Science.gov

Sample records for bubble chamber photographs

  1. CONTINUOUSLY SENSITIVE BUBBLE CHAMBER

    DOEpatents

    Good, R.H.

    1959-08-18

    A radiation detector of the bubble chamber class is described which is continuously sensitive and which does not require the complex pressure cycling equipment characteristic of prior forms of the chamber. The radiation sensitive element is a gas-saturated liquid and means are provided for establishing a thermal gradient across a region of the liquid. The gradient has a temperature range including both the saturation temperature of the liquid and more elevated temperatures. Thus a supersaturated zone is created in which ionizing radiations may give rise to visible gas bubbles indicative of the passage of the radiation through the liquid. Additional means are provided for replenishing the supply of gas-saturated liquid to maintaincontinuous sensitivity.

  2. Neutron detection via bubble chambers.

    PubMed

    Jordan, D V; Ely, J H; Peurrung, A J; Bond, L J; Collar, J I; Flake, M; Knopf, M A; Pitts, W K; Shaver, M; Sonnenschein, A; Smart, J E; Todd, L C

    2005-01-01

    Research investigating the application of pressure-cycled bubble chambers to fast neutron detection is described. Experiments with a Halon-filled chamber showed clear sensitivity to an AmBe neutron source and insensitivity to a (137)Cs gamma source. Bubble formation was documented using high-speed photography, and a ceramic piezo-electric transducer element registered the acoustic signature of bubble formation. In a second set of experiments, the bubble nucleation response of a Freon-134a chamber to an AmBe neutron source was documented with high-speed photography. PMID:16005238

  3. LRL 25-inch Bubble Chamber

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Alvarez, L. W.; Gow, J. D.; Barrera, F.; Eckman, G.; Shand, J.; Watt, R.; Norgren, D.; Hernandez, H. P.

    1964-07-08

    The recently completed 25-inch hydrogen bubble chamber combines excellent picture quality with a fast operating cycle. The chamber has a unique optical system and is designed to take several pictures each Bevatron pulse, in conjunction with the Bevatron rapid beam ejection system.

  4. Neutron Detection via Bubble Chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, David V.; Ely, James H.; Peurrung, Anthony J.; Bond, Leonard J.; Collar, J. I.; Flake, Matthew; Knopf, Michael A.; Pitts, W. K.; Shaver, Mark W.; Sonnenschein, Andrew; Smart, John E.; Todd, Lindsay C.

    2005-10-06

    The results of a Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) exploratory research project investigating the feasibility of fast neutron detection using a suitably prepared and operated, pressure-cycled bubble chamber are described. The research was conducted along two parallel paths. Experiments with a slow pressure-release Halon chamber at the Enrico Fermi Institute at the University of Chicago showed clear bubble nucleation sensitivity to an AmBe neutron source and insensitivity to the 662 keV gammas from a 137Cs source. Bubble formation was documented via high-speed (1000 frames/sec) photography, and the acoustic signature of bubble formation was detected using a piezo-electric transducer element mounted on the base of the chamber. The chamber’s neutron sensitivity as a function of working fluid temperature was mapped out. The second research path consisted of the design, fabrication, and testing of a fast pressure-release Freon-134a chamber at PNNL. The project concluded with successful demonstrations of the PNNL chamber’s AmBe neutron source sensitivity and 137Cs gamma insensitivity. The source response tests of the PNNL chamber were documented with high-speed photography.

  5. How does a bubble chamber work?

    SciTech Connect

    Konstantinov, D.; Homsi, W.; Luzuriaga, J.; Su, C.K.; Weilert, M.A.; Maris, H.J.

    1998-11-01

    A charged particle passing through a bubble chamber produces a track of bubbles. The way in which these bubbles are produced has been a matter of some controversy. The authors consider the possibility that in helium and hydrogen bubble chambers the production of bubbles is primarily a mechanical process, rather than a thermal process as has often been assumed. The model the authors propose gives results which are in excellent agreement with experiment.

  6. Bubble chamber as a trace chemical detector

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, X.; McCreary, E.I.; Atencio, J.H.; McCown, A.W.; Sander, R.K.

    1998-08-01

    A novel concept for trace chemical analysis in liquid has been demonstrated. The technique utilizes light absorption in a superheated liquid. Although a superheated liquid is thermodynamically unstable, a high degree of superheating can be dynamically achieved for a short period of time. During this time the superheated liquid is extremely sensitive to boiling at nucleation sites produced by energy deposition. Observation of bubbles in the superheated liquid in some sense provides amplification of the initial energy deposition. Bubble chambers containing superheated liquids have been used to detect energetic particles; now a bubble chamber is used to detect a trace chemical in superheated liquid propane by observing bubble formation initiated by optical absorption. Crystal violet is used as a test case and can be detected at the subpart-per-10{sup 12} level by using a Nd:YAG laser. The mechanism for bubble formation and ideas for further improvement are discussed. {copyright} 1998 Optical Society of America

  7. Detecting dark matter with scintillating bubble chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianjie; Dahl, C. Eric; Jin, Miaotianzi; Baxter, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Threshold based direct WIMP dark matter detectors such as the superheated bubble chambers developed by the PICO experiment have demonstrated excellent electron-recoil and alpha discrimination, excellent scalability, ease of change of target fluid, and low cost. However, the nuclear-recoil like backgrounds have been a limiting factor in their dark matter sensitivity. We present a new type of detector, the scintillating bubble chamber, which reads out the scintillation pulse of the scattering events as well as the pressure, temperature, acoustic traces, and bubble images as a conventional bubble chamber does. The event energy provides additional handle to discriminate against the nuclear-recoil like backgrounds. Liquid xenon is chosen as the target fluid in our prototyping detector for its high scintillation yield and suitable vapor pressure which simplifies detector complexity. The detector can be used as an R&D tool to study the backgrounds present in the current PICO bubble chambers or as a prototype for standalone dark matter detectors in the future. Supported by DOE Grant DE-SC0012161.

  8. Robust Acoustic Transducers for Bubble Chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, Jonathan

    2015-04-01

    The PICO collaboration utilizes bubble chambers filled with various superheated liquids as targets for dark matter. Acoustic sensors have proved able to distinguish nuclear recoils from radioactive background on an event-by-event basis. We have recently produced a more robust transducer which should be able to operate for years, rather than months, in the challenging environment of a heated high pressure hydraulic fluid outside these chambers. Indiana University South Bend.

  9. Herds of methane chambers grazing bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinham, Alistair; Dunbabin, Matthew

    2014-05-01

    Water to air methane emissions from freshwater reservoirs can be dominated by sediment bubbling (ebullitive) events. Previous work to quantify methane bubbling from a number of Australian sub-tropical reservoirs has shown that this can contribute as much as 95% of total emissions. These bubbling events are controlled by a variety of different factors including water depth, surface and internal waves, wind seiching, atmospheric pressure changes and water levels changes. Key to quantifying the magnitude of this emission pathway is estimating both the bubbling rate as well as the areal extent of bubbling. Both bubbling rate and areal extent are seldom constant and require persistent monitoring over extended time periods before true estimates can be generated. In this paper we present a novel system for persistent monitoring of both bubbling rate and areal extent using multiple robotic surface chambers and adaptive sampling (grazing) algorithms to automate the quantification process. Individual chambers are self-propelled and guided and communicate between each other without the need for supervised control. They can maintain station at a sampling site for a desired incubation period and continuously monitor, record and report fluxes during the incubation. To exploit the methane sensor detection capabilities, the chamber can be automatically lowered to decrease the head-space and increase concentration. The grazing algorithms assign a hierarchical order to chambers within a preselected zone. Chambers then converge on the individual recording the highest 15 minute bubbling rate. Individuals maintain a specified distance apart from each other during each sampling period before all individuals are then required to move to different locations based on a sampling algorithm (systematic or adaptive) exploiting prior measurements. This system has been field tested on a large-scale subtropical reservoir, Little Nerang Dam, and over monthly timescales. Using this technique

  10. Image digitizer system for bubble chamber laser

    SciTech Connect

    Haggerty, H

    1986-12-08

    An IBM PC-based image digitizer system has been assembled to monitor the laser flash used for holography at the 15 foot bubble chamber. The hardware and the operating software are outlined. For an operational test of the system, an array of LEDs was flashed with a 10 microsecond pulse and the image was grabbed by one of the operating programs and processed. (LEW)

  11. Bubble chambers for experiments in nuclear astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiGiovine, B.; Henderson, D.; Holt, R. J.; Raut, R.; Rehm, K. E.; Robinson, A.; Sonnenschein, A.; Rusev, G.; Tonchev, A. P.; Ugalde, C.

    2015-05-01

    A bubble chamber has been developed to be used as an active target system for low energy nuclear astrophysics experiments. Adopting ideas from dark matter detection with superheated liquids, a detector system compatible with γ-ray beams has been developed. This detector alleviates some of the limitations encountered in standard measurements of the minute cross-sections of interest to stellar environments. While the astrophysically relevant nuclear reaction processes at hydrostatic burning temperatures are dominated by radiative captures, in this experimental scheme we measure the time-reversed processes. Such photodisintegrations allow us to compute the radiative capture cross-sections when transitions to excited states of the reaction products are negligible. Due to the transformation of phase space, the photodisintegration cross-sections are up to two orders of magnitude higher. The main advantage of the new target-detector system is a density several orders of magnitude higher than conventional gas targets. Also, the detector is virtually insensitive to the γ-ray beam itself, thus allowing us to detect only the products of the nuclear reaction of interest. The development and the operation as well as the advantages and disadvantages of the bubble chamber are discussed.

  12. 21. PHOTOCOPY OF PHOTOGRAPH. view north of Tropic Chamber, ca. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. PHOTOCOPY OF PHOTOGRAPH. view north of Tropic Chamber, ca. 1955. (Source: NRDEC). - Natick Research & Development Laboratories, Climatic Chambers Building, U.S. Army Natick Research, Development & Engineering Center (NRDEC), Natick, Middlesex County, MA

  13. 23. PHOTOCOPY OF PHOTOGRAPH. View west of Tropic Chamber refrigeration ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. PHOTOCOPY OF PHOTOGRAPH. View west of Tropic Chamber refrigeration equipment, ca. 1955. (Source: NRDEC). - Natick Research & Development Laboratories, Climatic Chambers Building, U.S. Army Natick Research, Development & Engineering Center (NRDEC), Natick, Middlesex County, MA

  14. Calibration of PICO Bubble Chamber Dark Matter Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Miaotianzi; PICO Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The PICO Collaboration builds bubble chambers for the direct detection of WIMP dark matter. I will present the suite of calibration experiments performed to measure the sensitivity of these chambers to nuclear recoils (the expected WIMP signal) and to gamma rays (a common background to the WIMP signal). These calibrations include measurements with a 10-ml C3F8 bubble chamber at Northwestern University and with a 30-ml C3F8 bubble chamber deployed in the University of Montreal's tandem Van de Graaf facility, giving the bubble chamber response to a variety of gamma rays, broad-spectrum neutron sources, and mono-energetic low energy neutrons. I will compare our measured sensitivities to those predicted by a simple thermodynamic model and will show how the results impact our ability to detect dark matter, with a focus on light WIMP searches. Supported by DOE Grant: DE-SC0012161.

  15. 23. photographer unknown 15 October 1935 LOCK CHAMBER NEAR COMPLETION, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. photographer unknown 15 October 1935 LOCK CHAMBER NEAR COMPLETION, SHOWING PROGRESS ON LOWER GATE RECESSES. - Bonneville Project, Navigation Lock No. 1, Oregon shore of Columbia River near first Powerhouse, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  16. Dark matter limits froma 15 kg windowless bubble chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Szydagis, Matthew Mark

    2011-03-01

    The COUPP collaboration has successfully used bubble chambers, a technology previously applied only to high-energy physics experiments, as direct dark matter detectors. It has produced the world's most stringent spin-dependent WIMP limits, and increasingly competitive spin-independent limits. These limits were achieved by capitalizing on an intrinsic rejection of the gamma background that all other direct detection experiments must address through high-density shielding and empirically-determined data cuts. The history of COUPP, including its earliest prototypes and latest results, is briefly discussed in this thesis. The feasibility of a new, windowless bubble chamber concept simpler and more inexpensive in design is discussed here as well. The dark matter limits achieved with a 15 kg windowless chamber, larger than any previous COUPP chamber (2 kg, 4 kg), are presented. Evidence of the greater radiopurity of synthetic quartz compared to natural is presented using the data from this 15 kg device, the first chamber to be made from synthetic quartz. The effective reconstruction of the three-dimensional positions of bubbles in a highly distorted optical field, with ninety-degree bottom lighting similar to cloud chamber lighting, is demonstrated. Another innovation described in this thesis is the use of the sound produced by bubbles recorded by an array of piezoelectric sensors as the primary means of bubble detection. In other COUPP chambers, cameras have been used as the primary trigger. Previous work on bubble acoustic signature differentiation using piezos is built upon in order to further demonstrate the ability to discriminate between alpha- and neutron-induced events.

  17. 27. Photocopy of photograph (original print located in LBNL Photo ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. Photocopy of photograph (original print located in LBNL Photo Lab Collection). Photographer unknown. August 18, 1958. Bubble Chamber 605. BUBBLE CHAMBER ASSEMBLY - University of California Radiation Laboratory, Bevatron, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, Alameda County, CA

  18. High-energy Physics with Hydrogen Bubble Chambers

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Alvarez, L. W.

    1958-03-07

    Recent experience with liquid hydrogen bubble chambers of 25 and 40 cm dia. in high-energy physics experiments is discussed. Experiments described are: interactions of K{sup -} mesons with protons, interactions of antiprotons with protons, catalysis of nuclear fusion reactions by muons, and production and decay of hyperons from negative pions. (W.D.M.)

  19. Xenon bubble chambers for direct dark matter detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, C.; Fallon, S.; Genovesi, J.; Khaitan, D.; Klimov, K.; Mock, J.; Szydagis, M.

    2016-03-01

    The search for dark matter is one of today's most exciting fields. As bigger detectors are being built to increase their sensitivity, background reduction is an ever more challenging issue. To this end, a new type of dark matter detector is proposed, a xenon bubble chamber, which would combine the strengths of liquid xenon TPCs, namely event by event energy resolution, with those of a bubble chamber, namely insensitivity to electronic recoils. In addition, it would be the first time ever that a dark matter detector is active on all three detection channels, ionization and scintillation characteristic of xenon detectors, and heat through bubble formation in superheated fluids. Preliminary simulations show that, depending on threshold, a discrimination of 99.99% to 99.9999+% can be achieved, which is on par or better than many current experiments. A prototype is being built at the University at Albany, SUNY. The prototype is currently undergoing seals, thermal, and compression testing.

  20. Acoustic Sensor Design for Dark Matter Bubble Chamber Detectors.

    PubMed

    Felis, Ivan; Martínez-Mora, Juan Antonio; Ardid, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Dark matter bubble chamber detectors use piezoelectric sensors in order to detect and discriminate the acoustic signals emitted by the bubbles grown within the superheated fluid from a nuclear recoil produced by a particle interaction. These sensors are attached to the outside walls of the vessel containing the fluid. The acoustic discrimination depends strongly on the properties of the sensor attached to the outer wall of the vessel that has to meet the requirements of radiopurity and size. With the aim of optimizing the sensor system, a test bench for the characterization of the sensors has been developed. The sensor response for different piezoelectric materials, geometries, matching layers, and backing layers have been measured and contrasted with FEM simulations and analytical models. The results of these studies lead us to have a design criterion for the construction of specific sensors for the next generation of dark matter bubble chamber detectors (250 L). PMID:27294937

  1. Acoustic Sensor Design for Dark Matter Bubble Chamber Detectors

    PubMed Central

    Felis, Ivan; Martínez-Mora, Juan Antonio; Ardid, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Dark matter bubble chamber detectors use piezoelectric sensors in order to detect and discriminate the acoustic signals emitted by the bubbles grown within the superheated fluid from a nuclear recoil produced by a particle interaction. These sensors are attached to the outside walls of the vessel containing the fluid. The acoustic discrimination depends strongly on the properties of the sensor attached to the outer wall of the vessel that has to meet the requirements of radiopurity and size. With the aim of optimizing the sensor system, a test bench for the characterization of the sensors has been developed. The sensor response for different piezoelectric materials, geometries, matching layers, and backing layers have been measured and contrasted with FEM simulations and analytical models. The results of these studies lead us to have a design criterion for the construction of specific sensors for the next generation of dark matter bubble chamber detectors (250 L). PMID:27294937

  2. THERMAL UNIFORMITY OF LIQUID HELIUM IN ELECTRON BUBBLE CHAMBER.

    SciTech Connect

    WANG,L.; JIA,L.

    2002-07-22

    A CRYOGENIC RESEARCH APPARATUS TO MEASURE THE MOVEMENT OF ELECTRONS UNDER A HIGH ELECTRIC FIELD IN A LIQUID HELIUM BATH WAS DESIGNED AND BUILT AT THE BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY AND THE NEVIS LABORATORY OF COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY. THE LIQUID HELIUM CHAMBER IS A DOUBLE WALLED CYLINDRICAL CONTAINER EQUIPPED WITH 5 OPTICS WINDOWS AND 10 HIGH VOLTAGE CABLES. TO SHIELD THE LIQUID HELIUM CHAMBER AGAINST THE EXTERNAL HEAT LOADS AND TO PROVIDE THE THERMAL UNIFORMITY IN THE LIQUID HELIUM CHAMBER, THE DOUBLE WALLED JACKET WAS COOLED BY A PUMPED HELIUM BATH. THE HELIUM CHAMBER WAS BUILT INTO A COMMERICAL LN2 / LHE CRYOSTAT. THIS PAPER PRESENTS THE DESIGN AND THE NUMERICAL SIMULATION ANALYSIS ON THERMAL UNIFORMITY OF THE ELECTRON BUBBLE CHAMBER.

  3. 24. photographer unknown 28 November 1935 LOCK CHAMBER NEAR COMPLETION, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. photographer unknown 28 November 1935 LOCK CHAMBER NEAR COMPLETION, SHOWING FILLING AND EMPTYING PORTS IN FLOOR AND PLACING OF STOP LOGS IN LOWER GATE RECESS. - Bonneville Project, Navigation Lock No. 1, Oregon shore of Columbia River near first Powerhouse, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  4. Development of Bubble Chambers with Sensitivity to WIMPs

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, Leonard J.; Collar, J. I.; Ely, James H.; Flake, Matthew; Hall, Jason M.; Jordan, David V.; Nakazawa, Dante; Raskin, Aza; Sonnenschein, Andrew; Sullivan, Kelly O.

    2005-05-01

    Bubble nucleation in moderately superheated liquids can be triggered by nuclear recoils from WIMPs. This phenomenon is the basis for superheated droplet detectors. The droplet technique is currently limited by insensitivity to spin-independent interactions, due to lack of heavy elements in the usual target liquids, and sensitivity to contamination of the gel by alpha emitters. As an alternative, we have developed a new type of homogeneous bubble chamber, which can contain heavy liquids, including CF3Br, CF3I, and C3F8. Detectors of this type may be scalable to large size at modest cost and could have very low backgrounds. We discuss results obtained with a 12 ml prototype and plans for a 1 liter chamber.

  5. Development of Bubble Chambers with Sensitivity to WIMPs

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, Leonard J.; Collar, J. I.; Ely, James H.; Flake, Matthew; Hall, Jason M.; Jordan, David V.; Nakazawa, Dante; Raskin, Aza; Sonnenschein, Andrew; O'Sullivan, Kevin

    2005-01-10

    Bubble nucleation in moderately superheated liquids can be triggered by nuclear recoils from WIMPs. This phenomenon is the basis for superheated droplet detectors. The droplet technique is currently limited by insensitivity to spin-independent interactions, due to lack of heavy elements in the usual target liquids, and sensitivity to contamination of the gel by alpha emitters. As an alternative, we have developed a new type of homogeneous bubble chamber, which can contain heavy liquids, including CF3Br, CF3I, and C3F8. Detectors of this type may be scalable to large size at modest cost and could have very low backgrounds. We discuss results obtained with a 12 ml prototype and plans for a 1 liter chamber.

  6. Searching for Dark Matter with a Bubble Chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, Peter S.

    2010-07-29

    The Chicagoland Observatory for Underground Particle Physics (COUPP) recently reported first Physics results from an engineering prototype dark matter detector consisting of a 1 liter, room temperature, heavy liquid bubble chamber. These results close the last open window in low mass spin dependent WIMP scattering for a conventional WIMP interpretation of the DAMA annual modulation signal. I will discuss these results and the detector techniques which enabled them.

  7. Anterior chamber gas bubbles in open globe injury.

    PubMed

    Barnard, E B G; Baxter, D; Blanch, R

    2013-01-01

    We present a case of a 40-year-old soldier who was in close proximity to the detonation of an improvised explosive device (IED). Bubbles of gas were visible within the anterior chamber of his left eye. The authors propose that intraocular gas, present acutely after trauma, is diagnostic of open globe injury and is of particular importance in remote military environments. PMID:24079202

  8. 'Bubble chamber model' of fast atom bombardment induced processes.

    PubMed

    Kosevich, Marina V; Shelkovsky, Vadim S; Boryak, Oleg A; Orlov, Vadim V

    2003-01-01

    A hypothesis concerning FAB mechanisms, referred to as a 'bubble chamber FAB model', is proposed. This model can provide an answer to the long-standing question as to how fragile biomolecules and weakly bound clusters can survive under high-energy particle impact on liquids. The basis of this model is a simple estimation of saturated vapour pressure over the surface of liquids, which shows that all liquids ever tested by fast atom bombardment (FAB) and liquid secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) were in the superheated state under the experimental conditions applied. The result of the interaction of the energetic particles with superheated liquids is known to be qualitatively different from that with equilibrium liquids. It consists of initiation of local boiling, i.e., in formation of vapour bubbles along the track of the energetic particle. This phenomenon has been extensively studied in the framework of nuclear physics and provides the basis for construction of the well-known bubble chamber detectors. The possibility of occurrence of similar processes under FAB of superheated liquids substantiates a conceptual model of emission of secondary ions suggested by Vestal in 1983, which assumes formation of bubbles beneath the liquid surface, followed by their bursting accompanied by release of microdroplets and clusters as a necessary intermediate step for the creation of molecular ions. The main distinctive feature of the bubble chamber FAB model, proposed here, is that the bubbles are formed not in the space and time-restricted impact-excited zone, but in the nearby liquid as a 'normal' boiling event, which implies that the temperature both within the bubble and in the droplets emerging on its burst is practically the same as that of the bulk liquid sample. This concept can resolve the paradox of survival of intact biomolecules under FAB, since the part of the sample participating in the liquid-gas transition via the bubble mechanism has an ambient temperature

  9. Direct Measurement of the Bubble Nucleation Energy Threshold in a CF3I Bubble Chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Behnke, E.; Benjamin, T.; Brice, S. J.; Broemmelsiek, D.; Collar, J. I.; Cooper, P. S.; Crisler, M.; Dahl, C. E.; Fustin, D.; Hall, Jeter C.; Harnish, C.; Levine, I.; Lippincott, W. H.; Moan, T.; Nania, T.; Neilson, R.; Ramberg, E.; Robinson, A. E.; Ruschman, M.; Sonnenschein, Andrew; Vazquez-Jauregui, E.; RIvera, R. A.; Uplegger, L.

    2013-07-30

    Here, we measured the energy threshold and efficiency for bubble nucleation from iodine recoils in a CF3I bubble chamber in the energy range of interest for a dark matter search. These interactions cannot be probed by standard neutron calibration methods, so we develop a new technique by observing the elastic scattering of 12 GeV/c negative pions. The pions are tracked with a silicon pixel telescope and the reconstructed scattering angle provides a measure of the nuclear recoil kinetic energy. The bubble chamber was operated with a nominal threshold of (13.6±0.6) keV. Interpretation of the results depends on the response to fluorine and carbon recoils, but in general we find agreement with the predictions of the classical bubble-nucleation theory. Moreover, this measurement confirms the applicability of CF3I as a target for spin-independent dark matter interactions and represents a novel technique for calibration of superheated fluid detectors.

