was tested for the analysis of both analytes in spiked tap water and river water with good success. PMID:20696433

See, Hong Heng; Hauser, Peter C; Sanagi, M Marsin; Ibrahim, Wan Aini Wan

2010-09-10

101

Attraction of Meso-Scale Objects on the Surface of a Thin Elastic Film Supported on a Liquid  

E-print Network

We study the interaction of two parallel rigid cylinders on the surface of a thin elastic film supported on a pool of liquid. The excess energy of the surface due to the curvature of the stretched film induces attraction of the cylinders that can be quantified by the variation of their gravitational potential energies as they descend into the liquid while still floating on the film. Although the experimental results follow the trend predicted from the balance of the gravitational and elastic energies of the system, they are somewhat underestimated. The origin of this discrepancy is the hysteresis of adhesion between the cylinder and the elastic film that does not allow the conversion of the total available energy into gravitational potential energy as some part of it is recovered in stretching the film behind the cylinders while they approach each other. A modification of the model accounting for the effects of adhesion hysteresis improves the agreement between theoretical and experimental results. The contribution of the adhesion hysteresis can be reduced considerably by introducing a thin hydrogel layer atop the elastic film that enhances the range of attraction of the cylinders (as well as rigid spheres) in a dramatic way. Morphological instabilities in the gel project corrugated paths to the motion of small spheres, thus leading to a large numbers of particles to aggregate along their defects. These observations suggest that a thin hydrogel layer supported on a deformable elastic film affords an effective model system to study elasticity and defects mediated interaction of particles on its surface.

Aditi Chakrabarti; Manoj K. Chaudhury

2014-08-07

102

Separation and pre-concentration of glucocorticoids in water samples by ionic liquid supported vortex-assisted synergic microextraction and HPLC determination.  

PubMed

We have developed a synergic microextraction procedure based on ionic liquid for the pre-concentration and determination of glucocorticoids in water samples. Using nonionic surfactant Triton X-100 (TX-100) as synergic reagent, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexa-fluorophosphate accomplished extraction rapidly without heating in water bath. One key property of ionic liquids that highlights their potential is their wide liquid temperature range. The improved extraction was named as ionic liquid supported vortex-assisted synergic microextraction. Compared with the traditional liquid-liquid extraction and cloud point extraction, ionic liquid supported vortex-assisted synergic microextraction was accomplished in 8 min with considerably high recovery. The proposed method greatly improved the sensitivity of HPLC for the determination of glucocorticoids. The results obtained indicated a good linearity with the correlation coefficient of 0.997 over the range of 0.6-300 ng/mL and high sensitivity with LODs of 4.11, 9.19, and 7.50 ng/mL for hydrocortisone butyrate, beclomethasone dipropionate, and nandrolone phenylpropionate, respectively. The RSD of the method was 1.57-1.81% (n = 6) with enrichment factor of 99.85, and good recovery (?97.24%). The method was successfully applied to the determination of glucocorticoids in mineral water, water of Dianchi lake, and tap water samples. PMID:23418157

Qin, Hui; Li, Bi; Liu, Mou Sheng; Yang, Ya Ling

2013-04-01

103

Total liquid ventilation provides superior respiratory support to conventional mechanical ventilation in a large animal model of severe respiratory failure.  

PubMed

Total liquid ventilation (TLV) has the potential to provide respiratory support superior to conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) in the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, laboratory studies are limited to trials in small animals for no longer than 4 hours. The objective of this study was to compare TLV and CMV in a large animal model of ARDS for 24 hours. Ten sheep weighing 53 ± 4 (SD) kg were anesthetized and ventilated with 100% oxygen. Oleic acid was injected into the pulmonary circulation until PaO2:FiO2 ? 60 mm Hg, followed by transition to a protective CMV protocol (n = 5) or TLV (n = 5) for 24 hours. Pathophysiology was recorded, and the lungs were harvested for histological analysis. Animals treated with CMV became progressively hypoxic and hypercarbic despite maximum ventilatory support. Sheep treated with TLV maintained normal blood gases with statistically greater PO2 (p < 10(-9)) and lower PCO2 (p < 10(-3)) than the CMV group. Survival at 24 hours in the TLV and CMV groups were 100% and 40%, respectively (p < 0.05). Thus, TLV provided gas exchange superior to CMV in this laboratory model of severe ARDS. PMID:21084968

Pohlmann, Joshua R; Brant, David O; Daul, Morgan A; Reoma, Junewai L; Kim, Anne C; Osterholzer, Kathryn R; Johnson, Kent J; Bartlett, Robert H; Cook, Keith E; Hirschl, Ronald B

2011-01-01

104

Use of halophytic plants for recycling NaCl in human liquid waste in a bioregenerative life support system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this work was to develop technology for recycling NaCl containing in human liquid waste as intrasystem matter in a bioregenerative life support system (BLSS). The circulation of Na + and Cl - excreted in urine is achieved by inclusion of halophytes, i.e. plants that naturally inhabit salt-rich soils and accumulate NaCl in their organs. A model of Na + and Cl - recycling in a BLSS was designed, based on the NaCl turnover in the human-urine-nutrient solution-halophytic plant-human cycle. The study consisted of (i) selecting a halophyte suitable for inclusion in a BLSS, and (ii) determining growth conditions supporting maximal Na + and Cl - accumulation in the shoots of the halophyte growing in a nutrient solution simulating mineralized urine. For the selected halophytic plant, Salicornia europaea, growth rate under optimal conditions, biomass production and quantities of Na + and Cl - absorbed were determined. Characteristics of a plant production conveyor consisting of S.europaea at various ages, and allowing continuity of Na + and Cl - turnover, were estimated. It was shown that closure of the NaCl cycle in a BLSS can be attained if the daily ration of fresh Salicornia biomass for a BLSS inhabitant is approximately 360 g.

Balnokin, Yurii; Nikolai, Myasoedov; Larisa, Popova; Alexander, Tikhomirov; Sofya, Ushakova; Christophe, Lasseur; Jean-Bernard, Gros

2010-09-01

105

Separation and recovery of platinum and rhodium by supported liquid membranes using bis(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (HDEHP) as a mobile carrier  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transport of Pt and Rh ions from an aqueous 1moldm?3 HCl feed solution containing 20% stannous chloride into a stripping solution 8moldm?3 HCl through a supported liquid membrane (SLM) consisting of bis(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (HDEHP) in kerosene, supported on PVDF film, have been studied. Various parameters, such as concentration of HCl in feed and stripping solutions, concentration of HDEHP in the

A. A Bhandare; A. P Argekar

2002-01-01

106

Supported Ionic Liquid Membranes and Ion-Jelly® Membranes with [BMIM][DCA]: Comparison of Its Performance for CO2 Separation.  

PubMed

In this work, a supported ionic liquid membrane (SILM) was prepared by impregnating a PVDF membrane with 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide ([BMIM][DCA]) ionic liquid. This membrane was tested for its permeability to pure gases (CO2, N2 and O2) and ideal selectivities were calculated. The SILM performance was also compared to that of Ion-Jelly® membranes, a new type of gelled membranes developed recently. It was found that the PVDF membrane presents permeabilities for pure gases similar or lower to those presented by the Ion-Jelly® membranes, but with increased ideal selectivities. This membrane presents also the highest ideal selectivity (73) for the separation of CO2 from N2 when compared with SILMs using the same PVDF support but with different ionic liquids. PMID:25594165

Couto, Ricardo; Neves, Luísa; Simões, Pedro; Coelhoso, Isabel

2015-01-01

107

Supported phospholipid bilayer interaction with components found in typical room-temperature ionic liquids - a QCM-D and AFM study  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring and atomic force microscopy were combined to evaluate the defects created by room-temperature ionic liquid anion and cation in a supported phospholipid bilayer composed of Zwitterionic lipids on a silica surface. The cation 1-octyl-3-methyl im...

108

KINETIC STUDIES ON ORGANIC ACID EXTRACTION BY A SUPPORTED LIQUID MEMBRANE USING FUNCTIONALIZED POLYORGANOSILOXANES AS MOBILE AND FIXED-SITE CARRIERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive model previously developed, which describes the kinetics and transport mechanism of a weak organic acid derivative through an integrated solvent-carrier supported liquid membrane (SLM), was used for the analysis of l-lactic acid ethyl ester and phenol transport by the SLM system through the use of functionalized polyorganosiloxanes as mobile and fixed site carriers. The model was verified with

Garba O. Yahaya

2001-01-01

109

Permeation of metal ions through hollow-fiber supported liquid membranes: concentration equations for once-through and recycling module arrangements  

SciTech Connect

Concentration equations are presented for the permeation of metal ions through hollow-fibers supported liquid membranes (SLMs). The equations have been tested for the transport of H/sup +/ and Am/sup 3 +/ through SLMs containing trilaurylamine and an alkylphenylcarbamoylmethyl-phosphine oxide as ion carriers.

Danesi, P.R.

1984-01-01

110

PERMEATION OF METAL IONS THROUGH HOLLOW-FIBER SUPPORTED LIQUID MEMBRANES: CONCENTRATION EQUATIONS FOR ONCE-THROUGH AND RECYCLING MODULE ARRANGEMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentration equations are presented for the permeation of metal ions through hollow-fibers supported liquid membranes (SLMs). The equations have been tested for the transport of H\\/sup +\\/ and Am\\/sup 3 +\\/ through SLMs containing trilaurylamine and an alkylphenylcarbamoylmethyl-phosphine oxide as ion carriers.

P. R. Danesi

1984-01-01

111

Direct injection of whole blood for liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry analysis to support single-rodent pharmacokinetic studies.  

PubMed

Mass spectrometric developments in the last decade enable (sub)nanomolar detection of drug compounds in biological matrices in a few microliters of blood. However, the sampling and especially the handling of these small blood volumes is not straightforward. We studied the feasibility of a recently developed 'sorbent sampling technique' to handle these small blood volumes and the application to support pharmacokinetic (PK) screening programs. This technique applies 5-10 microL of blood on a fibrous material packed into a cartridge. Blood samples absorbed on these cartridges are eluted directly, on-line onto a solid-phase extraction liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-LC/MS/MS) system. It is shown that the sorbent sampling technique can be applied for a range of drug compounds. In spite of issues with recovery and sample clean-up that need further improvement, the sorbent sampling technique provided similar data as compared to conventional analytics. The technique was successfully applied to derive kinetic data from individual mice, thereby decreasing the number of required mice for a PK study from 21 to 3. PMID:18286667

Ingelse, Benno A; Vogel, Gerard; Botterblom, Margriet; Nanninga, Dennis; Ooms, Bert

2008-01-01

112

Predicting the ecotoxicity of ionic liquids towards Vibrio fischeri using genetic function approximation and least squares support vector machine.  

PubMed

Ionic liquids (ILs) are widely used in industrial production for their unique physicochemical properties, and they are even regarded as green solvents. However, the recent study showed ILs might pose a potential risk to aquatic ecosystems. In the present work, the quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models, including genetic function approximation (GFA) and least squares support vector machine (LSSVM) were developed for predicting the ecotoxicity of ILs towards the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri based on the descriptors calculated from cations and anions. Five descriptors were selected by GFA and used to develop the linear model. From the discussion of descriptors, the cation structure was the main factor to the toxicity, which mainly depended on the size, lipophilic, and 3D molecular structure of cations. In order to capture the nonlinear nature, the LSSVM model was also built for more accurately predicting the ecotoxicity. The GFA and LSSVM models were performed the rigorous internal and external validation, further verifying these models with excellent robustness and predictive ability. Therefore, both of models can be used for the prediction of the ecotoxicity of newly synthesized and untested ILs, and can provide reference information and theoretical guidance for designing and synthesizing safer and more eco-friendly ILs. PMID:25464300

Ma, Shuying; Lv, Min; Deng, Fangfang; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Zhai, Honglin; Lv, Wenjuan

2015-02-11

113

Fine-tuning of electromembrane extraction selectivity using 18-crown-6 ethers as supported liquid membrane modifiers.  

PubMed

Selectivity of electromembrane extractions (EMEs) was fine-tuned by modifications of supported liquid membrane (SLM) composition using additions of various 18-crown-6 ethers into 1-ethyl-2-nitrobenzene. Gradually increased transfer of K(+) , the cation that perfectly fits the cavity of 18-crown-6 ethers, was observed for EMEs across SLMs modified with increasing concentrations of 18-crown-6 ethers. A SLM containing 1% w/v of dibenzo-18-crown-6 in 1-ethyl-2-nitrobenzene exhibited excellent selectivity for EMEs of K(+) . The established host-guest interactions between crown ether cavities in the SLM and potassium ions in donor solution ensured their almost exhaustive transfer into acceptor solution (extraction recovery ?92%) within 30 min of EME at 50 V. Other inorganic cations were not transferred across the SLM (Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) ) or were transferred negligibly (NH4 (+) , Na(+) ; extraction recovery < 2%) and had only subtle effect on EMEs of K(+) . The high selectivity of the tailor-made SLM holds a great promise for future applications in EMEs since the range of similar selective modifiers is very broad and may be applied in various fields of analytical chemistry. PMID:25224742

Šlampová, Andrea; Kubá?, Pavel; Bo?ek, Petr

2014-12-01

114

Research on the adsorption property of supported ionic liquids for ferulic acid, caffeic acid and salicylic acid.  

PubMed

In this paper, the preparation of new supported ionic liquids (SILs) composed of the N-methylimidazolium cation and the quinoline cation is described. They have been confirmed and evaluated by infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis and thermogravimetric analysis. Six kinds of different SILs included SiO(2)·Im(+)·Cl(-), SiO(2)·Im(+)·BF(4)(-), SiO(2)·Im(+)·PF(6)(-), SiO(2)·Qu(+)·Cl(-), SiO(2)·Qu(+)·BF(4)(-) and SiO(2)·Qu(+)·PF(6)(-). The adsorption characteristics of ferulic acid (FA), caffeic acid (CA) and salicylic acid (SA) on SILs were investigated by static adsorption experiments. It was found that SiO(2)·Qu(+)·Cl(-) had excellent adsorption and desorption capacity to three tested phenolic compounds. The dynamic adsorption characteristics of FA, CA and SA on SiO(2)·Qu(+)·Cl(-) were also studied. The saturated adsorption capacity of FA, CA and SA using SiO(2)·Qu(+)·Cl(-) as adsorbent was 64.6 mg/g, 53.2 mg/g and 72.2 mg/g respectively. Using 70% ethanol as eluent, the saturated desorption efficiencies of FA, CA and SA were 97.2%, 90.3% and 96.5% respectively. Thus, SiO(2)·Qu(+)·Cl(-) had strong adsorption and separation capacity for FA, CA and SA. PMID:21543269

Du, Ni; Cao, Shuwen; Yu, Yanying

2011-06-01

115

Facilitated transport of HNO/sub 3/ through a supported liquid membrane containing a tertiary amine as carrier  

SciTech Connect

The facilitated transport of HNO/sub 3/ through a supported liquid membrane consisting of a porous polypropylene film containing a solution of trilaurylamine in diethylbenzene as carrier was studied as a function of the stirring speed of the aqueous solutions and the membrane composition. A physico-chemical model which takes into account diffusion through an aqueous boundary layer, a fast interfacial chemical reaction leading to the formation of a membrane soluble alkylammonium salt and diffusion through the membrane was proposed. In this way, equations were derived which describe how composition changes, occurring in the course of the permeation process, influence the membrane permeability. The experimental data were quantitatively explained by the derived equations. The results indicate that the monomeric form of the trilaurylammonium nitrate salt is the species which is mainly responsible for the acid transport through the membrane. The diffusion coefficient of the permeating species and the order of magnitude of the thickness of the aqueous boundary layer were evaluated. 8 figures.

Cianetti, C.; Danesi, P.R.

1983-01-01

116

Pumice-supported Pd-Pt bimetallic catalysts: Synthesis, structural characterization, and liquid-phase hydrogenation of 1,3-cyclooctadiene  

SciTech Connect

A series of pumice-supported palladium-platinum bimetallic catalysts were prepared and investigated by X-ray scattering (WAXS and SAXS) and XPS techniques. An alloy Pd-Pt was formed. The less abundant metal was found to segregate to the surface. The catalysts were tested in the liquid-phase hydrogenation of 1,3-cyclooctadiene to cyclooctene, and compared with similarly prepared pumice-supported palladium and platinum catalysts and other supported Pd-Pt catalysts reported in the literature. The addition of platinum reduces the activity and the selectivity of the palladium catalysts. Differences between the activity of these pumice-supported catalysts and the activity of previously described Pd and Pd-Pt catalysts on other supports, are attributed to the presence, in the latter, of diffusional processes. 50 refs., 4 figs. 2 tabs.

Deganello, G.; Duca, D.; Liotta, L.F.; Martorana, A.; Venezia, M. [Istituto di Chimica e Technologia dei Prodotti Naturali del CNR, Palermo (Italy)] [Istituto di Chimica e Technologia dei Prodotti Naturali del CNR, Palermo (Italy); Benedetti, A.; Fagherazz, G. [Universita di Venezia, Venice (Italy)] [Universita di Venezia, Venice (Italy)

1995-01-01

117

Marked Effect of Various Supports and Additives Upon LiquidPhase Methanol Reforming with Water over Supported Group 8–10 Metal Catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

  The support effects (SiO2, TiO2, Al2O3, MgO, CeO2 and ZrO2) as well as addition effect of group 6b and 7b elements were studied over various supported group 8–10 metal catalysts. Basic\\u000a oxide support improved the selectivity to CO2 and acidic support suppressed the catalytic activity and selectivity. Among the investigated catalysts Pt–Mo\\/TiO2 was the most active catalysts, whereas Ir–Re\\/SiO2 was

Shuichi Naito

2005-01-01

118

Palladium supported on filamentous active carbon as effective catalyst for liquid-phase hydrogenation of 2-butyne-1,4-diol to 2-butene-1,4-diol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structured palladium catalysts suitable for three-phase reactions have been developed based on woven fabrics of active carbon fibres (ACF) as the catalytic supports. The Pd\\/ACF were tested in liquid-phase hydrogenation of 2-butyne-1,4-diol showing a selectivity towards 2-butene-1,4-diol up to 97% at conversions up to 80%. The catalyst multiple reuse with stable activity\\/selectivity in a batch reactor was also demonstrated. The

E Joannet; C Horny; L Kiwi-Minsker; A Renken

2002-01-01

119

SEPARATION OF TRIVALENT EUROPIUM, TERBIUM, AMERICIUM AND CURIUM BY A SUPPORTED LIQUID MEMBRANE IMPREGNATED WITH DI(2-ETHYLHEXYL)PHOSPHORIC ACID  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mass transfer of Eu(III) Tb(III),Am(III)and Cm(III)through HDEHP solid supported liquid membranes has been studied. The best experimental conditions to perform Am(III)-Cm(III),Eu(III)-Tb(III)and Eu(III)-Am(III) separation have been found. The coefficients of separation of the above mentioned pairs have been determined to be equal to 5.0, 10.8 and more then 102, respectively.

A. P. Novikov; B. F. Myasoedov

1987-01-01

120

Ionic liquids supported on magnetic nanoparticles as a sorbent preconcentration material for sulfonylurea herbicides prior to their determination by capillary liquid chromatography.  

PubMed

A magnetic material based on N-methylimidazolium ionic liquid and Fe(3)O(4) magnetic nanoparticles incorporated in a silica matrix has been used to extract and preconcentrate sulfonylurea herbicides, such as thifensulfuron methyl (TSM), metsulfuron methyl (MSM), triasulfuron (TS), tribenuron methyl (TBM) and primisulfuron methyl (PSM) from polluted water samples, prior to their analysis by capillary liquid chromatography with a diode array detector (DAD). Under the optimum conditions, this method allows the determination of TSM, MSM, TS, TBM and PSM in a linear range between 5 and 100 ng mL(-1), with relative standard deviation values lower than 5.3% (n = 10), in all cases. Detection limits ranging between 1.13 and 2.95 ng mL(-1) were achieved. The usefulness of the proposed method was demonstrated by the analysis of river water samples, obtaining recoveries higher than 91%. PMID:22832671

Bouri, Mohamed; Gurau, Madalina; Salghi, Rachid; Cretescu, Igor; Zougagh, Mohammed; Rios, Ángel

2012-09-01

121

Influence of the reaction conditions and catalytic properties on the liquid-phase hydrodechlorination of chlorobenzene over palladium-supported catalysts: Activity and deactivation  

SciTech Connect

The liquid-phase hydrodechlorination of chlorobenzene with molecular hydrogen was studied over palladium-supported catalysts. The reaction takes place at a gradually decreasing rate through progressive poisoning of the active phase by chloride ions. It is found that the correct choice of the metallic precursor (free of chloride ions) is crucial for the optimum performance of the final solid obtained. In addition, a better resistance to chlorine is observed when the size of the metallic particle increases. The supports tested, viz. SiO{sub 2}/AlPO{sub 4}, ZrO{sub 2}, and MgO, significantly affected catalyst deactivation. Thus, supports that can capture chloride species (e.g., ZrO{sub 2}) allow the reaction to finalize within relatively short times. The reaction appeared to be structure-sensitive in regard to the initial activity. Changing dispersion from 54 to 7% was accompanied by an increase in catalytic activity by a factor of 20.

Aramendia, M.A.; Borau, V.; Garcia, I.M.; Jimenez, C.; Lafont, F.; Marinas, A.; Marinas, J.M.; Urbano, F.J.

1999-10-25

122

Analysis of the organic liquid produced from catalytic cracking of crude palm oil in the presence of alumina supported catalysts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Catalytic cracking of crude palm oil (CPO) was studied in the presence of alumina, 1% Pt/Al2O3 and 1% Pd/Al2O3 as catalyst. The CPO to catalyst weight ratio used was 1:0.05. The experiment was carried out in a simple liquid-phase batch reactor at atmospheric pressure where the sample was heated to 300-350 ?C. Products formed were organic liquid products (OLP) and gaseous product with the solid residue remains in the reactor. The total conversion of CPO was only between 25 - 31% where the residue is suggested to be mainly of polimerised CPO. The OLP was analysed using a gas chromatography with FID detector. Analyses show that the selectivity to liquid fuel is influence by the catalyst used whereby Al2O3 gives the highest selectivity to gasoline while 1% Pt/Al2O3 has the highest selectivity to diesel. However, 1% Pd/Al2O3 is not a suitable catalyst for catalytic cracking of CPO to liquid fuel where less than 17.5% of OLP produced could be classified as liquid fuel.

Ramli, Anita; Razak, Rozlina Abdul

2012-09-01

123

Comparative Study on the Sulfur Tolerance and Carbon Resistance of Supported Noble Metal Catalysts in Steam Reforming of Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuel  

SciTech Connect

This work was conducted to clarify the influence of the type of metal and support on the sulfur tolerance and carbon resistance of supported noble metal catalysts in steam reforming of liquid hydrocarbons. Al2O3-supported noble metal catalysts (Rh, Ru, Pt, and Pd), Rh catalysts on different supports (Al2O3, CeO2, SiO2, and MgO), and Pt catalyst supported on CeO2 and Al2O3, were examined for steam reforming of a liquid hydrocarbon fuel (Norpar13 from Exxon Mobil) at 800 C for 55 h. The results indicate that (1) Rh/Al2O3 shows higher sulfur tolerance than the Ru, Pt, and Pd catalysts on the same support; (2) both Al2O3 and CeO2 are promising supports for Rh catalyst to process sulfur-containing hydrocarbons; and (3) Pt/CeO2 exhibits better catalytic performance than Pt/Al2O3 in the reaction with sulfur. TEM results demonstrate that the metal particles in Rh/Al2O3 were better dispersed (mostly in 1-3 nm) compared with the other catalysts after reforming the sulfur-containing feed. As revealed by XPS, the binding energy of Rh 3d for Rh/Al2O3 is notably higher than that for Rh/CeO2, implying the formation of electron-deficient Rh particles in the former. The strong sulfur tolerance of Rh/Al2O3 may be related to the formation of well-dispersed electron-deficient Rh particles on the Al2O3 support. Sulfur K-edge XANES illustrates the preferential formation of sulfonate and sulfate on Rh/Al2O3, which is believed to be beneficial for improving its sulfur tolerance as their oxygen-shielded sulfur structure may hinder direct Rh-S interaction. Due to its strong sulfur tolerance, the carbon deposition on Rh/Al2O3 was significantly lower than that on the Al2O3-supported Ru, Pt, and Pd catalysts after the reaction with sulfur. The superior catalytic performance of CeO2-supported Rh and Pt catalysts in the presence of sulfur can be ascribed mainly to the promotion effect of CeO2 on carbon gasification, leading to much lower carbon deposition compared with the Rh/Al2O3, Rh/MgO, Rh/SiO2 and Pt/Al2O3 catalysts.

Xie, Chao; Chen, Yongsheng; Engelhard, Mark H.; Song, Chunshan

2012-04-18

124

Design, testing, fabrication and launch support of a liquid chemical barium release payload (utilizing the liquid fluorine-barium salt/hydrazine system)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A payload was designed which included a cryogenic oxidizer tank, a fuel tank, and burner section. Release of 30 lb of chemicals was planned to occur in 2 seconds at the optimum oxidizer to fuel ratio. The chemicals consisted of 17 lb of liquid fluorine oxidizer and 13 lb of hydrazine-barium salt fuel mixture. The fuel mixture was 17% barium chloride, 16% barium nitrate, and 67% hydrazine, and contained 2.6 lb of available barium. Two significant problem areas were resolved during the program: explosive valve development and burner operation. The release payload was flight tested, from Wallops Island, Virginia. The release took place at an altitude of approximately 260 km. The release produced a luminous cloud which expanded very rapidly, disappearing to the human eye in about 20 seconds. Barium ion concentration slowly increased over a wide area of sky until measurements were discontinued at sunrise (about 30 minutes).

Stokes, C. S.; Smith, E. W.; Murphy, W. J.

1972-01-01

125

Rare-earth metal-ion separation using a supported liquid membrane mediated by a narrow rim phosphorylated calix[4]arene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transport of rare-earth metal ions through a supported liquid membrane mediated by 5,11,17,23-tetra-tert-butyl-25,26,27,28-tetrakis(diphenylphosphinoylmethoxy)calix[4]arene (1) (cone conformation) in o-nitrophenyl hexyl ether (NPHE) has been investigated. The effect of the initial metal concentration, salting-out agent concentration in the feed phase and temperature as well as the carrier concentration on the flux was studied. The separation ability of ligand 1 was tested

M. R Yaftian; M Burgard; C. B Dieleman; D Matt

1998-01-01

126

One molecule of ionic liquid and tert-alcohol on a polystyrene-support as catalysts for efficient nucleophilic substitution including fluorination.  

PubMed

The tert-alcohol and ionic liquid solvents in one molecule [mim-(t)OH][OMs] was immobilized on polystyrene and reported to be a highly efficient catalyst in aliphatic nucleophilic substitution using alkali metal salts. Herein, we investigated the catalytic activity of a new structurally modified polymer-supported tert-alcohol functionalized imidazolium salt catalyst in nucleophilic substitution of 2-(3-methanesulfonyloxypropyoxy)naphthalene as a model substrate with various metal nucleophiles. The tert-alcohol moiety of the ionic liquid with a hexyl chain distance from polystyrene had a better catalytic activity compared to the other resin which lacked an alkyl linker and tert-alcohol moiety. We found that the maximum [mim-(t)OH][OMs] loading had the best catalytic efficacy among the tested polystyrene-based ionic liquids (PSILs) in nucleophilic fluorination. The catalytic efficiency of the PS[him-(t)OH][OMs] as a phase transfer catalyst (PTC) was determined by carrying out various nucleophilic substitutions using the corresponding alkali metal salts from the third to sixth periodic in CH3CN or tert-BuOH media. The scope of this protocol with primary and secondary polar substrates containing many heteroatoms is also reported. This PS[him-(t)OH][OMs] catalyst not only enhances the reactivity of alkali metal salts and reduces the formation of by-products but also affords high yield with easy isolation. PMID:25302765

Shinde, Sandip S; Patil, Sunil N

2014-12-01

127

Supported 12-tungstophosphoricacid: A recoverable solid acid catalyst for liquid phase Friedel–Crafts alkylation of phenol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Friedel–Crafts alkylation reactions such as tert-butylation, iso-propylation and sec-butylation of phenol have been carried out over 12-tungstophosphoricacid supported onto neutral alumina under mild conditions by varying different parameters. The supported catalysts were characterized by various physicochemical techniques such as FT-IR, TGA, and XPS analysis. The catalyst shows significantly high conversion and selectivity towards the important products. The catalysts were efficiently

Nikunj Bhatt; Anjali Patel

2011-01-01

128

Liquid-Phase Hydrogenation of Chloronitrobenzene Over Pt-Sn-B Amorphous Catalyst Supported by Carbon Nanotubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pt-Sn-B\\/carbon nanotubes (CNTs) catalyst was prepared by impregnation-chemical reduction method. Its catalytic performance\\u000a was evaluated by liquid-phase hydrogenation of chloronitrobenzene (CNB). The results showed that the catalyst had higher catalytic\\u000a performance than common hydrogenation catalysts. The conversion of CNB could reach 99.9%, and the dechlorination of chloroaniline\\u000a (CAN) was less than 1.9% when catalyzed by Pt-Sn-B\\/CNTs and more than

Xinhuan Yan; Junqing Sun; Yongbin Fang; Zhenyuan Xu; Wenjing Wang

2006-01-01

129

Use of near infrared emission spectroscopy in the study of supporting materials and stationary phases for liquid chromatography.  

PubMed

Near infrared emission spectroscopy (NIRES) has been investigated in the study of different materials employed in liquid chromatography. The samples were heated in a nitrogen atmosphere and the emission spectra were obtained using a lab-made NIRES instrument. Through principal component analysis (PCA) using the raw emission spectra, it was possible to distinguish different materials according to their physical and/or chemical characteristics. Linear relationships between emissivity spectra and the contents of the coating material or the specific surface areas was observed for stationary phases or bare silicas, respectively. Furthermore, the thermal stability of stationary phases could be followed in real time. PMID:16712858

Gonzaga, Fabiano Barbieri; Jardim, Isabel C S F; Pasquini, Celio

2006-07-28

130

LIQUID PHASE SELECTIVE OXIDATION OF ETHYLBENZENE OVER ACTIVATED AL2O3 SUPPORTED V2O5 CATALYST  

EPA Science Inventory

Acetophenone, a very useful industrial chemical for fragrance and flavoring agent and a solvent for plastics and resins, is usually produced as a byproduct of phenol production from cumeme. Aluminia supported vandium oxide catalyst is now explored for the selective oxidation of e...

131

MEASUREMENTS TAKEN IN SUPPORT OF QUALIFICATION OF PROCESSING SAVANNAH RIVER SITE LOW-LEVEL LIQUID WASTE INTO SALTSTONE  

SciTech Connect

The Saltstone Facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS) immobilizes low-level liquid waste into Saltstone to be disposed of in the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility, Class Three Landfill. In order to meet the permit conditions and regulatory limits set by the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), both the low-level salt solution and Saltstone samples are analyzed quarterly. Waste acceptance criteria (WAC) are designed to confirm the salt solution sample from the Tank Farm meets specific radioactive and chemical limits. The toxic characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) is used to confirm that the treatment has immobilized the hazardous constituents of the salt solution. This paper discusses the methods used to characterize the salt solution and final Saltstone samples from 2007-2009.

Reigel, M.; Bibler, N.; Diprete, C.; Cozzi, A.; Staub, A.; Ray, J.

2010-01-27

132

Hollow-fiber-supported liquid-phase microextraction using an ionic liquid as the extractant for the pre-concentration of bisphenol A, 17-?-estradiol, estrone and diethylstilbestrol from water samples with HPLC detection.  

PubMed

A new method for the determination of four endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) (bisphenol A, 17-?-estradiol, estrone and diethylstilbestrol) in water samples has been developed using polypropylene hollow-fiber-supported ionic liquid (IL, 1-Octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, [C8MIM][PF6]) microextraction [HF-liquid-phase microextraction (LPME)] combined with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)/UV. This method was used to investigate pollutants in surface water, on the Neijiang River, located at Zhenjiang, Jiangsu Province. Several parameters (sample pH, volume of accepter phase, ionic strength) were investigated. Under the optimum extraction conditions (sample pH, 2.0; volume of extraction solvent, 2.5 ?L; ionic strength, 2.57) the proposed method offered: good linearity range, 0.15-100 ?g L(-1), with the correlation coefficients (r(2)) of 0.9996, 0.9994, 0.9990 and 0.9984, respectively; low limits of detection, 0.03, 0.05, 0.10, 0.05 ?g L(-1) (S/N = 3) for bisphenol A, 17-?-estradiol, estrone and diethylstilbestrol, respectively; good reproducibility (relative standard deviation (RSD), 8.41, 7.61, 9.00, 7.22%, respectively, n = 5); satisfactory recoveries (80.2-107.1%, n = 5); and high enrichment factors, 5,240, 3,693, 2,425 and 2,086, were achieved, for the four chemicals, respectively. Using the proposed HF-LPME, among 15 sampling sites along Neijiang River, bisphenol A, diethylstilbestrol and 17-?-estradiol were detected in some sites, all of which were the near suburban sampling sites. The results indicate that the role of municipal sewage is an important source of EDC contamination. PMID:24622552

Zou, Yanmin; Zhang, Zhen; Shao, Xiaoling; Chen, Yao; Wu, Xiangyang; Yang, Liuqing; Zhu, Jingjing; Zhang, Dongmei

2014-01-01

133

Permeation of mixtures of four phenols through a supported liquid membrane in NaCl 1.0 mol/dm{sup 3} medium  

SciTech Connect

The permeation of four phenols (phenol, 2-chlorophenol, 2-nitrophenol, and 2,4-dichlorophenol) through a supported liquid membrane has been studied in NaCl 1.0 mol/dm{sup 3} medium. The flux of each phenol was determined by measuring in real time the change of their concentration in the strip phase by making use of a fiber optic spectrophotometer and a multivariate calibration. The model for the permeation of phenol alone was first developed by making permeation experiments of a phenol, and then permeation studies of the mixture were carried out and the model was extended to those phenols. It was found that the permeation of a phenol is interfered with by the presence of other phenols.

Arana, G.; Borge, G.; Etxebarria, N.; Fernandez, L.A. [Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, Bilbao (Spain)] [Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, Bilbao (Spain)

1999-02-01

134

Measurement of phenols on a loop-supported liquid film by micellar electrokinetic chromatography and direct UV detection.  

