These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Rise characteristics of gas bubbles in a 2D rectangular column: VOF simulations vs experiments  

SciTech Connect

About five centuries ago, Leonardo da Vinci described the sinuous motion of gas bubbles rising in water. The authors have attempted to simulate the rise trajectories of bubbles of 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 12, and 20 mm in diameter rising in a 2D rectangular column filled with water. The simulations were carried out using the volume-of-fluid (VOF) technique developed by Hirt and Nichols (J. Computational Physics, 39, 201--225 (1981)). To solve the Navier-Stokes equations of motion the authors used a commercial solver, CFX 4.1c of AEA Technology, UK. They developed their own bubble-tracking algorithm to capture sinuous bubble motions. The 4 and 5 mm bubbles show large lateral motions observed by Da Vinci. The 7, 8 and 9 mm bubble behave like jellyfish. The 12 mm bubble flaps its wings like a bird. The extent of lateral motion of the bubbles decreases with increasing bubble size. Bubbles larger than 20 mm in size assume a spherical cap form and simulations of the rise characteristics match experiments exactly. VOF simulations are powerful tools for a priori determination of the morphology and rise characteristics of bubbles rising in a liquid. Bubble-bubble interactions are also properly modeled by the VOF technique.

Krishna, R.; Baten, J.M. van

1999-10-01

2

PATH AND WAKE OF A RISING BUBBLE Cover image: Air bubbles from divers rising to the surface, Hawaii.  

E-print Network

PATH AND WAKE OF A RISING BUBBLE #12;Cover image: Air bubbles from divers rising to the surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 4 Image analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 4 Free rising bubbles, Hawaii. Photo taken by Ed Robinson, underwater photographer. ISBN 90 365 15262 Copyright c 2001 by A

Twente, Universiteit

3

Experimental study on wake structure of single rising clean bubble  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wake structure of clean bubble rising in quiescent silicone oil solution of photochromic dye is experimentally studied. A single bubble is generated, immediately after UV sheet light illuminates the part of the liquid just above the bubble generation nozzle in order to activate photochromic dye. Once the bubble passes across the colored part of the liquid, the bubble is accompanied by some portion of activated dye tracers; hence the flow structure in the rear of the single rising bubble is visualized. We capture stereo images of both wake structure and bubble motion. We study how wake structure changes with the increase in bubble size. We observe the stable axisymmetric wake structure, which is called `standing eddy' when bubble size is relatively small, and then wake structure becomes unstable and starts to oscillate with the increase in bubble size. With further increase in bubble size, a pair of streamwise vortices, which is called `double thread', is observed. We discuss in detail this transition from the steady wake to unsteady wake structure, especially double thread wake development and hairpin vortices shedding, in relation to the transition from rectilinear to spiral or zigzag bubble motions.

Sato, Ayaka; Takedomi, Yuta; Shirota, Minori; Sanada, Toshiyuki; Watanabe, Masao

2007-11-01

4

Modeling the Motion of a Rising Bubble  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well known that an air bubble in water with a diameter between 1.3mm and 50mm does not move straight up as might be expected, but instead zigzags or spirals. We have developed an apparatus to study this phenomenon using digital video capture. Air bubbles are formed at the bottom of a rectangular Plexiglas tank three feet high with

Ryan Greer; E. A. George; P. A. Voytas

2002-01-01

5

Terminal Velocity of a Bubble Rise in a Liquid Column  

E-print Network

Abstract—As it is known, buoyancy and drag forces rule bubble’s rise velocity in a liquid column. These forces are strongly dependent on fluid properties, gravity as well as equivalent’s diameter. This study reports a set of bubble rising velocity experiments in a liquid column using water or glycerol. Several records of terminal velocity were obtained. The results show that bubble’s rise terminal velocity is strongly dependent on dynamic viscosity effect. The data set allowed to have some terminal velocities data interval of 8.0 ? 32.9 cm/s with Reynolds number interval 1.3 ? 7490. The bubble’s movement was recorded with a video camera. The main goal is to present an original set data and results that will be discussed based on two-phase flow’s theory. It will also discussed, the prediction of terminal velocity of a single bubble in liquid, as well as the range of its applicability. In conclusion, this study presents general expressions for the determination of the terminal velocity of isolated gas bubbles of a Reynolds number range, when the fluid proprieties are known. Keywords—Bubbles, terminal velocity, two phase-flow, vertical column. I.

Mário A. R. Talaia

6

Modeling the Motion of a Rising Bubble  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well known that an air bubble in water with a diameter between 1.3mm and 50mm does not move straight up as might be expected, but instead zigzags or spirals. We have developed an apparatus to study this phenomenon using digital video capture. Air bubbles are formed at the bottom of a rectangular Plexiglas tank three feet high with a base one foot by one foot, filled with water. Bubbles of two different diameters can be formed using either 0.25 inch tubing (bubble diameter 5mm) or a 1cc syringe (bubble diameter 2mm) hooked to an intravenous pump with the rate of gas flow set at 10mL/hr. The motion of the bubbles is recorded using two digital video cameras viewing from the front and side of the tank, operating at 30 frames per second. The position data are obtained from the videos using VideoPoint software and then modeled mathematically. We will present a mathematical model of this motion and compare our data to previous results. We plan to explore the relationships between side-to-side motion and the upward motion of the bubbles.

Greer, Ryan; George, E. A.; Voytas, P. A.

2002-04-01

7

A Mechanistic Model for Bubble Rise in Soft Sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wetland and aquatic sediments (marine and freshwater) are significant sources of methane, due to the degradation of organic matter under anoxic conditions. Once produced, methane migrates from the sediments to the overlying water and eventually the atmosphere by diffusion or bubble ebullition. Ebullition is a significant source because it can release methane directly to the water column or atmosphere, bypassing the methane oxidizing zone, that consumes much of the diffusive flux of methane from sediments. Recently it has been shown that bubbles released from thermokarst lakes (lakes formed due to the melting of permafrost) in northern latitudes explain much of the historic glacial/interglacial methane cycle and represent what could be a significant positive feedback mechanism on the Earth's climate system. Therefore a thorough understanding of how bubbles migrate through sediments is necessary. Bubble release is episodic and patchy with periods of release often triggered by decreases in hydrostatic pressure. Here I present a mechanistic model for bubble rise is soft sediments. The model describes the rise of a single isolated bubble through the sediments and therefore describes the initial stages of bubble tube formation. The bubble migrates by propagating a fracture and the rate of rise is controlled by the viscoelastic response of the sediments to stresses induced by the bubble. This model predicts that a bubble will rise under its own weight when the long axis of the fracture reaches a critical length. This length is determined by the strength of the sediment. The model provides insights into the mechanism behind hydrostatic pressure release and predicts rise velocities as a function of measurable sediments properties. This will aid in the prediction of fluxes to the atmospheric from methane producing sediments and increases our understanding of this important link between the aquatic ecosystem and the atmosphere.

Algar, C. K.; Boudreau, B. P.

2009-05-01

8

Numerical investigation of rising bubble wake and shape variations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The unsteady and open wake and unsteady shape changes in a bubble rising on a zigzag path are investigated by performing direct numerical simulations. For the description of phase interfaces the hybrid particle-level-set method is employed. An air bubble with a volume-equivalent diameter of dB=5.2 mm rising in water is considered. The bubble Reynolds number is set as ReB=598. We observe a zigzagging bubble ascent path, which is caused by periodic shedding of hairpin vortices from the bubble surface to the bubble wake. Chains of up to four hairpin vortices can be observed. A twisting of the vortex chains indicates the transition from a zigzag to a spiralling ascent path. The bubble exhibits a time-averaged ellipsoidal shape and 2,2-mode shape oscillations. The shedding of hairpin vortices is accompanied by bubble-shape deformations which can be represented by traveling surface waves. This phenomenon results in a periodic asymmetric bubble deformation and is in agreement with experimental observations.

Gaudlitz, Daniel; Adams, Nikolaus A.

2009-12-01

9

Contemporary Mathematics Numerical Simulation of Gas Bubbles Rising in Viscous  

E-print Network

Contemporary Mathematics Numerical Simulation of Gas Bubbles Rising in Viscous Liquids at High components: The interface between the phases is tracked ex- plicitly by an unstructured, adaptive, triangular. Further, the SIMPLE flow solver is integrated with PARAMESH: a block-based, adaptive mesh refinement (AMR

Lin, Ping

10

Advances in the Rising Bubble Technique for discharge measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Already in the 19th century, d'Auria described a discharge measurement technique that applies floats to find the depth-integrated velocity (d'Auria, 1882). The basis of this technique was that the horizontal distance that the float travels on its way to the surface is the image of the integrated velocity profile over depth. Viol and Semenov (1964) improved this method by using air bubbles as floats, but still distances were measured manually until Sargent (1981) introduced a technique that could derive the distances from two photographs simultaneously taken from each side of the river bank. Recently, modern image processing techniques proved to further improve the applicability of the method (Hilgersom and Luxemburg, 2012). In the 2012 article, controlling and determining the rising velocity of an air bubble still appeared a major challenge for the application of this method. Ever since, laboratory experiments with different nozzle and tube sizes lead to advances in our self-made equipment enabling us to produce individual air bubbles with a more constant rising velocity. Also, we introduced an underwater camera to on-site determine the rising velocity, which is dependent on the water temperature and contamination, and therefore is site-specific. Camera measurements of the rising velocity proved successful in a laboratory and field setting, although some improvements to the setup are necessary to capture the air bubbles also at depths where little daylight penetrates. References D'Auria, L.: Velocity of streams; A new method to determine correctly the mean velocity of any perpendicular in rivers and canals, (The) American Engineers, 3, 1882. Hilgersom, K.P. and Luxemburg, W.M.J.: Technical Note: How image processing facilitates the rising bubble technique for discharge measurement, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 16(2), 345-356, 2012. Sargent, D.: Development of a viable method of stream flow measurement using the integrating float technique, Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers (London), Part 2, 71, 1-15, 1981. Viol, V. and Semenov, V.: Experiments in measuring discharges in canals by the photo-integration method, Soviet Hydrol. Selected Pap, 2, 198-199, 1964.

Hilgersom, Koen; Luxemburg, Willem; Willemsen, Geert; Bussmann, Luuk

2014-05-01

11

Effect of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on bubble characteristics and ozone transfer in a bubble column  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rising of ozone?containing bubbles in a bubble column was examined by a high?speed micro video camera. The shape of the bubbles shifted from spherical to ellipsoidal during their rise along the column. The experimental observation indicated that the average diameter at the X?axis of the bubbles was markedly increased after the bubbles left the diffuser because the gas pressure

Young Ku

2007-01-01

12

Measurement of bubble characteristics in a molten iron bath at 1600 °C using an electroresistivity probe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A two-needle, electroresistivity probe was developed to measure bubble characteristics such as gas holdup, bubble frequency, and bubble rising velocity in a molten iron bath at 1600 °C. The probe’s electrode was made of a 0.5-mm platinum wire coated with ZrO2 cement and an outer coat of alumina as insulator. The life of this probe at 1600 °C was 15 to 20 minutes, making it possible to systematically measure bubble characteristics. The measured values of the bubble characteristics were compared with their respective empirical correlations derived from cold model experiments. Good agreement between the measured values and the empirical correlations was seen for each bubble characteristic. This electroresistivity probe allows us to measure bubble characteristics in actual metallurgical reactors with gas injection at high bath temperatures.

Iguchi, Manabu; Kawabata, Hirotoshi; Nakajima, Keiji; Morita, Zen-Ichiro

1995-02-01

13

Effect of compressibility on the rise velocity of an air bubble in porous media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this study is to develop a theoretical model to analyze the effect of air compressibility on air bubble migration in porous media. The model is obtained by combining the Newton's second law of motion and the ideal gas law assuming that the air phase in the bubble behaves as an ideal gas. Numerical and analytical solutions are presented for various cases of interest. The model results compare favorably with both experimental data and analytical solutions reported in the literature obtained for an incompressible air bubble migration. The results show that travel velocity of a compressible air bubble in porous media strongly depends on the depth of air phase injection. A bubble released from greater depths travels with a slower velocity than a bubble with an equal volume injected at shallower depths. As an air bubble rises up, it expands with decreasing bubble pressure with depth. The volume of a bubble injected at a 1-m depth increases 10% as the bubble reaches the water table. However, bubble volume increases almost twofold when it reaches to the surface from a depth of 10 m. The vertical rise velocity of a compressible bubble approaches that of an incompressible one regardless of the injection depth and volume as it reaches the water table. The compressible bubble velocity does not exceed 18.8 cm/s regardless of the injection depth and bubble volume. The results demonstrate that the effect of air compressibility on the motion of a bubble cannot be neglected except when the air is injected at very shallow depths.

Cihan, Abdullah; Corapcioglu, M. Yavuz

2008-04-01

14

Forces on aligned rising spherical bubbles at low-to-moderate Reynolds number  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the dynamic of a pair of equal-sized spherical gas bubbles rising in vertical line within a Newtonian liquid at low-to-moderate Reynolds numbers (Re ? 50) is studied. The dynamic momentum balance includes buoyancy, quasi-steady, and unsteady (history) drag, as well as inertial and added-mass body acceleration forces acting on the trailing bubble. This equation has been obtained under the following assumptions: (i) the bubble interaction occurs through the steady non-uniform wake induced by the leading bubble and (ii) the flow structure behind the leading bubble is known, so that proper expressions for the trailing bubble hydrodynamic force and its rising velocity can be derived. We propose an approximate analytical model for predicting the hydrodynamic force and the rise velocity of the trailing bubble. For this aim, we first use the well-known asymptotic far wake velocity solution (AWVS) for an axisymmetric body complementing it with an adequate drag expression. Then, the AWVS is modified via a Galilean transformation by introducing an artificial origin whose position is determined by fitting numerical data of known velocity profiles. Comparisons between the proposed models predictions with those reported experimental and numerical data for dimensionless distance between bubbles s/d in the interval 2 ? s/d ? 12.5 are presented. The results show that the added-mass body acceleration and the history forces are negligible compared to the other considered forces.

Ramírez-Muñoz, J.; Baz-Rodríguez, S.; Salinas-Rodríguez, E.; Castellanos-Sahagún, E.; Puebla, H.

2013-09-01

15

Why a falling drop does not in general behave like a rising bubble  

PubMed Central

Is a settling drop equivalent to a rising bubble? The answer is known to be in general a no, but we show that when the density of the drop is less than 1.2 times that of the surrounding fluid, an equivalent bubble can be designed for small inertia and large surface tension. Hadamard's exact solution is shown to be better for this than making the Boussinesq approximation. Scaling relationships and numerical simulations show a bubble-drop equivalence for moderate inertia and surface tension, so long as the density ratio of the drop to its surroundings is close to unity. When this ratio is far from unity, the drop and the bubble are very different. We show that this is due to the tendency for vorticity to be concentrated in the lighter fluid, i.e. within the bubble but outside the drop. As the Galilei and Bond numbers are increased, a bubble displays underdamped shape oscillations, whereas beyond critical values of these numbers, over-damped behavior resulting in break-up takes place. The different circulation patterns result in thin and cup-like drops but bubbles thick at their base. These shapes are then prone to break-up at the sides and centre, respectively. PMID:24759766

Tripathi, Manoj Kumar; Sahu, Kirti Chandra; Govindarajan, Rama

2014-01-01

16

Ripples on a rising bubble through an immiscible two-liquid interface generate numerous micro droplets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mass transfer between immiscible two liquid phases can be greatly accelerated by bubbling gas through a reactor (Bird R. B., Stewart W. E. and Lightfoot E. N., Transport Phenomena, 2nd edition (John Wiley and Sons) 2002). Therefore, the physical phenomenon occurring during the passage of a rising bubble through an immiscible two-liquid interface is of particular interest. The passage of the bubble through the oil (upper phase)/water (lower phase) interface starts with an upward lifting of the interface, and the bubble attracts a column of the water phase upwards keeping a film of the water phase around itself. In the present study, a particular remark is given to the influence of different interface tensions retracting the water film, after the water film ruptured, which lays on the interface between air and silicone oil. Unlike the previous studies on the rupture of a single liquid film in a gas which is pulled due to the identical surface tension, this system can form concentric ripples on the outer interface of the water film (oil/water interface) around the bubble due to the weak interface tension. Then, numerous micro water droplets break out from the fully grown ripples.

Uemura, T.; Ueda, Y.; Iguchi, M.

2010-11-01

17

A study of velocity discontinuity for single air bubbles rising in an associative polymer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The motion of air bubbles in aqueous solutions of a hydrophobic alkali-swellable associative polymer is studied in this work. The associative nature of these polymer systems dictates their rheological properties: for moderate values of the shear rate, the formation of structure can lead to a shear-thickening behavior and to the appearance of first normal stress difference. For larger shear rates, the polymer associations can be broken, leading to shear thinning. In general, these fluids show a Newtonian behavior for small values of the shear rate, but behave as viscoelastic liquids for large shear rates. Experimental results show the appearance of a critical bubble volume at which a discontinuity in the relation velocity-volume occurs; however, the velocity increase found in this case is not as large as that previously reported for the case of shear-thinning viscoelastic fluids. The discontinuity is associated with a significant change of the bubble shape: before the critical volume, the bubbles are convex spheroids, while past the critical volume a sharp cusped end appears. The appearance of the tail is also associated with the appearance of an inflection point (change of curvature) on the bubble surface. Moreover, since the rheology of the liquids is measured it was found that the discontinuity, and hence the change of shape, occurs when the elastic nature of the liquid first manifests itself (appearance of a first normal stress difference). A comparison of the measured velocities for small bubbles with predictions from a Stokes-Hadamard law shows a discrepancy. The Newtonian viscosity measured in a viscometric flow was smaller than that determined from a falling-ball arrangement. Considering the viscosity measured under this nonviscometric flow, the comparison between theory and experiments was very good for bubbles having volumes lower than the critical one. Moreover, due to the importance of the elasticity, and due to the change of the shape of the bubble, a dimensionless number formed as the ratio of elastic to surface tension forces clearly defines the change of the behavior for the bubbles rising in these fluids. Finally, a photographic study of the peculiar shapes of the bubble tails, tip-, and edge-streaming phenomena is presented. To our knowledge, experiments in this class of fluids have not been reported to date.

Soto, E.; Goujon, C.; Zenit, R.; Manero, O.

2006-12-01

18

A mass-conserving axisymmetric multiphase lattice Boltzmann method and its application in simulation of bubble rising  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many lattice Boltzmann studies about bubble rising, mass conservation is not satisfactory and the terminal bubble rising shape or velocity is not so consistent with experimental data as those obtained through other CFD techniques. In this paper, based on the multiphase model (He et al., 1999 [1]), a mass-conserving axisymmetric multiphase lattice Boltzmann model is developed. In the model, a mass correction step and an effective surface tension formula are introduced into the model. We demonstrate how the macroscopic axisymmetric Cahn-Hilliard equation and Navier-Stokes equation are recovered from the lattice Boltzmann equations through Chapman-Enskog expansion. The developed model is applied to simulate the bubble rising in viscous fluid. The mass correction step in our scheme significantly improves the bubble mass conservation. The surface tension calculation successfully predicts the terminal bubble shapes and reproduces the effect of initial bubble shape. The terminal bubble rising velocities are very consistent with experimental and numerical data in the literature. Qualitatively, the wakes behind the bubbles also agree well with experimental data. This model is useful for predicting the axisymmetric two-phase flows.

Huang, Haibo; Huang, Jun-Jie; Lu, Xi-Yun

2014-07-01

19

Methods of Evaluating Bubble Boundary Definition Using Characteristic Parameters of Bubble Boundary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Taking image with high definition is the basis to study aerated water flow using image measurement method. It was found that gas-water flow have complicated optical properties because both bubbles and water are transparent, and bubbles are featured with continuous deformation. Even under the same illumination conditions, the characteristics of the captured bubble images are very different. By now, human intuition and analysis still play a central role in the choices of the best lighting schemes. Nevertheless, the decision made within a person's mind is not unreliable. In this paper, we presented a series of quantitative evaluation methods to identify the imaging quality of bubble by brightness feature analysis of water, bubbles and interface between them. As an example, an optimized lighting scheme was determined via selection from back-lighting, side-lighting, normal-lighting and other lighting schemes with different angles. It is shown that our method is effective to optimize photography, reduce the number of pictures and obtain high quality images.

Shao, JianBin; Chen, Gang; Li, Guodong

2007-06-01

20

Analysis of Temperature Rise Induced by High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound in Tissue-Mimicking Gel Considering Cavitation Bubbles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) causes a selective temperature rise in tissue and is used as a noninvasive method for tumor treatment. However, there is a problem in that it typically takes several hours to treat a large tumor. The development of a highly efficient method is required to shorten the treatment time. It is known that cavitation bubbles generated by HIFU enhance HIFU heating. In this study, the enhancement of the heating effect by cavitation was estimated in a numerical simulation solving a bio-heat transfer equation (BHTE) by increasing the absorption coefficients in and out of the volume of cavitation bubbles. The absorption coefficients were obtained by a curve fitting the temperature rise near the focal point between experiment and simulation. The results show that cavitation bubbles caused the increase in ultrasonic absorption not only in but also near the volume of cavitation bubbles.

Asai, Ayumu; Okano, Hiroki; Yoshizawa, Shin; Umemura, Shin-ichiro

2013-07-01

21

General formulation of an HCDA bubble rising in a sodium pool and the effect of nonequilibrium on fuel transport  

SciTech Connect

This report investigates the effect of interfacial nonequilibrium mass transfer and radiative heat transfer on the amount of the fuel vapor condensed before the bubble reaches to the cover-gas region. Consideration is given to a fuel dominated bubble which is assumed to have just penetrated into the sodium pool in a spherical form subsequent to an Hypothetical Core Disruptive Accident (HCDA). The two-phase bubble mixture as it rises through the sodium pool to the cover-gas region is formulated. The formulation takes into account the effects of the nonequilibrium mass transfer at the interfaces and of the radiative cooling of the bubble as well as the kinematic, dynamic and thermal effects of the surrounding fields. The results of calculation for the amount of the fuel vapor condensed before the bubble reaches the cover-gas region are presented over a wide possible range of the evaporation coefficient as well as the liquid sodium-bubble interface absorbtivity. The effects of nonequilibrium mass transfer become more meaningful at the later stage of the bubble rise where the temperature difference between the liquid fuel and the gaseous mixture has been increased. The thermal radiative cooling is found to be very effective in attenuating the fuel content of the bubble; depending on the value of the liquid sodium-bubble absorbtivity, a great reduction of fuel vapor is found to be possible. As a result, if the condensed fuel falls out of the bubble, the thermal radiation - which condenses out most of the fuel vapor - can effectively prevent and eliminate most of the fuel leaking out of the reactor vessel.

Kocamustafaogullari, G.; Chan, S.H.

1980-06-01

22

Prediction of micro-bubble dissolution characteristics in water and seawater  

SciTech Connect

This paper is concerned with the prediction of micro-bubble dissolution characteristics in water and seawater when microbubbles are generated by a Sadatomi-type micro-bubble generator (2003) with a spherical body in a flowing liquid tube. In the experiments, in order to know the effects of the salinity on the characteristics, tap water and an artificial seawater with different salt concentrations of 1 and 3 wt% were used as the test liquids. Parameters measured were the Sauter mean diameter of bubbles, d{sub BS}, the void fraction, {alpha}, the rising velocity of bubbles, u{sub G}, the interfacial area concentration, a, the volumetric mass transfer coefficient, K{sub L}a, and the liquid-side mass transfer coefficient, K{sub L}. In the analysis, for predicting {alpha}, K{sub L}a and K{sub L}, some correlations in the literatures were tested against the present data. Furthermore, in order to improve the predictability, new correlations were developed based on the present data. The prediction of K{sub L}a with the new correlation agreed well with Nishino et al.'s [T. Nishino, K. Terasaka, M. Ishida, Application for several micro-bubble generators for gas absorber, in: Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Japanese Society for Multiphase Flow, 2006, pp. 276-277 (in Japanese)] and Li and Tsuge's [P. Li, H. Tsuge, Water treatment by induced air flotation using microbubbles, Journal of Chemical Engineering of Japan 39 (2006) 896-903; P. Li, H. Tsuge, Ozone transfer in a new gas-induced contactor with microbubbles, Journal of Chemical Engineering of Japan 39 (2006) 1213-1220] data for different aeration systems using several different micro-bubble generators. (author)

Kawahara, Akimaro; Sadatomi, Michio; Matsuura, Hidetoshi; Tominaga, Mayo; Noguchi, Masanori [Department of Mechanical System Engineering, Kumamoto University, Kurokami 2-39-1, Kumamoto City 860-8555 (Japan); Matsuyama, Fuminori [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sasebo National College of Technology (Japan)

2009-07-15

23

Propagation through nonlinear time-dependent bubble clouds and the estimation of bubble populations from measured acoustic characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

For several decades the propagation characteristics of acoustic pulses (attenuation and sound speed) have been inverted in attempts to measure the size distributions of gas bubbles in liquids. While this has biomedical and industrial applications, most notably it has been attempted in the ocean for defence and environmental purposes, where the bubbles are predominantly generated by breaking waves. Such inversions

T. G. Leighton; S. D. Meers; P. R. White

2004-01-01

24

Occurrence characteristics of plasma bubble derived from global ground-based GPS receiver networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Occurrence characteristic of plasma bubble was studied using ground-based GPS receiver networks. The occurrence rate of plasma bubble derived from the global GPS network has higher spatial and temporal resolution than that derived from the other observational techniques because of its wide coverage of the observation. The physical characteristics of plasma bubble occurrence were studied in detail with this novel

M. Nishioka; A. Saito; T. Tsugawa

2008-01-01

25

General formulation of an HCDA bubble rising in a sodium pool and the effect of nonequilibrium on fuel transport. [LMFBR  

SciTech Connect

This report which improved the formulation of the previous reports is designed to investigate the effect of the interfacial nonequilibrium mass transfer and the radiative heat transfer on the amount of the fuel vapor condensed before the bubble reaches to the cover-gas region. Consideration is given to a fuel dominated bubble which is assumed to have just penetrated into the sodium pool in a spherical form subsequent to an Hypothetical Core Disruptive Accident (HCDA). The two-phase bubble mixture as it rises through the sodium pool to the cover-gas region is formulated. The formulation takes into account the effects of the nonequilibrium mass transfer at the interfaces and of the radiative cooling of the bubble as well as the kinematic, dynamic and thermal effects of the surrounding fields. The results of calculation for the amount of the fuel vapor condensed before the bubble reaches the cover-gas region are presented over a wide possible range of the evaporation coefficient as well as the liquid sodium-bubble interface absorbtivity.

Kocamustafaogullari, G.; Chan, S.H.

1980-01-01

26

Methane rising from the Deep: Hydrates, Bubbles, Oil Spills, and Global Warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Elevated methane concentrations in near-surface waters and the atmosphere have been reported for seepage from depths of nearly 1 km at the Gulf of Mexico hydrate observatory (MC118), suggesting that for some methane sources, deepsea methane is not trapped and can contribute to atmospheric greenhouse gas budgets. Ebullition is key with important sensitivity to the formation of hydrate skins and oil coatings, high-pressure solubility, bubble size and bubble plume processes. Bubble ROV tracking studies showed survival to near thermocline depths. Studies with a numerical bubble propagation model demonstrated that consideration of structure I hydrate skins transported most methane only to mid-water column depths. Instead, consideration of structure II hydrates, which are stable to far shallower depths and appropriate for natural gas mixtures, allows bubbles to survive to far shallower depths. Moreover, model predictions of vertical methane and alkane profiles and bubble size evolution were in better agreement with observations after consideration of structure II hydrate properties as well as an improved implementation of plume properties, such as currents. These results demonstrate the importance of correctly incorporating bubble hydrate processes in efforts to predict the impact of deepsea seepage as well as to understand the fate of bubble-transported oil and methane from deepsea pipeline leaks and well blowouts. Application to the DWH spill demonstrated the importance of deepsea processes to the fate of spilled subsurface oil. Because several of these parameters vary temporally (bubble flux, currents, temperature), sensitivity studies indicate the importance of real-time monitoring data.

Leifer, I.; Rehder, G. J.; Solomon, E. A.; Kastner, M.; Asper, V. L.; Joye, S. B.

2011-12-01

27

A laser imaging-LDV coupling measurement of single bubble forming and rising in shear-thinning fluid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The shape evolution of bubble formed in carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) aqueous solution was real-time observed using laser image technique. The flow fields of liquid around growing and rising bubble were measured by laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV), and the liquid mean velocity and its contour curves were obtained. The results show that bubble grows as spherical shape because of the dominant role of surface tension in the early period, and then is stretched gradually as a teardrop shape due to the common effect of buoyancy and shear-thinning of fluid. The axial mean velocity of liquid phase takes on Gaussian distribution with the symmetrical axis passing through orifice center. However, the radial mean velocity increases first and then decreases with the increase of the distance from measured point to the symmetrical axis above. Further, the axial component along symmetrical axis decreases initially and increases with the rise of height, as well as its corresponding contour map diverging gradually. The radial component, yet, decreases steadily with the rise of height, and the maximum value deviates towards the two sides until disappear, as it contour shape of butterfly's "front wing".

Fan, Wenyuan; Yin, XiaoHong

2014-06-01

28

Bubbles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vanitas vanitatum et omnia vanitas: bubbles are emptiness, non-liquid, a tiny cloud shielding a mathematical singularity. Born from chance, a violent and brief life ending in the union with the (nearly) infinite. But a wealth of phenomena spring forth from this nothingness: underwater noise, sonoluminescence, boiling, and many others. Some recent results on a "blinking bubble" micropump and vapor bubbles in sound fields are outlined. The last section describes Leonardo da Vinci's observation of the non-rectlinear ascent of buoyant bubbles and justifies the name Leonardo's paradox recently attributed to this phenomenon.

Prosperetti, Andrea

2004-06-01

29

Force measurements on rising bubbles Woodrow L. Shew, Sebastien Poncet, and Jean-Francois Pinton  

E-print Network

Laboratoire de Physique, ´Ecole Normale Sup´erieure de Lyon Lyon, France 69007 The dynamics of millimeter of the bub- ble's wake. Lunde and Perkins [15] used dye to ob- serve the wake of ascending bubbles and solid

Boyer, Edmond

30

A study of velocity discontinuity for single air bubbles rising in an associative polymer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The motion of air bubbles in aqueous solutions of a hydrophobic alkali-swellable associative polymer is studied in this work. The associative nature of these polymer systems dictates their rheological properties: for moderate values of the shear rate, the formation of structure can lead to a shear-thickening behavior and to the appearance of first normal stress difference. For larger shear rates,

E. Soto; C. Goujon; R. Zenit; O. Manero

2006-01-01

31

Modeling of Taylor bubble rising in a vertical mini noncircular channel filled with a stagnant liquid  

E-print Network

with relatively low liquid flow rates. Slug flow is frequently encoun- tered during the immiscible displacement of viscous oil in the porous rock of an oil-wet reservoir, during the displacement of water from a natural and surface tension on the bubble velocity. Collins (1967) performed experiments to study the effect

Zhao, Tianshou

32

Measurement of bubble characteristics in a scale model of a 70 MWe pressurized fluidized bed combustor  

SciTech Connect

A one-quarter linear scale model of the Tidd 70 MW{sub e} PFBC was constructed. Studies reported previously have shown that the scale model gives local and overall bed expansion values that closely agree with those measured in the PFBC by means of pressure-drop measurements. The cold-scale model was instrumented with light probes embedded in the dowels used to represent the tubes in the boiler. The light probes were used to measure the bubble mean pierced length, bubble frequency, and bubble rise velocity. A probe was positioned in the open area below the tube bank. Measurements were made at u{sub o}/u{sub mf} values between 2.5 and 3.8. In the open area below the tubes, the bubble size and growth rates are smaller than the values predicted from correlations based on atmospheric bubbling beds. This suggests that in a pressurized bed the bubbles either grow more slowly or split as well as coalesce. The bubble size was found to be limited within the tube bank. The bubble velocity is greater than the velocity of a single bubble in an infinite medium, but the bubble velocity was found to be insensitive to the gas superficial velocity. The gas through-flow is closely approximated by the two-phase hypothesis without any bypass flow. This is confirmed by the absence of closely-spaced bubble chains or vertical voids within the tube bank. The bubble behavior is important as it influences both particle and gas mixing through the bed as well as heat transfer to the in-bed tube bundle.

Farrell, P.A.; Glicksman, L.R. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1997-12-31

33

Characteristics of carbon nanotube based micro-bubble generators for thermal jet printing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a novel thermal printhead with multiwalled carbon nanotubes as heating elements and presents characteristics of the corresponding MEMS-fabricated microbubble generators. Electrical properties of the microheaters in air and performance of bubble generation under water are comprehensively studied. Relationships between input power, resistance and bubble behavior are characterized. For a conceptional design, two microbubble generators are neighbored as

Wenli Zhou; Yupeng Li; Weijun Sun; Sanping Wan

2010-01-01

34

How sea level rise and storm climate impact the looming morpho-economic bubble in coastal property value.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the United States, the coastal region is now the most densely populated zone in the country and as a result has become a significant source of tax revenue and has some of the highest property values in the country. The loss of land at the coastline from erosion and damage to property from storms has always been a source of vulnerability to coastal economies. To manage this vulnerability, humans have long engaged in the act of nourishing the coastline - placing sand, typically from offshore sources, onto the beach to widen the beach and increase the height of dunes. As humans alter natural coastal dynamics by nourishing, the altered natural dynamics then influence future beach management decisions. In this way human-occupied coastlines are a strongly coupled dynamical system and because of this coupling, the act of nourishment has become an intrinsic part of the economic value of a coastline. Predictions of increased rates of sea level rise and changing storminess suggest that coastal vulnerability is likely to increase. The evolving vulnerability of the coast has already caused changes to occur in the way humans manage the coastline. For example, the federal government has recently reduced subsidies to help coastal communities nourish their beaches. With a future of changing environmental forcing from sea level and storms, the prospect of changes in nourishment cost could have profound consequences on coastal value and sustainability. We utilize two modeling approaches to investigate how disappearing nourishment subsidies reduce coastal property value and to explore the potential for a bubble and subsequent crash in coastal property value as subsidies dwindle and vulnerability rises. The first model is an optimal control model that couples a cost benefit analysis to coastline dynamics. In the second model, we couple a numerical coastline model with an agent-based model for real estate markets. Results from both models suggest the total present value of coastal property is significantly reduced with the removal of nourishment subsidies, creating a temporary bubble in coastal property value. In both models, results show the extent to which rising sea level and changing storminess impact the size of the property value bubble. The utility of the optimal control model is that it provides an empirically grounded parameterization of the coupled human coastal system. The coupled agent-based physical coastline model is more difficult to constrain with current data, however the model provides insight into the dynamics of subjective beliefs about coastal risk, which depend on the weight agents place on scientific predictions and on the way they process signals from previous climate events. Results from this model illustrate how the dynamics of the property bubble burst depend on agent beliefs about their changing environment.

McNamara, D.; Keeler, A.; Smith, M.; Gopalakrishnan, S.; Murray, A.

2012-12-01

35

Review of bubble detector response characteristics and results from space.  

PubMed

A passive neutron-bubble dosemeter (BD), developed by Bubble Technology Industries, has been used for space applications. Both the bubble detector-personal neutron dosemeter and bubble detector spectrometer have been studied at ground-based facilities in order to characterise their response due to neutrons, heavy ion particles and protons. This technology was first used during the Canadian-Russian collaboration aboard the Russian satellite BION-9, and subsequently on other space missions, including later BION satellites, the space transportation system, Russian MIR space station and International Space Station. This paper provides an overview of the experiments that have been performed for both ground-based and space studies in an effort to characterise the response of these detectors to various particle types in low earth orbit and presents results from the various space investigations. PMID:21890528

Lewis, B J; Smith, M B; Ing, H; Andrews, H R; Machrafi, R; Tomi, L; Matthews, T J; Veloce, L; Shurshakov, V; Tchernykh, I; Khoshooniy, N

2012-06-01

36

Studying the characteristics of bubble motion in pool boiling in microgravity conditions under the influence of a magnetic field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pool boiling of a paramagnetic liquid in two identical tanks was created under microgravity conditions to study the characteristic behavior of bubbles under influence of a magnetic field. The main objective of this research project was to study the Kelvin force effect on bubbles in microgravity conditions. In addition, characteristics of bubble motion in pool boiling in microgravity condition with

Thilanka Munasinghe

2009-01-01

37

Bubble Bubble  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With magic bubble solution, a boy discovers that he can blow any kind of bubble imaginable: a kangaroo, a bird, a car, or a boat. Mercer Mayer's colorful illustrations enliven this engaging tale of mysterious bubbles.

Mayer, Mercer

2009-11-11

38

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SECONDARY BUBBLE CLUSTER PRODUCED BY AN ELECTROHYDRAULIC SHOCK WAVE LITHOTRIPTER  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the characteristics of the secondary bubble cluster produced by an electrohydraulic lithotripter using high-speed imaging and passive cavitation detection techniques. The results showed that (i) the discrepancy of the collapse time between near a flat rigid boundary and in a free field of the secondary bubble cluster was not as significant as that by the primary one; (ii) the secondary bubble clusters were small but in a high bubble density and nonuniform in distribution, and they did not expand and aggregate significantly near a rigid boundary; and (iii) the corresponding bubble collapse was weaker with few microjet formation and bubble rebound. By applying a strong suction flow near the electrode tip, the production of the secondary shock wave (SW) and induced bubble cluster could be disturbed significantly, but without influence on the primary ones. Consequently, stone fragmentation efficiency was reduced from 41.2 ± 7.1% to 32.2 ± 3.5% after 250 shocks (p <0.05). Altogether, these observations suggest that the secondary bubble cluster produced by an electrohydraulic lithotripter may contribute to its ability for effective stone fragmentation. PMID:22390990

Zhou, Yufeng; Qin, Jun; Zhong, Pei

2013-01-01

39

Flow characteristics in a bubbling fluidized bed at elevated temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bubbling fluidized bed with 0.082 m in diameter and 1.5 m in height was employed to investigate the minimum fluidization velocity and flow dynamics at bed temperature up to 1000°C. Ashes of three sizes (Geldart B) from pressurized fluidized bed boiler were used as fluidization materials. Experiments show that the minimum fluidization velocity decreases with increasing bed temperature. Pressure

Qingjie Guo; Guangxi Yue; Toshiyuki Suda; Junichi Sato

2003-01-01

40

Effects of microgravity on Marangoni convection and growth characteristic of a single bubble  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on previous experiments and the volume of fluid (VOF) multiphase model, the growth characteristics of a single bubble have been numerically investigated in a rectangular pool (10×10×25 mm3) under microgravity. The transport of mass and energy during phase change was realized by source terms of the mass and energy equations through user-defined functions (UDF). Under microgravity, the results show that the temperature and the streamline field distribution around the bubble are significantly changed as compared to the ones of terrestrial conditions. The temperature profile at the two-phase interface is no longer a uniform distribution, and the Marangoni flows are more obvious at the two-phase interface. The effects of gravity on the detachment of the bubble are significant: the bubble does not immediately detach from the heating wall under microgravity conditions. The surface tension gradient caused by the Marangoni effect is more significant at lower microgravity. Bubble growth is more complex under microgravity conditions than normal gravity conditions, and it is related to the magnitude of the microgravity: the lower the microgravity, the higher the bubble growth rate. Furthermore, under microgravity, the bubble diameter changes differently, and the fluctuation amplitude of the heat transfer coefficient increases with increasing microgravity.

Yang, Yan; Pan, Liang-ming; Xu, Jian-jun

2014-07-01

41

Observations of solute effects on bubble formation  

SciTech Connect

The authors have studied the effects of solute, in particular aqueous electrolyte, on bubble formation at capillary orifices and frits at varying gas flow rates. Using a stroboscope, video microscope, and rotating mirror, they have obtained pictures which show how bubble formation involves the interaction of bubbles at the orifice. These interactions depend on the value of the surface elasticity E due to positively (ethanol) or negatively (NaCl) adsorbed solute. At low flow rates consecutive bubbles do not interact. Each bubble detaches and leaves the orifice region before the next one starts forming. A intermediate flow rates the more closely spaced, consecutive bubbles begin to interact. In pure liquids there is no barrier to bubble coalescence and the detached bubble is fed by the subsequent bubble as this starts to grow. The process may be repeated several times before the original bubble has risen out of range. In solutions where E is large enough bubble coalescence is inhibited. Instead of feeding into the detached bubble the following bubble pushes it aside, and the bubbles appear to bounce off each other. Bouncing may give rise to a characteristic sequence of larger and smaller bubbles if the emerging bubbles break off prematurely from the orifice due to the inertia of the original bubble. The transition from feeding to bouncing depends critically on E of the solution and leads to a smaller average bubble size for large E values. At high flow rates detached bubbles are invariably fed by several subsequent ones. At very high flow rates the bubbling becomes chaotic, but the interaction of bubbles after leaving the orifice area produces smaller bubbles in solutions. Bouncing is more likely to occur with narrow and irregular capillaries. The dramatically different appearance of gas-sparged columns in salt water and freshwater has its origin in the difference between assemblies of pores showing mainly feeding (freshwater) or bouncing (salt water).

Hofmeier, U.; Yaminsky, V.V.; Christenson, H.K. [Australian National Univ., Canberra (Australia)] [Australian National Univ., Canberra (Australia)

1995-09-01

42

Application of the boundary integral method to the interaction of rising two-dimensional deformable gas bubbles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The boundary integral method is applied to model the initial motion of two-dimensional or cylindrical deformable gas bubbles in an inviscid, incompressible fluid. Following the success of recent boundary integral studies to predict the qualitative behaviour of a single gas bubble, this numerical study is extended to consider the interaction of several bubbles. Surface tension, relative initial position and volume

P. B. Robinson; J. M. Boulton-Stone; J. R. Blake

1995-01-01

43

Tilted Euler characteristic densities for Central Limit random fields, with application to `bubbles'  

E-print Network

independent non-Gaussian fields, whence a Central Limit theorem is in force. The threshold u is allowedTilted Euler characteristic densities for Central Limit random fields, with application to `bubbles' Nicholas Chamandy Keith J. Worsley Jonathan Taylor Fr´ed´eric Gosselin August, 2007 Abstract Local

Worsley, Keith

44

Bubble mechanisms and characteristics at pore scale in a packed-bed reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

An image processing technique was used to study dominant bubble mechanisms in a two-dimensional packed-bed at pore level under the bubbly flow regime. Bubble breakup and coalescence were identified as dominant mechanisms using a large number of image samples. Two types of coalescence mechanisms were identified that occur due to compression and deceleration associated with the bubbles and three breakup

Daeseong Jo; Shripad T. Revankar

2009-01-01

45

Flow and heat transfer characteristics of laminar mixed convection of water with sub-millimeter bubbles in a vertical channel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laminar mixed-convection heat transfer is widely seen in compact heat exchangers. Injection of sub-millimeter bubbles is considered as one of the efficient techniques for enhancing laminar mixed-convection heat transfer for liquids. However, the effects of sub-millimeter-bubble injection on the laminar mixed-convection heat transfer are poorly understood. In this study, we experimentally investigate flow and heat transfer characteristics of the laminar mixed-convection of water with sub-millimeter bubbles in a vertical channel. The thermocouples and a PTV (Particle Tracking Velocimetry) technique are used for the temperature and velocity measurements, respectively. Tap water is used for working fluid and hydrogen bubbles generated by electrolysis of water are used as the sub-millimeter bubbles. The Reynolds number of the main flow ranges from 100 to 150. Our results show that the ratio of the heat transfer coefficient with sub-millimeter-bubble injection to that without injection decreases as the Reynolds number increases. It is found from the liquid velocity measurements that this decrease is mainly due to a decrease in the "bubble advection effect".

Kitagawa, A.; Kimura, K.; Endo, H.; Hagiwara, Y.

2009-02-01

46

Cap Bubble Drift Velocity in a Confined Test Section  

SciTech Connect

In the two-group interfacial area transport equation, bubbles are categorized into two groups, i.e., spherical/distorted bubbles as group 1 and cap/slug/churn-turbulent bubbles as group 2. The bubble rise velocities for both groups of bubbles may be estimated by the drift flux model by applying different distribution parameters and drift velocities for both groups. However, the drift velocity for group 2 bubbles is not always applicable (when the wall effect becomes important) as in the current test loop of interest where the flow channel is confined by two parallel flat walls, with a dimension of 200-mm in width and 10-mm in gap. The previous experiments indicated that no stable slug flow existed in this test section, which was designed to permit visualization of the flow patterns and bubble characteristics without the distortion associated with curved surfaces. In fact, distorted cap bubbly and churn-turbulent flow was observed. Therefore, it is essential to developed a correlation for cap bubble drift velocity in this confined flow channel. Since the rise velocity of a cap bubble depends on its size, a high-speed movie camera is used to capture images of cap bubbles to obtain the bubble size information. Meanwhile, the rise velocity of cap and elongated bubbles (called cap bubbles hereafter) is investigated by examining the captured images frame by frame. As a result, the conventional correlation of drift velocity for slug bubbles is modified and acceptable agreements between the measurements and correlation estimation are achieved.

Xiaodong Sun; Seungjin Kim; Mamoru Ishii; Frank W. Lincoln; Stephen G. Beus

2002-10-09

47

Characteristics of Turbulent Premixed Flames under the Pressure Rising Process in a Closed Vessel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a closed vessel such as SI engines, the internal pressure increases due to dilatation during the combustion after the ignition. To clarify quantitative characteristics of turbulent premixed flames under the pressure rising process, direct numerical simulation (DNS) of turbulent premixed flames in a closed vessel at relatively high Reynolds number has been conducted. Detailed kinetic mechanism for hydrogen-air mixtures is used. Because of the local pressure rise, turbulence is enhanced at the unburnt side and flame surface is distorted, which results in increase of the flame surface. Heat release rate of each flame element is augmented since the pressure rise makes flame thickness thin. Under this pressure rising process, the flame thickness, the flame front curvature and the local heat release rate can be scaled by laminar flame thickness and the maximum heat release rate obtained from one dimensional DNS of laminar flame propagation by using averaged temperature in the unburnt region of the vessel as the inlet temperature. The tangential strain rate on the flame front can be scaled by Taylor micro scale averaged in the unburnt side. The local heat release rate is positively correlated with the curvature and the tangential strain. The time evolution of the flame surface area is also investigated quantitatively.

Fukushima, Naoya; Yenerdag, Basmil; Shimura, Masayasu; Tanahashi, Mamoru; Miyauchi, Toshio

2011-11-01

48

Study of water hammer due to a sudden steam bubble collapse using the characteristics method  

SciTech Connect

The water hammer phenomenon, due to a sudden collapsing of steam in a subcooled liquid, may affect the nuclear steam supply system in several adverse ways. The cumulative effects of steam condensation water hammer in steam generator feed lines can degrade the steam generator integrity. This type of water hammer event also occurs in the surge tank of boiling water reactors. Water hammer may also play a limiting role in the reactor vessel pressure during the reflood stages of a loss-of-coolant accident. For these reasons, water hammer continues to be a major issue in the nuclear power industry. It is, therefore, very desirable to demonstrate accurate means of calculating the time-dependent pressure due to water hammer. This study presents a numerical program developed for estimating the time-dependent pressure response to steam bubble collapse. The method of characteristics (MOC) is utilized to determine pressure propagation due to water hammer.

Davis, F.J. Jr.; Hassan, Y.A.

1987-01-01

49

Bubble Combustion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method of energy production that is capable of low pollutant emissions is fundamental to one of the four pillars of NASA s Aeronautics Blueprint: Revolutionary Vehicles. Bubble combustion, a new engine technology currently being developed at Glenn Research Center promises to provide low emissions combustion in support of NASA s vision under the Emissions Element because it generates power, while minimizing the production of carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxides (NOx), both known to be Greenhouse gases. and allows the use of alternative fuels such as corn oil, low-grade fuels, and even used motor oil. Bubble combustion is analogous to the inverse of spray combustion: the difference between bubble and spray combustion is that spray combustion is spraying a liquid in to a gas to form droplets, whereas bubble combustion involves injecting a gas into a liquid to form gaseous bubbles. In bubble combustion, the process for the ignition of the bubbles takes place on a time scale of less than a nanosecond and begins with acoustic waves perturbing each bubble. This perturbation causes the local pressure to drop below the vapor pressure of the liquid thus producing cavitation in which the bubble diameter grows, and upon reversal of the oscillating pressure field, the bubble then collapses rapidly with the aid of the high surface tension forces acting on the wall of the bubble. The rapid and violent collapse causes the temperatures inside the bubbles to soar as a result of adiabatic heating. As the temperatures rise, the gaseous contents of the bubble ignite with the bubble itself serving as its own combustion chamber. After ignition, this is the time in the bubble s life cycle where power is generated, and CO2, and NOx among other species, are produced. However, the pollutants CO2 and NOx are absorbed into the surrounding liquid. The importance of bubble combustion is that it generates power using a simple and compact device. We conducted a parametric study using CAVCHEM, a computational model developed at Glenn, that simulates the cavitational collapse of a single bubble in a liquid (water) and the subsequent combustion of the gaseous contents inside the bubble. The model solves the time-dependent, compressible Navier-Stokes equations in one-dimension with finite-rate chemical kinetics using the CHEMKIN package. Specifically, parameters such as frequency, pressure, bubble radius, and the equivalence ratio were varied while examining their effect on the maximum temperature, radius, and chemical species. These studies indicate that the radius of the bubble is perhaps the most critical parameter governing bubble combustion dynamics and its efficiency. Based on the results of the parametric studies, we plan on conducting experiments to study the effect of ultrasonic perturbations on the bubble generation process with respect to the bubble radius and size distribution.