  10. Hydrophilic strips for preventing air bubble formation in a microfluidic chamber.

    PubMed

    Choi, Munseok; Na, Yang; Kim, Sung-Jin

    2015-12-01

    In a microfluidic chamber, unwanted formation of air bubbles is a critical problem. Here, we present a hydrophilic strip array that prevents air bubble formation in a microfluidic chamber. The array is located on the top surface of the chamber, which has a large variation in width, and consists of a repeated arrangement of super- and moderately hydrophilic strips. This repeated arrangement allows a flat meniscus (i.e. liquid front) to form when various solutions consisting of a single stream or two parallel streams with different hydrophilicities move through the chamber. The flat meniscus produced by the array completely prevents the formation of bubbles. Without the array in the chamber, the meniscus shape is highly convex, and bubbles frequently form in the chamber. This hydrophilic strip array will facilitate the use of a microfluidic chamber with a large variation in width for various microfluidic applications. PMID:26382942

  11. Invention and History of the Bubble Chamber (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    ScienceCinema

    Glaser, Don

    2011-04-28

    Summer Lecture Series 2006: Don Glaser won the 1960 Nobel Prize for Physics for his 1952 invention of the bubble chamber at Berkeley Lab, a type of particle detector that became the mainstay of high-energy physics research throughout the 1960s and 1970s. He discusses how, inspired by bubbles in a glass of beer, he invented the bubble chamber and detected cosmic-ray muons.

  12. Invention and History of the Bubble Chamber (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    SciTech Connect

    Glaser, Don

    2006-07-12

    Summer Lecture Series 2006: Don Glaser won the 1960 Nobel Prize for Physics for his 1952 invention of the bubble chamber at Berkeley Lab, a type of particle detector that became the mainstay of high-energy physics research throughout the 1960s and 1970s. He discusses how, inspired by bubbles in a glass of beer, he invented the bubble chamber and detected cosmic-ray muons.

  13. A Freon-Filled Bubble Chamber for Neutron Detection in Inertial Confinement Fusion Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Ghilea, M.C.; Meyerhofer, D.D.; Sangster, T.C.

    2011-03-24

    Neutron imaging is one of the main methods used in inertial confinement fusion experiments to measure the core symmetry of target implosions. Previous studies have shown that bubble chambers have the potential to obtain higher resolution images of the targets for a shorter source-to-target distance than typical scintillator arrays. A bubble chamber for neutron imaging with Freon 115 as the active medium was designed and built for the OMEGA laser system. Bubbles resulting from spontaneous nucleation were recorded. Bubbles resulting from neutron–Freon interactions were observed at neutron yields of 1013 emitted from deuterium–tritium target implosions on OMEGA. The measured column bubble density was too low for neutron imaging on OMEGA but agreed with the model of bubble formation. The recorded data suggest that neutron bubble detectors are a promising technology for the higher neutron yields expected at National Ignition Facility.

  14. A Freon-filled bubble chamber for neutron detection in inertial confinement fusion experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Ghilea, M. C.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Sangster, T. C.

    2011-03-15

    Neutron imaging is one of the main methods used in inertial confinement fusion experiments to measure the core symmetry of target implosions. Previous studies have shown that bubble chambers have the potential to obtain higher resolution images of the targets for a shorter source-to-target distance than typical scintillator arrays. A bubble chamber for neutron imaging with Freon 115 as the active medium was designed and built for the OMEGA laser system. Bubbles resulting from spontaneous nucleation were recorded. Bubbles resulting from neutron-Freon interactions were observed at neutron yields of 10{sup 13} emitted from deuterium-tritium target implosions on OMEGA. The measured column bubble density was too low for neutron imaging on OMEGA but agreed with the model of bubble formation. The recorded data suggest that neutron bubble detectors are a promising technology for the higher neutron yields expected at National Ignition Facility.

  15. Some problems of the theory of bubble growth and condensation in bubble chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tkachev, L. G.

    1988-01-01

    This work is an attempt to explain the reasons for the discrepancies between the theoretical and experimental values of bubble growth rate in an overheated liquid, and to provide a brief formulation of the main premises of the theory on bubble growth in liquid before making a critical analysis. To simplify the problem, the floating upward of bubbles is not discussed; moreover, the study is based on the results of the theory of the behavior of fixed bubbles.

  16. Bubble-crystal aggregates promote magma chamber overturn in arc crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edmonds, M.; Woods, A. W.; Humphreys, M.

    2014-12-01

    Bubble nucleation in melts occurs preferentially on the surfaces of crystals. Of all phases in oxidized melts, magnetite is most favorable for the heterogeneous nucleation of bubbles owing to the high wetting angles at the bubble-crystal-melt interface. Preservation of such relationships in erupted rocks however, is rare owing to overprinting by decompression-induced degassing, shear and bubble detachment during magma ascent. We present evidence from basaltic enclaves preserved in andesite lavas from Soufriere Hills Volcano, Montserrat, for a spatial association between magnetite and bubbles that we propose is a relict of the bubble nucleation process at depth. The existence of bubble-crystal aggregates means that magnetite crystals will tend to sink more slowly, and bubbles will rise less fast than for the case of single crystals and bubbles. The behavior of bubble-crystal aggregates will be dependent on their bulk density, which depends on the relative proportion by mass of the magnetite and the bubble and the pressure. In deeper chambers, the smaller mass of exsolved volatiles leads to the prediction that many of the bubble-crystal aggregates are dense and so fall to base of the chamber (and the bubbles are wholly or partially resorbed). In shallower chambers, however, the larger volume and mass of exsolved volatiles would tend to promote buoyant aggregate formation. The presence of the aggregates has implications for the mixing/mingling process when mafic magmas underplate crystal-rich evolved magma bodies in the arc crust. For shallow magma chambers the buoyancy of the aggregates in the underplating mafic magma will either cause vapor accumulation at the magma interface and the formation of mafic inclusions rich in magnetite; or the enhanced density of the aggregates may promote magma chamber overturn and mixing of mafic magmas into the andesites bodies. Both processes may be important over different spatial and time-scales. The overturn mechanism may explain

  17. Acoustic studies for alpha background rejection in dark matter bubble chamber detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Bou-Cabo, M.; Felis, I.; Ardid, M.; Collaboration: COUPP Collaboration

    2013-08-08

    COUPP (Chicagoland Observatory for Underground Particle Physics) is an experiment with bubble chambers able to detect dark matter directly either with Spin-Dependent or with Spin-Independent interactions. The target material is a superheated liquid (usually CF3I) that can be bubble nucleated due to nuclear recoils produced by elastic collisions of dark matter particles. The bubble growth inside the chamber is accompanied with an acoustic signature. The acoustic technique has been successfully used to have a good alpha discrimination (about 99%). In this paper, we present different studies and results related with the characterization of the acoustic properties of the detector and the different phenomena involved in the acoustic measurements of the bubble growth, such as sound generation, sound transmission and optimization of piezoelectric transducers.

  18. 28. Photocopy of photograph (original print located in LBNL Photo ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Photocopy of photograph (original print located in LBNL Photo Lab Collection). Photographer unknown. April 1, 1959. Bubble Chamber 722. BUBBLE CHAMBER, WIDE-ANGLE INTERIOR VIEW OF BUILDING 59 - University of California Radiation Laboratory, Bevatron, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, Alameda County, CA

  19. History of the bubble chamber and related active- and internal-target nuclear tracking detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becchetti, F. D.

    2015-06-01

    Donald Glaser, 1960 Nobel laureate in Physics, recently passed away (2013), as have many of his colleagues who were involved with the early development of bubble chambers at the University of Michigan. In this paper I will review those early years and the subsequent wide-spread application of active-target (AT) bubble chambers that dominated high-energy physics (HEP) research for over thirty years. Some of the related, but more modern nuclear tracking detectors being used in HEP, neutrino astrophysics and dark-matter searches also will be discussed.

  20. Buoyancy-Driven Natural Convection of Liquid Helium in an Electron Bubble Chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Ju, Y. L.; Dodd, J. R.; Willis, W. J.

    2006-04-27

    A small liquid helium test chamber with 1.5 L active volume has been designed and constructed, to make the fundamental measurements of physical properties of electron bubble transports in liquid helium, aimed at developing a new cryogenic neutrino detector, using liquid helium as the detecting medium, for the detection of solar neutrinos. The test chamber is a double-walled cylindrical container equipped with five optical windows and ten high voltage cables. A LN2/LHe cryostat and a needle valve for vapor helium cooling are used to provide a 1.7{approx}4.5 K low temperature environments for the test chamber. One of key issues for the cryogenic design and experimental sensitivity of electron bubble tracking is that of keeping a thermally uniform liquid helium bath. The external heat loads to the chamber will generate a buoyancy-induced convection of liquid helium, which will carry the electron bubbles and accelerate or decelerate their transportation and therefore must be reduced to the minimum, so that the slow motion of the electron bubbles will not be confused by this effect. This paper will present the computational simulation and analysis on thermal convection and uniformity of the test chamber.

  1. Dark matter limits from a 2L C3F8 filled bubble chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Alan Edward

    The PICO-2L C3F8 bubble chamber search for Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP) dark matter was operated in the SNOLAB underground laboratory at the same location as the previous CF3I filled COUPP-4kg detector. Neutron calibrations using photoneutron sources in C3F8 and CF3I filled calibration bubble chambers were performed to verify the sensitivity of these target fluids to dark matter scattering. This data was combined with similar measurements using a low-energy neutron beam at the University of Montreal and in situ calibrations of the PICO-2L and COUPP-4kg detectors. C3F 8 provides much greater sensitivity to WIMP-proton scattering than CF 3I in bubble chamber detectors. PICO-2L searched for dark matter recoils with energy thresholds below 10 keV. Radiopurity assays of detector materials were performed and the expected neutron recoil background was evaluated to be 1.6 +0.3-0.9 single bubble events during the 211.5 kg-day exposure. Twelve single bubble dark matter candidate events were observed. These events were not uniformly distributed in time, and were likely caused by particulates in the active volume. Despite this background, PICO-2L sets a world-leading upper limit to the WIMP-proton spin dependent scattering cross-section.

  2. Dark Matter Search Results from the PICO-60 CF$_3$I Bubble Chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Amole, C.

    2015-10-26

    We reported new data from the operation of the PICO-60 dark matter detector, a bubble chamber filled with 36.8 kg of CF3I and located in the SNOLAB underground laboratory. PICO-60 is the largest bubble chamber to search for dark matter to date. With an analyzed exposure of 92.8 live-days, PICO-60 exhibits the same excellent background rejection observed in smaller bubble chambers. Alpha decays in PICO-60 exhibit frequency-dependent acoustic calorimetry, similar but not identical to that reported recently in a C3F8 bubble chamber. PICO-60 also observes a large population of unknown background events, exhibiting acoustic, spatial, and timing behaviors inconsistent with those expected from a dark matter signal. We found these behaviors allow for analysis cuts to remove all background events while retaining 48.2%of the exposure. Stringent limits on WIMPs interacting via spin-dependent proton and spin-independent processes are set, and the interpretation of the DAMA/LIBRA modulation signal as dark matter interacting with iodine nuclei is ruled out.

  3. Dark matter search results from the PICO-60 CF3 I bubble chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amole, C.; Ardid, M.; Asner, D. M.; Baxter, D.; Behnke, E.; Bhattacharjee, P.; Borsodi, H.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Brice, S. J.; Broemmelsiek, D.; Clark, K.; Collar, J. I.; Cooper, P. S.; Crisler, M.; Dahl, C. E.; Daley, S.; Das, M.; Debris, F.; Dhungana, N.; Fallows, S.; Farine, J.; Felis, I.; Filgas, R.; Girard, F.; Giroux, G.; Grandison, A.; Hai, M.; Hall, J.; Harris, O.; Jin, M.; Krauss, C. B.; Lafrenière, M.; Laurin, M.; Lawson, I.; Levine, I.; Lippincott, W. H.; Mann, E.; Maurya, D.; Mitra, P.; Neilson, R.; Noble, A. J.; Plante, A.; Podviianiuk, R. B.; Priya, S.; Ramberg, E.; Robinson, A. E.; Rucinski, R.; Ruschman, M.; Scallon, O.; Seth, S.; Simon, P.; Sonnenschein, A.; Štekl, I.; Vázquez-Jáuregui, E.; Wells, J.; Wichoski, U.; Zacek, V.; Zhang, J.; Shkrob, I. A.; PICO Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    New data are reported from the operation of the PICO-60 dark matter detector, a bubble chamber filled with 36.8 kg of CF3 I and located in the SNOLAB underground laboratory. PICO-60 is the largest bubble chamber to search for dark matter to date. With an analyzed exposure of 92.8 livedays, PICO-60 exhibits the same excellent background rejection observed in smaller bubble chambers. Alpha decays in PICO-60 exhibit frequency-dependent acoustic calorimetry, similar but not identical to that reported recently in a C3 F8 bubble chamber. PICO-60 also observes a large population of unknown background events, exhibiting acoustic, spatial, and timing behaviors inconsistent with those expected from a dark matter signal. These behaviors allow for analysis cuts to remove all background events while retaining 48.2% of the exposure. Stringent limits on weakly interacting massive particles interacting via spin-dependent proton and spin-independent processes are set, and most interpretations of the DAMA/LIBRA modulation signal as dark matter interacting with iodine nuclei are ruled out.

  4. A Bubble Chamber Simulator: A New Tool for the Physics Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagnon, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Mainly used in the 1960s, bubble chambers played a major role in particle physics. Now replaced with modern electronic detectors, we believe they remain an important didactic tool to introduce particle physics as they provide visual, appealing and insightful pictures. Sadly, this rare type of detector is mostly accessible through open-door events…

  5. Dark Matter Search Results from the PICO-60 CF$_3$I Bubble Chamber

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Amole, C.; Ardid, M.; Asner, D. M.; Baxter, D.; Behnke, E.; Bhattacharjee, P.; Borsodi, H.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Brice, S. J.; Broemmelsiek, D.; et al

    2016-03-01

    We reported new data from the operation of the PICO-60 dark matter detector, a bubble chamber filled with 36.8 kg of CF3I and located in the SNOLAB underground laboratory. PICO-60 is the largest bubble chamber to search for dark matter to date. With an analyzed exposure of 92.8 live-days, PICO-60 exhibits the same excellent background rejection observed in smaller bubble chambers. Alpha decays in PICO-60 exhibit frequency-dependent acoustic calorimetry, similar but not identical to that reported recently in a C3F8 bubble chamber. PICO-60 also observes a large population of unknown background events, exhibiting acoustic, spatial, and timing behaviors inconsistent withmore » those expected from a dark matter signal. We found these behaviors allow for analysis cuts to remove all background events while retaining 48.2%of the exposure. Stringent limits on WIMPs interacting via spin-dependent proton and spin-independent processes are set, and the interpretation of the DAMA/LIBRA modulation signal as dark matter interacting with iodine nuclei is ruled out.« less

  6. Early steps towards quarks and their interactions using neutrino beams in CERN bubble chamber experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins, Don H.

    2016-06-01

    Results from neutrino experiments at CERN in the1970's, using bubble chamber detectors filled with heavy liquids, gave early evidence for the existence of quarks and gluons as real dynamical objects. In detail, the measured moments of the non-singlet structure functions provided crucial support for the validity of the present theory of the strong inter-quark interactions, quantum chromodynamics.

  7. Early steps towards quarks and their interactions using neutrino beams in CERN bubble chamber experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins, Don H.

    2016-05-01

    Results from neutrino experiments at CERN in the1970's, using bubble chamber detectors filled with heavy liquids, gave early evidence for the existence of quarks and gluons as real dynamical objects. In detail, the measured moments of the non-singlet structure functions provided crucial support for the validity of the present theory of the strong inter-quark interactions, quantum chromodynamics.

  8. Four Decades of Computing in Subnuclear Physics - from Bubble Chamber to LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knobloch, Jürgen

    2014-06-01

    This manuscript addresses selected aspects of computing for the reconstruction and simulation of particle interactions in subnuclear physics. Based on personal experience with experiments at DESY and at CERN, I cover the evolution of computing hardware and software from the era of track chambers where interactions were recorded on photographic film up to the LHC experiments with their multi-million electronic channels.

  9. COUPP - a search for dark matter with a continuously sensitive bubble chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Collar, Juan,; Crum, Keith; Mishra, Smriti; Nakazawa, Dante; Odom, Brian; Rasmussen, Julia; Riley, Nathan; Szydagis, Matthew; Behnke, Ed; Levine, Ilan; Vander Werf, Nate; Cooper, Peter; Crisler, Mike; Hu, Martin; Ramberg, Erik; Sonnenschein, Andrew; Tschirhart, Robert; /Fermilab

    2007-01-01

    We propose to construct and operate a 60-kg room temperature CF{sub 3}I bubble chamber as a prototype dark matter (WIMP) detector. Operating in weakly-superheated mode, the chamber will be sensitive to WIMP induced nuclear recoils above 10 keV, while rejecting background electron recoils at a level approaching 10{sup 10}. We would first commission and operate this chamber in the MINOS near detector hall with the goal to demonstrate stable operation and measure internal contamination and any other backgrounds. This chamber, or an improved version, would then be relocated to an appropriate deep underground site such as the Soudan Mine. This detector will have unique sensitivity to spin-dependent WIMP-nucleon couplings, and even in this early stage of development will attain competitive sensitivity to spin-independent couplings.

  10. Dark Matter Limits From a 2L C3F8 Filled Bubble Chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Alan Edward

    2015-12-01

    The PICO-2L C3F8 bubble chamber search forWeakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP) dark matter was operated in the SNOLAB underground laboratory at the same location as the previous CF3I lled COUPP-4kg detector. Neutron calibrations using photoneutron sources in C3F8 and CF3I lled calibration bubble chambers were performed to verify the sensitivity of these target uids to dark matter scattering. This data was combined with similar measurements using a low-energy neutron beam at the University of Montreal and in situ calibrations of the PICO-2L and COUPP-4kg detectors. C3F8 provides much greater sensitivity to WIMP-proton scattering than CF3I in bubble chamber detectors. PICO-2L searched for dark matter recoils with energy thresholds below 10 keV. Radiopurity assays of detector materials were performed and the expected neutron recoil background was evaluated to be 1.6+0:3

  11. Threshold bubble chamber for measurement of knock-on DT neutron tails from magnetic and inertial confinement experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, R.K.; Zaveryaev, V.S.; Trusillo, S.V.

    1996-07-01

    We propose a new {open_quotes}threshold{close_quotes} bubble chamber detector for measurement of knock-on neutron tails. These energetic neutrons result from fusion reactions involving energetic fuel ions created by alpha knock-on collisions in tokamak and other magnetic confinement experiments, and by both alpha and neutron knock-on collisions in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments. The energy spectrum of these neutrons will yield information on the alpha population and energy distribution in tokamaks, and on alpha target physics and {rho}R measurements in ICF experiments. The bubble chamber should only detect neutrons with energies above a selectable threshold energy controlled by the bubble chamber pressure. The bubble chamber threshold mechanism, detection efficiency, and proposed applications to the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and National Ignition Facility (NIF) experiments will be discussed.

  12. Threshold bubble chamber for measurement of knock-on DT neutron tails from magnetic and inertial confinement experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, R.K.; Zaveryaev, V.S.; Trusillo, S.V.

    1997-01-01

    We propose a new {open_quotes}threshold{close_quotes} bubble chamber detector for measurement of knock-on neutron tails. These energetic neutrons result from fusion reactions involving energetic fuel ions created by alpha knock-on collisions in tokamak and other magnetic confinement experiments, and by both alpha and neutron knock-on collisions in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments. The energy spectrum of these neutrons will yield information on the alpha population and energy distribution in tokamaks, and on alpha target physics and {rho}R measurements in ICF experiments. The bubble chamber should only detect neutrons with energies above a selectable threshold energy controlled by the bubble chamber pressure. The bubble chamber threshold mechanism, detection efficiency, and proposed applications to the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor and National Ignition Facility experiments will be discussed. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. Cryogenic Design and Operation of Liquid Helium in Electron Bubble Chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Ju, Y. L.; Dodd, J. R.; Willis, W. J.; Jia, L. X.

    2006-04-27

    We are developing a new cryogenic neutrino detector: electron bubble chamber, using liquid helium as the detecting medium, for the detection of low-energy neutrinos (<1 MeV), from the Sun. The program focuses in particular on the interactions of neutrinos scattering off atomic electrons in the detecting medium of liquid helium, resulting in recoil electrons which can be measured. We designed and constructed a small test chamber with 1.5L active volume to start the detector R and D, and performed experimental proofs of the operation principle. The test chamber is a stainless steel cylinder equipped with five optical windows and ten high voltage cables. To shield the liquid helium chamber against the external heat loads, the chamber is made of double-walled jacket cooled by a pumped helium bath and is built into a LN2/LHe cryostat, equipped with 80 K and 4 K radiation shields. A needle valve for vapor helium cooling was used to provide a 1.7{approx}4.5 K low temperature environments. The paper gives an introduction to the liquid helium solar neutrino detector, presents the cryogenic design and operation of the small test chamber.

  14. Incidence and Outcomes of Anterior Chamber Gas Bubble during Femtosecond Flap Creation for Laser-Assisted In Situ Keratomileusis.

    PubMed

    Rush, Sloan W; Cofoid, Philip; Rush, Ryan B

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To report the incidence and outcomes of anterior chamber gas bubble formation during femtosecond laser flap creation for laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). Methods. The charts of 2,886 consecutive eyes that underwent femtosecond LASIK from May 2011 through August 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. The incidence, preoperative characteristics, intraoperative details, and postoperative outcomes were analyzed in subjects developing anterior chamber gas bubble formation during the procedure. Results. A total of 4 cases (0.14%) developed anterior chamber gas bubble formation during femtosecond laser flap creation. In all four cases, the excimer laser was unable to successfully track the pupil immediately following the anterior chamber bubble formation, temporarily postponing the completion of the procedure. There was an ethnicity predilection of anterior chamber gas formation toward Asians (p = 0.0055). An uncorrected visual acuity of 20/20 was ultimately achieved in all four cases without further complications. Conclusions. Anterior chamber gas bubble formation during femtosecond laser flap creation for LASIK is an uncommon event that typically results in a delay in treatment completion; nevertheless, it does influence final positive visual outcome. PMID:25954511

  15. Incidence and Outcomes of Anterior Chamber Gas Bubble during Femtosecond Flap Creation for Laser-Assisted In Situ Keratomileusis

    PubMed Central

    Rush, Sloan W.; Cofoid, Philip; Rush, Ryan B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To report the incidence and outcomes of anterior chamber gas bubble formation during femtosecond laser flap creation for laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). Methods. The charts of 2,886 consecutive eyes that underwent femtosecond LASIK from May 2011 through August 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. The incidence, preoperative characteristics, intraoperative details, and postoperative outcomes were analyzed in subjects developing anterior chamber gas bubble formation during the procedure. Results. A total of 4 cases (0.14%) developed anterior chamber gas bubble formation during femtosecond laser flap creation. In all four cases, the excimer laser was unable to successfully track the pupil immediately following the anterior chamber bubble formation, temporarily postponing the completion of the procedure. There was an ethnicity predilection of anterior chamber gas formation toward Asians (p = 0.0055). An uncorrected visual acuity of 20/20 was ultimately achieved in all four cases without further complications. Conclusions. Anterior chamber gas bubble formation during femtosecond laser flap creation for LASIK is an uncommon event that typically results in a delay in treatment completion; nevertheless, it does influence final positive visual outcome. PMID:25954511

  16. PICASSO, COUPP and PICO - search for dark matter with bubble chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amole, C.; Ardid, M.; Asner, D. M.; Baxter, D.; Behnke, E.; Bhattacharjee, P.; Borsodi, H.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Brice, S. J.; Broemmelsiek, D.; Clark, K.; Collar, J. I.; Cooper, P. S.; Crisler, M.; Dahl, C. E.; Das, M.; Debris, F.; Dhungana, N.; Farine, J.; Felis, I.; Filgas, R.; Fines-Neuschild, M.; Girard, F.; Giroux, G.; Hai, M.; Hall, J.; Harris, O.; Jackson, C. M.; Jin, M.; Krauss, C.; Lafrenière, M.; Laurin, M.; Lawson, I.; Levine, I.; Lippincott, W. H.; Mann, E.; Martin, J. P.; Maurya, D.; Mitra, P.; Neilson, R.; Noble, A. J.; Plante, A.; Podviyanuk, R.; Priya, S.; Robinson, A. E.; Ruschman, M.; Scallon, O.; Seth, S.; Sonnenschein, A.; Starinski, N.; Štekl, I.; Vázquez-Jáuregui, E.; Wells, J.; Wichoski, U.; Zacek, V.; Zhang, J.