PubMed

This paper describes a direct measurement of phenolic substances in the gas phase at levels relevant to occupational health by micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) using direct ultraviolet detection. A small circular loop (2 mm O.D.) is formed with 100 mm Pt-wire at the sampling end of a fused-silica capillary. The capillary tip of the sampling end is present at the center of the loop and in the same plane. A thin film of 0.50 mM NaOH is formed on the loop by immersion and withdrawal. The film is in fluid communication with the capillary and acts as an absorber for gaseous phenols. Gas sampling is performed by transferring the film-bearing loop into a chamber through which air is aspirated for a preset time at a preselected flow-rate (typically 1 min at 100 cm3/min). A part of the film content is then introduced into the capillary by gravity injection and then MEKC is performed. A total of twelve chloro- and nitrophenols were selected for this study. Under the above sampling conditions, limits of detection (LODs) for various phenols range from high-single-digit to low-double-digit ppbv levels. The effect of several critical parameters, such as the composition of the liquid film and the MEKC running electrolyte, sampling period and film evaporation on the collection efficiency, separation efficiency and calibration behaviour are described. PMID:8765855

Kar, S; Dasgupta, P K

1996-07-19

135

Polymer-supported ionic liquid solid phase extraction for trace inorganic and organic mercury determination in water samples by flow injection-cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry.  

PubMed

A simple and green technique named polymer-supported ionic liquid solid phase extraction (PSIL-SPE) was developed for mercury (Hg) species determination. Inorganic Hg (InHg) species was complexed with chloride ions followed by its introduction into a flow injection on-line system to quantitatively retain the anionic chlorocomplex (HgCl4(2-)) in a column packed with CYPHOS(®) IL 101-impregnated resin. The trapped InHg was then reduced with stannous chloride (SnCl2) and eluted with the same flow of reducing agent followed by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS) detection. Organic mercury species (OrgHg) did not interact with the impregnated resin and were not retained into the column. Total concentration of OrgHg was evaluated by difference between total Hg and InHg concentration. A 95% extraction efficiency was achieved for InHg when the procedure was developed under optimal experimental conditions. The limit of detection obtained for preconcentration of 40 mL of sample was 2.4 ng L(-1) InHg. The relative standard deviation (RSD) was 2.7% (at 1 µg L(-1) InHg and n=10) calculated from the peak height of absorbance signals (Gaussian-shape and reproducible peaks). This work reports the first polymer-supported IL solid phase extraction approach implemented in a flow injection on-line system for determination of Hg species in mineral, tap and river water samples. PMID:24148384

Escudero, Leticia B; Olsina, Roberto A; Wuilloud, Rodolfo G

2013-11-15

136

Microfunnel-supported liquid-phase microextraction: application to extraction and determination of Irgarol 1051 and diuron in the Persian Gulf seawater samples.  

PubMed

In the present work, microfunnel-supported liquid-phase microextraction method (MF-LPME) based on applying low density organic solvent was developed for the determination of antifoulings (Irgarol 1051, diuron and 3,4-dichloroaniline) from seawater samples. In this method, home-designed MF device was used for facile loading and retrieving of organic solvent during the extraction procedure. The extraction was carried out with introduction of 400 ?L of toluene via syringe into the MF device placed on the surface of sample solution (300 mL) containing analytes. After the extraction, extractant layer was narrowed into the capillary part of MF by pushing the device inside the sample and withdrawn by using a syringe to evaporate by nitrogen purging. The residual redissolved into 50 ?L methanol, diluted to 100 ?L with deionized water and injected into the high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection (HPLC-UV). Several factors influencing the extraction such as the type and volume of extraction solvent, sample pH, extraction time and ionic strength were investigated and optimized. Under the optimized conditions, the limits of detection in seawater were 1.4, 4.8 and 1.0 ng L(-1) for 3,4-dichloroaniline (DCA), diuron and Irgarol 1051, respectively. Enrichment factors were obtained 333, 150 and 373 for DCA, diuron and Irgarol 1051, respectively. The precision of the technique was evaluated in terms of repeatability which was less than 12.0% (n=5). The applicability of the proposed method was evaluated by the extraction and determination of antifoulings from seawater samples collected from harbors of Bushehr located in northern Persian Gulf coast. PMID:25016323

Saleh, Abolfazl; Sheijooni Fumani, Neda; Molaei, Saeideh

2014-08-22

137

Electronic simulation of the supported liquid membrane in electromembrane extraction systems: Improvement of the extraction by precise periodical reversing of the field polarity.  

PubMed

In order to understand the limitations of electromebrane extraction procedure better, a simple equivalent circuit has been proposed for a supported liquid membrane consisting of a resistor and a low leakage capacitor in series. To verify the equivalent circuit, it was subjected to a simulated periodical polarity changing potential and the resulting time variation of the current was compared with that of a real electromembrane extraction system. The results showed a good agreement between the simulated current patterns and those of the real ones. In order to investigate the impact of various limiting factors, the corresponding values of the equivalent circuit were estimated for a real electromembrane extraction system and were attributed to the physical parameters of the extraction system. A dual charge transfer mechanism was proposed for electromembrane extraction by combining general migration equation and fundamental aspects derived from the simulation. Dual mechanism comprises a current dependent contribution of analyte in total current and could support the possibility of an improvement in performance of an electromembrane extraction by application of an asymmetric polarity changing potential. The optimization of frequency and duty cycle of the asymmetric polarity exchanging potential resulted in a higher recovery (2.17 times greater) in comparison with the conventional electromebrane extraction. The simulation also provided more quantitative approaches toward the investigation of the mechanism of extraction and contribution of different limiting factors in electromembrane extraction. Results showed that the buildup of the double layer is the main limiting factor and the Joule heating has lesser impact on the performance of an electromebrane extraction system. PMID:25109858

Moazami, Hamid Reza; Nojavan, Saeed; Zahedi, Pegah; Davarani, Saied Saeed Hosseiny

2014-09-01

138

Characterization and classification of seven citrus herbs by liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and genetic algorithm optimized support vector machines.  

PubMed

Citrus herbs have been widely used in traditional medicine and cuisine in China and other countries since the ancient time. However, the authentication and quality control of Citrus herbs has always been a challenging task due to their similar morphological characteristics and the diversity of the multi-components existed in the complicated matrix. In the present investigation, we developed a novel strategy to characterize and classify seven Citrus herbs based on chromatographic analysis and chemometric methods. Firstly, the chemical constituents in seven Citrus herbs were globally characterized by liquid chromatography combined with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS). Based on their retention time, UV spectra and MS fragmentation behavior, a total of 75 compounds were identified or tentatively characterized in these herbal medicines. Secondly, a segmental monitoring method based on LC-variable wavelength detection was developed for simultaneous quantification of ten marker compounds in these Citrus herbs. Thirdly, based on the contents of the ten analytes, genetic algorithm optimized support vector machines (GA-SVM) was employed to differentiate and classify the 64 samples covering these seven herbs. The obtained classifier showed good prediction performance and the overall prediction accuracy reached 96.88%. The proposed strategy is expected to provide new insight for authentication and quality control of traditional herbs. PMID:24656543

Duan, Li; Guo, Long; Liu, Ke; Liu, E-Hu; Li, Ping

2014-04-25

139

Liquid level sensing device  

DOEpatents

A liquid level sensing device comprising a load cell supporting a column or stack of segments freely resting on one another. The density of each element is substantially identical to that of the surrounding liquid. The elements are freely guided within a surrounding tube. As each element is exposed above the liquid level, its weight will be impressed through the column to the load cell, thereby providing a signal at the load cell directly proportional to the liquid level elevation.

Tokarz, Richard D. (West Richland, WA)

1983-01-01

140

In silico and in vitro metabolism studies support identification of designer drugs in human urine by liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Human phase I metabolism of four designer drugs, 2-desoxypipradrol (2-DPMP), 3,4-dimethylmethcathinone (3,4-DMMC), ?-pyrrolidinovalerophenone (?-PVP), and methiopropamine (MPA), was studied using in silico and in vitro metabolite prediction. The metabolites were identified in drug abusers’ urine samples using liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/Q-TOF/MS). The aim of the study was to evaluate the ability of the in silico and in vitro methods to generate the main urinary metabolites found in vivo. Meteor 14.0.0 software (Lhasa Limited) was used for in silico metabolite prediction, and in vitro metabolites were produced in human liver microsomes (HLMs). 2-DPMP was metabolized by hydroxylation, dehydrogenation, and oxidation, resulting in six phase I metabolites. Six metabolites were identified for 3,4-DMMC formed via N-demethylation, reduction, hydroxylation, and oxidation reactions. ?-PVP was found to undergo reduction, hydroxylation, dehydrogenation, and oxidation reactions, as well as degradation of the pyrrolidine ring, and seven phase I metabolites were identified. For MPA, the nor-MPA metabolite was detected. Meteor software predicted the main human urinary phase I metabolites of 3,4-DMMC, ?-PVP, and MPA and two of the four main metabolites of 2-DPMP. It assisted in the identification of the previously unreported metabolic reactions for ?-PVP. Eight of the 12 most abundant in vivo phase I metabolites were detected in the in vitro HLM experiments. In vitro tests serve as material for exploitation of in silico data when an authentic urine sample is not available. In silico and in vitro designer drug metabolism studies with LC/Q-TOF/MS produced sufficient metabolic information to support identification of the parent compound in vivo. PMID:23797910

Tyrkkö, Elli; Pelander, Anna; Ketola, Raimo A; Ojanperä, Ilkka

2013-08-01

141

Analysis of 7 synthetic musks in cream by supported liquid extraction and solid phase extraction followed by GC-MS/MS.  

PubMed

A new method for the simultaneous determination of 7 synthetic musks (musk amberette, musk tibetene, musk moskene, musk ketone, musk xylene, phantolide, and tonalide) in cream by means of supporting liquid extraction (SLE) coupled with LC-Alumina-N SPE, then followed by GC-MS/MS has been established. In this study, 7 synthetic musks are extracted and pre-purified by a mixture solution of water and isopropanol from cream, and separated and purified by tandem columns containing SLE column and LC-Alumina-N SPE column, which were seldom reported before. Ultrasonic and mechanical shaking were applied to improve the extraction efficiency. Different experiment conditions, such as the type of extraction solution, extraction time of ultrasonic and mechanical shaking, the type of SLE and SPE column, and matrix effects were optimized and the recoveries of 7 synthetic musks for each part were above 86.61%. In addition, the use of isotope internal standards was systemically discussed. The method showed satisfactory linearity over the range assayed (5-1000 ng g(-1)), and the limits of detections (LODs) ranged from 0.15 to 4.86 ng g(-1), and the limits of quantifications (LOQs) were ranging from 0.49 to 16.21 ng g(-1). The recoveries using this method at three spiked concentration levels (10, 100, and 1000 ng g(-1)) range from 85.6% to 109%. The relative standard deviation was lower than 9.8% in all case. The proposed analytical method has been successfully applied for the analysis of 7 synthetic musks in commercial cream. PMID:24468366

Dong, Haifeng; Tang, Hua; Chen, Dazhou; Xu, Ting; Li, Lei

2014-03-01

142

Ionic liquid based model catalysis: interaction of [BMIM][Tf2N] with Pd nanoparticles supported on an ordered alumina film.  

PubMed

Towards a better understanding of novel catalytic materials consisting of supported noble metal catalysts modified by an ionic liquid (IL) film, we have performed a study under ultrahigh-vacuum (UHV) conditions. The model surface consists of Pd nanoparticles grown in UHV on an ordered alumina film on NiAl(110). Thin films of the room temperature IL 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide [BMIM][Tf(2)N] are deposited onto this surface by means of physical vapor deposition (PVD). The interaction of the IL with clean and CO-covered Pd/Al(2)O(3)/NiAl(110) at 300 K and the thermal behavior of the deposited IL films on Pd/Al(2)O(3)/NiAl(110) are investigated by time-resolved infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (TR-IRAS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). At 300 K, the IL adsorbs molecularly both onto the Pd particles and onto the alumina. The IR spectra suggest that the [Tf(2)N](-) anions interact with Pd sites preferentially via the sulfonyl groups. CO pre-adsorbed on the Pd particles is partially displaced by the IL, even at 300 K, and only the part of CO adsorbed onto hollow sites on (111) facets of the Pd particles remains in place. Upon heating to temperatures higher than the desorption temperature of the IL (>400 K), molecular desorption of the IL competes with decomposition. The decomposition products, atomic species and small fragments, remain preferentially adsorbed onto the Pd nanoparticles and strongly modify their surface properties. Most of the decomposition products originate from the [BMIM](+) cations, whereas the [Tf(2)N](-) anions desorb for the most part. PMID:20607171

Sobota, Marek; Schmid, Martin; Happel, Markus; Amende, Max; Maier, Florian; Steinrück, Hans-Peter; Paape, Natalia; Wasserscheid, Peter; Laurin, Mathias; Gottfried, J Michael; Libuda, Jörg

2010-09-21

143

Halophytic plants as a component of a bioregenerative life support system for recycling of NaCl contained in human liquid waste.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently, the closure of matter turnover is one of the urgent problems of bioregenerative life support system (BLSS) designing. The important aspect of the problem is involving of substances contained in liquid and solid exometabolites of humans inhabiting BLSS into intrasystem matter turnover. Recycling of Na+ and Cl- contained in human liquid exometabolites, i.e. urine is acknowledged to be among the main tasks of the matter turnover in BLSS. The ions excreted with urine may be returned to human organism with food. A way to allow this is including edible halophytic plants into the phototrophic compartment of BLSS. Halophytes are defined as plants which can grow on saline soils and produce high biomass under these conditions. Some halophytes can take up high quantities of Na+ and Cl- and accumulate the ions in the shoots or extrude them to leaf surface by means of salt glands. To allow Na+ and Cl- recycling through halophyte utilization, the following principal steps should be accomplished: (i) mineralization of the exometabolites by physicochemical methods; (ii) oxidation of ammonia formed during the exometabolite mineralization to nitrate by nitrifying bacteria, (iii) growing the halophyte on the nutrient solution prepared on the basis of the mineralized exometabolites, (iv) introducing the halophyte green biomass into human food. The present work is devoted to the following problems: (i) selection of a salt-accumulating/extruding halophytic plant suitable for Na+ and Cl- recycling in BLSS and (ii) parameter evaluation of a plant conveyor containing the halophytic plants at various ages. Halophytic plants selected for BLSS should meet the following criteria: (i) ability to grow under 24-hour-illumination, (ii) high productivity, (iii) ability to accumulate Na+ and Cl- in high quantities in shoots or to excrete salts to leaf surface, (iv) edibility, and (v) high nutritive value of the biomass. Relying on these criteria, salt-accumulating halophyte Salicornia europaea was selected from seven halophytic plant candidates, preliminary chosen from observations in their natural habitats, from our previous investigations and literature data. Characterization of the plant performance was obtained in the experiments on plants grown in water culture in a cultivation chamber under controlled conditions. A model nutrient solution simulating mineralized urine was used for halophyte growing. Under the experimental conditions, S.europaea exhibited high productivity and accumulated Na+ and Cl- in the shoots in high quantities. It has been shown that above-ground organs of S.europaea exhibit high nutritive value, the proteins are enriched with the essential amino acids and displayed high abundance of leucine, aspartic and glutamic acids. The results demonstrate that it is feasible to put into practice permanent Na+ and Cl- recycling in BLSS by a various-aged S.europaea conveyor. Relying on data on distribution of Na+ and Cl- between the plant and growth medium, parameters of the conveyor for permanent ion turnover in the system humans - exometabolites - nutrient solution - S.europaea - humans have been evaluated.

Balnokin, Yurii; Balnokin, Yurii; Myasoedov, Nikolay; Popova, Larissa; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Ushakova, Sofya; Tikhomirova, Natalia; Lasseur, Christophe; Gros, Jean-Bernard

144

High-Surface-Area CO2 Sponge: High Performance CO2 Scrubbing Based on Hollow Fiber-Supported Designer Ionic Liquid Sponges  

SciTech Connect

IMPACCT Project: The team from ORNL and Georgia Tech is developing a new technology that will act like a sponge, integrating a new, alcohol-based ionic liquid into hollow fibers (magnified image, right) to capture CO2 from the exhaust produced by coal-fired power plants. Ionic liquids, or salts that exist in liquid form, are promising materials for carbon capture and storage, but their tendency to thicken when combined with CO2 limits their efficiency and poses a challenge for their development as a cost-effective alternative to current-generation solutions. Adding alcohol to the mix limits this tendency to thicken in the presence of CO2 but can also make the liquid more likely to evaporate, which would add significantly to the cost of CO2 capture. To solve this problem, ORNL is developing new classes of ionic liquids with high capacity for absorbing CO2. ORNL’s sponge would reduce the cost associated with the energy that would need to be diverted from power plants to capture CO2 and release it for storage.

None

2010-09-01

145

Conveyor Cultivation of the Halophytic Plant Salicornia europaea for the Recycling of NaCl from Human Liquid Waste in a Biological Life Support System.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One problem in designing bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS) is developing technolo-gies to include human liquid and solid waste in intrasystem recycling. A specific task is recycling of NaCl excreted in urine by humans. We showed recently that this could be achieved through inclusion of the salt accumulating halophyte Salicornia europaea in the autotrophic compart-ment of the BLSS (Balnokin et al., ASR, 2010, in press). A model of NaCl circulation in BLSS with inclusion of S. europaea was based on the NaCl turnover in the human -urine -nutrient solution -S. europaea -human cycle. Mineralized urine was used as a basis for preparation of a nutrient solution for the halophyte cultivation. The shoots of the halophyte cultivated in the mineralized urine and containing NaCl could to be used by the BLSS inhabitants in their diets. In this report we describe cultivation of S. europaea which allows turnover of NaCl and produces daily shoot biomass containing Na+ and Cl- in quantities approximately equal to those excreted in daily human urine. The plants were grown in water culture in a climatic chamber under controlled conditions. A solution simulating mineralized urine (SSMU) was used as a basis for preparation of a nutri-ent solution for S. europaea cultivation. For continuous biomass production, seedlings of S. europaea, germinated preliminary in moist sand, were being transferred to the nutrient solu-tion at regular intervals (every two days). Duration of the conveyor operation was 112 days. During the first 56 days, the seedlings were being planted in SSMU diluted by a factor of 1.5 (2/3 SSMU). The same solution was introduced into the growth vessels as volumes of growth medium decreased due to plant transpiration. Starting from the 56th day as conveyor operation was initiated, the plants were being harvested every two days; the solutions from the discharged vessels were mixed with the fresh SSMU and the mixture was introduced into all other growth vessels of the conveyor. Thus, during the first 56-d period, the plants grew only in the fresh nutrient solution, whereas during the second 56-d period, the worked out nutrient solutions were being returned into the cycle having been added to the growth vessels along with the fresh SSMU. Growth characteristics, water and ionic relations of S. europaea plants, balance of nutrients between organs and growth media for the first and second 56-d periods of the conveyor operation are presented. There was no significant difference in the rates of shoot biomass production during the first and the second periods. The plants were producing shoot biomass with the rates close to those observed under optimal conditions. However, substantial increase in root biomass production (by 50% on the dry mass basis) was observed in the second period as compared with the first one. Decrease in organ water contents on the dry mass basis (by 13% and 30% for shoots and roots, respectively) and transpiration rates (by 25%) occurred also in the second period as compared with the first one. Measurements of Na+ , Cl- and nutrient contents in the growth media and plant organs and calculation of their balances showed that the plants did not suffer from a deficiency of nutrients during the 112 days of the conveyor operation while accumulating required NaCl amounts. Observed root proliferation and deterioration of water relations in the second 56-d period of the conveyor operation may be caused by toxic plant metabolites exuded by roots into the growth medium.

Balnokin, Yurii; Myasoedov, Nikolay; Popova, Larissa; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Ushakova, Sofya; Tikhomirova, Natalia; Lasseur, Christophe; Gros, Jean-Bernard

146

Electrokinetics over liquid/liquid interfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since liquid-liquid interfaces flow in response to an applied stress, one might expect electrokinetic flows at liquid-liquid interfaces to be significantly higher than over liquid-solid interfaces. The earliest predictions for the electrophoretic mobility of charged mercury drops -- distinct approaches by Frumkin and Levich (1946), and Booth (1951) -- differed by O(a/?D), where a is the radius of the drop and ?D is the Debye screening length. Seeking to reconcile this rather striking discrepancy, Levine (1973) showed double-layer polarization to be the key ingredient. Without a physical mechanism by which electrokinetic effects are enhanced, however, it is difficult to know how general the enhancement is -- whether it holds only for liquid metal surfaces, or more generally, for all liquid/liquid surfaces. By considering a series of systems in which a planar metal strip is coated with either a liquid metal or liquid dielectric, we show that the central physical mechanism behind the enhancement predicted by Frumkin and Levich (1946) is the presence of an unmatched electrical stress upon the electrolyte-liquid interface, which establishes a Marangoni stress on the droplet surface and drives it into motion. The source of the unbalanced electrokinetic stress on a liquid metal surface is clear -- metals represent equipotential surfaces, so no field exists to drive an equal and opposite force on the surface charge. This might suggest that liquid metals represent a unique system, since dielectric liquids can support finite electric fields, which might be expected to exert an electrical stress on the surface charge that balances the electric stress. We demonstrate, however, that electrical and osmotic stresses on relaxed double-layers internal to dielectric liquids precisely cancel, so that internal electrokinetic stresses generally vanish in closed, ideally polarizable liquids. The enhancement for liquid mercury drops can thus be expected quite generally over clean, ideally polarizable liquid drops. More broadly, the ability to reliably engineer liquid interfaces in microfluidic systems, then, may provide a path to significantly enhanced electrokinetic flows.

Squires, Todd M.

2011-11-01

147

Evaluation of solid-supported room-temperature ionic liquids containing crown ethers as media for metal ion separation and preconcentration.  

PubMed

Extraction chromatographic (EXC) resins incorporating an appropriate crown ether in an oxygenated organic solvent such as 1-octanol are well established as sorbents for the analytical-scale separation and preconcentration of radiostrontium from a variety of sample types. Recent solvent extraction studies employing crown ethers in various 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium-based (CnC1im(+)) room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) indicate that under certain conditions, distribution ratios (DSr) for strontium far in excess of those observed with conventional organic solvents are observed. To determine if this increase in liquid-liquid extraction efficiency will lead to improved strontium sorbents, several EXC resins and sol-gel glasses incorporating di-tert-butylcyclohexano-18-crown-6 (DtBuCH18C6) in either 1-decyl-3-methylimidazolium bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide (C10C1imTf2N) or the related hydroxyalkyl-functionalized IL 1-(12-hydroxydodecyl)-3-butylimidazolium bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide (C12OHC4im Tf2N) were prepared and characterized. Unexpectedly the performance of these materials was not uniformly better than that of a conventional EXC resin, an apparent result of the greater viscosity of the ionic liquids and the lower solubility of the crown ether in ILs versus conventional organic solvents. PMID:25640134

Hawkins, Cory A; Momen, M A; Garvey, Sarah L; Kestell, John; Kaminski, Michael D; Dietz, Mark L

2015-04-01

148

Application of hollow fiber-supported liquid-phase microextraction coupled with HPLC for the determination of guaifenesin enantiomer-protein binding.  

PubMed

A hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction technique coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection was employed for determination and evaluation of the binding characteristics of drugs to bovine serum albumin (BSA). Enantiomers of guaifenesin (an expectorant drug) were investigated as a model system. After optimization of some influencing parameters on microextraction, the proposed method was used for calculation of the target drug distribution coefficient between n-octanol and the buffer solution as well as study of drug-BSA binding in physiological conditions. The developed method shows a new, improved and simple procedure for determination of free drug concentration in biological fluids and the extent of drug-protein binding. PMID:22102436

Hatami, Mehdi; Farhadi, Khalil

2012-07-01

149

Liquid-phase methanol process development unit: installation, operation, and support studies. Technical progress report No. 1, 28 September 1981-31 December 1981  

SciTech Connect

During this period the Work Breakdown Structure Dictionary was established. Task 1 was completed with submittal of the Project Work Plan and the Quality Assurance Manual. CSI produced basic process design information and a preliminary flowsheet for the LaPorte LPMeOH PDU. APCI developed the flowsheet further and set up the process on APCI's process simulator. The flowsheet development revealed a number of major changes necessary in the existing LPM pilot plant; this has led to pursuit of a unified design concept. Approval was requested for the unified design concept as well as advanced schedule for relocation of the LPM unit and advanced procurement of long delivery equipment items. A number of preliminary heat and material balances were calculated for the LPMeOH PDU and preliminary process specifications were prepared for the equipment items. The final design basis was established. The design pressure was set at 1000 psig. Eight design operating cases were defined for the following range of reactor operating conditions: Pressure - 500 to 900 psig, Temperature - 220 to 270/sup 0/C, Liquid-Fluidized Space Velocity - 1000 to 4000 l/hr-kg catalyst, Liquid-Entrained Space Velocity - 2000 to 10,000 l/hr-kg catalyst, and Liquid-Entrained Catalyst Loading - 0.1 to 0.4 kg catalyst/l oil. The methanol production rate for these cases ranges from 0.2 to 9.7 short tons per day. Preliminary equipment arrangement and site layout drawings were prepared for the PDU. In the laboratories, CSI began autoclave testing of in-situ catalyst reduction procedures. The specification and evaluation of equipment for the CSI laboratory PDU progressed. CSI prepared and issued a Topical Report covering liquid-entrained LPMeOH lab development work accomplished under advance funding. APCI's laboratories progressed with the design of the bench scale slurry reactor.

Not Available

1982-01-20

150

Liquid Sloshing Dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of liquid sloshing in moving or stationary containers remains of great concern to aerospace, civil, and nuclear engineers; physicists; designers of road tankers and ship tankers; and mathematicians. Beginning with the fundamentals of liquid sloshing theory, this book takes the reader systematically from basic theory to advanced analytical and experimental results in a self-contained and coherent format. The book is divided into four sections. Part I deals with the theory of linear liquid sloshing dynamics; Part II addresses the nonlinear theory of liquid sloshing dynamics, Faraday waves, and sloshing impacts; Part III presents the problem of linear and nonlinear interaction of liquid sloshing dynamics with elastic containers and supported structures; and Part IV considers the fluid dynamics in spinning containers and microgravity sloshing. This book will be invaluable to researchers and graduate students in mechanical and aeronautical engineering, designers of liquid containers, and applied mathematicians.

Ibrahim, Raouf A.

2005-06-01

151

Integrated micro-economic modelling and multi-criteria methodology to support public decision-making: the case of liquid bio-fuels in France  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decision making to determine government support policy for agro-energy industry can be assisted by mathematical programming and Multiple Criteria procedures. In this case study, tax credit policy in the French bio-fuel industry producing ethanol and esters is determined. Micro-economic models simulate the agricultural sector and the bio-fuel industry through multi-level mixed integer linear programming. Aggregate supply of energy crops at

S Rozakis; J-C Sourie; D Vanderpooten

2001-01-01

152

Interionic Interactions in Imidazolium-Based Ionic Liquids: The Role of the C2-Position Revealed by Raman Scattering and Supported by IR and NMR Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intermolecular interactions determine the state of aggregation of a substance at given temperature. Based on that, changes in intermolecular interactions can lead to microscopic reordering which may be observed macroscopically in terms of altered physicochemical properties. Especially, when chemicals are employed in technical processes, it is important to control and regulate their properties to guarantee product quality. A special group of chemical substances increasingly gaining interest in the field of chemical and process engineering are room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs). In general, RTILs are organic salts with melting points "below the boiling point of water". The variety of possible combinations of cations and anions lead to a wide range of chemical and thermo-physical properties. In fact, it is possible to tune their properties by adjusting the ratio of Coulomb and van der Waals interactions. However, because it is hardly possible to investigate a reasonable fraction of the potential cation-anion combinations, a molecular-based understanding of their properties is crucial to make a rational design possible. In this regard vibrational spectroscopy has proven to be very beneficial for structural analysis and the investigation of interionic and intermolecular interactions. Therein, especially Raman spectroscopy shows a significant advantage of being insensitive to water interference and it is widely applied in the field of ionic liquids. Among others the 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium [RMIM] based ILs have been employed as model ILs in structural analysis, and most vibrational studies available in literature have been carried out investigating this kind of ILs. In contrast, spectroscopic data and calculations of C2-methylated 1,2-dialkyl-3-methylimidazolium based ILs, are available to a much lesser extend. The substitution in the C2 position in those ILs disrupts the main hydrogen-bonding interaction between the cation and the anion and is expected to lead to lower melting points and reduced viscosities. However, in contrast to the intuitively expected behavior, e.g., in the case of 1-ethyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, [EMMIM][Tf2N], the viscosity turned out to be about three times higher than that of [EMIM][Tf2N]. This emphasizes the need for further investigation.

Noack, Kristina; Paape, Natalia; Kiefer, Johannes; Wasserscheid, Peter; Leipertz, Alfred

2010-08-01

153

Development of hollow fiber-supported liquid-phase microextraction and HPLC-DAD method for the determination of pyrethroid metabolites in human and rat urine.  

PubMed

A simple hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction method for the determination of synthetic pyrethroid metabolites, 3-phenoxybenzoic acid and 4-hydroxy-3-phenoxybenzoic acid, in human and rat urine was developed and validated. A polypropylene hollow fiber tightly fitted onto a Nylon rod and impregnated with organic solvent served as a disposable extraction device. Desorption of analytes was carried out in NaOH solution, analyzed further by gradient HPLC and diode array detection method. Important factors were identified using Taguchi OA16 (4(5) ) orthogonal array design and further optimized using univariate approach. The optimum method performance was observed when 1?mL of urine hydrolyzed with 0.2?mL of concentrated HCl was further supplemented with 100?mg of NaCl and extracted for 120?min into dihexyl ether immobilized in the pores of the hollow fiber. Metabolites were desorbed into 0.1?mL of 0.1?M NaOH for another 120?min. Limits of detection and quantitation of 15 and 50?ng/mL were obtained for both analytes. Relative standard deviations of 1.6-12.6% over the linear range (50-10,000?ng/mL, r?>?0.9906) were observed. Intra- and inter-day accuracies of the method ranged from 98.3 to 109.5% and from 93.3 to 110.9%, respectively. The optimized method was applied to the analysis of real urine samples collected from rats exposed orally to cypermethrin. PMID:24347457

Bartosz, Wielgomas; Marcin, Wi?niewski; Wojciech, Czarnowski

2014-05-01

154

Liquid metal pump  

DOEpatents

The liquid metal pump comprises floating seal rings and attachment of the pump diffuser to the pump bowl for isolating structural deflections from the pump shaft bearings. The seal rings also eliminate precision machining on large assemblies by eliminating the need for a close tolerance fit between the mounting surfaces of the pump and the seals. The liquid metal pump also comprises a shaft support structure that is isolated from the pump housing for better preservation of alignment of shaft bearings. The shaft support structure also allows for complete removal of pump internals for inspection and repair.

Pennell, William E. (Greensburg, PA)

1982-01-01

155

Facilitated transport of Pd(II) through a supported liquid membrane (SLM) containing N,N,N',N'-tetra-(2-ethylhexyl) thiodiglycolamide T(2EH)TDGA: a novel carrier.  

PubMed

A novel carrier, N,N,N',N'-tetra-(2-ethylhexyl) thiodiglycolamide, T(2EH)TDGA has been studied for transport of Pd(II) from nitric acid medium across a supported liquid membrane (SLM). Pd(II) was found to be almost quantitatively transported (? 99.9%) within 2h from 3.0M HNO(3) medium using 0.05 M T(2EH)TDGA in n-dodecane as carrier and 0.01 M thiourea in 0.2M HNO(3) as strippant. Pd(II) transport was also studied against various parameters like feed acidity, carrier concentration, membrane pore size, etc. Palladium transport was found to be diffusion controlled and the diffusion co-efficient value was found to be 3.56 × 10(-5)cm(2)/s. Selectivity of T(2EH)TDGA for palladium over other fission products was found to be quite high, with the separation factors for Pd, with respect to different fission products being >10(3). With respect to leaching out of carrier from the membrane support, the membrane was found to be stable for six consecutive cycles. Thus, T(2EH)TDGA can be used as an efficient carrier of Pd(II) from nitric acid medium. PMID:22704775

Ruhela, R; Panja, S; Sharma, J N; Tomar, B S; Tripathi, S C; Hubli, R C; Suri, A K

2012-08-30

156

Preconcentration of emerging contaminants in environmental water samples by using silica supported Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles for improving mass detection in capillary liquid chromatography.  

PubMed

A magnetic material based on Fe(3)O(4) magnetic nanoparticles incorporated in a silica matrix by using a sol-gel procedure has been used to extract and preconcentrate emerging contaminants such as acetylsalicylic acid, acetaminophen, diclofenac and ibuprofen from environmental water samples prior to the analysis with Capillary LC-MS. The use of the proposed silica supported Fe(3)O(4) magnetic nanoparticles enables surfactant free extracts for the analysis with MS detection without interferences in the ionisation step. Under the optimum conditions, we demonstrated the reusability of the magnetic sorbent material during 20 uses without loss in the extraction efficiency. In addition, no cleanup was necessary. The preconcentration factor was 100 and the detection limits were between 50 and 150 ng/L. The proposed procedure has been applied to the analysis of water samples obtaining recoveries between 80 and 110% and RSD values lower than 12%. Concentrations of the target analytes over the range 1.7 and 0.1 ?g/L have been found in different water samples. PMID:21388625

Moliner-Martínez, Yolanda; Ribera, Antonio; Coronado, Eugenio; Campíns-Falcó, P

2011-04-22

157

Comparison of methods of liquid medium culture for banana micropropagation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five different liquid medium culture methods for meristem propagation of bananas were investigated and compared with solid medium culture. Treatments studied were: gelled culture medium (treatment 1); liquid medium with immersion of the plants (treatment 2); liquid medium with cellulose culture support (treatment 3); liquid medium with partial immersion of the plants (treatment 4); liquid medium aerated by bubbling (treatment

D. Alvard; F. Cote; C. Teisson

1993-01-01

158

Tube support  

DOEpatents

A tube support for supporting horizontal tubes from an inclined vertical support tube passing between the horizontal tubes. A support button is welded to the vertical support tube. Two clamping bars or plates, the lower edges of one bearing on the support button, are removably bolted to the inclined vertical tube. The clamping bars provide upper and lower surface support for the horizontal tubes.

Mullinax, Jerry L. (Green Township, Summit County, OH)

1988-01-01

159

Liquid nitrogen  

MedlinePLUS

Liquid nitrogen is a chemical that is super cold, about -200 degrees Celsius. Liquid nitrogen will instantly freeze anything it touches. It is used to kill cells that make up diseased or cancerous tissue. Tissue that has been frozen dries out and falls off.

160

Liquid pearls  

E-print Network

This fluid dynamics video reports how to form liquid core capsules having a thin hydrogel elastic membrane named liquid pearls. These fish-egg like structures are initially made of a millimetric liquid drop, aqueous or not, coated with an aqueous liquid film containing sodium alginate that gels once the double drop enters a calcium chloride bath. The creation of such pearls with micrometer thick membrane requires to suppress mixing until gelling takes place. Here, we show that superimposing a two dimensional surfactant precipitation at the interface confers a transient rigidity that can damp the shear induced instability at impact. Based on this, pearls containing almost any type of liquids can be created. The video focuses on the dynamics of the entry of the compound drop into the gelling bath.