Corrigan, Jackie

2004-01-01

50

Seismically Initiated Carbon Dioxide Gas Bubble Growth in Groundwater: A Mechanism for Co-seismic Borehole Water Level Rise and Remotely Triggered Secondary Seismicity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Visualization experiments, core-scale laboratory experiments, and numerical simulations were conducted to examine the transient effect of dilational seismic wave propagation on pore fluid pressure in aquifers hosting groundwater that is near saturation with respect to dissolved carbon dioxide (CO2) gas. Groundwater can become charged with dissolved CO2 through contact with gas-phase CO2 in the Earth's crust derived from magma degasing, metamorphism, and biogenic processes. The propagation of dilational seismic waves (e.g., Rayleigh and p-waves) causes oscillation of the mean normal confining stress and pore fluid pressure. When the amplitude of the pore fluid pressure oscillation is large enough to drive the pore fluid pressure below the bubble pressure, an aqueous-to-gas-phase transition can occur in the pore space, which causes a buildup of pore fluid pressure and reduces the inter-granular effective stress under confined conditions. In visualization experiments conducted in a Hele-Shaw cell representing a smooth-walled, vertically oriented fracture, millisecond-scale pressure perturbations triggered bubble nucleation and growth lasting tens of seconds, with resulting pore fluid overpressure proportional to the magnitude of the pressure perturbation. In a Berea sandstone core flooded with initially under-saturated aqueous CO2 under conditions representative of a confined aquifer, rapid reductions in confining stress triggered transient pore pressure rise up to 0.7 MPa (100 psi) overpressure on a timescale of ~10 hours. The rate of pore pressure buildup in the first 100 seconds was proportional to the saturation with respect to dissolved CO 2 at the pore pressure minimum. Sinusoidal confining stress oscillations on a Berea sandstone core produced excess pore fluid pressure after the oscillations were terminated. Confining stress oscillations in the 0.1-0.4 MPa (15-60 psi) amplitude range and 0.05-0.30 Hz frequency band increased the pore fluid pressure by 13-60 cm of freshwater. Co-seismic borehole water level increases of the same magnitude were observed in Parkfield, California, and Long Valley caldera, California, in response to the propagation of a Rayleigh wave in the same amplitude and frequency range produced by the June 28, 1992 MW 7.3 Landers, California, earthquake. Co-seismic borehole water level rise is well documented in the literature, but the mechanism is not well understood, and the results of core-scale experiments indicate that seismically initiated CO2 gas bubble nucleation and growth in groundwater is a reasonable mechanism. Remotely triggered secondary seismicity is also well documented, and the reduction of effective stress due to CO2 bubble nucleation and growth in critically loaded faults may potentially explain how, for example, the June 28, 1992 MW 7.3 Landers, California, earthquake triggered seismicity as far away as Yellowstone, Wyoming, 1250 km from the hypocenter. A numerical simulation was conducted using Euler's method and a first-order kinetic model to compute the pore fluid pressure response to confining stress excursions on a Berea sandstone core flooded with initially under-saturated aqueous CO2. The model was calibrated on the pore pressure response to a rapid drop and later recovery of the confining stress. The model predicted decreasing overpressure as the confining stress oscillation frequency increased from 0.05 Hz to 0.30 Hz, in contradiction with the experimental results and field observations, which exhibit larger excess pore fluid pressure in response to higher frequency oscillations. The limitations of the numerical model point to the important influence of non-ideal behavior arising from a discontinuous gas phase and complex dynamics at the gas-liquid interface.

Crews, Jackson B.

51

Aerator Combined With Bubble Remover  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

System produces bubble-free oxygen-saturated water. Bubble remover consists of outer solid-walled tube and inner hydrophobic, porous tube. Air bubbles pass from water in outer tube into inner tube, where sucked away. Developed for long-term aquaculture projects in space. Also applicable to terrestrial equipment in which entrained bubbles dry membranes or give rise to cavitation in pumps.

Dreschel, Thomas W.

1993-01-01

52

Bubble size and mass transfer characteristics of sparged downwards two-phase flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

When gas is continuously fed through a sparger into a downflowing liquid in a pipe a ventilated cavity is often formed. The cavity remains attached to the sparger even in the presence of high liquid flow rates that would wash away a free slug bubble. Small bubbles are shed from the base of this cavity by the falling liquid film

A. A. Sotiriadis; R. B. Thorpe; J. M. Smith

2005-01-01

53

Influence of gas bubbles on nonlinear dynamic characteristics of the oil film of a tilting pad bearing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of a comparatively low volume concentration of gas microbubbles contained in oil on nonlinear characteristics\\u000a describing the behavior of an oil film in the guide gap of a hydrodynamic tilting pad bearing under action of a low-frequency\\u000a harmonic force is analyzed using a numerical dynamic model of a collar-oil film-pad system. It is shown that bubbles in the

N. Ya. Khlopenko

1996-01-01

54

Influence of gas bubbles on nonlinear dynamic characteristics of the oil film of a tilting pad bearing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of a comparatively low volume concentration of gas microbubbles contained in oil on nonlinear characteristics describing the behavior of an oil film in the guide gap of a hydrodynamic tilting pad bearing under action of a low-frequency harmonic force is analyzed using a numerical dynamic model of a collar-oil film-pad system. It is shown that bubbles in the

N. Ya. Khlopenko

1996-01-01

55

In Search of the Big Bubble  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Freely rising air bubbles in water sometimes assume the shape of a spherical cap, a shape also known as the "big bubble". Is it possible to find some objective function involving a combination of a bubble's attributes for which the big bubble is the optimal shape? Following the basic idea of the definite integral, we define a bubble's surface as…

Simoson, Andrew; Wentzky, Bethany

2011-01-01

56

Characteristics of indoor and outdoor bioaerosols at Korean high-rise apartment buildings.  

PubMed

This study attempted to evaluate the bioaerosol exposure of apartment residents at high-rise apartment buildings in a Korean city. The characteristics associated with the bioaerosol exposure included the apartment floor, seasonal variation, summer survey period (seasonal rain-front period (SRFP) or no rain-front period (NRFP)), and room location inside an apartment. Four most prevalent fungal genera detected in both the indoor and the outdoor air were Cladosporium, Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Alternaria. The outdoor bacterial concentrations were significantly higher in the low-floor apartments than in the high-floor apartments. However, the bacterial and fungal concentrations in the interior air of the apartments were not significantly different between the low- and the high-floor apartments. The current bioaerosol concentrations were comparable to those in other reports, with geometric mean (GM) bacterial values between 10 and 10(3) CFU m(-3) and fungal aerosol concentrations in homes ranging also from 10 to 10(3) CFU m(-3). The indoor and outdoor fungal concentrations and the outdoor bacterial concentrations were usually higher in the summer than in the winter. The indoor and outdoor bioaerosol concentrations were both higher for the SRFP than for the NRFP. The difference in the total bacterial concentrations was not significant among the surveyed five rooms. The GM total fungal and Cladosporium concentrations, however, were significantly higher for the kitchen than for the other rooms. PMID:16199028

Lee, Ji-Hyun; Jo, Wan-Kuen

2006-05-01

57

Experimental study of air bubbles and turbulence characteristics in the surf zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of laboratory experiments of free-surface elevation, water velocity, void fraction, and bubble distribution was conducted simultaneously for regular wave breaking on a plane slope. The data were collected by using a measurement array of wave gages, a dual-tip resistivity void fraction probe, and an acoustic Doppler velocimeter. The measurements were conducted in two different wave flumes to check

Nobuhito Mori; Takuma Suzuki; Shohachi Kakuno

2007-01-01

58

Experimental study of bubble formation at metal porous spargers: Effect of liquid properties and sparger characteristics on the initial bubble size distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work is a study of the effect of liquid properties and pore size on the initial bubble size distribution of a bubble column equipped with fine pore sparger. Various liquids covering a wide range of surface tension and viscosity values are employed, while the gas phase is atmospheric air. A fast video recording technique is used for both the

N. A. Kazakis; A. A. Mouza; S. V. Paras

2008-01-01

59

Three-dimensional simulation of bubble dynamics in a narrow pipe using lattice Boltzmann method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the paper, a three-dimensional model of a gravity-driven bubble rising in a narrow pipe filled with viscous liquid is built using the lattice Boltzmann method. On the Cartesian grid, the free-energy multiphase lattice Boltzmann model and the no-slip bounce-back scheme are combined together to implement the bubble interface and the solid boundary treatment, respectively. To start with, the Laplace law for bubble interface is verified with the newly built model in this paper. Then the cases where the pipe with the radius 1.2 to 2.5 times the bubble radius are carried out to investigate the effects of pipe dimension on the bubble motion, including rising velocity, deformation and jet formation. Moreover, the asymmetric characteristics of bubble biases the centre axle are explored further. The results show that the boundary condition effect consisting of the pipe dimension and the offset of bubble biasing the centre axle is of great significance to the bubble dynamics in a narrow pipe. The former factor mostly affect the velocity characteristics of the bubble, while the latter one mostly focuses on the bubble deformation and trajectory.

Shi, D. Y.; Wang, Z. K.; Zhang, A. M.

2015-01-01

60

Period-adding route in sparkling bubbles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chains of bubbles are seen rising along the wall whenever champagne is poured into a glass. The careful observation of a given bubble chain often reveals that the interbubble distance suddenly changes during the degassing process, indicating different bubbling regimes in this elusive phenomenon of effervescence. We report the transitions between these different bubbling regimes that present sequences of multiple

Gérard Liger-Belair; Alberto Tufaile; Bertrand Robillard; Philippe Jeandet; José Carlos Sartorelli

2005-01-01

61

Leverage bubble  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Leverage is strongly related to liquidity in a market and lack of liquidity is considered a cause and/or consequence of the recent financial crisis. A repurchase agreement is a financial instrument where a security is sold simultaneously with an agreement to buy it back at a later date. Repurchase agreement (repo) market size is a very important element in calculating the overall leverage in a financial market. Therefore, studying the behavior of repo market size can help to understand a process that can contribute to the birth of a financial crisis. We hypothesize that herding behavior among large investors led to massive over-leveraging through the use of repos, resulting in a bubble (built up over the previous years) and subsequent crash in this market in early 2008. We use the Johansen-Ledoit-Sornette (JLS) model of rational expectation bubbles and behavioral finance to study the dynamics of the repo market that led to the crash. The JLS model qualifies a bubble by the presence of characteristic patterns in the price dynamics, called log-periodic power law (LPPL) behavior. We show that there was significant LPPL behavior in the market before that crash and that the predicted range of times predicted by the model for the end of the bubble is consistent with the observations.

Yan, Wanfeng; Woodard, Ryan; Sornette, Didier

2012-01-01

62

Bubble Mania  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this math lesson, learners practice measurement skills as they examine a soap bubble print. Learners follow a recipe to make a soap bubble solution. They use the soapy solution to blow large bubbles with a plastic drinking straw until the bubbles pop, leaving behind circular prints. Learners find the diameter, circumference, and area of the bubble print.

Pbs

2012-01-01

63

Power Laws in Real Estate Prices during Bubble Periods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

How can we detect real estate bubbles? In this paper, we propose making use of information on the cross-sectional dispersion of real estate prices. During bubble periods, prices tend to go up considerably for some properties, but less so for others, so that price inequality across properties increases. In other words, a key characteristic of real estate bubbles is not the rapid price hike itself but a rise in price dispersion. Given this, the purpose of this paper is to examine whether developments in the dispersion in real estate prices can be used to detect bubbles in property markets as they arise, using data from Japan and the U.S. First, we show that the land price distribution in Tokyo had a power-law tail during the bubble period in the late 1980s, while it was very close to a lognormal before and after the bubble period. Second, in the U.S. data we find that the tail of the house price distribution tends to be heavier in those states which experienced a housing bubble. We also provide evidence suggesting that the power-law tail observed during bubble periods arises due to the lack of price arbitrage across regions.

Ohnishi, Takaaki; Mizuno, Takayuki; Shimizu, Chihiro; Watanabe, Tsutomu

64

Geochemical characteristics of off-axis lavas from the Chile Rise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Chile Rise, a divergent boundary between the Nazca and Antarctic plates, is unique because it is being subducted beneath the South American plate. Even though the ridge is located on the subducting slab, previous studies (e.g. Klein and Karsten, Nature,V374, 1995) of axial lavas have proposed that the easternmost part of ridge (Segment 1) might be contaminated by a young subduction component. The most plausible explanation for this posited subduction component is transport of the subduction components through a “slab window” from the mantle wedge. For this study, off-axis lavas from Segment 1 were obtained on board R/V Mirai, JAMSTEC in 2009. In contrast to axial lavas, which are sediment covered due to the high sedimentation rate of the near shore area, many of the off-axis lava flows were directly exposed on the seafloor, suggesting recent off-axis volcanic activity. These off-axis lavas were analyzed for major and trace element abundances to evaluate both the melting processes involved in this off-axis magmatism and the extent of mantle heterogeneity beneath this ridge-subduction environment. The off-axis lavas are primitive (MgO is 7.5~ 8.4) and similar to N-MORB in their major element compositions. Compared to published on-axis data for the Chile Rise basalts (Klein and Karsten, Nature,V374, 1995), they are slightly higher in TiO2 for a given MgO content, but have similar Na2O. H2O/Ce contents of the lavas are close to the Pacific MORB/OIB maximum (~220), but one sample is higher (>300). These off-axis lavas are also slightly enriched in fluid mobile elements such as K2O, Ba and Pb compared to N-MORB, suggesting their lava source was similarly influenced by subduction components. For example, a diagram of K2O/TiO2 vs. K2O/H2O shows a trend that is oblique to the Pacific MORB trend, but may be going towards a subduction component. Trends towards a subduction component are less pronounced in off-axis lavas than those seen among the axial lavas; none-the-less, a positive correlation between Th/La and H2O/Ce suggests the involvement of sediment melt in the source. Planned measurements of radiogenic isotopes will help to further distinguish different melt and fluid components.

Park, S.; Sims, K. W.; Michael, P. J.; Orihashi, Y.; Plank, T.; Abe, N.

2010-12-01

65

Effect of Convex Longitudinal Curvature on the Planing Characteristics of a Surface Without Dead Rise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A hydrodynamic investigation was made in Langley tank no. 1 of a planing surface which was curved longitudinally in the shape of a circular arc with the center of curvature above the model and had a beam of inches and a radius of curvature of 20 beams. The planing surface had length-beam ratio of 9 and an angle of dead rise of 0 deg. Wetted length, resistance, and trimming moment were determined for values of load coefficient C(sub Delta) from -4.2 to 63.9 and values of speed coefficient C(sub V) from 6 to 25. The effects of convexity were to increase the wetted length-beam ratio (for a given lift), to decrease the lift-drag ratio, to move the center of pressure forward, and ta increase the trim for maximum lift-drag ratio as compared with values for a flat surface. The effects were greatest at low trims and large drafts. The maximum negative lift coefficient C(sub L,b) obtainable with a ratio of the radius of curvature to the beam of 20 was -0.02. The effects of camber were greater in magnitude for convexity than for the same amount of concavity.

Mottard, Elmo J.

1959-01-01

66

Numerical study of the influence of geometrical characteristics of a vertical helical coil on a bubbly flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article, turbulent single-phase and two-phase (air-water) bubbly fluid flows in a vertical helical coil are analyzed by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The effects of the pipe diameter, coil diameter, coil pitch, Reynolds number, and void fraction on the pressure loss, friction coefficient, and flow characteristics are investigated. The Eulerian-Eulerian model is used in this work to simulate the two-phase fluid flow. Three-dimensional governing equations of continuity, momentum, and energy are solved by using the finite volume method. The k- ? turbulence model is used to calculate turbulence fluctuations. The SIMPLE algorithm is employed to solve the velocity and pressure fields. Due to the effect of a secondary force in helical pipes, the friction coefficient is found to be higher in helical pipes than in straight pipes. The friction coefficient increases with an increase in the curvature, pipe diameter, and coil pitch and decreases with an increase in the coil diameter and void fraction. The close correlation between the numerical results obtained in this study and the numerical and empirical results of other researchers confirm the accuracy of the applied method. For void fractions up to 0.1, the numerical results indicate that the friction coefficient increases with increasing the pipe diameter and keeping the coil pitch and diameter constant and decreases with increasing the coil diameter. Finally, with an increase in the Reynolds number, the friction coefficient decreases, while the void fraction increases.

Saffari, H.; Moosavi, R.

2014-11-01

67

Compact bubble clusters in Newtonian and non-Newtonian liquids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied the terminal velocity of a packed array of bubbles, a bubble cluster, rising in different fluids: a Newtonian fluid, an elastic fluid with nearly constant viscosity (Boger fluid), and a viscoelastic fluid with a shear dependent viscosity, for small but finite Reynolds numbers (1 × 10-4 < Re < 4). In all three cases, the cluster velocity increased with the total volume, following the same trend as single bubbles. For the case of clusters in elastic fluids, interestingly, the so-called velocity discontinuity was not observed, unlike the single bubble case. In addition to the absence of jump velocity, the clusters did not show the typical teardrop shape of large bubbles in viscoelastic fluids and the strength of the negative wake is much weaker than the one observed behind single bubbles. Dimensional analysis of the volume-velocity plots allowed us to show that, while the equivalent diameter (obtained from the total cluster volume) is the appropriate length to determine buoyancy forces and characteristic shear rates, the individual bubble size is the appropriate scale to account for surface forces.

Vélez-Cordero, J. Rodrigo; Lantenet, Johanna; Hernández-Cordero, Juan; Zenit, Roberto

2014-05-01

68

Possible applications of bubble acoustics in Nature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gas bubbles are the most potent naturally-occurring entities that influence the acoustic environment in liquids. Upon entrainment under breaking waves, waterfalls, or rainfall over water, each bubble undergoes small amplitude decaying pulsations with a natural frequency that varies approximately inversely with the bubble radius, giving rise to the 'plink' of a dripping tap or the roar of a cataract. When

T. G. Leighton; D. C. Finfer

69

Buoyant Bubbles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What keeps bubbles and other things, like airplanes, floating or flying in the air? In this activity, learners blow bubbles and wave 3x5 cards above, below and on different sides of the bubbles to keep them afloat as long as possible. The Did You Know section explains the Bernoulli principle: how waving cards above the bubbles helps keep them afloat because faster moving air exerts less pressure to push the bubbles down. The activity can be extended by having learners wave their bubbles through an obstacle course they design themselves.

Science, Lawrence H.

2009-01-01

70

Best Bubbles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners experiment with creating various types of bubble solutions and testing which ingredients form longer-lasting bubbles. Learners investigate how surface tension works and the importance of using a surfactant to make bubbles. This activity includes a video about NASA astronaut Don Pettit, who used candy corn to conduct science experiments during his stint aboard the International Space Station.

Saltz, Austen

2010-01-01

71

Four-dimensional visualization of rising microbubbles.  

PubMed

Four-dimensional imaging, which indicates imaging in three spatial dimensions as a function of time, provides useful evidence to investigate the interactions of rising bubbles. However, this has been largely unexplored for microbubbles, mostly due to problems associated with strong light scattering and shallow depth of field in optical imaging. Here, tracking x-ray microtomography is used to visualize rising microbubbles in four dimensions. Bubbles are tracked by moving the cell to account for their rise velocity. The sizes, shapes, time-dependent positions, and velocities of individual rising microbubbles are clearly identified, despite substantial overlaps between bubbles in the field of view. Our tracking x-ray microtomography affords opportunities for understanding bubble-bubble (or particle) interactions at microscales - important in various fields such as microfluidics, biomechanics, and floatation. PMID:24866552

Jung, Ji Won; Jeon, Hyung Min; Pyo, Jaeyeon; Lim, Jae-Hong; Weon, Byung Mook; Kohmura, Yoshiki; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Je, Jung Ho

2014-01-01

72

Four-dimensional visualization of rising microbubbles  

PubMed Central

Four-dimensional imaging, which indicates imaging in three spatial dimensions as a function of time, provides useful evidence to investigate the interactions of rising bubbles. However, this has been largely unexplored for microbubbles, mostly due to problems associated with strong light scattering and shallow depth of field in optical imaging. Here, tracking x-ray microtomography is used to visualize rising microbubbles in four dimensions. Bubbles are tracked by moving the cell to account for their rise velocity. The sizes, shapes, time-dependent positions, and velocities of individual rising microbubbles are clearly identified, despite substantial overlaps between bubbles in the field of view. Our tracking x-ray microtomography affords opportunities for understanding bubble-bubble (or particle) interactions at microscales – important in various fields such as microfluidics, biomechanics, and floatation. PMID:24866552

Jung, Ji Won; Jeon, Hyung Min; Pyo, Jaeyeon; Lim, Jae-Hong; Weon, Byung Mook; Kohmura, Yoshiki; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Je, Jung Ho

2014-01-01

73

Four-dimensional visualization of rising microbubbles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four-dimensional imaging, which indicates imaging in three spatial dimensions as a function of time, provides useful evidence to investigate the interactions of rising bubbles. However, this has been largely unexplored for microbubbles, mostly due to problems associated with strong light scattering and shallow depth of field in optical imaging. Here, tracking x-ray microtomography is used to visualize rising microbubbles in four dimensions. Bubbles are tracked by moving the cell to account for their rise velocity. The sizes, shapes, time-dependent positions, and velocities of individual rising microbubbles are clearly identified, despite substantial overlaps between bubbles in the field of view. Our tracking x-ray microtomography affords opportunities for understanding bubble-bubble (or particle) interactions at microscales - important in various fields such as microfluidics, biomechanics, and floatation.

Jung, Ji Won; Jeon, Hyung Min; Pyo, Jaeyeon; Lim, Jae-Hong; Weon, Byung Mook; Kohmura, Yoshiki; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Je, Jung Ho

2014-05-01

74

Recalcitrant bubbles  

PubMed Central

We demonstrate that thermocapillary forces may drive bubbles against liquid flow in ‘anomalous' mixtures. Unlike ‘ordinary' liquids, in which bubbles migrate towards higher temperatures, we have observed vapour bubbles migrating towards lower temperatures, therefore against the flow. This unusual behaviour may be explained by the temperature dependence of surface tension of these binary mixtures. Bubbles migrating towards their equilibrium position follow an exponential trend. They finally settle in a stationary position just ‘downstream' of the minimum in surface tension. The exponential trend for bubbles in ‘anomalous' mixtures and the linear trend in pure liquids can be explained by a simple model. For larger bubbles, oscillations were observed. These oscillations can be reasonably explained by including an inertial term in the equation of motion (neglected for smaller bubbles). PMID:24740256

Shanahan, Martin E. R.; Sefiane, Khellil

2014-01-01

75

Bubble Suspension  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners observe as soap bubbles float on a cushion of carbon dioxide gas. Learners blow bubbles into an aquarium filled with a slab of dry ice. Learners will be amazed as the bubbles hover on the denser layer of carbon dioxide gas, then begin to expand and sink before freezing on the dry ice. Use this activity to discuss sublimation, density, and osmosis as well as principles of buoyancy, semipermeability, and interference.

Exploratorium, The

2011-10-11

76

Bubble instability in overheated liquid Helium-3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The generation and the growth of vapor bubbles in metastable liquid Helium-3 are studied. The finite diffuse layer of vapor bubble, the temperature dependence of the surface tension and the relaxation processes are taken into consideration. We show that the growth of bubble in overheated liquid Helium-3 is significantly influenced by the memory effects caused by the dynamic Fermi-surface distortions. In particular, the increase of bubble is strongly hindered and accompanied by the characteristic oscillations of the bubble radius. The oscillations of the bubble radius disappear in a short relaxation-time limit where the memory effects are negligible.

Kolomietz, V. M.

2014-11-01

77

Bubble Tray  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners use simple materials to create giant bubbles. Learners will explore what gives bubbles their shape, what makes them break or last, what causes the colors and patterns in the soap film, and why do they change? Use this activity to introduce the concepts of surface tension and interference.

Exploratorium, The

2012-06-26

78

Some characteristics of large-scale travelling ionospheric disturbances and a relationship between the F2 layer height rises of these disturbances and equatorial pre-sunrise events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Initially some characteristics of large-scale travelling ionospheric disturbances (LS-TIDs) have been discussed briefly particularly as reported in the early literature. These discussions also involve the literature on the generation of LS-TIDs at times of geomagnetic bays. Secondly, the possibility that LS-TIDs may be responsible for the F2 layer equatorial pre-sunrise height rises is investigated. Tabulations at hourly intervals of h'F at Huancayo and Washington for a Rz max period (1957-1960) have been used to identify height rises. For a three-hour interval at Huancayo h'F levels equal to or greater than 40 km of medians are used to identify the pre-sunrise height rises. Also height rises at Washington, which occurred earlier than those at Huancayo, have been considered for evidence of travelling disturbances. For 40 events analysed using geomagnetic bays and Washington height rises, a few hours before they occur at Huancayo, indicate the statistical significance of an association with LS-TIDs. Similar results of statistical significance have been obtained using Washington events and bays on average 34 h before 46 Huancayo events. These delays ranged from 29 h to 38 h. The results indicate that bays which occur the day before are responsible for LS-TIDs which encircle the earth.

Bowman, G. G.; Mortimer, I. K.

2010-07-01

79

Petrological characteristics of Opx-bearing primitive gabbros from the East Pacific Rise and the Oman ophiolite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hess Deep rift is located at the junction between the fast spreading East Pacific Rise and the Cocos-Nazca Ridge. Lower crust is exposed along the southern slope of the intrarift ridge between 4675 and 4800 m depth and was sampled during IODP Expedition 345. Primitive troctolites and olivine-rich gabbros are the dominant recovered lithologies and shipboard data showed a high Mg# whole rock chemistry in concordance with their primitive nature. In a MOR system, olivine is a typical primitive mineral and orthoyroxene (Opx) usually appear late in the crystallisation sequence, when the magma already reached a significant degree of differentiation. In spite Opx is not expected in any primitive lithology, this mineral is commonly present in Hess Deep gabbros and may be associated with olivine. This curious association of cumulate Opx with olivine and other primitive minerals was also observed at a lower extent in some gabbros from ODP/IODP Hole 1256D, in the upper Hess Deep crustal section (ODP Hole 894G), and in the crustal section of the Oman ophiolite (Kahwad massif) where, in particular, Opx-bearing troctolites coexist with clinopyroxene oikocrysts-bearing troctolites and amphibole-bearing primitive olivine gabbros. Three types of Opx textures may be distinguished in Opx-bearing olivine gabbros and troctolites: (1) recrystallised coronæ around olivine, (2) exsolution within clinopyroxene and (3) large prismatic or poikilitic grains. Prismatic or poikilitic Opx are present at all level of the gabbroic crust, while exsolutions and coronæ were observed only in the lower crust. The mineral chemical compositions vary more with the structural level than with the lithological type and (Opx-bearing) olivine gabbros from Holes 894G, 1256D and from the upper crust of the Oman ophiolite show more differentiated characteristics than the same lithology in the Site 1415 and in the Oman lower crust. Pyroxenes in all samples from the lower crust show a relatively narrow range of Mg# (from 84 to 86% for Opx and 86 to 89% for Cpx) with large variation of minor elements (Ti, Al, Cr) suggesting a strong influence of melt-rock reaction during their formation. On the other hand, the upper crust samples show a large variation in their ferro-magnesian Mg# (72-87% for Cpx and 70-85% for Opx) together with a relatively weak scatter in minor elements. Magmatic crystallisation were then the dominant event in the upper crust, so that Opx is likely to be directly crystallised from magma. In contrast, in the lower crust, magmatic processes were dominated by melt-rock reaction, and the chemical composition and habitus of Opx show that they have been probably formed by reaction between previously abundant olivine and melt.

Python, Marie; Akizawa, Norikatsu; Godard, Marguerite; Ildefonse, Benoît; Koepke, Jürgen

2014-05-01

80

Dynamic morphology of gas hydrate on a methane bubble in water: Observations and new insights for hydrate film models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

the fate of subsea hydrocarbon gases escaping into seawater is complicated by potential formation of hydrate on rising bubbles that can enhance their survival in the water column, allowing gas to reach shallower depths and the atmosphere. The precise nature and influence of hydrate coatings on bubble hydrodynamics and dissolution is largely unknown. Here we present high-definition, experimental observations of complex surficial mechanisms governing methane bubble hydrate formation and dissociation during transit of a simulated oceanic water column that reveal a temporal progression of deep-sea controlling mechanisms. Synergistic feedbacks between bubble hydrodynamics, hydrate morphology, and coverage characteristics were discovered. Morphological changes on the bubble surface appear analogous to macroscale, sea ice processes, presenting new mechanistic insights. An inverse linear relationship between hydrate coverage and bubble dissolution rate is indicated. Understanding and incorporating these phenomena into bubble and bubble plume models will be necessary to accurately predict global greenhouse gas budgets for warming ocean scenarios and hydrocarbon transport from anthropogenic or natural deep-sea eruptions.

Warzinski, Robert P.; Lynn, Ronald; Haljasmaa, Igor; Leifer, Ira; Shaffer, Frank; Anderson, Brian J.; Levine, Jonathan S.

2014-10-01

81

Hydrodynamic scaling and solids mixing in pressurized bubbling fluidized bed combustors. Final report, October 1992 - July 1996  

SciTech Connect

A quarter-scale cold model of American Electric Power`s 70 MW, Tidd pressurized fluidized bed combustor (PFBC) has been constructed based on a simplified set of scaling parameters. Time-varying pressure drop data from the hot combustor and the cold model were used to compare the hydrodynamics of the two beds. Excellent agreement between the dimensionless probability density functions, the mean solid fraction profiles, and the bed expansions, provide a verification of the scaling parameters for commercial bubbling PFBC. Some controversy has surrounded the importance of matching the solid-to-gas density ratio when scaling bubbling beds. Hydrodynamic scaling comparisons were conducted with all the scaling parameters matched with the exception of the density ratio. The comparisons indicate that to reliably scale the hydrodynamics of bubbling beds it is essential to match the solid-to-gas density ratio. Bubbles provide the motive force for solids mixing in bubbling fluidized beds, prompting an investigation of the bubble characteristics in the cold model of the Tidd PFBC. A unique optical bubble probe design was used to measure bubble rise velocities, mean pierced lengths, and bubble frequency. Gas through-flow and bubble-growth rates appear to be significantly lower in pressurized beds than in atmospheric fluidized beds. A thermal tracer technique has been implemented in the cold model of the Tidd PFBC. The technique involves thermally tagging bed particles, injecting them into the bed, and tracking their motion using an array of thermistors, The thermal tracer data suggest that the tube bank within the bed restricts solids mixing, making adequate mixing in the tube-free zone at the bottom of the bed of paramount importance. Increasing gas superficial velocity is shown to increase both axial and lateral mixing beneath the tube bank. A mechanistic model of solids mixing in bubbling fluidized beds has been developed.

Farrell, P.A.

1996-07-01

82

Bubble departure size in flow boiling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flow boiling experiments were conducted in a vertical annular channel to study bubble departure characteristics. Deionized water was used as the working fluid, and the tests were performed at atmospheric pressure. Bubble departure diameters were obtained from the images which were captured by a high-speed digital camera. The relationship between bubble contact diameter and departure diameter was discussed. A new model base on force balance analysis, taking bubble contact diameter into account for predicting bubble departure diameter is proposed in this study. A good agreement between predicted and measured results is achieved.

Guan, Peng; Jia, Li; Yin, Liaofei; Tan, Zetao

2014-12-01

83

Motion of a bubble ring in a viscous fluid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, lattice Boltzmann method was undertaken to study the dynamics of a vortex ring bubble (or bubble ring) in a viscous incompressible fluid. The study is motivated partly by our desire to assess whether a bubble ring keeps increasing its radius and decreasing its rise velocity as it rises through fluid as was predicted by Turner ["Buoyant vortex rings," Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 239, 61 (1957)], 10.1098/rspa.1957.0022 and Pedley ["The toroidal bubble," J. Fluid Mech. 32, 97 (1968)], 10.1017/S0022112068000601, or does the ring like a rising bubble, eventually reaches a steady state where its radius and velocity remain constant as was predicted by Joseph et al. [Potential Flows of Viscous and Viscoelastic Fluids (Cambridge University Press, 2008)]. The parameters investigated included ring circulation, Reynolds number, density ratio and Bond number. Our numerical results show that a rising bubble ring increases its radius and decreases its velocity, but the process is interrupted by ring instability that eventually causes it to break up into smaller bubbles. This finding is consistent with the stability analysis by Pedley, who predicted that a bubble ring has a finite lifespan and is ultimately destroyed by surface tension instability. Furthermore, it is found that increasing initial circulation has a stabilizing effect on a bubble ring while increasing Reynolds number or Bond number hastens ring instability, resulting in an earlier break up into smaller bubbles; the number of bubbles depends on the wavenumber of the perturbation.

Cheng, M.; Lou, J.; Lim, T. T.

2013-06-01

84

Measurement of mass transfer between the bubble and dense phases in a fluidized bed combustor  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental study is described on mass transfer between the bubble and dense phases in a fluidized bed, used as a coke combustor. The experimental technique allowed quantification of the mass transfer rate during bubble formation and during a bubble’s rise through the bed. The combustion experiments were performed at 1 atm and 1223 K, in a fluidized bed (i.d.

J. B. L. M. Campos; O. D. S. Mota; A. M. F. R. Pinto

1999-01-01

85

Bubble kinetics in a steady-state column of aqueous foam  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measure the liquid content, the bubble speeds, and the distribution of bubble sizes, in a vertical column of aqueous foam maintained in steady state by continuous bubbling of gas into a surfactant solution. Nearly round bubbles accumulate at the solution\\/foam interface, and subsequently rise with constant speed. Upon moving up the column, they become larger due to gas diffusion

K. Feitosa; Olivia L. Halt; Randall D. Kamien; D. J. Durian

2006-01-01

86

Bubble - Crystal Interactions in Magmatic Three-Phase Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of crystals on the movement of bubbles through basaltic magmas is poorly understood. We study the interaction of bubbles with a suspension of crystals in a viscous fluid through analog experiments. In our experiments, an air bubble rises through a suspension of plastic beads in a viscous corn syrup - water mixture; we vary bubble volumes, crystal spacings and fluid viscosities. We observe the following change in interaction styles with increasing bubble volume: (1) bubble migration through the crystal network with little bubble deformation, (2) bubble movement through the crystal network with deformation (and sometimes bubble splitting), and (3) displacement of the liquid-crystal mixture by the rising bubble. Interactions change from type (1) to (2) when the bubble is approximately the same size as the crystals forming the network. Transition to type (3) behavior depends on both bubble volume and the thickness of the crystal-liquid layer. In all cases, bubble rise is impeded by the presence of crystals. Preliminary results suggest that impedance is most pronounced for bubbles slightly larger than the crystals (a condition that promotes the maximum bubble deformation). Additionally, very small bubbles may be trapped for long times in the crystal network, suggesting that a shallow reservoir of crystal-rich magma may actually trap rising bubbles from below. These observations provide an alternative interpretation to that of small undeformed bubbles representing late-stage bubble nucleation and large irregularly shaped bubbles forming by coalescence of smaller bubbles (e.g. Lautze and Houghton, 2006). Furthermore, we observe in our experiments that large bubbles can spread out and move laterally underneath a crystal layer. This is not usually considered in models of bubble migration and may explain focusing of gas escape from magma reservoirs and volcanic vents. We apply our experimental results to analysis of bubble populations at Stromboli volcano, Italy, where gases rising from a deep crystal-poor magma reservoir travel through, and entrain, shallow crystal-rich magma. Preliminary results from image analysis on SEM and optical microscope images suggest that the smallest bubbles are most abundant and that their sizes are within the modal size range of the crystals. This can mean that (i) smaller bubbles were initially more abundant or (ii) bigger bubbles have deformed and split into smaller bubbles, which would confirm our conclusion from the analog experiments that interactions change from type (1) to (2) when the bubbles reach the size of the crystals in the network. In addition, the abundance of crystal-size bubbles in these samples suggests relative accumulation, possibly through trapping or extreme impedance, of the bubbles within the crystal-rich layer. Combined with our observation (from the analog experiments) that most bubbles are indeed significantly slowed within the crystal layer, this could suggest that bubble number densities are not direct reflections of bubble nucleation rates.

Belien, I.; Cashman, K.; Rempel, A.; Pioli, L.; Pistolesi, M.

2007-12-01

87

Comparison of the Combustion Characteristics of Rice Husk, Sawdust, and Groundnut Shells in a Bubbling Fluidized Bed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural residues, such as rice husk, sawdust, wood waste, groundnut shells, etc., could play an important role as energy sources. These biomass fuels are difficult to handle due to high moisture and fines content and also due to fuel ash softening at relatively low temperatures. Fluidized bed energy technology offers several unique characteristics for using biomass in small-scale energy conversion

K. V. N. Srinivasa Rao; G. Venkat Reddy

2011-01-01

88

Tiny Bubbles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A simple oxygen-collecting device (easily constructed from glass jars and a lid) can show bubbles released by water plants during photosynthesis. Suggestions are given for: (1) testing the collected gas; (2) using various carbon dioxide sources; and (3) measuring respiration. (DH)

Kim, Hy

1985-01-01

89

Mercury Bubbles  

Microsoft Academic Search

I HAVE on several occasions noticed the beautiful bubbles described by Mr. Wright and Sir William Crookes (pp. 8 and 37). On each occasion I was purifying mercury in the following way. I half filled a rather large Woulffe's bottle with mercury and poured on to it weak nitric acid. Then, in order to keep, the whole in a state

A. T. Hare

1908-01-01

90

Experimental study on turbulent natural convection heat transfer in water with sub-millimeter-bubble injection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using thermocouples and a particle tracking velocimetry technique, temperature and velocity measurements are conducted to investigate flow and heat transfer characteristics of turbulent natural convection from a vertical heated plate in water with sub-millimeter-bubble injection. Hydrogen-bubbles generated by the electrolysis of water are used as the sub-millimeter-bubbles. In the turbulent region, the heat transfer deterioration occurs for a bubble flow rate Q = 33 mm3/s, while the heat transfer enhancement occurs for Q = 56 mm3/s. Temperature and velocity measurements suggest that the former is caused by a delay of the transition due to the bubble-induced upward flow. On the other hand, the latter is mainly due to two factors: one is the enhancement of the rotation of eddies in the outer layer, and the other is the increase in the gradient of the streamwise liquid velocity at the heated wall. These are caused by bubbles, which are located in the inner layer, rising at high speed.

Kitagawa, Atsuhide; Kitada, Kenji; Hagiwara, Yoshimichi

2010-09-01

91

Rising River  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

On April 9, 2014 a visit to the USGS gaging station on Libby Brook near Northfield, Maine showed that while runoff had caused a large rise in the small brook, there still remained a significant snowpack in the area....

92

A comparative study of lattice Boltzmann and front-tracking finite-difference methods for bubble simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This communication describes the results of bubble rise simulations using a lattice Boltzmann method and a front-tracking finite-difference method. The simulations, performed in a 2-D periodic box, consider two specific examples: a steadily rising bubble and a bubble rising in an oscillatory manner with accompanying shape change. We compare the shapes and rise velocities of the steadily rising and oscillating

K. Sankaranarayanan; I. G. Kevrekidis; S. Sundaresan; J. Lu; G. Tryggvason

2003-01-01

93

Evaluation of flow patterns and elongated bubble characteristics during the flow boiling of halocarbon refrigerants in a micro-scale channel  

SciTech Connect

In the present study, quasi-diabatic two-phase flow pattern visualizations and measurements of elongated bubble velocity, frequency and length were performed. The tests were run for R134a and R245fa evaporating in a stainless steel tube with diameter of 2.32 mm, mass velocities ranging from 50 to 600 kg/m{sup 2} s and saturation temperatures of 22 C, 31 C and 41 C. The tube was heated by applying a direct DC current to its surface. Images from a high-speed video-camera (8000 frames/s) obtained through a transparent tube just downstream the heated sections were used to identify the following flow patterns: bubbly, elongated bubbles, churn and annular flows. The visualized flow patterns were compared against the predictions provided by Barnea et al. (1983), Felcar et al. (2007), Revellin and Thome (2007) and Ong and Thome (2009). From this comparison, it was found that the methods proposed by Felcar et al. (2007) and Ong and Thome (2009) predicted relatively well the present database. Additionally, elongated bubble velocities, frequencies and lengths were determined based on the analysis of high-speed videos. Results suggested that the elongated bubble velocity depends on mass velocity, vapor quality and saturation temperature. The bubble velocity increases with increasing mass velocity and vapor quality and decreases with increasing saturation temperature. Additionally, bubble velocity was correlated as linear functions of the two-phase superficial velocity. (author)

Arcanjo, Alexandre Alves; Tibirica, Cristiano Bigonha; Ribatski, Gherhardt [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Escola de Engenharia de Sao Carlos (EESC), University of Sao Paulo (USP), Av. Trabalhador SanCarlense 400, Centro, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)

2010-09-15

94

Ring Bubbles of Dolphins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The article discusses how dolphins create and play with three types of air-filled vortices. The underlying physics is discussed. Photographs and sketches illustrating the dolphin's actions and physics are presented. The dolphins engage in this behavior on their own initiative without food reward. These behaviors are done repeatedly and with singleminded effort. The first type is the ejection of bubbles which, after some practice on the part of the dolphin, turn into toroidal vortex ring bubbles by the mechanism of baroclinic torque. These bubbles grow in radius and become thinner as they rise vertically to the surface. One dolphin would blow two in succession and guide them to fuse into one. Physicists call this a vortex reconnection. In the second type, the dolphins first create an invisible vortex ring in the water by swimming on their side and waving their tail fin (also called flukes) vigorously. This vortex ring travels horizontally in the water. The dolphin then turns around, finds the vortex and injects a stream of air into it from its blowhole. The air "fills-out" the core of the vortex ring. Often, the dolphin would knock-off a smaller ring bubble from the larger ring (this also involves vortex reconnection) and steer the smaller ring around the tank. One other dolphin employed a few other techniques for planting air into the fluke vortex. One technique included standing vertically in the water with tail-up, head-down and tail piercing the free surface. As the fluke is waved to create the vortex ring, air is entrained from above the surface. Another technique was gulping air in the mouth, diving down, releasing air bubbles from the mouth and curling them into a ring when they rose to the level of the fluke. In the third type, demonstrated by only one dolphin, the longitudinal vortex created by the dorsal fin on the back is used to produce 10-15 foot long helical bubbles. In one technique she swims in a curved path. This creates a dorsal fin vortex since centrifugal force has to be balanced by a lift-like force. She then re-traces her path and injects air into the vortex from her blowhole. She can even make a ring reconnect from the helix. In the second technique, demonstrated a few times, she again swims in a curved path, releases a cloud or group of bubbles from her blowhole and turns sharply away (Which presumably strengthens the vortex). As the bubbles encounter the vortex, they travel to the center of the vortex, merge and, in a flash, elongate along the core of the vortex. In all the three types, the air-water interface is shiny smooth and stable because the pressure gradient in the vortex flow around the bubble stabilizes it. A lot of the interesting physics still remains to be explored.

Shariff, Karim; Marten, Ken; Psarakos, Suchi; White, Don J.; Merriam, Marshal (Technical Monitor)

1996-01-01

95

New look at wave analogy for prediction of bubble terminal velocities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analogy between waves on the surface of an infinite fluid and bubbles rising in low-viscosity fluids of infinite extent, originally proposed by Mendelson for 3-D bubbles, has been used to predict the terminal velocity, of plane bubbles. In terms of its terminal velocity, a plane bubble rising in a rectangular duct of small aspect (spacing-to-width) ratio behaves as if

Charles C. Maneri

1995-01-01

96

The Isolated Bubble Regime in Pool Nucleate Boiling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We consider an isolated bubble boiling regime in which vapour bubbles are intermittently produced at a prearranged set of nucleation site on an upward facing overheated wall plane. In this boiling regime, the bubbles depart from the wall and move as separate entities. Except in the matter of rise velocity, the bubbles do not interfere and are independent of one another. However, the rise velocity is dependent on bubble volume concentration in the bulk. Heat transfer properties specific to this regime cannot be described without bubble detachment size, and we apply our previously developed dynamic theory of vapour bubble growth and detachment to determine this size. Bubble growth is presumed to be thermally controlled. Two limiting cases of bubble evolution are considered: the one in which buoyancy prevails in promoting bubble detachment and the one in which surface tension prevails. We prove termination of the isolated regime of pool nucleate boiling to result from one of the four possible causes, depending on relevant parameters values. The first cause consists in the fact that the upward flow of rising bubbles hampers the downward liquid flow, and under certain conditions, prevents the liquid from coming to the wall in an amount that would be sufficient to compensate for vapour removal from the wall. The second cause is due to the lateral coalescence of growing bubbles that are attached to their corresponding nucleation sites, with ensuing generation of larger bubbles and extended vapour patches near the wall. The other two causes involve longitudinal coalescence either 1) immediately in the wall vicinity, accompanied by the establishment of the multiple bubble boiling regime, or 2) in the bulk, with the formation of vapour columns. The longitudinal coalescence in the bulk is shown to be the most important cause. The critical wall temperature and the heat flux density associated with isolated bubble regime termination are found to be functions of the physical and operating parameters and are discussed in detail.

Buyevich, Y. A.; Webbon, Bruce W.; Callaway, Robert (Technical Monitor)

1995-01-01

97

FEASTING BLACK HOLE BLOWS BUBBLES  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A monstrous black hole's rude table manners include blowing huge bubbles of hot gas into space. At least, that's the gustatory practice followed by the supermassive black hole residing in the hub of the nearby galaxy NGC 4438. Known as a peculiar galaxy because of its unusual shape, NGC 4438 is in the Virgo Cluster, 50 million light-years from Earth. These NASA Hubble Space Telescope images of the galaxy's central region clearly show one of the bubbles rising from a dark band of dust. The other bubble, emanating from below the dust band, is barely visible, appearing as dim red blobs in the close-up picture of the galaxy's hub (the colorful picture at right). The background image represents a wider view of the galaxy, with the central region defined by the white box. These extremely hot bubbles are caused by the black hole's voracious eating habits. The eating machine is engorging itself with a banquet of material swirling around it in an accretion disk (the white region below the bright bubble). Some of this material is spewed from the disk in opposite directions. Acting like high-powered garden hoses, these twin jets of matter sweep out material in their paths. The jets eventually slam into a wall of dense, slow-moving gas, which is traveling at less than 223,000 mph (360,000 kph). The collision produces the glowing material. The bubbles will continue to expand and will eventually dissipate. Compared with the life of the galaxy, this bubble-blowing phase is a short-lived event. The bubble is much brighter on one side of the galaxy's center because the jet smashed into a denser amount of gas. The brighter bubble is 800 light-years tall and 800 light-years across. The observations are being presented June 5 at the American Astronomical Society meeting in Rochester, N.Y. Both pictures were taken March 24, 1999 with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. False colors were used to enhance the details of the bubbles. The red regions in the picture denote the hot gas. Credits: NASA and Jeffrey Kenney and Elizabeth Yale (Yale University)

2002-01-01

98

Dynamics of Bubble Ascent in Mud Volcanoes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bubble ascent controls the eruption style of both magmatic and mud volcanoes, and is influenced by the rheology of the continuous phase. Mud and some magmas are non-Newtonian, and bubble ascent in non-Newtonian fluids remains incompletely characterized. We performed laboratory experiments using mud obtained from mud volcanoes adjacent to the Salton Sea, in Southern California. The erupting mud is well-described as a Herschel-Bulkley (shear-thinning, yield stress) fluid. We measured the rise speed of bubbles with volumes between 5 and 20 cc, varied the conduit diameter, and controlled for hysteresis in the mud to estimate upper and lower bounds on terminal velocity. Bubbles smaller than about 6 cc are unable to rise due to the mud's yield strength. We made rheological measurements (power-law exponent, yield strength, and consistency index) of the mud to compare the observed bubble rise speed to several empirical fits to laboratory data. We also quantify the rate of coalescence of bubbles as a function of their concentration and hence gas mass flux.

Tran, A.; Rudolph, M. L.; Manga, M.

2011-12-01

99

{sup 226}Ra and {sup 231}Pa systematics of axial MORB, crustal residence ages, and magma chamber characteristics at 9--10{degree}N East Pacific Rise  

SciTech Connect

Mass spectrometric measurements of {sup 30}Th-22{sup 226}Ra and {sup 235}-U{sup 231}Pa disequilibria for axial basalts are used to determine crustal residence ages for MORB magma and investigate the temporal and spatial characteristics of axial magma chambers (AMC) at 9--10{degrees}N East Pacific Rise (EPR). Relative crustal residence ages can be calculated from variations in {sup 226}Ra/{sup 230}Th and {sup 231}Pa/{sup 235}U activity ratios for axial lavas, if (1) mantle sources and melting are uniform, and mantle transfer times are constant or rapid for axial N-MORB, and (2) {sup 231}Pa/{sup 235}U and {sup 226}Ra/{sup 230}Th in the melt are unaffected by shallow level fractional crystallization. Uniform Th, Sr, and Nd isotopic systematics and incompatible element ratios for N-MORB along the 9--10{degrees}N segment indicate that mantle sources and transfer times are similar. In addition, estimated bulk solid/melt partition coefficients for U, Th, and Pa are small, hence effects of fractional crystallization on {sup 231}Pa/{sup 235}U ratios for the melt are expected to be negligible. However, fractional crystallization of plagioclase in the AMC would lower {sup 226}Ra/{sup 230}Th ratios in the melt and produce a positive bias in {sup 226}Ra crustal residence ages for fractionated lavas.

Goldstein, S.J.; Murrell, M.T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Perfit, M.R. [Univ., of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Geology; Batiza, R. [Univ., of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Fornari, D.J. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, MA (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics

1994-06-01

100

The Influence of Solid Particles on Bubble Size Distributions in Magma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The shapes and size distributions of bubbles in magma are influenced by their interactions with other bubbles and solid particles in addition to their nucleation and growth rates. In previous studies we have found that solid particles can cause a bubble to deform and split, and that small bubbles can get trapped inside layers with high solids concentrations, thereby accumulating relative to larger bubbles. This implies that the relationship between bubble number density and nucleation rate could be less direct than is often assumed during interpretations of bubble concentrations in solidified magmas. We have found that, for a single bubble in a crystal suspension, the extent of retardation of bubble rise depends on the probability of interaction with particles. At high particle concentrations, all bubbles are slowed down, and the rise rate through the suspension is determined by the pore aperture size. Here, we expand upon our previous work and examine the influence of solid particles on multiple-bubble trains with analog experiments. We focus on the high- crystallinity end member of natural magmas, where the influence of crystals is greatest. Starting from a homogeneous population of spherical bubbles, we study the change in shape and size distribution of the bubbles as they rise through a suspension of plastic beads in corn syrup (simulating magma with crystals). We focus particularly on the influence of particles on bubble coalescence.

Belien, I.; Cashman, K.; Rempel, A.

2008-12-01

101

Rising Waters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using a computer interactive tool, students investigate the changes in coastline that would result from a change in sea level, and suggest what factors could cause a rise in sea level. The activity asks students to reflect on outcomes of their investigations completed during the Ice Ages and Night Life activities, all of which are part of Space Update, a collection of resources and activities provided to teach about Earth and space. Summary background information, data and images supporting the activity are available on the Earth Update data site. To complete the activity, students will need to access the Space Update multimedia collection, which is available for download and purchase for use in the classroom.