    2015-05-01

    The PICASSO and COUPP collaborations use superheated liquid detectors to search for cold dark matter through the direct detection of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). These experiments, located in the underground laboratory of SNOLAB, Canada, detect phase transitions triggered by nuclear recoils in the keV range induced by interactions with WIMPs. We present details of the construction and operation of these detectors as well as the results, obtained by several years of observations. We also introduce PICO, a joint effort of the two collaborations to build a second generation ton-scale bubble chamber with 250 liters of active liquid.

  17. PICASSO, COUPP and PICO - Search for dark matter with bubble chambers

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Amole, C.; Ardid, M.; Asner, D. M.; Baxter, D.; Behnke, E.; Bhattacharjee, P.; Borsodi, H.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Brice, S. J.; Broemmelsiek, D.; et al

    2015-05-29

    The PICASSO and COUPP collaborations use superheated liquid detectors to search for cold dark matter through the direct detection of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). These experiments, located in the underground laboratory of SNOLAB, Canada, detect phase transitions triggered by nuclear recoils in the keV range induced by interactions with WIMPs. We present details of the construction and operation of these detectors as well as the results, obtained by several years of observations. We also introduce PICO, a joint effort of the two collaborations to build a second generation ton-scale bubble chamber with 250 liters of active liquid.

  18. Development of bubble chambers with enhanced stability and sensitivity to low-energy nuclear recoils

    SciTech Connect

    Bolte, W.J.; Collar, Juan I.; Crisler, M.; Hall, J.; Holmgren, D.; Nakazawa, D.; Odom, B.; O'Sullivan, K.; Plunkett, R.; Ramberg, E.; Raskin, A.; Sonnenschein, A.; Vieira, J.D.; /Chicago U., EFI /KICP, Chicago /Fermilab

    2005-03-01

    The viability of using a Bubble Chamber for rare event searches and in particular for the detection of dark matter particle candidates is considered. Techniques leading to the deactivation of inhomogeneous nucleation centers and subsequent enhanced stability in such a detector are described. Results from prototype trials indicate that sensitivity to low-energy nuclear recoils like those expected from Weakly Interacting Massive Particles can be obtained in conditions of near total insensitivity to minimum ionizing backgrounds. An understanding of the response of superheated heavy refrigerants to these recoils is demonstrated within the context of existing theoretical models. We comment on the prospects for the detection of supersymmetric dark matter particles with a large CF{sub 3}I chamber.

  19. A Proposal to Operate the COUPP-60 Bubble Chamber at SNOLAB

    SciTech Connect

    Collar, Juan; Dahl, C.Eric; Fustin, Drew; Goetzke, Luke; Riley, Nathan; Schimmelpfennig, Hannes; Szydagis, Matthew; Behnke, Ed; Hinnefeld, Henry; Levine, Ilan; Palenchar, Andrea; /Indiana U., South Bend /Fermilab

    2009-08-01

    Bubble chambers are promising devices for the detection of WIMP dark matter, due to their easy scalability to large target masses and insensitivity to background {gamma} and {beta} radiation. The COUPP collaboration has constructed small chambers which have achieved competitive sensitivity for spin-dependent WIMP-nucleon scattering. A new chamber, COUPP-60, containing 60-kg of CF{sub 3}I target liquid, has been built and is being commissioned at Fermilab. We propose to move this detector to SNOLAB after completing tests in a shallow underground site at Fermilab. At SNOLAB, we expect the sensitivity of the experiment to be determined by the level of {alpha}emitting contamination in the target liquid. If we achieve state-of-the-art levels of {alpha} emitting contamination, we will improve current sensitivity by approximately four orders of magnitude beyond our published limits, to the region of 10{sup -4} pb for a 30 GeV WIMP interacting by spin-dependent couplings to the proton. This will allow a first exploration of the phase space favored by supersymmetric models in this regime.

  20. Reanalysis of bubble chamber measurements of muon-neutrino induced single pion production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkinson, Callum; Rodrigues, Philip; Cartwright, Susan; Thompson, Lee; McFarland, Kevin

    2014-12-01

    There exists a long-standing disagreement between bubble chamber measurements of the single pion production channel νμp →μ-p π+ from the Argonne and Brookhaven National Laboratories. We digitize and reanalyze data from both experiments to produce cross-section ratios for various interaction channels, for which the flux uncertainties cancel, and find good agreement between the experiments. By multiplying the cross-section ratio by the well-understood charged-current quasielastic cross section on free nucleons, we extract single-pion production cross sections which do not depend on the flux normalization predictions. The νμp →μ-p π+ cross sections we extract show good agreement between the ANL and BNL data sets.

  1. Dark Matter Search Results from the PICO-2L C3F8 Bubble Chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Amole, C.; Ardid, M.; Asner, David M.; Baxter, D.; Behnke, E.; Bhattacharjee, P. S.; Borsodi, H.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Brice, S. J.; Broemmelsiek, D.; Clark, K.; Collar, J. I.; Cooper, P. S.; Crisler, M.; Dahl, C. E.; Daley, S.; Das, Madhusmita; Debris, F.; Dhungana, N.; Farine, J.; Felis, I.; Filgas, R.; Fines-Neuschild, M.; Girard, Francoise; Giroux, G.; Hai, M.; Hall, Jeter C.; Harris, O.; Jackson, C. M.; Jin, M.; Krauss, C. B.; Lafreniere, M.; Laurin, M.; Lawson, I.; Levine, I.; Lippincott, W. H.; Mann, E.; Martin, J. P.; Maurya, D.; Mitra, Pitam; Neilson, R.; Noble, A. J.; Plante, A.; Podviianiuk, R. B.; Priya, S.; Robinson, A. E.; Ruschman, M.; Scallon, O.; Seth, S.; Sonnenschein, Andrew; Starinski, N.; Stekl, I.; Vazquez-Jauregui, E.; Wells, J.; Wichoski, U.; Zacek, V.; Zhang, J.

    2015-06-12

    New data are reported from the operation of a 2-liter C3F8 bubble chamber in the 2100 meter deep SNOLAB underground laboratory, with a total exposure of 211.5 kg-days at four different recoil energy thresholds ranging from 3.2 keV to 8.1 keV. These data show that C3F8 provides excellent electron recoil and alpha rejection capabilities at very low thresholds, including the rst observation of a dependence of acoustic signal on alpha energy. Twelve single nuclear recoil event candidates were observed during the run. The candidate events exhibit timing characteristics that are not consistent with the hypothesis of a uniform time distribution, and no evidence for a dark matter signal is claimed. These data provide the most sensitive direct detection constraints on WIMP-proton spin-dependent scattering to date, with signicant sensitivity at low WIMP masses for spin-independent WIMP-nucleon scattering.

  2. Bubble Chamber : A novel technique for measuring thermonuclear rates at low energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talwar, R.; Benesh, J.; Digiovine, B.; Grames, J.; Holt, R. J.; Kharashvili, G.; Meekins, D.; Moser, D.; Poelkar, M.; Rehm, K. E.; Robinson, A.; Sonnenschein, A.; Stutzman, M.; Suleiman, R.; Tennant, C.; Ugalde, C.

    2016-03-01

    Adopting ideas from dark matter search experiments, we have found that a superheated liquid in a bubble detector is sensitive to recoils produced by γ-ray beams impinging on the nuclei in the liquid. Such a target-detector system has a density factor of four orders of magnitude higher than conventional gas targets and is practically insensitive to the γ-ray beam itself. Also, since photodisintegration reactions have approximately two orders of magnitude higher cross-sections than direct particle capture reactions, such a technique can pave the way towards measuring these reactions within the stellar Gamow window. In an effort to study the 16O(γ , α)12C system using the bubble chamber technique, the first test of the superheated N2O liquid with a low-energy bremsstrahlung beam at JLab has been completed. This test has been performed to understand the background contributions from 17O and 18O nuclei in N2O. The experimental technique, results and future plans will be presented. This work has been supported by US DOE (DE-AC02-06CH11357) and Jefferson Science Associations, LLC (DE-AC05-06OR23177).

  3. A Measurement of the holographic minimum observable beam branching ratio in the Fermilab 15-foot bubble chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Aderholz, M.; Aggarwal, M.M.; Akbari, H.; Allport, P.P.; Badyal, S.K.; Ballagh, H.C.; Barth, M.; Baton, J.P.; Bingham, H.H.; Bjelkhagen, H.; Brucker, E.B.; Burnstein, R.A.; Campbell, J.R.; Cence, R.J.; Chatterjee, T.K.; Clayton, E.F.; Corrigan, G.; Coutures, C.; DeProspo, D.; Devanand,; De Wolf, E.A.; /UC, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Brussels U., IIHE /CERN /Punjab U. /Fermilab /Hawaii U. /Imperial Coll., London /IIT, Chicago /Jammu U. /Munich, Max Planck Inst. /Oxford U. /Rutgers U., Piscataway /Rutherford /DAPNIA, Saclay /Stevens Tech. /Tufts U.

    1997-01-01

    Holography has been used successfully in combination with conventional optics for the first time in a large cryogenic bubble chamber, the 15-Foot Bubble Chamber at Fermilab, during a physics run. The innovative system combined the reference beam with the object beam, illuminating a conical volume of {approx} 1.4 m{sup 3}. Bubble tracks from neutrino interactions with a width of {approx} 120 {micro}m have been recorded with good contrast. The ratio of intensities of the object light to the reference light striking the film is called the Beam Branching Ratio. We obtained in our experiment an exceedingly small minimum-observable ratio of (0.54 {+-} 0.21) x 10{sup -7}. The technology has the potential for a wide range of applications.

  4. Dark matter search results from the PICO-2L C$_3$F$_8$ bubble chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Amole, C.

    2015-06-11

    New data are reported from the operation of a 2 liter C3F8 bubble chamber in the SNOLAB underground laboratory, with a total exposure of 211.5 kg days at four different energy thresholds below 10 keV. These data show that C3F8 provides excellent electron-recoil and alpha rejection capabilities at very low thresholds. The chamber exhibits an electron-recoil sensitivity of < 3.5 × 10–10 and an alpha rejection factor of > 98.2%. These data also include the first observation of a dependence of acoustic signal on alpha energy. Twelve single nuclear recoil event candidates were observed during the run. The candidate events exhibit timing characteristics that are not consistent with the hypothesis of a uniform time distribution, and no evidence for a dark matter signal is claimed. Lastly, these data provide the most sensitive direct detection constraints on WIMP-proton spin-dependent scattering to date, with significant sensitivity at low WIMP masses for spin-independent WIMP-nucleon scattering.

  5. Dark Matter Search Results from the PICO-2L C3F8 Bubble Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amole, C.; Ardid, M.; Asner, D. M.; Baxter, D.; Behnke, E.; Bhattacharjee, P.; Borsodi, H.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Brice, S. J.; Broemmelsiek, D.; Clark, K.; Collar, J. I.; Cooper, P. S.; Crisler, M.; Dahl, C. E.; Daley, S.; Das, M.; Debris, F.; Dhungana, N.; Farine, J.; Felis, I.; Filgas, R.; Fines-Neuschild, M.; Girard, F.; Giroux, G.; Hai, M.; Hall, J.; Harris, O.; Jackson, C. M.; Jin, M.; Krauss, C. B.; Lafrenière, M.; Laurin, M.; Lawson, I.; Levine, I.; Lippincott, W. H.; Mann, E.; Martin, J. P.; Maurya, D.; Mitra, P.; Neilson, R.; Noble, A. J.; Plante, A.; Podviianiuk, R. B.; Priya, S.; Robinson, A. E.; Ruschman, M.; Scallon, O.; Seth, S.; Sonnenschein, A.; Starinski, N.; Štekl, I.; Vázquez-Jáuregui, E.; Wells, J.; Wichoski, U.; Zacek, V.; Zhang, J.; PICO Collaboration

    2015-06-01

    New data are reported from the operation of a 2 liter C3F8 bubble chamber in the SNOLAB underground laboratory, with a total exposure of 211.5 kg days at four different energy thresholds below 10 keV. These data show that C3F8 provides excellent electron-recoil and alpha rejection capabilities at very low thresholds. The chamber exhibits an electron-recoil sensitivity of <3.5 ×1 0-10 and an alpha rejection factor of >98.2 %. These data also include the first observation of a dependence of acoustic signal on alpha energy. Twelve single nuclear recoil event candidates were observed during the run. The candidate events exhibit timing characteristics that are not consistent with the hypothesis of a uniform time distribution, and no evidence for a dark matter signal is claimed. These data provide the most sensitive direct detection constraints on WIMP-proton spin-dependent scattering to date, with significant sensitivity at low WIMP masses for spin-independent WIMP-nucleon scattering.

  6. Dark Matter Search Results from the PICO-2L C3F8 Bubble Chamber.

    PubMed

    Amole, C; Ardid, M; Asner, D M; Baxter, D; Behnke, E; Bhattacharjee, P; Borsodi, H; Bou-Cabo, M; Brice, S J; Broemmelsiek, D; Clark, K; Collar, J I; Cooper, P S; Crisler, M; Dahl, C E; Daley, S; Das, M; Debris, F; Dhungana, N; Farine, J; Felis, I; Filgas, R; Fines-Neuschild, M; Girard, F; Giroux, G; Hai, M; Hall, J; Harris, O; Jackson, C M; Jin, M; Krauss, C B; Lafrenière, M; Laurin, M; Lawson, I; Levine, I; Lippincott, W H; Mann, E; Martin, J P; Maurya, D; Mitra, P; Neilson, R; Noble, A J; Plante, A; Podviianiuk, R B; Priya, S; Robinson, A E; Ruschman, M; Scallon, O; Seth, S; Sonnenschein, A; Starinski, N; Štekl, I; Vázquez-Jáuregui, E; Wells, J; Wichoski, U; Zacek, V; Zhang, J

    2015-06-12

    New data are reported from the operation of a 2 liter C3F8 bubble chamber in the SNOLAB underground laboratory, with a total exposure of 211.5 kg days at four different energy thresholds below 10 keV. These data show that C3F8 provides excellent electron-recoil and alpha rejection capabilities at very low thresholds. The chamber exhibits an electron-recoil sensitivity of <3.5×10(-10) and an alpha rejection factor of >98.2%. These data also include the first observation of a dependence of acoustic signal on alpha energy. Twelve single nuclear recoil event candidates were observed during the run. The candidate events exhibit timing characteristics that are not consistent with the hypothesis of a uniform time distribution, and no evidence for a dark matter signal is claimed. These data provide the most sensitive direct detection constraints on WIMP-proton spin-dependent scattering to date, with significant sensitivity at low WIMP masses for spin-independent WIMP-nucleon scattering. PMID:26196790

  7. Dark matter search results from the PICO-2L C$_3$F$_8$ bubble chamber

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Amole, C.

    2015-06-11

    New data are reported from the operation of a 2 liter C3F8 bubble chamber in the SNOLAB underground laboratory, with a total exposure of 211.5 kg days at four different energy thresholds below 10 keV. These data show that C3F8 provides excellent electron-recoil and alpha rejection capabilities at very low thresholds. The chamber exhibits an electron-recoil sensitivity of < 3.5 × 10–10 and an alpha rejection factor of > 98.2%. These data also include the first observation of a dependence of acoustic signal on alpha energy. Twelve single nuclear recoil event candidates were observed during the run. The candidate eventsmore » exhibit timing characteristics that are not consistent with the hypothesis of a uniform time distribution, and no evidence for a dark matter signal is claimed. Lastly, these data provide the most sensitive direct detection constraints on WIMP-proton spin-dependent scattering to date, with significant sensitivity at low WIMP masses for spin-independent WIMP-nucleon scattering.« less

  8. Bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prosperetti, Andrea

    2004-06-01

    Vanitas vanitatum et omnia vanitas: bubbles are emptiness, non-liquid, a tiny cloud shielding a mathematical singularity. Born from chance, a violent and brief life ending in the union with the (nearly) infinite. But a wealth of phenomena spring forth from this nothingness: underwater noise, sonoluminescence, boiling, and many others. Some recent results on a "blinking bubble" micropump and vapor bubbles in sound fields are outlined. The last section describes Leonardo da Vinci's observation of the non-rectlinear ascent of buoyant bubbles and justifies the name Leonardo's paradox recently attributed to this phenomenon.

  9. A Proposal for a Ton Scale Bubble Chamber for Dark Matter Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Collar, Juan; Dahl, C.Eric; Fustin, Drew; Robinson, Alan; Behnke, Ed; Behnke, Joshua; Breznau, William; Connor, Austin; Kuehnemund, Emily Grace; Levine, Ilan; Moan, Timothy; /Indiana U., South Bend /Fermilab

    2010-10-07

    The nature of non-baryonic dark matter is one of the most intriguing questions for particle physics at the start of the 21st century. There is ample evidence for its existence, but almost nothing is known of its properties. WIMPs are a very appealing candidate particle and several experimental campaigns are underway around the world to search for these particles via the nuclear recoils that they should induce. The COUPP series of bubble chambers has played a significant role in the WIMP search. Through a sequence of detectors of increasing size, a number of R&D issues have arisen and been solved, and the technology has now been advanced to the point where the construction of large chambers requires a modest research effort, some development, but mostly just engineering. It is within this context that we propose to build the next COUPP detector - COUPP-500, a ton scale device to be built over the next three years at Fermilab and then deployed deep underground at SNOLAB. The primary advantages of the COUPP approach over other technologies are: (1) The ability to reject electron and gamma backgrounds by arranging the chamber thermodynamics such that these particles do not even trigger the detector. (2) The ability to suppress neutron backgrounds by having the radioactively impure detection elements far from the active volume and by using the self-shielding of a large device and the high granularity to identify multiple bubbles. (3) The ability to build large chambers cheaply and with a choice of target fluids. (4) The ability to increase the size of the chambers without changing the size or complexity of the data acquisition. (5) Sensitivity to spin-dependent and spin-independent WIMP couplings. These key advantages should enable the goal of one background event in a ton-year of exposure to be achieved. The conceptual design of COUPP-500 is scaled from the preceding devices. In many cases all that is needed is a simple scaling up of components previously used

  10. Improved Limits on Spin-Dependent WIMP-Proton Interactions from a Two Liter CF$_3$I Bubble Chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Behnke, E.; Behnke, J.; Brice, S.J.; Broemmelsiek, D.; Collar, J.I.; Cooper, P.S.; Crisler, M.; Dahl, C.E.; Fustin, D.; Hall, J.; Hinnefeld, J.H.; /Indiana U., South Bend /Fermilab /Indiana U., South Bend /Fermilab /Indiana U., South Bend /Fermilab

    2010-08-01

    Data from the operation of a bubble chamber filled with 3.5 kg of CF{sub 3}I in a shallow underground site are reported. An analysis of ultrasound signals accompanying bubble nucleations confirms that alpha decays generate a significantly louder acoustic emission than single nuclear recoils, leading to an efficient background discrimination. Three dark matter candidate events were observed during an effective exposure of 28.1 kg-day, consistent with a neutron background. This observation provides the strongest direct detection constraint to date on WIMP-proton spin-dependent scattering for WIMP masses > 20 GeV/c{sup 2}.

  11. First dark matter search results from a 4-kg CF3I bubble chamber operated in a deep underground site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behnke, E.; Behnke, J.; Brice, S. J.; Broemmelsiek, D.; Collar, J. I.; Conner, A.; Cooper, P. S.; Crisler, M.; Dahl, C. E.; Fustin, D.; Grace, E.; Hall, J.; Hu, M.; Levine, I.; Lippincott, W. H.; Moan, T.; Nania, T.; Ramberg, E.; Robinson, A. E.; Sonnenschein, A.; Szydagis, M.; Vázquez-Jáuregui, E.

    2012-09-01

    New data are reported from the operation of a 4.0-kg CF3I bubble chamber in the 6800-foot-deep SNOLAB underground laboratory. The effectiveness of ultrasound analysis in discriminating alpha-decay background events from single nuclear recoils has been confirmed, with a lower bound of >99.3% rejection of alpha-decay events. Twenty single nuclear recoil event candidates and three multiple bubble events were observed during a total exposure of 553 kg-days distributed over three different bubble nucleation thresholds. The effective exposure for single bubble recoil-like events was 437.4 kg-days. A neutron background internal to the apparatus, of known origin, is estimated to account for five single nuclear recoil events and is consistent with the observed rate of multiple bubble events. The remaining excess of single bubble events exhibits characteristics indicating the presence of an additional background. These data provide new direct detection constraints on WIMP-proton spin-dependent scattering for WIMP masses >20GeV/c2 and demonstrate significant sensitivity for spin-independent interactions.

  12. A bubble chamber simulator: a new tool for the physics classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnon, Michel

    2011-07-01

    Mainly used in the 1960s, bubble chambers played a major role in particle physics. Now replaced with modern electronic detectors, we believe they remain an important didactic tool to introduce particle physics as they provide visual, appealing and insightful pictures. Sadly, this rare type of detector is mostly accessible through open-door events only. To overcome this drawback, we have developed a realistic computer-based simulator to replicate the actual equipment. Using this software, students and instructors are able to obtain randomly created computer-simulated images comparable to real-life ones. We have successfully used this software in our mechanics, electromagnetism and modern physics courses to illustrate the effect of a magnetic field on charged particles, to exemplify relativistic mechanics and to discuss the conservation of energy, momentum and quantum numbers in particle collisions. It also provides original examples for students to practise their ability to identify the particles involved, thereby gaining a better understanding of the underlying physical laws. The software is available as a free download.

  13. First Dark Matter Search Results from a 4-kg CF$_3$I Bubble Chamber Operated in a Deep Underground Site

    SciTech Connect

    Behnke, E.; Behnke, J.; Brice, S.J.; Broemmelsiek, D.; Collar, J.I.; Conner, A.; Cooper, P.S.; Crisler, M.; Dahl, C.E.; Fustin, D.; Grace, E.; /Indiana U., South Bend /Fermilab

    2012-04-01

    New data are reported from the operation of a 4.0 kg CF{sub 3}I bubble chamber in the 6800 foot deep SNOLAB underground laboratory. The effectiveness of ultrasound analysis in discriminating alpha decay background events from single nuclear recoils has been confirmed, with a lower bound of >99.3% rejection of alpha decay events. Twenty single nuclear recoil event candidates and three multiple bubble events were observed during a total exposure of 553 kg-days distributed over three different bubble nucleation thresholds. The effective exposure for single bubble recoil-like events was 437.4 kg-days. A neutron background internal to the apparatus, of known origin, is estimated to account for five single nuclear recoil events and is consistent with the observed rate of multiple bubble events. This observation provides world best direct detection constraints on WIMP-proton spin-dependent scattering for WIMP masses >20 GeV/c{sup 2} and demonstrates significant sensitivity for spin-independent interactions.