Bremond, Nicolas; Bibette, Jérôme

2010-01-01

161

Method of forming supported doped palladium containing oxidation catalysts  

DOEpatents

A method of forming a supported oxidation catalyst includes providing a support comprising a metal oxide or a metal salt, and depositing first palladium compound particles and second precious metal group (PMG) metal particles on the support while in a liquid phase including at least one solvent to form mixed metal comprising particles on the support. The PMG metal is not palladium. The mixed metal particles on the support are separated from the liquid phase to provide the supported oxidation catalyst.

Mohajeri, Nahid

2014-04-22

162

Supported inorganic membranes  

DOEpatents

Supported inorganic membranes capable of molecular sieving, and methods for their production, are provided. The subject membranes exhibit high flux and high selectivity. The subject membranes are substantially defect free and less than about 100 nm thick. The pores of the subject membranes have an average critical pore radius of less than about 5 .ANG., and have a narrow pore size distribution. The subject membranes are prepared by coating a porous substrate with a polymeric sol, preferably under conditions of low relative pressure of the liquid constituents of the sol. The coated substrate is dried and calcined to produce the subject supported membrane. Also provided are methods of derivatizing the surface of supported inorganic membranes with metal alkoxides. The subject membranes find use in a variety of applications, such as the separation of constituents of gaseous streams, as catalysts and catalyst supports, and the like.

Sehgal, Rakesh (Albuquerque, NM); Brinker, Charles Jeffrey (Albuquerque, NM)

1998-01-01

163

Liquid-liquid transition in a strong bulk metallic glass-forming liquid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polymorphic phase transitions are common in crystalline solids. Recent studies suggest that phase transitions may also exist between two liquid forms with different entropy and structure. Such a liquid-liquid transition has been investigated in various substances including water, Al2O3-Y2O3 and network glass formers. However, the nature of liquid-liquid transition is debated due to experimental difficulties in avoiding crystallization and/or measuring at high temperatures/pressures. Here we report the thermodynamic and structural evidence of a temperature-induced weak first-order liquid-liquid transition in a bulk metallic glass-forming system Zr41.2Ti13.8Cu12.5Ni10Be22.5 characterized by non- (or weak) directional bonds. Our experimental results suggest that the local structural changes during the transition induce the drastic viscosity changes without a detectable density anomaly. These changes are correlated with a heat capacity maximum in the liquid. Our findings support the hypothesis that the ‘strong’ kinetics (low fragility) of a liquid may arise from an underlying lambda transition above its glass transition.

Wei, Shuai; Yang, Fan; Bednarcik, Jozef; Kaban, Ivan; Shuleshova, Olga; Meyer, Andreas; Busch, Ralf

2013-07-01

164

Rotating electric machine with fluid supported parts  

DOEpatents

A rotating electric machine in which the armature winding thereof and other parts are supported by a liquid to withstand the mechanical stresses applied during transient overloads and the like. In particular, a narrow gap is provided between the armature winding and the stator which supports it and this gap is filled with an externally pressurized viscous liquid. The liquid is externally pressurized sufficiently to balance the static loads on the armature winding. Transient mechanical loads which deform the armature winding alter the gap dimensions and thereby additionally pressurize the viscous liquid to oppose the armature winding deformation and more nearly uniformly to distribute the resulting mechanical stresses.

Smith, Jr., Joseph L. (Concord, MA); Kirtley, Jr., James L. (Brookline, MA)

1981-01-01

165

Exploring Liquids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Young learners investigate and observe the properties of three liquids -- water, vegetable oil, and corn syrup. They use their senses to collect data and ask and answer questions. This lesson for young learners introduces the scientific process.

Janulaw, Sharon

2010-01-01

166

Ionic Liquids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ionic liquids are receiving an upsurge of interest as green solvents; primarily as replacements for conventional media in\\u000a chemical processes. This review presents an overview of the chemistry that has been developed utilising ionic liquids as either\\u000a catalyst and\\/or solvent, with particular emphasis on processes that have been taken beyond the pre-competetive laboratory\\u000a stage and represent clean industrial technology with

J. D. Holbrey; K. R. Seddon

1999-01-01

167

Nutritional Support  

MedlinePLUS

Nutritional support is therapy for people who cannot get enough nourishment by eating or drinking. You may need ... absorb nutrients through your digestive system You receive nutritional support through a needle or catheter placed in your ...

168

Supporting computer supported cooperative work  

E-print Network

Supporting computer supported cooperative work A case study from telemedicine Margunn Johansena study of a video-based telemedicine project - the DIMedS project (Development of Interactive Medical. Keywords: telemedicine, network, multimedia, support Keywords: HB20, CA10, CA14 Introduction Multimedia

Sahay, Sundeep

169

For session on "Structure and Properties of Ionic Liquids and Molten Salts" Ionic Liquids, quasi-ionic liquids, and quasi-liquid ionics, all with high  

E-print Network

For session on "Structure and Properties of Ionic Liquids and Molten Salts and hence the support a range of battery electrochemistries[1], and (ii in solid state batteries. [1] J.S. Wilkes, Green industrial applications of ionic

Angell, C. Austen

170

Layered Liquids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity involves an exploration of density. Why does oil float on water? How does drain cleaner sink down into the clogged pipe right through standing water? These questions will be answered as students make a layered "parfait" of colored liquids ba

Eichinger, John

2009-05-30

171

Thermal support for scale support  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The thermal design work completed for the Thermal Protection System (TPS) of the Space Shuttle System (TPS) of the space shuttle vehicle was documented. This work was divided into three phases, the first two of which reported in previous documents. About 22 separate tasks were completed in phase III, such as: hot gas facility (HGF) support, guarded tank support, shuttle external tank (ET) thermal design handbook support, etc.

Dean, W. G.

1976-01-01

172

Liquid electrode  

DOEpatents

A dropping electrolyte electrode for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions.

Ekechukwu, Amy A. (Augusta, GA)

1994-01-01

173

Optical fiber pressure sensor for liquid level monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus for continuously monitoring changes in a liquid level in accordance with a differential pressure is provided. A sensor body immersed in the liquid supports two thin-filmed metallic diaphragms that are independently axially responsive to pressure of the liquid. Each diaphragm has a different modulus of elasticity. Two fiber optic pressure sensors are mounted within an air space encased

Frank W. Cuomo

1994-01-01

174

A method for handling metabonomics data from liquid chromatography\\/mass spectrometry: combinational use of support vector machine recursive feature elimination, genetic algorithm and random forest for feature selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metabolic markers are the core of metabonomic surveys. Hence selection of differential metabolites is of great importance\\u000a for either biological or clinical purpose. Here, a feature selection method was developed for complex metabonomic data set.\\u000a As an effective tool for metabonomics data analysis, support vector machine (SVM) was employed as the basic classifier. To\\u000a find out meaningful features effectively, support

Xiaohui Lin; Quancai Wang; Peiyuan Yin; Liang Tang; Yexiong Tan; Hong Li; Kang Yan; Guowang Xu

175

Liquid electrode  

DOEpatents

A dropping electrolyte electrode is described for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions. 2 figures.

Ekechukwu, A.A.

1994-07-05

176

Gauging Systems Monitor Cryogenic Liquids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rocket fuel needs to stay cool - super cool, in fact. The ability to store gas propellants like liquid hydrogen and oxygen at cryogenic temperatures (below -243 F) is crucial for space missions in order to reduce their volumes and allow their storage in smaller (and therefore, less costly) tanks. The Agency has used these cryogenic fluids for vehicle propellants, reactants, and life support systems since 1962 with the Centaur upper stage rocket, which was powered with liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. During proposed long-duration missions, super-cooled fluids will also be used in space power systems, spaceports, and lunar habitation systems. In the next generation of launch vehicles, gaseous propellants will be cooled to and stored for extended periods at even colder temperatures than currently employed via a process called densification. Densification sub-cools liquids to temperatures even closer to absolute zero (-459 F), increasing the fluid s density and shrinking its volume beyond common cryogenics. Sub-cooling cryogenic liquid hydrogen, for instance, from 20 K (-423 F) to 15 K (-432.4 F) reduces its mass by 10 percent. These densified liquid gases can provide more cost savings from reduced payload volume. In order to benefit from this cost savings, the Agency is working with private industry to prevent evaporation, leakage, and other inadvertent loss of liquids and gases in payloads - requiring new cryogenic systems to prevent 98 percent (or more) of boil-off loss. Boil-off occurs when cryogenic or densified liquids evaporate, and is a concern during launch pad holds. Accurate sensing of propellants aboard space vehicles is also critical for proper engine shutdown and re-ignition after launch, and zero boil-off fuel systems are also in development for the Altair lunar lander.

2009-01-01

177

Electrowetting Controlled Tunable Liquid Microlens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrowetting potentially provides a convenient way to control the shape and position of the liquid droplet on a rigid substrate. However, the effectiveness of this method relies strongly on the precise control of the surface properties of the substrate. Here we present a tunable liquid microlens capable of adjusting the position of its focal spot in all three dimensions. The microlens consists of a droplet of a transparent conductive liquid placed on a dielectric substrate with a hydrophobic coating. By varying the voltage applied to the structure, both the position and the curvature of the microlens can be changed. The influence of the bulk and surface properties of the materials on the microlens behavior is experimentally investigated and supported by theoretical calculations. Some of the potential problems associated with the stick-slip behavior and contact angle hysteresis are outlined and possible ways to prevent them are suggested.

Krupenkin, Tom; Yang, Shu

2002-03-01

178

Survival of Mammals Breathing Organic Liquids Equilibrated with Oxygen at Atmospheric Pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because oxygen and carbon dioxide are very soluble in certain silicone oils and fluorocarbon liquids, these liquids will support respiration of mammals. Mice and cats respiring silicone oil die shortly after return to air breathing, while those breathing fluorocarbon survive for weeks. The respiration of mice is optimally supported by these organic liquids at about 20 degrees C. In cats,

Leland C. Clark Jr.; Frank Gollan

1966-01-01

179

Administrative Support.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is intended to assist business education teachers in administrative support courses. The materials presented are based on the Arizona validated occupational competencies and tasks for the occupations of receptionist, secretary, and administrative assistant. Word processing skills have been infused into each of the three sections. The…

Doran, Dorothy; And Others

180

Supporting Structures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity about living things and gravity (page 5 of PDF), learners design and build an exoskeleton or an endoskeleton for an animal of their own invention. Learners consider their animal's habitat and body shape when designing its support structure. This guide includes background information, extensions, and a data sheet.

Chang, Kimberly; Moreno, Nancy P.; Tharp, Barbara Z.; Institute, National S.

2000-01-01

181

Research News: Emulsion Liquid Membrane Extraction in a Hollow-Fiber Contactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This article describes how ELMs (emulsion liquid membranes) can be used for extraction. The article addresses the disadvantages of ELM extraction in a stirred contactor, and the advantages of SELMs (supported emulsion liquid membranes). The introduction of the article provides background information on liquid-liquid solvent extraction and dispersion-free solvent extraction.

Wiencek, John M.; Hu, Shih-Yao

2000-01-01

182

ENHANCEMENT OF HEAT REMOVAL USING CONCAVE LIQUID METAL TARGETS FOR HIGH-POWER ACCELERATORS  

E-print Network

ENHANCEMENT OF HEAT REMOVAL USING CONCAVE LIQUID METAL TARGETS FOR HIGH-POWER ACCELERATORS I liquid metal in concave channels first proposed by IFMIF to raise the liquid metal boiling point by increasing the pressure in liquid supported by a centrifugal force. Such flow with a back-wall is subject

Harilal, S. S.

183

Liquid-liquid extraction in flow analysis: A critical review.  

PubMed

Liquid-liquid extractions (LLE) are a common sample pre-treatment in many analytical applications. This review aims at providing a critical overview of the distinct automated continuous flow-based approaches that were developed for liquid-liquid extraction with the purpose of pre-concentration and/or separation of multiple analytes, such as ultra-trace metal and metalloid species, phenolic compounds, surfactants, pharmaceuticals, etc., hyphenated with many detection technique such as UV/vis spectrophotometry, atomic spectrometric detection systems and luminescent detectors, including distinct extraction strategies and applications like single and multiple extraction schemes, wetting film extraction, supported liquid membrane extraction, back extraction, closed-loop systems and the utilisation of zone sampling, chromatomembranes and iterative reversal techniques. The analytical performance of the developed flow-based LLE methods and the influence of flow manifold components such as the segmenter, extraction coil and phase separator, is emphasised and object of discussion. An overall presentation of each system components, selectivity, advantages and shortcomings is carried out and exemplified with selected applications. PMID:19786170

Silvestre, Cristina I C; Santos, João L M; Lima, José L F C; Zagatto, Elias A G

2009-10-12

184

Liquid Crystal Inquiries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the properties and classification of liquid crystals. Presents a simple experiment that illustrates the structure of liquid crystals and the differences between the various phases liquid crystals can assume. (JRH)

Marroum, Renata-Maria

1996-01-01

185

Lacerations - liquid bandage  

MedlinePLUS

Skin adhesives; Tissue adhesive ... the cut is minor, a liquid bandage (liquid adhesive) can be used on the cut to close ... bandage is quick and painless to apply. Skin adhesives, or liquid bandages, seal the cut closed after ...

186

What Is A Liquid?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The representation is an animation of the molecular motion of liquid and gaseous bromine. The motion of the atoms of liquid argon and the molecular motion of liquid water are shown as well. Descriptive information accompanies the animation.

187

Quantum Spin Liquids and Fractionalization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter discusses quantum antiferromagnets which do not break any symmetries at zero temperature - also called "spin liquids" - and focuses on lattice spin models with Heisenberg-like (i.e. SU(2)-symmetric) interactions in dimensions larger than one. We begin by discussing the Lieb-Schultz-Mattis theorem and its recent extension to D > 1 by Hastings (2004), which establishes an important distinction between spin liquids with an integer and with a half-integer spin per unit cell. Spin liquids of the first kind, "band insulators", can often be understood by elementary means, whereas the latter, "Mott insulators", are more complex (featuring "topological order") and support spin-1/2 excitations (spinons). The fermionic formalism (Affleck and Marston, 1988) is described and the effect of fluctuations about mean-field solutions, such as the possible creation of instabilities, is discussed in a qualitative way. In particular, we explain the emergence of gauge modes and their relation to fractionalization. The concept of the projective symmetry group (X.-G. Wen, 2002) is introduced, with the aid of some examples. Finally, we present the phenomenology of (gapped) short-ranged resonating-valence-bond spin liquids, and make contact with the fermionic approach by discussing their description in terms of a fluctuating Z 2 gauge field. Some recent references are given to other types of spin liquid, including gapless ones.

Misguich, Grégoire

188

Shaped composite liquid marbles.  

PubMed

Shaped "cubic" non-stick droplets are reported. Shaped composite droplets were manufactured via a two-stage process. In the first stage, cubic foamed-polystyrene particles were hydrophilized with cold radiofrequency plasma. Then particles were wetted with water. In the second stage, they were coated with solid, colloidal particles such as lycopodium, Teflon or carbon black. Thus, "liquid marble"-like non-stick shaped droplets were obtained. The shaped "cubic" droplets remained stable when supported by a NaCl water solution. Shaped Janus droplets coated on one side with dielectric Teflon and with semiconductor carbon black on the other side, were prepared. Janus marbles were actuated with an electric field. PMID:24407678

Bormashenko, Edward; Balter, Revital; Aharoni, Hadas; Aurbach, Doron

2014-03-01

189

Liquid annulus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is shown that the specific impulse varies with the square root of the temperature and inversely with the square root of the molecular weight of the propellant. Typical values for specific impulse corresponding to various rocket concepts are shown. The Liquid Annulus core concept consists of a fuel element which will be arranged in a moderator block. The advantages as seen for the system are: high specific impulse; structural material will all run at low temperature; and lower fission product inventory because of evaporation. It is felt that this concept is worth at least a first look because of the promise of very high specific impulse. Because of the low thrust, one would probably need a cluster of engines. This is not necessarily bad because there would be some redundancy, but because of the low thrust one might have to refuel while running. Depending on the fuel vaporization, material can be included in the uranium that is injected as one is running along.

Ludewig, Hans

1991-01-01

190

Liquid supercoiling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Supercoiling is defined as the large-scale secondary coiling of a slender body that is already coiled at a smaller scale (e.g., telephone cords and DNA strands). We demonstrate experimentally a novel fluid-mechanical form of supercoiling that occurs in the context of the familiar ``liquid rope coiling'' instability of a thin thread of viscous fluid falling onto a rigid surface. Under appropriate conditions, the coiling instability generates a tall pile of coils in the form of a hollow cylindrical column, which in turn becomes unstable to a secondary coiling instability with a frequency 10% of the primary one. To place this phenomenon in a broader context, we determine experimentally the phase diagram for the different possible behaviors of the thread (stagnation flow, simple coiling, rotatory folding, periodic column collapse, supercoiling) in the space of the fluid viscosity, the flow rate, and the fall height. We formulate a mathematical model for supercoiling by combining a thin-shell description of the column wall with a slender-thread description of the column as a whole. This leads to a set of coupled ordinary differential equations in one space dimension (the arclength along the axis of the coiling column) that we solve numerically using a continuation method. A comparison of the predicted and observed frequencies of secondary coiling will be shown.

Ribe, Neil; Habibi, Mehdi; Hosseini, Hossein; Hassan Khatami, Mohammad

2011-11-01

191

Carbon cloth supported electrode  

DOEpatents

A flow-by anode is disclosed made by preparing a liquid suspension of about to about 18% by weight solids, the solids comprising about 3.5 to about 8% of a powdered catalyst of platinum, palladium, palladium oxide, or mixtures thereof; about 60 to about 76% carbon powder (support) having a particle size less than about 20 m.mu.m and about 20 to about 33% of an inert binder having a particle size of less than about 500 m.mu.m. A sufficient amount of the suspension is poured over a carbon cloth to form a layer of solids about 0.01 to about 0.05 cm thick on the carbon cloth when the electrode is completed. A vacuum was applied to the opposite side of the carbon cloth to remove the liquid and the catalyst layer/cloth assembly is dried and compressed at about 10 to about 50 MPa's. The binder is then sintered in an inert atmosphere to complete the electrode. The electrode is used for the oxidation of sulfur dioxide in a sulfur based hybrid cycle for the decomposition of water.

Lu, Wen-Tong P. (Upper St. Clair, PA); Ammon, Robert L. (Baldwin both of, PA)

1982-01-01

192

The Use of Soluble Polyolefins as Supports for Transition Metal Catalysts  

E-print Network

lab has had interest in the development of soluble polymer-supports for transition metal catalysts. We have developed several separation methods for these soluble polymer-bound catalysts. These include thermomorphic liquid/liquid and solid...

Hobbs, Christopher Eugene

2012-10-19

193

Traveling Through Different Liquids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners observe and record what happens when they manipulate bottles containing a liquid (water or corn syrup) and one or more objects (screw, nail, paper clip). They should observe differences in how quickly the objects fall in the different liquids. This lesson builds on what learners have studied in previous lessons, Exploring Liquids and Exploring How Liquids Behave.

Janulaw, Sharon

2010-01-01

194

Ionic Liquids Database- (ILThermo)  

National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

SRD 147 Ionic Liquids Database- (ILThermo) (Web, free access)   IUPAC Ionic Liquids Database, ILThermo, is a free web research tool that allows users worldwide to access an up-to-date data collection from the publications on experimental investigations of thermodynamic, and transport properties of ionic liquids as well as binary and ternary mixtures containing ionic liquids.

195

Look-alike Liquids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners add drops of four liquids (water, alcohol, salt water, and detergent solution) to different surfaces and observe the liquids' behavior. Learners will see that liquids have characteristic properties which can be used for identification. In the related activity, " Developing Tests to Distinguish Between Similar-Looking Liquids" (see related resources), learners identify an unknown based on these properties.

James H. Kessler

2007-01-01

196

Directable photorealistic liquids  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a method for the directable animation of photorealistic liquids using the particle level set method to obtain smooth, visually pleasing complex liquid surfaces. We also provide for a degree of control common to particle-only based simulation techniques. A variety of directable liquid primitive variables, including the isosurface value, velocity, and viscosity, can be set throughout the liquid. Interaction

N. Rasmussen; D. Enright; D. Nguyen; S. Marino; N. Sumner; W. Geiger; S. Hoon; R. Fedkiw

2004-01-01

197

Erasing no-man's land by thermodynamically stabilizing the liquid-liquid transition in tetrahedral particles.  

PubMed

One of the most controversial hypotheses for explaining the origin of the thermodynamic anomalies characterizing liquid water postulates the presence of a metastable second-order liquid-liquid critical point [1] located in the "no-man's land" [2]. In this scenario, two liquids with distinct local structure emerge near the critical temperature. Unfortunately, since spontaneous crystallization is rapid in this region, experimental support for this hypothesis relies on significant extrapolations, either from the metastable liquid or from amorphous solid water [3, 4]. Although the liquid-liquid transition is expected to feature in many tetrahedrally coordinated liquids, including silicon [5], carbon [6] and silica, even numerical studies of atomic and molecular models have been unable to conclusively prove the existence of this transition. Here we provide such evidence for a model in which it is possible to continuously tune the softness of the interparticle interaction and the flexibility of the bonds, the key ingredients controlling the existence of the critical point. We show that conditions exist where the full coexistence is thermodynamically stable with respect to crystallization. Our work offers a basis for designing colloidal analogues of water exhibiting liquid-liquid transitions in equilibrium, opening the way for experimental confirmation of the original hypothesis. PMID:25264453

Smallenburg, Frank; Filion, Laura; Sciortino, Francesco

2014-09-01

198

Forced Oscillations of Supported Drops  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Oscillations of supported liquid drops are the subject of wide scientific interest, with applications in areas as diverse as liquid-liquid extraction, synthesis of ceramic powders, growing of pure crystals in low gravity, and measurement of dynamic surface tension. In this research, axisymmetric forced oscillations of arbitrary amplitude of viscous liquid drops of fixed volume which are pendant from or sessile on a rod with a fixed or moving contact line and surrounded by an inviscid ambient gas are induced by moving the rod in the vertical direction sinusiodally in time. In this paper, a preliminary report is made on the computational analysis of the oscillations of supported drops that have 'clean' interfaces and whose contact lines remain fixed throughout their motions. The relative importance of forcing to damping can be increased by either increasing the amplitude of rod motion A or Reynolds number Re. It is shown that as the ratio of forcing to damping rises, for drops starting from an initial rest state a sharp increase in deformation can occur when they are forced to oscillate in the vicinity of their resonance frequencies, indicating the incipience of hysteresis. However, it is also shown that the existence of a second stable limit cycle and the occurrence of hysteresis can be observed if the drop is subjected to a so-called frequency sweep, where the forcing frequency is first increased and then decreased over a suitable range. Because the change in drop deformation response is abrupt in the vicinity of the forcing frequencies where hysteresis occurs, it should be possible to exploit the phenomenon to accurately measure the viscosity and surface tension of the drop liquid.

Wilkes, Edward D.; Basaran, Osman A.

1996-01-01

199

Exploring How Liquids Behave  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners apply their knowledge from a previous study to identify different liquids--water, corn syrup, and vegetable oil. They also investigate combinations of liquids, two at a time, to see how they interact. This is meant as a follow-up lesson to the related activity, Exploring Liquids. As an extension, learners can continue their study of these liquids in the lesson, Traveling Through Different Liquids.

Janulaw, Sharon

2010-01-01

200

Industry Support  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is responsible for the Advanced Communications for Air Traffic Management (AC/ATM) Project, a sub-element task of the Advanced Air Transportation Technologies (AATT) Project of the NASA Aviation System Capacity Program (ASC). The AC/ATM Project is developing new communications technologies and tools that will improve throughput in the U.S. Air Traffic Control System. The goal of the AC/ATM Project is to enable a communications infrastructure providing the capacity, efficiency, and flexibility necessary to realize benefits of the future mature Free-Flight environment. The capabilities and scope of communications technologies needed to accomplish this goal depend on characteristics of the future Free-Flight environment. There are many operational concepts being proposed for a future ATM system to enable user flexibility and efficiency. GRC s focus is on developing new technologies and techniques to support the digital communication of information involving airborne and ground-based users. However, the technologies and techniques must be integrated with the systems and services that industry and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) are developing. Thus, GRC needs to monitor and provide input to the various industry and FAA organizations and committees that are specifying new systems and services. Adoption of technologies by the FAA is partially dependent on acceptance of the technology by the aviation community. The commercial aviation community in particular would like to adopt technologies that can be used throughout the world. As a result, the adoption of common or at least compatible technologies by European countries is a key factor in getting commitments to those technologies by the US aviation community. GRC desires to keep informed of European activities that relate to aviation communication technologies, particularly those that are being supported by Eurocontrol.

2003-01-01

201

Heat exchanger support apparatus in a fluidized bed  

DOEpatents

A heat exchanger is mounted in the upper portion of a fluidized combusting bed for the control of the temperature of the bed. A support, made up of tubes, is extended from the perforated plate of the fluidized bed up to the heat exchanger. The tubular support framework for the heat exchanger has liquid circulated therethrough to prevent deterioration of the support.

Lawton, Carl W. (West Hartford, CT)

1982-01-01

202

49 CFR 195.208 - Welding of supports and braces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Welding of supports and braces. 195.208 Section 195.208 ...HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Construction § 195.208 Welding of supports and braces. Supports or braces may not...

2010-10-01

203

49 CFR 195.208 - Welding of supports and braces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Welding of supports and braces. 195.208 Section 195.208 ...HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Construction § 195.208 Welding of supports and braces. Supports or braces may not...

2011-10-01

204

49 CFR 195.208 - Welding of supports and braces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Welding of supports and braces. 195.208 Section 195.208 ...HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Construction § 195.208 Welding of supports and braces. Supports or braces may not...

2013-10-01

205

49 CFR 195.208 - Welding of supports and braces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Welding of supports and braces. 195.208 Section 195.208 ...HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Construction § 195.208 Welding of supports and braces. Supports or braces may not...

2012-10-01

206

Liquid-film electron stripper  

DOEpatents

An improved liquid-film electron stripper particularly for high intensity heavy ion beams which produces constant regenerated, stable, free-standing liquid films having an adjustable thickness between 0.3 to 0.05 microns. The improved electron stripper is basically composed of at least one high speed, rotating disc with a very sharp, precision-like, ground edge on one said of the disc's periphery and with a highly polished, flat, radial surface adjacent the sharp edge. A fine stream of liquid, such as oil, impinges at a 90.degree. angle adjacent the disc's sharp outer edge. Film terminators, located at a selected distance from the disc perimeter are positioned approximately perpendicular to the film. The terminators support, shape, and stretch the film and are arranged to assist in the prevention of liquid droplet formation by directing the collected film to a reservoir below without breaking or interfering with the film. One embodiment utilizes two rotating discs and associated terminators, with the discs rotating so as to form films in opposite directions, and with the second disc being located down beam-line relative to the first disc.

Gavin, Basil F. (Albion, CA)

1986-01-01

207

Liquid level detector  

DOEpatents

A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which vapor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

Grasso, A.P.

1984-02-21

208

Liquid level detector  

DOEpatents

A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which apor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

Grasso, Albert P. (Vernon, CT)

1986-01-01

209

Semiconductor nanorod liquid crystals  

SciTech Connect

Rodlike molecules form liquid crystalline phases with orientational order and positional disorder. The great majority of materials in which liquid crystalline phases have been observed are comprised of organic molecules or polymers, even though there has been continuing and growing interest in inorganic liquid crystals. Recent advances in the control of the sizes and shapes of inorganic nanocrystals allow for the formation of a broad class of new inorganic liquid crystals. Here we show the formation of liquid crystalline phases of CdSe semiconductor nanorods. These new liquid crystalline phases may have great importance for both application and fundamental study.

Li, Liang-shi; Walda, Joost; Manna, Liberato; Alivisatos, A. Paul

2002-01-28

210

Influence of the ionic liquid/gas surface on ionic liquid chemistry.  

PubMed

Applications such as gas storage, gas separation, NP synthesis and supported ionic liquid phase catalysis depend upon the interaction of different species with the ionic liquid/gas surface. Consequently, these applications cannot proceed to the full extent of their potential without a profound understanding of the surface structure and properties. As a whole, this perspective contains more questions than answers, which demonstrates the current state of the field. Throughout this perspective, crucial questions are posed and a roadmap is proposed to answer these questions. A critical analysis is made of the field of ionic liquid/gas surface structure and properties, and a number of design rules are mined. The effects of ionic additives on the ionic liquid/gas surface structure are presented. A possible driving force for surface formation is discussed that has, to the best of my knowledge, not been postulated in the literature to date. This driving force suggests that for systems composed solely of ions, the rules for surface formation of dilute electrolytes do not apply. The interaction of neutral additives with the ionic liquid/gas surface is discussed. Particular attention is focussed upon H(2)O and CO(2), vital additives for many applications of ionic liquids. Correlations between ionic liquid/gas surface structure and properties, ionic liquid surfaces plus additives, and ionic liquid applications are given. PMID:22349469

Lovelock, Kevin R J

2012-04-21

211

Liquid Drops sliding down an inclined plane and Antoine Mellet  

E-print Network

Liquid Drops sliding down an inclined plane Inwon Kim and Antoine Mellet March 16, 2012 Abstract-static approximation Consider a liquid drop lying on an inclined plane. We introduce a coordinate system and the solid. If the support plane is inclined at an angle to the horizontal in the x

Mellet, Antoine

212

Deciphering the interactions between liquid crystals and chemically functionalized surfaces: Role of hydrogen bonding on orientations of liquid crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports an investigation of the influence of interfacial hydrogen bonding on the orientations of liquid crystals at surfaces. The orientations of 10 liquid crystals were examined on carboxylic acid- or methyl-terminated self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) supported on obliquely deposited gold films. The mesogens comprising the liquid crystals each possessed different hydrogen bond acceptors. The azimuthal orientations (in-plane orientation of

Yan-Yeung Luk; Kun-Ling Yang; Katie Cadwell; Nicholas L. Abbott

2004-01-01

213

Dynamics of liquid-liquid displacement.  

PubMed

Capillary driven liquid-liquid displacement in a system with two immiscible liquids of comparable viscosity was investigated by means of optical high speed video microscopy. For the first time, the impact of substrate wettability on contact line dynamics in liquid-liquid systems was studied. On all substrates, qualitatively different dynamics, in two distinct velocity regimes, were found. Hydrodynamic models apply to the fast stage of initial spreading, while nonhydrodynamic dissipation dominates contact line motion in a final stage at low speed, where the molecular kinetic theory (MKT) successfully captured the dynamics. The MKT model parameter values showed no systematic dependence on substrate wettability. This unexpected result is interpreted in terms of local contact line pinning. PMID:19496572

Fetzer, Renate; Ramiasa, Melanie; Ralston, John

2009-07-21

214

Rock drilling, cooling liquids  

NSF Publications Database

Title : Rock drilling, cooling liquids Type : Antarctic EAM NSF Org: OD / OPP Date : October 23 ... impacts that could accrue from the use of cooling liquids during rock drilling. Our discussion of ...

215

Zero gravity liquid mixer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An apparatus for mixing liquids under conditions of zero gravity is disclosed. The apparatus is comprised of a closed reservoir for the liquids, with a means for maintaining a positive pressure on the liquids in the reservoir. A valved liquid supply line is connected to the reservoir for supplying the reservoir with the liquids to be mixed in the reservoir. The portion of the reservoir containing the liquids to be mixed is in communication with a pump which alternately causes a portion of the liquids to flow out of the pump and into the reservoir to mix the liquids. The fluids in the reservoir are in communication through a conduit with the pump which alternately causes a portion of the fluids to flow out of the pump and into the sphere. The conduit connecting the pump and sphere may contain a nozzle or other jet-forming structure such as a venturi for further mixing the fluids.

Booth, F. W.; Bruce, R. A. (inventors)

1973-01-01

216

Liquid seeding atomizer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An atomizer for a liquid having an air supply is described. Liquid supply tubes extend longitudinally along the air supply tube. The air supply tube has at least one air orifice extending from an inner surface of the tube through the tube. The liquid supply tubes are positioned on either side of the air orifices and the liquid tubes are sealed to the air supply tube. The liquid supply tubes with facing liquid orifices are positioned adjacent to each of the air orifices. The liquid supply tubes are laterally spaced apart at the liquid orifices at a distance less than the diameter of the air orifices to enable a beneficial venturi effect when the atomizer is in operation.

Seegmiller, Henry L. B. (inventor)

1987-01-01

217

Magnetic correlations and quantum criticality in the insulating antiferromagnetic, insulating spin liquid, renormalized Fermi liquid, and metallic antiferromagnetic phases  

E-print Network

fluctuations near a metallic quantum critical point, and provide quantitative support for the selfMagnetic correlations and quantum criticality in the insulating antiferromagnetic, insulating spin liquid, renormalized Fermi liquid, and metallic antiferromagnetic phases of the Mott system V2O3 Wei Bao

Broholm, Collin Leslie

218

Wetting study of imidazolium ionic liquids.  

PubMed

In this work, we present a systematic contact angles study of a series of 1-alkyl, 3-methyl-imidazolium ionic liquids (ILs) on well-defined polar and nonpolar monolayer surfaces supported on Si wafers. The advancing and receding contact angles of ILs were used to determine the surface energy of the monolayer surfaces using Neumann's equation-of-state and Zisman's critical surface tension approaches. In parallel, the contact angles of conventional probe fluids (molecular liquids) including water, formamide, methylene iodide, ethylene glycol, and hexadecane were determined on the same surfaces. The results obtained showed a great deal of similarity in wetting behavior of ionic vs molecular probe fluids: the contact angles of both sets of liquids followed the same patterns in accord with the surface tension of the fluid. A good agreement was found between the surface energy determined by different sets of liquids. PMID:19027916

Batchelor, Tyler; Cunder, Joe; Fadeev, Alexander Y

2009-02-15

219

Liquid secretion properties of airway submucosal glands  

PubMed Central

The tracheobronchial submucosal glands secrete liquid that is important for hydrating airway surfaces, supporting mucociliary transport, and serving as a fluid matrix for numerous secreted macromolecules including the gel-forming mucins. This review details the essential structural elements of airway glands and summarizes what is currently known regarding the ion transport processes responsible for producing the liquid component of gland secretion. Liquid secretion most likely arises from serous cells and is principally under neural control with muscarinic agonists, substance P, and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) functioning as effective secretogogues. Liquid secretion is driven by the active transepithelial secretion of both Cl? and HCO3? and at least a portion of this process is mediated by the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), which is highly expressed in glands. The potential role of submucosal glands in cystic fibrosis lung disease is discussed. PMID:14660706

Ballard, Stephen T; Inglis, Sarah K

2004-01-01

220

Liquidity management with fuzzy qualitative constraints  

Microsoft Academic Search

The treasurer of a bank must balance liquidity flows every day in an environment in which some future interest rates and transactions are known precisely, but some are uncertain. Decision support systems based on traditional mathematical programming approach find the optimal plan with respect to precise quantitative constraints provided by the user; we here suggest a procedure by which such

Francesco Gardin; Richard Power; Enrico Martinelli

1995-01-01

221

Liquid-cooled liner for helmets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Liner acts as coolant tubing, manifold, and supporting structures. Fabric of waffle-design is made of several integrated channels (or capillaries) through which coolant liquid can flow. Thin and light-weight liner can be incorporated into any type of helmet or head gear.