102

Effects of Variations in Forebody and Afterbody Dead Rise on the Resistance and Spray Characteristics of the 22ADR Class VPB Airplane: Langley Tank Model 207, TED No. NACA 2361  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation was made to determine the effects of changes in the amount and distribution of forebody and afterbody dead rise on the hydrodynamic resistance and spray characteristics of a 1/11-size model of the Bureau of Aeronautics design No. 22ADR class VPB airplane. The variations in dead rise within the range investigated had no significant effects on resistance or trim, free to trim, or on resistance or trimming moment, fixed in trim. The coordinates of the peaks of the bow-spray blisters, with reference to the model, were measured at low speeds, and it was found that the model with the low dead rise at the bow had the lowest blisters. The changes in position of the maximum dead rise of the afterbody had no effect on the bow-spray blister.

Clement, Eugene P.; Daniels, Charles J.

1947-01-01

103

Bubble Characterization in Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustors with Bed Internals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bubble Characterization in Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustors with Bed Internals Abstract–Bubble characteristics within a tube bundle of a Pressurized Fluidized Bed Coal Combustor (PFBC) were studied. A model was developed to compute emulsion phase gas velocity, bubble throughflow velocity, and the visible bubble flow coefficient. Experimental data obtained from a PFBC unit were compared with the model prediction and a good

K. M. Sellakumar; V. Zakkay

1988-01-01

104

Terminal velocity of single bubbles in surface tension force dominant regime  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terminal velocity VT of a single bubble rising through an infinite stagnant liquid in surface tension force dominant regime was investigated theoretically and experimentally. A theoretical VT model, which is applicable to a distorted spheroidal bubble with a high bubble Reynolds number, was deduced from a jump condition and a potential flow theory for a flow about an oblate spheroid.

A. Tomiyama; G. P. Celata; S. Hosokawa; S. Yoshida

2002-01-01

105

Simulations of Buoyant Bubbles in Galaxy Clusters  

E-print Network

It is generally argued that most clusters of galaxies host cooling flows in which radiative cooling in the centre causes a slow inflow. However, recent observations by Chandra and XMM conflict with the predicted cooling flow rates. Here we report highly resolved hydrodynamic simulations which show that buoyant bubbles can offset the cooling in the inner regions of clusters and can significantly delay the deposition of cold gas. The subsonic rise of bubbles uplifts colder material from the central regions of the cluster. This colder material appears as bright rims around the bubbles. The bubbles themselves appear as depressions in the X-ray surface brightness as observed in a growing number of clusters.

M. Bruggen

2003-01-17

106

MOBI: Microgravity Observations of Bubble Interactions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the greatest uncertainties affecting the design of multiphase flow technologies for space exploration is the spatial distribution of phases that will arise in microgravity or reduced gravity. On Earth, buoyancy-driven motion predominates whereas the shearing of the bubble suspension controls its behavior in microgravity. We are conducting a series of ground-based experiments and a flight experiment spanning the full range of ratios of buoyancy to shear. These include: (1) bubbles rising in a quiescent liquid in a vertical channel; (2) weak shear flow induced by slightly inclining the channel; (3) moderate shear flow in a terrestrial vertical pipe flow; and (4) shearing of a bubble suspension in a cylindrical Couette cell in microgravity. We consider nearly monodisperse suspensions of 1 to 1.8 mm diameter bubbles in aqueous electrolyte solutions. The liquid velocity disturbance produced by bubbles in this size range can often be described using an inviscid analysis. Electrolytic solutions lead to hydrophilic repulsion forces that stabilize the bubble suspension without causing Marangoni stresses. We will discuss the mechanisms that control the flow behavior and phase distribution in the ground-based experiments and speculate on the factors that may influence the suspension flow and bubble volume fraction distribution in the flight experiment.

Koch, Donald L.; Sangani, Ashok

2004-01-01

107

Shape and terminal velocity of single bubble motion: a novel approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative terminal rising velocity of a single gas bubble, moving into a liquid phase, is determined by its size, by the interfacial tension, by the density and viscosity of the surrounding liquid. Both shape and velocity are strongly interacting. Along the years several methods have been presented for solving the problem of bubble deformation and relative rising velocity, at

G. Bozzano; M. Dente

2001-01-01

108

Emergence of Granular-sized Magnetic Bubbles through the Solar Atmosphere. I. Spectropolarimetric Observations and Simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study a granular-sized magnetic flux emergence event that occurred in NOAA 11024 in 2009 July. The observations were made with the CRISP spectropolarimeter at the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope achieving a spatial resolution of 0.''14. Simultaneous full Stokes observations of the two photospheric Fe I lines at 630.2 nm and the chromospheric Ca II 854.2 nm line allow us to describe in detail the emergence process across the solar atmosphere. We report here on three-dimensional (3D) semi-spherical bubble events, where instead of simple magnetic footpoints, we observe complex semi-circular feet straddling a few granules. Several phenomena occur simultaneously, namely, abnormal granulation, separation of opposite-polarity legs, and brightenings at chromospheric heights. However, the most characteristic signature in these events is the observation of a dark bubble in filtergrams taken in the wings of the Ca II 854.2 nm line. There is a clear coincidence between the emergence of horizontal magnetic field patches and the formation of the dark bubble. We can infer how the bubble rises through the solar atmosphere as we see it progressing from the wings to the core of Ca II 854.2 nm. In the photosphere, the magnetic bubble shows mean upward Doppler velocities of 2 km s-1 and expands at a horizontal speed of 4 km s-1. In about 3.5 minutes it travels some 1100 km to reach the mid chromosphere, implying an average ascent speed of 5.2 km s-1. The maximum separation attained by the magnetic legs is 6.''6. From an inversion of the observed Stokes spectra with the SIR code, we find maximum photospheric field strengths of 480 G and inclinations of nearly 90° in the magnetic bubble interior, along with temperature deficits of up to 250 K at log ? = -2 and above. To aid the interpretation of the observations, we carry out 3D numerical simulations of the evolution of a horizontal, untwisted magnetic flux sheet injected in the convection zone, using the Bifrost code. The computational domain spans from the upper convection zone to the lower corona. In the modeled chromosphere, the rising flux sheet produces a large, cool, magnetized bubble. We compare this bubble with the observed ones and find excellent agreement, including similar field strengths and velocity signals in the photosphere and chromosphere, temperature deficits, ascent speeds, expansion velocities, and lifetimes.

Ortiz, Ada; Bellot Rubio, Luis R.; Hansteen, Viggo H.; de la Cruz Rodríguez, Jaime; Rouppe van der Voort, Luc

2014-02-01

109

Structure and dynamics of the wake of bubbles and its relevance for bubble interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The flow in the wake of single and two interacting air bubbles freely rising in water is studied experimentally using digital-particle-image-velocimetry in combination with high-speed recording. The experiments focus on ellipsoidal bubbles of diameter of about 0.4-0.8 cm which show spiraling, zigzagging, and rocking motion during their rise in water, which was seeded with small tracer particles for flow visualization. Under counterflow conditions in the vertical channel, the bubbles are retained in the center of the observation region, which allows the wake oscillations and bubble interaction to be observed over several successive periods. By simultaneous diffuse illumination in addition to the light sheet, we were able to record both the path and shape oscillations of the bubble, as well as the wake structure in a horizontal and vertical cross section. The results show that the zigzagging motion is coupled to a regular generation and discharge of alternate oppositely oriented hairpin-like vortex structures. Associated with the wake oscillation, the bubble experiences a strong asymmetric deformation in the equatorial plane at the inversion points of the zigzag path. The zigzag motion is superimposed on a small lateral drift of the bubble, which implies the existence of a net lift force. This is explained by the observed different strength of the hairpin vortices in the zig and zag path; a seemingly familiar phenomenon was found in recent numerical results of the sphere wake flow. For spiraling bubbles the wake is approximately steady to an observer moving with the bubble. It consists of a twisted pair of streamwise vortex filaments which are wound in a helical path and are attached to the bubble base at an asymmetrical position. The minor axis of the bubble is tilted in the tangential plane as well as in the radial plane toward the spiral center. Due to the pressure field induced by the asymmetrically attached wake two components of the lift force exist, one that causes the lateral motion and the other a centripetal force that keeps the bubble on a circular path. A mechanism is proposed to explain the reason for one bubble to spiral or to zigzag. Experiments with two simultaneous released bubbles show that bubble interaction is strongly triggered by the wake dynamics. Once a bubble is captured in the wake of a rocking bubble, it accelerates and rises via successive jumps until they collide. The jumps are explained by the upwards induction effect of the ring-like heads of the hairpin vortices being shed from the leading bubble. The final collision and repulsion thereafter abruptly enlarges the wake for a short moment, which is suggested to be one major contribution to the amplification of turbulence production in bubbly flows.

Brücker, Christoph

1999-07-01

110

Vortex centrifugal bubbling reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vortex centrifugal bubbling apparatus is considered as a basis for a new type of multiphase vortex centrifugal bubbling reactor. In this device, a highly dispersed gas–liquid mixture is produced in the field of centrifugal forces inside the vortex chamber. The operation of the vortex centrifugal bubbling apparatus is based on the rotation of liquid by the tangential entry of

A. O. Kuzmin; M. Kh. Pravdina; A. I. Yavorsky; N. I. Yavorsky; V. N. Parmon

2005-01-01

111

Deploying Methane Bubble Traps at Varying Lake Depths to Validate Bubble Dissolution Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methane is a potent greenhouse gas, and understanding environmental methane cycles is critical both to developing accurate estimates of current methane emission rates and to modeling how cycles may respond to climate change. While there are many natural sources of methane, bubbling from lake sediments, or ebullition, is considered an important emission pathway. Ebullition can transport methane directly to the atmosphere, bypassing potential chemical or biological degradation in the water column. Existing bubble models predict some methane dissolution from rising bubbles, though dissolution estimates depend on the particular equations chosen to parameterize bubble rise velocity and gas transfer rates. To test current bubble dissolution models we installed a series of bubble traps at multiple depths in Upper Mystic Lake near Boston, Massachusetts. Traps gathered bubbles continuously during the summer of 2013 and were periodically emptied for gas volume measurements and chemical composition analysis. The gathered trap data demonstrated that surface traps have a significantly reduced bubble volume and methane fraction when compared with lake-bottom traps. This difference allows us to quantify the amount of methane dissolved in the water column due to ebullition. Preliminary data suggest that dissolution from bubbles could account for approximately 5% of the previously observed hypolimnetic methane accumulation in Upper Mystic Lake. Bubble methane contents in surface traps are consistent with average bubble sizes in the 3-6 mm diameter range based on the bubble models of McGinnis et al, 2006, and suggest that on the order of 50% of methane released by ebullition in this lake is dissolved before reaching the atmosphere. Data also indicates that careful corrections may be needed to account for small amounts of potential gas losses associated with dissolution at the gas/water interface within the traps. Using the gathered data to understand bubble size distributions, calculate methane dissolution quantities, and to calibrate simultaneous sonar studies of ebullition (Scandella et al) will help us develop a detailed lake-wide methane budget. In turn, understanding how ebullition impacts lake-wide methane cycling can lead to better predictive models of lake methane emissions under different climate change scenarios.

Delwiche, K.; Scandella, B.; Juanes, R.; Ruppel, C. D.; Hemond, H.

2013-12-01

112

Free surface rise and fall due to wall turbulent structures  

SciTech Connect

Turbulent structures near the wall and the the surface have been studied in open channel flows using oxygen bubble visualization techniques. Experiments indicate that the flow is dominated by the generation of wall ejections and interactions of such structures with the free surface. The ejections are seen to evolve near the wall, reach the free surface, form surface patches, roll back and mix into the bulk flow. Furthermore, there are evidence of ``horseshoe`` and ``hockeystick`` type vortices in relation to the bursting events. Measurements of surface characteristics show that the ejection-inflow events are associated with deformation of the free surface. It is seen that as ejections reach the free surface, the surface goes through a rise, whereas the surface falls when the inflowing fluid returns toward the wall. These effects are enhanced as the flow Reynolds number is increased.

Rashidi, M.

1996-12-20

113

Breaking waves, turbulence and bubbles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The air-sea fluxes of heat, momentum, and gases are to a large extent affected by wave-induced turbulence in the near-surface ocean layer, and are generally increased over the fluxes in a law-of-the-wall type boundary layer. However, air-bubbles generated during the wave breaking process may affect the density stratification and in turn reduce turbulence intensity in the near-surface layer. The turbulence field beneath surface waves is rather complex and provides great challenges for detailed observations. We obtained high resolution near-surface velocity profiles, bubble cloud measurements and video recordings of the breaking activity in a coastal strait. Conditions ranged from moderate to strong wind forcing with wind speed ranging from 5 m/s to 20 m/s. Estimates of the dissipation rates of turbulence kinetic energy are calculated from the in-situ velocity measurements. We find dissipation rates, fluctuating by more than two orders of magnitude, are closely linked to the air-fraction associated with micro-bubbles. Combining these turbulence estimates and the bubble cloud characteristics we infer differences in the strength of wave breaking and its effect on wave-induced mixing and air-sea exchange processes.

Gemmrich, Johannes; Vagle, Svein; Thomson, Jim

2014-05-01

114

On the maximum drawdown during speculative bubbles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A taxonomy of large financial crashes proposed in the literature locates the burst of speculative bubbles due to endogenous causes in the framework of extreme stock market crashes, defined as falls of market prices that are outlier with respect to the bulk of drawdown price movement distribution. This paper goes on deeper in the analysis providing a further characterization of the rising part of such selected bubbles through the examination of drawdown and maximum drawdown movement of indices prices. The analysis of drawdown duration is also performed and it is the core of the risk measure estimated here.

Rotundo, Giulia; Navarra, Mauro

2007-08-01

115

Topographic Rise in the Northern Smooth Plains of Mercury: Characteristics from Messenger Image and Altimetry Data and Candidate Modes of Origin  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

MESSENGER observations from orbit around Mercury have revealed that a large contiguous area of smooth plains occupies much of the high northern latitudes and covers an area in excess of approx.6% of the surface of the planet [1] (Fig. 1). Smooth surface morphology, embayment relationships, color data, candidate flow fronts, and a population of partly to wholly buried craters provide evidence for the volcanic origin of these plains and their emplacement in a flood lava mode to depths at least locally in excess of 1 km. The age of these plains is similar to that of plains associated with and postdating the Caloris impact basin, confirming that volcanism was a globally extensive process in the post-heavy bombardment history of Mercury [1]. No specific effusive vent structures, constructional volcanic edifices, or lava distributary features (leveed flow fronts or sinuous rilles) have been identified in the contiguous plains, although vent structures and evidence of high-effusion-rate flood eruptions are seen in adjacent areas [1]. Subsequent to the identification and mapping of the extensive north polar smooth plains, data from the Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) on MESSENGER revealed the presence of a broad topographic rise in the northern smooth plains that is 1,000 km across and rises more than 1.5 km above the surrounding smooth plains [2] (Fig. 2). The purpose of this contribution is to characterize the northern plains rise and to outline a range of hypotheses for its origin.

Dickson, James L.; Head, James W.; Whitten, Jennifer L.; Fassett, Caleb I.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Phillips, Roger J.

2012-01-01

116

Bubble domain circuit organization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An on-chip bubble domain circuit organization. One or more storage registers are connected to a propagation path whereby data in the form of magnetic bubble domains (bubbles) may be transferred into and out of the storage registers. The propagation path includes a generator for producing the initial bubbles which are expanded into any desired number of new bubbles by a unique multiple output replicator. A unique input decoder is utilized to determine to which storage register the bubbles from the replicator will be directed along the propagation path. Those bubbles not selected may be annihilated. An output decoder utilizing essentially the same decoding scheme as the input decoder, selectively receives bubbles from the storage register. A transfer and replicate switch is utilized between the storage register and output decoder to selectively transfer bubbles to the output decoder. The output decoder may collapse all of the bubbles from certain storage registers so that only the information from the selected storage register reaches the detector. The detectors in turn produce the chip output signal. External control electronics are utilized to control the selective operation of the various devices utilized in the propagation path.

Chen, Thomas T. (Inventor)

1977-01-01

117

Numerical Simulation of Bubble Cluster Induced Flow by Three-Dimensional Vortex-in-Cell Method.  

PubMed

The behavior of air bubble clusters rising in water and the induced flow field are numerically studied using a three-dimensional two-way coupling algorithm based on a vortex-in-cell (VIC) method. In this method, vortex elements are convected in the Lagrangian frame and the liquid velocity field is solved from the Poisson equation of potential on the Eulerian grid. Two-way coupling is implemented by introducing a vorticity source term induced by the gradient of void fraction. Present simulation results are favorably compared with the measured results of bubble plume, which verifies the validity of the proposed VIC method. The rising of a single bubble cluster as well as two tandem bubble clusters are simulated. The mechanism of the aggregation effect in the rising process of bubble cluster is revealed and the transient processes of the generation, rising, strengthening, and separation of a vortex ring structure with bubble clusters are illustrated and analyzed in detail. Due to the aggregation, the average rising velocity increases with void fraction and is larger than the terminal rising velocity of single bubble. For the two tandem bubble cluster cases, the aggregation effect is stronger for smaller initial cluster distance, and both the strength of the induced vortex structure and the average bubble rising velocity are larger. For the 20?mm cluster distance case, the peak velocity of the lower cluster is about 2.7 times that of the terminal velocity of the single bubble and the peak average velocity of two clusters is about 2 times larger. While for the 30?mm cluster distance case, both the peak velocity of the lower cluster and two clusters are about 1.7 times that of the terminal velocity of the single bubble. PMID:24895468

Chen, Bin; Wang, Zhiwei; Uchiyama, Tomomi

2014-08-01

118

Soap and Bubbles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first Web site, from The Soap and Detergent Association, is called Soaps and Detergents (1). Visitors learn about the chemistry of soap and detergent, their history, how they're manufactured, and more. The easily read text and fun illustrations make this site a great place to start for this topic. The next site, called Bubble Engineering (2), is provided by Bubble Town. The page describes the physics of a cone-shaped bubble blowing device and how its shape reduces the velocity of air being blown through but not the volume of air moving through it. Other links on the site describe what the contents of the best bubble soap mixture. The third site is provided by Kevin Dunn of Hampden-Sydney College Department of Chemistry called Lye Soap (3). The site describes how soap was invented, the chemistry of lye and soap, how to make your own lye, and more. The fourth site highlighted is part of LessonPlansPage.com called Looking at Bubbles (4). The site, which is a lesson plan, is geared towards students between grades 6 and 8. The main objective of the chemistry activity is to explore what things can be added to soap to make the bubbles last longer. All procedures are provided to view online or to print. The Art and Science of Bubbles (5) Web site is maintained by the Soap and Detergent Association. Many great features can be found on this and other pages within the site, including washing hands with soap, the history and chemistry of soaps and detergents, the environmentally smart way of using and disposing of cleaning products, and more. The sixth site related to soap is entitled Bubble Games (6), which is maintained by bubbles.org. Three free games are offered here including Tic-Tac-Bubble, Bubblechase, and Bubble Wrap, which counts how many bubbles you can pop in twenty seconds. Next, from the Homeschooling page of About.com comes the Soap Power (7) activity. This unique lesson plan details how to power a model boat using soap as a result of its surface tension. Lastly, the Bubble Hydrodynamics (8) Web site is maintained by bubbleology.com. Visitors get an introduction to bubble hydrodynamics and also learn about the relationship between temperature and bubbles, surfactants and bubbles, and even oscillations and bubbles.

Brieske, Joel A.

2002-01-01

119

Frictional drag reduction in bubbly Couette-Taylor flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Frictional drag reduction due to the presence of small bubbles is investigated experimentally using a Couette-Taylor flow system; i.e., shear flow between concentric cylinders. Torque and bubble behavior are measured as a function of Reynolds number up to Re =5000 while air bubbles are injected constantly and rise through an array of vortical cells. Silicone oil is used to avoid the uncertain interfacial property of bubbles and to produce nearly monosized bubble distributions. The effect of drag reduction on sensitivity and power gain are assessed. The sensitivity exceeds unity at Re <2000, proving that the effect of the reduction in drag is greater than that of the reduction in mixture density. This is due to the accumulation of bubbles toward the rotating inner cylinder, which is little affected by turbulence. The power gain, which is defined by the power saving from the drag reduction per the pumping power of bubble injection, has a maximum value of O(10) at higher Re numbers around 2500. An image processing measurement shows this is because of the disappearance of azimuthal waves when the organized bubble distribution transforms from toroidal to spiral modes. Moreover, the axial spacing of bubble clouds expands during the transition, which results in an effective reduction in the momentum exchange.

Murai, Yuichi; Oiwa, Hiroshi; Takeda, Yasushi

2008-03-01

120

Magnetic bubble materials.  

PubMed

Physicists, materials scientists, and engineers combined to bring solid-state bubble devices into the computer memory and recording marketplace. Devices with smaller bubbles are being developed for increased data capacity and lower cost. Epitaxial garnet films made by isothermal dipping in molten solutions helped put the technology in place and will probably satisfy the material needs of future devices with bubbles scaled down from 2 to 0.5 micrometer in size. PMID:17772820

Giess, E A

1980-05-23

121

Study on Vibration Characteristics of a High-rise Building using results of Microtremor, Manpower Excitation Measurements, Earthquake Observations and Simulations of a 3D Moment-frame structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Tokyo metropolitan area, high-rise buildings will suffer strong ground motions in near future. In order to estimate damage of the buildings and to carry out counter measures for reducing the damage, it is necessary to know the accurate vibration characteristics of the buildings during the strong ground motions. The purpose of the paper is to investigate vibration characteristics of the Shinjuku Campus building of the 28th floors in Shinjuku, Tokyo, which is a steel structure of moment frames with143 m height. First, we constructed a 3D moment frame model and compared vibration characteristics, such as the natural periods and the corresponding mode shapes, with those obtained by microtremors measurements and manpower excitations. We obtained excellent agreements between them. Second, we compared the observed building response during earthquakes with those of the simulations; we again obtained agreements.

Hoshi, Yukio; Hisada, Yoshiaki; Yamashita, Tetsuo; Masuzawa, Yoe; Shimamura, Kenta

122

Bubbles: Using Controls  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this experiment, learners use JOY liquid detergent and glycerin to make the largest bubble they can that lasts 15 seconds. They blow the bubbles in a Teaching Tank, a narrow tank that is commercially available, which allows them to easily measure and monitor the bubbles. Results are collected and graphed by learners. Questions and teaching notes are included to encourage learners to consider what the multiple variables are, and what the effects of sugar, corn syrup, or other sweeteners are on their bubbles.

2012-06-26

123

Hydrogen Bubbles as PIV/ICV Tracers in Cylinder Shedding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine the behavior of hydrogen bubbles formed by electrolysis of water on a 2.54 mm cylindrical electrode in a water tunnel. The Reynolds Number based on cylinder diameter varies from 400 to 1100, and tunnel velocities range from 17 to 50 cm/s. Time staggered digital photographs were taken to evaluate the use of the bubbles as PIV and ICV (Image Correlation Velocimetry) tracers as in Apps, Chen and Sigurdson, Expts. Fluids, 2003. The fact that the bubbles originate in a sheet precludes the necessity of using laser sheet illumination. PIV/ICV on bubbles driven by their buoyancy only does not work well as the assumed PIV/ICV condition of the tracer being advected by a background velocity field is violated. The bubbles have a distribution of diameters and therefore different rise velocities, creating a distorted pattern which reduces the correlation between interrogation windows.

Gilbert, Stuart; Sigurdson, Lorenz

2004-11-01

124

A Bubble Full of Sunshine  

NSF Publications Database

... 05-030A Bubble Full of Sunshine Temperatures inside bursting bubbles can be four times hotter than ... of Illinois have determined that temperatures inside gas bubbles collapsing in a liquid reach ...

125

Cavitation erosion by single laser-produced bubbles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to elucidate the mechanism of cavitation erosion, the dynamics of a single laser-generated cavitation bubble in water and the resulting surface damage on a flat metal specimen are investigated in detail. The characteristic effects of bubble dynamics, in particular the formation of a high-speed liquid jet and the emission of shock waves at the moment of collapse are

A. Philipp; W. Lauterborn

1998-01-01

126

Effects of Gravity on Bubble Formation at a Plate Orifice  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A model of the dynamic regime of gas injection through a submerged plate orifice into an ideally wetting liquid is developed in the circumstance when successively detached bubbles may be regarded as independent objects. Two major factors favor bubble detachment: the buoyancy force and a force due to the momentum inflow into the bubble with injected gas. In normal and moderately reduced gravity, the first factor dominates. At relatively low flow rates, a growing bubble is modeled as a spherical segment touching the orifice perimeter during the whole period of its evolution till detachment. If the flow rate exceeds a critical value, another stage of bubble evolution occurs in which an almost spherical gas envelope is connected with the orifice by a nearly cylindrical gaseous stem that lengthens as the bubble rises above the plate. The bubble continues to grow until the gas supply through the stem is completely cut off, after which back flow of gas into the stem from the bubble becomes possible. In microgravity, the second factor prevails, and the latter stage is always present irrespective of the flow rate. However, the gas envelope rises and the stem lengthens very slowly. This difference in the underlying physical mechanisms provides for key properties of bubble growth and detachment being drastically different in appreciable and sufficiently reduced gravity. The frequency of bubble formation slightly decreases with and the detachment volume is almost proportional to the gas flow rate in the first case, in accordance with familiar relations. In the second case, the first variable is proportional to the flow rate whereas the second one is independent of it. Effects of other parameters, such as the orifice radius, gas and liquid densities, and surface tension are discussed.

Webbon, Bruce W.; Buyevich, Yu A.

1995-01-01

127

Simulations of Hot Bubbles in the ICM  

E-print Network

We review the general properties of the intracluster medium (ICM) in clusters that host a cooling flow, and in particular the effects on the ICM of the injection of hot plasma by a powerful active galactic nucleus (AGN). It is observed that, in some cases, the hot plasma produces cavities in the ICM that finally detach and rise, perhaps buoyantly. The gas dynamics induced by the rising bubbles can help explain the absence of a cooled gas component in clusters with a cooling flow. This scenario is explored using numerical simulations.

A. Gardini; P. M. Ricker

2004-09-15

128

Evaporation, Boiling and Bubbles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaporation and boiling are both terms applied to the change of a liquid to the vapour/gaseous state. This article argues that it is the formation of bubbles of vapour within the liquid that most clearly differentiates boiling from evaporation although only a minority of chemistry textbooks seems to mention bubble formation in this context. The…

Goodwin, Alan

2012-01-01

129

Gases in Tektite Bubbles.  

PubMed

Spectroscopic analysis of light produced by electrodeless discharge in a tektite bubble showed the main gases in the bubble to be neon, helium, and oxygen. The neon and helium have probably diffused in from the atmosphere, while the oxygen may be atmospheric gas incorporated in the tektite during its formation. PMID:17801113

O'keefe, J A; Lowman, P D; Dunning, K L

1962-07-20

130

Hydrodynamical similarities between bubble column and bubbly pipe flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydrodynamical similarities between the bubbly flow in a bubble column and in a pipe with vertical upward liquid flow are investigated. The system concerns air\\/water bubbly flow in a vertical cylinder of 14.9 cm inner diameter. Measurements of the radial distribution of the liquid velocity, gas fraction and the bubble velocity and size are performed using laser Doppler anemometry

Robert F. Mudde; Takayuki Saito

2001-01-01

131

[Cavitation and boiling of bubbles at the focal region during high intensity focused ultrasound exposure].  

PubMed

High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is a very complex transient process and can cause tissue coagulation necrosis. The cavitation and boiling behaviour of bubbles in the focal region play very important roles throughout an injury process. This paper reviews the research done by domestic and foreign scholars on behaviours of bubbles in HIFU irradiation process and summarizes in the focal region bubble cavitation and boiling generation, related detective means and relationships with hyperecho, temperature rise of the focus and injury shape. PMID:23198445

Zhong, Mingsong; Ai, Huijian; Li, Faqi

2012-10-01

132

Combined effect of viscosity and vorticity on single mode Rayleigh-Taylor instability bubble growth  

SciTech Connect

The combined effect of viscosity and vorticity on the growth rate of the bubble associated with single mode Rayleigh-Taylor instability is investigated. It is shown that the effect of viscosity on the motion of the lighter fluid associated with vorticity accumulated inside the bubble due to mass ablation may be such as to reduce the net viscous drag on the bubble exerted by the upper heavier fluid as the former rises through it.

Banerjee, Rahul; Mandal, Labakanta; Roy, S.; Khan, M.; Gupta, M. R. [Department of Instrumentation Science and Centre for Plasma Studies, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 (India)

2011-02-15

133

Tribonucleation of bubbles  

PubMed Central

We report on the nucleation of bubbles on solids that are gently rubbed against each other in a liquid. The phenomenon is found to depend strongly on the material and roughness of the solid surfaces. For a given surface, temperature, and gas content, a trail of growing bubbles is observed if the rubbing force and velocity exceed a certain threshold. Direct observation through a transparent solid shows that each bubble in the trail results from the early coalescence of several microscopic bubbles, themselves detaching from microscopic gas pockets forming between the solids. From a detailed study of the wear tracks, with atomic force and scanning electron microscopy imaging, we conclude that these microscopic gas pockets originate from a local fracturing of the surface asperities, possibly enhanced by chemical reactions at the freshly created surfaces. Our findings will be useful either for preventing undesired bubble formation or, on the contrary, for “writing with bubbles,” i.e., creating controlled patterns of microscopic bubbles. PMID:24982169

Wildeman, Sander; Lhuissier, Henri; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef; Prosperetti, Andrea

2014-01-01

134

Speculations on Nonlinear Speculative Bubbles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews a variety of issues related to speculative bubbles, especially those involving nonlinear dynamics. Models of irrational bubbles, rational bubbles, and bubbles arising from heterogeneous agents with varying degrees of knowledge or rationality are examined. The latter are shown to be prone to nonlinear dynamics with catastrophic discontinuities, chaos, and other forms of complex phenomena. Empirical evidence regarding

J. Barkley Rosser

1997-01-01

135

Dynamics of soap bubble bursting and its implications to volcano acoustics  

E-print Network

the pressure variations, in the magma column, associ- ated with the rise of the gas bubbles toward the surface assert that acoustic waves are generated either by the bursting of the gas bubbles [Ripepe et al. (1996), Johnson (2003)] or by the oscillation of the magma membrane covering the gas slug just before the burst- 1

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

136

Bubble visualization in a simulated hydraulic jump  

E-print Network

This is a fluid dynamics video of two- and three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics simulations carried out at St. Anthony Falls Laboratory. A transient hydraulic jump is simulated using OpenFOAM, an open source numerical solver. A Volume of Fluid numerical method is employed with a realizable k-epsilon turbulence model. The goal of this research is to model the void fraction and bubble size in a transient hydraulic jump. This fluid dynamics video depicts the air entrainment characteristics and bubble behavior within a hydraulic jump of Froude number 4.82.

Witt, Adam; Shen, Lian

2013-01-01

137

The thermodynamics of bubbles  

E-print Network

This paper outlines those concitions annanded by the laws of thermodynamics for equilibriza betwoen the vapor in a bubble and the surrounding liquid and then employs these concepts with a nucleation theory in an atteapt ...

Clark, John A.

1956-01-01

138

Black-hole bubbles  

SciTech Connect

If theories of high-energy physics such as spontaneous symmetry breaking and quantum chromodynamics are correct, then exploding black holes will be surrounded by phase-transition bubbles or fireballs, supported by the pressure of particles trapped inside a high-temperature phase. For quark-gas fireballs, where there is a hadron bag with a hole in it, this enhances the ..gamma..-ray emission by a factor of 69 which could lead to a feature in the ..gamma..-ray background around 200 MeV. For other bubbles there may be detectable electromagnetic pulses produced by the Rees mechanism when the bubble bursts, particularly for the inflated bubbles which result from the models suggested by the inflationary-universe scenario.

Moss, I.G.

1985-09-15

139

Chemistry in Soap Bubbles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a laboratory experiment in which common chemical gases are trapped inside soap bubbles. Examines the physical and chemical properties of the gases such as relative density and combustion. (Author/MM)

Lee, Albert W. M.; Wong, A.; Lee, H. W.; Lee, H. Y.; Zhou, Ning-Huai

2002-01-01

140

2012 Problem 8: Bubbles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When a large number of bubbles exist in the water, an object may float on the surface or sink. The assumption of equivalent density is proposed in this article to explain the concrete example. According to the assumption, an object is floatable only if its density is less than the equivalent density of the water-bubble mixture. This conclusion is supported by the floating experiment and by measuring the pressure underwater to a satisfactory approximation.

Zhu, Kejing; Xia, Qing; Wang, Sihui; Zhou, Huijun

2015-10-01

141

Direct simulation of single bubble motion under vertical magnetic field: Paths and wakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motion of single Ar bubbles rising in GaInSn under vertical magnetic fields is studied numerically using a volume-of-fluid method and adaptive mesh refinement technique for two-phase interface treatment; a consistent and conservative scheme calculates induced current density and Lorentz force. Numerical results are compared with published experimental data [C. Zhang, S. Eckert, and G. Gerbeth, "Experimental study of single bubble motion in a liquid metal column exposed to a DC magnetic field," Int. J. Multiphase Flow 31, 824-842 (2005)], where bubble diameters range from 2.5 to 6.4 mm, producing Reynolds numbers that vary between 2000 and 4000. Maximum experimental magnetic field strength was set to 0.3 T because of experimental restrictions, although we increased it to 0.5 T for firm conclusions. Apart from terminal rising velocity comparisons, we focused on variations in bubble motion paths and wake structures under magnetic fields, which cannot be observed experimentally because liquid metal is opaque. Magnetic field effects on bubble trajectory are exerted through vortex structure modification, which reinforced the conjecture that path instability is mainly attributed to wake instability. In bubble motion without magnetic fields, vortex threads in the bubble wake wrap around each other while vortex filaments incline parallel to the field with increasing magnetic intensity. Additionally, high magnetic fields will induce secondary bubble path instabilities, which contribute to the high Reynolds number flow that instabilities develop around the bubble, producing an asymmetrical Lorentz force distribution. This instability vanishes under higher magnetic intensities because flow instability is suppressed. Rising bubble aspect ratios decrease considerably under magnetic fields and may also contribute to smaller vorticities at the bubble surface. A close relationship between fluctuations in rising velocity and shape variations is found.

Zhang, Jie; Ni, Ming-Jiu

2014-10-01

142

Gas Bubble Growth Dynamics in a Supersaturated Solution: Henry's and Sievert's Solubility Laws  

E-print Network

Theoretical description of diffusion growth of a gas bubble after its nucleation in supersaturated liquid solution is presented. We study the influence of Laplace pressure on the bubble growth. We consider two different solubility laws: Henry's law, which is fulfilled for the systems where no gas molecules dissociation takes place and Sievert's law, which is fulfilled for the systems where gas molecules completely dissociate in the solvent into two parts. We show that the difference between Henry's and Sievert's laws for chemical equilibrium conditions causes the difference in bubble growth dynamics. Assuming that diffusion flux of dissolved gas molecules to the bubble is steady we obtain differential equations on bubble radius for both solubility laws. For the case of homogeneous nucleation of a bubble, which takes place at a significant pressure drop bubble dynamics equations for Henry's and Sievert's laws are solved analytically. For both solubility laws three characteristic stages of bubble growth are mar...

Gor, Gennady Yu; Kuni, Fedor M

2012-01-01

143

On bubble clustering and energy spectra in pseudo-turbulence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We performed 3D-Particle Tracking (3D-PTV) and Phase Sensitive Constant Temperature Anemometry in pseudo-turbulence to investigate bubble clustering and to obtain the mean bubble rise velocity, distributions of bubble velocities, and energy spectra at dilute gas concentrations. To characterize the clustering the pair correlation function G(r,?) is calculated. The deformable bubbles with equivalent bubble diameter db=4-5 mm are found to cluster within a radial distance of a few bubble radii with a preferred vertical orientation. This vertical alignment is present at both small and large scales. The large number of data-points and the non intrusiveness of PTV allowed to obtain well-converged Probability Density Functions (PDFs) of the bubble velocity. The PDFs have a non-Gaussian form for all velocity components and intermittency effects can be observed. The energy spectrum of the liquid fluctuations decays with a power law of -3.2, different from the -5/3 found for homogeneous isotropic turbulence.

Martinez Mercado, Julian; Chehata Gomez, Daniel; van Gils, Dennis; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef

2009-11-01

144

BURST OF STAR FORMATION DRIVES BUBBLE IN GALAXY'S CORE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

These NASA Hubble Space Telescope snapshots reveal dramatic activities within the core of the galaxy NGC 3079, where a lumpy bubble of hot gas is rising from a cauldron of glowing matter. The picture at left shows the bubble in the center of the galaxy's disk. The structure is more than 3,000 light-years wide and rises 3,500 light-years above the galaxy's disk. The smaller photo at right is a close-up view of the bubble. Astronomers suspect that the bubble is being blown by 'winds' (high-speed streams of particles) released during a burst of star formation. Gaseous filaments at the top of the bubble are whirling around in a vortex and are being expelled into space. Eventually, this gas will rain down upon the galaxy's disk where it may collide with gas clouds, compress them, and form a new generation of stars. The two white dots just above the bubble are probably stars in the galaxy. The close-up reveals that the bubble's surface is lumpy, consisting of four columns of gaseous filaments that tower above the galaxy's disk. The filaments disperse at a height of 2,000 light-years. Each filament is about 75 light-years wide. Velocity measurements taken by the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope in Hawaii show that the gaseous filaments are ascending at more than 4 million miles an hour (6 million kilometers an hour). According to theoretical models, the bubble formed when ongoing winds from hot stars mixed with small bubbles of very hot gas from supernova explosions. Observations of the core's structure by radio telescopes indicate that those processes are still active. The models suggest that this outflow began about a million years ago. They occur about every 10 million years. Eventually, the hot stars will die, and the bubble's energy source will fade away. Astronomers have seen evidence of previous outbursts from radio and X-ray observations. Those studies show rings of dust and gas and long plumes of material, all of which are larger than the bubble. NGC 3079 is 50 million light-years from Earth in the constellation Ursa Major. The colors in this image accentuate important details in the bubble. Glowing gas is red and starlight is blue/green. Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 snapped this picture in 1998. The results appear in the July 1, 2001 issue of the Astrophysical Journal. Credits: NASA, Gerald Cecil (University of North Carolina), Sylvain Veilleux (University of Maryland), Joss Bland-Hawthorn (Anglo-Australian Observatory), and Alex Filippenko (University of California at Berkeley).

2002-01-01

145

Statistical equilibrium of bubble oscillations in dilute bubbly flows  

PubMed Central

The problem of predicting the moments of the distribution of bubble radius in bubbly flows is considered. The particular case where bubble oscillations occur due to a rapid (impulsive or step change) change in pressure is analyzed, and it is mathematically shown that in this case, inviscid bubble oscillations reach a stationary statistical equilibrium, whereby phase cancellations among bubbles with different sizes lead to time-invariant values of the statistics. It is also shown that at statistical equilibrium, moments of the bubble radius may be computed using the period-averaged bubble radius in place of the instantaneous one. For sufficiently broad distributions of bubble equilibrium (or initial) radius, it is demonstrated that bubble statistics reach equilibrium on a time scale that is fast compared to physical damping of bubble oscillations due to viscosity, heat transfer, and liquid compressibility. The period-averaged bubble radius may then be used to predict the slow changes in the moments caused by the damping. A benefit is that period averaging gives a much smoother integrand, and accurate statistics can be obtained by tracking as few as five bubbles from the broad distribution. The period-averaged formula may therefore prove useful in reducing computational effort in models of dilute bubbly flow wherein bubbles are forced by shock waves or other rapid pressure changes, for which, at present, the strong effects caused by a distribution in bubble size can only be accurately predicted by tracking thousands of bubbles. Some challenges associated with extending the results to more general (nonimpulsive) forcing and strong two-way coupled bubbly flows are briefly discussed. PMID:19547725

Colonius, Tim; Hagmeijer, Rob; Ando, Keita; Brennen, Christopher E.

2008-01-01

146

On the inviscid stability of parallel bubbly flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper investigates the effects of bubble dynamics on the stability of parallel bubbly flows of low void fraction. The equations of motion for the bubbly mixture are linearized for small perturbations and the parallel flow assumption is used to obtain a modified Rayleigh equation governing the inviscid stability problem. This is then used for the stability analysis of two-dimensional shear layers, jets and wakes. Inertial effects associated with the bubble response and energy dissipation due to the viscosity of the liquid, the heat transfer between the two phases, and the liquid compressibility are included. Numerical solutions of the eigenvalue problems for the modified Rayleigh equation are obtained by means of a multiple shooting method. Depending on the characteristic velocities of the various flows, the void fraction, and the ambient pressure, the presence of air bubbles can induce significant departures from the classical stability results for a single-phase fluid.

D'Agostino, Luca; D'Auria, Fabrizio; Brennen, Christopher E.

1997-05-01

147

Colliding with a crunching bubble  

SciTech Connect

In the context of eternal inflation we discuss the fate of Lambda = 0 bubbles when they collide with Lambda< 0 crunching bubbles. When the Lambda = 0 bubble is supersymmetric, it is not completely destroyed by collisions. If the domain wall separating the bubbles has higher tension than the BPS bound, it is expelled from the Lambda = 0 bubble and does not alter its long time behavior. If the domain wall saturates the BPS bound, then it stays inside the Lambda = 0 bubble and removes a finite fraction of future infinity. In this case, the crunch singularity is hidden behind the horizon of a stable hyperbolic black hole.

Freivogel, Ben; Freivogel, Ben; Horowitz, Gary T.; Shenker, Stephen

2007-03-26

148

Bubbles of Metamorphosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metamorphosis presents a puzzling challenge where, triggered by a signal, an organism abruptly transforms its entire shape and form. Here I describe the role of physical fluid dynamic processes during pupal metamorphosis in flies. During early stages of pupation of third instar larvae into adult flies, a physical gas bubble nucleates at a precise temporal and spatial location, as part of the normal developmental program in Diptera. Although its existence has been known for the last 100 years, the origin and control of this ``cavitation'' event has remained completely mysterious. Where does the driving negative pressure for bubble nucleation come from? How is the location of the bubble nucleation site encoded in the pupae? How do molecular processes control such a physical event? What is the role of this bubble during development? Via developing in-vivo imaging techniques, direct bio-physical measurements in live insect pupal structures and physical modeling, here I elucidate the physical mechanism for appearance and disappearance of this bubble and predict the site of nucleation and its exact timing. This new physical insight into the process of metamorphosis also allows us to understand the inherent design of pupal shell architectures in various species of insects.

Prakash, Manu

2011-11-01

149

The rising risks of rising tides  

SciTech Connect

The erosion of beaches, flooding of agricultural land, and intrusion of saltwater into coastal streams could become a reality if temperatures climb. Over the past century, sea levels have risen 4 to 6 inches. Now, the Intergovernmental panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predicts that sea levels will rise between 8 and 28 inches by 2070, say Hans Hanson, associate professor emeritus in the Department of Water Resources Engineering at the University of Lund in Sweden. Coastal communities, which harbor more than half the world`s population, are poorly equipped to combat the threat of encroaching waters. {open_quotes}Few public officials have developed comprehensive strategies to address the potential consequences of sea-level rise,{close_quotes} the authors say. In response to the lack of long-term strategies to address the potential consequences of sea-level rise,{close_quotes} the authors say. In response to the lack of long-term strategies, the IPCC has recommended that coastal nations implement coastal-zone management plans by 2000. {open_quotes}Low-lying islands and high-use, developed coastal areas... face an urgent need to develop strategies for coping with sea-level rise,{close_quotes} the authors conclude.

Hanson, H.; Lindh, G. [Univ. of Lund (Sweden)

1996-12-31

150

Effect of direct bubble-bubble interactions on linear-wave propagation in bubbly liquids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the influence of bubble-bubble interactions on the propagation of linear acoustic waves in bubbly liquids. Using the full model proposed by Fuster and Colonius [J. Fluid Mech. 688, 253 (2011), 10.1017/jfm.2011.380], numerical simulations reveal that direct bubble-bubble interactions have an appreciable effect for frequencies above the natural resonance frequency of the average size bubble. Based on the new results, a modification of the classical wave propagation theory is proposed. The results obtained are in good agreement with previously reported experimental data where the classical linear theory systematically overpredicts the effective attenuation and phase velocity.

Fuster, D.; Conoir, J. M.; Colonius, T.

2014-12-01

151

The Fermi Bubbles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Fermi Bubbles are a pair of giant lobes at the heart of the Milky Way, extending roughly 50 degrees north and south of the Galactic Center, and emitting photons with energies up to 100 GeV. This previously unknown structure could be evidence for past activity of the central supermassive black hole, or enhanced star formation towards the inner Galaxy. We will describe the path to discovery of the Bubbles in multiwavelength data, from the first hints in microwave radiation measured by WMAP and X-rays from ROSAT, to the unveiling of their shape and spectrum using public gamma-ray data from the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, to more recent measurements by Planck and XMM-Newton. We will outline the current state of knowledge of the Bubbles' spectrum, morphology and internal structure, and discuss theoretical proposals and numerical simulations for their nature and origin.

Finkbeiner, Douglas P.

2015-01-01

152

Flight Investigation of the Stability and Control Characteristics of a 0.13-Scale Model of the Convair XFY-1 Vertically Rising Airplane During Constant-Altitude Transitions, TED No. NACA DE 368  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation is being conducted to determine the dynamic stability and control characteristics of a 0.13-scale flying model of the Convair XFY-1 vertically rising airplane. This paper presents the results of flight tests to determine the stability and control characteristics of the model during constant-altitude slow transitions from hovering to normal unstalled forward flight. The tests indicated that the airplane can be flown through the transition range fairly easily although some difficulty will probably encountered in controlling the yawing motions at angles of attack between about 60 and 40. An increase in the size of the vertical tail will not materially improve the controllability of the yawing motions in this range of angle of attack but the use of a yaw damper will make the yawing motions easy to control throughout the entire transitional flight range. The tests also indicated that the airplane can probably be flown sideways satisfactorily at speeds up to approximately 33 knots (full scale) with the normal control system and up to approximately 37 knots (full scale) with both elevons and rudders rigged to move differentially for roll control. At sideways speeds above these values, the airplane will have a strong tendency to diverge uncontrollably in roll.

Lovell, Powell M., Jr.; Kibry, Robert H.; Smith, Charles C., Jr.

1953-01-01

153

Mapping Sea Level Rise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity related to climate change, learners create and explore topographical maps as a means of studying sea level rise. Learners use various everyday materials including ice and a potato to investigate the difference between sea ice and glaciers in relation to sea level rise, create and use a topographical map to predict sea level rise, and discuss how sea level rise will affect Alaska's coastline. This lesson plan includes detailed activity procedure guidelines, critical thinking questions, an overhead, and handouts. NOTE: material cost does not include cost to purchase DVD since it is not essential to the activity.

Fairbanks, University O.

2008-01-01

154

Bubble Formation at a Submerged Orifice in Reduced Gravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The dynamic regime of gas injection through a circular plate orifice into an ideally wetting liquid is considered, when successively detached bubbles may be regarded as separate identities. In normal gravity and at relatively low gas flow rates, a growing bubble is modeled as a spherical segment touching the orifice perimeter during the whole time of its evolution. If the flow rate exceeds a certain threshold value, another stage of the detachment process takes place in which an almost spherical gas envelope is connected with the orifice by a nearly cylindrical stem that lengthens as the bubble rises above the plate. The bubble shape resembles then that of a mushroom and the upper envelope continues to grow until the gas supply through the stem is completely cut off. Such a stage is always present under conditions of sufficiently low gravity, irrespective of the flow rate. Two major reasons make for bubble detachment: the buoyancy force and the force due to the momentum inflow into the bubble with the injected gas. The former force dominates the process at normal gravity whereas the second one plays a key role under negligible gravity conditions. It is precisely this fundamental factor that conditions the drastic influence on bubble growth and detachment that changes in gravity are able to cause. The frequency of bubble formation is proportional to and the volume of detached bubbles is independent of the gas flow rate in sufficiently low gravity, while at normal and moderately reduced gravity conditions the first variable slightly decreases and the second one almost linearly increases as the flow rate grows. Effects of other parameters, such as the orifice radius, gas and liquid densities, and surface tension are discussed.

Buyevich, Yu A.; Webbon, Bruce W.

1994-01-01

155

Multivariate bubbles and antibubbles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we develop models for multivariate financial bubbles and antibubbles based on statistical physics. In particular, we extend a rich set of univariate models to higher dimensions. Changes in market regime can be explicitly shown to represent a phase transition from random to deterministic behaviour in prices. Moreover, our multivariate models are able to capture some of the contagious effects that occur during such episodes. We are able to show that declining lending quality helped fuel a bubble in the US stock market prior to 2008. Further, our approach offers interesting insights into the spatial development of UK house prices.

Fry, John

2014-08-01

156

Bubbles from nothing  

SciTech Connect

Within the framework of flux compactifications, we construct an instanton describing the quantum creation of an open universe from nothing. The solution has many features in common with the smooth 6d bubble of nothing solutions discussed recently, where the spacetime is described by a 4d compactification of a 6d Einstein-Maxwell theory on S{sup 2} stabilized by flux. The four-dimensional description of this instanton reduces to that of Hawking and Turok. The choice of parameters uniquely determines all future evolution, which we additionally find to be stable against bubble of nothing instabilities.

Blanco-Pillado, Jose J.; Ramadhan, Handhika S.; Shlaer, Benjamin, E-mail: jose@cosmos.phy.tufts.edu, E-mail: handhika@cosmos.phy.tufts.edu, E-mail: shlaer@cosmos.phy.tufts.edu [Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, 212 College Ave, Medford, MA 02155 (United States)

2012-01-01

157

Magnetic bubble memories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of magnetic bubble memories in systems is investigated by a review of their functions and construction. Propagation, which is achieved by varying localized magnetic field gradients, and detection, which is achieved by the magnetoresistive effect, are discussed. Board-level products, board or boxed subsystems, and custom designed systems are described, and military applications such as the PBM 90M (1 Mbyte module) for FHD replacement systems are presented. Other applications include security systems, computer terminals, and traffic control. Advantages of bubble systems are also summarized, and include the rugged nonvolatile storage medium, low cost, and high reliability.

Baker, K.

158

Drag Reduction by Bubble Oscillations  

E-print Network

Drag reduction in stationary turbulent flows by bubbles is sensitive to the dynamics of bubble oscillations. Without this dynamical effect the bubbles only renormalize the fluid density and viscosity, an effect that by itself can only lead to a small percentage of drag reduction. We show in this paper that the dynamics of bubbles and their effect on the compressibility of the mixture can lead to a much higher drag reduction.