  14. 29. Photocopy of photograph (original print located in LBNL Photo ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Photocopy of photograph (original print located in LBNL Photo Lab Collection). Photographer unknown. July, 1959. Morgue 1959-46 (P-1). ALVAREZ BUBBLE CHAMBER GROUP (L. TO R.) HERNANDEZ, McMILLAN, ALVAREZ, GOW - University of California Radiation Laboratory, Bevatron, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, Alameda County, CA

  15. The injection of air/oxygen bubble into the anterior chamber of rabbits as a treatment for hyphema in patients with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Ayintap, Emre; Keskin, Uğurcan; Sadigov, Fariz; Coskun, Mesut; Ilhan, Nilufer; Motor, Sedat; Semiz, Hilal; Parlakfikirer, Nihan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the changes of partial oxygen pressure (PaO2) in aqueous humour after injecting air or oxygen bubble into the anterior chamber in sickle cell hyphema. Methods. Blood samples were taken from the same patient with sickle cell disease. Thirty-two rabbits were divided into 4 groups. In group 1 (n = 8), there was no injection. Only blood injection constituted group 2 (n = 8), both blood and air bubble injection constituted group 3 (n = 8), and both blood and oxygen bubble injection constituted group 4 (n = 8). Results. The PaO2 in the aqueous humour after 10 hours from the injections was 78.45 ± 9.9 mmHg (Mean ± SD) for group 1, 73.97 ± 8.86 mmHg for group 2, 123.35 ± 13.6 mmHg for group 3, and 306.47 ± 16.5 mmHg for group 4. There was statistically significant difference between group 1 and group 2, when compared with group 3 and group 4. Conclusions. PaO2 in aqueous humour was increased after injecting air or oxygen bubble into the anterior chamber. We offer to leave an air bubble in the anterior chamber of patients with sickle cell hemoglobinopathies and hyphema undergoing an anterior chamber washout. PMID:24808955

  16. Improved Limits on Spin-Dependent WIMP-Proton Interactions from a Two Liter CF{sub 3}I Bubble Chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Behnke, E.; Behnke, J.; Hinnefeld, J. H.; Levine, I.; Shepherd, T.; Brice, S. J.; Broemmelsiek, D.; Cooper, P. S.; Crisler, M.; Hall, J.; Hu, M.; Ramberg, E.; Sonnenschein, A.; Collar, J. I.; Dahl, C. E.; Fustin, D.; Szydagis, M.

    2011-01-14

    Data from the operation of a bubble chamber filled with 3.5 kg of CF{sub 3}I in a shallow underground site are reported. An analysis of ultrasound signals accompanying bubble nucleations confirms that alpha decays generate a significantly louder acoustic emission than single nuclear recoils, leading to an efficient background discrimination. Three dark matter candidate events were observed during an effective exposure of 28.1 kg day, consistent with a neutron background. This observation provides strong direct detection constraints on weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP)-proton spin-dependent scattering for WIMP masses >20 GeV/c{sup 2}.

  17. Determination of astrophysical thermonuclear rates with a bubble chamber: The {sup 12}C(αγ){sup 16}O reaction case

    SciTech Connect

    DiGiovine, B.; Henderson, D.; Holt, R. J.; Rehm, K. E.; Grames, J.; Meekins, D.; Poelker, M.; Suleiman, R.; Robinson, A.; Ugalde, C.; Sonnenschein, A.

    2013-11-07

    The {sup 12}C(αγ){sup 16}O reaction rate is considered one of the most important unknown parameters in the physics of structure and evolution of massive stars. While extensive experimental campaigns have been performed trying to improve the quality of the measurements, the rate still holds very large uncertainties. Here we discuss a new experimantal scheme to measure the cross section of this reaction with a bubble chamber and a bremsstrahlung beam. The main advantage of the technique is a gain in the luminosity of several orders of magnitude when compared to other ongoing experiments.

  18. Bubble Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corrigan, Jackie

    2004-01-01

    A method of energy production that is capable of low pollutant emissions is fundamental to one of the four pillars of NASA s Aeronautics Blueprint: Revolutionary Vehicles. Bubble combustion, a new engine technology currently being developed at Glenn Research Center promises to provide low emissions combustion in support of NASA s vision under the Emissions Element because it generates power, while minimizing the production of carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxides (NOx), both known to be Greenhouse gases. and allows the use of alternative fuels such as corn oil, low-grade fuels, and even used motor oil. Bubble combustion is analogous to the inverse of spray combustion: the difference between bubble and spray combustion is that spray combustion is spraying a liquid in to a gas to form droplets, whereas bubble combustion involves injecting a gas into a liquid to form gaseous bubbles. In bubble combustion, the process for the ignition of the bubbles takes place on a time scale of less than a nanosecond and begins with acoustic waves perturbing each bubble. This perturbation causes the local pressure to drop below the vapor pressure of the liquid thus producing cavitation in which the bubble diameter grows, and upon reversal of the oscillating pressure field, the bubble then collapses rapidly with the aid of the high surface tension forces acting on the wall of the bubble. The rapid and violent collapse causes the temperatures inside the bubbles to soar as a result of adiabatic heating. As the temperatures rise, the gaseous contents of the bubble ignite with the bubble itself serving as its own combustion chamber. After ignition, this is the time in the bubble s life cycle where power is generated, and CO2, and NOx among other species, are produced. However, the pollutants CO2 and NOx are absorbed into the surrounding liquid. The importance of bubble combustion is that it generates power using a simple and compact device. We conducted a parametric study using CAVCHEM

  19. Photographic studies of laser-induced bubble formation in absorbing liquids and on submerged targets: implications for drug delivery with microsecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shangguan, HanQun; Casperson, Lee W.; Paisley, Dennis L.; Prahl, Scott A.

    1998-08-01

    Pulsed laser ablation of blood clots in a fluid-filled blood vessel is accompanied by an explosive evaporation process. The resulting vapor bubble rapidly expands and collapses to disrupt the thrombus (blood clot). The hydrodynamic pressures following the bubble expansion and collapse can also be used as a driving force to deliver clot-dissolving agents into thrombus for enhancement of laser thrombolysis. Thus, the laser-induced bubble formation plays an important role in the thrombus removal process. We investigate the effects of boundary configurations and materials on bubble formation with time-resolved flash photography and high- speed photography. Potential applications in drug delivery using microsecond laser pulses are then discussed.

  20. High-speed photography of the bubble generated by an airgun

    SciTech Connect

    Langhammer, J.; Landroe, M.

    1996-01-01

    High-speed photography has been used visually to study the shape, surface, turbulence and behavior of an underwater oscillating bubble generated by an airgun. The source wa a BOLT airgun with a chamber volume of 1.6 cu.in., placed in a 0.85 m{sup 3} tank at 0.5 m depth. Near-field signatures were also recorded in order to compare the instant photographs of the oscillating bubble with the pressure field recorded about 25 cm from the gun. Estimations of the bubble-wall velocity and bubble radius estimated from high-speed film sequences are also presented, and are compared with modeled results. The deviation between the modeled and measured bubble radii was at most 9%. In order to check the capacity for transmission of light through the bubble, a concentrated laser beam was used as illumination. The authors found that the air bubble is a strong scattering medium of laser light, hence the bubble is opaque.

  1. Fuel system bubble dissipation device

    SciTech Connect

    Iseman, W.J.

    1987-11-03

    This patent describes a bubble dissipation device for a fuel system wherein fuel is delivered through a fuel line from a fuel tank to a fuel control with the pressure of the fuel being progressively increased by components including at least one pump stage and an ejector in advance of the pump state. The ejector an ejector casing with a wall defining an elongate tubular flow passage which forms a portion of the fuel line to have all of the fuel flow through the tubular flow passage in flowing from the fuel tank to the fuel control, a nozzle positioned entirely within the tubular flow passage and spaced from the wall to permit fuel flow. The nozzle has an inlet and an outlet with the inlet connected to the pump stage to receive fuel under pressure continuously from the pump stage, a bubble accumulation chamber adjoining and at a level above the ejector casing and operatively connected to the fuel line in advance of the ejector casing. The bubble accumulation chamber is of a size to function as a fuel reservoir and hold an air bubble containing vapor above the level of fuel therein and having an outlet adjacent the bottom thereof operatively connected to the tubular flow passage in the ejector casing at an inlet end, a bubble accumulation chamber inlet above the level of the bubble accumulation chamber outlet whereby fuel can flow through the bubble accumulation chamber from the inlet to the outlet thereof with a bubble in the fuel rising above the fuel level in the bubble accumulation chamber.

  2. 9. Photographic copy of photograph, dated June 1971 (original print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photographic copy of photograph, dated June 1971 (original print in possession of James E. Zielinski, Earth Tech, Huntsville, AL). Photographer unknown. View of sprint missile silo liners, prior to their installation within the subsurface holes at the missile launch site (June 1971). Not the silo liner at right; atop this is the launch preparation equipment chamber (LPEC). - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Missile Launch Area, Within Exclusion Area, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  3. 23. Photographic copy of photograph, 1927 (print located at Lockmaster's ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Photographic copy of photograph, 1927 (print located at Lockmaster's House, Starved Rock Lock and Dam, near Utica, Illinois). CONSTRUCTION OF LOCK CHAMBER, SHOWING UPPER GATE AREA, WITH LIFT GATE SECTION IN BACKGROUND. - Starved Rock Locks & Dam, Illinois Waterway River mile 231, Peru, La Salle County, IL

  4. Bubble dielectrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, T. B.; Bliss, G. W.

    1977-01-01

    The theoretical principles related to bubble dielectrophoresis are examined, taking into account the polarization force, aspects of bubble deformation, the electrostatic bubble levitation theorem, and the equation of motion. The measurement of the dielectrophoretic force on static and dynamic bubbles represents a convenient experimental method for the study of the general problem of dielectrophoresis. The experiments reported include static-force measurements, static-levitation experiments, and dynamic-force measurements.

  5. 8. Photographic copy of photograph, dated 1 October 1970 (original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Photographic copy of photograph, dated 1 October 1970 (original print in possession of CSSD-HO, Huntsville, AL). Morrison-Knudsen Company and Associates, photographer. View of 43-foot high midsection of Spartan launch tube and exhaust chamber as it was being prepared for sprint missile silo liners, prior to their installation within the subsurface holes at the missile launch site (June 1971). Note the silo liner at right; atop this is the launch preparation equipment chamber (LPEC) - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Missile Launch Area, Within Exclusion Area, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  6. Aspherical bubble dynamics and oscillation times

    SciTech Connect

    Godwin, R.P.; Chapyak, E.J.; Noack, J.; Vogel, A.

    1999-03-01

    The cavitation bubbles common in laser medicine are rarely perfectly spherical and are often located near tissue boundaries, in vessels, etc., which introduce aspherical dynamics. Here, novel features of aspherical bubble dynamics are explored. Time-resolved experimental photographs and simulations of large aspect ratio (length:diameter {approximately}20) cylindrical bubble dynamics are presented. The experiments and calculations exhibit similar dynamics. A small high-pressure cylindrical bubble initially expands radially with hardly any axial motion. Then, after reaching its maximum volume, a cylindrical bubble collapses along its long axis with relatively little radial motion. The growth-collapse period of these very aspherical bubbles differs only sightly from twice the Rayleigh collapse time for a spherical bubble with an equivalent maximum volume. This fact justifies using the temporal interval between the acoustic signals emitted upon bubble creation and collapse to estimate the maximum bubble volume. As a result, hydrophone measurements can provide an estimate of the bubble energy even for aspherical bubbles. The prolongation of the oscillation period of bubbles near solid boundaries relative to that of isolated spherical bubbles is also discussed.

  7. Effect of bubble size on micro-bubble drag reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Xiaochun

    2005-11-01

    The effect of bubble size on micro-bubble drag reduction was investigated experimentally in a high-speed turbulent channel flow of water. A variety of near-wall injection techniques were used to create a bubbly turbulent boundary layer. The resulting wall friction force was measured directly by a floating element force balance. The bubble size was determined from photographic imaging. Using compressed nitrogen to force flow through a slot injector located in the plate beneath the boundary layer of the tunnel test section, a surfactant solution (Triton X-100, 19ppm) and salt water solution (35ppt) generated bubbles of average size between ˜500 microns and ˜200 microns and ˜100 microns, respectively (40 < d^+ < 200). In addition hollow spherical glass beads (˜75 microns (d^+ = 30) and specific gravity 0.18) and previously prepared lipid stabilized gas bubbles of ˜ 30 micron (d^+ =12) were injected. The results indicate that the drag reduction is related strongly to the injected gas volume flux and the static pressure in the boundary layer. Changing bubble size had essentially no influence on the measured friction drag, suggesting that friction drag is not a strong function of bubble size. [Sponsored by the Office of Naval Research.

  8. Recalcitrant bubbles

    PubMed Central

    Shanahan, Martin E. R.; Sefiane, Khellil

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate that thermocapillary forces may drive bubbles against liquid flow in ‘anomalous' mixtures. Unlike ‘ordinary' liquids, in which bubbles migrate towards higher temperatures, we have observed vapour bubbles migrating towards lower temperatures, therefore against the flow. This unusual behaviour may be explained by the temperature dependence of surface tension of these binary mixtures. Bubbles migrating towards their equilibrium position follow an exponential trend. They finally settle in a stationary position just ‘downstream' of the minimum in surface tension. The exponential trend for bubbles in ‘anomalous' mixtures and the linear trend in pure liquids can be explained by a simple model. For larger bubbles, oscillations were observed. These oscillations can be reasonably explained by including an inertial term in the equation of motion (neglected for smaller bubbles). PMID:24740256

  9. Decompression sickness bubbles: are gas micronuclei formed on a flat hydrophobic surface?

    PubMed

    Arieli, R; Marmur, A

    2011-06-30

    It is a long-standing hypothesis that the bubbles which evolve as a result of decompression have their origin in stable gas micronuclei lodged in hydrophobic crevices, micelles of surface-active molecules, or tribonucleation. Recent findings supported by atomic force microscopy have indicated that tiny, flat nanobubbles form spontaneously on smooth, hydrophobic surfaces submerged in water. We propose that these nanobubbles may be the gas micronuclei responsible for the bubbles that evolve to cause decompression sickness. To support our hypothesis, we used hydrophilic and monolayer-covered hydrophobic smooth silicon wafers. The experiment was conducted in three main stages. Double distilled water was degassed at the low pressure of 5.60 kPa; hydrophobic and hydrophilic silicon wafers were placed in a bowl of degassed water and left overnight at normobaric pressure. The bowl was then placed in the hyperbaric chamber for 15 h at a pressure of 1013 kPa (=90 m sea water). After decompression, bubbles were observed and photographed. The results showed that bubbles only evolved on the hydrophobic surfaces following decompression. There are numerous hydrophobic surfaces within the living body (e.g., in the large blood vessels), which may thus be the sites where nanobubbles that serve as gas micronuclei for bubble evolution following decompression are formed. PMID:21376842

  10. Transient bubbles, bublets and breakup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keen, Giles; Blake, John

    1999-11-01

    The non-spherical nature of the collapse of bubbles has important ramifications in many practical situations such as ultrasonic cleaning, tanning of leather, and underwater explosions. In particular the high speed liquid jet that can thread a collapsing bubble is central to the functional performance. An impressive photographic record of a liquid jet was obtained by Crum using a bubble situated in the vicinity of a platform oscillating vertically at a frequency of 60 Hz. A boundary integral method is used to model this situation and is found to closely mimic some of the observations. However, a slight variation of parameters or a change in the phase of the driving frequency can lead to dramatically different bubble behaviour, a feature also observed by Crum.

  11. Bubble, Bubble, Toil and Trouble.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Bubbles are a fun way to introduce the concepts of surface tension, intermolecular forces, and the use of surfactants. Presents two activities in which students add chemicals to liquid dishwashing detergent with water in order to create longer lasting bubbles. (ASK)

  12. 206. Photocopy of photograph, Denver Post photographer, 20 March 1954 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    206. Photocopy of photograph, Denver Post photographer, 20 March 1954 (original print located at Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City, Colorado). WORKERS USE AIRTIGHT SUITS, GLOVES AND MASKS TO WORK WITH DEADLY GB NERVE GAS. WORKERS ARE NOT PERMITTED TO STAY IN THE BLENDING CHAMBER FOR MORE THAN 20 MINUTES AT A TIME, EVEN WITH THESE PRECAUTIONS. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  13. Stable tridimensional bubble clusters in multi-bubble sonoluminescence (MBSL).

    PubMed

    Rosselló, J M; Dellavale, D; Bonetto, F J

    2015-01-01

    In the present work, stable clusters made of multiple sonoluminescent bubbles are experimentally and theoretically studied. Argon bubbles were acoustically generated and trapped using bi-frequency driving within a cylindrical chamber filled with a sulfuric acid aqueous solution (SA85w/w). The intensity of the acoustic pressure field was strong enough to sustain, during several minutes, a large number of positionally and spatially fixed (without pseudo-orbits) sonoluminescent bubbles over an ellipsoidally-shaped tridimensional array. The dimensions of the ellipsoids were studied as a function of the amplitude of the applied low-frequency acoustic pressure (PAc(LF)) and the static pressure in the fluid (P0). In order to explain the size and shape of the bubble clusters, we performed a series of numerical simulations of the hydrodynamic forces acting over the bubbles. In both cases the observed experimental behavior was in excellent agreement with the numerical results. The simulations revealed that the positionally stable region, mainly determined by the null primary Bjerknes force (F→Bj), is defined as the outer perimeter of an axisymmetric ellipsoidal cluster centered in the acoustic field antinode. The role of the high-frequency component of the pressure field and the influence of the secondary Bjerknes force are discussed. We also investigate the effect of a change in the concentration of dissolved gas on the positional and spatial instabilities through the cluster dimensions. The experimental and numerical results presented in this paper are potentially useful for further understanding and modeling numerous current research topics regarding multi-bubble phenomena, e.g. forces acting on the bubbles in multi-frequency acoustic fields, transient acoustic cavitation, bubble interactions, structure formation processes, atomic and molecular emissions of equal bubbles and nonlinear or unsteady acoustic pressure fields in bubbly media. PMID:24974006

  14. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Frederick Tilberg, Photographer August 25, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Frederick Tilberg, Photographer August 25, 1957 INTERIOR OF OVEN CHAMBER. - Bricker Outdoor Bake Oven, Taneytown & Wheat Fields Roads, Gettysburg, Adams County, PA

  15. Flow chamber

    DOEpatents

    Morozov, Victor

    2011-01-18

    A flow chamber having a vacuum chamber and a specimen chamber. The specimen chamber may have an opening through which a fluid may be introduced and an opening through which the fluid may exit. The vacuum chamber may have an opening through which contents of the vacuum chamber may be evacuated. A portion of the flow chamber may be flexible, and a vacuum may be used to hold the components of the flow chamber together.

  16. Credit WCT. Photographic copy of photograph, in 1963 a "Y" ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Credit WCT. Photographic copy of photograph, in 1963 a "Y" branch connector was introduced at the Dd test station in order to add a second test cell (named Dy) to the Dd train of coolers and ejectors. This view shows the diffuser used to connect the Dy test chamber with the "Y" branch. This Dy chamber was the second one installed at this station; it was later moved and incorporated into a larger horizontal test station retaining the Dy designation. (JPL negative no. 384-11176-B, 17 May 1976) - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Test Stand D, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  17. Photographic copy of a photograph, dated June 1993 (original print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of a photograph, dated June 1993 (original print in the possession of CSSD-HO, Huntsville, AL). Gerald Greenwood, photographer. Close-up view of sprint cell at missile field of remote sprint launch site #3, with launch cell cover marked "inert". Adjacent and to the right is the launch preparation equipment chamber (LPEC) cover. Other cell covers can be seen in the background - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Exclusion Area Sentry Station, At Service Road entrance to Missile Field, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  18. Hubble Sees a Star 'Inflating' a Giant Bubble

    NASA Video Gallery

    A zoom into the Hubble Space Telescope photograph of an enormous, balloon-like bubble being blown into space by a super-hot, massive star. Astronomers trained the iconic telescope on this colorful ...

  19. Exploring Bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Geary, Melissa A.

    Bubbles provide an enjoyable and festive medium through which to teach many concepts within the science topics of light, color, chemistry, force, air pressure, electricity, buoyancy, floating, density, among many others. In order to determine the nature of children's engagement within a museum setting and the learning opportunities of playing with bubbles, I went to a children's interactive museum located in a metropolitan city in the Northeastern part of the United States.

  20. Bubble diagnostics

    DOEpatents

    Visuri, Steven R.; Mammini, Beth M.; Da Silva, Luiz B.; Celliers, Peter M.

    2003-01-01

    The present invention is intended as a means of diagnosing the presence of a gas bubble and incorporating the information into a feedback system for opto-acoustic thrombolysis. In opto-acoustic thrombolysis, pulsed laser radiation at ultrasonic frequencies is delivered intraluminally down an optical fiber and directed toward a thrombus or otherwise occluded vessel. Dissolution of the occlusion is therefore mediated through ultrasonic action of propagating pressure or shock waves. A vapor bubble in the fluid surrounding the occlusion may form as a result of laser irradiation. This vapor bubble may be used to directly disrupt the occlusion or as a means of producing a pressure wave. It is desirable to detect the formation and follow the lifetime of the vapor bubble. Knowledge of the bubble formation and lifetime yields critical information as to the maximum size of the bubble, density of the absorbed radiation, and properties of the absorbing material. This information can then be used in a feedback system to alter the irradiation conditions.

  1. 22. PHOTOCOPY OF PHOTOGRAPH. View north of main control panels, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. PHOTOCOPY OF PHOTOGRAPH. View north of main control panels, Artic and Tropic Chambers, ca. 1955. (Source: NRDEC). - Natick Research & Development Laboratories, Climatic Chambers Building, U.S. Army Natick Research, Development & Engineering Center (NRDEC), Natick, Middlesex County, MA

  2. Periodical bubble formation and the oscillatory change in dissolved oxygen concentration in a catalase-hydrogen peroxide system.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Satoshi

    2006-06-01

    The relationship between the periodical bubble forming and the oscillatory change in the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration in a catalase-hydrogen peroxide system was studied. Photographs of the bubbles and the responses from the DO electrode indicated that large bubbles were generated periodically, and that the DO profile depended on the geometrical relationship between the electrode and the bubbles. PMID:16772694

  3. Bubble plumes generated during recharge of basaltic magma reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Jeremy C.; Woods, Andrew W.

    2001-03-01

    CO 2 is relatively insoluble in basaltic magma at low crustal pressures. It therefore exists as a gas phase in the form of bubbles in shallow crustal reservoirs. Over time these bubbles may separate gravitationally from the magma in the chamber. As a result, any new magma which recharges the chamber from deeper in the crust may be more bubble-rich and hence of lower density than the magma in the chamber. Using scaling arguments, we show that for typical recharge fluxes, such a source of low-viscosity, bubble-rich basalt may generate a turbulent bubble plume within the chamber. We also show that the bubbles are typically sufficiently small to have a low Reynolds number and to remain in the flow. We then present a series of analogue laboratory experiments which identify that the motion of such a turbulent bubble-driven line plume is well described by the classical theory of buoyant plumes. Using the classical plume theory we then examine the effect of the return flow associated with such bubble plumes on the mixing and redistribution of bubbles within the chamber. Using this model, we show that a relatively deep bubbly layer of magma may form below a thin foam layer at the roof. If, as an eruption proceeds, there is a continuing influx at the base of the chamber, then our model suggests that the bubble content of the bubbly layer may gradually increase. This may lead to a transition from lava flow activity to more explosive fire-fountaining activity. The foam layer at the top of the chamber may provide a flux for the continual outgassing from the flanks of the volcano [Ryan, Am. Geophys. Union Geophys. Monogr. 91 (1990)] and if it deepens sufficiently it may contribute to the eruptive activity [Vergniolle and Jaupart, J. Geophys. Res. 95 (1990) 2793-3001].