Williams, B. A.; Elkins, W.

1974-01-01

222

Cosmology with liquid mirror telescopes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Liquid mirrors provide an exciting means to obtain large optical telescopes for substantially lower costs than conventional technologies. The liquid mirror concept has been demonstrated in the lab with the construction of a diffraction limited 1.5 m mirror. The mirror surface, using liquid mercury, forms a perfect parabolic shape when the mirror cell is rotated at a uniform velocity. A liquid mirror must be able to support a heavy mercury load with minimal flexure and have a fundamental resonant frequency that is as high as possible, to suppress the amplitude of surface waves caused by small vibrations transmitted to the mirror. To minimize the transmission of vibrations to the liquid surface, the entire mirror rests on an air bearing. This necessitates the mirror cell being lightweight, due to the limited load capabilities of the air bearing. The mirror components must also have physical characteristics which minimize the effects of thermal expansion with ambient temperature fluctuations in the observatory. In addition, the 2.7 m mirror construction is designed so that the techniques used may be readily extended to the construction of large mirrors. To attain the goals of a lightweight, rigid mirror, a composite laminant construction was used. The mirror consists of a foam core cut to the desired parabolic shape, with an accuracy of a few mm. An aluminum hub serves as an anchor for the foam and skin, and allows precise centering of the mirror on the air bearing and drive system. Several plys of Kevlar, covered in an epoxy matrix, are then applied to the foam. A final layer of pure epoxy is formed by spin casting. This final layer is parabolic to within a fraction of a mm. An aluminum ring bonded to the circumference of the mirror retains the mercury, and incorporates stainless-steel hard-points for the attachment of balance weights.

Hogg, David W.; Gibson, Brad K.; Hickson, Paul

1993-01-01

223

Thermal conductivity of liquids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bridgman equation for thermal conductivity of liquids is examined and a relation between sonic velocity and latent heat of vaporization is given. A correlation based on the hole theory of liquids is presented. This correlation predicts thermal conductivity in the temperature range of -20° to +80°C for 16 liquids, and at 20°C for 50 liquids with an average absolute

D. S. Viswanath

1967-01-01

224

Fluid Mechanics of Liquid-Liquid Systems.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The detailed hydrodynamics of selected liquid -liquid flow systems are investigated to provide a firm foundation for the rational design of separation processes. The implementation of this objective centers on the development of a robust code to simulate liquid-liquid flows. We have applied this code to the realistic simulation of aspects of the complex fluid mechanical behavior, and developed quantitative insight into the underlying processes involved. The Volume of Fluid (VOF) method is combined with the Continuous Surface Force (CSF) algorithm to provide a numerically stable code capable of solving high Reynolds numbers free surface flows. One of the developments during the testing was an efficient method for solving the Young-Laplace equation describing the shape of the meniscus in a vertical cylinder for a constrained liquid volume. The steady-state region near the nozzle for the laminar flow of a Newtonian liquid jet injected vertically into another immiscible Newtonian liquid is investigated for various Reynolds numbers by solving the axisymmetric transient equations of motion and continuity. The analysis takes into account pressure, viscous, inertial, gravitational, and surface tension forces, and comparison with previous experimental measurements shows good agreement. Comparisons of the present numerical method with the numerical results of previous boundary-layer methods help establish their range of validity. A new approximate equation for the shape of the interface of the steady jet, based on an overall momentum balance, is also developed. The full transient from liquid-liquid jet startup to breakup into drops is also simulated numerically. In comparison with experiment, the results of the present numerical method show a greater sensitivity of the jet length to the Reynolds number than the best predictions of previous linear stability analyses. The formation of drops is investigated at low to high Reynolds numbers before and after jet formation. The numerical simulations are satisfactorily compared with n-heptane/water experiments and previous simplified analyses based on drop formation before and after jetting. Although the program and numerical techniques developed in this dissertation have been used mainly to solve problems involving liquid-liquid jets and drops, many features of more complex and general liquid-liquid contacting systems are explored in the process.

Richards, John Reed

225

Mixtures of ionic liquids.  

PubMed

Simple ionic liquids have long been held to be designer solvents, based upon the ability to independently vary their cations and anions. The formation of mixtures of ionic liquids increases this synthetic flexibility. We review the available literature of these ionic liquid mixtures to identify how their properties change and the possibility for their application. PMID:22890419

Niedermeyer, Heiko; Hallett, Jason P; Villar-Garcia, Ignacio J; Hunt, Patricia A; Welton, Tom

2012-12-01

226

Tunable liquid crystal lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquid crystal lasers are dye-doped distributed feedback lasing systems. Fabricated by coupling the periodic structure of a liquid crystal medium with a fluorescent dye, the emission from these systems is tunable by controlling the liquid crystal system---be it through electric or thermal field effects, photochemical reactions, mechanical deformations, etc. The laser action arises from an extended interaction time between the

Scott J. Woltman

2008-01-01

227

Electronic Liquid Level Indicator  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of continuously measuring the level of conducting and non-conducting liquids has been developed. The liquid to be measured occupies the inner space of a coaxial cylindrical condenser. As the level of liquid varies, the capacitance varies. The change in capacitance detunes a resonance resulting in a change of plate current through the oscillator tube.

S. C. Coroniti

1942-01-01

228

Liquid detection circuit  

DOEpatents

Herein is a circuit which is capable of detecting the presence of liquids, especially cryogenic liquids, and whose sensor will not overheat in a vacuum. The circuit parameters, however, can be adjusted to work with any liquid over a wide range of temperatures.

Regan, Thomas O. (North Aurora, IL)

1987-01-01

229

High Performance Liquid Chromatography  

E-print Network

HPLC - 1 High Performance Liquid Chromatography HPLC MEASUREMENT OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN CIGARETTE SMOKE Last updated: June 17, 2014 #12;HPLC - 2 High Performance Liquid Chromatography identify as many PAH as possible in cigarette smoke using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC

Nizkorodov, Sergey

230

Vitrification and levitation of a liquid droplet on liquid nitrogen  

E-print Network

Vitrification and levitation of a liquid droplet on liquid nitrogen Young S. Songa , Douglas Adlera the liquid, when the liquid droplet comes into direct contact with liquid nitrogen. This is distinct from.e., vitrification) and the levitation of droplets on liquid nitrogen (i.e., Leidenfrost phenomenon) take place

Demirci, Utkan

231

Bubbling in unbounded coflowing liquids.  

PubMed

An investigation of the stability of low density and viscosity fluid jets and spouts in unbounded coflowing liquids is presented. A full parametrical analysis from low to high Weber and Reynolds numbers shows that the presence of any fluid of finite density and viscosity inside the hollow jet elicits a transition from an absolute to a convective instability at a finite value of the Weber number, for any value of the Reynolds number. Below that critical value of the Weber number, the absolute character of the instability leads to local breakup, and consequently to local bubbling. Experimental data support our model. PMID:16605912

Gañán-Calvo, Alfonso M; Herrada, Miguel A; Garstecki, Piotr

2006-03-31

232

Radiation monitor for liquids  

DOEpatents

A radiation monitor for use with liquids that utilizes air ions created by alpha radiation emitted by the liquids as its detectable element. A signal plane, held at an electrical potential with respect to ground, collects these air ions. A guard plane or guard rings is used to limit leakage currents. In one embodiment, the monitor is used for monitoring liquids retained in a tank. Other embodiments monitor liquids flowing through a tank, and bodies of liquids, such as ponds, lakes, rivers and oceans. 4 figs.

Koster, J.E.; Bolton, R.D.

1999-03-02

233

Radiation monitor for liquids  

DOEpatents

A radiation monitor for use with liquids that utilizes air ions created by alpha radiation emitted by the liquids as its detectable element. A signal plane, held at an electrical potential with respect to ground, collects these air ions. A guard plane or guard rings is used to limit leakage currents. In one embodiment, the monitor is used for monitoring liquids retained in a tank. Other embodiments monitor liquids flowing through a tank, and bodies of liquids, such as ponds, lakes, rivers and oceans.

Koster, James E. (Los Alamos, NM); Bolton, Richard D. (Los Alamos, NM)

1999-01-01

234

Banks' Advantage in Hedging Liquidity Risk: Theory and Evidence from the Commercial Paper Market  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper argues that banks have a unique ability to hedge against market-wide liquidity shocks. Deposit inflows provide funding for loan demand shocks that follow declines in market liquidity. Consequently, one dimension of bank specialness' is that banks can insure firms against systematic declines in market liquidity at lower cost than other financial institutions. We provide supporting empirical evidence from

Evan G. Gatev; Philip E. Strahan

2003-01-01

235

LAL/RT 06-04 ATLAS ENDCAP LIQUID ARGON CALORIMETERS  

E-print Network

� � �º¹�º � ÐÐ � #12;LAL/RT 06-04 May 2006 ATLAS ENDCAP LIQUID ARGON CALORIMETERS Description and charge detection in liquid argon. They are therefore all grouped in the same vessel which must basically support and keep in place the heavy plates and the detection electrodes and maintain liquid argon at cold

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

236

Duality of liquids  

PubMed Central

Liquids flow, and in this sense are close to gases. At the same time, interactions in liquids are strong as in solids. The combination of these two properties is believed to be the ultimate obstacle to constructing a general theory of liquids. Here, we adopt a new approach: instead of focusing on the problem of strong interactions, we zero in on the relative contributions of vibrational and diffusional motion. We show that liquid energy and specific heat are given, to a very good approximation, by their vibrational contributions as in solids over almost entire range of relaxation time in which liquids exist as such, and demonstrate that this result is consistent with liquid entropy exceeding solid entropy. Our analysis therefore reveals an interesting duality of liquids not hitherto known: they are close to solids from the thermodynamic perspective and to flowing gases. We discuss several implications of this result. PMID:23851971

Trachenko, K.; Brazhkin, V. V.

2013-01-01

237

Support effects studied on model supported catalysts  

SciTech Connect

Composition and structure of oxide support materials can change the catalytic behavior of metal and oxide catalysts. Model catalysts are being studied in which the active phase is deposited on flat oxide substrates, with emphasis on metals catalysis for automotive emissions control and acidity in supported oxides. Research is reported in the following areas: particle-size effects, support effects on ZnO and zirconia, support effects on ceria, supported oxides, and low energy ion scattering (no results in the latter).

Gorte, R.J.

1993-02-01

238

Intensification of Liquid-Liquid Contacting Processes  

E-print Network

transfer was intensified by the application of electric fields. As an alternative biofuel, biodiesel is produced through transesterification of vegetable oils, fat and algae lipids and alcohol with the help of acid or base. Transesterification is a liquid...

Qiu, Zheyan

2010-09-01

239

Liquid Crystal Materials and Liquid Crystal Displays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the early 1970s, three major prerequisites have brought the success of the liquid crystal display (LCD) technology to its key role of today. Namely, the discovery of electro-optical field-effects on which the displays are based, the successful search for liquid crystals (LCs) with material properties that meet the complex requirements of electro-optical effects and render the effects applicable in

Martin Schadt

1997-01-01

240

Liquid Effluents Program mission analysis  

SciTech Connect

Systems engineering is being used to identify work to cleanup the Hanford Site. The systems engineering process transforms an identified mission need into a set of performance parameters and a preferred system configuration. Mission analysis is the first step in the process. Mission analysis supports early decision-making by clearly defining the program objectives, and evaluating the feasibility and risks associated with achieving those objectives. The results of the mission analysis provide a consistent basis for subsequent systems engineering work. A mission analysis was performed earlier for the overall Hanford Site. This work was continued by a ``capstone`` team which developed a top-level functional analysis. Continuing in a top-down manner, systems engineering is now being applied at the program and project levels. A mission analysis was conducted for the Liquid Effluents Program. The results are described herein. This report identifies the initial conditions and acceptable final conditions, defines the programmatic and physical interfaces and sources of constraints, estimates the resources to carry out the mission, and establishes measures of success. The mission analysis reflects current program planning for the Liquid Effluents Program as described in Liquid Effluents FY 1995 Multi-Year Program Plan.

Lowe, S.S.

1994-09-27

241

Rotor-Liquid-Fundament System's Oscillation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The work is devoted to research of oscillation and sustainability of stationary twirl of vertical flexible static dynamically out-of-balance rotor with cavity partly filled with liquid and set on relative frame fundament. The accounting of such factors like oscillation of fundament, liquid oscillation, influence of asymmetry of installation of a rotor on a shaft, anisotropism of shaft support and fundament, static and dynamic out-of-balance of a rotor, an external friction, an internal friction of a shaft, allows to settle an invoice more precisely kinematic and dynamic characteristics of system.

Kydyrbekuly, A.

242

Dynamic criticality in glass-forming liquids.  

PubMed

We propose that the dynamics of supercooled liquids and the formation of glasses can be understood from the existence of a zero-temperature dynamical critical point. To support our proposal, we derive a dynamic field theory for a generic kinetically constrained model, which we expect to describe the dynamics of a supercooled liquid. We study this field theory using the renormalization group (RG). Its long time behavior is dominated by a zero-temperature critical point, which for d>2 belongs to the directed percolation universality class. Molecular dynamics simulations seem to confirm the existence of dynamic scaling behavior consistent with the RG predictions. PMID:15169509

Whitelam, Stephen; Berthier, Ludovic; Garrahan, Juan P

2004-05-01

243

Liquid level detector  

DOEpatents

A liquid level detector for conductive liquids for vertical installation in a tank, the detector having a probe positioned within a sheath and insulated therefrom by a seal so that the tip of the probe extends proximate to but not below the lower end of the sheath, the lower end terminating in a rim that is provided with notches, said lower end being tapered, the taper and notches preventing debris collection and bubble formation, said lower end when contacting liquid as it rises will form an airtight cavity defined by the liquid, the interior sheath wall, and the seal, the compression of air in the cavity preventing liquid from further entry into the sheath and contact with the seal. As a result, the liquid cannot deposit a film to form an electrical bridge across the seal.

Tshishiku, Eugene M. (Augusta, GA)

2011-08-09

244

Monogroove liquid heat exchanger  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A liquid supply control is disclosed for a heat transfer system which transports heat by liquid-vapor phase change of a working fluid. An assembly (10) of monogroove heat pipe legs (15) can be operated automatically as either heat acquisition devices or heat discharge sources. The liquid channels (27) of the heat pipe legs (15) are connected to a reservoir (35) which is filled and drained by respective filling and draining valves (30, 32). Information from liquid level sensors (50, 51) on the reservoir (35) is combined (60) with temperature information (55) from the liquid heat exchanger (12) and temperature information (56) from the assembly vapor conduit (42) to regulate filling and draining of the reservoir (35), so that the reservoir (35) in turn serves the liquid supply/drain needs of the heat pipe legs (15), on demand, by passive capillary action (20, 28).

Brown, Richard F. (Inventor); Edelstein, Fred (Inventor)

1990-01-01

245

Dielectrically actuated liquid lens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A packaged liquid lens driven by the dielectric force was demonstrated. The liquid lens consisted of a low dielectric constant droplet and a high dielectric constant sealing liquid. The two non-conductive liquids were sealed in a chamber under the condition of iso-density. Focal length of a liquid lens with an aperture of 3mm changed from 34mm to 12mm in the range of 0-200V. Hysteresis was observed in the liquid lens, with a maximum value measured of 12.5° at 120 volts in terms of droplet's contact angle. The focal spot size measured approximately 80?m. Rise and fall times were 650ms and 300ms, respectively. The lens consumed 1mW of power when applying a 200 volt, 1 kHz signal. The longitudinal and transverse spherical aberrations were estimated to be nearly invariant when the focal length exceeded 20mm.

Cheng, Chih-Cheng; Yeh, J. Andrew

2007-06-01

246

Low Toxic Ionic Liquids, Liquid Catanionics, and Ionic Liquid Microemulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the future the demand of sustainable and low toxic surfactants and solvents will constantly increase. In this article, we present some new approaches to meet these requirements. Whereas ionic liquids are often based on imidazolium ions, we will show that there are also much less toxic ones, especially with choline as cation. Choline salts, even if solid at room

Werner Kunz; Eva Maurer; Regina Klein; Didier Touraud; Doris Rengstl; Agnes Harrar; Susanne Dengler; Oliver Zech

2011-01-01

247

Ionic Liquid Membranes for Carbon Dioxide Separation  

SciTech Connect

Recent scientific studies are rapidly advancing novel technological improvements and engineering developments that demonstrate the ability to minimize, eliminate, or facilitate the removal of various contaminants and green house gas emissions in power generation. The Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) shows promise for carbon dioxide mitigation not only because of its higher efficiency as compared to conventional coal firing plants, but also due to a higher driving force in the form of high partial pressure. One of the novel technological concepts currently being developed and investigated is membranes for carbon dioxide (CO2) separation, due to simplicity and ease of scaling. A challenge in using membranes for CO2 capture in IGCC is the possibility of failure at elevated temperatures or pressures. Our earlier research studies examined the use of ionic liquids on various supports for CO2 separation over the temperature range, 37°C-300°C. The ionic liquid, 1-hexyl-3methylimidazolium Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, ([hmim][Tf2N]), was chosen for our initial studies with the following supports: polysulfone (PSF), poly(ether sulfone) (PES), and cross-linked nylon. The PSF and PES supports had similar performance at room temperature, but increasing temperature caused the supported membranes to fail. The ionic liquid with the PES support greatly affected the glass transition temperature, while with the PSF, the glass transition temperature was only slightly depressed. The cross-linked nylon support maintained performance without degradation over the temperature range 37-300°C with respect to its permeability and selectivity. However, while the cross-linked nylon support was able to withstand temperatures, the permeability continued to increase and the selectivity decreased with increasing temperature. Our studies indicated that further testing should examine the use of other ionic liquids, including those that form chemical complexes with CO2 based on amine interactions. The hypothesis is that the performance at the elevated temperatures could be improved by allowing a facilitated transport mechanism to become dominant. Several amine-based ionic liquids were tested on the cross-linked nylon support. It was found that using the amine-based ionic liquid did improve selectivity and permeability at higher temperature. The hypothesis was confirmed, and it was determined that the type of amine used also played a role in facilitated transport. Given the appropriate aminated ionic liquid with the cross-linked nylon support, it is possible to have a membrane capable of separating CO2 at IGCC conditions. With this being the case, the research has expanded to include separation of other constituents besides CO2 (CO, H2S, etc.) and if they play a role in membrane poisoning or degradation. This communication will discuss the operation of the recently fabricated ionic liquid membranes and the impact of gaseous components other than CO2 on their performance and stability.

Myers, C.R.; Ilconich, J.B.; Luebke, D.R.; Pennline, H.W.

2008-07-12

248

Chiral separation by enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction.  

PubMed

The literature on enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction (ELLE) spans more than half a century of research. Nonetheless, a comprehensive overview has not appeared during the past few decades. Enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction is a technology of interest for a wide range of chemists and chemical engineers in the fields of fine chemicals, pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, fragrances and foods. In this review the principles and advances of resolution through enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction are discussed, starting with an introduction on the principles of enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction including host-guest chemistry, extraction and phase transfer mechanisms, and multistage liquid-liquid extraction processing. Then the literature on enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction systems is reviewed, structured on extractant classes. The following extractant classes are considered: crown ether based extractants, metal complexes and metalloids, extractants based on tartrates, and a final section with all other types of chiral extractants. PMID:21107491

Schuur, Boelo; Verkuijl, Bastiaan J V; Minnaard, Adriaan J; de Vries, Johannes G; Heeres, Hero J; Feringa, Ben L

2011-01-01

249

Erasing no-man’s land by thermodynamically stabilizing the liquid-liquid transition in tetrahedral particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most controversial hypotheses for explaining the origin of the thermodynamic anomalies characterizing liquid water postulates the presence of a metastable second-order liquid-liquid critical point located in the `no-man’s land’. In this scenario, two liquids with distinct local structure emerge near the critical temperature. Unfortunately, as spontaneous crystallization is rapid in this region, experimental support for this hypothesis relies on significant extrapolations, either from the metastable liquid or from amorphous solid water. Although the liquid-liquid transition is expected to feature in many tetrahedrally coordinated liquids, including silicon, carbon and silica, even numerical studies of atomic and molecular models have been unable to conclusively prove the existence of this transition. Here we provide such evidence for a model in which it is possible to continuously tune the softness of the interparticle interaction and the flexibility of the bonds, the key ingredients controlling the existence of the critical point. We show that conditions exist where the full coexistence is thermodynamically stable with respect to crystallization. Our work offers a basis for designing colloidal analogues of water exhibiting liquid-liquid transitions in equilibrium, opening the way for experimental confirmation of the original hypothesis.

Smallenburg, Frank; Filion, Laura; Sciortino, Francesco

2014-09-01

250

Encapsulated liquid sorbents for carbon dioxide capture.  

PubMed

Drawbacks of current carbon dioxide capture methods include corrosivity, evaporative losses and fouling. Separating the capture solvent from infrastructure and effluent gases via microencapsulation provides possible solutions to these issues. Here we report carbon capture materials that may enable low-cost and energy-efficient capture of carbon dioxide from flue gas. Polymer microcapsules composed of liquid carbonate cores and highly permeable silicone shells are produced by microfluidic assembly. This motif couples the capacity and selectivity of liquid sorbents with high surface area to facilitate rapid and controlled carbon dioxide uptake and release over repeated cycles. While mass transport across the capsule shell is slightly lower relative to neat liquid sorbents, the surface area enhancement gained via encapsulation provides an order-of-magnitude increase in carbon dioxide absorption rates for a given sorbent mass. The microcapsules are stable under typical industrial operating conditions and may be used in supported packing and fluidized beds for large-scale carbon capture. PMID:25652243

Vericella, John J; Baker, Sarah E; Stolaroff, Joshuah K; Duoss, Eric B; Hardin, James O; Lewicki, James; Glogowski, Elizabeth; Floyd, William C; Valdez, Carlos A; Smith, William L; Satcher, Joe H; Bourcier, William L; Spadaccini, Christopher M; Lewis, Jennifer A; Aines, Roger D

2015-01-01

251

Vaporisation of a dicationic ionic liquid revisited.  

PubMed

The vaporization of a dicationic ionic liquid at moderate temperatures and under reduced pressures--recently studied by line-of-sight mass spectrometry--was further analyzed using an ion-cyclotron resonance mass spectroscopy technique that allows the monitoring of the different species present in the gas phase through the implementation of controlled ion-molecule reactions. The results support the view that the vapour phase of an aprotic dicationic ionic liquid is composed of neutral ion triplets (one dication attached to two anions). Molecular dynamics simulations were also performed in order to explain the magnitude of the vaporization enthalpies of dicationic ionic liquids vis-à-vis their monocationic counterparts. PMID:21058381

Vitorino, Joana; Leal, João P; Licence, Peter; Lovelock, Kevin R J; Gooden, Peter N; Minas da Piedade, Manuel E; Shimizu, Karina; Rebelo, Luís P N; Canongia Lopes, José N

2010-12-01

252

Liquid Sloshing Dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of liquid sloshing in moving or stationary containers remains of great concern to aerospace, civil, and nuclear engineers; physicists; designers of road tankers and ship tankers; and mathematicians. Beginning with the fundamentals of liquid sloshing theory, this book takes the reader systematically from basic theory to advanced analytical and experimental results in a self-contained and coherent format. The

Raouf A. Ibrahim

2005-01-01

253

Precision liquid level sensor  

DOEpatents

A precision liquid level sensor utilizes a balanced R. F. bridge, each arm including an air dielectric line. Changes in liquid level along one air dielectric line imbalance the bridge and create a voltage which is directly measurable across the bridge.

Field, Michael E. (Albuquerque, NM); Sullivan, William H. (Albuquerque, NM)

1985-01-01

254

Precision liquid level sensor  

DOEpatents

A precision liquid level sensor utilizes a balanced R. F. bridge, each arm including an air dielectric line. Changes in liquid level along one air dielectric line imbalance the bridge and create a voltage which is directly measurable across the bridge. 2 figs.

Field, M.E.; Sullivan, W.H.

1985-01-29

255

Hedging bank liquidity risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquidity risk in banking has been attributed to transactions deposits and their potential to spark runs or panics. We show instead that transactions deposits help banks hedge liquidity risk from unused loan commitments. Bank stock-return volatility increases with unused commitments, but the increase is smaller for banks with high levels of transactions deposits. This deposit-lending risk management synergy becomes more

Evan Gatev; Til Schuermann; Philip E. Strahan

2006-01-01

256

Synthesis of ionic liquids  

DOEpatents

Ionic compounds which are liquids at room temperature are formed by the method of mixing a neutral organic ligand with the salt of a metal cation and its conjugate anion. The liquids are hydrophobic, conductive and stable and have uses as solvents and in electrochemical devices.

Dai, Sheng (Knoxville, TN); Luo, Huimin (Knoxville, TN)

2011-11-01

257

Liquid heat capacity lasers  

DOEpatents

The heat capacity laser concept is extended to systems in which the heat capacity lasing media is a liquid. The laser active liquid is circulated from a reservoir (where the bulk of the media and hence waste heat resides) through a channel so configured for both optical pumping of the media for gain and for light amplification from the resulting gain.

Comaskey, Brian J. (Walnut Creek, CA); Scheibner, Karl F. (Tracy, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Livermore, CA)

2007-05-01

258

Synthesis of ionic liquids  

DOEpatents

Ionic compounds which are liquids at room temperature are formed by the method of mixing a neutral organic liqand with the salt of a metal cation and its conjugate anion. The liquids are hydrophobic, conductive and stable and have uses as solvents and in electrochemical devices.

Dai, Sheng [Knoxville, TN; Luo, Huimin [Knoxville, TN

2008-09-09

259

Liquid metal embrittlement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquid metal embrittlement is the reduction in the elongation to failure that can be produced when normally ductile solid metals are stressed while in contact with a liquid metal. This review describes its principal characteristics and the several models which have been advanced in attempts to explain the occurrence and different features of the process. Comparison between theory and experiment

M. G. Nicholas; C. F. Old

1979-01-01

260

Liquid-Seeding Atomizer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Particles sprayed in drops of evaporating liquid. Placed near wind-tunnel inlet, atomizer sprays evaporating liquid containing solid particles into wind-tunnel airflow. Particles entrained in flow and scatter light, enabling flow to be observed optically. One end of atomizer slides on stationary pin to accommodate thermal expansion and contraction.

Seegmiller, Henry L. B.

1988-01-01

261

Column Liquid Chromatography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews literature covering developments of column liquid chromatography during 1982-83. Areas considered include: books and reviews; general theory; columns; instrumentation; detectors; automation and data handling; multidimensional chromatographic and column switching techniques; liquid-solid chromatography; normal bonded-phase, reversed-phase,…

Majors, Ronald E.; And Others

1984-01-01

262

Guidance Document Cryogenic Liquids  

E-print Network

have boiling points below -73°C (-100°F). The most common cryogenic liquids currently on campus conditions of temperature and pressure. But all have two very important properties in common. First, the liquids and their vapors are extremely cold. The risk of destructive freezing of tissues is always present

263

LIGHT NONAQUEOUS PHASE LIQUIDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLS) are hydrocarbons that exist as a separate, immiscible phase when in contact with water and/or air. ifferences in the physical and chemical properties of water and NAPL result in the formation of a physical interface between the liquids which preve...

264

INEEL Liquid Effluent Inventory  

SciTech Connect

The INEEL contractors and their associated facilities are required to identify all liquid effluent discharges that may impact the environment at the INEEL. This liquid effluent information is then placed in the Liquid Effluent Inventory (LEI) database, which is maintained by the INEEL prime contractor. The purpose of the LEI is to identify and maintain a current listing of all liquid effluent discharge points and to identify which discharges are subject to federal, state, or local permitting or reporting requirements and DOE order requirements. Initial characterization, which represents most of the INEEL liquid effluents, has been performed, and additional characterization may be required in the future to meet regulations. LEI information is made available to persons responsible for or concerned with INEEL compliance with liquid effluent permitting or reporting requirements, such as the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System, Wastewater Land Application, Storm Water Pollution Prevention, Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasures, and Industrial Wastewater Pretreatment. The State of Idaho Environmental Oversight and Monitoring Program also needs the information for tracking liquid effluent discharges at the INEEL. The information provides a baseline from which future liquid discharges can be identified, characterized, and regulated, if appropriate. The review covered new and removed buildings/structures, buildings/structures which most likely had new, relocated, or removed LEI discharge points, and at least 10% of the remaining discharge points.

Major, C.A.

1997-06-01

265

Advanced proteomic liquid chromatography  

SciTech Connect

Liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry is the predominant platform used to analyze proteomics samples consisting of large numbers of proteins and their proteolytic products (e.g., truncated polypeptides) and spanning a wide range of relative concentrations. This review provides an overview of advanced capillary liquid chromatography techniques and methodologies that greatly improve separation resolving power and proteomics analysis coverage, sensitivity, and throughput.

Xie, Fang; Smith, Richard D.; Shen, Yufeng

2012-10-26

266

Coordinating chiral ionic liquids.  

PubMed

A practical synthesis of novel coordinating chiral ionic liquids with an amino alcohol structural motif was developed starting from commercially available amino alcohols. These basic chiral ionic liquids could be successfully applied as catalysts in the asymmetric alkylation of aldehydes and gave high enantioselectivities of up to 91% ee. PMID:24163003

Vasiloiu, Maria; Leder, Sonja; Gaertner, Peter; Mereiter, Kurt; Bica, Katharina

2013-12-14

267

Enhanced catalyst for converting synthesis gas to liquid motor fuels  

DOEpatents

The conversion of synthesis gas to liquid molar fuels by means of a cobalt Fischer-Tropsch catalyst composition is enhanced by the addition of molybdenum, tungsten or a combination thereof as an additional component of said composition. The presence of the additive component increases the olefinic content of the hydrocarbon products produced. The catalyst composition can advantageously include a support component, such as a molecular sieve, co-catalyst/support component or a combination of such support components.

Coughlin, Peter K. (Yorktown Heights, NY)

1986-01-01

268

Support Guidelines.com  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource, created by Laura Wish Morgan, a prominent family law and child support attorney, is offered primarily as an aid to other attorneys "who wish to research the law of child support in general and child support guidelines in particular." The site features links to child support guidelines for each state and the District of Columbia, weekly overviews of current notable child support cases, monthly articles on current legal issues concerning child support, and a collection of related links.

269

Fragility Control Using the Liquid-Liquid Transition in Molecular Liquid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquids, whose viscosity obeys the Arrhenius law, are called ``strong,'' while ``fragile'' liquids have the super-Arrhenius behavior. Here we report the first continuous control of the fragility of liquid of the same material over a wide range of fragility, using a continuous liquid-liquid transition. Our study clearly demonstrates that the fragility is not a material specific quantity, but is controlled

Rei Kurita; Hajime Tanaka

2006-01-01

270

Stir membrane liquid-liquid microextraction.  

PubMed

In this article, a novel liquid phase microextraction technique, called stir membrane liquid-liquid microextraction (SM-LLME), is presented. The new approach combines the advantages of liquid phase microextraction and stirring in the same unit allowing the isolation and preconcentration of the analytes in a simple and efficient way. In the construction of the unit, a polymeric membrane is employed to protect the small volume of the extractant phase. The extraction technique is characterized for the resolution of a model analytical problem: the determination of five selected chlorophenols in water. A two-phase extraction mode is used for the extraction of the analytes with an organic solvent in which an in situ derivatization reaction takes place. The analytes are finally analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. All the variables involved in the extraction process have been clearly identified and optimized. The new extraction mode allows the determination of chlorophenols with limits of detection in the range from 14.8 ng/L (for 2,4,5-trichlorophenol) to 22.9 ng/L (for 3-chlorophenol) with a relative standard deviation lower than 8.7% (for 2,6-dichlorophenol). PMID:21236434

Alcudia-León, M C; Lucena, R; Cárdenas, S; Valcárcel, M

2011-02-18

271

Application of Ionic Liquids in Liquid Chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interest in ionic liquids (ILs) for their potential application in analytical chemistry continues to grow. Their usefulness can be due to favourable physicochemical properties, like the lack of vapour pressure, good thermal and chemical stability as well as very good dissolution properties regarding both organic and inorganic compounds. A specific feature of ILs is that these compounds provide strong proton

Micha? Piotr Marsza??; Roman Kaliszan

2007-01-01

272

Solid-Liquid Interfacial Premelting  

E-print Network

We report the observation of a premelting transition at chemically sharp solid-liquid interfaces using molecular-dynamics simulations. The transition is observed in the solid-Al—liquid-Pb system and involves the formation of a liquid interfacial...

Yang, Yang; Asta, Mark; Laird, Brian Bostian

2013-02-28

273

Data Liquidity in Health Information Systems  

PubMed Central

In 2001 the IOM report "Crossing the Quality Chasm" and the NCVHS report "Information for Health" were released and they provided the context for the development of information systems used to support health-supporting processes. Both had as their goals, implicit or explicit, to ensure the right data is provided to the right person at the right time, which is one definition of "Data Liquidity". This concept has had some traction in recent years as a shorthand way to express a system property for Health IT, but there is not a well-defined characterization of what properties of a system or of its components give it better or worse data liquidity. This paper looks at some recent work that help to identify those properties and perhaps can help to ground the concept with metrics that are assessable. PMID:21799328

Courtney, Paul K.