T. S. Lo; Victor S. L'vov; Itamar Procaccia

2005-11-02

159

Bubble kinetics in a steady-state column of aqueous foam  

E-print Network

We measure the liquid content, the bubble speeds, and the distribution of bubble sizes, in a vertical column of aqueous foam maintained in steady-state by continuous bubbling of gas into a surfactant solution. Nearly round bubbles accumulate at the solution/foam interface, and subsequently rise with constant speed. Upon moving up the column, they become larger due to gas diffusion and more polyhedral due to drainage. The size distribution is monodisperse near the bottom and polydisperse near the top, but there is an unexpected range of intermediate heights where it is bidisperse with small bubbles decorating the junctions between larger bubbles. We explain the evolution in both bidisperse and polydisperse regimes, using Laplace pressure differences and taking the liquid fraction profile as a given.

K. Feitosa; Olivia L. Halt; Randall D. Kamien; D. J. Durian

2006-09-19

160

Bubble size measurement in electroflotation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A feature of electroflotation is the ability to create very fine bubbles, which are known to improve flotation performance of fine particles. This study was aimed at determining the hydrogen bubble size generated as a function ofcurrent density and electrode geometry. Experiments were performed in a viewing cell that allowed direct visualization of hydrogen bubbles being generated and transported away

G. M. Evans; S. W. Donne

2010-01-01

161

Using Bubbles to Explore Membranes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners use bubbles to investigate the structure and unique properties of cell membranes. Bubbles serve as macroscopic models that mimic the cells' phospholipid bilayers. Learners also use the bubbles to form prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells. This inquiry type lab can be done as a group or cooperative learning experience. Materials listed are designed for a group of 30 learners.

Sandra Wardell

2009-01-01

162

Study of bubble behavior in weightlessness (effects of thermal gradient and acoustic stationary wave) (M-16)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aim of this experiment is to understand how bubbles behave in a thermal gradient and acoustic stationary wave under microgravity. In microgravity, bubble or bubbles in a liquid will not rise upward as they do on Earth but will rest where they are formed because there exists no gravity-induced buoyancy. We are interested in how bubbles move and in the mechanisms which support the movement. We will try two ways to make bubbles migrate. The first experiment concerns behavior of bubbles in a thermal gradient. It is well known than an effect of surface tension which is masked by gravity on the ground becomes dominant in microgravity. The surface tension on the side of the bubble at a lower temperature is stronger than at a higher temperature. The bubble migrates toward the higher temperature side due to the surface tension difference. The migration speed depends on the so-called Marangoni number, which is a function of the temperature difference, the bubble diameter, liquid viscosity, and thermal diffusivity. At present, some experimental data about migration speeds in liquids with very small Marangoni numbers were obtained in space experiments, but cases of large Marangoni number are rarely obtained. In our experiment a couple of bubbles are to be injected into a cell filled with silicon oil, and the temperature gradient is to be made gradually in the cell by a heater and a cooler. We will be able to determine migration speeds in a very wide range of Marangoni numbers, as well as study interactions between the bubbles. We will observe bubble movements affected by hydrodynamical and thermal interactions, the two kinds of interactions which occur simultaneously. These observation data will be useful for analyzing the interactions as well as understanding the behavior of particles or drops in materials processing. The second experiment concerns bubble movement in an acoustic stationary wave. It is known that a bubble in a stationary wave moves toward the node or the loop according to whether its diameter is larger or smaller than that of the main resonant radius. In our experiment fine bubbles will be observed to move according to an acoustic field formed in a cylindrical cell. The existence of bubbles varies the acoustic speed, and the interactive force between bubbles will make the bubble behavior collective and complicated. This experiment will be very useful to development of bubble removable technology as well as to the understanding of bubble behavior.

Azuma, H.

1993-01-01

163

Rising Sea Levels  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the past century, as the climate has warmed, sea level rise has accelerated. Scientists predict it will only increase, and they're studying changes in the ocean and land to better understand how and why the water is rising. "Changing Planet" is produced in partnership with the National Science Foundation.

Learn, Nbc

2010-10-07

164

The Liberal Arts Bubble  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author expresses his doubt that the general higher education bubble will burst anytime soon. Although tuition, student housing, and book costs have all increased substantially, he believes it is still likely that the federal government will continue to pour billions into higher education, largely because Americans have been persuaded that it…

Agresto, John

2011-01-01

165

Bubble Chamber Site  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This substantial site features a large number of photos of bubble chamber (BC) tracks, many with a discussion of the physics. There is a description of how the BC works and also useful tutorial on reading BC pictures. The high quality of the images and the explanations of the events that are shown make this site especially valuable.

2006-06-19

166

Remobilizing the Interfaces of Thermocapillary Driven Bubbles Retarded by the Adsorption of a Surfactant Impurity on the Bubble Surface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermocapillary migration is a method for moving bubbles in space in the absence of buoyancy. A temperature gradient is applied to the continuous phase in which a bubble is situated, and the applied gradient impressed on the bubble surface causes one pole of the drop to be cooler than the opposite pole. As the surface tension is a decreasing function of temperature, the cooler pole pulls at the warmer pole, creating a flow which propels the bubble in the direction of the warmer fluid. A major impediment to the practical use of thermocapillarity to direct the movement of bubbles in space is the fact that surfactant impurities which are unavoidably present in the continuous phase can significantly reduce the migration velocity. A surfactant impurity adsorbed onto the bubble interface is swept to the trailing end of the bubble. When bulk concentrations are low (which is the case with an impurity), diffusion of surfactant to the front end is slow relative to convection, and surfactant collects at the back end of the bubble. Collection at the back lowers the surface tension relative to the front end setting up a reverse tension gradient. For buoyancy driven bubble motions in the absence of a thermocapillarity, the tension gradient opposes the surface flow, and reduces the surface and terminal velocities (the interface becomes more solid-like). When thermocapillary forces are present, the reverse tension gradient set up by the surfactant accumulation reduces the temperature tension gradient, and decreases to near zero the thermocapillary velocity. The objective of our research is to develop a method for enhancing the thermocapillary migration of bubbles which have been retarded by the adsorption onto the bubble surface of a surfactant impurity, Our remobilization theory proposes to use surfactant molecules which kinetically rapidly exchange between the bulk and the surface and are at high bulk concentrations. Because the remobilizing surfactant is present at much higher concentrations than the impurity, it adsorbs to the bubble much faster than the impurity when the bubble is formed, and thereby prevents the impurity from adsorbing onto the surface. In addition the rapid kinetic exchange and high bulk concentration maintain a saturated surface with a uniform surface concentrations. This prevents retarding surface tension gradients and keeps the velocity high. In our first report last year, we detailed experimental results which verified the theory of remobilization in ground based experiments in which the steady velocity of rising bubbles was measured in a continuous phase consisting of a glycerol/water mixture containing a polyethylene glycol surfactant C12E6 (CH3(CH2)11(OCH2CH2)6OH). In our report this year, we detail our efforts to describe theoretically the remobilization observed. We construct a model in which a bubble rises steadily by buoyancy in a continuous (Newtonian) viscous fluid containing surfactant with a uniform far field bulk concentration. We account for the effects of inertia as well as viscosity in the flow in the continuous phase caused by the bubble motion (order one Reynolds number), and we assume that the bubble shape remains spherical (viscous and inertial forces are smaller than capillary forces, i e. small Weber and capillary numbers). The surfactant distribution is calculated by solving the mass transfer equations including convection and diffusion in the bulk, and finite kinetic exchange the bulk and the surface. Convective effects dominate diffusive mass transfer in the bulk of the liquid (high Peclet numbers) except in a thin boundary layer near the surface. A finite volume method is used to numerically solve the hydrodynamic and mass transfer equations on a staggered grid which accounts specifically for the thin boundary layer. We present the results of the nondimensional drag as a function of the bulk concentration of surfactant for different rates of kinetic exchange, from which we develop criteria for the concentration necessary to develop a prescribed degree of remobilization. The criteria c

Palaparthi, Ravi; Maldarelli, Charles; Papageorgiou, Dimitri; Singh, Bhim S. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

167

Effect of gas expansion on the front shape of a Taylor bubble: an experimental contribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental study where an individual Taylor bubble rises through water with different bubble volume expansion rates is presented with the (front) bubble shape determination as main objective. A combination of two techniques, Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Pulsed Shadowgraphy (PS), was used to collect images for further treatment in order to characterize the liquid flow pattern in front of the bubble and the bubble shape. Processing the images acquired with pulsed illumination from behind the bubble it was possible to define with precision the bubble shape at different stages when it was expanding. The operation conditions used allowed a wide range of volume expansion rates (0 to 28.5 × 10-6 m3/s) with a significant effect on the Taylor bubble velocity; increases in bubble velocity up to 21% were observed relatively to constant volume system condition. Nevertheless, it seems that the front shape of Taylor bubbles does not change significantly with the upward liquid flow rates induced by gas expansion, at least for the volume expansion rates used in the experiments.

Santos, Laura; Esteves, Teresa; Coelho Pinheiro, Nazaré

2014-03-01

168

Use of Freons in Bubble Chambers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sensitive regions of several Freons in a bubble chamber have been determined. CF3Br, Freon 13B1, has been found to be sensitive at 30°C, at which temperature the equilibrium vapor pressure is only 264 psi. Because of its pleasant handling characteristics, and the fact that it can be used in any chamber designed for propane, it is suggested that it

David V. Bugg

1958-01-01

169

Signature of anisotropic bubble collisions  

SciTech Connect

Our universe may have formed via bubble nucleation in an eternally inflating background. Furthermore, the background may have a compact dimension--the modulus of which tunnels out of a metastable minimum during bubble nucleation--which subsequently grows to become one of our three large spatial dimensions. When in this scenario our bubble universe collides with other ones like it, the collision geometry is constrained by the reduced symmetry of the tunneling instanton. While the regions affected by such bubble collisions still appear (to leading order) as disks in an observer's sky, the centers of these disks all lie on a single great circle, providing a distinct signature of anisotropic bubble nucleation.

Salem, Michael P. [Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts 02155 (United States)

2010-09-15

170

Bubbly Little Star  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this processed Spitzer Space Telescope image, baby star HH 46/47 can be seen blowing two massive 'bubbles.' The star is 1,140 light-years away from Earth.

The infant star can be seen as a white spot toward the center of the Spitzer image. The two bubbles are shown as hollow elliptical shells of bluish-green material extending from the star. Wisps of green in the image reveal warm molecular hydrogen gas, while the bluish tints are formed by starlight scattered by surrounding dust.

These bubbles formed when powerful jets of gas, traveling at 200 to 300 kilometers per second, or about 120 to 190 miles per second, smashed into the cosmic cloud of gas and dust that surrounds HH 46/47. The red specks at the end of each bubble show the presence of hot sulfur and iron gas where the star's narrow jets are currently crashing head-on into the cosmic cloud's gas and dust material.

Whenever astronomers observe a star, or snap a stellar portrait, through the lens of any telescope, they know that what they are seeing is slightly blurred. To clear up the blurring in Spitzer images, astronomers at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory developed an image processing technique for Spitzer called Hi-Res deconvolution.

This process reduces blurring and makes the image sharper and cleaner, enabling astronomers to see the emissions around forming stars in greater detail. When scientists applied this image processing technique to the Spitzer image of HH 46/47, they were able to see winds from the star and jets of gas that are carving the celestial bubbles.

This infrared image is a three-color composite, with data at 3.6 microns represented in blue, 4.5 and 5.8 microns shown in green, and 24 microns represented as red.

2007-01-01

171

Experimental study of nonstationary regimes of ascent of a single bubble  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results of experimental study of the dynamics of ascent of a single spherical bubble in a viscous fluid at small Reynolds numbers (Re < 1) have been presented. A refined empirical dependence has been obtained for the resistance coefficient in a stationary regime of motion of the bubble. The influence of nonstationary and "hereditary" effects on the dynamics of ascent of the bubble has been evaluated. A substantial influence of the Basset force on the characteristic of a nonstationary regime of motion of the bubble, in particular, on the characteristic time of dynamic relaxation, in the region of small Reynolds numbers has been shown.

Arkhipov, V. A.; Vasenin, I. M.; Usanina, A. S.

2013-09-01

172

Mathematical Analysis of Relationship between Land Price and Real Estate Bubbles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the article, the author studies the relationship between land price and real estate bubbles through mathematical analysis. Firstly, through analyzing the situation in foreign countries, the author points out that the rising price of land makes the price of real estate keep rising because the land price is the most important part of real estate price. This is the

Lv Bo; Zhang Ming-yu

2006-01-01

173

Atmospheric-pressure microplasma in dielectrophoresis-driven bubbles for optical emission spectroscopy.  

PubMed

The manipulation of bubbles and the ignition of microplasma within a 200 nL bubble at atmospheric pressure and in an inert silicone oil environment were achieved. Driven by dielectrophoresis (DEP), bubble generation, transportation, mixing, splitting, and expelling were demonstrated. This process facilitated the preparation of various bubbles with tuneable gas compositions. Different gas bubbles, including air, argon (Ar), helium (He), and Ar/He mixtures, were manipulated and ignited to the plasma state by dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) within a 50 ?m-high gap between parallel plates. Moving and splitting the atmospheric-pressure microplasma in different gas bubbles were achieved by DEP. The excited light of the microplasma was recorded by an optical spectrometer for the optical emission spectroscopy (OES) analyses. The characteristic peaks of air, Ar, and He were observed in the DEP-driven microplasma. With the capability to manipulate bubbles and microplasma, this platform could be used for gas analyses in the future. PMID:22878730

Fan, Shih-Kang; Shen, Yan-Ting; Tsai, Ling-Pin; Hsu, Cheng-Che; Ko, Fu-Hsiang; Cheng, Yu-Ting

2012-10-01

174

Multiscale Modeling of Cavitating Bubbly Flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modeling of cavitating bubbly flows is challenging due to the wide range of characteristic lengths of the physics at play: from micrometers (e.g., bubble nuclei radius) to meters (e.g., propeller diameter or sheet cavity length). To address this, we present here a multiscale approach which integrates a Discrete Bubble Model for dispersed microbubbles and a level set N-S solver for macro cavities, along with a mesoscale transition model to bridge the two. This approach was implemented in 3DYNAFS^ and used to simulate sheet-to-cloud cavitation over a hydrofoil. The hybrid model captures well the full cavitation process starting from free field nuclei and nucleation from solid surfaces. In low pressure region of the foil small nuclei are seen to grow large and eventually merge to form a large scale sheet cavity. A reentrant jet forms under the cavity, travels upstream, and breaks it, resulting in a bubble cloud of a large amount of microbubbles as the broken pockets shrink and travel downstream. This is in good agreement with experimental observations based of sheet lengths and frequency of lift force oscillation.

Ma, J.; Hsiao, C.-T.; Chahine, G. L.

2013-03-01

175

DNA denaturation bubbles at criticality  

E-print Network

The equilibrium statistical properties of DNA denaturation bubbles are examined in detail within the framework of the Peyrard-Bishop-Dauxois model. Bubble formation in homogeneous DNA is found to depend crucially on the presence of nonlinear base-stacking interactions. Small bubbles extending over less than 10 base pairs are associated with much larger free energies of formation per site than larger bubbles. As the critical temperature is approached, the free energy associated with further bubble growth becomes vanishingly small. An analysis of average displacement profiles of bubbles of varying sizes at different temperatures reveals almost identical scaled shapes in the absence of nonlinear stacking; nonlinear stacking leads to distinct scaled shapes of large and small bubbles.

Theodorakopoulos, Nikos

2008-01-01

176

Peach and apricot stone combustion in a bubbling fluidized bed  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a bubbling fluidized bed combustor (BFBC) of 102 mm inside diameter and 900 mm height was used to investigate the combustion characteristics of peach and apricot stones produced as a waste from the fruit juice industry. A lignite coal was also burned in the same combustor. The combustion characteristics of the wastes were compared with that of

Burçak Kaynak; Hüseyin Topal; Aysel T. Atimtay

2005-01-01

177

Characterizing methane ebullition (bubbling) dynamics from aquatic sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ebullition (bubbling) is one of the most efficient, yet understudied, transport pathways of CH4 from aquatic sediments to the atmosphere. The spatiotemporal variability of ebullition has hindered gaining knowledge of the dynamics of this phenomenon as it is quite complex and difficult to measure accurately. Here we discuss the characterization of ebullition in several systems using various techniques, but focusing on the hydroacoustic evaluation of ebullition with an echosounder. The spatial variability of ebullition in a small Swiss hydropower reservoir was explored in detail and revealed that bathymetry, perhaps as a proxy for sedimentation, heavily dictates the variability. Since an echosounder can be calibrated for bubble volume, the importance of bubble size was elucidated, particularly the significance of large bubbles for gas transport. With knowledge of bubble size, atmospheric ebullition fluxes can be estimated from the hydroacoustic ebulltion fluxes near the sediment bottom combined with a discrete bubble model to estimate dissolution of rising bubbles. Explicit hotspots of ebullition emission were thus distinguished using hydroacoustic data. Results from a somewhat similar reservoir system in Germany identified increased sediment accumulation as the most probable cause for locations of ebullition hot spots. The effect river inflow and sedimentation have on ebullition has also been seen in the Rhone River delta of Lake Geneva, Switzerland, where ebullition focused on certain sedimentalogical features characterizing the complex bathymetry of the delta. We propose that areas of intense sediment accumulation are conducive to ebullition formation and release, and that this realization aids in predicting the location of ebullition hot spots. In the future, predicting hotspot locations with knowledge of typical bubble sizes and plume types found in those various environments will help in approximating the atmospheric methane emission due to ebullition within a certain range of accuracy.

Del Sontro, T.; Ostrovsky, I.; McGinnis, D. F.; Eugster, W.; Maeck, A.; Lorke, A.; Wehrli, B.

2013-05-01

178

Global sea level rise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Published values for the long-term, global mean sea level rise determined from tide gauge records exhibit considerable scatter, from about 1 mm to 3 mm\\/yr. This disparity is not attributable to instrument error; long-term trends computed at adjacent sites often agree to within a few tenths of a millimeter per year. Instead, the differing estimates of global sea level rise

Bruce C. Douglas

1991-01-01

179

Bubble Eliminator Based on Centrifugal Flow  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fluid bubble eliminator (FBE) is a device that removes gas bubbles from a flowing liquid. The FBE contains no moving parts and does not require any power input beyond that needed to pump the liquid. In the FBE, the buoyant force for separating the gas from the liquid is provided by a radial pressure gradient associated with a centrifugal flow of the liquid and any entrained bubbles. A device based on a similar principle is described in Centrifugal Adsorption Cartridge System (MSC- 22863), which appears on page 48 of this issue. The FBE was originally intended for use in filtering bubbles out of a liquid flowing relatively slowly in a bioreactor system in microgravity. Versions that operate in normal Earth gravitation at greater flow speeds may also be feasible. The FBE (see figure) is constructed as a cartridge that includes two concentric cylinders with flanges at the ends. The outer cylinder is an impermeable housing; the inner cylinder comprises a gas-permeable, liquid-impermeable membrane covering a perforated inner tube. Multiple spiral disks that collectively constitute a spiral ramp are mounted in the space between the inner and outer cylinders. The liquid enters the FBE through an end flange, flows in the annular space between the cylinders, and leaves through the opposite end flange. The spiral disks channel the liquid into a spiral flow, the circumferential component of which gives rise to the desired centrifugal effect. The resulting radial pressure gradient forces the bubbles radially inward; that is, toward the inner cylinder. At the inner cylinder, the gas-permeable, liquid-impermeable membrane allows the bubbles to enter the perforated inner tube while keeping the liquid in the space between the inner and outer cylinders. The gas thus collected can be vented via an endflange connection to the inner tube. The centripetal acceleration (and thus the radial pressure gradient) is approximately proportional to the square of the flow speed and approximately inversely proportional to an effective radius of the annular space. For a given FBE geometry, one could increase the maximum rate at which gas could be removed by increasing the rate of flow to obtain more centripetal acceleration. In experiments and calculations oriented toward the original microgravitational application, centripetal accelerations between 0.001 and 0.012 g [where g normal Earth gravitation (.9.8 m/s2)] were considered. For operation in normal Earth gravitation, it would likely be necessary to choose the FBE geometry and the rate of flow to obtain centripetal acceleration comparable to or greater than g.

Gonda, Steve R.; Tsao, Yow-Min D.; Lee, Wenshan

2004-01-01

180

Nonlinear oscillations and collapse of elongated bubbles subject to weak viscous effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The weak viscous oscillations of a bubble are examined, in response to an elongation that perturbs the initial spherical shape at equilibrium. The flow field in the surrounding liquid is split in a rotational and an irrotational part. The latter satisfies the Laplacian and can be obtained via an integral equation. A hybrid boundary-finite element method is used in order to solve for the velocity potential and shape deformation of axisymmetric bubbles. Weak viscous effects are included in the computations by retaining first-order viscous terms in the normal stress boundary condition and satisfying the tangential stress balance. An extensive set of simulations was carried out until the bubble either returned to its initial spherical shape, or broke up. For a relatively small initial elongation the bubble returned to its initial spherical state regardless of the size of the Ohnesorge number; Oh =?/(?R?)1/2. For larger initial elongations there is a threshold value in Oh-1 above which the bubble eventually breaks up giving rise to a "donut" shaped larger bubble and a tiny satellite bubble occupying the region near the center of the original bubble. The latter is formed as the round ends of the liquid jets that approach each other from opposite sides along the axis of symmetry, coalesce. The size of the satellite bubble decreased as the initial elongation or Oh-1 increased. This pattern persisted for a range of large initial deformations with a decreasing threshold value of the Oh-1 as the initial deformation increased. As its equilibrium radius increases the bubble becomes more susceptible to the above collapse mode. The effect of initial bubble overpressure was also examined and it was seen that small initial overpressures, for the range of initial bubble deformations that was investigated, translate the threshold of Oh-1 to larger values while at the same time increasing the size of the satellite bubble.

Tsiglifis, Kostas; Pelekasis, Nikos A.

2005-10-01

181

Plasma bubbles in the topside ionosphere: solar activity dependence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study deals with the He+ density depletions, observed during a high solar activity at the topside ionosphere heights. There are the indications that plasma bubbles, produced by Rayleigh-Taylor instability at the bottomside of ionosphere, could rise up to the topside ionosphere and plasmasphere. Maryama and Matuura (1984), using ISS-b spacecraft data (high solar activity - F10.7=200, 1978-80), have seen the plasma bubbles in Ne density over equator at 1100 km heights in 46 cases in 1700 passes (3%). However, there is distinctly another picture in He+ density depletions according to ISS-b spacecraft data for the same period. They occur in the topside ionosphere over low- and middle- latitudinal regions (L=1.3-3) in 11% of the cases (Karpachev, Sidorova, 2002; Sidorova, 2004, 2007). The detailed study of the He+ density depletion characteristics was done. It was noted that the He+ density depletions are mostly seen in the evening-night sector (18-05 LT) from October till May. It was like to the peculiarities of the Equatorial Spread-F (ESF), usually associated with plasma bubble. The monthly mean He+ density depletion statistics, plotted in LT versus month, was compared with the similar plots for ESF statistics, obtained by Abdu and colleagues (2000) from ground-based ionograms over Brazilian regions for the period of the same solar activity. It was revealed good enough correlation (R=0.67). Also depletion values as function of LT were compared with the vertical plasma drift velocity variations, obtained for the same period from AE-E spacecraft and IS radar (Jicamarca) data. Striking similarity in development dynamics was revealed for the different seasons. It was concluded, that the He+ density depletions should be considered as originating from equatorial plasma bubbles. It seems the plasma bubbles, reaching the topside ionosphere altitudes, are mostly seen not in electron density but in He+ density as depletions. According to publications, many cases of the He+ density depletions were revealed on OGO-4, OGO-6, Oreol-1 and DE-2 spacecraft data. The most of these cases occur during high and maximal solar activity periods, when the He+ density layer is very well developed at the topside ionosphere heights (Wilford et al., 2003). Using the model of the plasma bubble formation as suggested by Woodman and La Hoz (1976), it was shown that the topside plasma bubbles, seen in He+ density, are rather typical phenomena for the topside ionosphere for high solar activity epoch. REFERENCE Abdu, M.A., J.H.A. Sobral, I.S. Batista, Equatorial spread F statistics in the american longitudes: some problems relevant to ESF description in the IRI scheme, Adv. Space Res., vol. 25, pp. 113-124, 2000. Karpachev, A.T. and L.N. Sidorova, Occurrence probability of the light ion trough and subtrough in ??+ density on season and local time, Adv. Space Res., vol. 29, pp. 999-1008, 2002. Maryama, T. and N. Matuura, Longitudinal variability of annual changes in activity of equatorial spread F and plasma bubbles, J. Geophys. Res., 89(A12), 10,903-10,912, 1984. Sidorova, L.N., He+ density topside modeling based on ISS-b satellite data, Adv. Space Res., vol. 33, pp. 850-854, 2004. Sidorova, L.N., Plasma bubble phenomenon in the topside ionosphere, Adv. Space Res., Special issue (COSPAR), doi: 10.1016/j.asr.2007.03.067, 2007. Wilford, C.R., R.J. Moffett, J.M. Rees, G.J. Bailey, Comparison of the He+ layer observed over Arecibo during solar maximum and solar minimum with CTIP model results, J. Geophys. Res., vol. 108, A12, pp. 1452, doi:10.1029/2003JA009940, 2003. Woodman, R.F. and C. La Hoz, Radar observations of F-region equatorial irregularities, J. Geophys. Res., vol. 81, pp. 5447-5466, 1976.

Sidorova, L.

2009-04-01

182

Numerical investigation on the pulsating bubble dynamics in a narrow cylinder with a compliant coating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the bubble dynamics in a narrow vertical rigid cylinder with a compliant coating filled with water is studied numerically. Considering the surface tension and the coincidence of bubble and cylinder centers, an adopted axisymmetric boundary integral equation approach besides a finite difference method is used for numerical simulation of bubble evolution accompanying with computing the pressure and velocity fields of fluid around it. The compliant boundary is modeled as a membrane with a spring foundation. It is found that the confinement of bubble by the cylinder increases greatly its lifetime and influences its behavior. The first stage of bubble contraction depicts the flattening of its top and bottom parts. A liquid counter-jet is then initiated and develops itself toward the bubble center; the bubble becomes biconcave at the end of the contraction phase. The bubble dynamics is affected by the ratio of cylinder radius to the maximum radius of the bubble. The results also represent the effects of two compliant coating characteristics including its mass per unit area and the spring constant on the bubble behavior. This investigation is motivated by the possibility of utilizing bubbles in the therapeutic cardiovascular applications.

Farhangmehr, V.; Hajizadeh Aghdam, A.; Shervani-Tabar, M. T.; Parvizi, R.; Ohl, S. W.; Khoo, B. C.

2014-02-01

183

Polarizing bubble collisions  

SciTech Connect

We predict the polarization of cosmic microwave background (CMB) photons that results from a cosmic bubble collision. The polarization is purely E-mode, symmetric around the axis pointing towards the collision bubble, and has several salient features in its radial dependence that can help distinguish it from a more conventional explanation for unusually cold or hot features in the CMB sky. The anomalous ''cold spot'' detected by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) satellite is a candidate for a feature produced by such a collision, and the Planck satellite and other proposed surveys will measure the polarization on it in the near future. The detection of such a collision would provide compelling evidence for the string theory landscape.

Czech, Bart?omiej; Larjo, Klaus; Levi, Thomas S.; Sigurdson, Kris [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Kleban, Matthew, E-mail: czech@phas.ubc.ca, E-mail: mk161@nyu.edu, E-mail: larjo@phas.ubc.ca, E-mail: tslevi@phas.ubc.ca, E-mail: krs@phas.ubc.ca [CCPP, Department of Physics, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States)

2010-12-01

184

Simulation studies of vapor bubble generation by short-pulse lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Formation of vapor bubbles is characteristic of many applications of short-pulse lasers in medicine. An understanding of the dynamics of vapor bubble generation is useful for developing and optimizing laser-based medical therapies. To this end, experiments in vapor bubble generation with laser light deposited in an aqueous dye solution near a fiber-optic tip have been performed. Numerical hydrodynamic simulations have

Peter A. Amendt; Richard A. London; Moshe Strauss; Michael E. Glinsky; Duncan J. Maitland; Peter M. Celliers; Steven R. Visuri; David S. Bailey; David A. Young; Darwin Ho; Charles P. Lin; Michael W. Kelly

1998-01-01

185

Energy Measurement of Bubble Bursting Based on Vibration Signals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental study of the energy of bubble bursting at the surface of a high-viscosity liquid on a cantilever beam is reported. The sudden bursting event of a bubble at the liquid surface can cause a vibration of the cantilever beam besides the acoustic wave and jet wave. The peaks of the vibration signal from the beam slightly lag the peaks of the acoustic signal, and the energy transferred to the vibration is larger than that transferred to the acoustic wave. The amplitude of the jet wave depends on the thickness of the liquid film and the size of the bubble. The results of the investigation can be used to understand the dynamic characteristics of bubble bursting.

Liu, Xiao-Bo; Zhang, Jian-Run; Li, Pu; Le, Van-Quynh

2012-06-01

186

Acoustic Measurements Bubbles in Biological Tiessure  

Microsoft Academic Search

An acoustic based instrument, the ABS Acoustic Bubble Spectrometer®© (ABS), was investigated for the detection and quantification of bubbles in biological media. These include viscoelastic media (blood), materials of varying density (bone in tissue), non-homogenous distribution of bubbles (intravenous bubbly flow), and bubbles migrating in tissue (decompression sickness, DCS). The performance of the ABS was demonstrated in a series of

Georges L. CHAHINE; Michel TANGUAY; Greg LORAINE

2009-01-01

187

Fragmentation, nucleation and migration of crystals and bubbles in the Bishop Tuff rhyolitic magma  

SciTech Connect

The Bishop Tuff (USA) is a large-volume, high-silica pyroclastic rhyolite. Five pumice clasts from three early stratigraphic units were studied. Size distributions were obtained using three approaches: (1) crushing, sieving and winnowing (reliable for crystals >100 {micro}m); (2) microscopy of 1 mm{sup 3} fragments (preferable for crystals <100 {micro}m); and (3) computerised X-ray microtomography of {approx}1 cm{sup 3} pumice pieces. Phenocryst fragments coated with glass are common, and the size distributions for all crystals are concave-upward, indicating that crystal fragmentation is an important magmatic process. Three groups are recognised, characterised by: (1) high-density (0.759-0.902 g cm{sup -3}), high-crystal content (14.4-15.3 wt.%) and abundant large crystals (>800 {micro}m); concave-downward size distributions for whole crystals indicate late-stage growth with limited nucleation, compatible with the slow cooling of a large, gas-saturated, stably stratified magma body; (2) low-density (0.499 g cm{sup -3}), low-crystal content (6.63 wt.%) and few large crystals; the approximately linear size distribution reveals that nucleation was locally important, perhaps close to the walls; and (3) intermediate characteristics in all respects. The volumetric fraction of bubbles inversely correlates with the number of large crystals. This is incompatible with isobaric closed-system crystallisation, but can be explained by sinking of large crystals and rise of bubbles in the magma.

Gualda, G.; Cook, D.L.; Chopra, R.; Qin, L.; Anderson, A.T.; Rivers, M. (UC)

2010-12-07

188

Bubble measuring instrument and method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Method and apparatus are provided for a non-invasive bubble measuring instrument operable for detecting, distinguishing, and counting gaseous embolisms such as bubbles over a selectable range of bubble sizes of interest. A selected measurement volume in which bubbles may be detected is insonified by two distinct frequencies from a pump transducer and an image transducer, respectively. The image transducer frequency is much higher than the pump transducer frequency. The relatively low-frequency pump signal is used to excite bubbles to resonate at a frequency related to their diameter. The image transducer is operated in a pulse-echo mode at a controllable repetition rate that transmits bursts of high-frequency ultrasonic signal to the measurement volume in which bubbles may be detected and then receives the echo. From the echo or received signal, a beat signal related to the repetition rate may be extracted and used to indicate the presence or absence of a resonant bubble. In a preferred embodiment, software control maintains the beat signal at a preselected frequency while varying the pump transducer frequency to excite bubbles of different diameters to resonate depending on the range of bubble diameters selected for investigation.

Kline-Schoder, Robert (Inventor); Magari, Patrick J. (Inventor)

2003-01-01

189

Bubble Measuring Instrument and Method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Method and apparatus are provided for a non-invasive bubble measuring instrument operable for detecting, distinguishing, and counting gaseous embolisms such as bubbles over a selectable range of bubble sizes of interest. A selected measurement volume in which bubbles may be detected is insonified by two distinct frequencies from a pump transducer and an image transducer. respectively. The image transducer frequency is much higher than the pump transducer frequency. The relatively low-frequency pump signal is used to excite bubbles to resonate at a frequency related to their diameter. The image transducer is operated in a pulse-echo mode at a controllable repetition rate that transmits bursts of high-frequency ultrasonic signal to the measurement volume in which bubbles may be detected and then receives the echo. From the echo or received signal, a beat signal related to the repetition rate may be extracted and used to indicate the presence or absence of a resonant bubble. In a preferred embodiment, software control maintains the beat signal at a preselected frequency while varying the pump transducer frequency to excite bubbles of different diameters to resonate depending on the range of bubble diameters selected for investigation.

Kline-Schoder, Robert (Inventor); Magari, Patrick J. (Inventor)

2002-01-01

190

Helium bubble bursting in tungsten  

SciTech Connect

Molecular dynamics simulations have been used to systematically study the pressure evolution and bursting behavior of sub-surface helium bubbles and the resulting tungsten surface morphology. This study specifically investigates how bubble shape and size, temperature, tungsten surface orientation, and ligament thickness above the bubble influence bubble stability and surface evolution. The tungsten surface is roughened by a combination of adatom “islands,” craters, and pinholes. The present study provides insight into the mechanisms and conditions leading to various tungsten topology changes, which we believe are the initial stages of surface evolution leading to the formation of nanoscale fuzz.

Sefta, Faiza [University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Juslin, Niklas [University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States); Wirth, Brian D., E-mail: bdwirth@utk.edu [University of Tennessee, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States)

2013-12-28

191

Gas accumulation in particle-rich suspensions and implications for bubble populations in crystal-rich magma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gas mobility plays an important role in driving volcanic eruptions and controlling eruption style. The explosivity of an eruption depends, among other factors, on how easily gas can escape from the magma. Many magmatic systems have high concentrations of suspended crystals that inhibit gas migration through the melt. We use suspensions of plastic beads in corn syrup to investigate interactions between rising bubbles and particles. We observe different interaction styles as the ratio ? of bubble to particle size is varied. Large bubbles (? > 1) deform and sometimes break up as they move around particles. Small bubbles (? < 1) are frequently trapped within the suspension, increasing the concentration of gas held within the system. We compare our experiments to bubble populations in tephra from Stromboli volcano, Italy. We show that these samples typically have bubbles and crystals of similar sizes and suggest that crystals might play a role in controlling bubble size in this natural system as well as in our experiments. Because small bubbles (? < 1) get trapped within the suspension, and can be formed by breakup of larger bubbles, we expect that an increase in gas flux will result in an increase in the population of small bubbles. Changes in bubble number density and vesicularity in tephra erupted during periods of different eruptive intensity may thus provide a way of tracking changes in gas flux through the magma prior to eruption.

Belien, Isolde B.; Cashman, Katharine V.; Rempel, Alan W.

2010-08-01

192

An advanced LIF-PLV system for analysing the hydrodynamics in a laboratory bubble column at higher void fractions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bubble columns are widely used in the chemical industry and biotechnology. Flow and turbulence in such an apparatus are induced by the bubble rise, and the bubble behaviour is strongly affected by swarm effects (i.e. the interaction between bubbles). For analysing the bubble swarm behaviour and simultaneously evaluating the flow structure and bubble-induced turbulence, a bubble column of 140 mm diameter and a height of 650 mm or 1,400 mm (initial water level) were considered. The bubble column was aerated with relatively fine bubbles having a mean size between about 0.5 and 4.0 mm. The gas hold-up was varied in the range between 0.5 and 19%. A two-phase pulsed-light velocimetry (PLV) system was developed to evaluate instantaneous flow fields of both rising bubbles and the continuous phase. The measurement of the liquid velocities in the bubble swarm was achieved by adding fluorescing seed particles. Images of bubbles and fluorescing tracer particles were acquired by two CCD cameras. Hence, the images from tracers and bubbles were easily separated by optical interference filters with a bandwidth corresponding to the emitting wavelength of the fluorescing tracer particles and the wavelength of the applied Nd-YAG pulsed laser, respectively. To improve the phase separation of the system, the CCD cameras were additionally placed in a non-perpendicular arrangement with respect to the light sheet. The acquired images were evaluated with the minimum-quadratic-difference algorithm. The potential of this technique for the analysis of bubbly flows with higher void fraction was explored. In order to obtain averaged velocity maps of bubble and fluid within the entire column, about 1,000 image pairs were recorded and evaluated for each phase. In addition, turbulence intensities of the fluid were deduced from the measurements. The turbulence properties were used to characterise bubble-induced turbulence for various bubble mean diameters and gas hold-ups. Moreover, the determination of the average bubble slip velocity within the bubble swarm was possible.

Bröder, D.; Sommerfeld, M.

2002-08-01

193

Gas-liquid distribution in a bubble column using industrial gamma-ray computed tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A gas absorption column used as a simulator bubble column for industrial processes was evaluated, using the third-generation industrial computed tomography developed at the IPEN. Gamma ray tomography experiments were carried out, using the simulator column empty and filled with water plus gas bubbling. The tomographic measurements were taken at three positions relative to the point of generation of the bubbles: above 20 mm, 120 mm and 320 mm. The resulting images describe the liquid or gas phase holdup distributions for bubbles generated in a hole of ?=5 mm, located at 15 mm of the column wall. The developed third generation CT had a spatial resolution of 4.5 mm and a temporal resolution around 5 h/image. The trend of bubble dispersions, as they rise in the column, was shown.

de Mesquita, Carlos Henrique; de Sousa Carvalho, Diego Vergaças; Kirita, Rodrigo; Vasquez, Pablo Antonio S.; Hamada, Margarida Mizue

2014-02-01

194

Design of experimental setup for investigation of cavitation bubble collapse close to a solid wall  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The article describes experimental setup for investigation of the impact load from collapsing cavitation bubble on a solid wall. A vapour bubble is generated inside a cubic chamber by local heating of water inside a thin channel in a button. The bubble collapse is initiated by a piezoelectric actuator attached to the flexible wall of the chamber. A laser diode with a linear CCD sensor are used to detect the bubble position during its buoyancy-driven rise to the upper wall of the chamber. The bubble collapse impact load is measured using a PVDF piezoelectric transducer glued to the upper wall of the chamber and recorded by high-speed CCD camera illuminated by a high-power LED diode. The pressure inside the chamber is measured by the dynamic pressure transducer. All the system components are controlled and synchronized by an oscilloscope and pulse generator using the LabView software.

Müller, Miloš; Zima, Patrik; Unger, Ji?í; Živný, Martin

2012-04-01

195

Taxing the rich: recombinations and bubble growth during reionization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reionization is inhomogeneous for two reasons: the clumpiness of the intergalactic medium (IGM), and clustering of the discrete ionizing sources. While numerical simulations can in principle take both into account, they are at present limited by small box sizes. On the other hand, analytic models have only examined the limiting cases of a clumpy IGM (with uniform ionizing emissivity) and clustered sources (embedded in a uniform IGM). Here, we present the first analytic model that includes both factors. At first, recombinations can be ignored and ionized bubbles grow primarily through major mergers, because at any given moment the bubbles have a well-defined characteristic size. As a result, reionization resembles `punctuated equilibrium,' with a series of well-separated sharp jumps in the ionizing background. These features are local effects and do not reflect similar jumps in the global ionized fraction. We then combine our bubble model with a simple description of recombinations in the IGM. We show that the bubbles grow until recombinations balance ionizations, when their expansion abruptly halts. If the IGM density structure is similar to that at moderate redshifts, this limits the bubble radii to ~20 comoving Mpc; however, if the IGM is significantly clumpier at higher redshifts (because of minihalo formation, for example), the limit could be much smaller. Once a bubble reaches saturation, that region of the Universe has for all intents and purposes entered the `post-overlap' stage. Because different HII regions saturate over a finite time interval, the overlap epoch actually has a finite width. Our model also predicts a mean recombination rate several times larger than expected for a uniformly illuminated IGM. This picture naturally explains the substantial large-scale variation in Lyman-series opacity along the lines of sight to the known z > 6 quasars. More quasar spectra will shed light on the transition between the `bubble-dominated' topology characteristic of reionization and the `web-dominated' topology characteristic of the later Universe.

Furlanetto, Steven R.; Oh, S. Peng

2005-11-01

196

The rise of graphene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Graphene is a rapidly rising star on the horizon of materials science and condensed-matter physics. This strictly two-dimensional material exhibits exceptionally high crystal and electronic quality, and, despite its short history, has already revealed a cornucopia of new physics and potential applications, which are briefly discussed here. Whereas one can be certain of the realness of applications only when commercial

A. K. Geim; K. S. Novoselov

2007-01-01

197

RISING STAR THE SCIENCE  

E-print Network

RISING STAR THE SCIENCE OF WINE THINKING ABOUT PHILOSOPHY FISHING FOR A CANCER CURE TEACHING a different picture. Biologists searching for a cancer cure in the genes of a tiny fish; researchers who are studying a tiny striped fish that may yield a cure to the scourge of leukaemia. 13 TEACHING THE TEACHERS

Auckland, University of

198

Global sea level rise  

SciTech Connect

Published values for the long-term, global mean sea level rise determined from tide gauge records exhibit considerable scatter, from about 1 mm to 3 mm/yr. This disparity is not attributable to instrument error; long-term trends computed at adjacent sites often agree to within a few tenths of a millimeter per year. Instead, the differing estimates of global sea level rise appear to be in large part due to authors' using data from gauges located at convergent tectonic plate boundaries, where changes of land elevation give fictitious sea level trends. In addition, virtually all gauges undergo subsidence or uplift due to postglacial rebound (PGR) from the last deglaciation at a rate comparable to or greater than the secular rise of sea level. Modeling PGR by the ICE-3G model of Tushingham and Peltier (1991) and avoiding tide gauge records in areas of converging tectonic plates produces a highly consistent set of long sea level records. The value for mean sea level rise obtained from a global set of 21 such stations in nine oceanic regions with an average record length of 76 years during the period 1880-1980 is 1.8 mm/yr {plus minus} 0.1. This result provides confidence that carefully selected long tide gauge records measure the same underlying trend of sea level and that many old tide gauge records are of very high quality.

Douglas, B.C. (NOAA, Rockville, MD (USA))

1991-04-15

199

Perspective Theoretical Neuroscience Rising  

E-print Network

Neuron Perspective Theoretical Neuroscience Rising L.F. Abbott1,* 1Department of Neuroscience *Correspondence: lfabbott@columbia.edu DOI 10.1016/j.neuron.2008.10.019 Theoretical neuroscience has experienced to introduce new ideas and shape directions of neuroscience research. This review presents some

Columbia University

200

Esperanza Rising - Chapter 3  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Reading Chapter 3 from Esperanza Rising, by Pam Munoz Ryan, students will learn about thirteen year old Esperanza and her newly widowed mother as they are forced to leave their fairy tale existence at a ranch in Mexico, to live and work in a migrant worker camp during the Great Depression. Students will practice answering text dependent questions.

2012-11-15

201

Satellites in the inviscid breakup of bubbles J.M. Gordillo  

E-print Network

Satellites in the inviscid breakup of bubbles J.M. Gordillo Departamento de Ingenier the gas to liquid density ratio = g/l is different from zero, tiny satellite bubbles may be formed with a closed expression for the characteristic satellite diameter, which decreases when decreasing and which

Fontelos, Marco

202

Bubble, bubble, flow and Hubble: large scale galaxy flow from cosmological bubble collisions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study large scale structure in the cosmology of Coleman-de Luccia bubble collisions. Within a set of controlled approximations we calculate the effects on galaxy motion seen from inside a bubble which has undergone such a collision. We find that generically bubble collisions lead to a coherent bulk flow of galaxies on some part of our sky, the details of which depend on the initial conditions of the collision and redshift to the galaxy in question. With other parameters held fixed the effects weaken as the amount of inflation inside our bubble grows, but can produce measurable flows past the number of efolds required to solve the flatness and horizon problems.

Larjo, Klaus; Levi, Thomas S.

2010-08-01

203

Stable tridimensional bubble clusters in multi-bubble sonoluminescence (MBSL).  

PubMed

In the present work, stable clusters made of multiple sonoluminescent bubbles are experimentally and theoretically studied. Argon bubbles were acoustically generated and trapped using bi-frequency driving within a cylindrical chamber filled with a sulfuric acid aqueous solution (SA85w/w). The intensity of the acoustic pressure field was strong enough to sustain, during several minutes, a large number of positionally and spatially fixed (without pseudo-orbits) sonoluminescent bubbles over an ellipsoidally-shaped tridimensional array. The dimensions of the ellipsoids were studied as a function of the amplitude of the applied low-frequency acoustic pressure (PAc(LF)) and the static pressure in the fluid (P0). In order to explain the size and shape of the bubble clusters, we performed a series of numerical simulations of the hydrodynamic forces acting over the bubbles. In both cases the observed experimental behavior was in excellent agreement with the numerical results. The simulations revealed that the positionally stable region, mainly determined by the null primary Bjerknes force (F?Bj), is defined as the outer perimeter of an axisymmetric ellipsoidal cluster centered in the acoustic field antinode. The role of the high-frequency component of the pressure field and the influence of the secondary Bjerknes force are discussed. We also investigate the effect of a change in the concentration of dissolved gas on the positional and spatial instabilities through the cluster dimensions. The experimental and numerical results presented in this paper are potentially useful for further understanding and modeling numerous current research topics regarding multi-bubble phenomena, e.g. forces acting on the bubbles in multi-frequency acoustic fields, transient acoustic cavitation, bubble interactions, structure formation processes, atomic and molecular emissions of equal bubbles and nonlinear or unsteady acoustic pressure fields in bubbly media. PMID:24974006

Rosselló, J M; Dellavale, D; Bonetto, F J

2015-01-01

204

The Milky Way Project: Leveraging Citizen Science and Machine Learning to Detect Interstellar Bubbles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present Brut, an algorithm to identify bubbles in infrared images of the Galactic midplane. Brut is based on the Random Forest algorithm, and uses bubbles identified by >35,000 citizen scientists from the Milky Way Project to discover the identifying characteristics of bubbles in images from the Spitzer Space Telescope. We demonstrate that Brut's ability to identify bubbles is comparable to expert astronomers. We use Brut to re-assess the bubbles in the Milky Way Project catalog, and find that 10%-30% of the objects in this catalog are non-bubble interlopers. Relative to these interlopers, high-reliability bubbles are more confined to the mid-plane, and display a stronger excess of young stellar objects along and within bubble rims. Furthermore, Brut is able to discover bubbles missed by previous searches—particularly bubbles near bright sources which have low contrast relative to their surroundings. Brut demonstrates the synergies that exist between citizen scientists, professional scientists, and machine learning techniques. In cases where "untrained" citizens can identify patterns that machines cannot detect without training, machine learning algorithms like Brut can use the output of citizen science projects as input training sets, offering tremendous opportunities to speed the pace of scientific discovery. A hybrid model of machine learning combined with crowdsourced training data from citizen scientists can not only classify large quantities of data, but also address the weakness of each approach if deployed alone.

Beaumont, Christopher N.; Goodman, Alyssa A.; Kendrew, Sarah; Williams, Jonathan P.; Simpson, Robert

2014-09-01

205

Simulation studies of vapor bubble generation by short-pulse lasers  

SciTech Connect

Formation of vapor bubbles is characteristic of many applications of short-pulse lasers in medicine. An understanding of the dynamics of vapor bubble generation is useful for developing and optimizing laser-based medical therapies. To this end, experiments in vapor bubble generation with laser light deposited in an aqueous dye solution near a fiber-optic tip have been performed. Numerical hydrodynamic simulations have been developed to understand and extrapolate results from these experiments. Comparison of two-dimensional simulations with the experiment shows excellent agreement in tracking the bubble evolution. Another regime of vapor bubble generation is short-pulse laser interactions with melanosomes. Strong shock generation and vapor bubble generation are common physical features of this interaction. A novel effect of discrete absorption by melanin granules within a melanosome is studied as a possible role in previously reported high Mach number shocks.

Amendt, P.; London, R.A.; Strauss, M. [and others

1997-10-26

206

Acoustic Behavior of Vapor Bubbles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In a microgravity environment vapor bubbles generated at a boiling surface tend to remain near it for a long time. This affects the boiling heat transfer and in particular promotes an early transition to the highly inefficient film boiling regime. This paper describes the physical basis underlying attempts to remove the bubbles by means of pressure radiation forces.

Prosperetti, Andrea; Oguz, Hasan N.

1996-01-01

207

A prediction for bubbling geometries  

E-print Network

We study the supersymmetric circular Wilson loops in N=4 Yang-Mills theory. Their vacuum expectation values are computed in the parameter region that admits smooth bubbling geometry duals. The results are a prediction for the supergravity action evaluated on the bubbling geometries for Wilson loops.

Takuya Okuda

2008-02-11

208

Bubbles are rational Pierre Lescanne  

E-print Network

Bubbles are rational Pierre Lescanne Universit´e de Lyon, ´Ecole normale sup´erieure de Lyon, CNRS of equilibrium in the theory of infinite sequential games, bubbles and escalations are rational for economic coinduction to properly reason on infinite games. This way we refine the notion of rationality. Keywords

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

209

System for Manipulating Drops and Bubbles Using Acoustic Radiation Pressure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The manipulation and control of drops of liquid and gas bubbles is achieved using high intensity acoustics in the form of and/or acoustic radiation pressure and acoustic streaming. generated by a controlled wave emission from a transducer. Acoustic radiation pressure is used to deploy or dispense drops into a liquid or a gas or bubbles into a liquid at zero or near zero velocity from the discharge end of a needle such as a syringe needle. Acoustic streaming is useful in manipulating the drop or bubble during or after deployment. Deployment and discharge is achieved by focusing the acoustic radiation pressure on the discharge end of the needle, and passing the acoustic waves through the fluid in the needle. through the needle will itself, or coaxially through the fluid medium surrounding the needle. Alternatively, the acoustic waves can be counter-deployed by focusing on the discharge end of the needle from a transducer axially aligned with the needle, but at a position opposite the needle, to prevent premature deployment of the drop or bubble. The acoustic radiation pressure can also be used for detecting the presence or absence of a drop or a bubble at the tip of a needle or for sensing various physical characteristics of the drop or bubble such as size or density.