  4. HIGH SPATIAL RESOLUTION IMAGING OF INERTIAL FUSION TARGET PLASMAS USING BUBBLE NEUTRON DETECTORS, Final Report for the Period November 1, 1999 - February 28, 2001

    SciTech Connect

    FISHER,RK

    2003-02-01

    OAK B202 HIGH SPATIAL RESOLUTION IMAGING OF INERTIAL FUSION TARGET PLASMAS USING BUBBLE NEUTRON DETECTORS. Bubble detectors, which can detect neutrons with a spatial 5 to 30 {micro}, are the most promising approach to imaging NIF target plasmas with the desired 5 {micro} spatial resolution in the target plane. Gel bubble detectors are being tested to record neutron images of ICF implosions in OMEGA experiments. By improving the noise reduction techniques used in analyzing the data taken in June 2000, we have been able to image the neutron emission from 6 {center_dot} 10{sup 13} yield DT target plasmas with a target plane spatial resolution of {approx} 140 {micro}. As expected, the spatial resolution was limited by counting statistics as a result of the low neutron detection efficiency of the easy-to-use gel bubble detectors. The results have been submitted for publication and will be the subject of an invited talk at the October 2001 Meeting of the Division of Plasma Physics of the American Physical Society. To improve the counting statistics, data was taken in May 2001 using a stack of four gel detectors and integrated over a series of up to seven high-yield DT shots. Analysis of the 2001 data is still in its early stages. Gel detectors were chosen for these initial tests since the bubbles can be photographed several hours after the neutron exposure. They consist of {approx} 5000 drops ({approx} 100 {micro} in diameter) of bubble detector liquid/cm{sup 3} suspended in an inactive support gel that occupies {approx} 99% of the detector volume. Using a liquid bubble chamber detector and a light scattering system to record the bubble locations a few microseconds after the neutron exposure when the bubbles are {approx} 10 {micro} in diameter, should result in {approx} 1000 times higher neutron detection efficiency and a target plane resolution on OMEGA of {approx} 10 to 50 {micro}.

  5. Photograph Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eakle, Arlene H.

    The booklet explains how family photographs can be used to teach about history, life style, and social values. The approach can be used in elementary or senior high classes in history, social science, or humanities. The personal aspect of using family photographs is seen to be important in ensuring student interest. As historical documents,…

  6. Bakeout Chamber Within Vacuum Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Daniel M.; Soules, David M.; Barengoltz, Jack B.

    1995-01-01

    Vacuum-bakeout apparatus for decontaminating and measuring outgassing from pieces of equipment constructed by mounting bakeout chamber within conventional vacuum chamber. Upgrade cost effective: fabrication and installation of bakeout chamber simple, installation performed quickly and without major changes in older vacuum chamber, and provides quantitative data on outgassing from pieces of equipment placed in bakeout chamber.

  7. Ring Bubbles of Dolphins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shariff, Karim; Marten, Ken; Psarakos, Suchi; White, Don J.; Merriam, Marshal (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    The article discusses how dolphins create and play with three types of air-filled vortices. The underlying physics is discussed. Photographs and sketches illustrating the dolphin's actions and physics are presented. The dolphins engage in this behavior on their own initiative without food reward. These behaviors are done repeatedly and with singleminded effort. The first type is the ejection of bubbles which, after some practice on the part of the dolphin, turn into toroidal vortex ring bubbles by the mechanism of baroclinic torque. These bubbles grow in radius and become thinner as they rise vertically to the surface. One dolphin would blow two in succession and guide them to fuse into one. Physicists call this a vortex reconnection. In the second type, the dolphins first create an invisible vortex ring in the water by swimming on their side and waving their tail fin (also called flukes) vigorously. This vortex ring travels horizontally in the water. The dolphin then turns around, finds the vortex and injects a stream of air into it from its blowhole. The air "fills-out" the core of the vortex ring. Often, the dolphin would knock-off a smaller ring bubble from the larger ring (this also involves vortex reconnection) and steer the smaller ring around the tank. One other dolphin employed a few other techniques for planting air into the fluke vortex. One technique included standing vertically in the water with tail-up, head-down and tail piercing the free surface. As the fluke is waved to create the vortex ring, air is entrained from above the surface. Another technique was gulping air in the mouth, diving down, releasing air bubbles from the mouth and curling them into a ring when they rose to the level of the fluke. In the third type, demonstrated by only one dolphin, the longitudinal vortex created by the dorsal fin on the back is used to produce 10-15 foot long helical bubbles. In one technique she swims in a curved path. This creates a dorsal fin vortex since

  8. HIGH SPATIAL RESOLUTION IMAGING OF INERTIAL FUSION TARGET PLASMAS USING BUBBLE NEWTRON DETECTORS

    SciTech Connect

    FISHER,RK

    2002-10-01

    OAK B202 HIGH SPATIAL RESOLUTION IMAGING OF INERTIAL FUSION TARGET PLASMAS USING BUBBLE NEWTRON DETECTORS. Bubble detectors, which can detect neutrons with a spatial resolution of 5 to 30 {micro}, are a promising approach to high-resolution imaging of NIF target plasmas. Gel bubble detectors were used in successful proof-of-principle imaging experiments on OMEGA. Until recently, bubble detectors appeared to be the only approach capable of achieving neutron images of NIF targets with the desired 5 {micro} spatial resolution in the target plane. In 2001, NIF reduced the required standoff distance from the target, so that diagnostic components can now be placed as close as 10 cm to the target plasma. This will allow neutron imaging with higher magnification and may make it possible to obtain 5 {micro}m resolution images on NIF using deuterated scintillators. Having accomplished all that they can hope to on OMEGA using gel detectors, they suggested that the 2002 NLUF shots be used to allow experimental tests of the spatial resolution of the CEA-built deuterated scintillators. The preliminary CEA data from the June 2002 run appears to show the spatial resolution using the deuterated scintillator detector array is improved over that obtained in earlier experiments using the proton-based scintillators. Gel detectors, which consist of {approx} 10 {micro}m diameter drops of bubble detector liquid suspended in an inactive support gel that occupies {approx} 99% of the detector volume, were chosen for the initial tests on OMEGA since they are easy to use. The bubbles could be photographed several hours after the neutron exposure. Imaging NIF target plasmas at neutron yields of 10{sup 15} will require a higher detection efficiency detector. Using a liquid bubble chamber detector should result in {approx} 1000 times higher neutron detection efficiency which is comparable to that possible using scintillation detectors. A pressure-cycled liquid bubble detector will require a light

  9. Leverage bubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Wanfeng; Woodard, Ryan; Sornette, Didier

    2012-01-01

    Leverage is strongly related to liquidity in a market and lack of liquidity is considered a cause and/or consequence of the recent financial crisis. A repurchase agreement is a financial instrument where a security is sold simultaneously with an agreement to buy it back at a later date. Repurchase agreement (repo) market size is a very important element in calculating the overall leverage in a financial market. Therefore, studying the behavior of repo market size can help to understand a process that can contribute to the birth of a financial crisis. We hypothesize that herding behavior among large investors led to massive over-leveraging through the use of repos, resulting in a bubble (built up over the previous years) and subsequent crash in this market in early 2008. We use the Johansen-Ledoit-Sornette (JLS) model of rational expectation bubbles and behavioral finance to study the dynamics of the repo market that led to the crash. The JLS model qualifies a bubble by the presence of characteristic patterns in the price dynamics, called log-periodic power law (LPPL) behavior. We show that there was significant LPPL behavior in the market before that crash and that the predicted range of times predicted by the model for the end of the bubble is consistent with the observations.

  10. Tiny Bubbles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hy

    1985-01-01

    A simple oxygen-collecting device (easily constructed from glass jars and a lid) can show bubbles released by water plants during photosynthesis. Suggestions are given for: (1) testing the collected gas; (2) using various carbon dioxide sources; and (3) measuring respiration. (DH)

  11. 37. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1942. PHOTOGRAPH OF B. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1942. PHOTOGRAPH OF B. L. 'LES' SMITH, SON OF GEORGE W. SMITH, REPAIRING HORSESHOE DAM SITE BRIDGE - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  12. 22. Photographic copy of photograph, circa 1928, photographer unknown (original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Photographic copy of photograph, circa 1928, photographer unknown (original in Rundell Library, Rochester, New York) AUDITORIUM AND STAGE DECORATED FOR POLITICAL CONVENTION, VIEW FROM BALCONY LOOKING SOUTHWEST - New York State Arsenal, 75 Woodbury Boulevard, Rochester, Monroe County, NY

  13. 61. Photographic copy of photograph (1898). Photographer unknown. West side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    61. Photographic copy of photograph (1898). Photographer unknown. West side of bridge in 1893, looking southeast - Wabasha Street Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River at Wabasha Street, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  14. 2. Credit JPL. Photographic copy of photograph, looking northeast at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Credit JPL. Photographic copy of photograph, looking northeast at unfinished original Test Stand 'C' construction. A portion of the corrugated steel tunnel tube connecting Test Stand 'C' to the first phase of JPL tunnel system construction is visible in the foreground. The steel frame used to support propellant tanks and engine equipment has been erected. The open trap door leads to a chamber inside the Test Stand 'C' base where gaseous nitrogen is distributed via manifolds to Test Stand 'C' control valves. (JPL negative no. 384-1568-A, 19 March 1957) - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Test Stand C, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  15. Credit WCT. Photographic copy of photograph, interior view of Dd ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Credit WCT. Photographic copy of photograph, interior view of Dd test cell with VO (Viking Orbiter)-75 spacecraft engine mounted for testing. (Viking was a Mars orbiter and lander mission.) The end of the engine nozzle is inserted into a diffuser in order to conduct exhaust gases out of the chamber. All piping and tubing is stainless steel. Note ports in background through which instrumentation wiring passes. Nozzles at top of view are part of an internal fire suppression (or "Firex") system. (JPL negative no. 384-9428, 24 April 1972) - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Test Stand D, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  16. Calibration of a bubble evolution model to observed bubble incidence in divers.

    PubMed

    Gault, K A; Tikuisis, P; Nishi, R Y

    1995-09-01

    The method of maximum likelihood was used to calibrate a probabilistic bubble evolution model against data of bubbles detected in divers. These data were obtained from a diverse set of 2,064 chamber man-dives involving air and heliox with and without oxygen decompression. Bubbles were measured with Doppler ultrasound and graded according to the Kisman-Masurel code from which a single maximum bubble grade (BG) per diver was compared to the maximum bubble radius (Rmax) predicted by the model. This comparison was accomplished using multinomial statistics by relating BG to Rmax through a series of probability functions. The model predicted the formation of the bubble according to the critical radius concept and its evolution was predicted by assuming a linear rate of inert gas exchange across the bubble boundary. Gas exchange between the model compartment and blood was assumed to be perfusion-limited. The most successful calibration of the model was found using a trinomial grouping of BG according to no bubbles, low, and high bubble activity, and by assuming a single tissue compartment. Parameter estimations converge to a tissue volume of 0.00036 cm3, a surface tension of 5.0 dyne.cm-1, respective time constants of 27.9 and 9.3 min for nitrogen and helium, and respective Ostwald tissue solubilities of 0.0438 and 0.0096. Although not part of the calibration algorithm, the predicted evolution of bubble size compares reasonably well with the temporal recordings of BGs. PMID:7580766

  17. Exposure chamber

    DOEpatents

    Moss, Owen R.; Briant, James K.

    1983-01-01

    An exposure chamber includes an imperforate casing having a fluid inlet at the top and an outlet at the bottom. A single vertical series of imperforate trays is provided. Each tray is spaced on all sides from the chamber walls. Baffles adjacent some of the trays restrict and direct the flow to give partial flow back and forth across the chambers and downward flow past the lowermost pan adjacent a central plane of the chamber.

  18. Bubble bath soap poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002762.htm Bubble bath soap poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Bubble bath soap poisoning occurs when someone swallows bubble bath soap. ...

  19. Discrete Bubble Modeling for Cavitation Bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jin-Keun; Chahine, Georges; Hsiao, Chao-Tsung

    2007-03-01

    Dynaflow, Inc. has conducted extensive studies on non-spherical bubble dynamics and interactions with solid and free boundaries, vortical flow structures, and other bubbles. From these studies, emerged a simplified Surface Averaged Pressure (SAP) spherical bubble dynamics model and a Lagrangian bubble tracking scheme. In this SAP scheme, the pressure and velocity of the surrounding flow field are averaged on the bubble surface, and then used for the bubble motion and volume dynamics calculations. This model is implemented using the Fluent User Defined Function (UDF) as Discrete Bubble Model (DBM). The Bubble dynamics portion can be solved using an incompressible liquid modified Rayleigh-Plesset equation or a compressible liquid modified Gilmore equation. The Discrete Bubble Model is a very suitable tool for the studies on cavitation inception of foils and turbo machinery, bubble nuclei effects, noise from the bubbles, and can be used in many practical problems in industrial and naval applications associated with flows in pipes, jets, pumps, propellers, ships, and the ocean. Applications to propeller cavitation, wake signatures of waterjet propelled ships, bubble-wake interactions, modeling of cavitating jets, and bubble entrainments around a ship will be presented.

  20. 5. Photographic copy of photograph dated 1941; Torkel Korling, photographer; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photographic copy of photograph dated 1941; Torkel Korling, photographer; Original in Rath collection at Iowa State University Libraries, Department of Special Collections, Ames, Iowa; Filed under: Rath Packing Company, Printed Photographs, Symbol M, Box 2; INTERIOR VIEW OF THE COMPRESSOR ROOM - Rath Packing Company, Engine Room, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  1. Photographic Essay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sage: A Scholarly Journal on Black Women, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Presents photographs and short biographical sketches of notable Black women artists past and present, including the following: Elizabeth Taylor Greenfield, Leontyne Price, Florence Price, Ann Lundy, Katherine Dunham, Pearl Primus, Michelle Paterson, Augusta Savage, Glenda Y. Hooker, Marie L. Moore, Varnette Honeywood, Meta Vaux Warrick Fuller,…

  2. Photographic copy of computer enhanced color photographic image. Photographer and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of computer enhanced color photographic image. Photographer and computer draftsman unknown. Original photographic image located in the office of Modjeski and Masters, Consulting Engineers at 1055 St. Charles Avenue, New Orleans, LA 70130. COMPUTER ENHANCED COLOR PHOTOGRAPH SHOWING THE PROPOSED HUEY P. LONG BRIDGE WIDENING LOOKING FROM THE WEST BANK TOWARD THE EAST BANK. - Huey P. Long Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River approximately midway between nine & twelve mile points upstream from & west of New Orleans, Jefferson, Jefferson Parish, LA

  3. EXPERIMENTAL BUBBLE FORMATION IN A LARGE SCALE SYSTEM FOR NEWTONIAN AND NONNEWTONIAN FLUIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Leishear, R; Michael Restivo, M

    2008-06-26

    The complexities of bubble formation in liquids increase as the system size increases, and a photographic study is presented here to provide some insight into the dynamics of bubble formation for large systems. Air was injected at the bottom of a 28 feet tall by 30 inch diameter column. Different fluids were subjected to different air flow rates at different fluid depths. The fluids were water and non-Newtonian, Bingham plastic fluids, which have yield stresses requiring an applied force to initiate movement, or shearing, of the fluid. Tests showed that bubble formation was significantly different in the two types of fluids. In water, a field of bubbles was formed, which consisted of numerous, distributed, 1/4 to 3/8 inch diameter bubbles. In the Bingham fluid, large bubbles of 6 to 12 inches in diameter were formed, which depended on the air flow rate. This paper provides comprehensive photographic results related to bubble formation in these fluids.

  4. Bubble wrap for optical trapping and cell culturing

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Craig; McGloin, David

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate that the bubbles of bubble wrap make ideal trapping chambers for integration with low-cost optical manipulation. The interior of the bubbles is sterile and gas permeable, allowing for the bubbles to be used to store and culture cells, while the flat side of the bubble wrap is of sufficient optical quality to allow for optical trapping inside the bubbles. Through the use of a 100 W bulb to cure hanging droplets of PDMS, a low-cost optical trapping system was constructed. Effector T cells were cultured in bubble wrap for 8 days and then trapped with the PDMS droplet based optical manipulation. These techniques further demonstrate the opportunities for biophysical analysis afforded through repurposing common materials in resource-limited settings. PMID:26504627

  5. Exposure chamber

    DOEpatents

    Moss, Owen R.

    1980-01-01

    A chamber for exposing animals, plants, or materials to air containing gases or aerosols is so constructed that catch pans for animal excrement, for example, serve to aid the uniform distribution of air throughout the chamber instead of constituting obstacles as has been the case in prior animal exposure chambers. The chamber comprises the usual imperforate top, bottom and side walls. Within the chamber, cages and their associated pans are arranged in two columns. The pans are spaced horizontally from the walls of the chamber in all directions. Corresponding pans of the two columns are also spaced horizontally from each other. Preferably the pans of one column are also spaced vertically from corresponding pans of the other column. Air is introduced into the top of the chamber and withdrawn from the bottom. The general flow of air is therefore vertical. The effect of the horizontal pans is based on the fact that a gas flowing past the edge of a flat plate that is perpendicular to the flow forms a wave on the upstream side of the plate. Air flows downwardly between the chamber walls and the outer edges of the pan. It also flows downwardly between the inner edges of the pans of the two columns. It has been found that when the air carries aerosol particles, these particles are substantially uniformly distributed throughout the chamber.

  6. Acoustic bubble removal method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, E. H.; Elleman, D. D.; Wang, T. G. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A method is described for removing bubbles from a liquid bath such as a bath of molten glass to be used for optical elements. Larger bubbles are first removed by applying acoustic energy resonant to a bath dimension to drive the larger bubbles toward a pressure well where the bubbles can coalesce and then be more easily removed. Thereafter, submillimeter bubbles are removed by applying acoustic energy of frequencies resonant to the small bubbles to oscillate them and thereby stir liquid immediately about the bubbles to facilitate their breakup and absorption into the liquid.

  7. Numerical modeling of bubble dynamics in magmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Christian; Su, Yanqing; Parmigiani, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    Understanding the complex non-linear physics that governs volcanic eruptions is contingent on our ability to characterize the dynamics of bubbles and its effect on the ascending magma. The exsolution and migration of bubbles has also a great impact on the heat and mass transport in and out of magma bodies stored at shallow depths in the crust. Multiphase systems like magmas are by definition heterogeneous at small scales. Although mixture theory or homogenization methods are convenient to represent multiphase systems as a homogeneous equivalent media, these approaches do not inform us on possible feedbacks at the pore-scale and can be significantly misleading. In this presentation, we discuss the development and application of bubble-scale multiphase flow modeling to address the following questions : How do bubbles impact heat and mass transport in magma chambers ? How efficient are chemical exchanges between the melt and bubbles during magma decompression? What is the role of hydrodynamic interactions on the deformation of bubbles while the magma is sheared? Addressing these questions requires powerful numerical methods that accurately model the balance between viscous, capillary and pressure stresses. We discuss how these bubble-scale models can provide important constraints on the dynamics of magmas stored at shallow depth or ascending to the surface during an eruption.

  8. Wire chamber

    DOEpatents

    Atac, Muzaffer

    1989-01-01

    A wire chamber or proportional counter device, such as Geiger-Mueller tube or drift chamber, improved with a gas mixture providing a stable drift velocity while eliminating wire aging caused by prior art gas mixtures. The new gas mixture is comprised of equal parts argon and ethane gas and having approximately 0.25% isopropyl alcohol vapor.

  9. Kinetics of Bubble Generation in Mafic Enclaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, B. A.; Gardner, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    Volcanically erupted mafic enclaves are typically vesicular, with the bubbles forming when the mafic magma cools after it is injected and disaggregated into a cooler silicic magma. This study uses hydrothermal experiments to investigate the kinetics of pre-eruptive bubble nucleation and growth within mafic magmas, focused on the efficiency of nucleation on different minerals, and to quantify the growth rate of bubbles with varying cooling rates. Starting materials are natural mafic enclaves from Southwest Trident, Alaska. Experiments were initially equilibrated with H2O at 85 MPa and 1065 °C for 2 hours, producing a melt with blocky crystals of plagioclase and pyroxene, and spherical bubbles with a mean 30 μm diameter and number density (Nv) of 7.2x104 cm-3. Upon cooling to 1015 °C at 2 °C/h, the mineralogy and Nv did not change (although total crystallinity increased), while the mean bubble diameter increased to 90 μm. Cooling further to 985 °C at 2 °C/h, resulted in the crystallization of Fe-Ti oxides, along with an abrupt Nv increase (3.0x105 cm-3) of bubbles with a mean diameter of 60 μm. This abrupt bubble nucleation event, coinciding with the formation of Fe-Ti oxides, suggests that plagioclase and pyroxene are poor bubble nucleation sites in mafic melts, and that Fe-Ti oxides are good bubble nucleation sites, similar to previous results using rhyolite melts. Additionally, the occurrence of this nucleation event suggests that cooling related diffusive growth of bubbles in mafic enclaves, under magma chamber conditions, is too slow to keep up with increasing volatile saturation in the melt, and that the melt may become supersaturated until nucleation sites for new bubbles become available. Rapid cooling (1065-985 °C at 110 °C/h) produced abundant acicular plagioclase and pyroxene crystals (no Fe-Ti oxides), and bubbles with a nearly identical mean diameter and Nv to experiments equilibrated at 1065 °C. It is therefore likely that bubbles will not

  10. 20. PHOTOCOPY OF PHOTOGRAPH. View south of north elevation under ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. PHOTOCOPY OF PHOTOGRAPH. View south of north elevation under construction, ca. 1954. (Source: NRDEC). - Natick Research & Development Laboratories, Climatic Chambers Building, U.S. Army Natick Research, Development & Engineering Center (NRDEC), Natick, Middlesex County, MA

  11. John Ash, AIA, Photographer August 1997. DETAIL OF LOS ANGELES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    John Ash, AIA, Photographer August 1997. DETAIL OF LOS ANGELES CITY HALL THIRD FLOOR CITY COUNCIL CHAMBERS SHOWING COLUMN, ARCADE AND SPECTATOR SEATING, FACING SOUTHWEST. - Los Angeles City Hall, 200 North Spring Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  12. John Ash, AIA, Photographer August 1997. DETAIL OF LOS ANGELES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    John Ash, AIA, Photographer August 1997. DETAIL OF LOS ANGELES CITY HALL THIRD FLOOR CITY COUNCIL CHAMBERS SHOWING PODIUM AND SEATING, FACING SOUTH. - Los Angeles City Hall, 200 North Spring Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  13. John Ash, AIA, Photographer August 1997. DETAIL OF LOS ANGELES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    John Ash, AIA, Photographer August 1997. DETAIL OF LOS ANGELES CITY HALL THIRD FLOOR CITY COUNCIL CHAMBERS SHOWING COLUMN, ARCADE AND SPECTATOR SEATING, FACING SOUTHWEST - Los Angeles City Hall, 200 North Spring Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  14. 11. Historic American Buildings Survey W. N. Manning, Photographer, September ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Historic American Buildings Survey W. N. Manning, Photographer, September 11, 1935 WINDOW TREATMENT IN S. W. BED ROOM - Betty McLemore House, 342 North Lafayette Street, Lafayette, Chambers County, AL

  15. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey W. N. Manning, Photographer, September ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey W. N. Manning, Photographer, September 11, 1935 TREATMENT OF DOOR OPENING INTO HALL - A. A. Tatum House, 226 North Lafayette Street, Lafayette, Chambers County, AL