2011-01-01

274

Autothermal Processing of Renewable Liquids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vast majority of petrochemicals are synthesized from just six building block molecules, but current feedstocks are an unsustainable resource with negative externalities. Biomass represents a potentially sustainable feedstock, but needs densification, preferably to a liquid form, to be a suitable replacement. Fermentation to butanol and pyrolysis to bio-oil are two promising liquid intermediates. Catalytic partial oxidation (CPO) of the liquid intermediates over noble metal catalysts, which converts the liquids primarily into syngas and light olefins, is a promising technique for processing densified biomass. The study of liquids at high temperatures requires consideration of a range of complex phenomena, including boiling behavior on hot surfaces, reactions of the feed molecules at high temperatures and on catalyst surfaces, and interactions of impurities in the liquid with the catalyst. Chapter 2 deals with the behavior of the transient liquid that forms when cellulose, a major constituent of biomass, is pyrolized. Fast photography experiments and numerical simulations are performed to show that the aerosols formed in the boiling of this liquid are capable of transporting nonvolatile fragments of biomass intact into the gas phase. These nonvolatile fragments have significant implications in the storage and downstream processing of bio-oil. Some of the behavior of bio-oil at high temperature may also be explained by the variety of molecules in the liquid. Many different functional groups are present, each with its own set of chemical reactions in combustion, pyrolysis, and partial oxidation on a metal catalyst. Chapters 3 and 4 investigate these reactions through a survey of two-carbon surrogates of the functional group classes found in bio-oil. Chapter 3 examines reactions occuring in the complete CPO system over Pt and Rh catalysts, and in the complete system absent O 2. The selectivity data from each molecule and the surface science literature of each molecule are used to propose a reaction mechanism over the catalyst surface. Chapter 4 investigates the reactions that may be occurring in the gas phase and over the alpha-Al2O3 foam monolith support. Significant gas-phase chemistry is likely present in the autothermal reactor, although different temperature gradients between the autothermal reactions and the externally heated tube makes quantification of the amount of homogeneous chemistry in the autothermal system impossible. The alpha-Al2O 3 support may serve as a heat transfer medium and radical quencher (due to its foam structure with small-diameter pores), but not likely acid catalysis, as selectivity to dehydration products was similar both with and without the foam support. Because butanol is another promising liquid intermediate in biomass processing, a series of experiments with butanol in an CPO reactor was also carried out. Chapter 5 compares the four butanol isomers in a CPO reactor over Pt, PtCe, Rh, and RhCe catalysts. The reactivity of tert-butanol was as high or higher than the other alcohols, indicating that the lack of a carbonyl decomposition path does not necessarily in uence the reactivity of the molecule. Rather, the reactivity appeared to be more a function of the initial pyrolysis temperature of the alcohol. Thus, much of the initial chemistry of the higher alcohols in a CPO reactor may be homogeneous. The main function of the catalyst may be to decompose the intermediate carbonyls and alkenes to syngas. To that end, the PtCe had significantly lower reforming activity than the other catalysts, evidenced by the lower selectivity to CO and H2 and generally higher temperatures. Selectivity to syngas and light olefins was high and tunable depending on feed ratios, indicating the potential of CPO to provide petrochemical building blocks from butanol. Chapter 6 combines CPO with a water-gas shift (WGS) stage and investigates the addition of steam to isobutanol for the production of a high-purity H2 stream. A RhCe catalyst was used in the CPO stage to convert 100% of the isobutanol feed to primarily

Kruger, Jacob Scott

275

Bifunctional organophosphorus liquid-liquid extraction reagents: development and applications  

SciTech Connect

American and Russian workers have evidenced great interest in the last decade in the potential application of certain neutral and acidic bifunctional organophosphorus compounds in solvent extraction processes. Triggering this interest is the ability of some carbamoylmethylenephosphorus (CMP) and carbamoylmethylenephosphine oxide (CMPO) compounds to extract trivalent actinides and lanthanides from strong HNO/sub 3/ (>1M) solutions, a property which distinguishes them from monofunctional organophosphorus reagents. Investigators at several US Department of Energy laboratories have concentrated on synthesis of novel CMP and CMPO reagents and on reactions and mechanisms involved in extraction of metal ions from aqueous nitrate media; application of selected CMP and CMPO reagents in solvent extraction and supported liquid membrane recovery of metal values from nuclear waste solutions have been proposed. This paper, based upon a book now in preparation, provides a brief overview of the current status of the development and application of bifunctional organophosphorus extractants. 42 references, 4 tables.

Schulz, W.W.; Navratil, J.D.

1984-03-13

276

Bifunctional organophosphorus liquid-liquid extraction reagents: development and applications  

SciTech Connect

American and Russian workers have evidenced great interest in the last decade in the potential application of certain neutral and acidic bifunctional organophosphorus compounds in solvent extraction processes. Triggering this interest is the ability of some carbamoylmethylenephosphorus (CMP) and carbamoylmethylenephosphine oxide (CMPO) compounds to extract trivalent actinides and lanthanides from strong HNO/sub 3/ (>1 M) solutions, a property which distinguishes them from monofunctional organophosphorus reagents. Investigators at several US Department of Energy laboratories have concentrated on synthesis of novel CMP and CMPO reagents and on reactions and mechanisms involved in extraction of metal ions from aqueous nitrate media; application of selected CMP and CMPO reagents in solvent extraction and supported liquid membrane recovery of metal values from nuclear waste solutions have been proposed. This paper, based upon a book now in preparation, provides a brief overview of the current status of the development and application of bifunctional organophosphorus extractants. 44 references, 4 tables.

Schulz, W.W.; Navratil, J.D.

1985-01-01

277

Quality user support: Supporting quality users  

SciTech Connect

During the past decade, fundamental changes have occurred in technical computing in the oil industry. Technical computing systems have moved from local, fragmented quantity, to global, integrated, quality. The compute power available to the average geoscientist at his desktop has grown exponentially. Technical computing applications have increased in integration and complexity. At the same time, there has been a significant change in the work force due to the pressures of restructuring, and the increased focus on international opportunities. The profile of the user of technical computing resources has changed. Users are generally more mature, knowledgeable, and team oriented than their predecessors. In the 1990s, computer literacy is a requirement. This paper describes the steps taken by Oryx Energy Company to address the problems and opportunities created by the explosive growth in computing power and needs, coupled with the contraction of the business. A successful user support strategy will be described. Characteristics of the program include: (1) Client driven support; (2) Empowerment of highly skilled professionals to fill the support role; (3) Routine and ongoing modification to the support plan; (4) Utilization of the support assignment to create highly trained advocates on the line; (5) Integration of the support role to the reservoir management team. Results of the plan include a highly trained work force, stakeholder teams that include support personnel, and global support from a centralized support organization.

Woolley, T.C.

1994-12-31

278

Emulsions Containing Perfluorocarbon Support Cell Cultures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Addition of emulsion containing perfluorocarbon liquid to aqueous cell-culture medium increases capacity of medium to support mammalian cells. FC-40 Fluorinert (or equivalent) - increases average density of medium so approximately equal to that of cells. Cells stay suspended in medium without mechanical stirring, which damages them. Increases density enough to prevent cells from setting, and increases viscosity of medium so oxygen bubbled through it and nutrients stirred in with less damage to delicate cells.

Ju, Lu-Kwang; Lee, Jaw Fang; Armiger, William B.

1990-01-01

279

Liquid sampling system  

DOEpatents

A conduit extends from a reservoir through a sampling station and back to the reservoir in a closed loop. A jet ejector in the conduit establishes suction for withdrawing liquid from the reservoir. The conduit has a self-healing septum therein upstream of the jet ejector for receiving one end of a double-ended cannula, the other end of which is received in a serum bottle for sample collection. Gas is introduced into the conduit at a gas bleed between the sample collection bottle and the reservoir. The jet ejector evacuates gas from the conduit and the bottle and aspirates a column of liquid from the reservoir at a high rate. When the withdrawn liquid reaches the jet ejector the rate of flow therethrough reduces substantially and the gas bleed increases the pressure in the conduit for driving liquid into the sample bottle, the gas bleed forming a column of gas behind the withdrawn liquid column and interrupting the withdrawal of liquid from the reservoir. In the case of hazardous and toxic liquids, the sample bottle and the jet ejector may be isolated from the reservoir and may be further isolated from a control station containing remote manipulation means for the sample bottle and control valves for the jet ejector and gas bleed.

Larson, Loren L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1987-01-01

280

Liquid sampling system  

DOEpatents

A conduit extends from a reservoir through a sampling station and back to the reservoir in a closed loop. A jet ejector in the conduit establishes suction for withdrawing liquid from the reservoir. The conduit has a self-healing septum therein upstream of the jet ejector for receiving one end of a double-ended cannula, the other end of which is received in a serum bottle for sample collection. Gas is introduced into the conduit at a gas bleed between the sample collection bottle and the reservoir. The jet ejector evacuates gas from the conduit and the bottle and aspirates a column of liquid from the reservoir at a high rate. When the withdrawn liquid reaches the jet ejector the rate of flow therethrough reduces substantially and the gas bleed increases the pressure in the conduit for driving liquid into the sample bottle, the gas bleed forming a column of gas behind the withdrawn liquid column and interrupting the withdrawal of liquid from the reservoir. In the case of hazardous and toxic liquids, the sample bottle and the jet ejector may be isolated from the reservoir and may be further isolated from a control station containing remote manipulation means for the sample bottle and control valves for the jet ejector and gas bleed. 5 figs.

Larson, L.L.

1984-09-17

281

Child Support Report, 1997.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document consists of the twelve issues of "Child Support Report" newsletter published during 1997. Monthly issues typically explore problems related to child support enforcement, report on federal and state government child support enforcement initiatives, and summarize research related to child support. Editorials and information on events…

Sharman, Phil, Ed.

1997-01-01

282

Child Support Report, 1998.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is comprised of the 12 monthly issues of the 1998 "Child Support Report," which explores problems related to child support enforcement, reports on federal and state government child support enforcement initiatives, and summarizes research related to child support. Editorials and information on events and conferences of interest and…

Sharman, Phil, Ed.

1998-01-01

283

Child Support Report, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document comprises the 12 issues for 2001 of the "Child Support Report," which explores problems related to child support enforcement, reports on federal and state government child support enforcement initiatives, and summarizes research related to child support. Featured regularly are editorials and information on events of interest and…

Sharman, Phil, Ed.

2001-01-01

284

Child Support Report, 1999.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document comprises the 12 issues for 1999 of the "Child Support Report," which explores problems related to child support enforcement, reports on federal and state government child support enforcement initiatives, and summarizes research related to child support. Editorials and information on events and conferences of interest and funding…

Sharman, Phil, Ed.

1999-01-01

285

Liquid metal electric pump  

DOEpatents

An electrical pump for pumping liquid metals to high pressures in high temperature environments without the use of magnets or moving mechanical parts. The pump employs a non-porous solid electrolyte membrane, typically ceramic, specific to the liquid metal to be pumped. A DC voltage is applied across the thickness of the membrane causing ions to form and enter the membrane on the electrically positive surface, with the ions being neutralized on the opposite surface. This action provides pumping of the liquid metal from one side of the non-porous solid electrolyte membrane to the other.

Abbin, Joseph P. (Albuquerque, NM); Andraka, Charles E. (Albuquerque, NM); Lukens, Laurance L. (Albuquerque, NM); Moreno, James B. (Albuquerque, NM)

1992-01-01

286

Liquid metal electric pump  

DOEpatents

An electrical pump for pumping liquid metals to high pressures in high temperature environments without the use of magnets or moving mechanical parts. The pump employs a non-porous solid electrolyte membrane, typically ceramic, specific to the liquid metal to be pumped. A DC voltage is applied across the thickness of the membrane causing ions to form and enter the membrane on the electrically positive surface, with the ions being neutralized on the opposite surface. This action provides pumping of the liquid metal from one side of the non-porous solid electrolyte membrane to the other. 3 figs.

Abbin, J.P.; Andraka, C.E.; Lukens, L.L.; Moreno, J.B.

1992-01-14

287

Exploring Materials: Liquid Crystals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners discover that the way a material behaves on the macroscale is affected by its structure on the nanoscale. Learners investigate the properties of a heat sensitive liquid crystal and make their own liquid crystal sensor to take home. This is a fun and engaging activity, especially since liquid crystals are used in many consumer products, including cell phone displays, laptop computer screens, strip thermometers, and even "mood" rings! SAFETY: learners must be supervised when doing this activity. They must wear safety glasses to protect their eyes. Before doing this activity, read through the Material Safety Data Sheets.

Network, Nanoscale I.; Sciencenter

2010-01-01

288

Lunar liquid oxygen production facilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Production of oxygen beyond Earth's gravity well has been shown to be an economic asset for interplanetary travel using chemical combustion propulsion. Requirements for lunar liquid oxygen (LLOX) are presented that support Earth/Moon - Mars transportation. A phased build up of lunar based infrastructure is presented that utilizes advanced lunar regolith processing technology. A magma electrolysis design concept is described. The phased base layout is presented and the final operations plan is shown. The ISMU zone shown consists of all elements required to process regolith into LLOX including mining, screening, processing, byproduct processing, liquifying and storage. Basing plan elements are described and their delivery requirements are shown. Masses for the concepts are discussed and total deliverables are listed. Power requirements and generation plans are described.

Pulley, John; Goodman, Chava; Tanner, Al

289

King cobra genome supporting information SUPPORTING INFORMATION  

E-print Network

King cobra genome supporting information 1 SUPPORTING INFORMATION 1. SI MATERIALS AND METHODS 1.1 King cobra tissue acquisitions and processing All animal procedures complied with local king cobra that originated from Bali, Indonesia. Blood was obtained by caudal puncture and frozen

Castoe, Todd A.

290

Corner liquid imbibition during capillary penetration in lithographically made microchannels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors investigate the formation of liquid layers at corners of lithographically made microchannels during capillary filling. The microflow and shape of the liquid-air interface is studied through an optically transparent microfluidic device. The experimental findings at early stages of layer formation are supported by three-dimensional lattice Boltzmann simulations, allowing to predict the shape and dynamics of the corner films and highlighting their dependence on the fluid contact angle.

Girardo, S.; Cingolani, R.; Chibbaro, S.; Diotallevi, F.; Succi, S.; Pisignano, D.

2009-04-01

291

Modeling of Diffusion in Liquid Ge and Its Alloys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report summarizes progress made on NASA Grant NAG3-1437, Modeling of diffusion in Liquid Ge and Its Alloys, which was in effect from January 15, 1993 through July 10, 1997. It briefly describes the purpose of the grant, and the work accomplished in simulations and other studies of thermophysical properties of liquid semiconductors and related materials. A list of publications completed with the support of the grant is also given.

Stroud, David G.

1998-01-01

292

Compatibility of structural materials with liquid bismuth, lead, and mercury  

SciTech Connect

During the 1950s and 1960s, a substantial program existed at Brookhaven National Laboratory as part of the Liquid Metal Fuel reactor program on the compatibility of bismuth, lead, and their alloys with structural materials. Subsequently, compatibility investigations of mercury with structural materials were performed in support of development of Rankine cycle mercury turbines for nuclear applications. The present talk will review present understanding of the corrosion/mass-transfer reactions of structural materials with these liquid metal coolants. Topics to be discussed include the basic solubility relationships of iron, chromium, nickel, and refractory metals in these liquid metals, the results of inhibition studies, the role of oxygen on the corrosion processes, and specialized topics such as cavitation-corrosion and liquid metal embrittlement. Emphasis will be placed on utilizing the understanding gained in this earlier work on the development of heavy liquid metal targets in spallation neutron sources.

Weeks, J.R. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1996-06-01

293

Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System (LEMIS) System Construction  

SciTech Connect

The liquid effluent sampling program is part of the effort to minimize adverse environmental impact during the cleanup operation at the Hanford Site. Of the 33 Phase I and Phase II liquid effluents, all streams actively discharged to the soil column will be sampled. The Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System (LEMIS) is being developed as the organized information repository facility in support of the liquid effluent monitoring requirements of the Tri-Party Agreement. It is necessary to provide an automated repository into which the results from liquid effluent sampling will be placed. This repository must provide for effective retention, review, and retrieval of selected sample data by authorized persons and organizations. This System Construction document is the aggregation of the DMR P+ methodology project management deliverables. Together they represent a description of the project and its plan through four Releases, corresponding to the definition and prioritization of requirements defined by the user.

Adams, R.T.

1994-10-11

294

Conformation of Surfactant Monolayers at the Liquid Interfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Infrared-visible sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy is used to study chain conformation of DOAC doubled chained cationic surfactant monolayer, dioctadecyldimethyl amonium (DOAC), adsorbed at various quartz/liquid interfaces. The results show that for non-associative liquids (e.g., CCL4,CHCL3), increase of polarity leads to a significant increase of the number of trans-gauche defects in the alkyl chains. For associative liquids, like H2O and CH3OH, the effect is even more drastic since the chains now appear to be very highly disordered resulting in a hardly detectable SF signal. Because of their ability to form hydrogen-bonding networks, these liquids could hydrate the hydrophobic alkyl chains, which would fold into a compact form in order to reduce their surface area exposed to the liquids. Work supported by DOE under the contract No. DE-AC03--76SF00098.

Pflumio, Valerie; Miranda, P.; Saijo, H.; Shen, Y. R.

1996-03-01

295

114. WEST SIDE OF LIQUID OXYGEN CONTROL ROOM (205). LIQUID ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

114. WEST SIDE OF LIQUID OXYGEN CONTROL ROOM (205). LIQUID NITROGEN (LN2) SUBCOOLER ON LEFT; SKID 8, LIQUID OXYGEN CONTROLLER FOR SWITCHING BETWEEN RAPID-LOAD AND TOPPING ON RIGHT. LIQUID OXYGEN LINE FROM SKID 9A AT RIGHT EDGE OF PHOTO. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

296

The effects of plate thickness and perforation diameter on the supporting vapor velocity for a perforated plate fractionating column  

E-print Network

. Supporting Velocity versus Liquid Iiei'ht by Dif. eront Definitions. 6A. Supporting Velocity versus Perforation ziamoter with Four Inohes of Water on the Plate 27 63. Supportin. Velocity versus Perforation Diameter with o. ' Inches oi' iqater on *he...- tion Diameters oith Two Inches of i'ater or. the Plate?. . . . . . . , 12. Supporting Velocity versus Plate Thickness i' or Licuids of 36 37 Various Surface Tensions. 13. Supporting Velocity versus Plate Thickness for Liquid. s of Page Various...

Cottle, John Ernest

1948-01-01

297

Liquid Crystal IR Detector  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a student activity on the detection of a warm object with a liquid crystal sheet. This activity also can be a simulation of the detection of infrared radiation. The "For Further Research" section includes questions for the student.

2012-10-30

298

Diet - full liquid  

MedlinePLUS

... liquid when they are at room temperature, like ice cream. It also includes strained creamy soups, tea, juice, ... Butter, margarine, oil, cream, custard, and pudding Plain ice cream, frozen yogurt, and sherbet. Fruit ices and popsicles ...

299

Liquid Assets: Public Health  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video segment from a WPSU documentary Liquid Assets connects public health to the availability of clean and safe drinking water and elaborates on the threats our bodies face due to increasing kinds and quantities of pollutants.

Wpsu

2008-11-19

300

Basic Liquid Chromatography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online textbook offers a variety of information on high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Topics covered include instruments, detectors, theory, column selection, and pH effect. This website also contains links to a glossary, useful links, and manufacturer websites.

Dr. Yuri Kazakevich

301

Radiography for a Shock-accelerated Liquid Layer  

SciTech Connect

This program supported the experimental study of the itneraction of planar shock waves with both solid structures (a single cylinder or a bank of cylinders) and single and multiple liquid layers. Objectives of the study included: characterization of the shock refraction patterns; measurements of the impulsive loading of the solid structures; observation of the response of the liquid layers to shock acceleration; assessment of the shock-mitigation effects of single and multiple liquid layers. The uploaded paper is intended as a final report for the entire funding period. The poster described in the paper won the Best Poster Award at the 25 International Symposium on Shock Waves.

P. Meekunnasombat

2005-07-01

302

Applications of ionic liquids.  

PubMed

Ionic liquids have recently gained popularity in the scientific community owing to their special properties and characteristics. One of the reasons why ionic liquids have been termed "green solvents" is due to their negligible vapour pressure. Their use in electrochemical, biological and metal extraction applications is discussed. Wide research has been carried out for their use in batteries, solar panels, fuel cells, drug deliveries and biomass pretreatments. This work aims to consolidate the various findings from previous works in these areas. PMID:22711528

Patel, Divia Dinesh; Lee, Jong-Min

2012-06-01

303

Liquid metal embrittlement mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquid metal embrittlement was studied in the following two aspects. First the first principle and Chen-Nanxian three-dimensional\\u000a lattice reverse method were employed to obtain the effective potentials for Al-Ga and Ga-Ga. Then with the molecular dynamics\\u000a simulation, the influence of liquid metal adsorption on dislocation emission was studied. The simulated result shows that\\u000a after Ga atoms are adsorbed on the

Guohui Zhou; Xiaomin Liu; Farong Wan; Lijie Qiao; Wuyang Chu; Wenqing Zhang; Nanxian Chen; Fuxin Zhou

1999-01-01

304

A liquid microbarograph  

Microsoft Academic Search

A liquid microbarograph has been designed for continuous recording of variations in the atmospheric pressure with characteristic\\u000a times ranging from 0.25 s to a few hours with a resolution of 0.02 Pa or better. The instrument is based on a sensor composed\\u000a of two communicating vessels filled with transformer oil. A shift of the liquid level is recorded by the

O. I. Akhmetov; S. V. Pilgaev; Yu. V. Fedorenko; D. V. Dneprovskii

2010-01-01

305

Advanced proteomic liquid chromatography  

PubMed Central

Liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry is the predominant platform used to analyze proteomics samples consisting of large numbers of proteins and their proteolytic products (e.g., truncated polypeptides) and spanning a wide range of relative concentrations. This review provides an overview of advanced capillary liquid chromatography techniques and methodologies that greatly improve separation resolving power and proteomics analysis coverage, sensitivity, and throughput. PMID:22840822

Xie, Fang; Smith, Richard D.; Shen, Yufeng

2012-01-01

306

Astronomie avec Miroirs Liquides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cette thèse démontre que la technologie des miroirs liquides a atteint une maturité qui permet de l'appliquer à la recherche astronomique. Les télescopes à miroir liquide offrent des images astronomiques de qualité comparable à celle des télescopes conventionels utilisés dans des conditions similaires. La première partie de la thèse présente le premier télescope a miroir liquide dédié à la recherche astronomique: le 2,7 m de University of British Columbia-Université Uval (UBC-UL). Elle donne également les renseignements techniques utiles pour l'exploitation des télescopes à miroir liquide en milieu extérieur. La deuxième partie de la thèse analyse les données de la saison 1996 du télescope à miroir liquide de 3 m du NASA Orbital Debris Observatory (NODO). Une comparaison avec les observations effectuées avec des télescopes conventionels, publiées dans la littérature, démontre la bonne qualité des données du NODO. Une recherche d'objets particuliers, parmi les 20 000 objets répertoriés pendant la saison 1996, démontre le potentiel des miroirs liquides pour les projets d'astronomie demandant de grandes surfaces collectrices sur de longues périodes de temps.

Cabanac, Remi Andre

307

The liquid-liquid phase transition in silicon revealed by snapshots of valence electrons  

PubMed Central

The basis for the anomalies of water is still mysterious. Quite generally tetrahedrally coordinated systems, also silicon, show similar thermodynamic behavior but lack—like water—a thorough explanation. Proposed models—controversially discussed—explain the anomalies as a remainder of a first-order phase transition between high and low density liquid phases, buried deeply in the “no man’s land”—a part of the supercooled liquid region where rapid crystallization prohibits any experimental access. Other explanations doubt the existence of the phase transition and its first-order nature. Here, we provide experimental evidence for the first-order-phase transition in silicon. With ultrashort optical pulses of femtosecond duration we instantaneously heat the electronic system of silicon while the atomic structure as defined by the much heavier nuclear system remains initially unchanged. Only on a picosecond time scale the energy is transferred into the atomic lattice providing the energy to drive the phase transitions. With femtosecond X-ray pulses from FLASH, the free-electron laser at Hamburg, we follow the evolution of the valence electronic structure during this process. As the relevant phases are easily distinguishable in their electronic structure, we track how silicon melts into the low-density-liquid phase while a second phase transition into the high-density-liquid phase only occurs after the latent heat for the first-order phase transition has been transferred to the atomic structure. Proving the existence of the liquid-liquid phase transition in silicon, the hypothesized liquid-liquid scenario for water is strongly supported. PMID:20805512

Beye, Martin; Sorgenfrei, Florian; Schlotter, William F.; Wurth, Wilfried; Föhlisch, Alexander

2010-01-01

308

Liquidity Risk and Syndicate Structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

We offer a new explanation of loan syndicate structure based on banks' comparative advantage in managing systematic liquidity risk. When a syndicated loan to a rated borrower has systematic liquidity risk, the fraction of passive participant lenders that are banks is about 8% higher than for loans without liquidity risk. In contrast, liquidity risk does not explain the share of

Evan Gatev; Philip Strahan

2008-01-01

309

Reactor vessel support system  

DOEpatents

A reactor vessel support system includes a support ring at the reactor top supported through a box ring on a ledge of the reactor containment. The box ring includes an annular space in the center of its cross-section to reduce heat flow and is keyed to the support ledge to transmit seismic forces from the reactor vessel to the containment structure. A coolant channel is provided at the outside circumference of the support ring to supply coolant gas through the keyways to channels between the reactor vessel and support ledge into the containment space.

Golden, Martin P. (Trafford, PA); Holley, John C. (McKeesport, PA)

1982-01-01

310

Liquid crystal photonics: optical switching and image storage using nematic liquid crystals and ferroelectric liquid crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manipulation of light by light as a stimulus by the use of liquid-crystalline materials was explored, which was aimed at optical switching, optical image storage and optical display. Two types of the liquid-crystalline materials are used: nematic liquid crystals and ferroelectric liquid (FLCs). Several kinds of optical switching and image storage systems were demonstrated by means of photochromic molecules and

Atsushi Shishido; Osamu Tsutsumi; Akihiko Kanazawa; Takeshi Shiono; Tomiki Ikeda

1997-01-01

311

Enabling Services Dyslexia Support  

E-print Network

Enabling Services Dyslexia Support information for students website: www.soton.ac.uk/edusupport/dyslexia, George Thomas Building (37), Highfield Campus #12;2 Contents About Dyslexia Support.........................................................11 National and Local Organisations: .....................................12 #12;3 About Dyslexia

Anderson, Jim

312

SUPERFUND REMOTE SENSING SUPPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

This task provides remote sensing technical support to the Superfund program. Support includes the collection, processing, and analysis of remote sensing data to characterize hazardous waste disposal sites and their history. Image analysis reports, aerial photographs, and assoc...

313

Exercise support for therapy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Constant-value weight-relieving apparatus, which moves on rollers on overhead track, supports weight of walking, stooping, squatting, or standing patient with combination of multiple pulleys and spring clusters. Individually preselected support force is constant for all movements.

Long, M. J.; Irick, S. C.

1976-01-01

314

Huntsville Operations Support Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Information is given in viewgraph form on the Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC). The HOSC is a multi-mission control and support facility designed to provide simultaneous support to several diverse missions, using a common set of processing equipment and facilities. Information is given on the missions supported by the HOSC; facility layout; generic system goals; HOSC existing computer architecture; current mission requirements; currently employed hardware and software; front end processing; central processing; peripheral processors; audio and video communications; and upgrading plans.

Bailey, Darrell G.

1991-01-01

315

Support vector domain description  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows the use of a data domain description method, inspired by the support vector machine by Vapnik, called the support vector domain description (SVDD). This data description can be used for novelty or outlier de- tection. A spherically shaped decision boundary around a set of objects is constructed by a set of support vectors describing the sphere boundary.

David M. J. Tax; Robert P. W. Duin

1999-01-01

316

Enabling Services Dyslexia Support  

E-print Network

Enabling Services Dyslexia Support Information for students Support for students with specific learning difficulties such as dyslexia and dyspraxia Email: enable@soton.ac.uk Tel: 023 8059 7726 Student Services Centre Building (37) Highfield Campus #12;2 Contents About Dyslexia Support

Anderson, Jim

317

Advanced Life Support  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viewgraphs on Advanced Life Support (ALS) Systems are presented. The topics include: 1) Fundamental Need for Advanced Life Support; 2) ALS organization; 3) Requirements and Rationale; 4) Past Integrated tests; 5) The need for improvements in life support systems; 6) ALS approach to meet exploration goals; 7) ALS Projects showing promise to meet exploration goals; and 9) GRC involvement in ALS.

Chambliss, Joe

2004-01-01

318

Roof insulation support system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A roof insulator support system includes a plurality of longitudinally extending beams supporting a plurality of regularly spaced, laterally extending purlins of Z-shaped cross section with an upturned lip portion on the lower flange of each purlin. Elongated liner support members, being extrusions of a generally inverted T-shape, are attached to and extend along the bottom of each purlin. Each

L. J. Fischer; T. J. McNellis

1977-01-01

319

Rotor support for the STME oxygen turbopump  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rotor support for the NLS Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) oxygen turbopump is discussed. The rotor is supported by two large angular contact split inner ring ball bearings which are cooled with liquid oxygen. Lubrication is provided by the sacrificial wear of Salox-M self-lubricating composite cage material and the subsequent transfer from the rolling element to the raceway surfaces. The bearings are designed to carry both radial and axial loads. The two-ball-bearing rotor support allows startup and shutdown related transient axial loads to be handled in either direction. The paper presents diagrams of the STME oxygen turbopump, showing ball bearings, and results of ball bearing tests.

Haluck, David; Bursey, Roger, Jr.; Ferlita, Frank

1992-07-01

320

Improved liquid-film electron stripper  

DOEpatents

An improved liquid-film electron stripper particularly for high intensity heavy ion beams which produces constant regenerated, stable, free-standing liquid films having an adjustable thickness between 0.3 to 0.05 microns. The improved electron stripper is basically composed of at least one high speed, rotating disc with a very sharp, precision-like, ground edge on one side of the disc's periphery and with highly polished, flat, radial surface adjacent the sharp edge. A fine stream of liquid, such as oil, impinges at a 90/sup 0/ angle adjacent the disc's sharp outer edge. Film terminators, located at a selected distance from the disc perimeter are positioned approximately perpendicular to the film. The terminators support, shape, and stretch the film and are arranged to assist in the prevention of liquid droplet formation by directing the collected film to a reservoir below without breaking or interfering with the film. One embodiment utilizes two rotating discs and associated terminators, with the discs rotating so as to form films in opposite directions, and with the second disc being located down beam-line relative to the first disc.

Gavin, B.F.

1984-11-01

321

Redox chemistry at liquid/liquid interfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The interface between two immiscible liquids with immobilized photosynthetic pigments can serve as the simplest model of a biological membrane convenient for the investigation of photoprocesses accompanied by spatial separation of charges. As it follows from thermodynamics, if the resolvation energies of substrates and products are very different, the interface between two immiscible liquids may act as a catalyst. Theoretical aspects of charge transfer reactions at oil/water interfaces are discussed. Conditions under which the free energy of activation of the interfacial reaction of electron transfer decreases are established. The activation energy of electron transfer depends on the charges of the reactants and dielectric permittivity of the non-aqueous phase. This can be useful when choosing a pair of immiscible solvents to decrease the activation energy of the reaction in question or to inhibit an undesired process. Experimental interfacial catalytic systems are discussed. Amphiphilic molecules such as chlorophyll or porphyrins were studied as catalysts of electron transfer reactions at the oil/water interface.

Volkov, A. G.; Deamer, D. W.

1997-01-01

322

Supported microporous ceramic membranes  

DOEpatents

A method for the formation of microporous ceramic membranes onto a porous support includes placing a colloidal suspension of metal or metal oxide particles on one side of the porous support and exposing the other side of the porous support to a drying stream of gas or a reactive gas stream so that the particles are deposited on the drying side of the support as a gel. The gel so deposited can be sintered to form a supported ceramic membrane useful for ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, or molecular sieving having mean pore sizes less than 100 Angstroms. 4 figures.

Webster, E.; Anderson, M.

1993-12-14

323

Supported microporous ceramic membranes  

DOEpatents

A method for permformation of microporous ceramic membranes onto a porous support includes placing a colloidal suspension of metal or metal oxide particles on one side of the porous support and exposing the other side of the porous support to a drying stream of gas or a reactive gas stream so that the particles are deposited on the drying side of the support as a gel. The gel so deposited can be sintered to form a supported ceramic membrane useful for ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, or molecular sieving having mean pore sizes less than 100 Angstroms.

Webster, Elizabeth (Madison, WI); Anderson, Marc (Madison, WI)

1993-01-01

324

Liquid lubrication in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The requirement for long-term, reliable operation of aerospace mechanisms has, with a few exceptions, pushed the state of the art in tribology. Space mission life requirements in the early 1960s were generally 6 months to a year. The proposed U.S. space station schedule to be launched in the 1990s must be continuously usable for 10 to 20 years. Liquid lubrication systems are generally used for mission life requirements longer than a year. Although most spacecraft or satellites have reached their required lifetimes without a lubrication-related failure, the application of liquid lubricants in the space environment presents unique challenges. The state of the art of liquid lubrication in space as well as the problems and their solutions are reviewed.

Zaretsky, Erwin V.

1990-01-01

325

Liquid xenon excimer laser  

SciTech Connect

The characteristics of the first excimer laser and the history of its creation are presented. The threshold lasing conditions and the modern theory of active media are considered, and the prospects for the development of excimer lasers operating on condensed inert gases are discussed. It is shown that in experiments on pumping liquid xenon, lasing was obtained simultaneously on excimers of several types, including excimers in liquid and gas phases. (special issue devoted to the 80th anniversary of academician n g basov's birth)

Molchanov, Alexander G [P.N. Lebedev Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2003-01-31

326

Electroplating Using Ionic Liquids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electroplating is a key technology in many large-scale industrial applications such as corrosion-resistant and decorative coatings. Issues with current aqueous processes, such as toxicity of reagents and low current efficiencies, can often be overcome by using ionic liquids, and this approach has turned ionometallurgy into a fast-growing area of research. This review outlines the interactions in ionic liquids that are responsible for the advantageous properties of these solvents in electroplating. It summarizes recent research in which these properties have been analyzed or exploited and highlights fundamental issues in research and technology that need to be addressed.

Abbott, Andrew P.; Frisch, Gero; Ryder, Karl S.

2013-07-01

327

Liquid Crystals: LCD Displays  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, by the Concord Consortium's Molecular Literacy project, students will learn the history and applications of liquid crystal technology. This interactive presentation will allow students to not only learn about the technology, but it will actually allow them to analyze and work with examples. Everything from flat panel televisions to mood rings are used to show how liquid crystal plays an integral role in many products. The activity itself is a java-based interactive resource built upon the free, open source Molecular Workbench software. In addition, visitors will find an overview of the activity, assessments, and concepts and their correlation to AAAS and NSES standards.

2008-10-08

328

Liquid sheet radiator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new external flow radiator concept, the liquid sheet radiator (LSR), is introduced. The LSR sheet flow is described and an expression for the length/width (l/w), ratio is presented. A linear dependence of l/w on velocity is predicted that agrees with experimental results. Specific power for the LSR is calculated and is found to be nearly the same as the specific power of a liquid droplet radiator, (LDR). Several sheet thicknesses and widths were experimentally investigated. In no case was the flow found to be unstable.

Chubb, Donald L.; White, K. Alan, III

1987-01-01

329

Liquid sheet radiator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new external flow radiator concept, the liquid sheet radiator (LSR), is introduced. The LSR sheet flow is described and an expression for the length/width (l/w) ratio is presented. A linear dependence of l/w on velocity is predicted that agrees with experimental results. Specific power for the LSR is calculated and is found to be nearly the same as the specific power of a liquid droplet radiator (LDR). Several sheet thicknesses and widths were experimentally investigated. In no case was the flow found to be unstable.