Oeftering, Richard C. (Inventor)

1999-01-01

210

Experimental study of bubble plume with CFD benchmarking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experiment and simulations were performed to study the characteristics of a bubble plume in water. Important results including experimental data and simulations are summarized. In order to study the bubble plume characteristics, an experiment was designed and carried out. The experiment consisted of a bubble jet being injected into a tank of water at different flow conditions using different injector configurations. In addition to the experimental work, CFD simulations with ANSYS CFX 13.0 were performed. Selected flow conditions were simulated to benchmark the experimental data, and important settings for boundary conditions and simulation strategy were recommended. The CFD analysis focused on the prediction of the recirculation fluid velocity. According to the benchmark results, the CFD simulation can predict the recirculation fluid velocity with an accuracy of +/-26%.

Macke, Christopher J.

211

Triangular bubble spline surfaces  

PubMed Central

We present a new method for generating a Gn-surface from a triangular network of compatible surface strips. The compatible surface strips are given by a network of polynomial curves with an associated implicitly defined surface, which fulfill certain compatibility conditions. Our construction is based on a new concept, called bubble patches, to represent the single surface patches. The compatible surface strips provide a simple Gn-condition between two neighboring bubble patches, which are used to construct surface patches, connected with Gn-continuity. For n?2, we describe the obtained Gn-condition in detail. It can be generalized to any n?3. The construction of a single surface patch is based on Gordon–Coons interpolation for triangles. Our method is a simple local construction scheme, which works uniformly for vertices of arbitrary valency. The resulting surface is a piecewise rational surface, which interpolates the given network of polynomial curves. Several examples of G0, G1 and G2-surfaces are presented, which have been generated by using our method. The obtained surfaces are visualized with reflection lines to demonstrate the order of smoothness. PMID:22267872

Kapl, Mario; Byrtus, Marek; Jüttler, Bert

2011-01-01

212

Triangular bubble spline surfaces.  

PubMed

We present a new method for generating a [Formula: see text]-surface from a triangular network of compatible surface strips. The compatible surface strips are given by a network of polynomial curves with an associated implicitly defined surface, which fulfill certain compatibility conditions. Our construction is based on a new concept, called bubble patches, to represent the single surface patches. The compatible surface strips provide a simple [Formula: see text]-condition between two neighboring bubble patches, which are used to construct surface patches, connected with [Formula: see text]-continuity. For [Formula: see text], we describe the obtained [Formula: see text]-condition in detail. It can be generalized to any [Formula: see text]. The construction of a single surface patch is based on Gordon-Coons interpolation for triangles.Our method is a simple local construction scheme, which works uniformly for vertices of arbitrary valency. The resulting surface is a piecewise rational surface, which interpolates the given network of polynomial curves. Several examples of [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]-surfaces are presented, which have been generated by using our method. The obtained surfaces are visualized with reflection lines to demonstrate the order of smoothness. PMID:22267872

Kapl, Mario; Byrtus, Marek; Jüttler, Bert

2011-11-01

213

Bubble formation in microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An extensive experimental program was initiated for the purpose of understanding the mechanisms leading to bubble generation during fluid handling procedures in a microgravity environment. Several key fluid handling procedures typical for PCG experiments were identified for analysis in that program. Experiments were designed to specifically understand how such procedures can lead to bubble formation. The experiments were then conducted aboard the NASA KC-135 aircraft which is capable of simulating a low gravity environment by executing a parabolic flight attitude. However, such a flight attitude can only provide a low gravity environment of approximately 10-2go for a maximum period of 30 seconds. Thus all of the tests conducted for these experiments were designed to last no longer than 20 seconds. Several experiments were designed to simulate some of the more relevant fluid handling procedures during protein crystal growth experiments. These include submerged liquid jet cavitation, filling of a cubical vessel, submerged surface scratch, attached drop growth, liquid jet impingement, and geysering experiments. To date, four separate KC-135 flight campaigns were undertaken specifically for performing these experiments. However, different experiments were performed on different flights.

Antar, Basil N.

1996-01-01

214

Squeezing through: capsule or bubble?  

E-print Network

In this fluid dynamics video, we compare the deformation of two flexible particles as they propagate through a sudden constriction of a liquid filled channel under constant-flux flow: a gas bubble, and a capsule formed by encapsulating a liquid droplet in a cross-linked polymeric membrane. Both bubble and capsule adopt highly contorted configurations as they squeeze through the constriction, exhibit broadly similar features over a wide range of flow rates, and rupture for sufficiently high flow rates. However, at flow rates prior to rupture, certain features of the deformation allow bubble and capsule to be distinguished: bubbles exhibit a tip-streaming singularity associated with critical thinning of the rear of the bubble, while the capsule membrane wrinkles under large compressive stresses induced by the constriction.

Dawson, Geoffrey

2013-01-01

215

Bubble Generation in a Continuous Liquid Flow Under Reduced Gravity Conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present work reports a study of bubble generation under reduced gravity conditions for both co-flow and cross-flow configurations. Experiments were performed aboard the DC-9 Reduced Gravity Aircraft at NASA Glenn Research Center, using an air-water system. Three different flow tube diameters were used: 1.27, 1.9, and 2.54 cm. Two different ratios of air injection nozzle to tube diameters were considered: 0.1 and 0.2. Gas and liquid volumetric flow rates were varied from 10 to 200 ml/s. It was experimentally observed that with increasing superficial liquid velocity, the bubbles generated decreased in size. The bubble diameter was shown to increase with increasing air injection nozzle diameters. As the tube diameter was increased, the size of the detached bubbles increased. Likewise, as the superficial liquid velocity was increased, the frequency of bubble formation increased and thus the time to detach forming bubbles decreased. Independent of the flow configuration (for either single nozzle or multiple nozzle gas injection), void fraction and hence flow regime transition can be controlled in a somewhat precise manner by solely varying the gas and liquid volumetric flow rates. On the other hand, it is observed that uniformity of bubble size can be controlled more accurately by using single nozzle gas injection than by using multiple port injection, since this latter system gives rise to unpredictable coalescence of adjacent bubbles. A theoretical model, based on an overall force balance, is employed to study single bubble generation in the dynamic and bubbly flow regime. Under conditions of reduced gravity, the gas momentum flux enhances bubble detachment; however, the surface tension forces at the nozzle tip inhibits bubble detachment. Liquid drag and inertia can act either as attaching or detaching force, depending on the relative velocity of the bubble with respect to the surrounding liquid. Predictions of the theoretical model compare well with performed experiments. However, at higher superficial,liquid velocities, the bubble neck length begins to significantly deviate from the value of the air injection nozzle diameter and thus the theory no longer predicts the experiment behavior. Effects of fluid properties, injection geometry and flow conditions on generated bubble size are investigated using the theoretical model. It is shown that bubble diameter is larger in a reduced gravity environment than in a normal gravity environment at similar flow condition and flow geometry.

Pais, Salvatore Cezar

1999-01-01

216

Remobilizing the Interface of Thermocapillary Driven Bubbles Retarded By the Adsorption of a Surfactant Impurity on the Bubble Surface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermocapillary migration is a method for moving bubbles in space in the absence of buoyancy. A temperature gradient is the continuous phase in which a bubble is situated, and the applied gradient impressed on the bubble surface causes one pole of the drop to be cooler than the opposite pole. As the surface tension is a decreasing function of temperature, the cooler pole pulls at the warmer pole, creating a flow that propels the bubble in the direction of the warmer fluid. A major impediment to the practical use of thermocapillary to direct the movement of bubbles in space is the fact that surfactant impurities, which are unavoidably present in the continuous phase, can significantly reduce the migration velocity. A surfactant impurity adsorbed onto the bubble interface is swept to the trailing end of the bubble. When bulk concentrations are low (which is the case with an impurity), diffusion of surfactant to the front end is slow relative to convection, and surfactant collects at the back end of the bubble. Collection at the back lowers the surface tension relative to the front end setting up a reverse tension gradient. (This can also be the case if kinetic desorption of surfactant at the back end of the bubble is much slower than convection.) For buoyancy driven bubble motions in the absence of a thermocapillarity, the tension gradient opposes the surface flow, and reduces the surface and terminal velocities (the interface becomes more solid-like and bubbles translate as solid particles). When thermocapillary forces are present, the reverse tension gradient set up by the surfactant accumulation reduces the temperature-induced tension gradient, and can decrease to near zero the bubble's thermocapillary velocity. The objective of our research is to develop a method for enhancing the thermocapillary migration of bubbles which have be retarded by the adsorption onto the bubble surface of a surfactant impurity. Our remobilization theory proposes to use surfactant molecules which kinetically rapidly exchange between the bulk and the surface and are at high bulk concentrations. Because the remobilizing surfactant is present at much higher concentrations than the impurity, it adsorbs to the bubble surface much faster than the impurity when the bubble is formed, and thereby prevents the impurity from adsorbing onto the surface. In addition, the rapid kinetic exchange and high bulk concentration maintain a saturated surface with uniform surface concentrations. This prevents retarding surface tension gradients and keeps the thermocapillary velocity high. In our reports over the first 2 years, we presented numerical simulations of the bubble motion and surfactant transport which verified theoretically the concept of remobilization, and the development of an apparatus to track and measure the velocity of rising bubbles in a glycerol/water surfactant solution. This year, we detail experimental observations of remobilization. Two polyethylene oxide surfactants were studied, C12E6 (CH3(CH2)11(OCH2)6OH) and C10E8 (CH3(CH2)4(OCH2CH2)8OH). Measurements of the kinetic exchange for these surfactants show that the one with the longer hydrophobe chain C12E6 has a lower rate of kinetic exchange. In addition, this surfactant is much less soluble in the glycerol/water mixture because of the shorter ethoxylate chain. As a result, we found that C12E6 had only a very limited ability to remobilize rising bubbles because of the limited kinetic exchange and reduced solubility. However, C10E8, with its higher solubility and more rapid exchange was found to dramatically remobilize rising bubbles. We also compared our theoretical calculations to the experimental measurements of velocity for both the non-remobilizing and remobilizing surfactants and found excellent agreement. We further observed that for C10E8 at high concentrations, which exceeded the critical micelle concentrations, additional remobilization was measured. In this case the rapid exchange of monomer between micelle and surfactant provides an additional mechanism for maintaining a uniform

Palaparthi, Ravi; Maldarelli, Charles; Papageorgiou, Dimitri; Singh, Bhim (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

217

Vulnerability of Turkish Low-Rise and Mid-Rise Reinforced Concrete Frame Structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, seismic safety of low–rise and mid–rise structures, which constitute approximately 75% of the total building stock in Turkey, is investigated by generating fragility curves. The scope is 3, 5, 7, and 9–story reinforced concrete moment resisting frame structures. The uncertainties in material variability and the specific characteristics of construction practice in Turkey are taken into account in

Bekir Özer AY; M. Altu? Erberik

2008-01-01

218

Bright and dark modes induced by graphene bubbles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through a lattice dynamics analysis, it is revealed that the bubble plays a role of energy shield in the graphene, which helps to split the normal modes into two categories of distinct topological nature, namely the bright and dark modes. The topological invariants, Euler characteristic, of the bright and dark modes are 1 and 0, respectively. For bright modes, the

Jin-Wu Jiang; Jian-Sheng Wang

2012-01-01

219

Bright and dark modes induced by graphene bubbles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through a lattice dynamics analysis, it is revealed that the bubble plays a role of energy shield in the graphene, which helps to split the normal modes into two categories of distinct topological nature, namely the bright and dark modes. The topological invariants, Euler characteristic, of the bright and dark modes are 1 and 0, respectively. For bright modes, the

Jin-Wu Jiang; Jian-Sheng Wang

2011-01-01

220

Anatomy of bubbling solutions  

E-print Network

We present a comprehensive analysis of holography for the bubbling solutions of Lin-Lunin-Maldacena. These solutions are uniquely determined by a coloring of a 2-plane, which was argued to correspond to the phase space of free fermions. We show that in general this phase space distribution does not determine fully the 1/2 BPS state of N=4 SYM that the gravitational solution is dual to, but it does determine it enough so that vevs of all single trace 1/2 BPS operators in that state are uniquely determined to leading order in the large N limit. These are precisely the vevs encoded in the asymptotics of the LLM solutions. We extract these vevs for operators up to dimension 4 using holographic renormalization and KK holography and show exact agreement with the field theory expressions.

Kostas Skenderis; Marika Taylor

2008-05-23

221

An experimental investigation on the confined and elongated bubbles in subcooled flow boiling in a single microchannel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The characteristics of the confined bubble and elongated bubble in subcooled flow boiling in a single horizontal rectangular microchannel with hydraulic diameter Dh=1mm are studied experimentally. The channel with 1 × 1mm cross section is fabricated in a thin copper plate whose confinement number is Co=2.8 and the degassed deionized water is used as the working fluid. Visualization on the confined and elongated bubbles inside the microchannel is carried out by employing a high-speed CCD camera with a microlens. The recorded images are carefully analyzed to illustrate the behaviors of the confinement and elongation processes of the bubble. The boiling number is used as an adjustable parameter to regulate the operating conditions which is eventually found to take a vital role in the bubble elongation process. Two formation patterns of the confined and elongated bubble are identified and the interactions between the neighboring confined and elongated bubbles are elucidated.

Yin, Liaofei; Jia, Li; Guan, Peng; Liu, Fuhao

2012-12-01

222

Wheat Evolution: Dough Rising  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (p.6-7 of PDF), learners investigate the evolution of wheat by creating dough from different flours, observing the samples of dough as they rise, and then baking the dough. The evolution of wheat from wild grasses demonstrates the dramatic effect of both natural and directed evolution on the structure of a crop plant and the chemical makeup of the product harvested from it. These activities illustrate the changes to both the structure and the chemistry of the wheat plant.

Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council

2012-01-01

223

Cell height: Tao rising.  

PubMed

During oogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster, the cells in the follicular epithelium of the ovary undergo a transition from a cuboidal to a squamous shape. In this issue, Gomez et al. (2012. J. Cell Biol. http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201207150) show that the kinase Tao promotes the endocytosis of the cell adhesion molecule Fasciclin 2 from the lateral surface of the cell and is critical for the cuboidal to squamous cell shape transition. Their results indicate that Tao is rising as a regulator of cell height. PMID:23266952

Cai, Liang; Mostov, Keith E

2012-12-24

224

Aspherical bubble dynamics and oscillation times  

SciTech Connect

The cavitation bubbles common in laser medicine are rarely perfectly spherical and are often located near tissue boundaries, in vessels, etc., which introduce aspherical dynamics. Here, novel features of aspherical bubble dynamics are explored by time-resolved photography and numerical simulations. The growth-collapse period of cylindrical bubbles of large aspect ratio (length:diameter {approximately}20) differs only slightly from twice the Rayleigh collapse time for a spherical bubble with an equivalent maximum volume. This fact justifies using the temporal interval between the acoustic signals emitted upon bubble creation and collapse to estimate the maximum bubble volume. As a result, hydrophone measurements can provide an estimate of the bubble size and energy even for aspherical bubbles. The change of the oscillation period of bubbles near solid walls and elastic (tissue-like) boundaries relative to that of isolated spherical bubbles is also investigated.

Vogel, A.; Noack, J. [Meizinisches Laserzentrum Luebeck (Germany); Chapyak, E.J.; Godwin, R.P. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1999-06-01

225

The Heat Release Ratio and Performance Test at a Small-Scale RDF-5 Bubbling Fluidized Bed Boiler  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Design and operation of boilers using biomass or waste present a number of challenges. It is also well known that the flue gas emissions are strongly dependent on the fuel. Consequently, it is a major challenge to be able to control and maintain all emissions and combustion behavior under their designated limits for all fuel combinations required. Lately, the constant substantial rise in the price of fossil fuels has resulted with RDF (refuse derived fuel) technology becoming more valuable for generating heat in various types of boilers. A small-scale bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) RDF-fired boiler with a steam capacity of 4 ton/hr was developed by ITRI. In this paper, heat release in the fluidized bed region was calculated and the performance testing for this demonstration boiler including the items of bed temperature distribution, flue gas emissions, and the ash characteristics is analyzed and discussed. Finally, a series fuel flexibility tests were conducted in the RDF-5 BFBB.

Wan, Hou-Peng; Chyang, Chien-Song; Yang, Chyh-Sen; Juch, Ching-I.; Lo, Kuo-Chao; Lee, Hom-Ti

226

Capillary rise kinetics of some building materials.  

PubMed

The presence of water in masonry is one of the main factors in deterioration. Capillary rise is the most usual mechanism of water penetration into building materials. In this study the kinetics of the capillary rise phenomenon was studied for various building materials: four stones, two bricks, and six plasters. A first-order kinetic model was proposed, in which the equilibrium moisture height derived from Darcy law. The capillary height time constant found to be strongly affected by the material characteristics. Moreover, the capillary height time constant can be predicted if the average pore radius of the materials is known. PMID:15752811

Karoglou, M; Moropoulou, A; Giakoumaki, A; Krokida, M K

2005-04-01

227

Transient bubbles, bublets and breakup  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The non-spherical nature of the collapse of bubbles has important ramifications in many practical situations such as ultrasonic cleaning, tanning of leather, and underwater explosions. In particular the high speed liquid jet that can thread a collapsing bubble is central to the functional performance. An impressive photographic record of a liquid jet was obtained by Crum using a bubble situated in the vicinity of a platform oscillating vertically at a frequency of 60 Hz. A boundary integral method is used to model this situation and is found to closely mimic some of the observations. However, a slight variation of parameters or a change in the phase of the driving frequency can lead to dramatically different bubble behaviour, a feature also observed by Crum.

Keen, Giles; Blake, John

1999-11-01

228

Smashing Bubbles and Vanishing Sugar.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Science activities with soap bubbles for primary school children are described in this article. Another activity involves children in determining the whereabouts of sugar as it dissolves in water. (SA)

Ward, Alan

1979-01-01

229

The Physics of Twisted Magnetic Tubes Rising in a Stratified Medium: Two-dimensional Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The physics of a twisted magnetic flux tube rising in a stratified medium is studied using a numerical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code. The problem considered is fully compressible (has no Boussinesq approximation), includes ohmic resistivity, and is two-dimensional, i.e., there is no variation of the variables in the direction of the tube axis. We study a high-plasma ?-case with a small ratio of radius to external pressure scale height. The results obtained will therefore be of relevance to understanding the transport of magnetic flux across the solar convection zone. We confirm that a sufficient twist of the field lines around the tube axis can suppress the conversion of the tube into two vortex rolls. For a tube with a relative density deficit on the order of 1/? (the classical Parker buoyancy) and a radius smaller than the pressure scale height (R2<rises with only a small deformation and no substantial loss of magnetic flux. The formation of the wake and the loss of flux from the main body of the tube are basically complete after the initial transient phase. A sharp interface between the tube interior and the external flows is formed at the tube front and sides; this area has the characteristic features of a magnetic boundary layer. Its structure is determined as an equilibrium between ohmic diffusion and field advection through the external flows. It is the site of vorticity generation via the magnetic field during the whole tube evolution. From the hydrodynamical point of view, this problem constitutes an intermediate case between the rise of air bubbles in water and the motion of a rigid cylinder in an external medium. As with bubbles, the tube is deformable and the outcome of the experiment (the shape of the rising object and the wake) depends on the value of the Weber number. Several structural features obtained in the present simulation are also observed in rising air bubbles, such as a central tail, and a skirt enveloping the wake. As in rigid cylinders, the boundary layer satisfies a no-slip condition (provided for in the tube by the magnetic field), and secondary rolls are formed at the lateral edges of the moving object.

Emonet, T.; Moreno-Insertis, F.

1998-01-01

230

Ground potential rise monitor  

DOEpatents

A device and method for detecting ground potential rise (GPR) comprising positioning a first electrode and a second electrode at a distance from each other into the earth. The voltage of the first electrode and second electrode is attenuated by an attenuation factor creating an attenuated voltage. The true RMS voltage of the attenuated voltage is determined creating an attenuated true RMS voltage. The attenuated true RMS voltage is then multiplied by the attenuation factor creating a calculated true RMS voltage. If the calculated true RMS voltage is greater than a first predetermined voltage threshold, a first alarm is enabled at a local location. If user input is received at a remote location acknowledging the first alarm, a first alarm acknowledgment signal is transmitted. The first alarm acknowledgment signal is then received at which time the first alarm is disabled.

Allen, Zachery W. (Mandan, ND); Zevenbergen, Gary A. (Arvada, CO)

2012-04-03

231

Modeling the Local Bubble  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modeling the Local Bubble is one of those activities fraught with danger. It is very easy to be too naive, to fail to consider the dependence of the model on assumptions about the nearby ambient state, or the likelihood of such a structure. It is similarly easy to become so caught up in the details of the vicinity that it is unclear where to begin a necessarily idealized modeling effort. And finally, it is important to remember that the data we have may in some cases be lying to us, and that we have not yet learned to read their facial expressions quite carefully enough. That said, I've tried in this paper to be helpful to those who may wish to take the risks. I surveyed the very most basic stories that the data seem to tell, and pointed out the standard coincidences that may be telling us a lot about what is happening, but may turn out once again to have been just coincidences. I've described 5 distinct conceptions that in one flavor or another pretty well survey the collection of mental images that have so far been carried by those who've attempted models. One may be right, or something entirely different may be more appropriate. It's at least vital to realize that a conception comes first, followed by a simplified model of details. I've also included a long list of questions directed at observers. Some have partial answers, some one wouldn't know today quite how to approach. But it is a list that students of the soft x-ray background, interstellar absorption lines, possible instrumentation, and the heliosphere may wish to review from time to time, just to see whether they can figure out how to be more helpful. There is another list for modelers, things the models must address, however-so-flimsily if necessary, because there are strong observational constraints (and stronger ones coming) on what can and cannot be present in the local ISM. To that I've added a few remarks concerning x-ray emission coming from beyond the Local Bubble, and another few on how x-ray emission from within the solar system might be contaminating what we see. That last bit is new, exciting, and possibly wrong, but it is an example of the ongoing wariness I believe one has to take toward the facts in the case. By the way, Dieter, it really was a great meeting.

Cox, D. P.

232

Application of holographic particle image velocimetry in bubbly flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measuring the velocity field of a bubbly flow is of major importance in many industrial applications like, bubble column reactors. Traditional PIV setup is limited to single plane measurements. The present study involved extension of the existing holographic PIV method to two-phase flow velocimetry. The objective of the present study was to conduct velocity measurements using in-line holographic microscopy arrangement to analyze a flow consisting of an air bubble rising through stagnant water in a rectangular column. Neutrally buoyant 8 microm sized hollow glass spheres are scattered uniformly in the continuous phase and are used as seed particles for image analysis. Double-pulsed hologram is taken with a 2K by 2K pixels CCD sensor with 200micros in between the two frames, which allows only a small movement of both the particles (in the continuous phase) and that of the dispersed phase itself. Holograms are reconstructed at different distances to produce images at every millimeter of the measurement volume. An averaging technique is developed to process the images to reduce the noise in reconstructed holographic images and make it useful for cross-correlation analysis. The image pairs are cross correlated and velocity vectors are obtained for the continuous phase. The dispersed phase velocity is measured using the shift in the center of the bubble. After analyses of all the image pairs throughout the measurement volume, a two component three dimensional velocity field is produced for the two-phase flow.

Banerjee, Atanu

233

Plasma bubble detection in the DEMETER micro-satellite data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The occurrence of plasma bubbles is the most important phenomenon that affects the night time equatorial ionosphere resulting in strong and localized drops of the plasma density with often very sharp boundaries. Besides its own interest for ionospheric physics this phenomenon is also of significant practical importance since it disrupts HF communication and GPS signal reception. In the frame of a French ANR funded project to model the rise and development of plasma bubbles we have searched for specific disturbances of the low latitude ionosphere that might be considered as "precursors" of plasma bubbles, possibly leading, under favourable conditions, to an instable ionosphere. To this aim, we have manually selected and classified typical events observed on data from two instruments on board the DEMETER satellite, IAP (Plasma analyzer) and ISL (Langmuir probe experiment). We present in this poster the various types of events and show that one of them appears to be associated with the later occurrence of plasma bubbles. From the first list of events recorded during an ~ 18 month period we will discuss in detail the plasma disturbances and present initial results of a statistical study.

Onishi, T.; Nguyen, C.-T.; Berthelier, J.-J.

2012-04-01

234

A model of bubble growth leading to xylem conduit embolism.  

PubMed

The dynamics of a gas bubble inside a water conduit after a cavitation event was modeled. A distinction was made between a typical angiosperm conduit with a homogeneous pit membrane and a typical gymnosperm conduit with a torus-margo pit membrane structure. For conduits with torus-margo type pits pit membrane deflection was also modeled and pit aspiration, the displacement of the pit membrane to the low pressure side of the pit chamber, was found to be possible while the emboli was still small. Concurrent with pit aspiration, the high resistance to water flow out of the conduit through the cell walls or aspirated pits will make the embolism process slow. In case of no pit aspiration and always for conduits with homogeneous pit membranes, embolism growth is more rapid but still much slower than bubble growth in bulk water under similar water tension. The time needed for the embolism to fill a whole conduit was found to be dependent on pit and cell wall conductance, conduit radius, xylem water tension, pressure rise in adjacent conduits due to water freed from the embolising conduit, and the rigidity and structure of the pits in the case of margo-torus type pit membrane. The water pressure in the conduit hosting the bubble was found to occur almost immediately after bubble induction inside a conduit, creating a sudden tension release in the conduit, which can be detected by acoustic and ultra-acoustic monitoring of xylem cavitation. PMID:17706683

Hölttä, T; Vesala, T; Nikinmaa, E

2007-11-01

235

The Formation of a Bubble from a Submerged Orifice  

E-print Network

The formation of a single bubble from an orifice in a solid surface, submerged in an in- compressible, viscous Newtonian liquid, is simulated. The finite element method is used to capture the multiscale physics associated with the problem and to track the evolution of the free surface explicitly. The results are compared to a recent experimental analysis and then used to obtain the global characteristics of the process, the formation time and volume of the bubble, for a range of orifice radii; Ohnesorge numbers, which combine the material parameters of the liquid; and volumetric gas flow rates. These benchmark calculations, for the parameter space of interest, are then utilised to validate a selection of scaling laws found in the literature for two regimes of bubble formation, the regimes of low and high gas flow rates.

Simmons, Jonathan A; Shikhmurzaev, Yulii D

2015-01-01

236

The Dynamics of Vapor Bubbles in Acoustic Pressure Fields  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In spite of a superficial similarity with gas bubbles, the intimate coupling between dynamical and thermal processes confers to oscillating vapor bubbles some unique characteristics. This paper examines numerically the validity of some asymptotic-theory predictions such as the existence of two resonant radii and a limit size for a given sound amplitude and frequency. It is found that a small vapor bubble in a sound field of sufficient amplitude grows quickly through resonance and continues to grow thereafter at a very slow rate, seemingly indefinitely. Resonance phenomena therefore play a role for a few cycles at most, and reaching a limit size-if one exists at all-is found to require far more than several tens of thousands of cycles. It is also found that some small bubbles may grow or collapse depending on the phase of the sound field. The model accounts in detail for the thermo-fluid-mechanic processes in the vapor. In the second part of the paper, an approximate formulation valid for bubbles small with respect to the thermal penetration length in the vapor is derived and its accuracy examined, The present findings have implications for acoustically enhanced boiling heat transfer and other special applications such as boiling in microgravity.

Hao, Y.; Prosperetti, A.

1999-01-01

237

Bubble Gate for In-Plane Flow Control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to control fluid flow is of key importance for microfluidic devices. While a large number of sophisticated solutions have been demonstrated, there is still a great amount of interest in developing simple strategies that do not require complex fabrication steps and electrical connections. A small footprint, compatibility with different substrate materials, working fluids and temperatures are amongst other desirable characteristics. We demonstrate a bubble gate strategy that meets all the above. In this strategy, flow control is achieved using a controlled gas stream that intercepts a liquid stream at a T-junction, forming a gas-liquid interface (i.e. bubble). Closely positioned micropillars are employed to limit the bubble motion to a single degree of freedom. The bubble breaks into the liquid stream and occupies the entire liquid cross-section, when the gas pressure is continued. Hence, the bubble movement is able to stop or manipulate the liquid flow. Several control operations are discussed herein, including, but not limited to, valves, liquid metering and peristaltic pumping. PIV measurements are employed to investigate the transient flow structure.

Kazemi Oskooei, Ali; Guenther, Axel

2011-11-01

238

Taxing the Rich: Recombinations and Bubble Growth During Reionization  

E-print Network

Reionization is inhomogeneous for two reasons: the clumpiness of the intergalactic medium (IGM) and clustering of the discrete ionizing sources. While numerical simulations can in principle take both into account, they are at present limited by small box sizes. On the other hand, analytic models have only examined the limiting cases of a clumpy IGM (with uniform ionizing emissivity) and clustered sources (embedded in a uniform IGM). Here, we present an analytic model for the evolving topology of reionization that includes both factors. At first, recombinations can be ignored and ionized bubbles grow primarily through major mergers. As a result, reionization resembles "punctuated equilibrium," with a series of well-separated sharp jumps in the ionizing background. These features are local effects and do not reflect similar jumps in the global ionized fraction. We then combine our bubble model with a simple description of recombinations in the IGM. We show that the bubbles stop growing when recombinations balance ionizations. If the IGM density structure is similar to that at moderate redshifts, this limits the bubble radii to ~20 comoving Mpc; however, it may be much smaller if the IGM is significantly clumpier at higher redshifts. Once a bubble reaches saturation, that region of the universe has for all intents and purposes entered the "post-overlap" stage, so the overlap epoch actually has a finite width. This picture naturally explains the substantial large-scale variation in Lyman-series opacity along the lines of sight to the known z>6 quasars. More quasar spectra will shed light on the transition between the "bubble-dominated" topology characteristic of reionization and the "web-dominated" topology characteristic of the later universe. [Abridged

Steven R. Furlanetto; S. Peng Oh

2005-05-03

239

PHYSICAL MODELING OF THE FLOW FIELD AROUND TWIN HIGH-RISE BUILDINGS  

EPA Science Inventory

A wind tunnel study was conducted to investigate the flow characteristics near three configurations of high-rise buildings - an isolated high-rise building, two high-rise buildings separated in the streamwise direction, and two high-rise buildings separated in the streamwise dire...

240

Quantification of methane bubbles ebullition in freshwater reservoirs of temperate zone using sonar working with 120 kHz frequency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During hydroacoustic vertical surveys of fish, an indispensable amount of gas bubbles have been observed rising from the bottom towards the water surface. Unfortunately, the gas ebullition essentially interferes with acoustic detection of fish, thereby biasing an estimate of fish quantity. First, to distinguish between fish and bubble echo, comparing acoustic properties of the echoes (e.g. echo shape, echo width, or phase deviation) seemed to be inapplicable. Nevertheless, the difference in the movement 'behavior' (i.e., direction and speed), looks more promising, but it is necessary to obtain the exact position of a sound beam. Furthermore, in case of shallow waters where a horizontally-oriented beam is usually deployed, the method for distinguishing fish and bubbles with the movement behavior is possible, but more complicated to apply due to the boat motion and a different bubble crossing through a beam (i.e. altering position not in a range domain, but in a phase domain of the beam). Second, when gas bubbles are recognized, a functional regression model of acoustic response to the bubble size can be used to estimate size and volume distribution of bubbles. The experiment with man-made methane bubbles was performed to learn the dependence of acoustic response to the bubble size, and a regression model was created

Frouzova, Jaroslava; Tuser, Michal; Stanovsky, Petr

2014-05-01

241

Origin of Corona-Dominated Topographic Rises on Venus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Both large-scale mantel upwellings, comparable to terrestrial hotspots on Earth, and smaller scale mantel upwellings, known as coronae, occur on Venus. Corona-dominated rises have many of the characteristics of large scale mantle upwellings, or hotspots, such as broad topographic rises greater than 1000km in diameter and large positive gravity anomalies.

Smrekar, S.; Stofan, E.

1999-01-01

242

Large Volcanic Rises on Venus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Large volcanic rises on Venus have been interpreted as hotspots, or the surface manifestation of mantle upwelling, on the basis of their broad topographic rises, abundant volcanism, and large positive gravity anomalies. Hotspots offer an important opportunity to study the behavior of the lithosphere in response to mantle forces. In addition to the four previously known hotspots, Atla, Bell, Beta, and western Eistla Regiones, five new probable hotspots, Dione, central Eistla, eastern Eistla, Imdr, and Themis, have been identified in the Magellan radar, gravity and topography data. These nine regions exhibit a wider range of volcano-tectonic characteristics than previously recognized for venusian hotspots, and have been classified as rift-dominated (Atla, Beta), coronae-dominated (central and eastern Eistla, Themis), or volcano-dominated (Bell, Dione, western Eistla, Imdr). The apparent depths of compensation for these regions ranges from 65 to 260 km. New estimates of the elastic thickness, using the 90 deg and order spherical harmonic field, are 15-40 km at Bell Regio, and 25 km at western Eistla Regio. Phillips et al. find a value of 30 km at Atla Regio. Numerous models of lithospheric and mantle behavior have been proposed to interpret the gravity and topography signature of the hotspots, with most studies focusing on Atla or Beta Regiones. Convective models with Earth-like parameters result in estimates of the thickness of the thermal lithosphere of approximately 100 km. Models of stagnant lid convection or thermal thinning infer the thickness of the thermal lithosphere to be 300 km or more. Without additional constraints, any of the model fits are equally valid. The thinner thermal lithosphere estimates are most consistent with the volcanic and tectonic characteristics of the hotspots. Estimates of the thermal gradient based on estimates of the elastic thickness also support a relatively thin lithosphere (Phillips et al.). The advantage of larger estimates of the thermal lithospheric thickness is that they provide an explanation for the apparently modest levels of geologic activity on Venus over the last half billion years.

Smrekar, Suzanne E.; Kiefer, Walter S.; Stofan, Ellen R.

1997-01-01

243

Bubble Formation and Detachment in Reduced Gravity Under the Influence of Electric Fields  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of the study is to investigate the behavior of individual air bubbles injected through an orifice into an electrically insulating liquid under the influence of a static electric field. Both uniform and nonuniform electric field configurations were considered. Bubble formation and detachment were recorded and visualized in reduced gravity (corresponding to gravity levels on Mars, on the Moon as well as microgravity) using a high-speed video camera. Bubble volume, dimensions and contact angle at detachment were measured. In addition to the experimental studies, a simple model, predicting bubble characteristics at detachment was developed. The model, based on thermodynamic considerations, accounts for the level of gravity as well as the magnitude of the uniform electric field. Measured data and model predictions show good agreement and indicate that the level of gravity and the electric field magnitude significantly affect bubble shape, volume and dimensions.

Herman, Cila; Iacona, Estelle; Chang, Shinan

2002-01-01

244

The role of colloidal particles on the migration of air bubbles in porous media  

E-print Network

in the presence of colloidal particles captured on the air-water interface. The model was based on the pore-scale balance equation for forces acting on a bubble rising in a porous medium in the presence of colloids. A dimensional analysis of the phenomenon...

Han, Ji-seok

2009-05-15

245

An attempt to trigger ionospheric bubbles and equatorial spread F with the double barium cloud technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment is described that is expected to trigger an ionospheric bubble in the equatorial F region, i.e. the rise of a flux tube with low plasma content from the bottom of the post sunset F region. The disturbance which will be applied to this region by means of sounding rockets consists of two barium plasma injections at an altitude

G. Haerendel

1979-01-01

246

Generalized Glory Scattering from Spherical and Spheroidal Bubbles in Water: Unfolding Axial Caustics with Harmonic Angular Perturbations of Toroidal Wavefronts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photographs of the cross-polarized backscattering patterns (i.e. glory scattering) for freely rising spherical air bubbles in fresh water are displayed. A physical-optics model was developed for these patterns. Observations were also made of the unfolded glory patterns produced by oblate spheroidal bubbles illuminated with polarized laser light. The cross-polarized pattern was observed, and was modeled with a physical optics approximation

William Patrick Arnott

1988-01-01

247

Ethnic diversity deflates price bubbles.  

PubMed

Markets are central to modern society, so their failures can be devastating. Here, we examine a prominent failure: price bubbles. Bubbles emerge when traders err collectively in pricing, causing misfit between market prices and the true values of assets. The causes of such collective errors remain elusive. We propose that bubbles are affected by ethnic homogeneity in the market and can be thwarted by diversity. In homogenous markets, traders place undue confidence in the decisions of others. Less likely to scrutinize others' decisions, traders are more likely to accept prices that deviate from true values. To test this, we constructed experimental markets in Southeast Asia and North America, where participants traded stocks to earn money. We randomly assigned participants to ethnically homogeneous or diverse markets. We find a marked difference: Across markets and locations, market prices fit true values 58% better in diverse markets. The effect is similar across sites, despite sizeable differences in culture and ethnic composition. Specifically, in homogenous markets, overpricing is higher as traders are more likely to accept speculative prices. Their pricing errors are more correlated than in diverse markets. In addition, when bubbles burst, homogenous markets crash more severely. The findings suggest that price bubbles arise not only from individual errors or financial conditions, but also from the social context of decision making. The evidence may inform public discussion on ethnic diversity: it may be beneficial not only for providing variety in perspectives and skills, but also because diversity facilitates friction that enhances deliberation and upends conformity. PMID:25404313

Levine, Sheen S; Apfelbaum, Evan P; Bernard, Mark; Bartelt, Valerie L; Zajac, Edward J; Stark, David

2014-12-30

248

Initial conditions for bubble universes  

SciTech Connect

The ''bubble universes'' of Coleman and De Luccia play a crucial role in string cosmology. Since our own Universe is supposed to be of this kind, bubble cosmology should supply definite answers to the long-standing questions regarding cosmological initial conditions. In particular, it must explain how an initial singularity is avoided, and also how the initial conditions for inflation were established. I argue that the simplest nonanthropic approach to these problems involves a requirement that the spatial sections defined by distinguished bubble observers should not be allowed to have arbitrarily small volumes. Casimir energy is a popular candidate for a quantum effect which can ensure this, but (because it violates energy conditions) there is a danger that it could lead to nonperturbative instabilities in string theory. I make a simple proposal for the initial conditions of a bubble universe, and show that my proposal ensures that the system is nonperturbatively stable. Thus, low-entropy conditions can be established at the beginning of a bubble universe without violating the second law of thermodynamics and without leading to instability in string theory. These conditions are inherited from the ambient spacetime.

McInnes, Brett [Department of Mathematics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 2, Singapore 117543 (Singapore)

2008-06-15

249

Initial Conditions for Bubble Universes  

E-print Network

The "bubble universes" of Coleman and De Luccia play a crucial role in string cosmology. Since our own Universe is supposed to be of this kind, bubble cosmology should supply definite answers to the long-standing questions regarding cosmological initial conditions. In particular, it must explain how an initial singularity is avoided, and also how the initial conditions for Inflation were established. We argue that the simplest non-anthropic approach to these problems involves a requirement that the spatial sections defined by distinguished bubble observers should not be allowed to have arbitrarily small volumes. Casimir energy is a popular candidate for a quantum effect which can ensure this, but [because it violates energy conditions] there is a danger that it could lead to non-perturbative instabilities in string theory. We make a simple proposal for the initial conditions of a bubble universe, and show that our proposal ensures that the system is non-perturbatively stable. Thus, low-entropy conditions can be established at the beginning of a bubble universe without violating the Second Law of thermodynamics and without leading to instability in string theory. These conditions are inherited from the ambient spacetime.

Brett McInnes

2007-05-29

250

Ethnic diversity deflates price bubbles  

PubMed Central

Markets are central to modern society, so their failures can be devastating. Here, we examine a prominent failure: price bubbles. Bubbles emerge when traders err collectively in pricing, causing misfit between market prices and the true values of assets. The causes of such collective errors remain elusive. We propose that bubbles are affected by ethnic homogeneity in the market and can be thwarted by diversity. In homogenous markets, traders place undue confidence in the decisions of others. Less likely to scrutinize others’ decisions, traders are more likely to accept prices that deviate from true values. To test this, we constructed experimental markets in Southeast Asia and North America, where participants traded stocks to earn money. We randomly assigned participants to ethnically homogeneous or diverse markets. We find a marked difference: Across markets and locations, market prices fit true values 58% better in diverse markets. The effect is similar across sites, despite sizeable differences in culture and ethnic composition. Specifically, in homogenous markets, overpricing is higher as traders are more likely to accept speculative prices. Their pricing errors are more correlated than in diverse markets. In addition, when bubbles burst, homogenous markets crash more severely. The findings suggest that price bubbles arise not only from individual errors or financial conditions, but also from the social context of decision making. The evidence may inform public discussion on ethnic diversity: it may be beneficial not only for providing variety in perspectives and skills, but also because diversity facilitates friction that enhances deliberation and upends conformity. PMID:25404313

Levine, Sheen S.; Apfelbaum, Evan P.; Bernard, Mark; Bartelt, Valerie L.; Zajac, Edward J.; Stark, David

2014-01-01

251

Initial conditions for bubble universes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The “bubble universes” of Coleman and De Luccia play a crucial role in string cosmology. Since our own Universe is supposed to be of this kind, bubble cosmology should supply definite answers to the long-standing questions regarding cosmological initial conditions. In particular, it must explain how an initial singularity is avoided, and also how the initial conditions for inflation were established. I argue that the simplest nonanthropic approach to these problems involves a requirement that the spatial sections defined by distinguished bubble observers should not be allowed to have arbitrarily small volumes. Casimir energy is a popular candidate for a quantum effect which can ensure this, but (because it violates energy conditions) there is a danger that it could lead to nonperturbative instabilities in string theory. I make a simple proposal for the initial conditions of a bubble universe, and show that my proposal ensures that the system is nonperturbatively stable. Thus, low-entropy conditions can be established at the beginning of a bubble universe without violating the second law of thermodynamics and without leading to instability in string theory. These conditions are inherited from the ambient spacetime.

McInnes, Brett

2008-06-01

252

Mass loss and apparent kinetics of a thermally thick wood particle devolatilizing in a bubbling fluidized bed combustor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents the results of experiments conducted to determine the mass loss characteristics of a cylindrical wood particle undergoing devolatilization under oxidation conditions in a bubbling fluidized bed combustor. Cylindrical wood particles having five different sizes ranging from 10 to 30mm and aspect ratio (l\\/d=1) have been used for the study. Experiments were conducted in a lab scale bubbling

M. Sreekanth; Ajit Kumar Kolar

2010-01-01

253

Approximations for acoustically excited bubble cluster dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper the effect of interaction on the expansion of a bubble in a regular monodisperse cluster is investigated. By a geometric construction a two-dimensional ordinary differential equation with an exact expression for first-order bubble interactions is derived for an n-bubble model. An approximate equation is derived for the rapid expansion of the bubble which can be solved yielding an analytic expression for the collapse of a bubble which undergoes inertial cavitation. It is then demonstrated that the maximum volume of a bubble in a cluster is considerably less than that of a single bubble. This result is of significance as typically the dispersion relationship, the wave speed and the co-efficient of attenuation are calculated using a single bubble model and summed for the total number of bubbles to yield the void fraction. Furthermore it is shown that the maximum radius of a bubble in the cluster is considerably smaller than that of a single bubble, yet the duration of the collapse phase is only weakly dependent on the number of bubbles. Hence, it is conjectured that the likelihood of fragmentation due to Rayleigh-Taylor instability is reduced. The results from the analysis are in good agreement with full numerical simulations of multi-bubble dynamics, as well as experimental observations

Sinden, D.; Stride, E.; Saffari, N.

2012-03-01

254

Time and Space Resolved Heat Transfer Measurements Under Nucleate Bubbles with Constant Heat Flux Boundary Conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Investigations into single bubble pool boiling phenomena are often complicated by the difficulties in obtaining time and space resolved information in the bubble region. This usually occurs because the heaters and diagnostics used to measure heat transfer data are often on the order of, or larger than, the bubble characteristic length or region of influence. This has contributed to the development of many different and sometimes contradictory models of pool boiling phenomena and dominant heat transfer mechanisms. Recent investigations by Yaddanapyddi and Kim and Demiray and Kim have obtained time and space resolved heat transfer information at the bubble/heater interface under constant temperature conditions using a novel micro-heater array (10x10 array, each heater 100 microns on a side) that is semi-transparent and doubles as a measurement sensor. By using active feedback to maintain a state of constant temperature at the heater surface, they showed that the area of influence of bubbles generated in FC-72 was much smaller than predicted by standard models and that micro-conduction/micro-convection due to re-wetting dominated heat transfer effects. This study seeks to expand on the previous work by making time and space resolved measurements under bubbles nucleating on a micro-heater array operated under constant heat flux conditions. In the planned investigation, wall temperature measurements made under a single bubble nucleation site will be synchronized with high-speed video to allow analysis of the bubble energy removal from the wall.

Myers, Jerry G.; Hussey, Sam W.; Yee, Glenda F.; Kim, Jungho

2003-01-01

255

Vortex Dynamics from 2D PIV Data in a Bubble Plume  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bubble plumes are commonly used for aeration and destratification in lakes and show potential as a delivery method for carbon sequestration. The need to design bubble plumes for these uses has led to an increase in research and development of models. However, the dynamics of turbulence in bubble plumes has yet to be quantified. Physical experiments were conducted to quantify turbulence in bubble plumes with air flow rates of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5L/min. A camera imaged the bubble plume illuminated along a plane with an Argon-Ion laser at 250Hz. The images were processed to remove all bubbles resulting in a new image with only seeding particles. These images were processed using Particle Image Velocimetry giving 2D vector fields for the fluid phase. These vector fields were spatially analyzed to identify vortices and their properties in the field of view. The results show that the expected non-dimensional vortex size is the same for all three flow rates. The results also show that when properly non-dimensionalized the time-average vortex properties such as size and circulation across the width of the bubble plume are similar for all three air flow rates. Finally, the data is used to find the turbulent energy spectrum and the characteristic length scale within the plume. These results agree with the identified vortex results and show the modulation of the turbulence due to the presence of bubbles.

Bryant, Duncan; Socolofsky, Scott

2008-11-01

256

Shrinkage of bubbles and drops in the lattice Boltzmann equation method for nonideal gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One characteristic of multiphase lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE) methods is that the interfacial region has a finite (i.e., noninfinitesimal) thickness known as a diffuse interface. In simulations of, e.g., bubble or drop dynamics, for problems involving nonideal gases, one frequently observes that the diffuse interface method produces a spontaneous, nonphysical shrinkage of the bubble or drop radius. In this paper, we analyze in detail a single-fluid two-phase model and use a LBE model for nonideal gases in order to explain this fundamental problem. For simplicity, we only investigate the static bubble or droplet problem. We find that the method indeed produces a density shift, bubble or droplet shrinkage, as well as a critical radius below which the bubble or droplet eventually vanishes. Assuming that the ratio between the interface thickness D and the initial bubble or droplet radius r0 is small, we analytically show the existence of this density shift, bubble or droplet radius shrinkage, and critical bubble or droplet survival radius. Numerical results confirm our analysis. We also consider droplets on a solid surface with different curvatures, contact angles, and initial droplet volumes. Numerical results show that the curvature, contact angle, and the initial droplet volume have an effect on this spontaneous shrinkage process, consistent with the survival criterion.

Zheng, Lin; Lee, Taehun; Guo, Zhaoli; Rumschitzki, David

2014-03-01

257

Bursting Bubbles and Bilayers  

PubMed Central

This paper discusses various interactions between ultrasound, phospholipid monolayer-coated gas bubbles, phospholipid bilayer vesicles, and cells. The paper begins with a review of microbubble physics models, developed to describe microbubble dynamic behavior in the presence of ultrasound, and follows this with a discussion of how such models can be used to predict inertial cavitation profiles. Predicted sensitivities of inertial cavitation to changes in the values of membrane properties, including surface tension, surface dilatational viscosity, and area expansion modulus, indicate that area expansion modulus exerts the greatest relative influence on inertial cavitation. Accordingly, the theoretical dependence of area expansion modulus on chemical composition - in particular, poly (ethylene glyclol) (PEG) - is reviewed, and predictions of inertial cavitation for different PEG molecular weights and compositions are compared with experiment. Noteworthy is the predicted dependence, or lack thereof, of inertial cavitation on PEG molecular weight and mole fraction. Specifically, inertial cavitation is predicted to be independent of PEG molecular weight and mole fraction in the so-called mushroom regime. In the “brush” regime, however, inertial cavitation is predicted to increase with PEG mole fraction but to decrease (to the inverse 3/5 power) with PEG molecular weight. While excellent agreement between experiment and theory can be achieved, it is shown that the calculated inertial cavitation profiles depend strongly on the criterion used to predict inertial cavitation. This is followed by a discussion of nesting microbubbles inside the aqueous core of microcapsules and how this significantly increases the inertial cavitation threshold. Nesting thus offers a means for avoiding unwanted inertial cavitation and cell death during imaging and other applications such as sonoporation. A review of putative sonoporation mechanisms is then presented, including those involving microbubbles to deliver cargo into a cell, and those - not necessarily involving microubbles - to release cargo from a phospholipid vesicle (or reverse sonoporation). It is shown that the rate of (reverse) sonoporation from liposomes correlates with phospholipid bilayer phase behavior, liquid-disordered phases giving appreciably faster release than liquid-ordered phases. Moreover, liquid-disordered phases exhibit evidence of two release mechanisms, which are described well mathematically by enhanced diffusion (possibly via dilation of membrane phospholipids) and irreversible membrane disruption, whereas liquid-ordered phases are described by a single mechanism, which has yet to be positively identified. The ability to tune release kinetics with bilayer composition makes reverse sonoporation of phospholipid vesicles a promising methodology for controlled drug delivery. Moreover, nesting of microbubbles inside vesicles constitutes a truly “theranostic” vehicle, one that can be used for both long-lasting, safe imaging and for controlled drug delivery. PMID:23382772

Wrenn, Steven P.; Dicker, Stephen M.; Small, Eleanor F.; Dan, Nily R.; Mleczko, Micha?; Schmitz, Georg; Lewin, Peter A.

2012-01-01

258

Bursting bubbles and bilayers.  