  16. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey W. N. Manning, Photographer, September ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey W. N. Manning, Photographer, September 11, 1935 VIEW ON FRONT PORCH LOOKING NORTH - Betty McLemore House, 342 North Lafayette Street, Lafayette, Chambers County, AL

  17. 9. Historic American Buildings Survey W. N. Manning, Photographer, September ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic American Buildings Survey W. N. Manning, Photographer, September 11, 1935 MANTEL IN NORTH WEST FRONT ROOM ON SECOND FLOOR - A. A. Tatum House, 226 North Lafayette Street, Lafayette, Chambers County, AL

  18. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey W. N. Manning, Photographer, September ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey W. N. Manning, Photographer, September 11, 1935 FRONT VIEW OF HALL TOWARDS WEST - Betty McLemore House, 342 North Lafayette Street, Lafayette, Chambers County, AL

  19. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey W. N. Manning, Photographer, September ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey W. N. Manning, Photographer, September 11, 1935 CLOSE-UP OF FRONT ENTRANCE SHOWING BALCONY - A. A. Tatum House, 226 North Lafayette Street, Lafayette, Chambers County, AL

  20. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey W. N. Manning, Photographer, September ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey W. N. Manning, Photographer, September 11, 1935 VIEW IN HALL TOWARDS EAST, SECOND FLOOR - Andrews House, South Lafayette Street (U.S. Route 431), Lafayette, Chambers County, AL

  1. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey W. N. Manning, Photographer, September ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey W. N. Manning, Photographer, September 11, 1935 MANTEL IN SOUTH WEST BED ROOM ON SECOND FLOOR - A. A. Tatum House, 226 North Lafayette Street, Lafayette, Chambers County, AL

  2. 9. Historic American Buildings Survey W. N. Manning, Photographer, September ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic American Buildings Survey W. N. Manning, Photographer, September 11, 1935 DOOR TREATMENT IN SOUTH WEST ROOM - Betty McLemore House, 342 North Lafayette Street, Lafayette, Chambers County, AL

  3. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey W. N. Manning, Photographer, September ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey W. N. Manning, Photographer, September 11, 1935 INTERIOR VIEW OF FRONT DOOR IN HALL - A. A. Tatum House, 226 North Lafayette Street, Lafayette, Chambers County, AL

  4. 17. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1940 (original print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1940 (original print located at F.E. Warren Air Force Base Archives, Cheyenne, Wyoming). GYMNASIUM SOON AFTER COMPLETION. VIEW TO EAST. - Fort David A. Russell, Gymnasium, Randall Avenue between Fourth & Fifth Streets, Cheyenne, Laramie County, WY

  5. 27. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 15 October 1913 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 15 October 1913 (original print located at U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Upper Columbia Area Office, Yakima, Washington). "Pile driver driving piling for core-wall. Moving for the next pile." - Keechelus Dam, Yakima River, 10 miles northwest of Easton, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

  6. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 16 September 1913 (original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 16 September 1913 (original print located at U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Upper Columbia Area Office, Yakima, Washington). "VIEW OF LOG BOOM COMPOSED OF TIMBER CUT DURING CLEARING OPERATIONS OF THE RESERVOIR SITE" - Kachess Dam, Kachess River, 1.5 miles north of Interstate 90, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

  7. 39. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 26 March 1915 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 26 March 1915 (original print located at U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Upper Columbia Area Office, Yakima, Washington). "View of control dam after failure." - Keechelus Dam, Yakima River, 10 miles northwest of Easton, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

  8. 38. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 26 March 1915 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 26 March 1915 (original print located at U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Upper Columbia Area Office, Yakima, Washington). " Dredge after failure of control dam." - Keechelus Dam, Yakima River, 10 miles northwest of Easton, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

  9. 36. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1943. PHOTOGRAPH OF GEORGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1943. PHOTOGRAPH OF GEORGE E. SMITH (RIGHT), ONE OF THE PRINCIPAL BUILDERS OF THE VERDE RIVER SHEEP BRIDGE AND HIS SON, B. L. 'LES' SMITH. - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  10. 37. Photographic copy of photograph, James K. Corrigan, Photographer, 1987, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. Photographic copy of photograph, James K. Corrigan, Photographer, 1987, (original print in Cooper-Howard Counties Job no. J5P0257 Project File, Cultural Resources Section, Design Division, Missouri Highway and Transportation Department, Jefferson City). Pennsylvania spans, aerial view to the southwest - Boonville Bridge, Spanning Missouri River at U.S. Route 40 & State Routes 5 & 87, Boonville, Cooper County, MO

  11. 34. Photographic copy of photograph, James K. Corrigan, Photographer, 1987, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. Photographic copy of photograph, James K. Corrigan, Photographer, 1987, (original print in Cooper-Howard Counties Job no. J5P0257 Project File, Cultural Resources Section, Design Division, Missouri Highway and Transportation Department, Jefferson City). Aerial view to the northeast - Boonville Bridge, Spanning Missouri River at U.S. Route 40 & State Routes 5 & 87, Boonville, Cooper County, MO

  12. 36. Photographic copy of photograph, James K. Corrigan, Photographer, 1987, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. Photographic copy of photograph, James K. Corrigan, Photographer, 1987, (original print in Cooper-Howard Counties Job no. J5P0257 Project File, Cultural Resources Section, Design Division, Missouri Highway and Transportation Department, Jefferson City). Aerial view to the southwest - Boonville Bridge, Spanning Missouri River at U.S. Route 40 & State Routes 5 & 87, Boonville, Cooper County, MO

  13. 35. Photographic copy of photograph, James K. Corrigan, Photographer, 1987, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. Photographic copy of photograph, James K. Corrigan, Photographer, 1987, (original print in Cooper-Howard Counties Job no. J5P0257 Project File, Cultural Resources Section, Design Division, Missouri Highway and Transportation Department, Jefferson City). Aerial view to the southeast - Boonville Bridge, Spanning Missouri River at U.S. Route 40 & State Routes 5 & 87, Boonville, Cooper County, MO

  14. 38. Photographic copy of photograph, James K. Corrigan, Photographer, 1987, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. Photographic copy of photograph, James K. Corrigan, Photographer, 1987, (original print in Cooper-Howard Counties Job no. J5P0257 Project File, Cultural Resources Section, Design Division, Missouri Highway and Transportation Department, Jefferson City). Parker spans, aerial view to the northwest - Boonville Bridge, Spanning Missouri River at U.S. Route 40 & State Routes 5 & 87, Boonville, Cooper County, MO

  15. 33. Photographic copy of photograph, James K. Corrigan, Photographer, 1987, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Photographic copy of photograph, James K. Corrigan, Photographer, 1987, (original print in Cooper-Howard Counties Job no. J5P0257 Project File, Cultural Resources Section, Design Division, Missouri Highway and Transportation Department, Jefferson City). Aerial view to the northwest - Boonville Bridge, Spanning Missouri River at U.S. Route 40 & State Routes 5 & 87, Boonville, Cooper County, MO

  16. 11. Photographic copy of aerial photograph dated ca. 1954; Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photographic copy of aerial photograph dated ca. 1954; Photographer unknown; Original owned by Waterloo Courier, Waterloo, Iowa; AERIAL VIEW OF RATH COMPLEX, LOOKING WEST; BEEF KILLING BUILDING (149 AND LIVESTOCK HOLDING AREAS ARE AT LEFT CENTER; FERTILIZER PLANT/STORAGE BUILDINGS ARE AT BOTTOM OF PHOTO - Rath Packing Company, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  17. 6. Photographic copy of historic photograph (date and photograph unknown) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photographic copy of historic photograph (date and photograph unknown) of upper dam showing retaining walls (original in possession of United States Department of Agriculture-Forest Service-Allegheny National Forest). VIEW WEST - Loleta Recreation Area, Upper Dam, 6 miles Southeast of interesection of State Route 24041 & State Route 66, Loleta, Elk County, PA

  18. 42. Photocopy of photograph, ca. 1950, photographer unknown. Original photograph ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. Photocopy of photograph, ca. 1950, photographer unknown. Original photograph property of the U.S. Coast Guard. STARBOARD SIDE OF BOW. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

  19. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 29 July 1911 (original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 29 July 1911 (original print located at U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Upper Columbia Area Office, Yakima, Washington). "NEW SAND AND GRAVEL BIN AND CONCRETE MIXING PLANT" - Kachess Dam, Inlet Channel, Kachess River, 1.5 miles north of Interstate 90, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

  20. 6. Photographic copy of photograph. No date. Photographer unknown. (Source: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photographic copy of photograph. No date. Photographer unknown. (Source: SCIP office, Coolidge, AZ) CHINA WASH FLUME UNDER CONSTRUCTION - San Carlos Irrigation Project, China Wash Flume, Main (Florence-Case Grande) Canal at Station 137+00, T4S, R10E, S14, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  1. 15. Photographic copy of photograph dated ca. 1929; Photographer unknown; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Photographic copy of photograph dated ca. 1929; Photographer unknown; Original in Rath collection at Grout Museum, Waterloo, Iowa; Filed under: Rath Packing Company, Box 4; THE RATH COMPLEX IN THE LATE 1920S; LOOKING WEST FROM 18TH STREET; LARGE BUILDING AT CENTER IS HOG KILL (BUILDING 40) - Rath Packing Company, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  2. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, ca. 1915 (original print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, ca. 1915 (original print located at Southern Ute Agency, Bureau of Indian Affairs Office, Ignacio, Colorado). Overall view of Southern Ute Agency Boarding School, with main building (boy's dormitory) at right. - Southern Ute Boarding School, Boy's Dormitory, Ouray & Capote Drives, Ignacio, La Plata County, CO

  3. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1942 (original print located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1942 (original print located at Southern UTE Agency, Bureau of Indian Affairs Office, Ignacio, Colorado). West front and south side of boy's dormitory. - Southern Ute Boarding School, Boy's Dormitory, Ouray & Capote Drives, Ignacio, La Plata County, CO

  4. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, ca. 1930 (original print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, ca. 1930 (original print located at Colorado Historical Society, Denver, Colorado). Overall view of Southern UTE Agency Boarding School, with boys dormitory at center. - Southern Ute Boarding School, Boy's Dormitory, Ouray & Capote Drives, Ignacio, La Plata County, CO

  5. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1942 (original print located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1942 (original print located at Southern UTE Agency, Bureau of Indian Affairs Office, Ignacio, Colorado). East rear and north side of boy's dormitory. - Southern Ute Boarding School, Boy's Dormitory, Ouray & Capote Drives, Ignacio, La Plata County, CO

  6. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, ca. 1930 (original print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, ca. 1930 (original print located at Colorado Historical Society, Denver, Colorado). Overall views of Southern Ute Agency Boarding School, with boys' dormitory at left of lower view. - Southern Ute Boarding School, Boy's Dormitory, Ouray & Capote Drives, Ignacio, La Plata County, CO

  7. Photographic copy of photograph, Walter Lubken, photographer, 1908 (original print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, Walter Lubken, photographer, 1908 (original print located at U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Pacific Northwest Regional Office, Boise, Idaho). GOVERNMENT FORCES CONSTRUCTION CAMP AT THE BOISE RIVER DIVERSION DAMSITE BEFORE BEGINNING OF CONSTRUCTION ON DIVERSION STRUCTURE - Boise Project, Boise River Diversion Dam, Across Boise River, Boise, Ada County, ID

  8. PHOTOCOPY OF PHOTOGRAPH (Original photograph dated 6849, photographer unknown, now ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PHOTOCOPY OF PHOTOGRAPH (Original photograph dated 6-8-49, photographer unknown, now in possession of Director, Los Angeles National Cemetery, Los Angeles, CA) MAIN ENTRANCE WITH GATEHOUSE AND WALLS, LOS ANGELES NATIONAL CEMETERY, LOOKING EAST-NORTHEAST ON CONSTITUTION AVENUE FROM SEPULVEDA BOULEVARD - Los Angeles National Cemetery, Gate, 950 South Sepulveda Boulevard, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  9. 18. Photographic copy of photograph, 1970 (original photograph in STRATCOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Photographic copy of photograph, 1970 (original photograph in STRATCOM Historian files, Offutt AFB, Bellevue, Nebraska). Interior view of two crew members operating the data display system in the battle staff compartment. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  10. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1912 (original print located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1912 (original print located at U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Upper Columbia Area Office, Yakima, Washington). "LINING OF OUTLET TUNNEL BELOW THE DAM" - Kachess Dam, Outlet Channel, Kachess River, 1.5 miles north of Interstate 90, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

  11. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, August 1912 (original print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, August 1912 (original print located at U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Upper Columbia Area Office, Yakima, Washington). "A VIEW OF METHOD OF DAM CONSTRUCTION" - Kachess Dam, Kachess River, 1.5 miles north of Interstate 90, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

  12. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, August 1912 (original print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, August 1912 (original print located at U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Upper Columbia Area Office, Yakima, Washington). "METHOD OF CONSTRUCTING DAM AFTER REMOVING OF TRESTLE" - Kachess Dam, Kachess River, 1.5 miles north of Interstate 90, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

  13. 17. Photographic copy of photograph dated ca. 1937; Photographer unknown; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Photographic copy of photograph dated ca. 1937; Photographer unknown; Original in Rath collection at Grout Museum, Waterloo, Iowa; Filed uner: Rath Packing Company, Box 4; POWER PLANT (BUILDING 27), LEFT; LARD REFINERY (BUILDING 93), CENTER; AND MANUFACTURING BUILDING (BUILDING 88), RIGHT - Rath Packing Company, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  14. 12. Photographic copy of aerial photograph dated October 1988; Photographed ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photographic copy of aerial photograph dated October 1988; Photographed by Aerial Services, Incorporated, Waterloo, Iowa; THE RATH COMPLEX FROM DIRECTLY OVERHEAD; THE PACKING PLANT BUILDINGS OCCUPY UPPER RIGHT QUADRANT OF PHOTO; 18TH STREET BRIDGE AT CENTER - Rath Packing Company, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  15. Photocopy of photograph, ca. 1915, photographer Marshall. Original photograph property ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph, ca. 1915, photographer Marshall. Original photograph property of U.S. Postal Service which is also the source for views and drawings 44 to 56. Undeveloped site of Stamford Post Office looking southwest. - Stamford Post Office, 421 Atlantic Street, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  16. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 6 June 1914 (original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 6 June 1914 (original print located at U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Upper Columbia Area Office, Yakima, Washington). "CATERPILLAR TRACTOR USED TO HAUL LOGS TO THE LAKE AND WOOD AND TIE TIMBER TO THE MILL AT EASTON" - Kachess Dam, Kachess River, 1.5 miles north of Interstate 90, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

  17. Photographic copy of photograph, Walter Lubken, photographer, 1910 (original print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, Walter Lubken, photographer, 1910 (original print located at U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Pacific Northwest Regional Office, Boise, Idaho). "GOVERNMENT FORCE ACCOUNT CAMP BELOW BOISE RIVER DIVERSION DAM ON WESTERNLY sic BANK." - Boise Project, Boise River Diversion Dam, Across Boise River, Boise, Ada County, ID

  18. 5. Photographic copy of photograph (ca. 1930, photograph taken by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photographic copy of photograph (ca. 1930, photograph taken by Harold Youngren; print located at Two Harbors Public Library, Two Harbors). South front and west end. Note small structure over arched basement entrance. - Duluth & Iron Range Rail Road Company Shops, Oil House, Southwest of downtown Two Harbors, northwest of Agate Bay, Two Harbors, Lake County, MN

  19. 24. Photographic copy of photograph (ca. 1930, photograph taken by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Photographic copy of photograph (ca. 1930, photograph taken by Harold Youngren; print located at Two Harbors Public Library, Two Harbors). "Interior machine shop." View to northwest. - Duluth & Iron Range Rail Road Company Shops, Roundhouse, Southwest of downtown Two Harbors, northwest of Agate Bay, Two Harbors, Lake County, MN

  20. 25. Photographic copy of photograph (ca. 1930, photograph taken by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Photographic copy of photograph (ca. 1930, photograph taken by Harold Youngren; print located at Two Harbors Public Library, Two Harbors). "Interior blacksmith shop." View to east. - Duluth & Iron Range Rail Road Company Shops, Roundhouse, Southwest of downtown Two Harbors, northwest of Agate Bay, Two Harbors, Lake County, MN

  1. Photographic copy of photograph (ca. 1930, photograph taken by Harold ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph (ca. 1930, photograph taken by Harold Youngren; print located at Two Harbors Public Library, Two Harbors). Southwest side of sandhouse. Oil house (MN-99-C) in background at left. View to northeast - Duluth & Iron Range Rail Road Company Shops, Sand Tower, Southwest of downtown Two Harbors, northwest of Agate Bay, Two Harbors, Lake County, MN

  2. 48. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 5 September 1916 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 5 September 1916 (original print located at U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Upper Columbia Area Office, Yakima, Washington). "Piling logs with Washington donkey." - Keechelus Dam, Yakima River, 10 miles northwest of Easton, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

  3. IONIZATION CHAMBER

    DOEpatents

    Redman, W.C.; Shonka, F.R.

    1958-02-18

    This patent describes a novel ionization chamber which is well suited to measuring the radioactivity of the various portions of a wire as the wire is moved at a uniform speed, in order to produce the neutron flux traverse pattern of a reactor in which the wire was previously exposed to neutron radiation. The ionization chamber of the present invention is characterized by the construction wherein the wire is passed through a tubular, straight electrode and radiation shielding material is disposed along the wire except at an intermediate, narrow area where the second electrode of the chamber is located.

  4. Methane bubbling: from speculation to quantification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinham, A. R.; Dunbabin, M.; Yuan, Z.

    2013-12-01

    Rates of methane bubbling (ebullition) represent a notoriously difficult emission pathway to quantify with highly variable spatial and temporal changes. However, the importance of bubbling fluxes in terms of total emissions is increasingly recognised from a number of different globally relevant natural systems including lakes, reservoirs and wetlands. This represents a critical challenge to current survey efforts to quantify greenhouse gas emissions and reduce the uncertainty associated with bubbling fluxes. A number of different methods have been proposed to overcome this challenge including bubble traps, floating chambers, echo sounders, laser spectrography and camera systems. Each method has relative merits and deficiencies with all trading-off the ability to directly quantify methane and provide spatial and temporal coverage. Here we present a novel method that allows direct measurement of methane bubble concentration as well as the ability to persistently monitor a wide spatial area. Central to the monitoring system is an Autonomous Surface Vessel (ASV) and an Optical Methane Detector (OMD). The ASV is equipped with solar panels and uses electric motors for propulsion to allow persistent environmental monitoring. The OMD has a path length of 1.3 m and 7 Hz sampling so a typical mission of 3 hours at 1 m s-1 covers an area in excess of 10 000 m2 and over 65 000 data points. The system was assessed on four sub-tropical freshwater reservoirs of varying surface area (0.5 to 100 km2), age (2 to 65 y) and catchment land use (40 to 90% natural vegetation cover). Each reservoir had unique challenges in terms of navigation and field conditions to test feasibility of this method. Deployment length varied from a single day to over 4 months to test method durability. In addition to ASV bubble surveys, floating static chambers were deployed to determine diffusive fluxes. Localised instantaneous bubble flux rates within a single reservoir ranged over three orders of

  5. Magma mixing enhanced by bubble ascent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiesmaier, S.; Morgavi, D.; Perugini, D.; De Campos, C. P.; Hess, K.; Lavallee, Y.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2012-12-01

    progressive loss of advected basalt during bubble motion was quantified by microCT for defined viscosity couples. The diffusional gradient around the plume tail showed a progressive evolution of equilibration from bottom to top of the plume tail. A future aim is to compute the impact of bubble motion on the efficiency of magma mixing in dependence of volatile solubilities and pressure and viscosity variations. This has implications for the capacity of magma to produce bubbles in e.g. stratified magma chambers. [1] De Campos, C., D. Perugini, W. Ertel-Ingrisch, D. Dingwell, and G. Poli (2011), Enhancement of magma mixing efficiency by chaotic dynamics: an experimental study, Contrib. Mineral. Petrol., 161(6), 863-881. [2] Thomas, N., S. Tait, and T. Koyaguchi (1993), Mixing of stratified liquids by the motion of gas bubbles: application to magma mixing, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 115(1-4), 161-175.

  6. Micro-Bubble Experiments at the Van de Graaff Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Z. J.; Wardle, Kent E.; Quigley, K. J.; Gromov, Roman; Youker, A. J.; Makarashvili, Vakhtang; Bailey, James; Stepinski, D. C.; Chemerisov, S. D.; Vandegrift, G. F.

    2015-02-01

    In order to test and verify the experimental designs at the linear accelerator (LINAC), several micro-scale bubble ("micro-bubble") experiments were conducted with the 3-MeV Van de Graaff (VDG) electron accelerator. The experimental setups included a square quartz tube, sodium bisulfate solution with different concentrations, cooling coils, gas chromatography (GC) system, raster magnets, and two high-resolution cameras that were controlled by a LabVIEW program. Different beam currents were applied in the VDG irradiation. Bubble generation (radiolysis), thermal expansion, thermal convection, and radiation damage were observed in the experiments. Photographs, videos, and gas formation (O2 + H2) data were collected. The micro-bubble experiments at VDG indicate that the design of the full-scale bubble experiments at the LINAC is reasonable.

  7. Preheating in bubble collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Jun; Piao Yunsong

    2010-08-15

    In a landscape with metastable minima, the bubbles will inevitably nucleate. We show that when the bubbles collide, due to the dramatic oscillation of the field at the collision region, the energy deposited in the bubble walls can be efficiently released by the explosive production of the particles. In this sense, the collision of bubbles is actually highly inelastic. The cosmological implications of this result are discussed.

  8. Credit WCT. Photographic copy of photograph, view looking northeast down ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Credit WCT. Photographic copy of photograph, view looking northeast down onto new Dd test station from Test Stand "D" tower. Hatch of Dd test cell is open, and a test engine sits on a dolly nearby awaiting mounting. Note the water-cooled diffuser on the east end of the test chamber; this was soon replaced with a new diffuser and a steam-driven ejector for simulated high-altitude tests. A closed circuit television camera is mounted on the west end of the test cell. At the lower left of the view are fuel and oxidizer run tanks which supply propellants for test runs. (JPL negative no. 384-2650-A, 8 February 1961) - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Test Stand D, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  9. On thermonuclear processes in cavitation bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nigmatulin, R. I.; Lahey, R. T., Jr.; Taleyarkhan, R. P.; West, C. D.; Block, R. C.

    2014-09-01

    The theoretical and experimental foundations of so-called bubble nuclear fusion are reviewed. In the nuclear fusion process, a spherical cavitation cluster ˜ 10-2 m in diameter is produced of spherical bubbles at the center of a cylindrical chamber filled with deuterated acetone using a focused acoustic field having a resonant frequency of about 20 kHz. The acoustically-forced bubbles effectuate volume oscillations with sharp collapses during the compression stage. At the final stages of collapse, the bubble cluster emits 2.5 MeV D-D fusion neutron pulses at a rate of ˜ 2000 per second. The neutron yield is ˜ 10^5 s -1. In parallel, tritium nuclei are produced at the same yield. It is shown numerically that, for bubbles having sufficient molecular mass, spherical shock waves develop in the center of the cluster and that these spherical shock waves (microshocks) produce converging shocks within the interior bubbles, which focus energy on the centers of the bubbles. When these shock waves reflect from the centers of the bubbles, extreme conditions of temperature ( ˜ 10^8 K) and density ( ˜ 10^4 kg m -3) arise in a (nano)spherical region ( ˜ 10-7 m in size) that last for ˜ 10-12 s, during which time about ten D-D fusion neutrons and tritium nuclei are produced in the region. A paradoxical result in our experiments is that it is bubble cluster (not streamer) cavitation and the sufficiently high molecular mass of (and hence the low sound speed in) D-acetone ( C3D6O) vapor (as compared, for example, to deuterated water D2O) which are necessary conditions for the formation of convergent spherical microshock waves in central cluster bubbles. It is these waves that allow the energy to be sufficiently focused in the nanospherical regions near the bubble centers for fusion events to occur. The criticism to which the concept of 'bubble fusion' has been subjected in the literature, in particular, most recently in Uspekhi Fizicheskikh Nauk (Physics - Uspekhi) journal, is

  10. Ionization chamber

    DOEpatents

    Walenta, Albert H.