Chubb, Donald L.; White, K. Allan, III

1987-01-01

330

Breakup of Liquid Filaments  

E-print Network

and Basaran [11]. Theoretical models for the collapse of a thin filament of a Newtonian liquid (i.e. in which viscosity is independent of shear rate) of finite length, as shown in Fig. 1, have been proposed by Schulkes [10] and Notz and Basaran [11... and Notz and Basaran used combined Lagrangian-Eulerian methods (Galerkin finite element model, G/FEM) to solve the dynamics of in- compressible Newtonian liquid filaments surrounded by an inert ambient fluid, [10] and [11]. Due to computa- tional...

Castrejon-Pita, Alfonso A.; Castrejon-Pita, J.R.; Hutchings, I.M.

2012-01-01

331

Engineering adhesion to thermoresponsive substrates: effect of polymer composition on liquid-liquid-solid wetting.  

PubMed

Adhesion control in liquid-liquid-solid systems represents a challenge for applications ranging from self-cleaning to biocompatibility of engineered materials. By using responsive polymer chemistry and molecular self-assembly, adhesion at solid/liquid interfaces can be achieved and modulated by external stimuli. Here, we utilize thermosensitive polymeric materials based on random copolymers of di(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (x = MEO2MA) and oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (y = OEGMA), that is, P(MEO2MAx-co-OEGMAy), to investigate the role of hydrophobicity on the phenomenon of adhesion. The copolymer ratio (x/y) dictates macromolecular changes enabling control of the hydrophilic-to-lipophilic balance (HBL) of the polymer brushes through external triggers such as ionic strength and temperature. We discuss the HBL of the thermobrushes in terms of the surface energy of the substrate by measuring the contact angle at water-decane-P(MEO2MAx-co-OEGMAy) brush contact line as a function of polymer composition and temperature. Solid supported polyelectrolyte layers grafted with P(MEO2MAx-co-OEGMAy) display a transition in the wettability that is related to the lower critical solution temperature of the polymer brushes. Using experimental observation of the hydrophilic to hydrophobic transition by the contact angle, we extract the underlying energetics associated with liquid-liquid-solid adhesion as a function of the copolymer ratio. The change in cellular attachment on P(MEO2MAx-co-OEGMAy) substrates of variable (x/y) composition demonstrates the subtle role of compositional tuning on the ability to control liquid-liquid-solid adhesion in biological applications. PMID:25569588

Gambinossi, Filippo; Sefcik, Lauren S; Wischerhoff, Erik; Laschewsky, Andre; Ferri, James K

2015-02-01

332

Turbine meters for liquid measurement  

SciTech Connect

Liquid turbine meters operate in response to fundamental engineering principles, Operation with a single moving part produces excellent longevity and reliability. Liquid turbine meters display wide rangeability, high accuracy, excellent repeatability, low pressure drop and moderate cost. Liquid turbine meters may be applied to many different fluids with different physical properties and corrosive tendencies. The marriage of liquid turbine meters to electronic instruments allows instantaneous flow calculations and produces the flexibility to display data, store data, transmit data in the most convenient form. Liquid turbine meters should be the first flow measurement instrument considered for liquid measurement applications.

Wass, D.J.; Allen, C.R. [Daniel Flow Products Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

1995-12-01

333

138. LIQUID NITROGEN INSTRUMENT PANEL ON EAST WALL OF LIQUID ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

138. LIQUID NITROGEN INSTRUMENT PANEL ON EAST WALL OF LIQUID NITROGEN CONTROL ROOM (115), LSB (BLDG. 770) - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

334

Mixed Stationary Liquid Phases for Gas-Liquid Chromatography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a laboratory technique for use in an undergraduate instrumental analysis course that, using the interpretation of window diagrams, prepares a mixed liquid phase column for gas-liquid chromatography. A detailed procedure is provided. (BT)

Koury, Albert M.; Parcher, Jon F.

1979-01-01

335

Structures of Liquid Aluminium under High Pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular dynamics simulation has been carried out for melt Al under constant temperature and constant pressure. The interaction between atoms is described by tight-binding many-body potentials based on the second-moment approximation to the electronic density of states. The pair correlation function and the pair analysis technique are used to reveal the structural features of liquid Al under normal and high pressure. High pressure is favourable to the existence of bcc clusters 1661 and 1441, but has no effect on the fcc cluster 1421. The bond pair 1551 and 1541 with fivefold symmetry exists at high pressure. The microstructure of liquid is more similar to the non-crystalline structure than to the crystalline structure. The simulation results are supported by the x-ray experimental results.

Li, Hui; Wang, Guang-Hou; Bian, Xiu-Fang; Zhang, Lin

2001-04-01

336

Surface-tension-driven liquid liquid displacement in a capillary  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents theoretical and experimental studies of the surface-tension-driven, two-immiscible liquid-liquid displacement in a horizontal capillary. Using the dynamic contact angle approach, a one-dimensional mathematical model is developed to describe the capillary displacement of a fixed liquid column by another liquid that continuously flows into the capillary by surface tension. Experiments for a water column displaced by silicon oil

W. K. Chan; C. Yang

2005-01-01

337

Pore-Level Liquid Water Transport Through Composite Diffusion Media of PEMFC  

E-print Network

and thermal conductivity, low gas diffusion, and liq- uid transport resistances, as well as mechanical supportPore-Level Liquid Water Transport Through Composite Diffusion Media of PEMFC Yan Ji, Gang Luo, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA Liquid water transport at the pore

338

Liquidity of secondary capital markets: Allocative efficiency and the maturity composition of the capital stock  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary We investigate the function of liquid financial markets for the allocation of productive capital. We consider an economy where agents endogenously choose among capital production technologies with differing gestation periods. Long-gestation capital investments must be “rolled-over” in secondary capital markets. The use of such investment technologies therefore requires the support of liquid financial markets. We investigate how changes in

Valerie R. Bencivenga; Bruce D. Smith; Ross M. Starr

1996-01-01

339

Liquid–solid interfaces: structure and dynamics from spectroscopy and simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquid–solid interfaces play an important role in a number of phenomena encountered in biological, chemical and physical processes. Surface-induced changes of the material properties are not only important for the solid support but also for the liquid itself. In particular, it is now well established that water at the interface is substantially different from bulk water, even in the proximity

Marie-Pierre Gaigeot; Marialore Sulpizi

2012-01-01

340

Fatty Acid Langmuir Films on Liquid Mercury: X-ray and Surface Tension Studies  

E-print Network

Fatty Acid Langmuir Films on Liquid Mercury: X-ray and Surface Tension Studies H. Kraack, B. M, 2004. In Final Form: April 2, 2004 The structure and phase behavior of liquid-mercury-supported molecular films of fatty acids (CH3(CH2)n-2COOH, denoted CnOOH) were studied for molecular lengths 7 e n e

Ocko, Ben

341

Models of liquid metal corrosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study, models for liquid metal corrosion are reviewed and their applications in nuclear reactor engineering are discussed. The paper presents mathematical analysis of liquid metal corrosion, including species transport in solid steels, in flowing liquid metals, and mass exchange at liquid/solid interface. The survey illustrates the mechanisms of the liquid metal corrosion and sets up a system to calculate the corrosion rate and to study the corrosion species distributions in the solid and liquid metal/alloys. Both light liquid metal/alloy (sodium and sodium-potassium) and heavy liquid metal/alloy (liquid lead and lead-bismuth) are considered. Oxygen effects on liquid metal corrosion are also discussed. For liquid sodium and sodium-potassium the corrosion rate increases with increasing oxygen concentration, while for liquid lead and lead-bismuth it is reasonable to produce a protective oxide layer using an oxygen control technique which can mitigate the corrosion rate significantly. Finally, the corrosion-oxidation interaction in liquid lead and lead-bismuth are discussed.

Zhang, J.; Hosemann, P.; Maloy, S.

2010-09-01

342

Mathematics Support--Support for All?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mathematics Support Centres are to be found in various forms in the majority of UK higher education institutions. They have been established in order to ease widespread and serious difficulties that a significant number of students have with mathematics, particularly at the school-university transition. They usually offer mathematics and/or…

Pell, Godfrey; Croft, Tony

2008-01-01

343

Coal liquefaction. Quarterly report, January-March 1979. [US DOE supported  

SciTech Connect

Progress in DOE-supported coal liquefaction pilot plant projects is reported: company, location, contract, funding, process description, history and progress in the current quarter. Related projects discussed are: coking and gasification of liquefaction plant residues, filtration of coal liquids and refining of coal liquids by hydrogenation. (LTN)

None

1980-01-01

344

Pulsating electrospray modes at the liquid-liquid interface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unforced liquid-liquid electrosprays have been demonstrated for water/heptane and ethylene glycol/heptane couples which exhibit stable high frequency current oscillations in the kilohertz range. Using in-line flow sensor measurements, the controlled ejection of subpicoliter volumes into an immiscible liquid phase was shown possible.

Alexander, Matthew S.

2008-04-01

345

Ferroelectric Liquid Crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main advances in the field of bulk ferroelectric liquid crystals since 1984 are reviewed. Recent experiments have shown that the molecular tilt and the in-plane spontaneous polarization are not strictly proportional to each other as assumed before. Microscopic experiments such as NMR and NQR have further allowed for a determination of the basic order parameters as a function of

Robert Blinc; Cene Filipi?; Adrijan Levstik; BošTjan Žekš; T. Carlsson

1987-01-01

346

Cloud Liquid Water Measurements  

E-print Network

#12;Wet Power Term Energy is transferred to heat droplets to to the boiling point and vaporize of Vaporization · cw - Specific Heat of Water · Tv - Boiling Temperature of Water · Ta ­ Ambient Temperature #12 of Vaporization · cw - Specific Heat of Water · Tv ­ Water Boiling Temperature Solve for Liquid Water Content · P

Delene, David J.

347

Clean room wiping liquids  

SciTech Connect

A water-based liquid containing isopropyl alcohol, ammonium hydroxide, and surfactants was developed to replace 1,1,2-trichlorotrifluoroethane for the dampening of clean room wiping cloths used to wipe clean benches, clean room equipment, and latex finger cots and gloves.

Harding, W.B.

1991-12-01

348

ELECTRONS IN NONPOLAR LIQUIDS.  

SciTech Connect

Excess electrons can be introduced into liquids by absorption of high energy radiation, by photoionization, or by photoinjection from metal surfaces. The electron's chemical and physical properties can then be measured, but this requires that the electrons remain free. That is, the liquid must be sufficiently free of electron attaching impurities for these studies. The drift mobility as well as other transport properties of the electron are discussed here as well as electron reactions, free-ion yields and energy levels, Ionization processes typically produce electrons with excess kinetic energy. In liquids during thermalization, where this excess energy is lost to bath molecules, the electrons travel some distance from their geminate positive ions. In general the electrons at this point are still within the coulombic field of their geminate ions and a large fraction of the electrons recombine. However, some electrons escape recombination and the yield that escapes to become free electrons and ions is termed G{sub fi}. Reported values of G{sub fi} for molecular liquids range from 0.05 to 1.1 per 100 eV of energy absorbed. The reasons for this 20-fold range of yields are discussed here.

HOLROYD,R.A.

2002-10-22

349

Realistic Animation of Liquids  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a comprehensive methodology for realistically animating liquid phenomena. Our ap- proach unifies existing computer graphics techniques for simulating fluids and extends them by incorporating more complex behavior. It is based on the Navier-Stokes equations which couple momentum and mass conservation to completely describe fluid motion. Our starting point is an environment containing an arbitrary distribution of fluid, and

Nick Foster; Dimitris N. Metaxas

1996-01-01

350

LIQUID WASTE COMPOSTING  

EPA Science Inventory

This research project was conducted at the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park to examine the feasibility of adapting and using the sludge composting technique to compost liquid waste collected in the National Parks. This study evaluated the composting of two probl...

351

Liquid propellant densification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Super cooling the cryogenic liquid propellant in a vehicle propellant tank densities the propellant allowing the vehicle propellant tank to carry more fuel in the same volume tank while lowering the vapor pressure and thus the tank operating pressure. Lowering the tank operating pressure reduces the stress and therefore allows the walls of the tank to be thinner. Both the smaller tank volume and thinner tank wall results in an overall smaller and lighter vehicle with increased payload capability. The cryogenic propellant can be supercooled well below the normal boiling point temperature level by transporting the liquid propellant from the vehicle tanks to a ground based cooling unit which utilizes a combination of heat exchanger and compressor. The compressor lowers the coolant fluid bath pressure resulting in a low temperature boiling liquid which is subsequently used to cool the recirculating liquid. The cooled propellant is then returned to the vehicle propellant tank. In addition to reducing the vehicle size and weight the invention also allows location of the vent valve on the ground, elimination of on-board recirculation pumps or bleed systems, smaller and lighter engine pumps and valves, lighter and more stable ullage gas, and significant reduction in tank fill operation. All of these mentioned attributes provide lower vehicle weight and cost.

Lak, Tibor I. (Inventor); Petrilla, Steve P. (Inventor); Lozano, Martin E. (Inventor)

1997-01-01

352

Liquid crystal polarization camera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presents a fully automated system which unites CCD camera technology with liquid crystal technology to create a polarization camera capable of sensing the polarization of reflected light from objects at pixel resolution. As polarization affords a more general physical description of light than does intensity, it can therefore provide a richer set of descriptive physical constraints for the understanding of

L. B. Wolff; T. A. Mancini

1992-01-01

353

Liquid crystal polarization camera  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a fully automated system which unites CCD camera technology with liquid crystal technology to create a polarization camera capable of sensing the partial linear polarization of reflected light from objects at pixel resolution. As polarization sensing not only measures intensity but also additional physical parameters of light, it can therefore provide a richer set of descriptive physical constraints

Lawrence B. Wolff; Todd A. Mancini; Philippe Pouliquen; Andreas G. Andreou

1997-01-01

354

Liquid nitrogen therapy.  

PubMed

Benign skin lesions such as solar and seborrhoeic keratoses, viral warts, and skin tags can be treated successfully by cutaneous cryotherapy. Complications are infrequent if the correct technique is used and local anaesthetic usually is unnecessary. Liquid nitrogen (boiling point -196 degrees C) is the usual freezing agent but carbon dioxide snow (-79 degrees C) is an adequate substitute. PMID:6477318

Segal, A

1984-05-01

355

Handbook of liquid metals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Metals are described by physical appearance followed by atomic weight, atomic number, and valence. Data includes laboratory handling and safety procedures, heat transfer correlations, diffusion coefficients in liquid gallium/indium solution, melting and boiling points, thermal conductivity, heat capacity, and electrical resistivity.

Ukanwa, A. O.

1976-01-01

356

Viscosity Of Liquids - Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Classroom experiment to illustrate the viscosity of different liquids by measuring how quickly pebbles sink through them. The site describes all of the required material for the experiment and also gives a detailed chart for recording the results of the experiment. Altogether, the site is a great activity for the classroom.

2008-10-07

357

Instrumentation for Liquid Chromatography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is one of the most rapidly growing and potentially largest branches of analytical chemistry. Although further advances in HPLC are to be expected, current methodology is already far enough advanced to insure its use in the clinical laboratory.

Henry, Richard A.; Sivorinovsky, Genrikh

358

Liquid laser cavities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Liquid laser cavities have plenum chambers at the ends of the capillary cell which are terminated in transparent optical flats. By use of these cavities, several new europium chelates and a terbium chelate can provide laser action in solution at room temperature.

Bjorklund, S.; Filipescu, N.; Kellermeyer, G. L.; Mc Avoy, N.

1969-01-01

359

Ferroelectric liquid crystal display  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A ferroelectric liquid crystal display device employs capacitance spoiling layers to minimize unneeded capacitances created by crossovers of X and Y address lines and to accurately define desired capacitances. The spoiler layers comprise low dielectric constant layers which space electrodes from the ferroelectric at crossover points where capacitance is not needed for device operation.

York, Paul K. (Inventor)

1977-01-01

360

Liquid rocket valve assemblies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and operating characteristics of valve assemblies used in liquid propellant rocket engines are discussed. The subjects considered are as follows: (1) valve selection parameters, (2) major design aspects, (3) design integration of valve subassemblies, and (4) assembly of components and functional tests. Information is provided on engine, stage, and spacecraft checkout procedures.

1973-01-01

361

Properties of Liquid Plutonium  

SciTech Connect

Unalloyed polycrystalline Pu displays extreme thermal expansion behavior, i.e., {alpha} {yields} {beta} {yields} {gamma} {yields} {delta} increases by 25% in volume and {delta} {yields} {var_epsilon} {yields} liquid decreases by 4.5% in volume. Thus, making it difficult to measure density into the liquid state. Dilatometer outfitted with CaF molten metal cell offers a proven capability to measure thermal expansion in molten metals, but has yet to be proven for Pu. Historic data from the liquid nuclear fuels program will prove extremely useful as a guide to future measurements. 3.3at% Ga changes Pu molten metal properties: 50% increase in viscosity and {approx}3% decrease in density. Fe may decrease the density by a small amount assuming an averaging of densities for Pu-Ga and Pu-Fe liquids. More recent Boivineau (2009) work needs some interpretation, but technique is being employed in (U,Pu)O{sub 2} nuclear fuels program (Pu Futures, 2012).

Freibert, Franz J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mitchell, Jeremy N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schwartz, Daniel S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Saleh, Tarik A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Migliori, Albert [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-08-02

362

Liquid Rocket Engine Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Comprehensive Liquid Rocket Engine testing is essential to risk reduction for Space Flight. Test capability represents significant national investments in expertise and infrastructure. Historical experience underpins current test capabilities. Test facilities continually seek proactive alignment with national space development goals and objectives including government and commercial sectors.

Rahman, Shamim

2005-01-01

363

Shocks in Cryogenic Liquids  

Microsoft Academic Search

A unified definition of cryogenic fluids has not been clearly given so far. Nevertheless, for convenience’s sake in this chapter, it may be defined as fluids of which normal boiling points (NBP) are below liquid nitrogen temperature, 77 K. The saturated vapor pressure and the triple points and the critical points are shown for typical cryogenic fluids in Fig. 4.1.

Masahide Murakami

364

Cryogenic support system  

DOEpatents

A support system is disclosed for restraining large masses at very low or cryogenic temperatures. The support system employs a tie bar that is pivotally connected at opposite ends to an anchoring support member and a sliding support member. The tie bar extends substantially parallel to the longitudinal axis of the cold mass assembly, and comprises a rod that lengthens when cooled and a pair of end attachments that contract when cooled. The rod and end attachments are sized so that when the tie bar is cooled to cryogenic temperature, the net change in tie bar length is approximately zero. Longitudinal force directed against the cold mass assembly is distributed by the tie bar between the anchoring support member and the sliding support member.

Nicol, Thomas H. (Aurora, IL); Niemann, Ralph C. (Downers Grove, IL); Gonczy, John D. (Oak Lawn, IL)

1988-01-01

365

Predicting Polymer/Liquide Interactions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Calculations of liquid absorption by rubber vulcanizates agree with experimental results. Equation allows calculation of swelling of rubber vulcanizates by liquids, based on knowledge of chemical structure of polymer and solvent. Calculated values agree favorably with experimental data.

Fedors, R. F.

1985-01-01

366

Chemical propulsion using ionic liquids.  

PubMed

Chemical propulsion generates motion by directly converting locally stored chemical energy into mechanical energy. Here, we describe chemically driven autonomous motion generated by using imidazolium-based ionic liquids on a water surface. From measurements of the driving force of a locomotor loaded with an ionic liquid and observations of convection on the water surface originating from the ionic liquid container of the locomotor, the driving mechanism of the motion is found to be due to the Marangoni effect that arises from the anisotropic distribution of ionic liquids on the water surface. The maximum driving force and the force-generation duration are determined by the surface activity of the ionic liquid and the solubility of the ionic liquid in water, respectively. Because of the special properties of ionic liquids, a chemical locomotor driven by ionic liquids is promising for realizing autonomous micromachines and nanomachines that are safe and environmentally friendly. PMID:23398242

Tsuchitani, Shigeki; Takagi, Nobuhiro; Kikuchi, Kunitomo; Miki, Hirobumi

2013-03-01

367

Crystalline titanate catalyst supports  

DOEpatents

A series of new crystalline titanates (CT) are shown to have considerable potential as catalyst supports. For Pd supported catalyst, the catalytic activity for pyrene hydrogenation was substantially different depending on the type of CT, and one was substantially more active than Pd on hydrous titanium oxide (HTO). For 1-hexene hydrogenation the activities of the new CTs were approximately the same as for the hydrous metal oxide supports.

Anthony, R.G.; Dosch, R.G.

1993-01-05

368

Crystalline titanate catalyst supports  

DOEpatents

A series of new crystalline titanates (CT) are shown to have considerable potential as catalyst supports. For Pd supported catalyst, the catalytic activity for pyrene hydrogenation was substantially different depending on the type of CT, and one was substantially more active than Pd on hydrous titanium oxide (HTO). For 1-hexene hydrogenation the activities of the new CTs were approximately the same as for the hydrous metal oxide supports.

Anthony, Rayford G. (Bryan, TX); Dosch, Robert G. (Albuquerque, NM)

1993-01-01

369

Conduction cooled tube supports  

DOEpatents

In boilers, process tubes are suspended by means of support studs that are in thermal contact with and attached to the metal roof casing of the boiler and the upper bend portions of the process tubes. The support studs are sufficiently short that when the boiler is in use, the support studs are cooled by conduction of heat to the process tubes and the roof casing thereby maintaining the temperature of the stud so that it does not exceed 1400.degree. F.

Worley, Arthur C. (Mt. Tabor, NJ); Becht, IV, Charles (Morristown, NJ)

1984-01-01

370

Rockets using Liquid Oxygen  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is my task to discuss rocket propulsion using liquid oxygen and my treatment must be highly condensed for the ideas and experiments pertaining to this classic type of rocket are so numerous that one could occupy a whole morning with a detailed presentation. First, with regard to oxygen itself as compared with competing oxygen carriers, it is known that the liquid state of oxygen, in spite of the low boiling point, is more advantageous than the gaseous form of oxygen in pressure tanks, therefore only liquid oxygen need be compared with the oxygen carriers. The advantages of liquid oxygen are absolute purity and unlimited availability at relatively small cost in energy. The disadvantages are those arising from the impossibility of absolute isolation from heat; consequently, allowance must always be made for a certain degree of vaporization and only vented vessels can be used for storage and transportation. This necessity alone eliminates many fields of application, for example, at the front lines. In addition, liquid oxygen has a lower specific weight than other oxygen carriers, therefore many accessories become relatively larger and heavier in the case of an oxygen rocket, for example, the supply tanks and the pumps. The advantages thus become effective only in those cases where definitely scheduled operation and a large ground organization are possible and when the flight requires a great concentration of energy relative to weight. With the aim of brevity, a diagram of an oxygen rocket will be presented and the problem of various component parts that receive particularly thorough investigation in this classic case but which are also often applicable to other rocket types will be referred to.

Busemann, Adolf

1947-01-01

371

Liquid metal thermoacoustic engine  

SciTech Connect

We are studying a liquid metal thermoacoustic engine both theoretically and experimentally. This type of engine promises to produce large quantities of electrical energy from heat at modest efficiency with no moving parts. A sound wave is usually thought of as consisting of pressure oscillations, but always attendant to the pressure oscillation are temperature oscillations. The combination produces a rich variety of ''thermoacoustic'' effects. These effects are usually so small that they are never noticed in everyday life; nevertheless under the right circumstances they can be harnessed to produce powerful heat engines, heat pumps, and refrigerators. In our liquid metal thermoacoustic engine, heat flow from a high temperature source to a low temperature sink generates a high-amplitude standing acoustic wave in liquid sodium. This acoustic power is converted to electric power by a simple magnetohydrodynamic effect at the acoustic oscillation frequency. We have developed a detailed thermoacoustic theory applicable to this engine, and find that a reasonably designed liquid sodium engine operating between 700/sup 0/C and 100/sup 0/C should generate about 60 W/cm/sup 2/ of acoustic power at about 1/3 of Carnot's efficiency. Construction of a 3000 W-thermal laboratory model engine has just been completed, and we have exciting preliminary experimental results as of the time of preparation of this manuscript showing, basically, that the engine works. We have also designed and built a 1 kHz liquid sodium magnetohydrodynamic generator and have extensive measurements on it. It is now very well characterized both experimentally and theoretically. The first generator of its kind, it already converts acoustic power to electric power with 40% efficiency. 16 refs., 5 figs.

Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.; Wheatley, J.C.

1986-01-01

372

Liquid crystalline dendrimers.  

PubMed

In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in the field of liquid crystalline dendrimers. Such a fast development is, among other things, driven by the multiple possibilities offered by combining the mesomorphic properties of single mesogenic subunits with the supermolecular and versatile architectures of dendrimers to yield a new class of highly functional materials. The induction and the control of the mesomorphic properties (phase type and stability) in dendrimers can be achieved by a dedicated molecular design which depends on the chemical nature and structure of both the functional groups and the dendritic matrix. In particular, the intrinsic connectivity of the dendrimer such as the multivalency of the focal core and the multiplicity of the branches, both controlling the geometrical rate of growth, or the dendritic generation, plays a crucial role and influences at various stages the subtle relationships between the supermolecular structure and the mesophase structure and stability. In this critical review article, an account of the various types of dendritic systems that form liquid-crystalline mesophases along with a description of the self-organization of representative case-study supermolecules into liquid crystalline mesophases will be discussed. Some basics of thermotropic liquid crystals and dendrimers will be given in the introduction. Then, in the following sections, selected examples including side-chain, main-chain, fullerodendrimers, shape-persistent dendrimers, supramolecular dendromesogens and metallodendrimers, as representative families of LC dendrimers, will be described. In the conclusion some further developments will be highlighted. This review will not cover liquid crystalline hyperbranched and dendronized polymers that might be considered as being somehow less structurally "perfect". PMID:17660881

Donnio, Bertrand; Buathong, Saïwan; Bury, Izabela; Guillon, Daniel

2007-09-01

373

Recirculation model for liquid flow in foam channels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although extensively studied in the past, drainage of aqueous foams still offers major unaddressed issues. Among them, the behaviour of foam films during drainage has great significance as the thickness of the films is known to control the Ostwald ripening in foams, which in turn impacts liquid drainage. We propose a model relating the films’ behavior to the liquid flow in foam channels. It is assumed that Marangoni-driven recirculation counterflows take place in the transitional region between the foam channel and the adjoining films, and the Gibbs elasticity is therefore introduced as a relevant parameter. The velocity of these counterflows is found to be proportional to the liquid velocity in the channel. The resulting channel permeability is determined and it is shown that Marangoni stresses do not contribute to rigidify the channel’s surfaces, in strong contrast with the drainage of horizontal thin liquid films. New experimental data are provided and support the proposed model. in here

Pitois, O.; Louvet, N.; Rouyer, F.

2009-09-01

374

Prices, Margins and Liquidity Constraints: Swedish Newspapers, 1990–1992  

Microsoft Academic Search

A firm facing liquidity constraints in a recession may increase its price to exploit locked-in consumers in an attempt to boost short-run profits. We find support for such behaviour for Swedish regional newspapers during a deep recession. Newspapers sell both subscriptions and advertising space, and arguably buyers of the latter are less locked in. Newspapers with low solvency raised their

Marcus Asplund; Rickard Eriksson; Niklas Strand

2005-01-01

375

Liquid metal thermal electric converter  

DOEpatents

A liquid metal thermal electric converter which converts heat energy to electrical energy. The design of the liquid metal thermal electric converter incorporates a unique configuration which directs the metal fluid pressure to the outside of the tube which results in the structural loads in the tube to be compressive. A liquid metal thermal electric converter refluxing boiler with series connection of tubes and a multiple cell liquid metal thermal electric converter are also provided.

Abbin, Joseph P. (Albuquerque, NM); Andraka, Charles E. (Albuquerque, NM); Lukens, Laurance L. (Albuquerque, NM); Moreno, James B. (Albuquerque, NM)

1989-01-01

376

Ferroelectric and Antiferroelectric Liquid Crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ferroelectric liquid crystals have been a major research topic since 30 years. However, when it comes to liquid crystals, the term “ferroelectric” is strongly ambiguous and frequently not only leads to confusion and misunderstanding but also obscures the basic concepts.The property of ferroelectricity in liquid crystals was first claimed in 1975. Five years later so-called surface-stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystals were

SVEN T. LAGERWALL

2004-01-01

377

Liquid crystalline composites containing phyllosilicates  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides barrier films having reduced gas permeability for use in packaging and coating applications. The barrier films comprise an anisotropic liquid crystalline composite layer formed from phyllosilicate-polymer compositions. Phyllosilicate-polymer liquid crystalline compositions of the present invention can contain a high percentage of phyllosilicate while remaining transparent. Because of the ordering of the particles in the liquid crystalline composite, barrier films comprising liquid crystalline composites are particularly useful as barriers to gas transport.

Chaiko; David J. (Naperville, IL)

2007-05-08

378

"Inverse" synthesis of polymer bioconjugates using soluble supports.  

PubMed

Well-defined cleavable or non-cleavable soluble polystyrene supports were prepared by atom transfer radical polymerization and utilized for the iterative synthesis of functional hexapeptides. This approach allowed rapid and efficient liquid phase synthesis of peptide-polymer conjugates. PMID:22410574

Meszynska, Anna; Badi, Nezha; Börner, Hans G; Lutz, Jean-François

2012-04-21

379

Vibrational entropy, configurational entropy, and the fragility of glassforming liquids  

E-print Network

A thermodynamic measure of the fragility of liquids has recently (Ito et al ref.1) been defined in terms of the temperature dependence of the excess entropy of liquid over crystal, scaled by the excess entropy at the glass transition temperature, and it has been correlated with kinetic fragility. The correlation has been vigorously contested [2] using dielectric relaxation data on some molecular liquids. We put this conflict in perspective using an extensive data set covering all classes of liquids while retaining the cases of ref 2. The excess entropy of the liquid, used in the thermodynamic quantity being correlated, has both configurational and vibrational components. This is the source of a second conflict which concerns the relative importance of these two components. Experimental tests supporting the Adam-Gibbs "entropy" theory of the temperature dependence of transport in viscous liquids have mostly been made using the excess entropy, but recent simulation studies on the hard sphere fluid [3] SPC-E water [4] and mixed LJ [5,6] have shown, as in the A-G theory, a correlation with the configurational component. We show why, in laboratory studies, the correlation should be with both, inextricably. In the course of this demonstration we identify a key role for excess vibrational entropy in causing fragile behavior in ambient pressure liquids.

L. -M. Martinez; C. A. Angell

2000-12-13

380

A sliding cell technique for diffusion measurements in liquid metals  

SciTech Connect

The long capillary and shear cell techniques are the usual methods for diffusion measurements in liquid metals. Here we present a new “sliding cell technique” to measure interdiffusion in liquid alloys, which combines the merits of these two methods. Instead of a number of shear cells, as used in the shear cell method, only one sliding cell is designed to separate and join the liquid diffusion samples. Using the sliding cell technique, the influence of the heating process (which affects liquid diffusion measurements in the conventional long capillary method) can be eliminated. Time-dependent diffusion measurements at the same isothermal temperature were carried out in Al-Cu liquids. Compared with the previous results measured by in-situ X-ray radiography, the obtained liquid diffusion coefficient in this work is believed to be influenced by convective flow. The present work further supports the idea that to obtain accurate diffusion constants in liquid metals, the measurement conditions must be well controlled, and there should be no temperature gradients or other disturbances.

Geng, Yongliang; Zhu, Chunao; Zhang, Bo, E-mail: bo.zhang@hfut.edu.cn [School of Material Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China) [School of Material Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Anhui Provincial Key Lab of Advanced Functional Materials and Devices, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China)

2014-03-15

381

Fiber-optic level indicator for liquid hydrogen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a fiber-optic level indicator designed to detect the liquid interface in the liquid-hydrogen storage tanks. The considerations which led to the choice of the particular fiber-optic sensor and the construction of the measurement system are discussed. A fiber-optic refractometric transducer with the detection element of ellipsoidal form was developed which features a step-like response to the external refractive index in the narrow interval of this quantity between unity (gas) and 1.0974 (liquid hydrogen). The fiber-optic inputs to the storage system secure the reduced heat ingress in the liquid-hydrogen in comparison to sensors with electrical wires. The fiber-optic transducer features small dimensions, is strong mechanically, and supports multiple cycles of cooling to 20 K and heating to the ambient temperature. The device successfully indicated the level of liquid interface in a liquid-hydrogen storage tank under the maximum excess pressure in the tank of 4 MPa. The paper discusses a number of prospective applications of the developed fiber-optic transducer in the liquid-hydrogen storage systems.

Khotiaintsev, Sergei; Svyryd, Volodymyr

2008-04-01

382

Liquid/Gas Flow Mixers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improved devices mix gases and liquids into bubbly or foamy flows. Generates flowing, homogeneous foams or homogeneous dispersions of small, noncoalescing bubbles entrained in flowing liquids. Mixers useful in liquid-metal magnetohydrodynamic electric-power generator, froth flotation in mining industry, wastewater treatment, aerobic digestion, and stripping hydrocarbon contaminants from ground water.

Fabris, Gracio

1994-01-01

383

Ionic Liquids in Chemical Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Room-temperature ionic liquids are salts with a melting point close to or below room temperature. They form liquids composed in the majority of ions. This gives these materials the potential to behave very differently when they are used as solvents compared to conventional molecular liquids. The search for their application is growing in every area of analytical chemistry—electrochemistry, chromatography, electrophoresis,

Mihkel Koel

2005-01-01

384

High temperature liquid level sensor  

DOEpatents

A length of metal sheathed metal oxide cable is perforated to permit liquid access to the insulation about a pair of conductors spaced close to one another. Changes in resistance across the conductors will be a function of liquid level, since the wetted insulation will have greater electrical conductivity than that of the dry insulation above the liquid elevation.

Tokarz, Richard D. (West Richland, WA)

1983-01-01

385

Liquidity risk and syndicate structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

We decompose syndicated loan risk into credit, market, and liquidity risk and test how these shape syndicate structure. Commercial banks dominate relative to non-banks in loan syndicates that expose lenders to liquidity risk. This dominance is most pronounced when borrowers have high levels of credit or market risk. We then tie commercial banks’ advantage in liquidity risk to access to

Evan Gatev; Philip E. Strahan

2009-01-01

386

Liquid lubrication for space applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reviewed here is the state of the art of liquid lubrication for space applications. The areas discussed are types of liquid lubrication mechanisms, space environmental effects on lubrication, classification of lubricants, liquid lubricant additives, grease lubrication, mechanism materials, bearing anomalies and failures, lubricant supply techniques, and application types and lubricant needs for those applications.

Fusaro, Robert L.; Khonsari, Michael M.