PubMed

This paper discusses various interactions between ultrasound, phospholipid monolayer-coated gas bubbles, phospholipid bilayer vesicles, and cells. The paper begins with a review of microbubble physics models, developed to describe microbubble dynamic behavior in the presence of ultrasound, and follows this with a discussion of how such models can be used to predict inertial cavitation profiles. Predicted sensitivities of inertial cavitation to changes in the values of membrane properties, including surface tension, surface dilatational viscosity, and area expansion modulus, indicate that area expansion modulus exerts the greatest relative influence on inertial cavitation. Accordingly, the theoretical dependence of area expansion modulus on chemical composition-- in particular, poly (ethylene glyclol) (PEG)--is reviewed, and predictions of inertial cavitation for different PEG molecular weights and compositions are compared with experiment. Noteworthy is the predicted dependence, or lack thereof, of inertial cavitation on PEG molecular weight and mole fraction. Specifically, inertial cavitation is predicted to be independent of PEG molecular weight and mole fraction in the so-called mushroom regime. In the "brush" regime, however, inertial cavitation is predicted to increase with PEG mole fraction but to decrease (to the inverse 3/5 power) with PEG molecular weight. While excellent agreement between experiment and theory can be achieved, it is shown that the calculated inertial cavitation profiles depend strongly on the criterion used to predict inertial cavitation. This is followed by a discussion of nesting microbubbles inside the aqueous core of microcapsules and how this significantly increases the inertial cavitation threshold. Nesting thus offers a means for avoiding unwanted inertial cavitation and cell death during imaging and other applications such as sonoporation. A review of putative sonoporation mechanisms is then presented, including those involving microbubbles to deliver cargo into a cell, and those--not necessarily involving microubbles--to release cargo from a phospholipid vesicle (or reverse sonoporation). It is shown that the rate of (reverse) sonoporation from liposomes correlates with phospholipid bilayer phase behavior, liquid-disordered phases giving appreciably faster release than liquid-ordered phases. Moreover, liquid-disordered phases exhibit evidence of two release mechanisms, which are described well mathematically by enhanced diffusion (possibly via dilation of membrane phospholipids) and irreversible membrane disruption, whereas liquid-ordered phases are described by a single mechanism, which has yet to be positively identified. The ability to tune release kinetics with bilayer composition makes reverse sonoporation of phospholipid vesicles a promising methodology for controlled drug delivery. Moreover, nesting of microbubbles inside vesicles constitutes a truly "theranostic" vehicle, one that can be used for both long-lasting, safe imaging and for controlled drug delivery. PMID:23382772

Wrenn, Steven P; Dicker, Stephen M; Small, Eleanor F; Dan, Nily R; Mleczko, Micha?; Schmitz, Georg; Lewin, Peter A

2012-01-01

259

Unorthodox bubbles when boiling in cold water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-speed movies are taken when bubbles grow at gold surfaces heated spotwise with a near-infrared laser beam heating water below the boiling point (60-70 °C) with heating powers spanning the range from very low to so high that water fails to rewet the surface after bubbles detach. Roughly half the bubbles are conventional: They grow symmetrically through evaporation until buoyancy lifts them away. Others have unorthodox shapes and appear to contribute disproportionately to heat transfer efficiency: mushroom cloud shapes, violently explosive bubbles, and cavitation events, probably stimulated by a combination of superheating, convection, turbulence, and surface dewetting during the initial bubble growth. Moreover, bubbles often follow one another in complex sequences, often beginning with an unorthodox bubble that stirs the water, followed by several conventional bubbles. This large dataset is analyzed and discussed with emphasis on how explosive phenomena such as cavitation induce discrepancies from classical expectations about boiling.

Parker, Scott; Granick, Steve

2014-01-01

260

Removal of hydrogen bubbles from nuclear reactors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Method proposed for removing large hydrogen bubbles from nuclear environment uses, in its simplest form, hollow spheres of palladium or platinum. Methods would result in hydrogen bubble being reduced in size without letting more radioactivity outside reactor.

Jenkins, R. V.

1980-01-01

261

Unorthodox bubbles when boiling in cold water.  

PubMed

High-speed movies are taken when bubbles grow at gold surfaces heated spotwise with a near-infrared laser beam heating water below the boiling point (60-70?°C) with heating powers spanning the range from very low to so high that water fails to rewet the surface after bubbles detach. Roughly half the bubbles are conventional: They grow symmetrically through evaporation until buoyancy lifts them away. Others have unorthodox shapes and appear to contribute disproportionately to heat transfer efficiency: mushroom cloud shapes, violently explosive bubbles, and cavitation events, probably stimulated by a combination of superheating, convection, turbulence, and surface dewetting during the initial bubble growth. Moreover, bubbles often follow one another in complex sequences, often beginning with an unorthodox bubble that stirs the water, followed by several conventional bubbles. This large dataset is analyzed and discussed with emphasis on how explosive phenomena such as cavitation induce discrepancies from classical expectations about boiling. PMID:24580324

Parker, Scott; Granick, Steve

2014-01-01

262

Reduction of cell size in hybrid bubble memory devices (abstract)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hybrid bubble memory devices using ion-implanted and Permalloy bubble propagation tracks have been proposed and developed. In this paper, the reduction of the cell size from 4 to 3 ?m will be discussed. In the hybrid devices, the minor loops are composed of ion-implanted tracks and the functions are composed of Permalloy tracks. To reduce the cell size, therefore, both of the tracks should be improved. For the 3-?m-period ion-implanted tracks, the bubble diameter is reduced from 1 to 0.8 ?m. According to the reduction of a bubble diameter, magnetostrictive anisotropy ??=?100-?111 is increased from 5 to 8×10-6 because the Sm content is increased to increase the anisotropy field Hk. The large ?? affects the characteristics of inside and outside turns in the ion-implanted tracks. To get a good margin for the turns, the anisotropy field change induced by ion implantation ?Hk should be larger than in 4-?m-period tracks. There is a new problem in 3-?m-period hybrid devices. In the hybrid devices, there is no deep ion implantation in the Permalloy track region, while there is a deep ion implantation in the ion-implanted track region. The effective bubble height is, therefore, different in the ion-implanted and Permalloy track region, and the bias field region where bubbles exist stable is different. In the typical 3-?m-period devices, the bias field region of the ion-implanted tracks is 20-30 Oe lower than that of the Permalloy tracks. The operating bias field adjustment (OBA) is needed. We have checked some OBA methods and found that the thinning of the garnet film in the Permalloy track region is a good method. Thinning the garnet film partially, the operating bias field can be adjusted easily and there is no harmful effect.

Suzuki, R.; Takeuchi, T.; Takeshita, M.; Ikeda, T.; Umezaki, H.

1985-04-01

263

Cartesian grid simulations of bubbling fluidized beds with a horizontal tube bundle  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, the flow hydrodynamics in a bubbling fluidized bed with submerged horizontal tube bundle was numerically investigated with an open-source code: Multiphase Flow with Interphase eXchange (MFIX). A newly implemented cut-cell technique was employed to deal with the curved surface of submerged tubes. A series of 2D simulations were conducted to study the effects of gas velocity and tube arrangement on the flow pattern. Hydrodynamic heterogeneities on voidage, particle velocity, bubble fraction, and frequency near the tube circumferential surface were successfully predicted by this numerical method, which agrees qualitatively with previous experimental findings and contributes to a sounder understanding of the non-uniform heat transfer and erosion around a horizontal tube. A 3D simulation was also conducted. Significant differences between 2D and 3D simulations were observed with respect to bed expansion, bubble distribution, voidage, and solids velocity profiles. Hence, the 3D simulation is needed for quantitative prediction of flow hydrodynamics. On the other hand, the flow characteristics and bubble behavior at the tube surface are similar under both 2D and 3D simulations as far as the bubble frequency and bubble phase fraction are concerned. Comparison with experimental data showed that qualitative agreement was obtained in both 2D and 3D simulations for the bubble characteristics at the tube surface.

Li, Tingwen; Dietiker, Jean-Francois; Zhang, Yongmin; Shahnam, Mehrdad

2011-12-01

264

The production of drops by the bursting of a bubble at an air liquid interface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fundamental mechanism arising during the bursting of a bubble at an air-liquid interface is described. A single bubble was followed from an arbitrary depth in the liquid, up to the creation and motion of the film and jet drops. Several phenomena were involved and their relative order of magnitude was compared in order to point out the dimensionless parameters which govern each step of the motion. High-speed cinematography is employed. The characteristic bubble radius which separates the creation of jet drops from cap bursting without jet drops is expressed mathematically. The corresponding numerical value for water is 3 mm and agrees with experimental observations.

Darrozes, J. S.; Ligneul, P.

1982-01-01

265

Effects of laminar separation bubbles and turbulent separation on airfoil stall  

SciTech Connect

An existing two-dimensional, interactive, stall prediction program is extended by improving its laminar separation bubble model. The program now accounts correctly for the effects of the bubble on airfoil performance characteristics when it forms at the mid-chord and on the leading edge. Furthermore, the model can now predict bubble bursting on very sharp leading edges at high angles of attack. The details of the model are discussed in depth. Comparisons of the predicted stall and post-stall pressure distributions show excellent agreement with experimental measurements for several different airfoils at different Reynolds numbers.

Dini, P. [Carleton College, Northfield, MN (United States); Coiro, D.P. [Universita di Napoli (Italy)

1997-12-31

266

Microfluidics with ultrasound-driven bubbles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microstreaming from oscillating bubbles is known to induce vigorous vortex flow. Here we show how to harness the power of bubble streaming in an experiment to achieve directed transport flow of high velocity, allowing design and manufacture of microfluidic MEMS devices. By combining oscillating bubbles with solid protrusions positioned on a patterned substrate, solid beads and lipid vesicles are guided

P. Marmottant; J. P. Raven; H. Gardeniers; J. G. Bomer; S. Hilgenfeldt

2006-01-01

267

Pulsed electrogeneration of bubbles for electroflotation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fine bubbles of the size required for many processes such as electroflotation can be generated by electrolysis. A large number of factors such as electrode material, electrode surface\\/morphological properties, pH and current density affect the gas bubble size distribution. This work is aimed at studies on the effect of interrupted current (pulsed) electrolysis on the generation of gas bubbles. A

N. K. Khosla; S. Venkatachalam; P. Somasundaran

1991-01-01

268

Frictional drag reduction by bubble injection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The injection of gas bubbles into a turbulent boundary layer of a liquid phase has multiple different impacts on the original flow structure. Frictional drag reduction is a phenomenon resulting from their combined effects. This explains why a number of different void-drag reduction relationships have been reported to date, while early works pursued a simple universal mechanism. In the last 15 years, a series of precisely designed experimentations has led to the conclusion that the frictional drag reduction by bubble injection has multiple manifestations dependent on bubble size and flow speed. The phenomena are classified into several regimes of two-phase interaction mechanisms. Each regime has inherent physics of bubbly liquid, highlighted by keywords such as bubbly mixture rheology, the spectral response of bubbles in turbulence, buoyancy-dominated bubble behavior, and gas cavity breakup. Among the regimes, bubbles in some selected situations lose the drag reduction effect owing to extra momentum transfer promoted by their active motions. This separates engineers into two communities: those studying small bubbles for high-speed flow applications and those studying large bubbles for low-speed flow applications. This article reviews the roles of bubbles in drag reduction, which have been revealed from fundamental studies of simplified flow geometries and from development of measurement techniques that resolve the inner layer structure of bubble-mixed turbulent boundary layers.

Murai, Yuichi

2014-07-01

269

Radiation Damping at a Bubble Wall  

E-print Network

The first order phase transition proceeds via nucleation and growth of true vacuum bubbles. When charged particles collide with the bubble they could radiate electromagnetic wave. We show that, due to an energy loss of the particles by the radiation, the damping pressure acting on the bubble wall depends on the velocity of the wall even in a thermal equilibrium state.

Jae-weon Lee; Kyungsub Kim; Chul H. Lee; Ji-ho Jang

1999-09-27

270

Radiation Damping at a Bubble Wall  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first order phase transition proceeds via nucleation and growth of true vacuum bubbles. When charged particles collide with the bubble they could radiate electromagnetic wave. We show that, due to an energy loss of the particles by the radiation, the damping pressure acting on the bubble wall depends on the velocity of the wall even in a thermal equilibrium

Jae-weon Lee; Kyungsub Kim; Chul H. Lee; Ji-ho Jang

1999-01-01

271

Radiation Damping at a Bubble Wall  

E-print Network

The first order phase transition proceeds via nucleation and growth of true vacuum bubbles. When charged particles collide with the bubble they could radiate electromagnetic wave. We show that, due to an energy loss of the particles by the radiation, the damping pressure acting on the bubble wall depends on the velocity of the wall even in a thermal equilibrium state.

Lee, J; Lee, C H; Jang, J; Lee, Jae-weon; Kim, Kyungsub; Lee, Chul H.; Jang, Ji-ho

1999-01-01

272

Marangoni bubble motion in zero gravity  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown experimentally that the Marangoni phenomenon is a primary mechanism for the movement of a gas bubble in a nonisothermal liquid in a low-gravity environment. In such two-phase flow systems, local variations in bubble surface tension are caused by a temperature gradient in the liquid. Shearing stresses thus generated at the bubble surface lead to convection in both

R. L. Thompson; K. J. de Witt

1979-01-01

273

MARANGONI BUBBLE MOTION PHENOMENON IN ZERO GRAVITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Marangoni phenomenon is shown to be the primary mechanism for the movement of a gas bubble in a nonisothermal liquid in a low-gravity environment. In such a two-phase system, local variations in surface tension at the bubble surface are caused by a temperature gradient in the liquid. Shearing stresses thus generated at the bubble surface lead to convection in

R. L. THOMPSON; K. J. DeWITT; T. L. LABUS

1980-01-01

274

Soap bubbles in paintings: Art and science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soap bubbles became popular in 17th century paintings and prints primarily as a metaphor for the impermanence and fragility of life. The Dancing Couple (1663) by the Dutch painter Jan Steen is a good example which, among many other symbols, shows a young boy blowing soap bubbles. In the 18th century the French painter Jean-Simeon Chardin used soap bubbles not

F. Behroozi

2008-01-01

275

Intra-bubble-combustion. Premixed limit, stage I: dynamics of rapid premixed flame propagation inside a bubble  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The propagation of a spherically symmetric premixed thin flame inside an initially centrally ignited bubble in an unconfined viscous, incompressible liquid is theoretically analysed. This model focuses on the dynamical competition between the pressure increase produced by the chemical reaction and the pressure decrease induced by the bubble expansion (a consequence of radial momentum conservation). When a balance between these two processes is achieved an oscillatory response may be observed. The conditions leading to such a response are investigated. The effective inertia (the squared ratio between the characteristic liquid response time and the combustion time) is the main parameter governing this evolution. Two qualitatively different behaviours are encountered for large and small effective inertia-parameter. An approximate analytical solution is provided for each limiting case, as well as a correlation for the gaseous state at the end of the process, based on the former approximate solutions. While the system considered is deliberately highly idealized, some of these quantitative and qualitative results are expected to be helpful in the design of intra-bubble-combustion experiments (Rosner D E, Arias-Zugasti M and La Mantia B 2001 Combustion of individual bubbles and submerged gas jets 6th International Microgravity Combustion Workshop (Cleveland, OH, USA, 22-24 May); Rosner D E, Arias-Zugasti M and La Mantia B 2002 Combustion of individual bubbles and submerged gas jets (poster) 29th Symp. (International) on Combustion (Sapporo, Japan, 21-26 July); Rosner D E 1997 Combustion synthesis and material processing Chem. Eng. Edu (ASEE) 31 228) and, ultimately, bubble reactors.

Arias-Zugasti, Manuel

2003-06-01

276

Ice bubbles confirm big chill  

SciTech Connect

Clues buried in Greenland`s icesheet indicate that during the last ice age, the climate repeatedly warmed sharply, only to slide into a renewed chill lasting thousands of years. New indicators derived from trapped bubbles of ancient gases, nitrogen and methane, indicate that these were indeed catastrophic events. This article describes the research and adjunct issues.

Kerr, R.A.

1996-06-14

277

The Trouble With Bubble Gum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Most students are totally unaware of the amount of sugar in bubble gum and don't know that they are literally eating sugar in huge amounts. In this chapter, the author is concerned with finding out what happens to the weight of gum when it is chewed, whic

Richard Konicek-Moran

2010-03-12

278

Bubble-driven inertial micropump  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fundamental action of the bubble-driven inertial micropump is investigated. The pump has no moving parts and consists of a thermal resistor placed asymmetrically within a straight channel connecting two reservoirs. Using numerical simulations, the net flow is studied as a function of channel geometry, resistor location, vapor bubble strength, fluid viscosity, and surface tension. Two major regimes of behavior are identified: axial and non-axial. In the axial regime, the drive bubble either remains inside the channel, or continues to grow axially when it reaches the reservoir. In the non-axial regime, the bubble grows out of the channel and in all three dimensions while inside the reservoir. The net flow in the axial regime is parabolic with respect to the hydraulic diameter of the channel cross-section, but in the non-axial regime it is not. From numerical modeling, it is determined that the net flow is maximal when the axial regime crosses over to the non-axial regime. To elucidate the basic physical principles of the pump, a phenomenological one-dimensional model is developed and solved. A linear array of micropumps has been built using silicon-SU8 fabrication technology that is used to manufacture thermal inkjet printheads. Semi-continuous pumping across a 2 mm-wide channel has been demonstrated experimentally. Measured net flow with respect to viscosity variation is in excellent agreement with simulation results.

Torniainen, Erik D.; Govyadinov, Alexander N.; Markel, David P.; Kornilovitch, Pavel E.

2012-12-01

279

Electrolysis Bubbles Make Waterflow Visible  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technique for visualization of three-dimensional flow uses tiny tracer bubbles of hydrogen and oxygen made by electrolysis of water. Strobe-light photography used to capture flow patterns, yielding permanent record that is measured to obtain velocities of particles. Used to measure simulated mixing turbulence in proposed gas-turbine combustor and also used in other water-table flow tests.

Schultz, Donald F.

1990-01-01

280

Hot toroidal and bubble nuclei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As nuclear temperature increases, the surface-tension coefficient decreases and the Coulomb repulsion is effective in pushing the nuclear matter outward, leading to the formation of toroidal and bubble nuclei. The threshold temperatures above which these nuclei are stable against symmetry-preserving distortions are obtained. They are found to decrease with the mass number.

Wong, C.-Y.

1985-11-01

281

The Coming Law School Bubble  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author explains how forty years of politicized hiring in the law schools has left its destructive mark. The results are potentially catastrophic: Market forces and internal law school policies may be combining to produce a legal education bubble the likes of which the country has never seen. (Contains 11 footnotes.)

Krauss, Michael I.

2011-01-01

282

Bubble Universe Dynamics After Free Passage  

E-print Network

We consider bubble collisions in single scalar field theories with multiple vacua. Recent work has argued that at sufficiently high impact velocities, collisions between such bubble vacua are governed by 'free passage' dynamics in which field interactions can be ignored during the collision, providing a systematic process for populating local minima without quantum nucleation. We focus on the time period that follows the bubble collision and provide evidence that, for certain potentials, interactions can drive significant deviations from the free-passage bubble profile, thwarting the production of bubbles with different field values.

Pontus Ahlqvist; Kate Eckerle; Brian Greene

2014-12-26

283

Tiny Bubbles in my BEC  

SciTech Connect

Ultracold atomic gases provide a unique way for exploring many-body quantum phenomena that are inaccessible to conventional low-temperature experiments. Nearly two decades ago the Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) - an ultracold gas of bosons in which almost all bosons occupy the same single-particle state - became experimentally feasible. Because a BEC exhibits superfluid properties, it can provide insights into the behavior of low-temperature helium liquids. We describe the case of a single distinguishable atom (an impurity) embedded in a BEC and strongly coupled to the BEC bosons. Depending on the strength of impurity-boson and boson-boson interactions, the impurity self-localizes into two fundamentally distinct regimes. The impurity atom can behave as a tightly localized 'polaron,' akin to an electron in a dielectric crystal, or as a 'bubble,' an analog to an electron bubble in superfluid helium. We obtain the ground state wavefunctions of the impurity and BEC by numerically solving the two coupled Gross-Pitaevskii equations that characterize the system. We employ the methods of imaginary time propagation and conjugate gradient descent. By appropriately varying the impurity-boson and boson-boson interaction strengths, we focus on the polaron to bubble crossover. Our results confirm analytical predictions for the polaron limit and uncover properties of the bubble regime. With these results we characterize the polaron to bubble crossover. We also summarize our findings in a phase diagram of the BEC-impurity system, which can be used as a guide in future experiments.

Blinova, Alina A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-08-01

284

The role of bubble ascent in magma mixing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the processes that affect the rate of liquid state homogenization provides fundamental clues on the otherwise inaccessible subsurface dynamics of magmatic plumbing systems. Compositional heterogeneities detected in the matrix of magmatic rocks represent the arrested state of a chemical equilibration. Magmatic homogenization is divided into a) the mechanical interaction of magma batches (mingling) and b) the diffusive equilibration of compositional gradients, where diffusive equilibration is exponentially enhanced by progressive mechanical interaction [1]. The mechanical interaction between two distinct batches of magma has commonly been attributed to shear and folding movements between two distinct liquids. A mode of mechanical interaction scarcely invoked is the advection of mafic material into a felsic one through bubble motion. Yet, experiments with analogue materials demonstrated that bubble ascent has the potential to enhance the fluid mechanical component of magma mixing [2]. Here, we present preliminary results from bubble-advection experiments. For the first time, experiments of this kind were performed using natural materials at magmatic temperatures. Cylinders of Snake River Plain (SRP) basalt were drilled with a cavity of defined volume and placed underneath cylinders of SRP rhyolite. Upon melting, the gas pocket (=bubble) trapped within the cavity, rose into the rhyolite, and thus entraining a portion of basaltic material in the shape of a plume trail. These plume-like structures that the advected basalt formed within the rhyolite were characterized by microCT and subsequent high-resolution EMP analyses. Single protruding filaments at its bottom end show a composite structure of many smaller plume tails, which may indicate the opening of a preferential pathway for bubbles after a first bubble has passed. The diffusional gradient around the plume tail showed a progressive evolution of equilibration from bottom to top of the plume tail. Calculating the normalised variance provides an efficient statistical measure of the diffusion rate of cations at the interface of ambient rhyolite and basaltic plume tail. Bubble ascent provides an efficient mechanism for advection of contrasting melt compositions, independent from Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities [cf. 2], or convection induced by overpressure of rising magma. Interaction of volatile-bearing magmas may thus be enhanced at saturation of one or two end-members by buoyant forces exerted from free fluid phases. Future strategies involve to hone down tolerances in the experimental setup to minimise extraneous bubbles, achieve fluid dynamical constraints on the ascent of bubbles in basalt. [1] De Campos, C., D. Perugini, W. Ertel-Ingrisch, D. Dingwell, and G. Poli (2011), Enhancement of magma mixing efficiency by chaotic dynamics: an experimental study, Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. , 161(6), 863-881. [2] Thomas, N., S. Tait, and T. Koyaguchi (1993), Mixing of stratified liquids by the motion of gas bubbles: application to magma mixing, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. , 115(1-4), 161-175.

Wiesmaier, Sebastian; Morgavi, Daniele; Perugini, Diego; De Campos, Cristina; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Lavallée, Yan; Dingwell, Donald B.

2013-04-01

285

Implementation and verification of numerical model for gas bubble dynamics in electroconductive fluid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Apart from common steam reforming process the thermal decomposition of methane is regarded as an alternate route to producing hydrogen and elemental carbon with out of CO2 emissions. Chemical reaction of decarburation can be ensured by means of methane bubbly flow through a molten metal bath and additionally controlled by external electromagnetic field. This is the initial stage of research and preliminary calculation results for the single bubble rise dynamics in 2D axisymmetric consideration at different flow conditions and 2D planar consideration in the presence of external DC EM field are obtained and compared to experimental and simulation data from literature.

Tucs, A.; Spitans, S.; Jakovics, A.; Baake, E.

2013-10-01

286

Three-dimensional experimental investigation of the two-phase flow structure in a bubbly pipe flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental study was performed to investigate the turbulence structure in a bubbly flow. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), a whole-field, non-invasive velocity measurement technique, was utilized. PIV is capable of producing an instantaneous velocity map of steady-state and transient flows of a fluid seeded with microscopically small neutral density particles (within either a two-dimensional plane or a three-dimensional volume). Both qualitative and quantitative spatial information about the flow field being studied can be obtained. The quantitative spatial velocity information can be further processed into useful information of different flow parameters such as vorticity, pathlines, velocity distributions, turbulence intensities, and kinetic energies. An experimental test facility was constructed to generate and visualize the bubbles which were studied as they rose vertically in a clear pipe. The study investigated the influence of a bubble on the surrounding flow field (bubble/flow interaction). A stereoscopic reconstruction technique was developed to obtain the three-dimensional velocity vector data from the recorded planar images. Conditional sampling of the fluid velocity components for a fixed (determined) bubble path within the viewing volume was applied. The flow pattern in the wake region produced by the bubble presence was unsteady. The results showed a general agreement with theoretical results and previous studies found in the literature. Oscillations in the flow field downstream (front) of the rising bubble were noted, for a distance of about one to two bubble diameters. Vortex tubes and recirculation regions upstream (back) of the rising bubble were also observed.

Schmidl, William Daniel

287

Generation of Bubbly Suspensions in Low Gravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Generation of a uniform monodisperse bubbly suspension in low gravity is a rather difficult task because bubbles do not detach as easily as on Earth. Under microgravity, the buoyancy force is not present to detach the bubbles as they are formed from the nozzles. One way to detach the bubbles is to establish a detaching force that helps their detachment from the orifice. The drag force, established by flowing a liquid in a cross or co-flow configuration with respect to the nozzle direction, provides this additional force and helps detach the bubbles as they are being formed. This paper is concerned with studying the generation of a bubbly suspension in low gravity in support of a flight definition experiment titled "Behavior of Rapidly Sheared Bubbly Suspension." Generation of a bubbly suspension, composed of 2 and 3 mm diameter bubbles with a standard deviation <10% of the bubble diameter, was identified as one of the most important engineering/science issues associated with the flight definition experiment. This paper summarizes the low gravity experiments that were conducted to explore various ways of making the suspension. Two approaches were investigated. The first was to generate the suspension via a chemical reaction between the continuous and dispersed phases using effervescent material, whereas the second considered the direct injection of air into the continuous phase. The results showed that the reaction method did not produce the desired bubble size distribution compared to the direct injection of bubbles. However, direct injection of air into the continuous phase (aqueous salt solution) resulted in uniform bubble-diameter distribution with acceptable bubble-diameter standard deviation.

Nahra, Henry K.; Hoffmann, Monica I.; Hussey, Sam; Bell, Kimberly R.

2000-01-01

288

A new active cavitation mapping technique for pulsed HIFU applications--bubble Doppler.  

PubMed

In this work, a new active cavitation mapping technique for pulsed high-intensity focused ultrasound (pHIFU) applications termed bubble Doppler is proposed and its feasibility is tested in tissue-mimicking gel phantoms. pHIFU therapy uses short pulses, delivered at low pulse repetition frequency, to cause transient bubble activity that has been shown to enhance drug and gene delivery to tissues. The current gold standard for detecting and monitoring cavitation activity during pHIFU treatments is passive cavitation detection (PCD), which provides minimal information on the spatial distribution of the bubbles. B-mode imaging can detect hyperecho formation, but has very limited sensitivity, especially to small, transient microbubbles. The bubble Doppler method proposed here is based on a fusion of the adaptations of three Doppler techniques that had been previously developed for imaging of ultrasound contrast agents-color Doppler, pulse-inversion Doppler, and decorrelation Doppler. Doppler ensemble pulses were interleaved with therapeutic pHIFU pulses using three different pulse sequences and standard Doppler processing was applied to the received echoes. The information yielded by each of the techniques on the distribution and characteristics of pHIFU-induced cavitation bubbles was evaluated separately, and found to be complementary. The unified approach-bubble Doppler-was then proposed to both spatially map the presence of transient bubbles and to estimate their sizes and the degree of nonlinearity. PMID:25265178

Li, Tong; Khokhlova, Tatiana D; Sapozhnikov, Oleg A; O'Donnell, Matthew; Hwang, Joo Ha

2014-10-01

289

Rising Food Prices: Who's Responsible?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rise in food prices can be partially attributed to the high food consumption level throughout Europe and North America, coupled with failure to evolve systems for more production of cattle, soybeans, and fisheries at lower cost. (PS)

Brown, Lester R.

1973-01-01

290

Mass transfer processes across the Capillary Fringe: Quantification of gas-water interface and bubble mediated mass transfer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Capillary Fringe (CF) is a highly dynamic zone at the interface between the water-saturated aquifer and the vadose zone, where steep biogeochemical gradients and thus high bioactivities are expected. Mass transfer processes between the unsaturated zone and the atmosphere, like Greenhouse gas emissions and evaporation, are controlled by the highly temporal and spatial variable gas-water interface across the capillary fringe. Due to water table fluctuations, gas phase may be entrapped or released at/from the CF, which extremely affects the hydraulic properties of the porous medium as well as the mass transfer processes in the partially saturated zone. Most of these processes (gas entrapment and bubble mediated mass transfer (BMT)) are governed by the interactions between the interfaces of gas, water and soil phases. Quantification of these parameters requires a pore-scale approach, which can determine the phase volumes and interfaces with high accuracy. For the understanding and prediction of the involved processes, experiments and modeling at the pore scale are the necessary prerequisites for upscaled, effective modeling approaches. To achieve this aim, we conducted a set of column experiments using X-Ray Computed Tomography (CT). Using this technique, we are able to quantitatively analyze the desired variables in 3D inside the actual bulk volume of the porous media. Water table (WT) elevation was raised at different velocities in the column filled with 1mm-glass beads. After each rise, the column was scanned with CT. We used an intelligent multi-phase segmentation method, considering grey value frequency and voxel neighboring, to separate gas, water, and solid phases in the CT images. The saturation of the gas phase, distribution of the trapped gas bubbles and clusters, and their size, shape, and area are quantified and analyzed at pore-scale. We developed a new segmentation algorithm to distinguish the gas/water interface from the gas/solid interface. Only the first plays the key role in BMT. Parallel to the CT-column experiments we measured in the same experimental setup (column, sediment, WT-rise velocity) the dissolution of trapped Oxygen gas bubbles using optode spots along the capillary fringe inside the column. For the first time we quantify BMT based on pore-scale process characteristics of gas phase distribution using two different models: (i) an effective 1D-diffusion model and (ii) a Multisphere diffusion model.

Geistlinger, Helmut; Mohammadian, Sadjad; Schlüter, Steffen; Karimzadeh, Lotfollah; Vogel, Hans-Jörg

2013-04-01

291

Slopes To Prevent Trapping of Bubbles in Microfluidic Channels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The idea of designing a microfluidic channel to slope upward along the direction of flow of the liquid in the channel has been conceived to help prevent trapping of gas bubbles in the channel. In the original application that gave rise to this idea, the microfluidic channels are parts of micro-capillary electrophoresis (microCE) devices undergoing development for use on Mars in detecting compounds indicative of life. It is necessary to prevent trapping of gas bubbles in these devices because uninterrupted liquid pathways are essential for sustaining the electrical conduction and flows that are essential for CE. The idea is also applicable to microfluidic devices that may be developed for similar terrestrial microCE biotechnological applications or other terrestrial applications in which trapping of bubbles in microfluidic channels cannot be tolerated. A typical microCE device in the original application includes, among other things, multiple layers of borosilicate float glass wafers. Microfluidic channels are formed in the wafers, typically by use of wet chemical etching. The figure presents a simplified cross section of part of such a device in which the CE channel is formed in the lowermost wafer (denoted the channel wafer) and, according to the present innovation, slopes upward into a via hole in another wafer (denoted the manifold wafer) lying immediately above the channel wafer. Another feature of the present innovation is that the via hole in the manifold wafer is made to taper to a wider opening at the top to further reduce the tendency to trap bubbles. At the time of reporting the information for this article, an effort to identify an optimum technique for forming the slope and the taper was in progress. Of the techniques considered thus far, the one considered to be most promising is precision milling by use of femtosecond laser pulses. Other similar techniques that may work equally well are precision milling using a focused ion beam, or a small diamond-tipped drill bit.

Greer, Harold E.; Lee, Michael C.; Smith, J. Anthony; Willis, Peter A.

2010-01-01

292

Soap bubbles in paintings: Art and science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soap bubbles became popular in 17th century paintings and prints primarily as a metaphor for the impermanence and fragility of life. The Dancing Couple (1663) by the Dutch painter Jan Steen is a good example which, among many other symbols, shows a young boy blowing soap bubbles. In the 18th century the French painter Jean-Simeon Chardin used soap bubbles not only as metaphor but also to express a sense of play and wonder. In his most famous painting, Soap Bubbles (1733/1734) a translucent and quavering soap bubble takes center stage. Chardin's contemporary Charles Van Loo painted his Soap Bubbles (1764) after seeing Chardin's work. In both paintings the soap bubbles have a hint of color and show two bright reflection spots. We discuss the physics involved and explain how keenly the painters have observed the interaction of light and soap bubbles. We show that the two reflection spots on the soap bubbles are images of the light source, one real and one virtual, formed by the curved surface of the bubble. The faint colors are due to thin film interference effects.

Behroozi, F.

2008-12-01

293

Unsteady thermocapillary migration of bubbles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Upon the introduction of a gas bubble into a liquid possessing a uniform thermal gradient, an unsteady thermo-capillary flow begins. Ultimately, the bubble attains a constant velocity. This theoretical analysis focuses upon the transient period for a bubble in a microgravity environment and is restricted to situations wherein the flow is sufficiently slow such that inertial terms in the Navier-Stokes equation and convective terms in the energy equation may be safely neglected (i.e., both Reynolds and Marangoni numbers are small). The resulting linear equations were solved analytically in the Laplace domain with the Prandtl number of the liquid as a parameter; inversion was accomplished numerically using a standard IMSL routine. In the asymptotic long-time limit, the theory agrees with the steady-state theory of Young, Goldstein, and Block. The theory predicts that more than 90 percent of the terminal steady velocity is achieved when the smallest dimensionless time, i.e., the one based upon the largest time scale-viscous or thermal-equals unity.

Dill, Loren H.; Balasubramaniam, R.

294

A VERY DEEP CHANDRA OBSERVATION OF A2052: BUBBLES, SHOCKS, AND SLOSHING  

SciTech Connect

We present the first results from a very deep ({approx}650 ks) Chandra X-ray observation of A2052, as well as archival Very Large Array radio observations. The data reveal detailed structure in the inner parts of the cluster, including bubbles evacuated by radio lobes of the active galactic nucleus (AGN), compressed bubble rims, filaments, and loops. Two concentric shocks are seen, and a temperature rise is measured for the innermost one. On larger scales, we report the first detection of an excess surface brightness spiral feature. The spiral has cooler temperatures, lower entropies, and higher abundances than its surroundings, and is likely the result of sloshing gas initiated by a previous cluster-cluster or sub-cluster merger. Initial evidence for previously unseen bubbles at larger radii related to earlier outbursts from the AGN is presented.

Blanton, E. L.; Douglass, E. M. [Institute for Astrophysical Research and Astronomy Department, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Randall, S. W.; McNamara, B. R. [Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Clarke, T. E. [Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue Southwest, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Sarazin, C. L. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, PO Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States); McDonald, M., E-mail: eblanton@bu.edu, E-mail: emdoug@bu.edu, E-mail: srandall@head.cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: tracy.clarke@nrl.navy.mil, E-mail: sarazin@virginia.edu, E-mail: mcnamara@sciborg.uwaterloo.ca, E-mail: mcdonald@astro.umd.edu [Astronomy Department, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

2011-08-20

295

A force balance model for the motion, impact, and bounce of bubbles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A force balance model has been developed to predict the terminal velocity of a sub-millimetric bubble as its rises in water under buoyancy. The dynamics of repeated collisions and rebounds of the bubble against a horizontal solid surface is modeled quantitatively by including forces due to buoyancy, added mass, drag, and hydrodynamic lubrication—the last arises from the drainage of water trapped in the thin film between the solid surface and the surface of the deformable bubble. The result is a self-contained, parameter-free model that is capable of giving quantitative agreement with measured trajectories and observed collisions and rebounds against a solid surface as well as the spatio-temporal evolution of the thin film during collision as measured by interferometry.

Klaseboer, Evert; Manica, Rogerio; Hendrix, Maurice H. W.; Ohl, Claus-Dieter; Chan, Derek Y. C.

2014-09-01

296

A computational efficient modelling of laminar separation bubbles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In predicting the aerodynamic characteristics of airfoils operating at low Reynolds numbers, it is often important to account for the effects of laminar (transitional) separation bubbles. Previous approaches to the modelling of this viscous phenomenon range from fast but sometimes unreliable empirical correlations for the length of the bubble and the associated increase in momentum thickness, to more accurate but significantly slower displacement-thickness iteration methods employing inverse boundary-layer formulations in the separated regions. Since the penalty in computational time associated with the more general methods is unacceptable for airfoil design applications, use of an accurate yet computationally efficient model is highly desirable. To this end, a semi-empirical bubble model was developed and incorporated into the Eppler and Somers airfoil design and analysis program. The generality and the efficiency was achieved by successfully approximating the local viscous/inviscid interaction, the transition location, and the turbulent reattachment process within the framework of an integral boundary-layer method. Comparisons of the predicted aerodynamic characteristics with experimental measurements for several airfoils show excellent and consistent agreement for Reynolds numbers from 2,000,000 down to 100,000.

Dini, Paolo; Maughmer, Mark D.

1990-01-01

297

Dynamics of a Tethered Bubble Alexey O. Maksimov 1  

E-print Network

bubble on a solid surface [3] differs from single-bubble SL. The forced oscillation of a gas bubble can using an acoustically driven tethered gas bubble. Clearly the forced oscillation of a tethered gas Abstract. Small gas bubbles adhering to solids occur in a range of manufacturing processes, including

Sóbester, András

298

Ostwald Ripening in Multiple-Bubble Nuclei  

E-print Network

The ostwald ripening of bubbles is studied by molecular dynamics simulations involving up to 679 million Lennard-Jones particles. Many bubbles appear after depressurizing a system that is initially maintained in the pure-liquid phase, and the coarsening of bubbles follows. The self-similarity of the bubble-size distribution function predicted by Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner theory is directly confirmed. The total number of bubbles decreases asymptotically as $t^{-x}$ with scaling exponent $x$. As the initial temperature increases, the exponent changes from $x=3/2$ to $1$, which implies that the growth of bubbles changes from interface-limited (the $t^{1/2}$ law) to diffusion-limited (the $t^{1/3}$ law) growth.

Watanabe, Hiroshi; Inaoka, Hajime; Ito, Nobuyasu

2014-01-01

299

Ostwald Ripening in Multiple-Bubble Nuclei  

E-print Network

The ostwald ripening of bubbles is studied by molecular dynamics simulations involving up to 679 million Lennard-Jones particles. Many bubbles appear after depressurizing a system that is initially maintained in the pure-liquid phase, and the coarsening of bubbles follows. The self-similarity of the bubble-size distribution function predicted by Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner theory is directly confirmed. The total number of bubbles decreases asymptotically as $t^{-x}$ with scaling exponent $x$. As the initial temperature increases, the exponent changes from $x=3/2$ to $1$, which implies that the growth of bubbles changes from interface-limited (the $t^{1/2}$ law) to diffusion-limited (the $t^{1/3}$ law) growth.

Hiroshi Watanabe; Masaru Suzuki; Hajime Inaoka; Nobuyasu Ito

2014-07-01

300

BUBBLE DYNAMICS AT GAS-EVOLVING ELECTRODES  

SciTech Connect

Nucleation of bubbles, their growth by diffusion of dissolved gas to the bubble surface and by coalescence, and their detachment from the electrode are all very fast phenomena; furthermore, electrolytically generated bubbles range in size from ten to a few hundred microns; therefore, magnification and high speed cinematography are required to observe bubbles and the phenomena of their growth on the electrode surface. Viewing the action from the front side (the surface on which the bubbles form) is complicated because the most important events occur close to the surface and are obscured by other bubbles passing between the camera and the electrode; therefore, oxygen was evolved on a transparent tin oxide "window" electrode and the events were viewed from the backside. The movies showed that coalescence of bubbles is very important for determining the size of bubbles and in the chain of transport processes; growth by diffusion and by coalescence proceeds in series and parallel; coalescing bubbles cause significant fluid motion close to the electrode; bubbles can leave and reattach; and bubbles evolve in a cycle of growth by diffusion and different modes of coalescence. An analytical solution for the primary potential and current distribution around a spherical bubble in contact with a plane electrode is presented. Zero at the contact point, the current density reaches only one percent of its undisturbed value at 30 percent of the radius from that point and goes through a shallow maximum two radii away. The solution obtained for spherical bubbles is shown to apply for the small bubbles of electrolytic processes. The incremental resistance in ohms caused by sparse arrays of bubbles is given by {Delta}R = 1.352 af/kS where f is the void fraction of gas in the bubble layer, a is the bubble layer thickness, k is the conductivity of gas free electrolyte, and S is the electrode area. A densely populated gas bubble layer on an electrode was modeled as a hexagonal array of dielectric spheres. Accurately machined lucite spheres were placed one at a time in one end of a hexagonal cell which simulated the unit cell of such an array. The resistance as a function of gas bubble layer packing density sharply increased as close packing was approached. Because the interaction of the fields around bubbles closely spaced in the direction perpendicular to the current dominates the added resistance, and because there is a tri-modal distribution of bubble sizes in a bubble layer, the Distribution Model of Meredith and Tobias (16), derived for three dimensional gas dispersions, approximately predicted the conductivity of a bubble layer at void fractions greater than 0.3. At moderate-to-high current densities, the bubble layer in a cell having an interelectrode gap of half a centimeter could increase the ohmic resistance by as much as 20 percent.

Sides, Paul J.

1980-12-01

301

Ostwald ripening in multiple-bubble nuclei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ostwald ripening of bubbles is studied by molecular dynamics simulations involving up to 679 × 106 Lennard-Jones particles. Many bubbles appear after depressurizing a system that is initially maintained in the pure-liquid phase, and the coarsening of bubbles follows. The self-similarity of the bubble-size distribution function predicted by Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner theory is directly confirmed. The total number of bubbles decreases asymptotically as t-x with scaling exponent x. As the initial temperature increases, the exponent changes from x = 3/2 to 1, which implies that the growth of bubbles changes from interface-limited (the t1/2 law) to diffusion-limited (the t1/3 law) growth.

Watanabe, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Masaru; Inaoka, Hajime; Ito, Nobuyasu

2014-12-01

302

Scattering measurements from a dissolving bubble.  

PubMed

A laboratory-scale study on acoustic scattering from a single bubble undergoing dissolution in undersaturated fresh water is presented. Several experiments are performed with the acoustic source driven with five-cycle tone bursts, center frequency of 120 kHz, to insonify a single bubble located on axis of the combined beam of the set of transducers. The bubble is placed on a fine nylon thread located in the far field of the transducer set, arranged in bistatic configuration, in a tank filled with undersaturated water. Backscattered waveforms from the bubble target are acquired every few seconds for several hours until the bubble has completely dissolved, and detailed dissolution curves are produced from the acoustic data. The rate of bubble dissolution is calculated using the solution developed by Epstein and Plesset [J. Chem. Phys. 18, 1505-1509 (1950)]. The results of the experiments performed are in agreement with the calculations. PMID:22712899

Kapodistrias, George; Dahl, Peter H

2012-06-01

303

Ostwald ripening in multiple-bubble nuclei.  

PubMed

The Ostwald ripening of bubbles is studied by molecular dynamics simulations involving up to 679 × 10(6) Lennard-Jones particles. Many bubbles appear after depressurizing a system that is initially maintained in the pure-liquid phase, and the coarsening of bubbles follows. The self-similarity of the bubble-size distribution function predicted by Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner theory is directly confirmed. The total number of bubbles decreases asymptotically as t(-x) with scaling exponent x. As the initial temperature increases, the exponent changes from x = 3/2 to 1, which implies that the growth of bubbles changes from interface-limited (the t(1/2) law) to diffusion-limited (the t(1/3) law) growth. PMID:25527953

Watanabe, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Masaru; Inaoka, Hajime; Ito, Nobuyasu

2014-12-21

304

Bubble effect on Kelvin-Helmholtz' instability  

E-print Network

We derive boundary conditions at interfaces (contact discontinuities) for a class of Lagrangian models describing, in particular, bubbly flows. We use these conditions to study Kelvin-Helmholtz' instability which develops in the flow of two superposed layers of a pure incompressible fluid and a fluid containing gas bubbles, co-flowing with different velocities. We show that the presence of bubbles in one layer stabilizes the flow in some intervals of wave lengths.

Sergey L. Gavrilyuk; Henri Gouin; Vladimir M. Teshukov

2008-01-16

305

Bubble, Drop and Particle Unit (BDPU)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This section of the Life and Microgravity Spacelab (LMS) publication includes the following articles entitled: (1) Oscillatory Thermocapillary Instability; (2) Thermocapillary Convection in Multilayer Systems; (3) Bubble and Drop Interaction with Solidification Front; (4) A Liquid Electrohydrodynamics Experiment; (5) Boiling on Small Plate Heaters under Microgravity and a Comparison with Earth Gravity; (6) Thermocapillary Migration and Interactions of Bubbles and Drops; and (7) Nonlinear Surface Tension Driven Bubble Migration

1998-01-01

306

DNA Bubble Life Time in Denaturation  

E-print Network

We have investigated the denaturation bubble life time for a homogeneous as well as for a heterogeneous DNA within a Poland-Scheraga model. It is shown that at criticality the bubble life time for a homogeneous DNA is finite provided that the loop entropic exponent c>2 and has a scaling dependence on DNA length for c<2. Heterogeneity in the thermodynamical limit makes the bubble life time infinite for any entropic exponent.

Zh. S. Gevorkian; Chin-Kun Hu

2010-10-11

307

Experimental investigation of water laminar mixed-convection flow with sub-millimeter bubbles in a vertical channel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes flow and heat transfer characteristics of laminar mixed-convection flows of water with sub-millimeter bubbles in a vertical channel. We use thermocouples and a particle tracking velocimetry technique for the temperature and velocity measurements. The working fluid used is tap water, and hydrogen bubbles generated by electrolysis of the water are used as the sub-millimeter bubbles. The Reynolds number of the main flow ranges from 100 to 200. The ratio of the heat transfer coefficient with sub-millimeter-bubble injection to that without injection (the heat transfer coefficient ratio) ranges from 1.24 to 1.38. The heat transfer coefficient ratio decreases with the increase in the Reynolds number. We conclude from velocity measurements that this decrease is mainly caused by a decrease in the advection effect due to sub-millimeter bubbles.

Kitagawa, Atsuhide; Kimura, Katsuya; Hagiwara, Yoshimichi

2010-03-01

308

Modeling bubble clusters in compressible liquids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new model to simulate the behaviour of bubble clouds in compressible liquids. The method uses a volume-averaged approach and defines the pressure and void fraction relative to a computational cell. Inside the cell, a generalisation of the Keller-Miksis equation is derived in order to take into account the presence of (one or more) nearby spherical bubbles as well as liquid compressibility effect on the bubble interface motion. The method converges to previous models in two distinct limits. First, it reproduces the bubble radius evolution and pressure disturbances induced by a single bubble subjected to a given far field pressure, irrespective of the relative size of the bubble compared to the grid size. Second, it converges to continuum models based on Ensemble-averaged equations when there are many bubbles in a cell. The main advantage of the model is that it allows to access to the instantaneous pressure profiles in the liquid rather than the averaged behaviour. The local pressures generated and scattered by bubble dynamics is important for predicting the peak pressures that can be locally achieved in some points of the liquid when violent bubble collapses are encountered.

Fuster, Daniel; Colonius, Tim

2010-11-01

309

Experiments with electron bubbles in liquid helium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When a free electron is injected into liquid helium, it forms a microscopic bubble essentially free of helium atoms. The electron bubble is an excellent textbook example of a quantum mechanical particle confined in a potential well. The bubble is also a powerful tool to study superfluidity. In this dissertation, we describe various experiments on electron bubbles using standard ultrasonic techniques. By using a focused sound wave, we create a region in liquid helium where the pressure was negative. The bubble becomes unstable, and can grow without limit when the ambient pressure is lower than some critical value. This macroscopic bubble can then be detected by light scattering. The critical pressure of the bubble depends on many factors. For example, a bubble containing an electron in an excited state has a lower magnitude of critical pressure, and is therefore easier to explode than a bubble with the electron in the ground state. Similarly, bubbles trapped on vortices are easier to explode than normal, untrapped bubbles. In our experiments, we injected electrons in liquid helium by either a field emission tip or a radioactive beta source. We investigated the different experimental conditions under which the bubbles were trapped on vortices. We measured the difference of critical pressures between bubbles on and off vortices as a function of temperature. In the course of our experiments, we were able to detect electrons that were formed by the Penning ionization of dimers. At temperatures lower than 1 K, we have discovered new objects that can be exploded very easily. These objects depend on different experimental parameters in a complicated way, and are not completely understood. In a second series of experiments, we used infrared radiation to excite the electron bubbles. By analyzing the data carefully, we estimated the lifetime of these excited state bubbles; and concluded that the decay mechanism is non-radiative in nature. We also studied the effect of infrared radiation on bubbles trapped on vortices. Finally, we measured the current arising from the secondary ionization of the beta particles emitted from a radioactive source. The current had an interesting dependence on different experimental parameters, especially temperature and electric field.

Ghosh, Ambarish

310

Fission gas bubble behaviour in uranium dioxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A theoretical model developed to study the gas bubble evolution in nuclear materials has been used to analyze experiments on uranium dioxide irradiated to low burnups (0.1 and 0.4 at%), in which fission gas bubble size distributions were measured following out-of-pile isothermal anneals. Following irradiation, the UO 2 was annealed for 1 or 6 h each at temperatures between 1303 and 1973 K and then thinned for transmission electron microscopy observation of the bubble size distributions. The model is based on the assumption, that the coalescence of the moving bubbles is the main mechanism defining gas porosity development under these conditions. The gas bubbles are assumed to be in equilibrium and their motion is assumed to be caused by random migration. The calculations show that the observed bubble size distributions may be reproduced on the base of the bubble growth mechanisms considered. The joint action of bubble surface and volume diffusion mechanisms can explain both the general nature of the experimental distributions and their perculiarities, in particularly the bimodal bubble size distribution observed after annealing at 1673 K. The choice of appropriate values as input parameters into the model is discussed.

Chkuaseli, V. F.; Matzke, Hj.

311

Bubble and spherical air shell formation dynamics.  

PubMed

We studied the formation dynamics of air bubbles emitted from a nozzle submerged in aqueous glycerol solutions of different viscosities. We describe the evolution of the bubbling regimes by using the air flow rate as a control parameter and the time between successive bubbles as a dynamical variable. Some results concerning bubbling coalescence were emulated with a combination of simple maps. We also observed the formation of air shells surrounding liquid drops inside the liquid, known as antibubbles. The antibubbling conditions were related to an intermittent regime. PMID:12513583

Tufaile, A; Sartorelli, J C

2002-11-01

312

Breaking Bubble Rafts: Modeling material failure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bubble rafts have long been of interest as a model two-dimensional system for the study of general amorphous systems, ranging from metallic glasses to foams and potentially geophysical flows. Consisting of a single layer of gas-bubbles on an aqueous substrate, bubble rafts allow for excellent control over bubble size, size distribution, bubble solution composition, and for the tracking and characterizing of each bubble in the system. The individual bubbles serve as the model for the "particles" in other complex flows, such as molecules or grains. Additionally, bubble rafts have been used in a wide-range of flow geometries and with varied methods of confinement. These features of bubble rafts have provided insight in a range of issues related to the visco-elastic nature of foams and other complex fluids. In this talk, we will present results from a relatively new configuration: uniaxial extension. At relatively low speeds, the system exhibits pinch-off behaviour that is consistent with a fluid-like response. Two types of pinch-off are observed: double-cone and long-thread. The appearance of either mode is dependent on the pulling speed and system size. As the speed of extension is increased, the system exhibits classic fracture behaviour. We will report on our characterization of these transitions, with a focus on connecting to potential microscopic origins of the different modes.