    1981-01-01

    An ionization chamber has separate drift and detection regions electrically isolated from each other by a fine wire grid. A relatively weak electric field can be maintained in the drift region when the grid and another electrode in the chamber are connected to a high voltage source. A much stronger electric field can be provided in the detection region by connecting wire electrodes therein to another high voltage source. The detection region can thus be operated in a proportional mode when a suitable gas is contained in the chamber. High resolution output pulse waveforms are provided across a resistor connected to the detection region anode, after ionizing radiation enters the drift region and ionize the gas.

  11. Ionization chamber

    DOEpatents

    Walenta, A.H.

    An ionization chamber is described which has separate drift and detection regions electrically isolated from each other by a fine wire grid. A relatively weak electric field can be maintained in the drift region when the grid and another electrode in the chamber are connected to a high voltage source. A much stronger electric field can be provided in the detection region by connecting wire electrodes therein to another high voltage source. The detection region can thus be operated in a proportional mode when a suitable gas is contained in the chamber. High resolution output pulse waveforms are provided across a resistor connected to the detection region anode, after ionizing radiation enters the drift region and ionizes the gas.

  12. Cloud chamber visualization of primary cosmic rays

    SciTech Connect

    Earl, James A.

    2013-02-07

    From 1948 until 1963, cloud chambers were carried to the top of the atmosphere by balloons. From these flights, which were begun by Edward P. Ney at the University of Minnesota, came the following results: discovery of heavy cosmic ray nuclei, development of scintillation and cherenkov detectors, discovery of cosmic ray electrons, and studies of solar proton events. The history of that era is illustrated here by cloud chamber photographs of primary cosmic rays.

  13. 11. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 2 July 1938 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 2 July 1938 (original print located at U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Upper Columbia Area Office, Yakima, Washington). "Inspecting concrete on upstream face of Keechelus Dam spillway. Joseph Jacobs, consulting engineer; M.B. Lemon, Gatetender; Paul Taylor, assistant engineer; and C.H. Paul, consulting engineer." - Keechelus Dam, Spillway, Yakim River, 10 miles northwest of Easton, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

  14. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 29 May 1911 (original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 29 May 1911 (original print located at U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Upper Columbia Area Office, Yakima, Washington). TEAM WORK ON OUTLET TRENCH NEAR STA. 24 AND LIDGERWOOD EXCAVATOR ON TRENCH NEAR STA. 17. SLUICING WASTE BANK RIGHT OF MACHINE AND GRAVEL PLANT SHOWS ON LEFT. TAKEN FROM DAM SITE NEAR STA. 7, LOOKING NORTH" - Kachess Dam, Inlet Channel, Kachess River, 1.5 miles north of Interstate 90, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

  15. 14. Photographic copy of photograph dated ca. 1925; Photographer unknown; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Photographic copy of photograph dated ca. 1925; Photographer unknown; Original in Rath collection at Iowa State University Libraries, Department of Special Collection, Ames, Iowa; Filed under: Rath Packing Company, Public Relations, Symbol N, Box 106, File 6: THE RATH COMPLEX IN THE MID 1920; LARGE BUILDING TO LEFT OF SMOKESTACK IS HOG KILL (BUILDING 40); LOOKING NORTH FROM ACROSS CEDAR RIVER - Rath Packing Company, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  16. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, October 1911 (original print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, October 1911 (original print located at National Archives and Records Center, Denver, Colorado). "OUTLET TUNNEL PRIOR TO BACKFILLING." SHOWS CONDUIT SECTION THAT WOULD PASS THROUGH THE NOT-YET-BUILT DAM EMBANKMENT. THE CORE WALL IS VISIBLE THROUGH THE CENTER OF THE VIEW - Kachess Dam, Outlet Channel, Kachess River, 1.5 miles north of Interstate 90, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

  17. 16. Photographic copy of photograph dated ca. 1935; Photographer unknown; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Photographic copy of photograph dated ca. 1935; Photographer unknown; Original in Rath collection at Iowa State University Libraries, Department of Special Collection, Ames, Iowa; Filed under: Rath Packing Company, Public Relations, Symbol N, Box 106, File 6: COLD STORAGE AND WAREHOUSE BUILDINGS ON WEST END OF RATH COMPLEX; BUILDING WITH ELEVATOR TOWER NEAR CENTER OF PHOTO IS BUILDING 9: LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Rath Packing Company, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  18. 13. Photographic copy of photograph dated ca. 1901; Photographer unknown; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Photographic copy of photograph dated ca. 1901; Photographer unknown; Original in collection of Waterloo Courier, Waterloo, Iowa; THE RATH COMPLEX AS IT APPEARED AT THE END OF THE COMPANY'S FIRST DECADE: ENGINE ROOM AT LEFT, KILLING BUILDING AT CENTER, WAREHOUSE BUILDINGS AT RIGHT; A PORTION OF THE ICEHOUSE IS VISIBLE AT EXTREME RIGHT; LOOKING SOUTH - Rath Packing Company, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  19. 2. Photographic copy of undated photograph; Photographer unknown; Original in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photographic copy of undated photograph; Photographer unknown; Original in Rath collection at Iowa State University Libraries, Department of Special Collections, Ames, Iowa; Filed under: Rath Packing Company, Public Relations, Symbol N, Box 106, File 6; HOG KILLING OPERATIONS INSIDE BUILDING 40; WORKER AT RIGHT REAR IS USING BLOWTORCH TO REMOVE BRISTLES FROM CARCASSES - Rath Packing Company, Hog Killing & By-Products Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  20. Photocopy of photograph. Photographer unknown. Typical suggestion award photograph from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph. Photographer unknown. Typical suggestion award photograph from the World War II period. Useful suggestions were awarded a $ 50 bond and usually a photo in the shipyard newspaper, the beacon. This photo shows an improved bilge block template layout table left to right: Stuart S. Sanders, Rosalie Moschella, Eddie Ormond, Lt. CDR. J.M. Ballinger, and A.A. Goldman. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  1. 23. Photographic copy of photograph (ca. 1930, photograph taken by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Photographic copy of photograph (ca. 1930, photograph taken by Harold Youngren; print located at Two Harbors Public Library, Two Harbors). "Machine shop and blacksmith shop." West end wall of boiler shop section of roundhouse also visible. Note monitors atop each section. View to northeast. - Duluth & Iron Range Rail Road Company Shops, Roundhouse, Southwest of downtown Two Harbors, northwest of Agate Bay, Two Harbors, Lake County, MN

  2. Dynamics of diffusive bubble growth in magmas: Isothermal case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prousevitch, A. A.; Sahagian, D. L.; Anderson, A. T.

    1993-12-01

    We have conducted a parametric study and developed a new cell model describing diffusion-induced growth of closely spaced bubbles in magmatic sytems. The model accounts for (1) the effects of advection of melt resulting from bubble growth, and its affect on the local concentration profile; (2) dynamic resistence of the viscous melt during diffusive growth; (3) diffusion of volatiles in response to evolving concentration gradients; (4) mass balance between dissolved volatiles and gas inside the bubble; (5) changes in the equilibrium saturation concentration at the bubble-melt interface; (6) total pressure within the bubble consisting of ambient, surface tension, and dynamic pressures. The results of this study reveal that bubble growth depends strongly on ambient pressure, volatile oversaturation in the melt, and diffusivity coefficients, but only weakly on bubble separation and inital bubble radius. Increased volatile oversaturation increases growth rate to the point at which it actually reduces time for complete bubble growth. This counterintuitive result is due to significant advective volatile flux toward the bubble interface during growth. Viscosity controls growth dynamics only for cases of high viscosity (greater than 10(exp 4) Pa s). The documentation of the evolution of gas fraction in the melt and bubble wall thickness as a function of time makes it possible to estimate bubble disruption thresholds which bear on volcanic eruption mechanisms. Model results can be applied to the larger-scale problem of magmatic degassing in terms of bubble coalescence, flotation and the development of foams in magma chambers and vent systems, and ultimately to the dynamics of eruption mechanisms.

  3. Demonstrating the Importance of Bubbles and Viscosity on Volcanic Eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namiki, A.

    2005-12-01

    The behavior of bubbles (exsolved volatile from magma) and viscosity of magma are important parameters that influence volcanic eruptions. Exsolved volatiles increase the volume of magma and reduce its density so that magma has sufficient volume and buoyancy force to erupt. Volatiles exsolve through nucleation and growth by diffusion and bubbles can expand as pressure is reduced. The time scale of diffusion depends on the viscosity of surrounding magma, and the expansion time scale of a bubble is also depends on the viscosity of magma. These control the time scale for volume change. If bubbles segregate from magma and collapse, the magma might not able to expand sufficiently to erupt violently. Whether a bubble can segregate from the liquid part of magma is also depends on viscosity of magma. In this poster, I introduce a straightforward demonstration to show the importance of bubbles and viscosity of magma on volcanic eruptions. To make bubbles, I use baking soda (NaHCO3) and citric acid. Reaction between them generates carbon dioxide (CO2) to make bubbles. I make citric acid solution gel by using agar at the bottom of a transparent glass and pour baking soda disolved corn syrup on top of the agar. This situation is a model of basally heated magma chamber. When water disolved magma (baking soda disolved corn syrup) receives sufficient heat (citric acid) bubbles are generated. I can change viscosity of corn syrup by varying the concentration of water. This demonstration shows how viscosity controls the time scale of volume change of bubbly magma and the distribution of bubbles in the fluid. In addition it helps to understand the important physical processes in volcanic eruption: bubble nucleation, diffusion grows, expansion, and bubble driving convection. I will perform a live demonstration at the site of the poster.

  4. Bubble Manipulation by Self Organization of Bubbles inside Ultrasonic Wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamakoshi, Yoshiki; Koganezawa, Masato

    2005-06-01

    Microbubble manipulation using ultrasonic waves is a promising technology in the fields of future medicine and biotechnology. For example, it is considered that bubble trapping using ultrasonic waves may play an important role in drug or gene delivery systems in order to trap the drugs or genes in the diseased tissue. Usually, when bubbles are designed so that they carry payloads, such as drug or gene, they tend to be harder than free bubbles. These hard bubbles receive a small acoustic radiation force, which is not sufficient for bubble manipulation. In this paper, a novel method of microbubble manipulation using ultrasonic waves is proposed. This method uses seed bubbles in order to manipulate target bubbles. When the seed bubbles are introduced into the ultrasonic wave field, they start to oscillate to produce a bubble aggregation of a certain size. Then the target bubbles are introduced, the target bubbles attach around the seed bubbles producing a bubble mass with bilayers (inner layer: seed bubbles, outer layer: target bubbles). The target bubbles are manipulated as a bilayered bubble mass. Basic experiments are carried out using polyvinyl chloride (PVC) shell bubbles. No target bubbles are trapped when only the target bubbles are introduced. However, they are trapped if the seed bubbles are introduced in advance.

  5. Photographic Equipment Test System (PETS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The Photographic Equipment Test System is presented. The device is a mobile optical system designed for evaluating performance of various sensors in a laboratory, in a vacuum chamber or on a flight line. The carriage is designed to allow elevation as well as azimuth control of the direction of the light from the collimator. The pneumatic tires provide an effective vibration isolation system. A target/illumination system is mounted on a motor driven linear slide, and focusing and exposure control can be operated remotely from the small electronics control console.

  6. 6. Photographic copy of historic photograph (from Wind Cave National ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photographic copy of historic photograph (from Wind Cave National Park), photographer unknown, date unknown. Route 87, Pigtail Bridge, elevation. - Pigtail Bridge, Hot Springs, Fall River County, SD

  7. Bubble Velocities in Slowly Sheared Bubble Rafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennin, Michael

    2004-03-01

    Many complex fluids, such as foams, emulsions, colloids, and granular matter, exhibit interesting flow behavior when subjected to slow, steady rates of strain. The flow is characterized by irregular fluctuations in the stress with corresponding nonlinear rearrangements of the individual particles. We focus on the flow behavior of a model two-dimensional system: bubble rafts. Bubble rafts consist of a single layer of soap bubbles floating on the surface of a liquid subphase, usually a soap-water solution. The bubbles are sheared using a Couette geometry, i.e. concentric cylinders. We rotate the outer cylinder at a constant rate and measure the motions of individual bubbles and the stress on the inner cylinder. We will report on the velocity profiles of the bubbles averaged over long-times and averaged over individual stress events. The long-time average velocities are well described by continuum models for fluids with the one surprising feature that there exists a critical radius at which the shear-rate is discontinuous. The individual profiles are highly nonlinear and strongly correlated with the stress fluctuations. We will discuss a number of interesting questions. Can the average profiles be understood in a simple way given the individual velocities? Is there a clear "classification" for the individual profiles, or are they purely random? What sets the critical radius for a given set of flow conditions?

  8. Sample chambers with mother-daughter mode

    SciTech Connect

    Wilk, P.A.; Gregorich, K.E.; Hoffman, D.C.

    2001-07-12

    A set of eight stand-alone sample chambers with a common interface were constructed at LBNL for improved detection of alpha and fission decay chains over currently used designs. The stainless steel chambers (see Figure 1 for a schematic and Figure 2 for a photograph of a completed chamber) were constructed to allow for low background detection of a daughter event by removal of the sample following the detection of a parent event. This mother-daughter mode of operation has been utilized successfully with our Merry-go-Round (MG) detection system [Gregorich 1994].

  9. Magma chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, Bruce D.

    1989-01-01

    Recent observational and theoretical investigations of terrestrial magma chambers (MCs) are reviewed. Consideration is given to the evidence for MCs with active convection and crystal sorting, problems of direct MC detection, theoretical models of MC cooling, the rheology and dynamics of solidification fronts, crystal capture and differentiation, convection with solidification, MC wall flows, and MC roof melting. Diagrams, graphs, and a list of problems requiring further research are provided.

  10. Electrowetting of soap bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arscott, Steve

    2013-07-01

    A proof-of-concept demonstration of the electrowetting-on-dielectric of a sessile soap bubble is reported here. The bubbles are generated using a commercial soap bubble mixture—the surfaces are composed of highly doped, commercial silicon wafers covered with nanometer thick films of Teflon®. Voltages less than 40 V are sufficient to observe the modification of the bubble shape and the apparent bubble contact angle. Such observations open the way to inter alia the possibility of bubble-transport, as opposed to droplet-transport, in fluidic microsystems (e.g., laboratory-on-a-chip)—the potential gains in terms of volume, speed, and surface/volume ratio are non-negligible.

  11. Gas bubble detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mount, Bruce E. (Inventor); Burchfield, David E. (Inventor); Hagey, John M. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A gas bubble detector having a modulated IR source focused through a bandpass filter onto a venturi, formed in a sample tube, to illuminate the venturi with modulated filtered IR to detect the presence of gas bubbles as small as 0.01 cm or about 0.004 in diameter in liquid flowing through the venturi. Means are provided to determine the size of any detected bubble and to provide an alarm in the absence of liquid in the sample tube.

  12. Sonochemistry and bubble dynamics.

    PubMed

    Mettin, Robert; Cairós, Carlos; Troia, Adriano

    2015-07-01

    The details of bubble behaviour in chemically active cavitation are still not sufficiently well understood. Here we report on experimental high-speed observations of acoustically driven single-bubble and few-bubble systems with the aim of clarification of the connection of their dynamics with chemical activity. Our experiment realises the sonochemical isomerization reaction of maleic acid to fumaric acid, mediated by bromine radicals, in a bubble trap set-up. The main result is that the reaction product can only be observed in a parameter regime where a small bubble cluster occurs, while a single trapped bubble stays passive. Evaluations of individual bubble dynamics for both cases are given in form of radius-time data and numerical fits to a bubble model. A conclusion is that a sufficiently strong collapse has to be accompanied by non-spherical bubble dynamics for the reaction to occur, and that the reason appears to be an efficient mixing of liquid and gas phase. This finding corroborates previous observations and literature reports on high liquid phase sonochemical activity under distinct parameter conditions than strong sonoluminescence emissions. PMID:25194210

  13. 17. Photographic copy of photograph, 1971 (original photograph printed in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Photographic copy of photograph, 1971 (original photograph printed in "55th Strategic Reconnaissance Wing: A Decade at Offutt AFB, 16 Aug. 1966 to 16 Aug., 1976," by Col. Guy H. Winstead, Jr. and SSGT Jerome E. Schroeder, 55th Wing Historian files, Offutt AFB, Bellevue, Nebraska). Interior view of Lt. General Glen W. Martin "turning the key" during a practice launch of minuteman missiles. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  14. Emulsion Chamber Technology Experiment (ECT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, John C.; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki

    1996-01-01

    The experimental objective of Emulsion Chamber Technology (ECT) was to develop space-borne emulsion chamber technology so that cosmic rays and nuclear interactions may subsequently be studied at extremely high energies with long exposures in space. A small emulsion chamber was built and flown on flight STS-62 of the Columbia in March 1994. Analysis of the several hundred layers of radiation-sensitive material has shown excellent post-flight condition and suitability for cosmic ray physics analysis at much longer exposures. Temperature control of the stack was 20 +/-1 C throughout the active control period and no significant deviations of temperature or pressure in the chamber were observed over the entire mission operations period. The unfortunate flight attitude of the orbiter (almost 90% Earth viewing) prevented any significant number of heavy particles (Z greater than or equal to 10) reaching the stack and the inverted flow of shower particles in the calorimeter has not allowed evaluation of absolute primary cosmic ray-detection efficiency nor of the practical time limits of useful exposure of these calorimeters in space to the level of detail originally planned. Nevertheless, analysis of the observed backgrounds and quality of the processed photographic and plastic materials after the flight show that productive exposures of emulsion chambers are feasible in low orbit for periods of up to one year or longer. The engineering approaches taken in the ECT program were proven effective and no major environmental obstacles to prolonged flight are evident.

  15. Bubble Formation at a Submerged Orifice for Aluminum Foams Produced by Gas Injection Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xueliu; Chen, Xiang; Liu, Xingnan; Zhang, Huiming; Li, Yanxiang

    2013-02-01

    The bubble formation at a submerged orifice in the process of aluminum foams produced by gas injection method is investigated. The experimental results show that the increase of the gas flow rate and the orifice diameter can lead to increasing of the bubble size. The large orifice can make the frequency of bubble formation decrease by slowing down the increase of the gas chamber pressure when the gas flow rate increases. The effect of the gas chamber volume on the bubble size can be ignored in the experiment when it expands from 1 to 125 cm3. A theoretical model of bubble formation, expansion, and detachment under constant flow conditions is established to predict the bubble size. The theoretical predictions for air-aluminum melt systems are consistent with the experimental results.

  16. Ex vivo bubble production from ovine large blood vessels: size on detachment and evidence of "active spots".

    PubMed

    Arieli, R; Marmur, A

    2014-08-15

    Nanobubbles formed on the hydrophobic silicon wafer were shown to be the source of gas micronuclei from which bubbles evolved during decompression. Bubbles were also formed after decompression on the luminal surface of ovine blood vessels. Four ovine blood vessels: aorta, pulmonary vein, pulmonary artery, and superior vena cava, were compressed to 1013 kPa for 21 h. They were then decompressed, photographed at 1-s intervals, and bubble size was measured on detachment. There were certain spots at which bubbles appeared, either singly or in a cluster. Mean detachment diameter was between 0.7 and 1.0 mm. The finding of active spots at which bubbles nucleate is a new, hitherto unreported observation. It is possible that these are the hydrophobic spots at which bubbles nucleate, stabilise, and later transform into the gas micronuclei that grow into bubbles. The possible neurological effects of these large arterial bubbles should be further explored. PMID:24933644

  17. Photographic fixative poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Photographic developer poisoning; Hydroquinone poisoning; Quinone poisoning; Sulfite poisoning ... Hydroquinones Quinones Sodium thiosulfate Sodium sulfite/bisulfite Boric acid Photographic fixative can also break down (decompose) to form sulfur dioxide gas.

  18. Prospects for bubble fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Nigmatulin, R.I.; Lahey, R.T. Jr.

    1995-09-01

    In this paper a new method for the realization of fusion energy is presented. This method is based on the superhigh compression of a gas bubble (deuterium or deuterium/thritium) in heavy water or another liquid. The superhigh compression of a gas bubble in a liquid is achieved through forced non-linear, non-periodic resonance oscillations using moderate amplitudes of forcing pressure. The key feature of this new method is a coordination of the forced liquid pressure change with the change of bubble volume. The corresponding regime of the bubble oscillation has been called {open_quotes}basketball dribbling (BD) regime{close_quotes}. The analytical solution describing this process for spherically symmetric bubble oscillations, neglecting dissipation and compressibility of the liquid, has been obtained. This solution shown no limitation on the supercompression of the bubble and the corresponding maximum temperature. The various dissipation mechanisms, including viscous, conductive and radiation heat losses have been considered. It is shown that in spite of these losses it is possible to achieve very high gas bubble temperatures. This because the time duration of the gas bubble supercompression becomes very short when increasing the intensity of compression, thus limiting the energy losses. Significantly, the calculated maximum gas temperatures have shown that nuclear fusion may be possible. First estimations of the affect of liquid compressibility have been made to determine possible limitations on gas bubble compression. The next step will be to investigate the role of interfacial instability and breaking down of the bubble, shock wave phenomena around and in the bubble and mutual diffusion of the gas and the liquid.

  19. Making Sense of Photographs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pozzer-Ardenghi, Lilian; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2005-01-01

    In some contexts, a photograph may be worth a thousand words. Previous research revealed a dialectical character of photographs: they simultaneously lack determinacy and exhibit an excess of meaning. The purpose of this study was to understand how, under this condition, high school students interpret photographs that were accompanied by different…

  20. Gases in Tektite Bubbles.

    PubMed

    O'keefe, J A; Lowman, P D; Dunning, K L

    1962-07-20

    Spectroscopic analysis of light produced by electrodeless discharge in a tektite bubble showed the main gases in the bubble to be neon, helium, and oxygen. The neon and helium have probably diffused in from the atmosphere, while the oxygen may be atmospheric gas incorporated in the tektite during its formation. PMID:17801113

  1. Evaporation, Boiling and Bubbles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Evaporation and boiling are both terms applied to the change of a liquid to the vapour/gaseous state. This article argues that it is the formation of bubbles of vapour within the liquid that most clearly differentiates boiling from evaporation although only a minority of chemistry textbooks seems to mention bubble formation in this context. The…

  2. Let Them Blow Bubbles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korenic, Eileen

    1988-01-01

    Describes a series of activities and demonstrations involving the science of soap bubbles. Starts with a recipe for bubble solution and gives instructions for several activities on topics such as density, interference colors, optics, static electricity, and galaxy formation. Contains some background information to help explain some of the effects.…

  3. Cost versus Enrollment Bubbles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vedder, Richard K.; Gillen, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The defining characteristic of a bubble is unsustainable growth that eventually reverses. Bubbles typically arise when uncertainty leads to unsustainable trends, and the authors argue that there are two areas in which higher education has experienced what appear to be unsustainable trends, namely, college costs (the costs to students, parents, and…

  4. Clustering in bubbly liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueroa, Bernardo; Zenit, Roberto

    2004-11-01

    We are conducting experiments to determine the amount of clustering that occurs when small gas bubbles ascend in clean water. In particular, we are interested in flows for which the liquid motion around the bubbles can be described, with a certain degree of accuracy, using potential flow theory. This model is applicable for the case of bubbly liquids in which the Reynolds number is large and the Weber number is small. To clearly observe the formation of bubble clusters we propose the use of a Hele-Shaw-type channel. In this thin channel the bubbles cannot overlap in the depth direction, therefore the identification of bubble clusters cannot be misinterpreted. Direct video image analysis is performed to calculate the velocity and size of the bubbles, as well as the formation of clusters. Although the walls do affect the motion of the bubbles, the clustering phenomena does occur and has the same qualitative behavior as in fully three-dimensional flows. A series of preliminary measurements are presented. A brief discussion of our plans to perform PIV measurements to obtain the liquid velocity fields is also presented.