1992-01-01

387

Dissolving Different Liquids in Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners add different liquids to water and apply their working definition of “dissolving” to their observations. After observing isopropyl rubbing alcohol, vegetable oil, and corn syrup in water, learners can conclude that while some liquids may dissolve in water, different liquids dissolve in water to different extents. Adult supervision recommended.

James H. Kessler

2007-01-01

388

Asset Pricing with Liquidity Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies equilibrium asset pricing with liquidity risk | the risk arising from unpredictable changes in liquidity over time. It is shown that a security s required return depends on its expected illiquidity and on the covariances of its own return and illiquidity with market return and market illiquidity. This gives rise to a liquidity- adjusted capital asset pricing

Viral V. Acharya; Lasse Heje Pedersenz

2003-01-01

389

Transversely excited liquid crystal cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The integration of photorefractive liquid crystal beam coupling devices into optical systems is often hampered by the need to tilt the liquid crystal cells to high angles of incidence in order to obtain efficient beam coupling. Owing to poor charge diffusion in most liquid crystal systems, charge migration depends mainly on an externally applied drift field. Conventional cells, with electrodes

Gary Cook; Jason P. Duignan; Lesley L. Taylor

2002-01-01

390

Acoustooptical Phenomena in Liquid Crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The review considers various aspects of the influence of mechanical deformation on the macroscopic structure and optical properties of liquid crystals: type of deformation (compression shear): deformation amplitude; relation between the acoustic wavelength, viscous wavelength, and liquid crystal layer thickness; mutual orientation of the wave vector and director; boundary conditions in the liquid-crystal cell (acoustically soft or acoustically rigid boundary);

O. A. Kapustina

1984-01-01

391

Anomalous effect of flow rate on the electrochemical behavior at a liquid|liquid interface under microfluidic conditions.  

PubMed

We have investigated the oxidation of ferrocene at a flowing organic solvent|aqueous electrolyte|solid electrode junction in a microfluidic setup using cyclic voltammetry and fluorescent laser scanning confocal microscopy. At low flow rates the oxidation current decreases with increasing flow, contrary to the Levich equation, but at higher flow rates the current increases linearly with the cube root of the flow rate. This behavior is explained using a simple model postulating a smallest effective width of the three-phase junction, which after fitting to the data comes to be ca. 20 ?m. The fluorescence microscopy reveals mixing of the two phases close to the PDMS cover, but the liquid|liquid junction is stable close to the glass support. This study shows the importance of the solid|liquid|liquid junctions for the behavior of multiphase systems under microfluidic conditions. PMID:24328179

Kaluza, Dawid; Adamiak, Wojciech; Kalwarczyk, Tomasz; Sozanski, Krzysztof; Opallo, Marcin; Jönsson-Niedziolka, Martin

2013-12-23

392

Support effects studied on model supported catalysts  

SciTech Connect

We are studying model catalysts in which the active phase is deposited onto flat oxide substrates in order to understand how a catalyst is affected by its support. We have examined the following growth and stability of titania overlayers which had been vapor deposited onto a Rh foil; the growth of Pt films on ZnO(0001)Zn and O(0001)O and compared the results to those obtained for Pt on {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001). Samples were prepared by vapor deposition of Pt onto flat substrates in ultra high vacuum, and metal coverages were measured using a quartz-crystal, film thickness monitor; the structure and CO adsorption properties of Pt films vapor deposited onto a ZrO{sub 2}(100) crystal; the deposition of Rh on a ZrO{sub 2}(100) crystal; The absorption of NO on Pt particles supported on CeO{sub 2}, {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001), and the Zn- and O-polar surfaces of ZnO(0001). We have investigated supported oxides in order to understand the acidic properties that have been reported for monolayer oxides. Our first studies were of amorphous, silicalumina catalysts. Finally, we have also begun to prepare model supported oxides in order to be able to used spectroscopic methods to characterize the sites formed on these materials. Our first studies were of niobia deposition on oxidized Al films and on an {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001) crystal.

Gorte, R.G.

1991-11-01

393

Shearing Flows in Liquid Crystal Models  

E-print Network

phenomenological model of frictional forces in a geological fault, which is motivated by the second model, the Leslie-Ericksen continuum theory of liquid crystals. iii Acknowledgements First, I would like to thank my wife, Terra, for all her support... and encouragement throughout my entire graduate career. Also, my daughter Adelaide whose arrival gave me a second wind. I would like to thank my advisor Weishi Liu. When I was stumped, he was always there get me through and guide me in the right direction. Finally...

Dorn, Timothy

2012-05-31

394

Supporting Math Vocabulary Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Providing appropriate language support is important for all students and essential to the success of English Language Learners (ELLs), struggling readers, and students with learning disabilities. In a mathematics classroom, the support includes the ongoing development of everyday vocabulary--such as names of fruit and actions such as skipping--and…

Bay-Williams, Jennifer M.; Livers, Stefanie

2009-01-01

395

Support Vector Data Description  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data domain description concerns the characterization of a data set. A good description covers all target data but includes no superfluous space. The boundary of a dataset can be used to detect novel data or outliers. We will present the Support Vector Data Description (SVDD) which is inspired by the Support Vector Classifier. It obtains a spherically shaped boundary around

David M. J. Tax; Robert P. W. Duin

2004-01-01

396

Measuring Social Supports.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although social support has been operationally defined, a lack of conceptual clarity has made measurement modest and unreliable. To investigate the feasibility of measuring social support from a qualitative rather than a quantitative perspective, and to consider negative social interactions in the assessment, 130 college students were administered…

Lehmann, Stan; And Others

397

Enabling Services Dyslexia Support  

E-print Network

Enabling Services Dyslexia Support Information for Students Website: www.soton.ac.uk/edusupport/dyslexia Contact details Telephone: 023 8059 7726 Email: enable@soton.ac.uk #12;2 About Dyslexia Support · We are a team of specialist dyslexia practitioners within the University of Southampton's Enabling Services

Molinari, Marc

398

Direct Support Workforce Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The fourteen brief articles in this theme issue all examine challenges in the development of direct support staff working with people who have developmental disabilities. The articles also include the views of direct support providers and people with developmental disabilities themselves, as well as examples of strategies used by provider agencies…

Impact, 1998

1998-01-01

399

Fatherhood and Family Support.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

On the assumption that fathers have been relatively absent from family support programs, this publication of the Family Resource Coalition addresses the role of fathers in family support programs, examines the impact of fathers on their children, and describes programs involving fathers successfully. Articles include: (1) "What's Behind the…

Goetz, Kathy, Ed.

1996-01-01

400

Debugging Support for Charm  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a parallel debugger and the related debugging support implemented for CHARM++, a data- driven parallel programming language. Because we build extensive debugging support into the parallel runtime sys- tem, applications can be debugged at a very high level.

Rashmi Jyothi; Orion Sky Lawlor; Laxmikant V. Kalé

2004-01-01

401

Nanostructured catalyst supports  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to SiC nanostructures, including SiC nanopowder, SiC nanowires, and composites of SiC nanopowder and nanowires, which can be used as catalyst supports in membrane electrode assemblies and in fuel cells. The present invention also relates to composite catalyst supports comprising nanopowder and one or more inorganic nanowires for a membrane electrode assembly.

Zhu, Yimin; Goldman, Jay L.; Qian, Baixin; Stefan, Ionel C.

2012-10-02

402

Biology Curriculum Support Document.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This biology curriculum supplement includes the North Carolina Standard Course of Study Goals, helpful resources, and suggested activities supported by inquiry-based laboratory activities. Contents include a detailed description of content which provides the goals and standards being sough), a materials list for inquiry support labs and…

North Carolina Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh.

403

On the identification of liquid surface properties using liquid bridges.  

PubMed

The term liquid bridge refers to the specific silhouette of a liquid volume when it is placed between two solid surfaces. Liquid bridges have been studied extensively both theoretically and experimentally during the last century due to their significance in many technological applications. It is worth noticing that even today new technological applications based on liquid bridges continue to appear. A liquid bridge has a well-defined surface configuration dictated by a rigid theoretical foundation so the potential of its utilization as a tool to study surface properties of liquids is apparent. However, it is very scarce in literature that the use of liquid bridges is suggested as an alternative to the well-established drop techniques (pendant/sessile drop). The present work (i) presents the theoretical background for setting up a liquid-bridge based surface property estimation problem, (ii) describes the required experimental equipment and procedures and (iii) performs a thorough literature review on the subject. A case with particular interest is that of liquid bridges made of electrically conducting liquids forming between two conducting solids; such a liquid bridge presents an integral electrical conductance value which is sensitive to the specific silhouette of the bridge. This enables the use of this integral conductance as shape descriptor instead of the conventional image processing techniques. Several attempts in literature for the estimation of liquid surface tension, liquid-solid contact angle and surfactant induced surface elasticity for conducting or non/conducting liquids are presented and the prospects of the technique are discussed. PMID:24819725

Kostoglou, M; Karapantsios, T D

2014-04-24

404

Comparative investigation of N donor ligand-lanthanide complexes from the metal and ligand point of view  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

N-donor ligands such as n-Pr-BTP (2,6-bis(5,6-dipropyl-1,2,4-triazin-3-yl)pyridine) studied here preferentially bind An(III) over Ln(III) in liquid-liquid separation of trivalent ac-tinides from spent nuclear fuel. The chemical and physical processes responsible for this selectivity are not yet well understood. We present systematic comparative near-edge X-ray absorption structure (XANES) spectroscopy investigations at the Gd L3 edge of [GdBTP3](NO3)3, [Gd(BTP)3](OTf)3, Gd(NO3)3, Gd(OTf)3 and N K edge of [Gd(BTP)3](NO3)3, Gd(NO3)3 complexes. The pre-edge absorption resonance in Gd L3 edge high-energy resolution X-ray absorption near edge structure spectra (HR-XANES) is explained as arising from 2p3/2 ? 4f/5d electronic transitions by calculations with the FEFF9.5 code. Experimental evidence is found for higher electronic density on Gd in [Gd(BTP)3](NO3)3 and [Gd(BTP)3](OTf)3 compared to Gd in Gd(NO3)3 and Gd(OTf)3, and on N in [Gd(BTP)3](NO3)3 compared to n-Pr-BTP. The origin of the pre-edge structure in the N K edge XANES is explained by density functional theory (DFT) with the ORCA code. Results at the N K edge suggest a change in ligand orbital occupancies and mixing upon complexation but further work is necessary to interpret observed spectral variations.

Prüßmann, T.; Denecke, M. A.; Geist, A.; Rothe, J.; Lindqvist-Reis, P.; Löble, M.; Breher, F.; Batchelor, D. R.; Apostolidis, C.; Walter, O.; Caliebe, W.; Kvashnina, K.; Jorissen, K.; Kas, J. J.; Rehr, J. J.; Vitova, T.

2013-04-01

405

Lyotropic liquid crystal phases of phytantriol in a protic ionic liquid with fluorous anion.  

PubMed

The phase behaviour of phytantriol in the protic ionic liquid (PIL) 1-methylimidazolium pentadecafluorooctanoate (MImOF) and four different MImOF-water compositions was investigated by small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS), cross polarised optical microscopy (CPOM) and infrared spectroscopy (IR). MImOF is a distinct protic ionic liquid in that it contains a fluorocarbon anion and a hydrocarbon cation. This leads to MImOF having an unusual liquid nanostructure, such that it contains fluorocarbon, hydrocarbon and polar domains. No lyotropic liquid crystal phases were observed for phytantriol in neat MImOF. However, on addition of water, lamellar, cubic Ia3¯d and micellar phases were observed for specific MImOF-phytantriol-water compositions at room temperature, and up to 60 °C. The phase behaviour for phytantriol in the solvent mixture of 25 wt%-MImOF-75 wt%-water was the most similar to the phytantriol-water phase diagram. Only this MImOF-water composition supported the Ia3¯d cubic phase, which had a lattice parameter between 100-140 Å compared to 86-100 Å in deionised water, indicating significant swelling due to the MImOF. IR spectroscopy showed that a percentage of the water molecules were hydrogen bonded to the N-H of the MIm cation, and this water decreased the hydrogen bonding present between the cation and anion of the ionic liquid. This investigation furthers our understanding of the interaction of ionic liquids with solutes, and the important role that the different IL nanostructures can have on influencing these interactions. PMID:25177837

Shen, Yan; Greaves, Tamar L; Kennedy, Danielle F; Weerawardena, Asoka; Kirby, Nigel; Song, Gonghua; Drummond, Calum J

2014-10-21

406

Why liquids are fragile  

E-print Network

The fragilities (Tg-normalized temperature dependence of alpha-relaxation times) of 33 glass-forming liquids and polymers are compared for isobaric, mP, and isochoric, mV, conditions. We find that the two quantities are linearly correlated, mP = (37 +/- 3) + (0.84 +/- 0.5)mV. This result has obvious important consequences, since the ratio mV/mP is a measure of the relative degree to which temperature and density control the dynamics, Moreover, we show that the fragility itself is a consequence of the relative interplay of temperature and density effects near Tg. Specifically, strong behavior reflects a substantial contribution from density (jammed dynamics), while the relaxation of fragile liquids is more thermally-activated. Drawing on a scaling law, a physical interpretation of this result in terms of the intermolecular potential is offered.

R. Casalini; C. M. Roland

2005-03-18

407

Disintegration of liquid sheets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development, stability, and disintegration of liquid sheets issuing from a two-dimensional air-assisted nozzle is studied. Detailed measurements of mean drop size and velocity are made using a phase Doppler particle analyzer. Without air flow the liquid sheet converges toward the axis as a result of surface tension forces. With airflow a quasi-two-dimensional expanding spray is formed. The air flow causes small variations in sheet thickness to develop into major disturbances with the result that disruption starts before the formation of the main break-up region. In the two-dimensional variable geometry air-blast atomizer, it is shown that the air flow is responsible for the formation of large, ordered, and small chaotic 'cell' structures.

Mansour, Adel; Chigier, Norman

1990-01-01

408

Liquid belt radiator design study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Liquid Belt Radiator (LBR) is an advanced concept developed to meet the needs of anticipated future space missions. A previous study documented the advantages of this concept as a lightweight, easily deployable alternative to present day space heat rejection systems. The technical efforts associated with this study concentrate on refining the concept of the LBR as well as examining the issues of belt dynamics and potential application of the LBR to intermediate and high temperature heat rejection applications. A low temperature point design developed in previous work is updated assuming the use of diffusion pump oil, Santovac-6, as the heat transfer media. Additional analytical and design effort is directed toward determining the impact of interface heat exchanger, fluid bath sealing, and belt drive mechanism designs on system performance and mass. The updated design supports the earlier result by indicating a significant reduction in system specific system mass as compared to heat pipe or pumped fluid radiator concepts currently under consideration (1.3 kg/sq m versus 5 kg/sq m).

Teagan, W. P.; Fitzgerald, K. F.

1986-01-01

409

Liquid fuel cells.  

PubMed

The advantages of liquid fuel cells (LFCs) over conventional hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells include a higher theoretical energy density and efficiency, a more convenient handling of the streams, and enhanced safety. This review focuses on the use of different types of organic fuels as an anode material for LFCs. An overview of the current state of the art and recent trends in the development of LFC and the challenges of their practical implementation are presented. PMID:25247123

Soloveichik, Grigorii L

2014-01-01

410

RHIC The Perfect Liquid  

ScienceCinema

Evidence to date suggests that gold-gold collisions the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven are indeed creating a new state of hot, dense matter, but one quite different and even more remarkable than had been predicted. Instead of behaving like a gas of free quarks and gluons, as was expected, the matter created in RHIC's heavy ion collisions appears to be more like a "perfect" liquid.

BNL

2009-09-01

411

The Liquid Rainbow  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners are challenged to discover the relative densities of colored liquids to create a rainbow pattern in a test tube. Five different solutions—3 mixtures of ethyl alcohol, food color and water; red colored water; and pure ethyl alcohol—are used in various combinations. Learners carefully add the solutions to test tubes and observe their relative densities to find the correct order for making a rainbow. Young learners will require adult supervision because of flammable and irritating ingredients.

Sciencenter

2014-08-27

412

Liquid Body Armor  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore how nanotechnology is being used to create new types of protective fabrics. Learners play with samples of âOobleck," a polymer (a long chain of molecules) made of corn starch, food coloring, and water. Oobleck is a non-Newtonian fluid and therefore acts like both a liquid and a solid. Through this activity, learners discover that scientists and engineers are designing new materials to recreate this phenomenon in flexible fabrics.

Network, Nanoscale I.; Houston, Children'S M.

2014-06-18

413

CHEMICAL IMAGES OF LIQUIDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the success of electronic noses in a variety of applications related to many areas such as industrial, medical,\\u000a environmental, spatial, etc. where the objective was to construct chemical images of volatile compounds including odors, here\\u000a we introduce another system able to perform chemical images of liquids of different origin, quality, and composition. In line\\u000a with mammalian senses such as

L. Lvova; P. Paolesse; C. Di Natale; E. Martinelli; E. Mazzone; A. Orsini

414

Liquid fuel cells  

PubMed Central

Summary The advantages of liquid fuel cells (LFCs) over conventional hydrogen–oxygen fuel cells include a higher theoretical energy density and efficiency, a more convenient handling of the streams, and enhanced safety. This review focuses on the use of different types of organic fuels as an anode material for LFCs. An overview of the current state of the art and recent trends in the development of LFC and the challenges of their practical implementation are presented. PMID:25247123

2014-01-01

415

RHIC The Perfect Liquid  

SciTech Connect

Evidence to date suggests that gold-gold collisions the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven are indeed creating a new state of hot, dense matter, but one quite different and even more remarkable than had been predicted. Instead of behaving like a gas of free quarks and gluons, as was expected, the matter created in RHIC's heavy ion collisions appears to be more like a "perfect" liquid.

BNL

2008-08-12

416

Cyclic phosphonium ionic liquids  

PubMed Central

Summary Ionic liquids (ILs) incorporating cyclic phosphonium cations are a novel category of materials. We report here on the synthesis and characterization of four new cyclic phosphonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide ILs with aliphatic and aromatic pendant groups. In addition to the syntheses of these novel materials, we report on a comparison of their properties with their ammonium congeners. These exemplars are slightly less conductive and have slightly smaller self-diffusion coefficients than their cyclic ammonium congeners. PMID:24605146

Mukhlall, Joshua A; Romeo, Alicia R; Gohdo, Masao; Ramati, Sharon; Berman, Marc; Suarez, Sophia N

2014-01-01

417

Basic Liquid Chromatography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The online textbook, Basic Liquid Chromatography, is provided by Dr. Yuri Kazakevich and Dr. Harold McNair of Seton Hall University. For those needing review or an introduction to the subject, the well designed and easily read document contains a wealth of information. Sections include an introduction, instrumentation, detectors, theory, adsorbents, reversed phase, gel permeation chromatography, column selection, pH effect, and even an online short course.

Kazakevich, Yuri.

1996-01-01

418

Liquid crystals in tribology.  

PubMed

Two decades ago, the literature dealing with the possible applications of low molar mass liquid crystals, also called monomer liquid crystals (MLCs), only included about 50 references. Today, thousands of papers, conference reports, books or book chapters and patents refer to the study and applications of MLCs as lubricants and lubricant additives and efforts are made to develop new commercial applications. The development of more efficient lubricants is of paramount technological and economic relevance as it is estimated that half the energy consumption is dissipated as friction. MLCs have shown their ability to form ordered boundary layers with good load-carrying capacity and to lower the friction coefficients, wear rates and contact temperature of sliding surfaces, thus contributing to increase the components service life and to save energy. This review includes the use of MLCs in lubrication, and dispersions of MLCs in conventional polymers (PDMLCs). Finally, new lubricating system composed of MLC blends with surfactants, ionic liquids or nanophases are considered. PMID:19865534

Carrión, Francisco-José; Martínez-Nicolás, Ginés; Iglesias, Patricia; Sanes, José; Bermúdez, María-Dolores

2009-09-01

419

Liquid Crystals in Tribology  

PubMed Central

Two decades ago, the literature dealing with the possible applications of low molar mass liquid crystals, also called monomer liquid crystals (MLCs), only included about 50 references. Today, thousands of papers, conference reports, books or book chapters and patents refer to the study and applications of MLCs as lubricants and lubricant additives and efforts are made to develop new commercial applications. The development of more efficient lubricants is of paramount technological and economic relevance as it is estimated that half the energy consumption is dissipated as friction. MLCs have shown their ability to form ordered boundary layers with good load-carrying capacity and to lower the friction coefficients, wear rates and contact temperature of sliding surfaces, thus contributing to increase the components service life and to save energy. This review includes the use of MLCs in lubrication, and dispersions of MLCs in conventional polymers (PDMLCs). Finally, new lubricating system composed of MLC blends with surfactants, ionic liquids or nanophases are considered. PMID:19865534

Carrión, Francisco-José; Martínez-Nicolás, Ginés; Iglesias, Patricia; Sanes, José; Bermúdez, María-Dolores

2009-01-01

420

Electrowetting of liquid marbles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrowetting of water drops on structured superhydrophobic surfaces are known to cause an irreversible change from a slippy (Cassie-Baxter) to a sticky (Wenzel) regime. An alternative approach to using a water drop on a superhydrophobic surface to obtain a non-wetting system is to use a liquid marble on a smooth solid substrate. A liquid marble is a droplet coated in hydrophobic grains, which therefore carries its own solid surface structure as a conformal coating. Such droplets can be considered as perfect non-wetting systems having contact angles to smooth solid substrates of close to 180°. In this work we report the electrowetting of liquid marbles made of water coated with hydrophobic lycopodium grains and show that the electrowetting is completely reversible. Marbles are shown to return to their initial contact angle for both ac and dc electrowetting and without requiring a threshold voltage to be exceeded. Furthermore, we provide a proof-of-principle demonstration that controlled motion of marbles on a finger electrode structure is possible.

Newton, M. I.; Herbertson, D. L.; Elliott, S. J.; Shirtcliffe, N. J.; McHale, G.

2007-01-01

421

High CO2 Solubility, Permeability and Selectivity in Ionic Liquids with the Tetracyanoborate Anion  

SciTech Connect

Five different ionic liquids containing the tetracyanoborate anion were synthesized and evaluated for CO2 separation performance. Measured CO2 solubility values were exceptionally high compared to analogous ionic liquids with different anions and ranged from 0.128 mol L-1 atm-1 to 0.148 mol L-1 atm-1. In addition, CO2 permeability and CO2/N2 selectivity values were measured using a supported ionic liquid membrane architecture and the separations performance of the ionic liquid membranes exceeded the Robeson upper bound. These results establish the distinct potential of the tetracyanoborate, [B(CN)4], anion for the separation of CO2.

Mahurin, Shannon Mark [ORNL; Hillesheim, Patrick C [ORNL; Yeary, Joshua S [ORNL; Jiang, Deen [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL

2012-01-01

422

Supported double membranes  

PubMed Central

Planar model membranes, like supported lipid bilayers and surface-tethered vesicles, have been proven to be useful tools for the investigation of complex biological functions in a significantly less complex membrane environment. In this study, we introduce a supported double membrane system that should be useful for studies that target biological processes in the proximity of two lipid bilayers such as the periplasm of bacteria and mitochondria or the small cleft between pre-and postsynaptic neuronal membranes. Large unilamellar vesicles (LUV) were tethered to a preformed supported bilayer by a biotin-streptavidin tether. We show from single particle tracking (SPT) experiments that these vesicle are mobile above the plane of the supported membrane. At higher concentrations, the tethered vesicles fuse to form a second continuous bilayer on top of the supported bilayer. The distance between the two bilayers was determined by fluorescence interference contrast (FLIC) microscopy to be between 16 and 24 nm. The lateral diffusion of labeled lipids in the second bilayer was very similar to that in supported membranes. SPT experiments with reconstituted syntaxin-1A show that the mobility of transmembrane proteins was not improved when compared with solid supported membranes. PMID:19236921

Murray, David H.; Tamm, Lukas K.; Kiessling, Volker

2009-01-01

423

Development of Automotive Liquid Hydrogen Storage Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liquid hydrogen (LH2) takes up less storage volume than gas but requires cryogenic vessels. State-of-the-art applications for passenger vehicles consist of double-wall cylindrical tanks that hold a hydrogen storage mass of up to 10 kg. The preferred shell material of the tanks is stainless steel, since it is very resistant against hydrogen brittleness and shows negligible hydrogen permeation. Therefore, the weight of the whole tank system including valves and heat exchanger is more than 100 kg. The space between the inner and outer vessel is mainly used for thermal super-insulation purposes. Several layers of insulation foils and high vacuums of 10-3 Pa reduce the heat entry. The support structures, which keep the inner tank in position to the outer tank, are made of materials with low thermal conductivity, e.g. glass or carbon fiber reinforced plastics. The remaining heat in-leak leads to a boil-off rate of 1 to 3 percent per day. Active cooling systems to increase the stand-by time before evaporation losses occur are being studied. Currently, the production of several liquid hydrogen tanks that fulfill the draft of regulations of the European Integrated Hydrogen Project (EIHP) is being prepared. New concepts of lightweight liquid hydrogen storage tanks will be investigated.

Krainz, G.; Bartlok, G.; Bodner, P.; Casapicola, P.; Doeller, Ch.; Hofmeister, F.; Neubacher, E.; Zieger, A.

2004-06-01

424

MSFC Skylab operations support summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A summary of the actions and problems involved in preparing the Skylab-one vehicle is presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) flight operations support functions and organization, (2) launch operations and booster flight support functions and organization, (3) Skylab launch vehicle support teams, (4) Skylab orbital operations support performance analysis, (5) support manning and procedures, and (6) data support and facilities.

Martin, J. R.

1974-01-01

425

Stop smoking support programs  

MedlinePLUS

Smokeless tobacco - stop smoking programs; Stop smoking techniques; Smoking cessation programs; Smoking cessation techniques ... It is hard to quit smoking if you are acting alone. Smokers may have a ... of quitting with a support program. Stop smoking programs ...

426

Regenerative Life Support Evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the development plan and design concept of the Regenerative Life Support Evaluation (RLSE) planned for flight testing in the European Space Agency Spacelab. The development plan encompasses the ongoing advanced life support subsystem and a systems integration effort to evolve concurrently subsystem concepts that perform their function and can be integrated with other subsystems in a flight demonstration of a regenerative life support system. The design concept for RLSE comprises water-electrolysis O2 generation, electrochemically depolarized CO2 removal, and Sabatier CO2 reduction for atmosphere regeneration, urine vapor-compression distillation, and wash-water hyperfiltration for waste-water recovery. The flight demonstration by RLSE is an important step in qualifying the regenerative concepts for life support in space stations.

Kleiner, G. N.; Thompson, C. D.

1977-01-01

427

Support the Kids Involved  

MedlinePLUS

... Bystanders Who Witness Bullying Support Kids Who are Bullied Listen and focus on the child . Learn what’s ... ensure that it stops. Back to top Address Bullying Behavior Parents, school staff, and organizations all have ...

428

Teachers: The vision supported  

SciTech Connect

A support system is necessary to implement the vision of standards-based science education. The National Science Resources Center has studied isolated areas where innovations have succeeded and finds that the successful enterprises have these elements in common: 1. The availability of high-quality, inquiry-centered science curriculum units that are appropriate for children; 2. Teacher education programs to prepare and support elementary teachers to teach hands-on, inquiry-centered science; 3. Support systems for supplying science materials and equipment to teachers; 4. Assessment methods for evaluating student performance that are consistent with the goals of an effective science program; and, 5. Administrative and community support for an effective science program.

Tuomi, J.

1994-12-31

429

Voyager mission support  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mission support provided by Deep Space Network for Project Voyager is discussed. Mission operations covered include for Voyager 1 the far encounter 2, Saturn near encounter, and the post encounter phase, and for Voyager 2 the Jupiter Saturn cruise phase.

Fanelli, N.; Nance, H. E.

1981-01-01

430

Chromatography resin support  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method of using an improved chromatography resin support is disclosed. The chromatography support platform is provided by a stainless steel hollow cylinder adapted for being inserted into a chromatography column. An exterior wall of the stainless steel cylinder defines a groove for carrying therein an "O"-ring. The upper surface of the stainless steel column is covered by a fine stainless steel mesh welded to the edges of the stainless steel cylinder. When placed upon a receiving ledge defined within a chromatography column, the "O"-ring provides a fluid tight seal with the inner edge wall of the chromatography cylinder. The stainless steel mesh supports the chromatography matrix and provides a back flushable support which is economical and simple to construct.

Dobos, James G. (North Augusta, SC)

2002-01-01

431

Application of ionic liquid in liquid phase microextraction technology.  

PubMed

Ionic liquids (ILs) are novel nonmolecular solvents. Their unique properties, such as high thermal stability, tunable viscosity, negligible vapor pressure, nonflammability, and good solubility for inorganic and organic compounds, make them excellent candidates as extraction media for a range of microextraction techniques. Many physical properties of ILs can be varied, and the structural design can be tuned to impart the desired functionality and enhance the analyte extraction selectivity, efficiency, and sensitivity. This paper provides an overview of the applications of ILs in liquid phase microextraction technology, such as single-drop microextraction, hollow fiber based liquid phase microextraction, and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction. The sensitivity, linear calibration range, and detection limits for a range of target analytes in the methods were analyzed to determine the advantages of ILs in liquid phase microextraction. PMID:23002004

Han, Dandan; Tang, Baokun; Lee, Yu Ri; Row, Kyung Ho

2012-11-01

432

SAE Standards Support  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes PNNL activities in FY 2012 in support of the following two vehicle communication standards activities: • Technical support to SAE, ANSI and NIST technical working groups. PNNL actively contributed to the use case development, harmonization, and evaluation of the SAE standards activities for vehicle to grid communication • Tested and validated a set of potential technologies for meeting SAE communication requirements and provided recommendations for technology choices.

Gowri, Krishnan

2012-11-01

433

Pipelay support vessel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A former North Sea pipe carrier being transformed into a versatile pipelay-support vessel will help Italy's Saipem S.p.A. in laying three 20-in gas lines across the Sicilian Channel. The new support ship, to be named Ragno Due, spans 262 ft (80 m) in length and 59 ft (18 m) in width and has a draft of 14 ft (4.3 m);

D. DallAglio; L. McGrath

1979-01-01

434

Combustor liner support assembly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A support assembly for a gas turbine engine combustor includes an annular frame having a plurality of circumferentially spaced apart tenons, and an annular combustor liner disposed coaxially with the frame and including a plurality of circumferentially spaced apart tenons circumferentially adjoining respective ones of the frame tenons for radially and tangentially supporting the liner to the frame while allowing unrestrained differential thermal radial movement therebetween.

Halila, Ely E. (Inventor)

1994-01-01

435

Generic mechanism for generating a liquid-liquid phase transition.  

PubMed

Recent experimental results indicate that phosphorus--a single-component system--can have a high-density liquid (HDL) and a low-density liquid (LDL) phase. A first-order transition between two liquids of different densities is consistent with experimental data for a variety of materials, including single-component systems such as water, silica and carbon. Molecular dynamics simulations of very specific models for supercooled water, liquid carbon and supercooled silica predict a LDL-HDL critical point, but a coherent and general interpretation of the LDL-HDL transition is lacking. Here we show that the presence of a LDL and a HDL can be directly related to an interaction potential with an attractive part and two characteristic short-range repulsive distances. This kind of interaction is common to other single-component materials in the liquid state (in particular, liquid metals), and such potentials are often used to describe systems that exhibit a density anomaly. However, our results show that the LDL and HDL phases can occur in systems with no density anomaly. Our results therefore present an experimental challenge to uncover a liquid-liquid transition in systems like liquid metals, regardless of the presence of a density anomaly. PMID:11217853

Franzese, G; Malescio, G; Skibinsky, A; Buldyrev, S V; Stanley, H E

2001-02-01

436

Viscous fingering and liquid crystals in confinement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis focuses on two problems lying within the field of soft condensed matter: the viscous fingering or Saffman-Taylor instability and nematic liquid crystals in confinement. Whenever a low viscosity fluid displaces a high viscosity fluid in a porous medium, for example water pushing oil out of oil reservoirs, the interface between the two fluids is rendered unstable. Viscous fingers develop, grow and compete until a single finger spans all the way from inlet to outlet. Here, using a free energy lattice Boltzmann algorithm, we examine the Saffman-Taylor instability for two different wetting situations: (a) when neither of the two fluids wet the walls of the channel and (b) when the displacing fluids completely wets the walls. We demonstrate that curvature effects in the third dimension, which arise because of the wetting boundary conditions, can lead to a novel suppression of the instability. Recent experiments in microchannels using colloid-polymer mixtures support our findings. In the second part of the thesis we examine nematic liquid crystals confined in wedge-structured geometries. In these systems the final stable configuration of the liquid crystal system is controlled by the complex interplay between confinement, elasticity and surface anchoring. Varying the wedge opening angle this competition leads to a splay to bend transition mediated by a defect in the bulk of the wedge. Using a hybrid lattice Boltzmann algorithm we study the splay-bend transition and compare to recent experiments on {em fd} virus particles in microchannels. Our numerical results, in quantitative agreement with the experiments, enable us to predict the position of the defect as a function of opening angle, and elucidate its role in the change of director structure. This has relevance to novel energy saving, liquid crystal devices which rely on defect motion and pinning to create bistable director configurations.

Zacharoudiou, Ioannis

437

VAPOR SPACE AND LIQUID/AIR INTERFACECORROSION TESTS  

SciTech Connect

The phenomena of vapor space corrosion and liquid/air interface corrosion of carbon steel in simulated liquid waste environments have been investigated. Initial experiments have explored the hypothesis that vapor space corrosion may be accelerated by the formation of a corrosive electrolyte on the tank wall by a process of evaporation of relatively warmer waste and condensation of the vapor on the relatively cooler tank wall. Results from initial testing do not support the hypothesis of electrolyte transport by evaporation and condensation. The analysis of the condensate collected by a steel specimen suspended over a 40 C simulated waste solution showed no measurable concentrations of the constituents of the simulated solution and a decrease in pH from 14 in the simulant to 5.3 in the condensate. Liquid/air interface corrosion was studied as a galvanic corrosion system, where steel at the interface undergoes accelerated corrosion while steel in contact with bulk waste is protected. The zero-resistance-ammeter technique was used to measure the current flow between steel specimens immersed in solutions simulating (1) the high-pH bulk liquid waste and (2) the expected low-pH meniscus liquid at the liquid/air interface. Open-circuit potential measurements of the steel specimens were not significantly different in the two solutions, with the result that (1) no consistent galvanic current flow occurred and (2) both the meniscus specimen and bulk specimen were subject to pitting corrosion.

Zapp, P.; Hoffman, E.