Dennin, M.

2011-12-01

313

arXiv:submit/0673806[q-fin.TR]13Mar2013 Bubbles, Jumps, and Scaling from Properly  

E-print Network

rise to irrational herding. Therefore, the stylized facts have been argued to provide evidence against hold true which is not neccessarily the case. Furthermore, there are also economic models with perfectly rational traders that can exhibit "rational bubbles" where prices deviate far from fundamental

Kreiter, Andreas K.

314

Dynamics of Vapour Bubbles in Nucleate Boiling. 1; Basic Equations of Bubble Evolution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We consider the behaviour of a vapour bubble formed at a nucleation site on a heated horizontal wall. There is no forced convection of an ambient liquid, and the bubble is presumably separated from the wall by a thin liquid microlayer. The energy conservation law results in a variational equation for the mechanical energy of the whole system consisting of the bubble and liquid. It leads to a set of two strongly nonlinear equations which govern bubble expansion and motion of its centre of mass. A supplementary equation to find out the vapour temperature follows from consideration of heat transfer to the bubble, both from the bulk of surrounding liquid and through the microlayer. The average thickness of the microlayer is shown to increase monotonously with time as the bubble meniscus spreads along the wall. Bubble expansion is driven by the pressure head between vapour inside and liquid far away from the bubble, with due allowance for surface tension and gravity effects. It is resisted by inertia of liquid being placed into motion as the bubble grows. The inertia originates also a force that presses the bubble to the wall. This force is counteracted by the buoyancy and an effective surface tension force that tends to transform the bubble into a sphere. The analysis brings about quite a new formulation of the familiar problem of bubble growth and detachment under conditions of nucleate pool boiling.

Buyevich, Yu A.; Webbon, Bruce W.; Callaway, Robert (Technical Monitor)

1995-01-01

315

The Behavior of Micro Bubbles and Bubble Cluster in Ultrasound Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrasound is widely applied in the clinical field today, such as ultrasound imaging, Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL) and so on. It is essential to take a real understanding of the dynamics of micro bubbles and bubble cluster in these applications. Thus we numerically simulate them in ultrasound field in this paper. In the numerical simulation, we consider the thermal behavior inside the bubble and the pressure wave phenomena in the bubble cluster in detail, namely, the evaporation and condensation of liquid at the bubble wall, heat transfer through the bubble wall, diffusion of non-condensable gas inside the bubble and the compressibility of liquid. Initial cluster radius is to 0.5[mm], bubble radius is 1.7[mm], void fraction is 0.1[ambient pressure is 101.3[kPa], temperature is 293[K] and the amplitude of ultrasound is 50[kPa]. We simulate bubble cluster in ultrasound field at various frequencies and we obtain the following conclusions. 1) The maximum pressure inside bubble cluster reaches 5[MPa] and this is much higher than that of a bubble. 2) Bubble cluster behaves like a rigid body acoustically when the frequency of ultrasound is much higher than its natural frequency.

Yoshizawa, Shin; Matsumoto, Yoichiro

2001-11-01

316

Validation of Bubble Distribution Measurements of the ABS Acoustic Bubble Spectrometer with High Speed Video Photography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Measurement,of the bubble size distribution in a liquid is very important for cavitation inception studies. In this paper we describe an acoustics based device, the ABS Acoustic Bubble Spectrometer? that measures bubble size distributions and void fractions in liquids based on the ,measurement ,of sound ,propagation through the tested liquid. Short monochromatic,bursts of sound at different frequencies are generated

G. L. Chahine; K. M. Kalumuck; J Y Cheng; G. S. Frederick

317

Fluid mechanics of bubble capture by the diving bell spider  

E-print Network

The water spider, a unique member of its species, is used as inspiration for a bubble capture mechanism. Bubble mechanics are studied in the pursuit of a biomimetic solution for transporting air bubbles underwater. Careful ...

Brooks, Alice (Alice P.)

2010-01-01

318

Colorful Demos with a Long-Lasting Soap Bubble.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes several demonstrations that feature interaction of light with soap bubbles. Includes directions about how to produce a long-lasting stationary soap bubble with an easily changeable size and describes the interaction of white light with the bubble. (DDR)

Behroozi, F.; Olson, D. W.

1994-01-01

319

Dysprosium containing bubble garnet composition for ion-implanted contiguous disk devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new bubble garnet composition containing dysprosium (DySmLuBiCa)3(FeGe)5O12 has been investigated for use in 4-?m period ion-implanted contiguous disk (CD) devices. The most significant property of the material is its low value of difference in magnetostriction constants, ??(=?100-?111=+1.4×10-6). The low ?? is attained by substituting Dy ions into the dodecahedral sites. The Gilbert damping parameter ? is moderate. The present Dy-containing garnet showed several favorable characteristics with respect to bubble propagation in 4-?m period He+ implanted CD devices. Those characteristics are (1) small minimum drive field, (2) suppression of bubble jumping to adjacent CD ``good'' tracks, even in 6-?m loop period, (3) smooth followup of bubble positions to drive field directions, and so on. These characteristics in bubble propagation along CD tracks are interpreted by the in-plane magnetization reversal at the pattern edge, which is related to ?? and stress relief. Smaller ?? decreases threefold symmetric behavior of charged wall movement along pattern edges.

Makino, H.; Okada, O.; Hidaka, Y.

1984-03-01

320

BUBBLY: A method for detecting and characterizing interstellar bubbles using Fabry-Perot spectroscopy  

E-print Network

We present a new method for the detection and characterization of expansion in galaxy discs based on H{\\alpha} Fabry-Perot spectroscopy, taking advantage of the high spatial and velocity resolution of our instrument (GH{\\alpha}FaS). The method analyses multi-peaked emission line profiles to find expansion along the line of sight on a point-by-point basis. At this stage we have centred our attention on the large scale structures of expanding gas associated with HII regions which show a characteristic pattern of expansion velocities, of order 100 km/s, as a result of both bubble shape and projection effects. We show an example of the expansion map obtained with our method from a superbubble detected in the Antennae galaxies. We use the information obtained from the method to measure the relevant physical parameters of the superbubbles, including their ages which can be used to date young star clusters.

Camps-Fariña, Artemi; Beckman, John E; Font, Joan; García-Lorenzo, Begoña; Erroz-Ferrer, Santiago; Amram, Philippe

2014-01-01

321

Neural basis of economic bubble behavior.  

PubMed

Throughout human history, economic bubbles have formed and burst. As a bubble grows, microeconomic behavior ceases to be constrained by realistic predictions. This contradicts the basic assumption of economics that agents have rational expectations. To examine the neural basis of behavior during bubbles, we performed functional magnetic resonance imaging while participants traded shares in a virtual stock exchange with two non-bubble stocks and one bubble stock. The price was largely deflected from the fair price in one of the non-bubble stocks, but not in the other. Their fair prices were specified. The price of the bubble stock showed a large increase and battering, as based on a real stock-market bust. The imaging results revealed modulation of the brain circuits that regulate trade behavior under different market conditions. The premotor cortex was activated only under a market condition in which the price was largely deflected from the fair price specified. During the bubble, brain regions associated with the cognitive processing that supports order decisions were identified. The asset preference that might bias the decision was associated with the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). The activity of the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) was correlated with the score of future time perspective, which would bias the estimation of future price. These regions were deemed to form a distinctive network during the bubble. A functional connectivity analysis showed that the connectivity between the DLPFC and the IPL was predominant compared with other connectivities only during the bubble. These findings indicate that uncertain and unstable market conditions changed brain modes in traders. These brain mechanisms might lead to a loss of control caused by wishful thinking, and to microeconomic bubbles that expand, on the macroscopic scale, toward bust. PMID:24468106

Ogawa, A; Onozaki, T; Mizuno, T; Asamizuya, T; Ueno, K; Cheng, K; Iriki, A

2014-04-18

322

Problem Solving: Bubble Gum Contest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This professional development video clip presents students engaged in The Common Core Practice Standard #1âMake sense of problems and persevere in solving them. The learners gather data for a bubble gum contest, as part of a larger activity involving recording data and writing up results. Students understand the problem and persevere with the task as they independently go to other classrooms to conduct their survey. Additional resources include a video transcript, teaching tips, and a link to a professional development reflection activity based upon the video.

Boston, Wghb

2013-01-01

323

Bubbling in unbounded coflowing liquids.  

PubMed

An investigation of the stability of low density and viscosity fluid jets and spouts in unbounded coflowing liquids is presented. A full parametrical analysis from low to high Weber and Reynolds numbers shows that the presence of any fluid of finite density and viscosity inside the hollow jet elicits a transition from an absolute to a convective instability at a finite value of the Weber number, for any value of the Reynolds number. Below that critical value of the Weber number, the absolute character of the instability leads to local breakup, and consequently to local bubbling. Experimental data support our model. PMID:16605912

Gañán-Calvo, Alfonso M; Herrada, Miguel A; Garstecki, Piotr

2006-03-31

324

Probability of sea level rise  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report develops probability-based projections that can be added to local tide-gage trends to estimate future sea level at particular locations. It uses the same models employed by previous assessments of sea level rise. The key coefficients in those models are based on subjective probability distributions supplied by a cross-section of climatologists, oceanographers, and glaciologists.

J. G. Titus; V. K. Narayanan

1995-01-01

325

Probability of sea level rise  

SciTech Connect

The report develops probability-based projections that can be added to local tide-gage trends to estimate future sea level at particular locations. It uses the same models employed by previous assessments of sea level rise. The key coefficients in those models are based on subjective probability distributions supplied by a cross-section of climatologists, oceanographers, and glaciologists.

Titus, J.G.; Narayanan, V.K.

1995-10-01

326

Temperature rise of installed FCC  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report discusses temperature profiles of installed FCC for wood and tile surfaces. Three-conductor FCC was tested at twice nominal current-carrying capacity over bare floor and under carpet, with result indicating that temperature rise is not a linear function of current with FCC at this level.

Hankins, J. D.

1976-01-01

327

The Rise of Online Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the rise of online learning and describes how educators in Michigan are doing their part to harness the power of online learning to transform today's high school students into lifelong learners, a key component of students' long-term success in the global economy. The author urges schools to prepare for the growing demand in…

Umpstead, Bruce

2009-01-01

328

High-Rising Rec Centers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines how tight urban sites can yield sports spaces that favorably compare to their more rural campus counterparts. Potential areas of concern when recreation centers are reconfigured into high-rise structures are highlighted, including building codes, building access, noise control, building costs, and lighting. (GR)

Whitney, Tim

2000-01-01

329

Sinking cities. [Rising sea level  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the rapid subsidence of the last 50 years now appears slowed or even arrested in many cities, there has been almost no recovery in ground elevation, and many of the world's great cities remain vulnerable to flooding from the sea. The continuing rise in sea level challenges the engineering efforts designed to keep out the sea. Over the past

R. Dolan; H. G. Goodell

2009-01-01

330

The effect of water temperature on air entrainment, bubble plumes, and surface foam in a laboratory breaking-wave analog  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

breaking waves form oceanic whitecaps and play a key role in climate regulation through air-sea bubble-mediated gas transfer, and sea spray aerosol production. The effect of varying sea surface temperature on air entrainment, subsurface bubble plume dynamics, and surface foam evolution intrinsic to oceanic whitecaps has not been well studied. By using a breaking wave analog in the laboratory over a range of water temperatures (Tw = 5°C to Tw = 30°C) and different source waters, we have examined changes in air entrainment, subsurface bubble plumes, and surface foam evolution over the course of a breaking event. For filtered seawater, air entrainment was estimated to increase by 6% between Tw = 6°C and Tw = 30°C, driven by increases of about 43% in the measured surface roughness of the plunging water sheet. After active air entrainment, the rate of loss of air through bubble degassing was more rapid at colder water temperatures within the first 0.5 s of plume evolution. Thereafter, the trend reversed and bubbles degassed more quickly in warmer water. The largest observed temperature-dependent differences in subsurface bubble distributions occurred at radii greater than about 700 ?m. Temperature-dependent trends observed in the subsurface bubble plume were mirrored in the temporal evolution of the surface whitecap foam area demonstrating the intrinsic link between surface whitecap foam and the subsurface bubble plume. Differences in foam and plume characteristics due to different water sources were greater than the temperature dependencies for the filtered seawater examined.

Callaghan, A. H.; Stokes, M. D.; Deane, G. B.

2014-11-01

331

Modified Bubble Core Fields and Bubble Shape in Laser Driven Plasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bubble core fields as well bubble shape modification due to the nondepleted electrons inside the bubble is investigated theoretically. It is found that the slope of transverse fields are reduced significantly, however, the slope of longitudinal electric field, which plays a key role on electrons acceleration in bubble, changes little. Moreover a modified longitudinal compressed bubble shape leads to a shorter dephasing distance which makes the electrons acceleration energy reduced to some extent. As a comparison we perform particle-in-cell simulations whose results are consistent with that of our theoretical consideration.

Wu, Hai-Cheng; Xie, Bai-Song

2013-04-01

332

Real-time measurement of bubbling phenomena in a three-dimensional gas-fluidized bed using ultrafast magnetic resonance imaging.  

PubMed

Ultrafast magnetic resonance imaging has been applied for the first time to measure simultaneously both the rise velocities and coalescence of bubbles, and the dynamics of the solid phase in a gas-solid two-phase flow. Here, we consider the hydrodynamics within a gas-fluidized bed of particles of diameter 0.5 mm contained within a column of internal diameter 50 mm; gas velocities in the range of 0.18-0.54 m/s were studied. The data are of sufficient temporal and spatial resolution that bubble size and the evolution of bubble size and velocity following coalescence events are determined. PMID:16712162

Müller, C R; Davidson, J F; Dennis, J S; Fennell, P S; Gladden, L F; Hayhurst, A N; Mantle, M D; Rees, A C; Sederman, A J

2006-04-21

333

Dynamics of Vapour Bubbles in Nucleate Boiling. 2; Evolution of Thermally Controlled Bubbles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The previously developed dynamic theory of growth and detachment of vapour bubbles under conditions of nucleate pool boiling is applied to study motion and deformation of a bubble evolving at a single nucleation site. The bubble growth is presumed to be thermally controlled, and two components of heat transfer to the bubble are accounted of: the one from the bulk of surrounding liquid and the one due to heat conduction across a liquid microlayer formed underneath the bubble. Bubble evolution is governed by the buoyancy and an effective surface tension force, both the forces making the bubble centre of mass move away from the wall and, thus, assisting its detachment. Buoyancy-controlled and surface-tension-controlled regimes are considered separately in a meticulous way. The duration of the whole process of bubble evolution till detachment, the rate of growth, and the bubble departure size are found as functions of time and physical and operating parameters. Some repeatedly observed phenomena, such as an influence of gravity on the growth rate, are explained. Inferences of the model agree qualitatively with available experimental evidence, and conclusions pertaining to the dependence on gravity of the bubble radius at detachment and the whole time of the bubble development when being attached to the wall are confirmed quantitatively.

Buyevich, Yu A.; Webbon, Bruce W.; Callaway, Robert (Technical Monitor)

1995-01-01

334

Bubble Growth and Detachment from a Needle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The release of bubbles from an underwater nozzle or orifice occurs in large number of applications, such as perforated plate columns, blood oxygenators and various methods of water treatment. It is also a widely used method in laboratory research on multiphase flow and acoustics for generating small bubbles in a controlled fashion. We studied experimentally the growth and pinch-off of

Michael Shusser; Edmond Rambod; Morteza Gharib

1999-01-01

335

Fearless versus fearful speculative financial bubbles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a recently introduced rational expectation model of bubbles, based on the interplay between stochasticity and positive feedbacks of prices on returns and volatility, we develop a new methodology to test how this model classifies nine time series that have been previously considered as bubbles ending in crashes. The model predicts the existence of two anomalous behaviors occurring simultaneously: (i) super-exponential price growth and (ii) volatility growth, that we refer to as the “fearful singular bubble” regime. Out of the nine time series, we find that five pass our tests and can be characterized as “fearful singular bubbles”. The four other cases are the information technology Nasdaq bubble and three bubbles of the Hang Seng index ending in crashes in 1987, 1994 and 1997. According to our analysis, these four bubbles have developed with essentially no significant increase of their volatility. This paper thus proposes that speculative bubbles ending in crashes form two groups hitherto unrecognized, namely those accompanied by increasing volatility (reflecting increasing risk perception) and those without change of volatility (reflecting an absence of risk perception).

Andersen, J. V.; Sornette, D.

2004-06-01

336

The Minnaert Bubble: An Acoustic Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We propose an "ab initio" introduction to the well-known Minnaert pulsating bubble at graduate level. After a brief recall of the standard stuff, we begin with a detailed discussion of the radial movements of an air bubble in water. This discussion is managed from an acoustic point of view, and using the Lagrangian rather than the Eulerian…

Devaud, Martin; Hocquet, Thierry; Bacri, Jean-Claude; Leroy, Valentin

2008-01-01

337

Drops and Bubble in Materials Science  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The formation of extended p-n junctions in semiconductors by drop migration, mechanisms and morphologies of migrating drops and bubbles in solids and nucleation and corrections to the Volmer-Weber equations are discussed. Bubble shrinkage in the processing of glass, the formation of glass microshells as laser-fusion targets, and radiation-induced voids in nuclear reactors were examined.

Doremus, R. H.

1982-01-01

338

Continuous-data FIFO bubble shift register  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simple loop first-in-first-out (FIFO) bubble memory shift register has continuous storage capability. Bubble shift register simplifies chip-control electronics by enabling all control functions to be alined at same bit. FIFO shift register is constructed from passive replicator and annihilator combinations.

Chen, T. T.

1977-01-01

339

Modeling bubble clusters in compressible liquids  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new model to simulate the behaviour of bubble clouds in compressible liquids. The method uses a volume-averaged approach and defines the pressure and void fraction relative to a computational cell. Inside the cell, a generalisation of the Keller-Miksis equation is derived in order to take into account the presence of (one or more) nearby spherical bubbles as

Daniel Fuster; Tim Colonius

2010-01-01

340

Experimental characterisation of bubbly flow using MRI  

E-print Network

-phase pipe flow up to a Reynolds number of 12,000. By employing a compressed sensing reconstruction, images were acquired at a rate of 188 fps. Images were then acquired of bubbly flow for the entire range of voidages for which bubbly flow was possible (up...

Tayler, Alexander B.

2011-11-08

341

Measuring the surface tension of soap bubbles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives are for students to gain an understanding of surface tension, to see that pressure inside a small bubble is larger than that inside a large bubble. These concepts can be used to explain the behavior of liquid foams as well as precipitate coarsening and grain growth. Equipment, supplies, and procedures are explained.

Sorensen, Carl D.

1992-01-01

342

Topical review Sonoluminescence: how bubbles glow  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review recent attempts to elucidate the phenomenon of sonoluminescence in terms of fundamental principles. We focus mainly on the processes which generate the light, but other relevant facts, such as the bubble dynamics, must also be considered for the understanding of the physics involved. Our emphasis is on single bubble sonoluminescence which in recent years has received much attention,

DOMINIK HAMMER; LOTHAR FROMMHOLD

2001-01-01

343

Gravity Wave Seeding of Equatorial Plasma Bubbles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some examples from the Atmosphere Explorer E data showing plasma bubble development from wavy ion density structures in the bottomside F layer are described. The wavy structures mostly had east-west wavelengths of 150-800 km, in one example it was about 3000 km. The ionization troughs in the wavy structures later broke up into either a multiple-bubble patch or a single bubble, depending upon whether, in the precursor wavy structure, shorter wavelengths were superimposed on the larger scale wavelengths. In the multiple bubble patches, intrabubble spacings vaned from 55 km to 140 km. In a fully developed equatorial spread F case, east-west wavelengths from 690 km down to about 0.5 km were present simultaneously. The spacings between bubble patches or between bubbles in a patch appear to be determined by the wavelengths present in the precursor wave structure. In some cases, deeper bubbles developed on the western edge of a bubble patch, suggesting an east-west asymmetry. Simultaneous horizontal neutral wind measurements showed wavelike perturbations that were closely associated with perturbations in the plasma horizontal drift velocity. We argue that the wave structures observed here that served as the initial seed ion density perturbations were caused by gravity waves, strengthening the view that gravity waves seed equatorial spread F irregularities.

Singh, Sardul; Johnson, F. S.; Power, R. A.

1997-01-01

344

Bubble structures in He irradiated metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transmission electron microscopy is used to investigate the spatial arrangement of gas bubbles produced in the metals, Cu, Ni, Au, stainless steel and Ti irradiated with He at temperatures ? 300 K. For metals having a high degree of crystalline perfection within grains, a gas bubble superlattice is formed at high He doses in every case investigated. A study is

P. B. Johnson; D. J. Mazey; J. H. Evans

1983-01-01

345

New approaches to hard bubble suppression  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Description of a new double-layer method for the suppression of hard bubbles that is more versatile than previously reported suppression techniques. It is shown that it may be possible to prevent hard bubble generation without recourse to exchange coupling of multilayer films.

Henry, R. D.; Besser, P. J.; Warren, R. G.; Whitcomb, E. C.

1973-01-01

346

The Interaction of Two Underwater Explosion Bubbles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interaction between two growing and collapsing underwater explosion bubbles is studied experimentally and numerically. In the experiments, the bubbles are generated by detonating small Lead Azide explosive charges submerged in a transparent water tank, and the resulting interactions are photographed using a high-speed camera. The parametric studies include simultaneous detonation of two charges of different sizes, and detonation of identically sized charges at staggered times. When the time delay between detonations is significant, the collapsing first bubble forms a jet directed away from the expanding second bubble and then re-expands nonspherically. During the re-expansion of the first bubble, a micro-jet forms in the second bubble. Eventually this micro-jet pierces the side of the second bubble farthest from the first and vortex rings are formed. Numerical simulations of the interaction phenomena are achieved using a boundary element method. By partitioning the system into computational sub-domains it is possible to replicate many relevant physical details including jet formation, fluid-fluid impact, and bubble re-expansion after complete jet penetration. The numerical results are in qualitative agreement with the experimental findings.

Milligan, Charles; Duncan, James

1996-11-01

347

Mixture segregation by an inertial cavitation bubble  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pressure diffusion is a mass diffusion process forced by pressure gradients. It has the ability to segregate two species of a mixture, driving the densest species toward high pressure zones, but requires very large pressure gradients to become noticeable. An inertial cavitation bubble develops large pressure gradients in its vicinity, especially as the bubble rebounds at the end of its

R. Grossier; O. Louisnard; Y. Vargas

2007-01-01

348

The Interaction of Two Underwater Explosion Bubbles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction between two growing and collapsing underwater explosion bubbles is studied experimentally and numerically. In the experiments, the bubbles are generated by detonating small Lead Azide explosive charges submerged in a transparent water tank, and the resulting interactions are photographed using a high-speed camera. The parametric studies include simultaneous detonation of two charges of different sizes, and detonation of

Charles Milligan; James Duncan

1996-01-01

349

Observing Nitrogen Bubbles in Liquid Zinc in a Vertical Hele-Shaw Cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations of gas bubbles in liquid metal are strongly hindered by the opacity of metals. To circumvent this limitation, the authors recently proposed to study such systems under quasi-2D flow conditions in a Hele-Shaw cell. The current paper presents a successful application of this approach for nitrogen bubbles in liquid zinc at 973 K (700 °C) in a fused quartz cell with a thickness of 1.5 mm. At low oxygen levels, the cell walls are not wetted by the liquid zinc, and bubbles can be observed directly through the transparent cell walls. Furthermore, using a moving high-speed camera that travels upwards with the bubbles, their properties are quantified in detail along the entire trajectory. In the range of equivalent diameters between 5.9 and 9.0 mm, this reveals a single periodic flow regime in which bubbles follow a sinusoidal path with a characteristic frequency of 3.31 Hz. In addition, systematic intermediate accelerations are observed of which the origin remains unexplained. Considering the unprecedented resolution of such observations for bubbles in liquid metals, especially at high temperatures, it is expected that this approach will contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms that govern gas injection in pyrometallurgy.

Klaasen, Bart; Verhaeghe, Frederik; Blanpain, Bart; Fransaer, Jan

2015-01-01

350

Bubble structure evaluation method of sponge cake by using image morphology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays, many evaluation methods for food industry by using image processing are proposed. These methods are becoming new evaluation method besides the sensory test and the solid-state measurement that have been used for the quality evaluation recently. The goal of our research is structure evaluation of sponge cake by using the image processing. In this paper, we propose a feature extraction method of the bobble structure in the sponge cake. Analysis of the bubble structure is one of the important properties to understand characteristics of the cake from the image. In order to take the cake image, first we cut cakes and measured that's surface by using the CIS scanner, because the depth of field of this type scanner is very shallow. Therefore the bubble region of the surface has low gray scale value, and it has a feature that is blur. We extracted bubble regions from the surface images based on these features. The input image is binarized, and the feature of bubble is extracted by the morphology analysis. In order to evaluate the result of feature extraction, we compared correlation with "Size of the bubble" of the sensory test result. From a result, the bubble extraction by using morphology analysis gives good correlation. It is shown that our method is as well as the subjectivity evaluation.

Kato, Kunihito; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Nonaka, Masahiko; Katsuta, Yukiyo; Kasamatsu, Chinatsu

2007-01-01

351

Effects of gas bubble production on heat transfer from a volumetrically heated liquid pool  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aqueous solutions of uranium salts may provide a new supply chain to fill potential shortfalls in the availability of the most common radiopharmaceuticals currently in use worldwide, including Tc99m which is a decay product of Mo99. The fissioning of the uranium in these solutions creates Mo99 but also generates large amounts of hydrogen and oxygen from the radiolysis of the water. When the dissolved gases reach a critical concentration, bubbles will form in the solution. Bubbles in the solution affect both the fission power and the heat transfer out of the solution. As a result, for safety and production calculations, the effects of the bubbles on heat transfer must be understood. A high aspect ratio tank was constructed to simulate a section of an annulus with heat exchangers on the inner and outer steel walls to provide cooling. Temperature measurements via thermocouples inside the tank and along the outside of the steel walls allowed the calculation of overall and local heat transfer coefficients. Different air injection manifolds allowed the exploration of various bubble characteristics and patterns on heat transfer from the pool. The manifold type did not appear to have significant impact on the bubble size distributions in water. However, air injected into solutions of magnesium sulfate resulted in smaller bubble sizes and larger void fractions than those in water at the same injection rates. One dimensional calculations provide heat transfer coefficient values as functions of the superficial gas velocity in the pool.

Bull, Geoffrey R.

352

Moving with Bubbles: A Review of the Interactions between Bubbles and the Microorganisms that Surround them.  

PubMed

Bubbles are ubiquitous in biological environments, emerging during the complex dynamics of waves breaking in the open oceans or being intentionally formed in bioreactors. From formation, through motion, until death, bubbles play a critical role in the oxygenation and mixing of natural and artificial ecosystems. However, their life is also greatly influenced by the environments in which they emerge. This interaction between bubbles and microorganisms is a subtle affair in which surface tension plays a critical role. Indeed, it shapes the role of bubbles in mixing or oxygenating microorganisms, but also determines how microorganisms affect every stage of the bubble's life. In this review, we guide the reader through the life of a bubble from birth to death, with particular attention to the microorganism-bubble interaction as viewed through the lens of fluid dynamics. PMID:25096288

Walls, Peter L L; Bird, James C; Bourouiba, Lydia

2014-12-01

353

Morphology study of methane-propane clathrate hydrates on the bubble surface in the presence of SDS or PVCap  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The characteristics of methane-propane hydrate crystal growth on the surface of gas bubble in pure water were investigated using optical microscope and compared with those in aqueous solutions of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) or poly-N-vinylcaprolactam (PVCap). Most of morphology works in literature mainly focused on the hydrate crystal growth at the gas/water interface or surface of water droplets. However, this study monitors crystal growth at the bubble surface. In the case of pure water, smooth hydrate film was formed initially and the film surface on the bubble became rough as experiment proceeded. It was also observed that the hydrate crystals developed as the dendritic shape from the surface of hydrate film. In the presence of SDS, drastic changes in morphology were observed in that smoke-like crystals appeared from the top of the bubble. Besides, the gas bubble was not fully covered by hydrate film when the SDS concentration increased. In the PVCap solution, seed-like or small spot of hydrate crystals occurred sparsely on the bubble surface and spread out the whole surface as experiment progressed. The experimental results showed that the presence of SDS or PVCap affect morphological characteristics of methane-propane hydrate crystal on the surface of gas bubble.

Lee, So Young; Kim, Hyoung Chan; Lee, Ju Dong

2014-09-01

354

Bubble coalescence in turbulent flows: A mechanistic model for turbulence-induced coalescence applied to microgravity bubbly pipe flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mechanistic model for bubble coalescence in turbulent flow is presented. The model is developed in two steps, which are essentially separable. In the first, expressions put forward earlier for the collision frequency and coalescence probability of equal bubbles during turbulence-driven, high-Reynolds-number collisions are extended to unequal bubbles and to take account of bubble–turbulence and bubble–bubble interactions. In the second,

A. M Kamp; A. K Chesters; C Colin; J Fabre

2001-01-01

355

Analysis of Bubbly Lubrication in Journal Bearings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of air bubbles evenly distributed in lubricating oil on the bearing performances is analyzed theoretically. The Reynolds equation for the bubbly lubricant in a steady-state and isothermal condition is solved with an iterative numerical method. Surface tension and the radius of bubble are taken into account in the analysis. It is assumed that bubbles move along streamlines and do not split apart or coalesce. The density and the viscosity of air-oil mixture are treated as functions of oil film pressure and the volume fraction of air. Numerical results show that the load carrying capacity of a journal bearing increases as bubbles in the supplied lubricant become smaller or the surface tension is getting larger. The load carrying capacity increases as the volume fraction increases up to a critical volume fraction that gives maximum load carrying capacity. Beyond the critical volume fraction, it decreases as the volume fraction increases.

Choi, Song; Kim, Kyung Woong

356

How does interfacial rheology govern soap bubble cluster dynamics?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aqueous foams are concentrated dispersions of gas bubbles in a soapy solution. These complex fluids exhibit solid-like or liquid-like mechanical behaviors, depending on the applied shear. When it is increased beyond a yield strain, neighbor switching bubble rearrangements called T1 events are triggered and plastic flow sets in. We study experimentally the dynamics of such strain induced T1s in 3D bubble clusters that we consider as model systems of 3D foams. To determine the hydrodynamics and physico-chemistry that set the duration of T1s, we use foaming solutions of a wide range of well characterized bulk and interfacial rheological properties. At low shear rates, the T1 duration is set by a balance between surface tension and surface viscous forces in qualitative agreement with previous studies of T1s in 2D foams [1] and we present a simple physical model that explains our 3D findings. Moreover, above a characteristic shear rate, rearrangement dynamics are driven by the applied strain. By combining all our results, we link the transition from intermittent to continous flow dynamics in foams to the rheology of the gas-liquid interfaces. [4pt] [1] M. Durand, H. A. Stone, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 2226101 (2006).

Cohen-Addad, Sylvie; Biance, Anne-Laure; Hohler, Reinhard

2009-11-01

357

Gas bubble dynamics in soft materials.  

PubMed

Epstein and Plesset's seminal work on the rate of gas bubble dissolution and growth in a simple liquid is generalized to render it applicable to a gas bubble embedded in a soft elastic solid. Both the underlying diffusion equation and the expression for the gas bubble pressure were modified to allow for the non-zero shear modulus of the medium. The extension of the diffusion equation results in a trivial shift (by an additive constant) in the value of the diffusion coefficient, and does not change the form of the rate equations. But the use of a generalized Young-Laplace equation for the bubble pressure resulted in significant differences on the dynamics of bubble dissolution and growth, relative to an inviscid liquid medium. Depending on whether the salient parameters (solute concentration, initial bubble radius, surface tension, and shear modulus) lead to bubble growth or dissolution, the effect of allowing for a non-zero shear modulus in the generalized Young-Laplace equation is to speed up the rate of bubble growth, or to reduce the rate of bubble dissolution, respectively. The relation to previous work on visco-elastic materials is discussed, as is the connection of this work to the problem of Decompression Sickness (specifically, "the bends"). Examples of tissues to which our expressions can be applied are provided. Also, a new phenomenon is predicted whereby, for some parameter values, a bubble can be metastable and persist for long times, or it may grow, when embedded in a homogeneous under-saturated soft elastic medium. PMID:25382720

Solano-Altamirano, J M; Malcolm, John D; Goldman, Saul

2014-12-01

358

Mechanism of single-bubble sonoluminescence.  

PubMed

Considering almost all the effective processes of physics and chemical reaction in our numerical computation model, we investigate the mechanism of single bubble sonoluminescence (SBSL). For those sonoluminescing single bubbles in water at its flashing phase, the numerical simulation reveals that if the temperature inside the bubble is not high enough which may result in the plenty oxygen molecules and OH radicals undissociated, such as the case of a single argon bubble in 20 degrees C or 34 degrees C water, the radiative attachment of electrons to oxygen molecules and OH radicals contributes most to the SBSL; if the temperature inside the bubble is higher which makes most of the water vapor inside the bubble dissociate into oxygen and hydrogen atoms, such as the case of an argon bubble or a helium bubble in 0 degrees C water, the radiative attachment of electrons to oxygen and hydrogen atoms dominates the SBSL; if the temperature is still higher, such as the case of a xenon bubble in 0 degrees C water, the contribution from electron-neutral atom bremsstrahlung and electron-ion bremsstrahlung and recombination would be comparable with the contribution from the radiative attachment of electrons to oxygen and hydrogen atoms, and they together dominate the SBSL. For sonoluminescing single bubbles in those low vapor pressure liquids, such as in 85 wt.% sulphuric acid, the electron-neutral atom bremsstrahlung and the electron-ion bremsstrahlung and recombination contribute most to the continuous spectrum part of SBSL. The present calculation also provides good interpretations to those observed phenomena, such as emitted photon numbers, the width of optical pulses, the blackbody radiation like spectra. The temperature fitted by the blackbody radiation formula is very different from that calculated by the gas dynamics equations. Besides, the effect of chemical dissociation on the shock wave is also discussed. PMID:17025536

An, Yu

2006-08-01

359

Observation of Microhollows Produced by Bubble Cloud Cavitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When an ultrasonic wave with sound pressure less than the threshold level of bubble destruction irradiates microbubbles, the microbubbles aggregate by an acoustic radiation force and form bubble clouds. The cavitation of bubble clouds produces a large number of microhollows (microdips) on the flow channel wall. In this study, microhollow production by bubble cloud cavitation is evaluated using a blood vessel phantom made of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPA) gel. Microbubble dynamics in bubble cloud cavitation is observed by a microscope with a short pulse light emitted diode (LED) light source. Microhollows produced on the flow channel wall are evaluated by a confocal laser microscope with a water immersion objective. It is observed that a mass of low-density bubbles (bubble mist) is formed by bubble cloud cavitation. The spatial correlation between the bubble mist and the microhollows shows the importance of the bubble mist in microhollow production by bubble cloud cavitation.

Yamakoshi, Yoshiki; Miwa, Takashi

2012-07-01

360

Bubble modulation using acoustic standing waves in a bubbling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behavior of a 6mm mesobubble in an acoustic standing wave field is examined both experimentally and numerically in this study. The acoustic standing waves at 16 and 20kHz are generated using two Nickel magnetostrictive transducers located at the top and bottom of the column. Experimental studies of the rise velocity of a mesobubble in the acoustic field indicate an

Zhe Cui; Yanpeng Li; Yang Ge; L. S. Fan

2005-01-01

361

Role of metabolic gases in bubble formation during hypobaric exposures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Our hypothesis is that metabolic gases play a role in the initial explosive growth phase of bubble formation during hypobaric exposures. Models that account for optimal internal tensions of dissolved gases to predict the probability of occurrence of venous gas emboli were statistically fitted to 426 hypobaric exposures from National Aeronautics and Space Administration tests. The presence of venous gas emboli in the pulmonary artery was detected with an ultrasound Doppler detector. The model fit and parameter estimation were done by using the statistical method of maximum likelihood. The analysis results were as follows. 1) For the model without an input of noninert dissolved gas tissue tension, the log likelihood (in absolute value) was 255.01. 2) When an additional parameter was added to the model to account for the dissolved noninert gas tissue tension, the log likelihood was 251.70. The significance of the additional parameter was established based on the likelihood ratio test (P < 0.012). 3) The parameter estimate for the dissolved noninert gas tissue tension participating in bubble formation was 19. 1 kPa (143 mmHg). 4) The additional gas tissue tension, supposedly due to noninert gases, did not show an exponential decay as a function of time during denitrogenation, but it remained constant. 5) The positive sign for this parameter term in the model is characteristic of an outward radial pressure of gases in the bubble. This analysis suggests that dissolved gases other than N2 in tissues may facilitate the initial explosive bubble-growth phase.

Foster, P. P.; Conkin, J.; Powell, M. R.; Waligora, J. M.; Chhikara, R. S.

1998-01-01

362

ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTOR (SBCR) TECHNOLOGY  

SciTech Connect

The major technical objectives of this program are threefold: (1) to develop the design tools and a fundamental understanding of the fluid dynamics of a slurry bubble column reactor to maximize reactor productivity, (2) to develop the mathematical reactor design models and gain an understanding of the hydrodynamic fundamentals under industrially relevant process conditions, and (3) to develop an understanding of the hydrodynamics and their interaction with the chemistries occurring in the bubble column reactor. Successful completion of these objectives will permit more efficient usage of the reactor column and tighter design criteria, increase overall reactor efficiency, and ensure a design that leads to stable reactor behavior when scaling up to large-diameter reactors. Washington University's work during the reporting period involved the implementation of the automated calibration device, which will provide an advanced method of determining liquid and slurry velocities at high pressures. This new calibration device is intended to replace the original calibration setup, which depended on fishing lines and hooks to position the radioactive particle. The report submitted by Washington University contains a complete description of the new calibration device and its operation. Improvements to the calibration program are also discussed. Iowa State University utilized air-water bubble column simulations in an effort to determine the domain size needed to represent all of the flow scales in a gas-liquid column at a high superficial velocity. Ohio State's report summarizes conclusions drawn from the completion of gas injection phenomena studies, specifically with respect to the characteristics of bubbling-jetting at submerged single orifices in liquid-solid suspensions.

Bernard A. Toseland

2000-12-31

363

Simulation of the Final Stage of a Cavitation Bubble Collapsing Near a Rigid Wall  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the collapse of an initially spherical cavitation bubble near a rigid wall, a reentrant jet forms from the side of the bubble furthest from the wall. In the final stage of the collapse, this jet impacts and penetrates the bubble surface closest to the wall. During penetration a continuous liquid-liquid impact occurs, creating a shear layer along the penetration interface. This process is modeled with potential flow theory. Before penetration the bubble is treated as a regular surface and the conventional boundary integral equation is used in the numerical scheme. During penetration the bubble surface is transformed to a ring bubble attached to a vortex sheet (non-regular surface) which models the shear layer. To apply the boundary integral technique to this topology the conventional integral equation is modified and the hypersingular integral equation is introduced. The corresponding numerical scheme with an appropriate time stepping technique is developed to carry out the simulation of the final stage of bubble collapse continuously from before penetration into the penetration process. The characteristics of the penetration phenomenon revealed numerically are as follows: (1) a high pressure region around the penetration interface is generated by the impact causing a sudden change in pressure gradient in the flow field; (2) the normal velocity of the shear layer at the bubble axis of symmetry is always directed toward the wall at a speed less than the velocity of the reentrant jet before impact; (3) circulation is induced by the impact and remains constant during penetration for a path that pierces the vortex sheet once at the axis of symmetry and extends around the ring bubble; (4) the source of the circulation is divided between the vortex sheet and the ring bubble; (5) the energy loss due to the liquid -liquid impact can be as much as 13% of the total mechanical energy under certain conditions; (6) the details of the features of the penetration process strongly depend on Z_0, the initial distance of the bubble centroid to the wall.

Zhang, Sheguang

1992-09-01

364

Gas-Liquid flow characterization in bubble columns with various gas-liquid using electrical resistance tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrical resistance tomography (ERT) is an advanced and new detecting technique that can measure and monitor the parameters of two-phase flow on line, such as gas-liquid bubble column. It is fit for the industrial process where the conductible medium serves as the disperse phase to present the key bubble flow characteristics in multi-phase medium. Radial variation of the gas holdup

Haibo Jin; Han Yuhuan; Yang Suohe

2009-01-01

365

Magma mixing enhanced by bubble ascent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the processes that affect the rate of liquid state homogenization provides fundamental clues on the otherwise inaccessible subsurface dynamics of magmatic plumbing systems. Compositional heterogeneities detected in the matrix of magmatic rocks represent the arrested state of a chemical equilibration. Magmatic homogenization has been divided into a) the mechanical interaction of magma batches (mingling) and b) the diffusive equilibration of compositional gradients, where diffusive equilibration is exponentially enhanced by progressive mechanical interaction [1]. The mechanical interaction between two distinct batches of magma has commonly been attributed to shear and folding movements between two liquids of distinct viscosities. A mode of mechanical interaction scarcely invoked is the advection of mafic material into a felsic one through bubble motion. Yet, experiments with analogue materials demonstrated that bubble ascent has the potential to enhance the fluid mechanical component of magma mixing [2]. Here, we present preliminary results from bubble-advection experiments. For the first time, experiments of this kind were performed using natural materials at magmatic temperatures. Cylinders of Snake River Plain (SRP) basalt were drilled with a cavity of defined volume and placed underneath cylinders of SRP rhyolite. Upon melting, the gas pocket, or bubble trapped within the cavity, rose into the rhyolite, so entraining a layer of basalt. Successive iterations of the same experiment at progressive intervals ensured a time series of magmatic interaction caused by bubble segregation. Variations in initial bubble size allowed the tracking of bubble volume to advected material ratio at defined viscosity contrast. The resulting plume-like structures that the advected basalt formed within the rhyolite were characterized by microCT and subsequent high-resolution EMP analyses. The mass of advected material per bubble correlated positively with bubble size. The progressive loss of advected basalt during bubble motion was quantified by microCT for defined viscosity couples. The diffusional gradient around the plume tail showed a progressive evolution of equilibration from bottom to top of the plume tail. A future aim is to compute the impact of bubble motion on the efficiency of magma mixing in dependence of volatile solubilities and pressure and viscosity variations. This has implications for the capacity of magma to produce bubbles in e.g. stratified magma chambers. [1] De Campos, C., D. Perugini, W. Ertel-Ingrisch, D. Dingwell, and G. Poli (2011), Enhancement of magma mixing efficiency by chaotic dynamics: an experimental study, Contrib. Mineral. Petrol., 161(6), 863-881. [2] Thomas, N., S. Tait, and T. Koyaguchi (1993), Mixing of stratified liquids by the motion of gas bubbles: application to magma mixing, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 115(1-4), 161-175.

Wiesmaier, S.; Morgavi, D.; Perugini, D.; De Campos, C. P.; Hess, K.; Lavallee, Y.; Dingwell, D. B.

2012-12-01

366

Inert gas clusters ejected from bursting bubbles during sputtering.  

PubMed

Ar(+)(n) cluster ions (nbubbles. Subsequent ion formation is shown to take place by resonant charge exchange with incident primary Ar+ ions in the gas phase up to at least 175 microm above the surface. Xe+2 clusters are similarly produced from Xe+-bombarded solids. The ion intensities of Ar+2 and Xe+2 are found to have a characteristic second-order dependence on primary Ar+ or Xe+ current density. PMID:12906546

Franzreb, Klaus; Williams, Peter

2003-07-01

367

Clump Development by the Nickel Bubble Effect in Supernovae  

E-print Network

We used one-dimensional radiative-transport radiation hydrodynamical (RHD) simulations to investigate the formation of clumping in freely-expanding supernova ejecta due to the radioactive heating from the Ni56 -> Co56 -> Fe56 decay sequence. The heating gives rise to an inflated Nickel bubble, which induces a forward shock that compresses the outer ambient gas into a shell. The radiative energy deposited by the radioactivity leaks out across the shock by radiative diffusion, and we investigate its effect on the evolution of the ejecta structure. Compared to the hydrodynamical adiabatic approximation with gamma =4/3, the preshock gas becomes accelerated by the radiation outflow. The shock is thus weakened and the shell becomes broader and less dense. The thickness of the shell takes up <~ 4 % of the radius of the bubble, and the structure of the shell can be approximately described by a self-similar solution. We compared the properties of the shell components with those of the ejecta clumps indicated by our...

Wang, C Y

2003-01-01

368

Clump Development by the Nickel Bubble Effect in Supernovae  

E-print Network

We used one-dimensional radiative-transport radiation hydrodynamical (RHD) simulations to investigate the formation of clumping in freely-expanding supernova ejecta due to the radioactive heating from the Ni56 -> Co56 -> Fe56 decay sequence. The heating gives rise to an inflated Nickel bubble, which induces a forward shock that compresses the outer ambient gas into a shell. The radiative energy deposited by the radioactivity leaks out across the shock by radiative diffusion, and we investigate its effect on the evolution of the ejecta structure. Compared to the hydrodynamical adiabatic approximation with gamma =4/3, the preshock gas becomes accelerated by the radiation outflow. The shock is thus weakened and the shell becomes broader and less dense. The thickness of the shell takes up <~ 4 % of the radius of the bubble, and the structure of the shell can be approximately described by a self-similar solution. We compared the properties of the shell components with those of the ejecta clumps indicated by our previous hydrodynamical simulations for the later interaction of clumps with the outer supernova remnant. The high density contrast across the shell, chi ~ 100, is compatible with that of ejecta clumps as indicated for Tycho's knots, but there is insufficient dense gas to cause a pronounced protrusion on the outline of a core collapse supernova remnant, like the bullets in the Vela remnant.

Chih-Yueh Wang

2003-06-26

369

Recent advances in the science of champagne bubbles.  

PubMed

The so-called effervescence process, which enlivens champagne and sparkling wines tasting, is the result of the fine interplay between CO(2)-dissolved gas molecules, tiny air pockets trapped within microscopic particles during the pouring process, and some liquid properties. This critical review summarizes recent advances obtained during the past decade concerning the physicochemical processes behind the nucleation, rise, and burst of bubbles found in glasses poured with champagne and sparkling wines. Those phenomena observed in close-up through high-speed photography are often visually appealing. Let's hope that your enjoyment of champagne will be enhanced after reading this fully illustrated review dedicated to the deep beauties of nature often hidden behind many everyday phenomena (51 references). PMID:18949122

Liger-Belair, Gérard; Polidori, Guillaume; Jeandet, Philippe

2008-11-01

370

Particle injection and mixing experiments in a one-quarter scale model bubbling fluidized bed  

Microsoft Academic Search

One significant factor in the operation of a fluidized bed combustor is the manner in which coal particles disperse and mix with the bed material upon entering the bed. A thermal tracing technique was used to study the mixing characteristics in a 1\\/4 scale model of a pressurized bubbling fluidized bed combustor. Particles cooled by liquid nitrogen are injected into

Leon Glicksman; Ezra Carr; Peter Noymer

2008-01-01

371

Combustion of olive cake and coal in a bubbling fluidized bed with secondary air injection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combustion performances and emission characteristics of olive cake and coal are investigated in a bubbling fluidized bed. Flue gas concentrations of O2, CO, SO2, NOx, and total hydrocarbons (CmHn) were measured during combustion experiments. Operational parameters (excess air ratio (?), secondary air injection) were changed and variation of pollutant concentrations and combustion efficiency with these operational parameters were studied. The

Murat Varol; Aysel T. Atimtay

2007-01-01

372

Bubbles and denaturation in DNA  

E-print Network

The local opening of DNA is an intriguing phenomenon from a statistical physics point of view, but is also essential for its biological function. For instance, the transcription and replication of our genetic code can not take place without the unwinding of the DNA double helix. Although these biological processes are driven by proteins, there might well be a relation between these biological openings and the spontaneous bubble formation due to thermal fluctuations. Mesoscopic models, like the Peyrard-Bishop-Dauxois model, have fairly accurately reproduced some experimental denaturation curves and the sharp phase transition in the thermodynamic limit. It is, hence, tempting to see whether these models could be used to predict the biological activity of DNA. In a previous study, we introduced a method that allows to obtain very accurate results on this subject, which showed that some previous claims in this direction, based on molecular dynamics studies, were premature. This could either imply that the present...

Van Erp, T S; Peyrard, M; Erp, Titus S. van; Cuesta-Lopez, Santiago; Peyrard, Michel

2006-01-01

373

Understanding Peat Bubbles: Biogeochemical-Hydrological Linkages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Decomposition of organic matter in peatland ecosystems produces gaseous end-products that can accumulate at depth and result in the build up of free-phase gas below the water table. This free-phase gas, or bubbles, reduces hydraulic conductivity, alters hydrologic and chemical gradients, and affects productivity surface vegetation through its role in peat buoyancy. In terms of greenhouse gas dynamics, these bubbles are likely the dominant subsurface stock of methane (CH4) and release of this CH4 to the atmosphere via ebullition may account for a significant portion of total efflux. Despite the importance of entrapped bubbles for peatland ecohydrological function there is still little known about how the quantity of bubbles varies between peatland types and at smaller scales within a peatland. Profiles of bubbles collected from several locations within four peatlands reveal that bubble volume varies significant among peatlands, between microforms and with depth. Previous studies also suggest that ebullition is spatially and temporally variable. This spatial variability may have important impacts on system ecohydrology and should be incorporated in models of peatland hydrology and development. This requires the difficult task of mapping bubble volume in three dimensions and over large areas. The potential for geophysical methods and the use of surface features to address this task will be discussed.

Strack, M.