  5. Interfacial Bubble Deformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seymour, Brian; Shabane, Parvis; Cypull, Olivia; Cheng, Shengfeng; Feitosa, Klebert

    Soap bubbles floating at an air-water experience deformations as a result of surface tension and hydrostatic forces. In this experiment, we investigate the nature of such deformations by taking cross-sectional images of bubbles of different volumes. The results show that as their volume increases, bubbles transition from spherical to hemispherical shape. The deformation of the interface also changes with bubble volume with the capillary rise converging to the capillary length as volume increases. The profile of the top and bottom of the bubble and the capillary rise are completely determined by the volume and pressure differences. James Madison University Department of Physics and Astronomy, 4VA Consortium, Research Corporation for Advancement of Science.

  6. The Bubbling Galactic Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churchwell, E.; Povich, M. S.; Allen, D.; Taylor, M. G.; Meade, M. R.; Babler, B. L.; Indebetouw, R.; Watson, C.; Whitney, B. A.; Wolfire, M. G.; Bania, T. M.; Benjamin, R. A.; Clemens, D. P.; Cohen, M.; Cyganowski, C. J.; Jackson, J. M.; Kobulnicky, H. A.; Mathis, J. S.; Mercer, E. P.; Stolovy, S. R.; Uzpen, B.; Watson, D. F.; Wolff, M. J.

    2006-10-01

    A visual examination of the images from the Galactic Legacy Infrared Mid-Plane Survey Extraordinaire (GLIMPSE) has revealed 322 partial and closed rings that we propose represent partially or fully enclosed three-dimensional bubbles. We argue that the bubbles are primarily formed by hot young stars in massive star formation regions. We have found an average of about 1.5 bubbles per square degree. About 25% of the bubbles coincide with known radio H II regions, and about 13% enclose known star clusters. It appears that B4-B9 stars (too cool to produce detectable radio H II regions) probably produce about three-quarters of the bubbles in our sample, and the remainder are produced by young O-B3 stars that produce detectable radio H II regions. Some of the bubbles may be the outer edges of H II regions where PAH spectral features are excited and may not be dynamically formed by stellar winds. Only three of the bubbles are identified as known SNRs. No bubbles coincide with known planetary nebulae or W-R stars in the GLIMPSE survey area. The bubbles are small. The distribution of angular diameters peaks between 1' and 3' with over 98% having angular diameters less than 10' and 88% less than 4'. Almost 90% have shell thicknesses between 0.2 and 0.4 of their outer radii. Bubble shell thickness increases approximately linearly with shell radius. The eccentricities are rather large, peaking between 0.6 and 0.7; about 65% have eccentricities between 0.55 and 0.85.

  7. Ocular bubble formation as a method of assessing decompression stress.

    PubMed

    Mekjavić, I B; Campbell, D G; Jaki, P; Dovsak, P A

    1998-01-01

    Tear film bubble formation and ultrasound reflectivity of the lens-vitreous humor compartments were monitored following simulated dives in a hyperbaric chamber. the sensitivity of these methods in determining decompression stress was compared with the results of precordial Doppler ultrasound. In addition, the utility of these diagnostic techniques in testing decompression dive profiles was evaluated. Eleven divers completed two series of chamber dives according to the decompression schedule of the Professional Association of Diving Instructors. The first dive series comprised dives to 70 feet of seawater (fsw) for 15, 29, and 40 min. The second series comprised maximum duration no-stop decompression dives to 40 fsw for 140 min, 70 fsw for 40 min, 90 fsw for 25 min, and 120 fsw for 13 min. Before and immediately after each dive, the following measurements were obtained from each subject: eye surface tear film bubble counts with a slit-lamp microscope, lens and vitreous humor reflectivity using A- and B-mode ophthalmic ultrasonic scan, and precordial Doppler ultrasonic detection of venous gas bubbles. Tear film bubble assessment and ocular scanning ultrasound were observed to be more sensitive in detecting decompression stress than the conventional Doppler ultrasonic surveillance of the precordial region. In contrast to precordial Doppler ultrasonic surveillance, which failed to detect any significant changes in circulating bubbles, tear film bubble formation displayed a dose-response relationship with increasing duration of the 70-fsw dives. Reflectivity changes of the lens-vitreous humor interface were not significant until the no-stop decompression limit was reached. In addition, for each of the no-stop decompression limit dives, increases in the average tear film bubble formation and lens-vitreous humor interface reflectivity were similar. Ocular bubble observations may provide a practical and objective ocular bubble index for analyzing existing decompression

  8. Bubbles, Bubbles: Integrated Investigations with Floating Spheres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeder, Stacy

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author describes integrated science and mathematics activities developed for fourth-grade students to explore and investigate three-dimensional geometric shapes, Bernoulli's principle, estimation, and art with and through bubbles. Students were engaged in thinking and reflection on the questions their teachers asked and were…

  9. Tribonucleation of bubbles

    PubMed Central

    Wildeman, Sander; Lhuissier, Henri; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef; Prosperetti, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    We report on the nucleation of bubbles on solids that are gently rubbed against each other in a liquid. The phenomenon is found to depend strongly on the material and roughness of the solid surfaces. For a given surface, temperature, and gas content, a trail of growing bubbles is observed if the rubbing force and velocity exceed a certain threshold. Direct observation through a transparent solid shows that each bubble in the trail results from the early coalescence of several microscopic bubbles, themselves detaching from microscopic gas pockets forming between the solids. From a detailed study of the wear tracks, with atomic force and scanning electron microscopy imaging, we conclude that these microscopic gas pockets originate from a local fracturing of the surface asperities, possibly enhanced by chemical reactions at the freshly created surfaces. Our findings will be useful either for preventing undesired bubble formation or, on the contrary, for “writing with bubbles,” i.e., creating controlled patterns of microscopic bubbles. PMID:24982169

  10. Evolution of Bubbles through Gas Injection from a Micro-Tube into Liquid Cross-Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaemi, Sina; Rahimi, Payam; Nobes, David

    2008-11-01

    Generation of small-size bubbles is of importance in many processes such as chemical, medical and food industries. The most common method of bubble generation is injection of gas from an orifice into the liquid phase. In spite of simplicity of this method, appropriate conditions should exist to avoid bubble growth and obtain required small-size bubbles. Thorough understanding of the bubble formation and growth can reveal the required conditions and ensure detachment of the bubbles from the orifice with desired timing to control their size. In this work, evolution of bubbles from a micro-size gas injection tube into liquid cross-flow is investigated. Special attention has been devoted to optimize the conditions to generate micro-size bubbles. Specifically, the influence of gas injection tube size and location, gas and liquid Reynolds numbers and the geometry of the mixing chamber on the bubbles evolution is studied. High-speed shadowgraphy technique is applied to investigate bubbles size and shape. A Particle Tracking Velocimetry algorithm is also applied to calculate bubbles velocity. The velocity field of the liquid flow surrounding the bubbles is also characterized using a Mirco-Stereo-Particle Image Velocimetry technique.

  11. Significance of viscoelastic effects on the rising of a bubble and bubble-to-bubble interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Arturo

    2011-11-01

    Numerical results for the rising of a bubble and the interaction between two bubbles in non-Newtonian fluids will be discussed. The computations are carried out using a multiscale method combining front-tracking with Brownian dynamics simulations. The evaluation of the material properties for the non-Newtonian fluid will be discussed firstly. The results from the computations of a single bubble show how elastic effects modify the deformation and rising of the bubble by pulling the tail of it. The relationship between the strength of the elastic forces and the discontinuity in the bubble terminal velocity, when plotted versus bubble volume, is also observed in the computations. The bubble-to-bubble interaction is dominated not only by elastic effects but also by the shear-thinning caused by the leading bubble, which leads the trailing bubble to accelerate faster and coalesce with the leading bubble.

  12. Rotating bubble membrane radiator

    DOEpatents

    Webb, Brent J.; Coomes, Edmund P.

    1988-12-06

    A heat radiator useful for expelling waste heat from a power generating system aboard a space vehicle is disclosed. Liquid to be cooled is passed to the interior of a rotating bubble membrane radiator, where it is sprayed into the interior of the bubble. Liquid impacting upon the interior surface of the bubble is cooled and the heat radiated from the outer surface of the membrane. Cooled liquid is collected by the action of centrifical force about the equator of the rotating membrane and returned to the power system. Details regarding a complete space power system employing the radiator are given.

  13. Effect of air bubble on inflammation after cataract surgery in rabbit eyes

    PubMed Central

    Demirci, Goktug; Karabaş, Levent; Maral, Hale; Ozdek, Şengül; Gülkılık, Gökhan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Intense inflammation after cataract surgery can cause cystoid macular edema, posterior synechia and posterior capsule opacification. This experimental study was performed to investigate the effect of air bubble on inflammation when given to anterior chamber of rabbit eyes after cataract surgery. Materials and Methods: 30 eyes of 15 rabbits were enrolled in the study. One of the two eyes was in the study group and the other eye was in the control group. After surgery air bubble was given to the anterior chamber of the study group eye and balanced salt solution (BSS; Alcon) was left in the anterior chamber of control eye. Results: On the first, second, fourth and fifth days, anterior chamber inflammations of the eyes were examined by biomicroscopy. On the sixth day anterior chamber fluid samples were taken for evaluation of nitric oxide levels as an inflammation marker. When the two groups were compared, in the air bubble group there was statistically less inflammation was seen. (1, 2, 4. days P = 0,001, and 5. day P = 0,009). Conclusions: These results have shown that when air bubble is left in anterior chamber of rabbits’ eyes after cataract surgery, it reduced inflammation. We believe that, air bubble in the anterior chamber may be more beneficial in the cataract surgery of especially pediatric age group, uveitis patients and diabetics where we see higher inflammation. However, greater and long termed experimental and clinical studies are necessary for more accurate findings. PMID:23571264

  14. Measurements of Gas Bubble Size Distributions in Flowing Liquid Mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Wendel, Mark W; Riemer, Bernie; Abdou, Ashraf A

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pressure waves created in liquid mercury pulsed spallation targets have been shown to induce cavitation damage on the target container. One way to mitigate such damage would be to absorb the pressure pulse energy into a dispersed population of small bubbles, however, measuring such a population in mercury is difficult since it is opaque and the mercury is involved in a turbulent flow. Ultrasonic measurements have been attempted on these types of flows, but the flow noise can interfere with the measurement, and the results are unverifiable and often unrealistic. Recently, a flow loop was built and operated at Oak Ridge National Labarotory to assess the capability of various bubbler designs to deliver an adequate population of bubbles to mitigate cavitation damage. The invented diagnostic technique involves flowing the mercury with entrained gas bubbles in a steady state through a horizontal piping section with a glass-window observation port located on the top. The mercury flow is then suddenly stopped and the bubbles are allowed to settle on the glass due to buoyancy. Using a bright-field illumination and a high-speed camera, the arriving bubbles are detected and counted, and then the images can be processed to determine the bubble populations. After using this technique to collect data on each bubbler, bubble size distributions were built for the purpose of quantifying bubbler performance, allowing the selection of the best bubbler options. This paper presents the novel procedure, photographic technique, sample visual results and some example bubble size distributions. The best bubbler options were subsequently used in proton beam irradiation tests performed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The cavitation damage results from the irradiated test plates in contact with the mercury are available for correlation with the bubble populations. The most effective mitigating population can now be designed into prototypical geometries for implementation into

  15. Photographic copy of photograph, Joseph Yolo, photographer, 1936 (original print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, Joseph Yolo, photographer, 1936 (original print located at U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Upper Columbia Area Office, Yakima, Washington). "WAHT A GOVERNMENT CANAL AND AN ASSURED WATER SUPPLY WILL DO IN A DESERT AREA IS SHOWN IN THIS AIR VIEW OF A SECTION OF THE YAKIMA FEDERAL RECLAMATION PROJECT IN CENTRAL WASHINGTON. THE MAIN CANAL IS SEEN RUNNING DOWN THE MIDDLE OF THE VALLEY WITH PATCHES OF ORCHARDS AND FIELDS ON EITHER SIDE, BUT ABOVE THE CANAL LINE THE SAGE BRUSH DESERT REMAINS, AS CAN BE SEEN ON THE LEFT. THE YAKIMA PROJECT SUPPORTS MORE THAN 110,000 PEOPLE IN A TERRITORY WHICH WAS DESERT 35 YEARS AGO. MANY OF THE ORIGINAL SETTLERS WHO CAME, LIKE THOSE WHO ARE NOW SETTLING ON THE VALE PROJECT, TO BREAK THE RAW DESERT LAND, ARE STILL LIVING ON THESE NEATLY CHECKERBOARDED FARMS" - Kachess Dam, Kachess River, 1.5 miles north of Interstate 90, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

  16. Aerator Combined With Bubble Remover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreschel, Thomas W.

    1993-01-01

    System produces bubble-free oxygen-saturated water. Bubble remover consists of outer solid-walled tube and inner hydrophobic, porous tube. Air bubbles pass from water in outer tube into inner tube, where sucked away. Developed for long-term aquaculture projects in space. Also applicable to terrestrial equipment in which entrained bubbles dry membranes or give rise to cavitation in pumps.

  17. 1. Photographic copy of photograph, no date, in possession of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photographic copy of photograph, no date, in possession of Arizona Historical Society Library. Photograph #718. Photographer unknown. BUILDING THE FLORENCE CANAL AND RESERVOIR. Photograph is an 8'x10' enlargement from a 4'x5' negative. - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Florence Canal, South of Gila River, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  18. 2. Photographic copy of photograph, undated, in possession of Arizona ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photographic copy of photograph, undated, in possession of Arizona Historical Society. Photograph #793. Photographer unknown. BUILDING FLORENCE RESERVOIR (PRESUMABLY PICACHO RESERVOIR) Photograph is an 8'x10' enlargement from a 4'x5' negative. - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Picacho Resevoir, South of Gila River, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  19. What's in a Bubble?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunderson, Megan

    2000-01-01

    Describes a unit on detergents and bubbles that establishes an interest in the properties of materials and focuses on active learning involving both hands- and minds-on learning rather than passive learning. (ASK)

  20. Blowing magnetic skyrmion bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Wanjun; Upadhyaya, Pramey; Zhang, Wei; Yu, Guoqiang; Jungfleisch, M. Benjamin; Fradin, Frank Y.; Pearson, John E.; Tserkovnyak, Yaroslav; Wang, Kang L.; Heinonen, Olle; te Velthuis, Suzanne G. E.; Hoffmann, Axel

    2015-07-01

    The formation of soap bubbles from thin films is accompanied by topological transitions. Here we show how a magnetic topological structure, a skyrmion bubble, can be generated in a solid-state system in a similar manner. Using an inhomogeneous in-plane current in a system with broken inversion symmetry, we experimentally “blow” magnetic skyrmion bubbles from a geometrical constriction. The presence of a spatially divergent spin-orbit torque gives rise to instabilities of the magnetic domain structures that are reminiscent of Rayleigh-Plateau instabilities in fluid flows. We determine a phase diagram for skyrmion formation and reveal the efficient manipulation of these dynamically created skyrmions, including depinning and motion. The demonstrated current-driven transformation from stripe domains to magnetic skyrmion bubbles could lead to progress in skyrmion-based spintronics.

  1. Chemistry in Soap Bubbles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Albert W. M.; Wong, A.; Lee, H. W.; Lee, H. Y.; Zhou, Ning-Huai

    2002-01-01

    Describes a laboratory experiment in which common chemical gases are trapped inside soap bubbles. Examines the physical and chemical properties of the gases such as relative density and combustion. (Author/MM)

  2. Air entry into the anterior chamber post intravitreal injection of Eylea.

    PubMed

    Lim, Wei Sing; Sikandar, Munir; Jackson, Heather

    2016-01-01

    An 84-year-old man had air entry into the anterior chamber following intravitreal injection. The air bubble was reabsorbed over time without any complications. No further problems occurred with subsequent intravitreal injections. PMID:27440854

  3. Bubble coalescence in magmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herd, Richard A.; Pinkerton, Harry

    1993-01-01

    The most important factors governing the nature of volcanic eruptions are the primary volatile contents, the ways in which volatiles exsolve, and how the resulting bubbles grow and interact. In this contribution we assess the importance of bubble coalescence. The degree of coalescence in alkali basalts has been measured using Image Analysis techniques and it is suggested to be a process of considerable importance. Binary coalescence events occur every few minutes in basaltic melts with vesicularities greater than around 35 percent.

  4. Effect of Orifice Diameter on Bubble Generation Process in Melt Gas Injection to Prepare Aluminum Foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Jianyu; Li, Yanxiang; Wang, Ningzhen; Cheng, Ying; Chen, Xiang

    2016-06-01

    The bubble generation process in conditioned A356 alloy melt through submerged spiry orifices with a wide diameter range (from 0.07 to 1.0 mm) is investigated in order to prepare aluminum foams with fine pores. The gas flow rate and chamber pressure relationship for each orifice is first determined when blowing gas in atmospheric environment. The effects of chamber pressure ( P c) and orifice diameter ( D o) on bubble size are then analyzed separately when blowing gas in melt. A three-dimensional fitting curve is obtained illustrating both the influences of orifice diameter and chamber pressure on bubble size based on the experimental data. It is found that the bubble size has a V-shaped relationship with orifice diameter and chamber pressure neighboring the optimized parameter ( D o = 0.25 mm, P c = 0.4 MPa). The bubble generation mechanism is proposed based on the Rayleigh-Plesset equation. It is found that the bubbles will not be generated until a threshold pressure difference is reached. The threshold pressure difference is dependent on the orifice diameter, which determines the time span of pre-formation stage and bubble growth stage.

  5. Optical observation of shock waves and cavitation bubbles in high intensity laser-induced shock processes

    SciTech Connect

    Marti-Lopez, L.; Ocana, R.; Porro, J. A.; Morales, M.; Ocana, J. L.

    2009-07-01

    We report an experimental study of the temporal and spatial dynamics of shock waves, cavitation bubbles, and sound waves generated in water during laser shock processing by single Nd:YAG laser pulses of nanosecond duration. A fast ICCD camera (2 ns gate time) was employed to record false schlieren photographs, schlieren photographs, and Mach-Zehnder interferograms of the zone surrounding the laser spot site on the target, an aluminum alloy sample. We recorded hemispherical shock fronts, cylindrical shock fronts, plane shock fronts, cavitation bubbles, and phase disturbance tracks.

  6. Clustering in Bubble Suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenit, Roberto

    2000-11-01

    A monidisperse bubble suspension is studied experimentally for the limit in which the Weber number is small and the Reynolds number is large. For this regime the suspension can be modeled using potential flow theory to describe the dynamics of the interstitial fluid. Complete theoretical descriptions have been composed (Spelt and Sangani, 1998) to model the behavior of these suspensions. Bubble clustering is a natural instability that arises from the potential flow considerations, in which bubbles tend to align in horizontal rafts as they move upwards. The appearance of bubble clusters was recently corroborated experimentally by Zenit et al. (2000), who found that although clusters did appear, their strength was not as strong as the predictions. Experiments involving gravity driven shear flows are used to explain the nature of the clustering observed in these type of flows. Balances of the bubble phase pressure (in terms of a calculated diffusion coefficient) and the Maxwell pressure (from the potential flow description) are presented to predict the stability of the bubble suspension. The predictions are compared with experimental results.

  7. Methane emission by bubbling from Gatun Lake, Panama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Michael; Stallard, Robert F.

    1994-01-01

    We studied methane emission by bubbling from Gatun Lake, Panama, at water depths of less than 1 m to about 10 m. Gas bubbles were collected in floating traps deployed during 12- to 60-hour observation periods. Comparison of floating traps and floating chambers showed that about 98% of methane emission occurred by bubbling and only 2% occurred by diffusion. Average methane concentration of bubbles at our sites varied from 67% to 77%. Methane emission by bubbling occurred episodically, with greatest rates primarily between the hours of 0800 and 1400 LT. Events appear to be triggered by wind. The flux of methane associated with bubbling was strongly anticorrelated with water depth. Seasonal changes in water depth caused seasonal variation of methane emission. Bubble methane fluxes through the lake surface into the atmosphere measured during 24-hour intervals were least (10-200 mg/m2/d) at deeper sites (greater than 7 m) and greatest (300-2000 mg/m2/d) at shallow sites (less than 2 m).

  8. Transient Flow Dynamics in Optical Micro Well Involving Gas Bubbles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, B.; Chen, C. P.; Jenkins, A.; Spearing, S.; Monaco, L. A.; Steele, A.; Flores, G.

    2006-01-01

    The Lab-On-a-Chip Application Development (LOCAD) team at NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center is utilizing Lab-On-a-Chip to support technology development specifically for Space Exploration. In this paper, we investigate the transient two-phase flow patterns in an optic well configuration with an entrapped bubble through numerical simulation. Specifically, the filling processes of a liquid inside an expanded chamber that has bubbles entrapped. Due to the back flow created by channel expansion, the entrapped bubbles tend to stay stationary at the immediate downstream of the expansion. Due to the huge difference between the gas and liquid densities, mass conservation issues associated with numerical diffusion need to be specially addressed. The results are presented in terms of the movement of the bubble through the optic well. Bubble removal strategies are developed that involve only pressure gradients across the optic well. Results show that for the bubble to be moved through the well, pressure pulsations must be utilized in order to create pressure gradients across the bubble itself.

  9. Expansion of bubbles under a pulsatile flow regime in decompressed ovine blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Arieli, Ran; Marmur, Abraham

    2016-02-01

    After decompression of ovine large blood vessels, bubbles nucleate and expand at active hydrophobic spots on their luminal aspect. These bubbles will be in the path of the blood flow within the vessel, which might replenish the supply of gas-supersaturated plasma in their vicinity and thus, in contrast with our previous estimations, enhance their growth. We used the data from our previous study on the effect of pulsatile flow in ovine blood vessels stretched on microscope slides and photographed after decompression from hyperbaric exposure. We measured the diameter of 46 bubbles in 4 samples taken from 3 blood vessels (pulmonary artery, pulmonary vein, and aorta) in which both a "multi-bubble active spot" (MBAS)--which produces several bubbles at a time, and at least one "single-bubble active spot" (SBAS)--which produces a single bubble at a time, were seen together. The linear expansion rate for diameter in SBAS ranged from 0.077 to 0.498 mm/min and in MBAS from 0.001 to 0.332 mm/min. There was a trend toward a reduced expansion rate for bubbles in MBAS compared with SBAS. The expansion rate for bubbles in an MBAS when it was surrounded by others was very low. Bubble growth is related to gas tension, and under a flow regime, bubbles expand from a diameter of 0.1 to 1mm in 2-24 min at a gas supersaturation of 620 kPa and lower. There are two phases of bubble development. The slow and disperse initiation of active spots (from nanobubbles to gas micronuclei) continues for more than 1h, whereas the fast increase in size (2-24 min) is governed by diffusion. Bubble-based decompression models should not artificially reduce diffusion constants, but rather take both phases of bubble development into consideration. PMID:26592146

  10. Photocopy of photograph (Original photograph from the Vanishing Georgia collection, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (Original photograph from the Vanishing Georgia collection, Georgia State Archives, Atlanta Georgia, Photo Number SUM-125A) Unknown Photographer, Circa 1920s. EAST PORCH, LOOKING WEST. - Wise Sanatorium No. 2, Hospital Street, Plains, Sumter County, GA