2009-11-09

438

Study of liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen auxiliary propulsion systems for the space tug  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Design concepts are considered that permit use of a liquid-liquid (as opposed to gas-gas) oxygen/hydrogen thrust chamber for attitude control and auxiliary propulsion thrusters on the space tug. The best of the auxiliary propulsion system concepts are defined and their principal characteristics, including cost as well as operational capabilities, are established. Design requirements for each of the major components of the systems, including thrusters, are developed at the conceptual level. The competitive concepts considered use both dedicated (separate tanks) and integrated (propellant from main propulsion tanks) propellant supply. The integrated concept is selected as best for the space tug after comparative evaluation against both cryogenic and storable propellant dedicated systems. A preliminary design of the selected system is established and recommendations for supporting research and technology to further the concept are presented.

Nichols, J. F.

1975-01-01

439

Melittin adsorption and lipid monolayer disruption at liquid-liquid interfaces.  

PubMed

Melittin, a membrane-active peptide with antimicrobial activity, was investigated at the interface formed between two immiscible electrolyte solutions (ITIES) supported on a metallic electrode. Ion-transfer voltammetry showed well-defined semi-reversible transfer peaks along with adsorptive peaks. The reversible adsorption of melittin at the liquid-liquid interface is qualitatively discussed from voltammetric data and experimentally confirmed by real-time image analysis of video snapshots. It is also demonstrated that polarization of the water/1,2-DCE interface results in drastic drop shape variations caused by large variations of the interfacial tension. The experimental data also confirmed that maximum adsorption occurs near the ion transfer potential. Finally, the interaction of melittin with a monolayer of L-?-dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) was also investigated showing that melittin destabilizes the lipidic monolayer facilitating its desorption. The non-covalent complex formation between melittin and DPPC was confirmed by mass spectrometry. PMID:21962026

Méndez, Manuel A; Nazemi, Zahra; Uyanik, Ibrahim; Lu, Yu; Girault, Hubert H

2011-11-15

440

Rapid detection of contaminating bacteria in the Rhodospirillum rubrum bioreactor of the life support system MELiSSA  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a lunar base or a mission to Mars a reliable life support system is essential to replenish the food and water supplies and manage the production of gases and wastes MELiSSA Micro Ecological Life Support System is a model of regenerative life support system targeting complete recycling of gas liquids and solid wastes by using the combined activity of

L. Hendrickx; P. Janssen; S. Baatout; R. Wattiez; A. van Havermaet; V. Bossi; M. Mergeay

2006-01-01

441

Compatibility of structural materials with liquid lead-bismuth and mercury  

SciTech Connect

Both liquid Hg and Pb-Bi eutectic have been proposed as possible target materials for spallation neutron sources. During the 1950s and 1960s, a substantial program existed at BNL as part of the Liquid Metal Fuel Reactor program on compatibility of Bi, Pb, and their alloys with structural materials. Subsequently, compatibility studies of Hg with structural materials were performed in support of development of Rankine-cycle Hg turbines for nuclear applications. This paper reviews our understanding of the corrosion/mass-transfer reactions of structural materials with these liquid-metal coolants. Topics discussed include the basic solubility relations of Fe, Cr, Ni, and refractory metals in these liquid metals, results of inhibition studies, role of oxygen on corrosion, and specialized topics such as cavitation corrosion and liquid-metal embrittlement. Emphasis is on utilizing the understanding gained in this earlier work on the development of heavy-liquid-metal targets in spallation neutron sources.

Weeks, J.R.

1997-04-01

442

High Performance Liquid Chromatography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has many applications in food chemistry. Food components that have been analyzed with HPLC include organic acids, vitamins, amino acids, sugars, nitrosamines, certain pesticides, metabolites, fatty acids, aflatoxins, pigments, and certain food additives. Unlike gas chromatography, it is not necessary for the compound being analyzed to be volatile. It is necessary, however, for the compounds to have some solubility in the mobile phase. It is important that the solubilized samples for injection be free from all particulate matter, so centrifugation and filtration are common procedures. Also, solid-phase extraction is used commonly in sample preparation to remove interfering compounds from the sample matrix prior to HPLC analysis.

Talcott, Stephen

443

Levitation in paramagnetic liquids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic levitation of diamagnetic and paramagnetic substances in a paramagnetic liquid is explored. Materials ranging from graphite to tin and copper can be made to float at ambient temperature in concentrated solutions of dysprosium nitrate, when an electromagnet or four-block permanent magnet array is used to produce a gradient field. Simulations illustrate the stable regions for levitation above the permanent magnets; and a novel eight-block configuration is proposed, which allows denser materials such as gold or lead to be levitated.

Dunne, P. A.; Hilton, J.; Coey, J. M. D.

2007-09-01

444

Vaporization of Kitaev spin liquids.  

PubMed

The quantum spin liquid is an exotic quantum state of matter in magnets. This state is a spin analog of liquid helium that does not solidify down to the lowest temperature due to strong quantum fluctuations. In conventional fluids, the liquid and gas possess the same symmetry and adiabatically connect to each other by bypassing the critical end point. We find that the situation is qualitatively different in quantum spin liquids realized in a three-dimensional Kitaev model; both gapless and gapped quantum spin liquid phases at low temperatures are always distinguished from the high-temperature paramagnet (spin gas) by a phase transition. The results challenge the common belief that the absence of thermodynamic singularity down to the lowest temperature is a symptom of a quantum spin liquid. PMID:25415923

Nasu, Joji; Udagawa, Masafumi; Motome, Yukitoshi

2014-11-01

445

Ionic liquids in confined geometries.  

PubMed

Over recent years the Surface Force Apparatus (SFA) has been used to carry out model experiments revealing structural and dynamic properties of ionic liquids confined to thin films. Understanding characteristics such as confinement induced ion layering and lubrication is of primary importance to many applications of ionic liquids, from energy devices to nanoparticle dispersion. This Perspective surveys and compares SFA results from several laboratories as well as simulations and other model experiments. A coherent picture is beginning to emerge of ionic liquids as nano-structured in pores and thin films, and possessing complex dynamic properties. The article covers structure, dynamics, and colloidal forces in confined ionic liquids; ionic liquids are revealed as a class of liquids with unique and useful confinement properties and pertinent future directions of research are highlighted. PMID:22301770

Perkin, Susan

2012-04-21

446

Criteria for solvate ionic liquids.  

PubMed

Certain concentrated mixtures of salts and solvents are not simply "solutions" anymore, but they may be described as "ionic liquids". In this perspective paper, we describe possible criteria for the new family of ionic liquids: "solvate" ionic liquids. This subclass of ionic liquids was originally proposed by Angell et al. in their recent review; however, their criteria remain to be debated. Concentrated mixtures of lithium salts and organic solvents are useful models for these solvate ionic liquids, and the effects of the salt concentration, types of solvents, and counter anions of the lithium salts on their structure and properties have been explored to enable contrast with traditional solutions, and to help determine whether a given mixture belongs to the solvate ionic liquid or not. PMID:24676567

Mandai, Toshihiko; Yoshida, Kazuki; Ueno, Kazuhide; Dokko, Kaoru; Watanabe, Masayoshi

2014-05-21

447

Utilizing Natural Supports to Lower the Cost of Supported Employment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored the effect of utilizing natural supports strategies on the cost of supported employment in the state of Wisconsin. Data presented here suggest that the use of natural supports reduced annual per capita costs by 57.6%. Further, supported employees trained via natural supports generated cumulative costs of $5,063 over 6.04 fiscal…

Cimera, Robert Evert

2007-01-01

448

Liquid atomization in supersonic flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental investigation of the atomization of a round liquid jet by coaxial, costream injection into a supersonic, Mach 1.5 air flow is reported. Extensive flow visualization was conducted using schlieren/shadowgraph, flash photography, and short duration (ns) laser imaging. The finer details of the jet were revealed when viewed under high magnification with the help of a microscope. The liquid and air pressures were varied individually. Photographic evidence indicates the presence of three regions within the liquid jet: a primary region enclosed by the first shock cell where the primary breakup occurs, a secondary region in which the jet is totally broken because of its interaction with the supersonic wave structure, and a third, subsonic region further downstream. It was found that the breakup mechanism of liquid jets in supersonic airstreams is quite complex. The breakup seems to be initiated by the growth of the turbulent structure on the liquid surface and the subsequent detachment of the three-dimensional structure as fine droplets by the intense shear at the liquid-gas interface. This seems to confirm the boundary layer stripping mechanism. The liquid jet expands into a bubble like formation as it interacts with the first set of waves. Higher liquid injection pressures resulted in higher initial spray angles. The liquid jet displayed a geometry strongly dependent on the pressure distribution resulting from the wave structure present in the supersonic jet. Droplet size and velocity distributions were measured by the P/DPA (Phase/Doppler Particle Analyzer) system. The Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD) was measured at several axial and radial locations at various liquid and air pressures. The SMD shows a decrease with increase in both the air-to-liquid mass flow ratio and the Weber number. The drop size decreased towards the outer edges of the jet. The results lead one to conclude that the coaxial, coflowing configuration is very attractive for atomizing scramjet liquid fuels.

Missoum, Azzedine

449

Solute diffusion in liquid metals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A gas model of diffusion in liquid metals is presented. In this model, ions of liquid metals are assumed to behave like the molecules in a dense gas. Diffusion coefficient of solute is discussed with reference to its mass, ionic size, and pair potential. The model is applied to the case of solute diffusion in liquid silver. An attempt was made to predict diffusion coefficients of solutes with reasonable accuracy.

Bhat, B. N.

1973-01-01

450

Liquid monobenzoxazine based resin system  

SciTech Connect

The present invention provides a liquid resin system including a liquid monobenzoxazine monomer and a non-glycidyl epoxy compound, wherein the weight ratio of the monobenzoxazine monomer to the non-glycidyl epoxy compound is in a range of about 25:75 to about 60:40. The liquid resin system exhibits a low viscosity and exceptional stability over an extended period of time making its use in a variety of composite manufacturing methods highly advantageous.

Tietze, Roger; Nguyen, Yen-Loan; Bryant, Mark

2014-10-07

451

Liquid Rocket Engine Testing Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Contents include the following: Objectives and motivation for testing. Technology, Research and Development Test and Evaluation (RDT&E), evolutionary. Representative Liquid Rocket Engine (LRE) test compaigns. Apollo, shuttle, Expandable Launch Vehicles (ELV) propulsion. Overview of test facilities for liquid rocket engines. Boost, upper stage (sea-level and altitude). Statistics (historical) of Liquid Rocket Engine Testing. LOX/LH, LOX/RP, other development. Test project enablers: engineering tools, operations, processes, infrastructure.

Rahman, Shamim

2005-01-01

452

HPLC- High Performance Liquid Chromatography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This primer on High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HCLC) gives a brief history and definition of liquid chromatography (LC), LC techniques, and defines both HPLC and UltraPerformance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC Technology). The other chapters of the primer are available on the left side of the page: How Does High Performance Liquid Chromatography Work?, Identifying and Quantitating Compounds, HPLC Column Hardware, and HPLC Separation Modes. An appendix which defines HPLC nomenclature is also available. Each section is pepper with helpful and clear illustrations to help users visualize the processes and procedures presented.

453

Concentric tube support assembly  

DOEpatents

An assembly (45) includes a plurality of separate pie-shaped segments (72) forming a disk (70) around a central region (48) for retaining a plurality of tubes (46) in a concentrically spaced apart configuration. Each segment includes a support member (94) radially extending along an upstream face (96) of the segment and a plurality of annularly curved support arms (98) transversely attached to the support member and radially spaced apart from one another away from the central region for receiving respective upstream end portions of the tubes in arc-shaped spaces (100) between the arms. Each segment also includes a radial passageway (102) formed in the support member for receiving a fluid segment portion (106) and a plurality of annular passageways (104) formed in the support arms for receiving respective arm portions (108) of the fluid segment portion from the radial passageway and for conducting the respective arm portions into corresponding annular spaces (47) formed between the tubes retained by the disk.

Rubio, Mark F.; Glessner, John C.

2012-09-04

454

EPICS GPIB device support  

SciTech Connect

A GPIB device support module is used to provide access to the operating parameters of a GPIB device. GPIB devices may be accessed via National Instruments 1014 cards or via Bitbus Universal Gateways. GPIB devices typically have many parameters, each of which may be thought of in terms of the standard types of database records available in EPICS. It is the job of the device support module designer to decide how the mapping of these parameters will be made to the available record types. Once this mapping is complete, the device support module may be written. The writing of the device support module consists primarily of the construction of a parameter table. This table is used to associate the database record types with the operating parameters of the GPIB instrument. Other aspects of module design include the handling of SRQ events and errors. SRQ events are made available to the device support module if so desired. The processing of an SRQ event is completely up to the designer of the module. They may be ignored, tied to event based record processing, or anything else the designer wishes. Error conditions may be handled in a similar fashion.

Winans, J.

1993-09-24

455

Liquid-phase compositions from vapor-phase analyses  

SciTech Connect

Arsenic normally is not considered to be a contaminant. However, because arsenic was found in many cylinders of UF{sub 6}, including in corrosion products, a study was performed of the distribution of the two arsenic fluorides, AsF{sub 3} and AsF{sub 5}, between liquid and vapor phases. The results of the study pertain to condensation or vaporization of liquid UF{sub 6}. This study includes use of various experimental data plus many extrapolations necessitated by the meagerness of the experimental data. The results of this study provide additional support for the vapor-liquid equilibrium model of J.M. Prausnitz and his coworkers as a means of describing the distribution of various impurities between vapor and liquid phases of UF{sub 6}. Thus, it is concluded that AsF{sub 3} will tend to concentrate in the liquid phase but that the concentration of AsF{sub 5} in the vapor phase will exceed its liquid-phase concentration by a factor of about 7.5, which is in agreement with experimental data. Because the weight of the liquid phase in a condensation operation may be in the range of thousands of times that of the vapor phase, most of any AsF{sub 5} will be in the liquid phase in spite of this separation factor of 7.5. It may also be concluded that any arsenic fluorides fed into a uranium isotope separation plant will either travel with other low-molecular-weight gases or react with materials present in the plant. 25 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

Davis, W. Jr. (Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant, TN (USA)); Cochran, H.D. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

1990-02-01

456

Apparatus for collecting an immiscible liquid from the surface of a body of higher density liquid  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus is described for removing oil from the surface of a body of water, the operation of which is substantially independent of fluctuations in the surface level of the body of water and which moves, relative to the oil, in one forward direction, comprising: a catch basin having a closed bottom and an open top, and made of flexible material which is impervious to air, oil, and water; a flexible flotation means for flexibly supporting the catch basin above the surface level of the water to allow the catch basin to ride the surface of the water in a serpentine fashion without regard to fluctuations in the surface level height; a liquid inlet formed in the catch basin; a self-adjustable weir horizontally disposed across the liquid inlet of the catch basin and means for adjusting the weir at a constant height under the surface of the water so that only the top layer of the body of water, which contains the oil, will be collected; means for vertically hinging both sides of the weir to the catch basin so that all liquids are forced over the top of the weir and prevented from going past the ends of the weir; a liquid outlet located in the bottom of the catch basin to permit removal of water from beneath the overlying oil in the catch basin and to establish flow over the top of the weir thereby increasing concentration of oil in the catch basin; a first pump to remove water from the catch basin through the liquid outlet and to pump water back into the body of water to assist in directing the oil over the weir; a second pump having an intake in the oil phase above the oil/water interface to remove the oil from the basin; and means for moving the apparatus forward, in one direction, relative to the oil on the surface of a body of water.

Jordan, R.H.

1986-05-13

457

Crank shaft support assembly  

DOEpatents

A crank shaft support assembly for increasing stiffness and reducing thermal mismatch distortion in a crank shaft bore of an engine comprising different materials. A cylinder block comprises a first material and at least two crank journal inserts are insert-molded into respective crank journal regions of the cylinder block and comprise a second material having greater stiffness and a lower thermal coefficient of expansion that the first material. At least two bearing caps are bolted to the respective crank journal inserts and define, along with the crank journal inserts, at least two crank shaft support rings defining a crank shaft bore coaxially aligned with a crank shaft axis. The bearing caps comprise a material having higher stiffness and a lower thermal coefficient of expansion than the first material and are supported on the respective crank journal inserts independently of any direct connection to the cylinder block.

Natkin, Robert J. (Canton, MI); Oltmans, Bret (Stacy, MN); Allison, John E. (Ann Arbor, MI); Heater, Thomas J. (Milford, MI); Hines, Joy Adair (Plymouth, MI); Tappen, Grant K. (Washington, MI); Peiskammer, Dietmar (Rochester, MI)

2007-10-23

458

Advanced Life Support Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation is planned to be a 10-15 minute "catalytic" focused presentation to be scheduled during one of the working sessions at the TIM. This presentation will focus on Advanced Life Support technologies key to future human Space Exploration as outlined in the Vision, and will include basic requirements, assessment of the state-of-the-art and gaps, and include specific technology metrics. The presentation will be technical in character, lean heavily on data in published ALS documents (such as the Baseline Values and Assumptions Document) but not provide specific technical details or build to information on any technology mentioned (thus the presentation will be benign from an export control and a new technology perspective). The topics presented will be focused on the following elements of Advanced Life Support: air revitalization, water recovery, waste management, thermal control, habitation systems, food systems and bioregenerative life support.

Barta, Daniel J.

2004-01-01

459

Biotechnology: Production Support Associate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this 2:34 video excerpt from Pathways to Technology, meet Suzanne Pooler, a biotechnology production support associate, whose work contributes to cancer treatment. As a production support associate, Suzanne supports scientists' research by keeping cancer cells alive in test tubes. Without the right environment and nourishment, the cells would die and the research would have to start over. Suzanne discusses why she left her old job as an administrative assistant to attend community college and study science. She also explains why she loves her new job working in the field of biotechnology. The video is accompanied by a background essay, standards alignment, and discussion questions. Users who sign up for a free account can download the video as well.

2012-05-23

460

Group Support Systems (GSS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Groupware is a term describing an emerging computer software technology enhancing the ability of people to work together as a group, (a software driven 'group support system'). This project originated at the beginning of 1992 and reports were issued describing the activity through May 1995. These reports stressed the need for process as well as technology. That is, while the technology represented a computer assisted method for groups to work together, the Group Support System (GSS) technology als required an understanding of the facilitation process electronic meetings demand. Even people trained in traditional facilitation techniques did not necessarily aimlessly adopt groupware techniques. The latest phase of this activity attempted to (1) improve the facilitation process by developing training support for a portable groupware computer system, and (2) to explore settings and uses for the portable groupware system using different software, such as Lotus Notes.

Hamel, Gary P.; Wijesinghe, R.

1996-01-01

461

Encapsulated ionic liquids (ENILs): from continuous to discrete liquid phase.  

PubMed

Encapsulated ionic liquid (ENIL) material was developed, consisting of ionic liquid (IL) introduced into carbon submicrocapsules. ENILs contain >85% w/w of IL but discretized in submicroscopic encapsulated drops, drastically increasing the surface contact area with respect to the neat fluid. ENIL materials were here tested for gas separation processes, obtaining a drastic increase in mass transfer rate. PMID:22935733

Palomar, Jose; Lemus, Jesus; Alonso-Morales, Noelia; Bedia, Jorge; Gilarranz, Miguel A; Rodriguez, Juan J

2012-10-14

462

Vitrification and levitation of a liquid droplet on liquid nitrogen  

PubMed Central

The vitrification of a liquid occurs when ice crystal formation is prevented in the cryogenic environment through ultrarapid cooling. In general, vitrification entails a large temperature difference between the liquid and its surrounding medium. In our droplet vitrification experiments, we observed that such vitrification events are accompanied by a Leidenfrost phenomenon, which impedes the heat transfer to cool the liquid, when the liquid droplet comes into direct contact with liquid nitrogen. This is distinct from the more generally observed Leidenfrost phenomenon that occurs when a liquid droplet is self-vaporized on a hot plate. In the case of rapid cooling, the phase transition from liquid to vitrified solid (i.e., vitrification) and the levitation of droplets on liquid nitrogen (i.e., Leidenfrost phenomenon) take place simultaneously. Here, we investigate these two simultaneous physical events by using a theoretical model containing three dimensionless parameters (i.e., Stefan, Biot, and Fourier numbers). We explain theoretically and observe experimentally a threshold droplet radius during the vitrification of a cryoprotectant droplet in the presence of the Leidenfrost effect. PMID:20176969

Song, Young S.; Adler, Douglas; Xu, Feng; Kayaalp, Emre; Nureddin, Aida; Anchan, Raymond M.; Maas, Richard L.; Demirci, Utkan

2010-01-01

463

Liquid Crystal Lens of Two Liquid Crystal Layers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquid crystal lenses(LCL)of two liquid crystal(LC)layers with parallel and orthogonal optic axes are built. The LCL of two LC layers with parallel optic axes is designed to obtain larger focusing power, and that with orthogonal optic axes is to focus light wave of arbitrary polarizations. The focal lengths of both LCLs can be controlled by external voltages.

Susumu Sato

2004-01-01

464

SAMPLE PREPARATION FOR HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY: RECENT PROGRESS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, substantial research has been devoted to the development of new liquid-liquid microextraction methods for sample preparation. These microextration methods were performed by several techniques such as: liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) or membrane-assisted solvent extraction (MASE), hollow fiber liquid phase microextraction (HF-LPME), single drop-phase microextraction (SDME), liquid-liquid-liquid-microextraction (LLLME), dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME), and ionic liquid dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (IL-DLLM).

Simona Codruta Cobzac; Simion Gocan

2011-01-01

465

Identifying Sources of Social Support.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents activities to help adolescent and young-adult students become aware of the different types and possible benefits of social support and help them develop skills for obtaining social support. The process involves introducing them to different types of social support, discussing social support, creating social support webs, and having…

Birch, David A.

1998-01-01

466

Starship Life Support  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and mass cost of a starship and its life support system are investigated. The mission plan for a multi generational interstellar voyage to colonize a new planet is used to describe the starship design, including the crew habitat, accommodations, and life support. Only current technology is assumed. Highly reliable life support systems can be provided with reasonably small additional mass, suggesting that they can support long duration missions. Bioregenerative life support, growing crop plants that provide food, water, and oxygen, has been thought to need less mass than providing stored food for long duration missions. The large initial mass of hydroponics systems is paid for over time by saving the mass of stored food. However, the yearly logistics mass required to support a bioregenerative system exceeds the mass of food solids it produces, so that supplying stored dehydrated food always requires less mass than bioregenerative food production. A mixed system that grows about half the food and supplies the other half dehydrated has advantages that allow it to breakeven with stored dehydrated food in about 66 years. However, moderate increases in the hydroponics system mass to achieve high reliability, such as adding spares that double the system mass and replacing the initial system every 100 years, increase the mass cost of bioregenerative life support. In this case, the high reliability half food growing, half food supplying system does not breakeven for 389 years. An even higher reliability half and half system, with three times original system mass and replacing the system every 50 years, never breaks even. Growing food for starship life support requires more mass than providing dehydrated food, even for multigeneration voyages of hundreds of years. The benefits of growing some food may justify the added mass cost. Much more efficient recycling food production is wanted but may not be possible. A single multigenerational interstellar voyage to colonize a new planet would have cost similar to that of the Apollo program. Cost is reduced if a small crew travels slowly and lands with minimal equipment. We can go to the stars!

Jones, Harry W.

2009-01-01

467

Aerogel-supported filament  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a thin filament embedded in a low density aerogel for use in radiation detection instruments and incandescent lamps. The aerogel provides a supportive matrix that is thermally and electrically nonconductive, mechanically strong, highly porous, gas-permeable, and transparent to ionizing radiation over short distances. A low density, open-cell aerogel is cast around a fine filament or wire, which allows the wire to be positioned with little or no tension and keeps the wire in place in the event of breakage. The aerogel support reduces the stresses on the wire caused by vibrational, gravitational, electrical, and mechanical forces.

Wuest, Craig R. (Danville, CA); Tillotson, Thomas M. (Tracy, CA); Johnson, III, Coleman V. (Dallas, TX)

1995-01-01

468

Aerogel-supported filament  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a thin filament embedded in a low density aerogel for use in radiation detection instruments and incandescent lamps. The aerogel provides a supportive matrix that is thermally and electrically nonconductive, mechanically strong, highly porous, gas-permeable, and transparent to ionizing radiation over short distances. A low density, open-cell aerogel is cast around a fine filament or wire, which allows the wire to be positioned with little or no tension and keeps the wire in place in the event of breakage. The aerogel support reduces the stresses on the wire caused by vibrational, gravitational, electrical, and mechanical forces. 6 Figs.

Wuest, C.R.; Tillotson, T.M.; Johnson, C.V. III

1995-05-16

469

Support for comprehensive reuse  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reuse of products, processes, and other knowledge will be the key to enable the software industry to achieve the dramatic improvement in productivity and quality required to satisfy the anticipated growing demands. Although experience shows that certain kinds of reuse can be successful, general success has been elusive. A software life-cycle technology which allows comprehensive reuse of all kinds of software-related experience could provide the means to achieving the desired order-of-magnitude improvements. A comprehensive framework of models, model-based characterization schemes, and support mechanisms for better understanding, evaluating, planning, and supporting all aspects of reuse are introduced.

Basili, V. R.; Rombach, H. D.

1991-01-01

470

Entropy-driven liquid–liquid separation in supercooled water  

PubMed Central

Twenty years ago Poole et al. suggested that the anomalous properties of supercooled water may be caused by a critical point that terminates a line of liquid–liquid separation of lower-density and higher-density water. Here we present a thermodynamic model based on this hypothesis, which describes all available experimental data for supercooled water with better quality and fewer adjustable parameters than any other model. Liquid water at low temperatures is viewed as an ‘athermal solution' of two molecular structures with different entropies and densities. Alternatively to popular models for water, in which liquid–liquid separation is driven by energy, the phase separation in the athermal two-state water is driven by entropy upon increasing the pressure, while the critical temperature is defined by the ‘reaction' equilibrium constant. The model predicts the location of density maxima at the locus of a near-constant fraction of the lower-density structure. PMID:23056905

Holten, V.; Anisimov, M. A.

2012-01-01

471

Method of foaming a liquid metal  

DOEpatents

The addition of a small quantity of barium to liquid metal NaK or sodium has been found to promote foam formation and improve bubble retention in the liquid metal. A stable liquid metal foam will provide a more homogeneous liquid metal flow through the channel of a two-phase liquid metal MHD power generator to improve operating efficiency.

Fischer, Albert K. (Western Springs, IL); Johnson, Carl E. (Elk Groove Village, IL)

1980-01-01

472

Liquidity Risk Premia in Corporate Bond Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the role of liquidity risk in the pricing of corporate bonds. We show that corporate bond returns have signicant exposures to uctuations in treasury bond liquidity and equity market liquidity. Further, this liquidity risk is a priced factor for the expected returns on corporate bonds, and the associated liquidity risk premia help to explain the credit spread

Frank de Jong; Joost Driessen

473

Rheological properties of ammonia-water liquids and crystal-liquid slurries - Planetological applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The laboratory-measured viscosities of liquid mixtures representative of the variety of cryovolcanic substances of the icy satellites are presently noted to be much greater than could be expected on the assumption that end-member molecules are noninteractive; this observation is supported by others concerning molar volumes and vapor pressure relations, which indicate the presence of strong molecular-interaction forces that fundamentally affect the mixtures' physical properties. Since the rheological effects of partial crystallization parallel the characteristics of silicate lavas, icy satellite cryovolcanic morphologies are similarly interpretable with allowances for differences in surface gravities and lava densities.

Kargel, J. S.; Croft, S. K.; Lunine, J. I.; Lewis, J. S.

1991-01-01

474

Liquid crystal polyester thermosets  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides (1) curable liquid crystalline polyester monomers represented by the formula: R.sup.1 --A.sup.1 --B.sup.1 --A.sup.2 --B.sup.2 --A.sup.3 --R.sup.2 where R.sup.1 and R.sup.2 are radicals selected from the group consisting of maleimide, substituted maleimide, nadimide, substituted naimide, ethynyl, and (C(R.sup.3).sub.2).sub.2 where R.sup.3 is hydrogen with the proviso that the two carbon atoms of (C(R.sup.3).sub.2).sub.2 are bound on the aromatic ring of A.sup.1 or A.sup.3 to adjacent carbon atoms, A.sup.1 and A.sup.3 are 1,4-phenylene and the same where said group contains one or more substituents selected from the group consisting of halo, e.g., fluoro, chloro, bromo, or iodo, nitro lower alkyl, e.g., methyl, ethyl, or propyl, alkoxy, e.g., methoxy, ethoxy, or propoxy, and fluoroalkyl, e.g., trifluoromethyl, pentafluoroethyl and the like, A.sup.2 is selected from the group consisting of 1,4-phenylene, 4,4'-biphenyl, 2,6-naphthylene and the same where said groups contain one or more substituents selected from the group consisting of halo, e.g., fluoro, chloro, bromo, or iodo, nitro, lower alkyl, e.g., methyl, ethyl, and propyl, lower alkoxy, e.g., methoxy, ethoxy, or propoxy, and fluoroalkyl or fluoroalkoxy, e.g., trifluoromethyl, pentafluoroethyl and the like, and B.sup.1 and B.sup.2 are selected from the group consisting of --C(O)--O-- and --O--C(O)--, (2) thermoset liquid crystalline polyester compositions comprised of heat-cured segments derived from monomers represented by the formula: R.sup.1 --A.sup.1 --B.sup.1 --A.sup.2 --B.sup.2 --A.sup.3 --R.sup.2 as described above, (3) curable blends of at least two of the polyester monomers and (4) processes of preparing the curable liquid crystalline polyester monomers.

Benicewicz, Brian C. (Los Alamos, NM); Hoyt, Andrea E. (Los Alamos, NM)

1992-01-01

475

Liquid-liquid extraction of actinides, lanthanides, and fission products by use of ionic liquids: from discovery to understanding.  

PubMed

Liquid-liquid extraction of actinides and lanthanides by use of ionic liquids is reviewed, considering, first, phenomenological aspects, then looking more deeply at the various mechanisms. Future trends in this developing field are presented. PMID:21203752

Billard, Isabelle; Ouadi, Ali; Gaillard, Clotilde

2011-06-01

476

Liquid-liquid mass transfer of partitioning electron donors in chlorinated solvent source zones.  

PubMed

A combination of batch and column experiments evaluated the mass transfer of two candidate partitioning electron donors (PEDs), n-hexanol (nHex) and n-butyl acetate (nBA), for enhanced bioremediation of trichloroethene (TCE)-dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL). Completely mixed batch reactor experiments yielded equilibrium TCE-DNAPL and water partition coefficients (KNW) for nHex and nBA of 21.7 ± 0.27 and 330.43 ± 6.7, respectively, over a range of initial PED concentrations up to the aqueous solubility limit of ca. 5000 mg/L. First-order liquid-liquid mass transfer rates determined in batch reactors with nBA or nHex concentrations near the aqueous solubility were 0.22 min(-1) and 0.11 min(-1), respectively. Liquid-liquid mass transfer under dynamic flow conditions was assessed in one-dimensional (1-D) abiotic columns packed with Federal Fine Ottawa sand containing a uniform distribution of residual TCE-DNAPL. Following pulse injection of PED solutions at pore-water velocities (vp) ranging from 1.2 to 6.0 m/day, effluent concentration measurements demonstrated that both nHex and nBA partitioned strongly into residual TCE-DNAPL with maximum effluent levels not exceeding 35% and 7%, respectively, of the applied concentrations of 4000 to 5000 mg/L. PEDs persisted at effluent concentrations above 5 mg/L for up to 16 and 80 pore volumes for nHex and nBA, respectively. Mathematical simulations yielded KNW values ranging from 44.7 to 48.2 and 247 to 291 and liquid-liquid mass transfer rates of 0.01 to 0.03 min(-1) and 0.001 to 0.006 min(-1) for nHex and nBA, respectively. The observed TCE-DNAPL and water mass transfer behavior suggests that a single PED injection can persist in a treated source zone for prolonged time periods, thereby reducing the need for, or frequency of, repeated electron donor injections to support bacteria that derive reducing equivalents for TCE reductive dechlorination from PED fermentation. PMID:21207963

Cápiro, Natalie L; Granbery, Emmie K; Lebrón, Carmen A; Major, David W; McMaster, Michaye L; Pound, Michael J; Löffler, Frank E; Pennell, Kurt D

2011-02-15

477

Liquid Water, the ``Most Complex'' Liquid: New Results in Bulk, Nanoconfined, and Biological Environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We will introduce some of the 63 anomalies of the most complex of liquids, water. We will demonstrate some recent progress in understanding these anomalies by combining information provided by recent experiments and simulations on water in bulk, nanoconfined, and biological environments. We will interpret evidence from recent experiments designed to test the hypothesis that liquid water may display ``polymorphism'' in that it can exist in two different phases---and discuss recent work on water's transport anomalies [1] as well as the unusual behavior of water in biological environments [2]. Finally, we will discuss how the general concept of liquid polymorphism [3] is proving useful in understanding anomalies in other liquids, such as silicon, silica, and carbon, as well as metallic glasses, which have in common that they are characterized by two characteristic length scales in their interactions. This work was supported by NSF Chemistry Division, and carried out in collaboration with a number of colleagues, chief among whom are C. A. Angell, M. C. Barbosa, M. C. Bellissent, L. Bosio, F. Bruni, S. V. Buldyrev, M. Canpolat, S. -H. Chen, P. G. Debenedetti, U. Essmann,G. Franzese, A. Geiger, N. Giovambattista, S. Han, P. Kumar, E. La Nave,G. Malescio, F. Mallamace, M. G. Mazza, O. Mishima, P. Netz, P. H. Poole, P. J. Rossky, R. Sadr,S. Sastry, A. Scala, F. Sciortino, A. Skibinsky, F. W. Starr, K. C. Stokely J. Teixeira, L. Xu, and Z. Yan.[4pt] [1] L. Xu, F. Mallamace, Z. Yan, F. W. Starr, S. V. Buldyrev, and H. E. Stanley, ``Appearance of a Fractional Stokes-Einstein Relation in Water and a Structural Interpretation of Its Onset,'' Nature Physics 5, 565--569 (2009). [0pt] [2] P. Kumar, Z. Yan, L. Xu, M. G. Mazza, S. V. Buldyrev, S. -H. Chen. S. Sastry, and H. E. Stanley, ``Glass Transition in Biomolecules and the Liquid-Liquid Critical Point of Water,'' Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 177802 (2006). [0pt] [3] H. E. Stanley, ed. , Liquid Polymorphism [Advances in Chemical Physics], series edited by S. A. Rice (Wiley, New York, 2010).

Stanley, H. Eugene

2010-03-01

478

Support vector machines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Support Vector Machines (SVMs) are a type of supervised learning algorith,, other examples of which are Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), Decision Trees, and Naive Bayesian Classifiers. Supervised learning algorithms are used to classify objects labled by a 'supervisor' - typically a human 'expert.'.

Garay, Michael J.; Mazzoni, Dominic; Davies, Roger; Wagstaff, Kiri

2004-01-01

479

Supporting Beginning Science Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The focus of this article is the more immediate way to help new science teachers, which comes from the experienced and professionally active teacher--you! As science teacher educators who work with and study the development of beginning teachers, the authors found the