2009-05-01

374

Bubbly Suspension Generated in Low Gravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bubbly suspensions are crucial for mass and heat transport processes on Earth and in space. These processes are relevant to pharmaceutical, chemical, nuclear, and petroleum industries on Earth. They are also relevant to life support, in situ resource utilization, and propulsion processes for long-duration space missions such as the Human Exploration and Development of Space program. Understanding the behavior of the suspension in low gravity is crucial because of factors such as bubble segregation, which could result in coalescence and affect heat and mass transport. Professors A. Sangani and D. Koch, principal investigators in the Microgravity Fluid Physics Program managed by the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field, are studying the physics of bubbly suspension. They plan to shear a bubbly suspension in a couette cell in microgravity to study bubble segregation and compare the bubble distribution in the couette gap with the one predicted by the suspension-averaged equations of motion. Prior to the Requirement Definition Review of this flight experiment, a technology for generating a bubbly suspension in microgravity has to be established, tested, and verified.

Nahra, Henry K.

2000-01-01

375

Bubbles in live-stranded dolphins  

PubMed Central

Bubbles in supersaturated tissues and blood occur in beaked whales stranded near sonar exercises, and post-mortem in dolphins bycaught at depth and then hauled to the surface. To evaluate live dolphins for bubbles, liver, kidneys, eyes and blubber–muscle interface of live-stranded and capture-release dolphins were scanned with B-mode ultrasound. Gas was identified in kidneys of 21 of 22 live-stranded dolphins and in the hepatic portal vasculature of 2 of 22. Nine then died or were euthanized and bubble presence corroborated by computer tomography and necropsy, 13 were released of which all but two did not re-strand. Bubbles were not detected in 20 live wild dolphins examined during health assessments in shallow water. Off-gassing of supersaturated blood and tissues was the most probable origin for the gas bubbles. In contrast to marine mammals repeatedly diving in the wild, stranded animals are unable to recompress by diving, and thus may retain bubbles. Since the majority of beached dolphins released did not re-strand it also suggests that minor bubble formation is tolerated and will not lead to clinically significant decompression sickness. PMID:21993505

Dennison, S.; Moore, M. J.; Fahlman, A.; Moore, K.; Sharp, S.; Harry, C. T.; Hoppe, J.; Niemeyer, M.; Lentell, B.; Wells, R. S.

2012-01-01

376

Hot Bubbles in Cooling Flow Clusters  

E-print Network

As more cooling flow clusters of galaxies with central radio sources are observed with the Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray Observatories, more examples of "bubbles" (low-emission regions in the X-ray coincident with radio emission) are being found. These bubbles are surrounded by bright shells of X-ray emission, and no evidence of current strong shocks has yet been found. Using an analytic approach and some simplifying assumptions, we derive expressions relating the size and location of a bubble, as well as the density contrast between the bubble and the ambient medium, with the shock history of the bubble. These can be applied straightforwardly to new observations. We find that existing observations are consistent with a mild shock occurring in the past, and with the bulk of the cool material in the X-ray shells being cooled at the cluster center and then pushed outward by the radio source. Strong shocks are ruled out unless they occurred more than 1 Gyr ago. We also discuss Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities as well as the case of a bubble expanding into an older bubble produced from a previous cycle of radio activity.

Noam Soker; Elizabeth L. Blanton; Craig L. Sarazin

2002-01-19

377

Bubble dynamics in structural foam processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stress distribution of viscoelastic polymer melts in a converging channel were determined by measuring wall normal stress and stress birefringence. The Coleman-Noll second order fluid was used to derive theoretical expressions for the wall normal stress, and shear, and shear and normal stresses in the converging flow field. Bubble dynamics in foam extrusion through a converging die was studied by recording bubble dynamics in the flow channel on movie films as a gas charged molten polymer was extruded. A theoretical analysis was made of bubble dynamics in which a threadlike bubble was assumed to flow along the center line of the die and the Coleman-Noll second fluid model was assumed to described the rheological behavior of the gas charged molten polymer. Bubble growth during mold filling was recorded on a movie film as gas charged molten polymer was injected into a mold cavity. A theoretical study of bubble growth in foam injection molding was conducted in which a spherical bubble was assumed to grow after the injection nozzle was closed and the DeWitt models assumed to describe the rheological behavior of gas charged molten polymers. The cell size and distribution of molded specimens as affected by processing variables was investigated by employing short-shot molding process under isothermal conditions.

Yoo, H. J.

1980-03-01

378

Acoustic observations of gas bubble streams in the NW Black Sea as a method for estimation of gas flux from vent sites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Relatively recent discovery of the natural CH_4 gas seepage from the sea bed had action upon the philosophy of CH_4 contribution to global budgets. So far as numerous gas vent sites are known, an acceptable method for released gas quantification is required. In particular, the questions should be answered as follows: 1) how much amount of gas comes into the water column due to a certain bubble stream, 2) how much amount of gas comes into the water column due to a certain seepage area of the see floor, 3) how much amount of gas diffuses into the water and how much gas phase enters the atmosphere. Echo-sounder is the habitual equipment for detecting gas plumes (flares) in the water column. To provide observations of gas seeps with bubbles tracking, single target and volume backscattering strength measurements, we use installed on board the R/V "Professor Vodyanitskiy" dual frequency (38 and 120 kHz) split-beam scientific echo-sounder SIMRAD EK-500. Dedicated software is developed to extract from the raw echo data and to handle the definite information for analyses of gas bubble streams features. This improved hydroacoustic techniques allows to determine gas bubbles size spectrum at different depths through the water column as well as rise velocity of bubbles of different sizes. For instance, bubble of 4.5 mm diameter has rising speed of 25.8 cm/sec at 105 m depth, while bubble of 1.7 mm diameter has rising speed of 16.3 cm/sec at 32 m depth. Using volume backscattering measurements in addition, it is possible to evaluate flux of the gas phase produced by methane bubble streams and to learn of its fate in the water column. Ranking of various gas plumes by flux rate value is available also. In this presentation results of acoustic observations at the shallow NW Black Sea seepage area are given.

Artemov, Yu. G.

2003-04-01

379

Bubble geobarometry: A record of pressure changes, degassing, and regassing at Mono Craters, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mass discharge rate of volcanic eruptions depends on the amount and rate of volatile exsolution, and the efficiency of gas removal from rising magma. Although methods exist to estimate the total volatile budget of volcanic systems, it is more difficult to get information about the rates of exsolution and mechanisms of gas loss during magma ascent. Volcanic tephra deposits typically contain inclusions or fragments of quenched melt that preserve pre-eruptive volatile concentrations within the volcanic conduit. We focus specifically on detecting and characterizing gradients in dissolved H2O and CO2 concentration around small (ca. 1 mm diameter) bubbles (vesicles) in glass fragments. If diffusion prevents bubbles from growing (or shrinking) fast enough to maintain equilibrium, the sign and magnitude of pressure changes in the volcanic feeder systems can be inferred from H2O or CO2 concentration profiles adjacent to bubbles. We measured H2O and CO2 profiles in bubble-bearing pyroclastic obsidian clasts from Mono Craters, California, using high spatial resolution (5 ?m) Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (SS-FTIR) at the Advanced Light Source. A key result is that H2O is enriched in the glass surrounding bubbles, indicating that (1) bubbles were redissolving into the melt just prior to the eruption, and (2) volatile concentration gradients are preserved during the eruption and record information about conduit processes at depth. We propose that bubble dissolution was triggered by a pressure increase within the conduit. The required pressure increase is inferred to be the last in a series of pressure cycles with amplitude 5-30 MPa that are caused by repeated fragmentation and annealing. Using a bubble dissolution model, we calculate a timescale of several hours for bubble dissolution at magmatic temperatures prior to quenching during the ca. 1340 A.D. Mono Craters eruption. Unlike H2O concentrations, CO2 concentrations are heterogeneous in the obsidian, suggesting that slow diffusion of CO2 and non-equilibrium degassing contributes to high CO2/H2O ratios observed in some pyroclastic obsidian from Mono Craters.

Watkins, J. M.; Manga, M.; DePaolo, D. J.

2011-12-01

380

Micro-bubble Enhanced Sonoporation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A gene transfer system that uses ultrasound, known as sonoporation, has recently been developed, and it is known that micro-bubbles can help gene transfection in this technique. However, the mechanism and optimal induction conditions have not yet been fully clarified. We examined the factors that affect the gene induction rate, and attempted to devise a method for high-efficiency gene induction. In vitro, we inducted a GFP-containing plasmid into fibroblast cells (NIH3T3) using an ultrasound contrast agent (Sonazoid®, or micro-bubbles) and piezoelectric transducer. Cells were cultured on 24-well plates. The GFP-containing plasmid (concentration: 15 mg/ml) and Sonazoid® were mixed with the cell suspension. Ultrasound frequency was 2.0 MHz (burst wave, duty cycle: 10%), ultrasound intensity was varied from 0 W/cm2 to 11.0 W/cm2, exposure time ranged from 0 s to 120 s, and burst repetition frequency was varied from 50 Hz to 50000 Hz. Gene induction ratio was higher with stronger or longer ultrasound exposure, and gene induction ratio was affected by ultrasound burst repetition frequency. However, the ratio was less than 1%. We also measured cell survival and visualized cells with holes using propidium iodide. We found that about 80% of cells were alive, and many cells developed holes with ultrasound exposure at a burst repetition frequency of 5 kHz. These results suggest that fewer genes enter the cells or are expressed under these conditions. These problems require further study.

Tachibana, Rie; Okamoto, Akio; Yoshinaka, Kiyoshi; Takagi, Shu; Matsumoto, Yoichiro

2010-03-01

381

Nonlinear Bubble Interactions in Acoustic Pressure Fields  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The systems consisting of a two-phase mixture, as clouds of bubbles or drops, have shown many common features in their responses to different external force fields. One of particular interest is the effect of an unsteady pressure field applied to these systems, case in which the coupling of the vibrations induced in two neighboring components (two drops or two bubbles) may result in an interaction force between them. This behavior was explained by Bjerknes by postulating that every body that is moving in an accelerating fluid is subjected to a 'kinetic buoyancy' equal with the product of the acceleration of the fluid multiplied by the mass of the fluid displaced by the body. The external sound wave applied to a system of drops/bubbles triggers secondary sound waves from each component of the system. These secondary pressure fields integrated over the surface of the neighboring drop/bubble may result in a force additional to the effect of the primary sound wave on each component of the system. In certain conditions, the magnitude of these secondary forces may result in significant changes in the dynamics of each component, thus in the behavior of the entire system. In a system containing bubbles, the sound wave radiated by one bubble at the location of a neighboring one is dominated by the volume oscillation mode and its effects can be important for a large range of frequencies. The interaction forces in a system consisting of drops are much smaller than those consisting of bubbles. Therefore, as a first step towards the understanding of the drop-drop interaction subject to external pressure fluctuations, it is more convenient to study the bubble interactions. This paper presents experimental results and theoretical predictions concerning the interaction and the motion of two levitated air bubbles in water in the presence of an acoustic field at high frequencies (22-23 KHz).

Barbat, Tiberiu; Ashgriz, Nasser; Liu, Ching-Shi

1996-01-01

382

MAGNETIC TOPOLOGY OF BUBBLES IN QUIESCENT PROMINENCES  

SciTech Connect

We study a polar-crown prominence with a bubble and its plume observed in several coronal filters by the SDO/AIA and in H{alpha} by the MSDP spectrograph in Bialkow (Poland) to address the following questions: what is the brightness of prominence bubbles in EUV with respect to the corona outside of the prominence and the prominence coronal cavity? What is the geometry and topology of the magnetic field in the bubble? What is the nature of the vertical threads seen within prominences? We find that the brightness of the bubble and plume is lower than the brightness of the corona outside of the prominence, and is similar to that of the coronal cavity. We constructed linear force-free models of prominences with bubbles, where the flux rope is perturbed by inclusion of parasitic bipoles. The arcade field lines of the bipole create the bubble, which is thus devoid of magnetic dips. Shearing the bipole or adding a second one can lead to cusp-shaped prominences with bubbles similar to the observed ones. The bubbles have complex magnetic topology, with a pair of coronal magnetic null points linked by a separator outlining the boundary between the bubble and the prominence body. We conjecture that plume formation involves magnetic reconnection at the separator. Depending on the viewing angle, the prominence can appear either anvil-shaped with predominantly horizontal structures, or cusp-shaped with predominantly vertical structuring. The latter is an artifact of the alignment of magnetic dips with respect to the prominence axis and the line of sight.

Dudik, J. [DAPEM, Faculty of Mathematics Physics and Computer Science, Comenius University, Mlynska Dolina F2, 84248 Bratislava (Slovakia); Aulanier, G.; Schmieder, B. [Observatoire de Paris, LESIA, UMR 8109 (CNRS), F-92195 Meudon Principal Cedex (France); Zapior, M. [Astronomical Institute, University of Wroclaw, Kopernika 11, 51622 Wroclaw (Poland); Heinzel, P., E-mail: dudik@fmph.uniba.sk [Astronomical Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Fricova 298, 25165 Ondrejov (Czech Republic)

2012-12-10

383

Influence of liquid density on the parametric shape instability of sonoluminescence bubbles in water and sulfuric acid.  

PubMed

Parametric shape instability of sonoluminescing argon bubbles in water and aqueous H(2)SO(4) was numerically analyzed considering gas and liquid density variations. The employed model couples Gilmore, Tait (liquid) and van der Waals (gas) equations to simulate radial dynamics and density changes, respectively. Shape stability-instability zones in the P(a)-R(0) space resulted from a linear stability analysis. For the argon-water and argon-water-acid systems, numerical results indicate a rapid rise in both gas and liquid densities during final stages of bubble implosion which result in a stabilizing effect on the parametric instability. PMID:21867309

Godínez, F A; Navarrete, M

2011-07-01

384

Single Bubble Sonoluminescence in Low Gravity and Optical Radiation Pressure Positioning of the Bubble  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several groups of researchers have demonstrated that high frequency sound in water may be used to cause the regular repeated compression and luminescence of a small bubble of gas in a flask. The phenomenon is known as single bubble sonoluminescence (SBSL). It is potentially important because light emitted by the bubble appears to be associated with a significant concentration of energy within the volume of the bubble. Unfortunately, the detailed physical mechanisms causing the radiation of light by oscillating bubbles are poorly understood and there is some evidence that carrying out experiments in a weightless environment may provide helpful clues. In addition, the radiation pressure of laser beams on the bubble may provide a way of simulating weightless experiments in the laboratory. The standard model of SBSL attributes the light emission to heating within the bubble by a spherically imploding shock wave to achieve temperatures of 50,000 K or greater. In an alternative model, the emission is attributed to the impact of a jet of water which is required to span the bubble and the formation of the jet is linked to the buoyancy of the bubble. The coupling between buoyancy and jet formation is a consequence of the displacement of the bubble from a velocity node (pressure antinode) of the standing acoustic wave that drives the radial bubble oscillations. One objective of this grant is to understand SBSL emission in reduced buoyancy on KC-135 parabolic flights. To optimize the design of those experiments and for other reasons which will help resolve the role of buoyancy, laboratory experiments are planned in simulated low gravity in which the radiation pressure of laser light will be used to position the bubble at the acoustic velocity node of the ultrasonic standing wave. Laser light will also be used to push the bubble away from the velocity node, increasing the effective buoyancy. The original experiments on the optical levitation and radiation pressure on bubbles in water by Unger and Marston noted above were carried out using a continuous wave (CW) beam of an Argon laser. For lateral stability the beam had a intensity minimum along its axis. Calculations of the optical radiation force on an SBSL bubble indicate that ion laser technology is a poor choice for providing the magnitude of the average optical radiation force required. Consequently it is necessary to examine various diode-pumped solid state laser technologies. The approach for this part of the research will be to achieve optical levitation of a quiescent bubble based on contemporary laser technology and then to strobe the laser synchronously with the SBSL bubble oscillations.

Thiessen, D. B.; Young, J. E.; Marr-Lyon, M. J.; Richardson, S. L.; Breckon, C. D.; Douthit, S. G.; Jian, P. S.; Torruellas, W. E.; Marston, P. L.

1999-01-01

385

Microfluidics Formation of Bubbles in a Multisection Flow-Focusing  

E-print Network

Microfluidics Formation of Bubbles in a Multisection Flow-Focusing Junction Michinao Hashimoto the stable formation of trains of mono-, bi-, and tri-disperse bubbles in microfluidic flow- focusing (FF-assembly through the patterns of flow created by the bubbles. 1.1 Bubbles and Droplets in Microfluidics

Prentiss, Mara

386

Scattering of Ultra Cold Neutrons on Nano-size Bubbles  

E-print Network

Inelastic scattering of ultra cold neutrons on bubbles with the size of nanometers is considered. It is shown that neutron-bubble cross section is large and sensitive to different vibration modes of bubbles. This process could be used for study of dynamics of nano-size bubbles and for new methods of ultra cold neutron production.

Gudkov, V

2006-01-01

387

Numerical method for analysis of transient bubbly flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

An effective and reasonable method for numerical analysis of time dependent bubbly flow is needed when the flow has a wide distribution of void fraction or compressibility. In this report, such a method, by which the bubbly flow that has regions of bubble non-existing and existing can be simulated, is suggested. Then a bubble-mixed water jet in water tank is

Yuichi Murai; Yoichiro Matsumoto

1992-01-01

388

The bubbling galactic plane: fertilization or sterilization?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spitzer surveys have revealed that the galactic plane has a high density of bubbles. Many of these show evidence of being associated with star formation. Followup observations collected so far have failed to conclusively determine the relationship (if any) between the bubbles and the triggering of star formation. We propose to obtain MOPRA molecular line pointed observations towards bubbles detected with APEX in the millimeter continuum and with Herschel in the far infrared/submm to reveal the presence and kinematics of dense gas and to search for evidence of the initial phases of star formation.

Testi, Leonardo; Cunningham, Maria; Zavagno, Annie; Deharveng, Lise; Leurini, Silvia; Molinari, Sergio

2010-04-01

389

On thermonuclear processes in cavitation bubbles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The theoretical and experimental foundations of so-called bubble nuclear fusion are reviewed. In the nuclear fusion process, a spherical cavitation cluster ? 10-2 m in diameter is produced of spherical bubbles at the center of a cylindrical chamber filled with deuterated acetone using a focused acoustic field having a resonant frequency of about 20 kHz. The acoustically-forced bubbles effectuate volume oscillations with sharp collapses during the compression stage. At the final stages of collapse, the bubble cluster emits 2.5 MeV D-D fusion neutron pulses at a rate of ? 2000 per second. The neutron yield is ? 10^5 s -1. In parallel, tritium nuclei are produced at the same yield. It is shown numerically that, for bubbles having sufficient molecular mass, spherical shock waves develop in the center of the cluster and that these spherical shock waves (microshocks) produce converging shocks within the interior bubbles, which focus energy on the centers of the bubbles. When these shock waves reflect from the centers of the bubbles, extreme conditions of temperature ( ? 10^8 K) and density ( ? 10^4 kg m -3) arise in a (nano)spherical region ( ? 10-7 m in size) that last for ? 10-12 s, during which time about ten D-D fusion neutrons and tritium nuclei are produced in the region. A paradoxical result in our experiments is that it is bubble cluster (not streamer) cavitation and the sufficiently high molecular mass of (and hence the low sound speed in) D-acetone ( C3D6O) vapor (as compared, for example, to deuterated water D2O) which are necessary conditions for the formation of convergent spherical microshock waves in central cluster bubbles. It is these waves that allow the energy to be sufficiently focused in the nanospherical regions near the bubble centers for fusion events to occur. The criticism to which the concept of 'bubble fusion' has been subjected in the literature, in particular, most recently in Uspekhi Fizicheskikh Nauk (Physics – Uspekhi) journal, is discussed.

Nigmatulin, R. I.; Lahey, R. T., Jr.; Taleyarkhan, R. P.; West, C. D.; Block, R. C.

2014-09-01

390

Co-operative oscillations of bubbles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A closed cryogenic storage tank in space may contain several bubbles. It is shown that these bubbles can oscillate in volume with n-1 resonant frequencies for n bubbles. The resonances can be excited by a sudden change in pressure, such as withdrawing fluid or venting, or by motion of the vehicle. In situations in which the ac accelerations dominate, such as in large space structures, the potential for harmful coupling of these oscillations to the spacecraft structure must be examined. Experimental data are presented which support the theoretical predictions.

Snyder, H. A.; Mord, A. J.

1990-01-01

391

3D Simulations of the Local Bubble  

E-print Network

We have performed high resolution 3D simulations of the Local Bubble (with 1.25 pc finest resolution) in a realistic background ISM, jointly with the dynamical evolution of the neighbouring Loop I superbubble. We can reproduce (i) the size of the bubbles (in contrast to similarity solutions), (ii) the interaction shell with Loop I, discovered with ROSAT, (iii) predict the merging of the two bubbles in about 3 Myr, when the interaction shell starts to fragment, and, (iv) the generation of blobs like the Local Cloud as a consequence of a dynamical instability.

Dieter Breitschwerdt; Miguel A. de Avillez

2004-02-18

392

Time-Dependent Changes in a Shampoo Bubble  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article demonstrates the fascinating phenomenon of time evolution of a shampoo bubble through experiments that can be performed by undergraduate students. The changes in thickness of the bubble films with time are followed by UV-vis spectroscopy. The change in chemical composition as a bubble film evolves is monitored by FTIR spectroscopy. It is observed that the change in thickness of a typical shampoo bubble film enclosed in a container is gradual and slow, and the hydrocarbon components of the bubble drain from the bubble much more slowly than water. An additional agent, such as acetonitrile, strikingly alters the dynamics of evolution of such a bubble.

Chattopadhyay, Arun

2000-10-01

393

Wetting of soap bubbles on hydrophilic, hydrophobic, and superhydrophobic surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wetting of sessile bubbles on various wetting surfaces (solid and liquid) has been studied. A model is presented for the apparent contact angle of a sessile bubble based on a modified Young's equation--the experimental results agree with the model. Wetting a hydrophilic surface results in a bubble contact angle of 90° whereas using a superhydrophobic surface one observes 134°. For hydrophilic surfaces, the bubble angle diminishes with bubble radius whereas on a superhydrophobic surface, the bubble angle increases. The size of the plateau borders governs the bubble contact angle, depending on the wetting of the surface.

Arscott, Steve

2013-06-01

394

Generation of a bubble universe using a negative energy bath  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper suggests a model for a bubble universe using buildable false vacuum bubbles. We study the causal structures of collapsing false vacuum bubbles using double-null simulations. False vacuum bubbles violate the null energy condition and emit negative energy along the outgoing direction through semi-classical effects. If there are a few collapsing false vacuum bubbles and they emit negative energy to a certain region, then the region can be approximated by a negative energy bath, which means that the region is homogeneously filled by negative energy. If a false vacuum bubble is generated in the negative energy bath and the tension of the bubble effectively becomes negative in the bath, then the bubble can expand and form an inflating bubble universe. This scenario uses a set of assumptions different from those in previous studies because it does not require tunneling to unbuildable bubbles.

Hwang, Dong-il; Yeom, Dong-han

2011-08-01

395

Temperature rise recorded during lesion formation by high-intensity focused ultrasound.  

PubMed

Temperature rise was observed as a function of time in liver and dog prostate tissue ex vivo during heating with high-intensity focused ultrasound. The temperature rise was measured using a needle thermocouple placed at the focus. The temperature vs. time behaviour closely followed the predictions of a model based on bulk and surface heating. When the tissue temperature was raised above 50 degrees C, an increase in heating rate was seen. At higher temperatures, a point was reached at which a marked, irreversible change of tissue properties was observed, consistent with protein denaturation. The change was sometimes accompanied by a sudden further rise in temperature followed by an equally sudden fall. On dissection, regions of tissue damage (lesions) were seen, sometimes containing bubbles consistent with acoustic cavitation or vaporisation. PMID:9140186

Clarke, R L; ter Haar, G R

1997-01-01

396

Bubble Dynamics Relaxation in Aqueous Foam Probed by Multispeckle Diffusing-Wave Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the bubble rearrangement dynamics in aqueous foam during the passage from liquidlike to solidlike behavior which follows a transient shear deformation that perturbs the bubble packing. The local dynamics is probed using multispeckle diffusing-wave spectroscopy. We show that following the perturbation the average time between rearrangements relaxes exponentially, with time elapsed since the end of the perturbation. The observed scaling of the characteristic relaxation time with perturbation amplitude and foam age is explained by a schematic coarse-grained model based on the scaling state hypothesis.

Cohen-Addad, Sylvie; Höhler, Reinhard

2001-05-01

397

Prevention of air bubble formation in a microfluidic perfusion cell culture system using a microscale bubble trap.  

PubMed

Formation of air bubbles is a serious obstacle to a successful operation of a long-term microfluidic systems using cell culture. We developed a microscale bubble trap that can be integrated with a microfluidic device to prevent air bubbles from entering the device. It consists of two PDMS (polydimethyldisiloxane) layers, a top layer providing barriers for blocking bubbles and a bottom layer providing alternative fluidic paths. Rather than relying solely on the buoyancy of air bubbles, bubbles are physically trapped and prevented from entering a microfluidic device. Two different modes of a bubble trap were fabricated, an independent module that is connected to the main microfluidic system by tubes, and a bubble trap integrated with a main system. The bubble trap was tested for the efficiency of bubble capture, and for potential effects a bubble trap may have on fluid flow pattern. The bubble trap was able to efficiently trap air bubbles of up to 10 mul volume, and the presence of captured air bubbles did not cause alterations in the flow pattern. The performance of the bubble trap in a long-term cell culture with medium recirculation was examined by culturing a hepatoma cell line in a microfluidic cell culture device. This bubble trap can be useful for enhancing the consistency of microfluidic perfusion cell culture operation. PMID:19212816

Sung, Jong Hwan; Shuler, Michael L

2009-08-01

398

Correlation of shape and size of methane bubbles in fine-grained muddy aquatic sediments with sediment fracture toughness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gassy sediments contribute to destabilization of aquatic infrastructure, air pollution, and global warming. In the current study a precise shape and size of the buoyant mature methane bubble in fine-grained muddy aquatic sediment is defined by numerical and analytical modeling, their results are in a good agreement. A closed-form analytical solution defining the bubble parameters is developed. It is found that the buoyant mature bubble is elliptical in its front view and resembles an inverted tear drop in its cross-section. The size and shape of the mature bubble strongly correlate with sediment fracture toughness. Bubbles formed in the weaker sediments are smaller and characterized by a larger surface-to-volume ratio that induces their faster growth and may lead to their faster dissolution below the sediment-water interface. This may prevent their release to the water column and to the atmosphere. Shapes of the bubbles in the weaker sediments deviate further from the spherical configuration, than those in the stronger sediments. Modeled bubble characteristics, important for the acoustic applications, are in a good agreement with field observations and lab experiments.

Katsman, Regina

2015-01-01

399

Jet orientation of a collapsing bubble near a solid wall with an attached air bubble  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interaction between a cavitation bubble and a non-oscillating air bubble attached to a horizontal polyvinyl chloride plate submerged in de-ionized water is investigated using a low-voltage spark-discharge setup. The attached air bubble is approximately hemi-spherical in shape, and its proximity to a spark-induced oscillating bubble (represented by the dimensionless stand-off distance H') determines whether or not a jet is formed in the oscillating bubble during its collapse. When the oscillating bubble is created close to the plate, it jets towards or away from the plate. The ratio of oscillating bubble oscillation time and the wall-attached bubble oscillation time (T ') is found to be an important parameter for determining the jet direction. This is validated with numerical simulations using an axial-symmetrical boundary element model. Our study highlights prospects in reducing cavitation damage with a stationary bubble, and in utilizing a cavitation collapse jet by controlling the jet's direction.

Goh, B. H. T.; Ohl, S. W.; Klaseboer, E.; Khoo, B. C.

2014-04-01

400

Analysis of cavitation bubble dynamics in a liquid  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

General differential equations governing the dynamics of the cavitation bubbles in a liquid were derived. With the assumption of spherical symmetry the governing equations were simplified. Closed form solutions were obtained for simple cases, and numerical solutions were calculated for complicated ones. The growth and the collapse of the bubble were analyzed, oscillations of the bubbles were studied, and the stability of the cavitation bubbles were investigated. The results show that the cavitation bubbles are unstable, and the oscillation is not sinusoidal.

Fontenot, L. L.; Lee, Y. C.

1971-01-01

401

Black Hole Blows Big Bubble  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Combining observations made with ESO's Very Large Telescope and NASA's Chandra X-ray telescope, astronomers have uncovered the most powerful pair of jets ever seen from a stellar black hole. This object, also known as a microquasar, blows a huge bubble of hot gas, 1000 light-years across, twice as large and tens of times more powerful than other known microquasars. The discovery is reported this week in the journal Nature. "We have been astonished by how much energy is injected into the gas by the black hole," says lead author Manfred Pakull. "This black hole is just a few solar masses, but is a real miniature version of the most powerful quasars and radio galaxies, which contain black holes with masses of a few million times that of the Sun." Black holes are known to release a prodigious amount of energy when they swallow matter. It was thought that most of the energy came out in the form of radiation, predominantly X-rays. However, the new findings show that some black holes can release at least as much energy, and perhaps much more, in the form of collimated jets of fast moving particles. The fast jets slam into the surrounding interstellar gas, heating it and triggering an expansion. The inflating bubble contains a mixture of hot gas and ultra-fast particles at different temperatures. Observations in several energy bands (optical, radio, X-rays) help astronomers calculate the total rate at which the black hole is heating its surroundings. The astronomers could observe the spots where the jets smash into the interstellar gas located around the black hole, and reveal that the bubble of hot gas is inflating at a speed of almost one million kilometres per hour. "The length of the jets in NGC 7793 is amazing, compared to the size of the black hole from which they are launched," says co-author Robert Soria [1]. "If the black hole were shrunk to the size of a soccer ball, each jet would extend from the Earth to beyond the orbit of Pluto." This research will help astronomers understand the similarity between small black holes formed from exploded stars and the supermassive black holes at the centres of galaxies. Very powerful jets have been seen from supermassive black holes, but are thought to be less frequent in the smaller microquasar variety. The new discovery suggests that many of them may simply have gone unnoticed so far. The gas-blowing black hole is located 12 million light-years away, in the outskirts of the spiral galaxy NGC 7793 (eso0914b). From the size and expansion velocity of the bubble the astronomers have found that the jet activity must have been ongoing for at least 200 000 years. Note: [1] Astronomers do not have yet any means of measuring the size of the black hole itself. The smallest stellar black hole discovered so far has a radius of about 15 km. An average stellar black hole of about 10 solar masses has a radius of about 30 km, while a "big" stellar black hole may have a radius of up to 300 km. This is still much smaller than the jets, which extend out to 1000 light-years, or about 9000 million million km! More Information: This result appears in a paper published in this week's issue of the journal Nature (A 300 parsec long jet-inflated bubble around a powerful microquasar in the galaxy NGC 7793, by Manfred W. Pakull, Roberto Soria and Christian Motch). ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. It is supported by 14 countries: Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. ESO carries out an ambitious programme focused on the design, construction and operation of powerful ground-based observing facilities enabling astronomers to make important scientific discoveries. ESO also plays a leading role in promoting and organising cooperation in astronomical research. ESO operates three unique world-class observing sites in C

2010-07-01

402

Black Hole Blows Big Bubble  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Combining observations made with ESO's Very Large Telescope and NASA's Chandra X-ray telescope, astronomers have uncovered the most powerful pair of jets ever seen from a stellar black hole. This object, also known as a microquasar, blows a huge bubble of hot gas, 1000 light-years across, twice as large and tens of times more powerful than other known microquasars. The discovery is reported this week in the journal Nature. "We have been astonished by how much energy is injected into the gas by the black hole," says lead author Manfred Pakull. "This black hole is just a few solar masses, but is a real miniature version of the most powerful quasars and radio galaxies, which contain black holes with masses of a few million times that of the Sun." Black holes are known to release a prodigious amount of energy when they swallow matter. It was thought that most of the energy came out in the form of radiation, predominantly X-rays. However, the new findings show that some black holes can release at least as much energy, and perhaps much more, in the form of collimated jets of fast moving particles. The fast jets slam into the surrounding interstellar gas, heating it and triggering an expansion. The inflating bubble contains a mixture of hot gas and ultra-fast particles at different temperatures. Observations in several energy bands (optical, radio, X-rays) help astronomers calculate the total rate at which the black hole is heating its surroundings. The astronomers could observe the spots where the jets smash into the interstellar gas located around the black hole, and reveal that the bubble of hot gas is inflating at a speed of almost one million kilometres per hour. "The length of the jets in NGC 7793 is amazing, compared to the size of the black hole from which they are launched," says co-author Robert Soria [1]. "If the black hole were shrunk to the size of a soccer ball, each jet would extend from the Earth to beyond the orbit of Pluto." This research will help astronomers understand the similarity between small black holes formed from exploded stars and the supermassive black holes at the centres of galaxies. Very powerful jets have been seen from supermassive black holes, but are thought to be less frequent in the smaller microquasar variety. The new discovery suggests that many of them may simply have gone unnoticed so far. The gas-blowing black hole is located 12 million light-years away, in the outskirts of the spiral galaxy NGC 7793 (eso0914b). From the size and expansion velocity of the bubble the astronomers have found that the jet activity must have been ongoing for at least 200 000 years. Notes [1] Astronomers do not have yet any means of measuring the size of the black hole itself. The smallest stellar black hole discovered so far has a radius of about 15 km. An average stellar black hole of about 10 solar masses has a radius of about 30 km, while a "big" stellar black hole may have a radius of up to 300 km. This is still much smaller than the jets, which extend out to several hundreds light years on each side of the black hole, or about several thousand million million km! More information This result appears in a paper published in this week's issue of the journal Nature (A 300 parsec long jet-inflated bubble around a powerful microquasar in the galaxy NGC 7793, by Manfred W. Pakull, Roberto Soria and Christian Motch). ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. It is supported by 14 countries: Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. ESO carries out an ambitious programme focused on the design, construction and operation of powerful ground-based observing facilities enabling astronomers to make important scientific discoveries. ESO also plays a leading role in promoting and organising cooperation in astronomical research. ESO

2010-07-01

403

Comparing Fractions: Bubble Gum Blowing Contest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interactive activity adapted from Anneberg Learner’s Teaching Math Grades 3–5, compare fractions on number lines to determine which class of students wins bubble-gum-blowing contests.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2012-06-29

404

A magnetic bubble domain flight recorder  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A feasibility model of an all-electronic bubble memory system has been constructed. It uses a small 60k bit bubble recorder consisting of 6 chips of 10k bits each mounted in three separate packages operating as a FIFO at a 150 KHz bubble data rate. In addition to serving as a direct tape recorder replacement, the bubble recorder can be programmed for random access to each individual chip for ranom block access operation or for self-checking or by-passing any malfunctioning memory chip. Read and write operations can be performed asynchronously from very low frequency up to basic recording field frequency. A large 50M bit prototype is planned.

Chen, T. T.; Bohning, O. D.; Tocci, L. R.; Archer, J. L.; Stermer, R. L.

1974-01-01

405

Shapes of Bubbles and Drops in Motion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains the shape distortions that take place in fluid packets (bubbles or drops) with steady flow motion by using the laws of Archimedes, Pascal, and Bernoulli rather than advanced vector calculus. (WRM)

O'Connell, James

2000-01-01

406

Wormholes, Void Bubbles and Vacuum Energy Suppression  

E-print Network

The gargantuan discrepancy between the value of the observed cosmological constant and that expected from the zero-point energy of known matter fields can be eliminated by supposing that on macroscopic scales the overwhelming majority of any volume of spacetime is literal nothingness. This nothingness or void results from the proliferative nucleation of tiny void bubbles (a.k.a. "bubbles of nothing" or "semi wormholes") that expand until their surfaces, presumed to be 2-branes, collide. This process results in a dense packing of void bubbles of various sizes that leaves only the vanishing interstitial regions between bubbles for spacetime to occupy. This vast reduction in the amount of actual space contained within any apparent volume, reduces correspondingly the effective zero-point energy density. Unlike previous wormhole-based attempts at vacuum energy suppression, the current approach is entirely Lorentzian and results in a nonzero value for the cosmological constant.

Enrico Rodrigo

2007-05-11

407

The Soap-Bubble-Geometry Contest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an activity on soap-bubble geometry using a guessing contest, explanations, and demonstrations that allow students to mesh observation and mathematical reasoning to discover that mathematics is much more than just number crunching. (ASK)

Morgan, Frank; Melnick, Edward R.; Nicholson, Ramona

1997-01-01

408

Tracks in a hydrogen bubble chamber  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Particle Physics UK Image of the Month shows particle tracks in a liquid hydrogen-filled bubble chamber. The page contains a paragraph that explains the most distinctive tracks. A high resolution image is provided.

2007-07-26

409

Are there really bubbles in oil prices?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this paper is to identify bubbles in oil prices by using the “exponential fitting” methodology proposed by Watanabe et al. (2007)  [28,29]. We use the daily US dollar closing crude oil prices of West Texas Intermediate (WTI) covering the 1986:01:02-2013:07:09 and the Brent for the 1987:05:20-2013:07:09 periods. The distinguishing feature of this study from the previous studies is that this is the first study in the literature showing the existence of bubbles in crude oil prices. We found that there are four distinct periods of persistent bubbles in the crude oil prices since 1986. Two of these persistent bubbles are before 2000 and two of them are after 2000. We conclude that further research is needed to understand better how futures markets may impact the oil price formation.

Balcilar, Mehmet; Ozdemir, Zeynel Abidin; Yetkiner, Hakan

2014-12-01

410

Universe out of a breathing bubble  

SciTech Connect

We consider the model of a false-vacuum bubble with a thin wall where the surface energy density is composed of two different components, 'domain-wall' type and 'dust' type, with opposite signs. We find stably oscillating solutions, which we call 'breathing bubbles'. By decay to a lower mass state, such a breathing bubble could become either (i) a child universe or ii) a bubble that 'eats up' the original universe, depending on the sign of the surface energy of the domain-wall component. We also discuss the effect of the finite-thickness corrections to the thin-wall approximation and possible origins of the energy contents of our model.

Guendelman, Eduardo I.; Sakai, Nobuyuki [Physics Department, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel); Department of Education, Yamagata University, Yamagata 990-8560 (Japan)

2008-06-15

411

Nucleate boiling bubble growth and departure  

E-print Network

The vapor bubble formation on the heating surface during pool boiling has been studied experimentally. Experiments were made at the atmospheric pressure 28 psi and 40 psi, using degassed distilled water and ethanol. The ...

Staniszewski, Bogumil E.

1959-01-01

412

Pulsed electrical discharges in bubbled water for environmental applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Applications of pulsed electrical discharges in bubbled water for waste water treatment were investigated. The focus of this work was to describe generation of radicals and active species such as OH·, O 3, and hydrogen peroxide in the discharge as the main oxidizing agents, and the implementation of the discharge for oxidizing energetic molecules. Three water treatment systems utilizing mesh-to-mesh electrodes geometries were designed and built in order to determine the factors affecting the yield of generation of active species such as discharge parameters (applied peak voltage, pulse repetition rate, distance between the electrodes, electrode geometry) and physicochemical parameter (solution conductivity, pH, gas bubbled through the discharge region, gas flowrate) It was shown that the ratio of bubble size to mesh size and the distance between the electrodes affect the type of the discharge. The discharge changes from a streamer discharge to a spark discharge with streamers starting on the gas/liquid border. The spark mode with Ar and O2 bubbles was shown to be the most effective way to produce active species and to achieve degradation of organic pollutants. Experiments with SiO2 coated electrodes confirm that the electrical characteristics of the discharge in DI water resemble those of a dielectric barrier discharge. The production efficiency of hydrogen peroxide mainly depends on the power input, the type of gas bubbled through the reactor, the conductivity of the solution, and the reactor design. The highest production efficiency of 0.5 g(kWh)-1 was obtained for a solution conductivity of 1500 muS/cm. The streamer discharges in oxygen in the circulation mode was found to be the most efficient regime for hydrogen peroxide production. The effect of catalytic assistance and solution pH on the degradation of energetic compounds was investigated. A comparison of the discharge in water in the presence of iron and Fenton's process alone suggests that degradation of HMX mainly happens not because of OH radical oxidation, but because of other active species and processes produced by the discharge.

Mozgina, Oksana

413

Methane bubbling: from speculation to quantification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rates of methane bubbling (ebullition) represent a notoriously difficult emission pathway to quantify with highly variable spatial and temporal changes. However, the importance of bubbling fluxes in terms of total emissions is increasingly recognised from a number of different globally relevant natural systems including lakes, reservoirs and wetlands. This represents a critical challenge to current survey efforts to quantify greenhouse gas emissions and reduce the uncertainty associated with bubbling fluxes. A number of different methods have been proposed to overcome this challenge including bubble traps, floating chambers, echo sounders, laser spectrography and camera systems. Each method has relative merits and deficiencies with all trading-off the ability to directly quantify methane and provide spatial and temporal coverage. Here we present a novel method that allows direct measurement of methane bubble concentration as well as the ability to persistently monitor a wide spatial area. Central to the monitoring system is an Autonomous Surface Vessel (ASV) and an Optical Methane Detector (OMD). The ASV is equipped with solar panels and uses electric motors for propulsion to allow persistent environmental monitoring. The OMD has a path length of 1.3 m and 7 Hz sampling so a typical mission of 3 hours at 1 m s-1 covers an area in excess of 10 000 m2 and over 65 000 data points. The system was assessed on four sub-tropical freshwater reservoirs of varying surface area (0.5 to 100 km2), age (2 to 65 y) and catchment land use (40 to 90% natural vegetation cover). Each reservoir had unique challenges in terms of navigation and field conditions to test feasibility of this method. Deployment length varied from a single day to over 4 months to test method durability. In addition to ASV bubble surveys, floating static chambers were deployed to determine diffusive fluxes. Localised instantaneous bubble flux rates within a single reservoir ranged over three orders of magnitude from 500 to 100 000 mg m-2 d-1 depending on time of day and water depth. Average storage bubble flux rates between reservoirs varied by two orders of magnitude from 1 200 to 15 000 mg m-2 d-1, with the primary driver likely to be catchment forest cover. The relative contribution of bubbling to total fluxes varied from 10% to more than 90% depending on the reservoir and time of sampling. This method was consistently shown to greatly improve the spatial mapping and quantification of methane bubbling rates from reservoir surfaces and reduces the uncertainty associated with the determining the relative contribution of bubbling to total flux.

Grinham, A. R.; Dunbabin, M.; Yuan, Z.

2013-12-01

414

Numerical Model and Validation for Cryogenic High-Speed Cavitating Flow Based on Bubble Size Distribution Model in Consideration of Rigorous Heat Transfer around Bubble and Bubble Oscillation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A bubble size distribution model has been developed by the author for a cryogenic high-speed cavitating flow of a turbo-pump in a liquid fuel rocket engine. In this model, bubble growth/decay and bubble advection are solved for each class of the bubble size, strictly mass, when there are various mass bubbles in the same calculation region. The above calculations are treated as Eulerian approach with respect to the bubble mass. The numerical results based on this model have agreed with the experimental results as a whole, however, some inconsistency still remained. It is suspected that the model of the bubble growth/decay causes the difference between the numerical and experimental results because heat transfer around the bubble was approximately computed by an analytical solution of unsteady heat transfer based on the elapsed-time from the bubble nucleation. In this paper, a new bubble size distribution model was redeveloped, in which the bubble growth/decay calculations employ a new method combining two rigorous methods, namely, a Rayleigh-Plesset equation for bubble oscillation, and a heat conduction equation in a thermal boundary layer around the bubble to evaluate mass rate of evaporation/condensation.

Ito, Yutaka

415

Superabsorption of acoustic waves with bubble metascreens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A bubble metascreen, i.e., a single layer of gas inclusions in a soft solid, can be modeled as an acoustic open resonator, whose behavior is well captured by a simple analytical expression. We show that by tuning the parameters of the metascreen, acoustic superabsorption can be achieved over a broad frequency range, which is confirmed by finite element simulations and experiments. Bubble metascreens can thus be used as ultrathin coatings for turning acoustic reflectors into perfect absorbers.

Leroy, Valentin; Strybulevych, Anatoliy; Lanoy, Maxime; Lemoult, Fabrice; Tourin, Arnaud; Page, John H.

2015-01-01

416

Astronaut Pedro Duque Watches A Water Bubble  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aboard the International Space Station (ISS), European Space Agency astronaut Pedro Duque of Spain watches a water bubble float between a camera and himself. The bubble shows his reflection (reversed). Duque was launched aboard a Russian Soyuz TMA-3 spacecraft from the Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan on October 18th, along with expedition-8 crew members Michael C. Foale, Mission Commander and NASA ISS Science Officer, and Cosmonaut Alexander Y. Kaleri, Soyuz Commander and flight engineer.

2003-01-01

417

Test ventilation with smoke, bubbles, and balloons  

SciTech Connect

The behavior of smoke, bubbles, and helium-filled balloons was videotaped to demonstrate the mixing of air in the plutonium chemistry laboratories, a plutonium facility. The air-distribution patterns, as indicated by each method, were compared. Helium-filled balloons proved more useful than bubbles or smoke in the visualization of airflow patterns. The replay of various segments of the videotape proved useful in evaluating the different techniques and in identifying airflow trends responsible for air mixing. 6 refs.

Pickering, P.L.; Cucchiara, A.L.; McAtee, J.L.; Gonzales, M.

1987-01-01

418

Acoustic waves in polydispersed bubbly liquids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The propagation of acoustic waves in polydispersed mixtures of liquid with two sorts of gas bubbles each of which has its own bubble size distribution function is studied. The system of the differential equations of the perturbed motion of a mixture is presented, the dispersion relation is obtained. Equilibrium speed of sound, low-frequency and high-frequency asymptotes of the attenuation coefficient are found. Comparison of the developed theory with known experimental data is presented.

Gubaidullin, D. A.; Gubaidullina, D. D.; Fedorov, Yu V.

2014-11-01

419

Gravity waves from cosmic bubble collisions  

SciTech Connect

Our local Hubble volume might be contained within a bubble that nucleated in a false vacuum with only two large spatial dimensions. We study bubble collisions in this scenario and find that they generate gravity waves, which are made possible in this context by the reduced symmetry of the global geometry. These gravity waves would produce B-mode polarization in the cosmic microwave background, which could in principle dominate over the inflationary background.

Salem, Michael P.; Saraswat, Prashant; Shaghoulian, Edgar, E-mail: mpsalem@stanford.edu, E-mail: ps88@stanford.edu, E-mail: edgars@stanford.edu [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

2013-02-01

420

Gravity waves from cosmic bubble collisions  

E-print Network

Our local Hubble volume might be contained within a bubble that nucleated in a false vacuum with only two large spatial dimensions. We study bubble collisions in this scenario and find that they generate gravity waves, which are made possible in this context by the reduced symmetry of the global geometry. These gravity waves would produce B-mode polarization in the cosmic microwave background, which could in principle dominate over the inflationary background.

Michael P. Salem; Prashant Saraswat; Edgar Shaghoulian

2012-10-15

421

Capillary rise between planar surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Minimization of free energy is used to calculate the equilibrium vertical rise and meniscus shape of a liquid column between two closely spaced, parallel planar surfaces that are inert and immobile. States of minimum free energy are found using standard variational principles, which lead not only to an Euler-Lagrange differential equation for the meniscus shape and elevation, but also to the boundary conditions at the three-phase junction where the liquid meniscus intersects the solid walls. The analysis shows that the classical Young-Dupré equation for the thermodynamic contact angle is valid at the three-phase junction, as already shown for sessile drops with or without the influence of a gravitational field. Integration of the Euler-Lagrange equation shows that a generalized Laplace-Young (LY) equation first proposed by O’Brien, Craig, and Peyton [J. Colloid Interface Sci. 26, 500 (1968)] gives an exact prediction of the mean elevation of the meniscus at any wall separation, whereas the classical LY equation for the elevation of the midpoint of the meniscus is accurate only when the separation approaches zero or infinity. When both walls are identical, the meniscus is symmetric about the midpoint, and the midpoint elevation is a more traditional and convenient measure of capillary rise than the mean elevation. Therefore, for this symmetric system a different equation is fitted to numerical predictions of the midpoint elevation and is shown to give excellent agreement for contact angles between 15° and 160° and wall separations up to 30mm . When the walls have dissimilar surface properties, the meniscus generally assumes an asymmetric shape, and significant elevation of the liquid column can occur even when one of the walls has a contact angle significantly greater than 90°. The height of the capillary rise depends on the spacing between the walls and also on the difference in contact angles at the two surfaces. When the contact angle at one wall is greater than 90° but the contact angle at the other wall is less than 90°, the meniscus can have an inflection point separating a region of positive curvature from a region of negative curvature, the inflection point being pinned at zero height. However, this condition arises only when the spacing between the walls exceeds a threshold value that depends on the difference in contact angles.

Bullard, Jeffrey W.; Garboczi, Edward J.

2009-01-01

422

Vibration and Nonlinear Resonance in the Break-up of an Underwater Bubble  

E-print Network

We use high-speed X-ray phase-contrast imaging, weakly nonlinear analysis and boundary integral simulations to characterize the final stage of underwater bubble break-up. The X-ray imaging study shows that an initial azimuthal perturbation to the shape of the bubble neck gives rise to oscillations that increasingly distort the cross-section shape. These oscillations terminate in a pinch-off where the bubble surface develops concave regions that contact similar to what occurs when two liquid drops coalesce. We also present a weakly nonlinear analysis that shows that this coalescence-like mode of pinch-off occurs when the initial shape oscillation interferes constructively with the higher harmonics it generates and thus reinforce each other's effects in bringing about bubble break-up. Finally we present numerical results that confirm the weakly nonlinear analysis scenario as well as provide insight into observed shape reversals. They demonstrate that when the oscillations interfere destructively, a qualitativel...

Lai, Lipeng; Fezzaa, Kamel; Zhang, Wendy W; Nagel, Sidney R

2013-01-01

423

A Radio Characterization of Galactic compact Bubbles  

E-print Network

We report the radio observations of a sub-sample of the 428 galactic compact bubbles discovered at 24 $\\mu$m with the MIPSGAL survey. Pervasive through the entire Galactic plane, these objects are thought to be different kinds of evolved stars. The very large majority of the bubbles (~ 70%) are however not yet classified. We conducted radio observations with the EVLA at 6 cm and 20 cm in order to obtain the spectral index of 55 bubbles. We found that at least 70 per cent of the 31 bubbles for which we were effectively able to compute the spectral index (or its lower limit) are likely to be thermal emitters. We were also able to resolve some bubbles, obtaining that the size of the radio nebula is usually similar to the IR size, although our low resolution (with respect to IR images) did not allow further morphological studies. Comparisons between radio flux densities and IR archive data from Spitzer and IRAS suggest that at least 3 unclassified bubbles can be treated as planetary nebula candidates.

Ingallinera, Adriano; Umana, Grazia; Leto, Paolo; Noriega-Crespo, Alberto; Flagey, Nicolas; Paladini, Roberta; Agliozzo, Claudia; Buemi, Carla

2013-01-01